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Sample records for central mediterranean libyan

  1. Reservoir characters of the Ypresian carbonates, Western Libyan Offshore, Central Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Mriheel, I.Y.

    1995-08-01

    Significant hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in Western Libyan offshore in the Ypresian carbonate reservoirs of Jdeir Formation and Jirani Dolomite. The discoveries of hydrocarbons are mainly in structural traps where the Jdeir nummulitic facies and Jirani dolomitic facies B have been structured by salt domes or underlying positive fault blocks. This study investigates the relationship between environments of deposition, diagenesis and reservoir characters of the two main hydrocarbon producing units of the Jdeir and Jirani formations. Petrographic and petrophysical studies indicate that porosity in the Jirani Dolomite is related to diagenesis in meteoric environments, while in the Jdeir reservoir is the result of the environment of deposition and diagenesis. Excellent reservoir porosity of Jdeir nummulitic facies and Jirani dolomitic facies B is related to diagenesis in meteoric water during exposure to subaerial conditions which is considered to be due to lowering of sea level and possibly local uplifting.

  2. Petroleum potential of the Libyan sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Hammuda, O.S.; Sbeta, A.M.

    1988-08-01

    Contrary to prevailing opinion, all Libyan sedimentary basins and the Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar platform contain prolific petroleum accumulations with very high prospectivity. A systematic review of the types of traps and pays in this central part of the southern Mediterranean province reveals great variability in reservoir and source rock characteristics. The reservoir rocks are of almost all geologic ages. The thick source rock sequences also vary in nature and organic content. The organic-rich facies have accumulated in intracratonic and passive margin basins or in marginal seas. Most of the oil discovered thus far in these basins is found in large structural traps. Future discoveries of stratigraphic traps or small structural traps will require intensified efforts and detailed studies using up-to-date multidisciplinary techniques in sedimentary tectonics, biostratigraphic facies analysis, and geochemical prospecting in order to develop a better understanding of these basins, thus improving their prospectivity.

  3. Prognosis of Central-Eastern Mediterranean waterspouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keul, Alexander G.; Sioutas, Michalis V.; Szilagyi, Wade

    The North American waterspout forecasting methodology by Szilagyi is applied on a sample of 110 waterspout events for the years 2002-2006 over the Central-Eastern Mediterranean (the Adriatic, Ionian and Aegean Sea). First, the geographical distribution and frequency of the phenomena are shown. Four synoptic types of waterspout-prone circulation patterns are considered. For the Adriatic cases, five thermodynamic indices (KI, TT, SWEAT, CAPE, BRN) are used as possible predictors. The testing of the Szilagyi Waterspout Nomogram and Index (SWI), developed for the Great Lakes region, was favorable for the Mediterranean case data, validating its use as a prognostic tool. Results were presented and discussed at the 4th European Conference on Severe Storms ECSS at Trieste. Meteorologists should standardize and evaluate waterspout prognostic tools and implement a visual interface to improve the service for relevant user groups.

  4. Environmental History on a Central Mediterranean Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambin, Belinda; Medail, Frederic; Andrieu-Ponel, Valerie; Djamali, Morteza; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Gambin, Timmy

    2013-04-01

    Through the PaleoMed project a number of cores have been taken from key locations on the Maltese Islands with the aim of establishing various aspects related to the archipelago's historical environment. A multi-disciplinary team have been investigating a number of bodies of evidence including sediments, charcoal and shells. Through this poster I will present the results from pollen samples extracted from a section of one of the cores. The core, taken from Burmarrad, has a section that has been carbon dated to 7200-3200BP. Preliminary results from this site, one of the largest flood plains on Malta, will provide an indication of the local vegetation during this chronological window. Pollen was extracted from sediment deposits following the classical treatment method (eg Moore et al., 1990). Furthermore, identification was undertaken through the use of pollen atlases of Europe and North Africa (Reille, 1992, 1995, 1998) and Beug (2004) along with IMBE's international pollen reference collection. Pollen percentages were calculated in TILIA and the pollen percentage diagram constructed using TGView software (Grimm 2004, 2005). Current results indicate that prior to 7000BP there was a high percentage of aquatic plants, while tree and shrub counts were low. At 6900BP a large increase in Pistacia pollen is recorded, with moderate increase in Plantago (especially lanceolata), Asphodelus, Dinaflagelates and Mirco Foraminifera. At this time there is also a reduction in Cichorioideae & Charcoal in the section. A similar increase in Pistacia at around this time has also been recorded from another core in Burmarrad (Djamali et al., 2012) and in southern Sicily (Tinner et al., 2009). The date of this increase corresponds to the first recorded settlement on the Maltese Islands (circa 5500BC) as well as the climatic optimum of forest cover in the Mediterranean region (Noti et al., 2009).

  5. Characterization of PM10 sources in the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Marconi, M.; Frosini, D.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.; di Sarra, A.; Pace, G.; Meloni, D.; Bommarito, C.; Monteleone, F.; Anello, F.; Sferlazzo, D. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Mediterranean Basin atmosphere is influenced by both strong natural and anthropogenic aerosol emissions, and is also subject to important climatic forcings. Several programs have addressed the study of the Mediterranean basin; nevertheless important pieces of information are still missing. In this framework, PM10 samples were collected on a daily basis on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E, 45 m a.s.l.), which is far from continental pollution sources (the nearest coast, in Tunisia, is more than 100 km away). After mass gravimetric measurements, different portions of the samples were analyzed to determine the ionic content by Ion Chromatography (IC), the soluble metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), and the total (soluble + insoluble) elemental composition by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Data from years 2007 and 2008 are used in this study. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was applied to the 2 year long data set of PM10 mass concentration and chemical composition to assess the aerosol sources affecting the Central Mediterranean basin. Seven sources were resolved: sea-salt, mineral dust, biogenic emissions, primary particulate ship emissions, secondary sulphate, secondary nitrate, and combustion emissions. Source contributions to the total PM10 mass were estimated to be about 40 % for sea-salt, around 25 % for mineral dust, 10 % each for secondary nitrate and secondary sulphate, and 5 % each for primary particulate ship emissions, biogenic emissions, and combustion emissions. Large variations in absolute and relative contributions are found and appear to depend on the season and on transport episodes. In addition, the secondary sulphate due to ship emissions was estimated, and found to contribute by about one third to the total sulphate mass. Results for the sea-salt and mineral dust sources were compared with estimates of the same contributions obtained from independent approaches, leading

  6. Characterization of PM10 sources in the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Marconi, M.; Frosini, D.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.; di Sarra, A.; Pace, G.; Meloni, D.; Bommarito, C.; Monteleone, F.; Anello, F.; Sferlazzo, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mediterranean Basin atmosphere is influenced by both strong natural and anthropogenic aerosol emissions and is also subject to important climatic forcings. Several programs have addressed the study of the Mediterranean basin; nevertheless important pieces of information are still missing. In this framework, PM10 samples were collected on a daily basis on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E; 45 m a.s.l.), which is far from continental pollution sources (the nearest coast, in Tunisia, is more than 100 km away). After mass gravimetric measurements, different portions of the samples were analyzed to determine the ionic content by ion chromatography (IC), the soluble metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and the total (soluble + insoluble) elemental composition by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). Data from 2007 and 2008 are used in this study. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was applied to the 2-year long data set of PM10 mass concentration and chemical composition to assess the aerosol sources affecting the central Mediterranean basin. Seven sources were resolved: sea salt, mineral dust, biogenic emissions, primary particulate ship emissions, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and combustion emissions. Source contributions to the total PM10 mass were estimated to be about 40 % for sea salt, around 25 % for mineral dust, 10 % each for secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate, and 5 % each for primary particulate ship emissions, biogenic emissions, and combustion emissions. Large variations in absolute and relative contributions are found and appear to depend on the season and on transport episodes. In addition, the secondary sulfate due to ship emissions was estimated and found to contribute by about one-third to the total sulfate mass. Results for the sea-salt and mineral dust sources were compared with estimates of the same contributions obtained from independent approaches, leading to an

  7. New Crustal Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbach, Oliver; Custodio, Susana; Kingdon, Andrew; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola; Müller, Birgit; Pierdominicini, Simona; Rajabi, Mojtaba; Reinecker, John; Reiter, Karsten; Tingay, Mark; Williams, John; Ziegler, Moritz

    2016-04-01

    The World Stress Map (WSM) Project was initiated in 1986 under the auspices of the International Lithosphere Program in order to compile globally the information on the contemporary crustal stress state. For the 30th anniversary the WSM database has been updated and increased the number of data records from 21,750 to 42,410 worldwide. For the Mediterranean and Central European stress map the number of data records has increased from 3877 to 8192. The data come from a wide range of stress indicators such as borehole data (e.g. hydraulic fracturing, drilling induced tensile fractures, borehole breakouts), earthquake focal mechanism solutions and stress inversions from these, engineering methods (overcoring, borehole slotter) and geological data (e.g. volcanic alignment, inversion of fault slip data). To guarantee the comparability of the different stress indicator the resulting data are quality-ranked using the WSM quality ranking scheme. The new data set has a better coverage and enables us to identifying the regional and local variability of the stress pattern. For the Mediterranean and Central Europe we analysed the wave-length of the stress pattern by determining the mean orientation of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax on a regular grid using an updated version of the hybrid approach of Heidbach et al. [2010]. The preliminary results show that the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence is a key control of the overall stress pattern. However, given the complex tectonic setting in particular due to the indentation/collision of the Adriatic micro block, the Alpine topography as well as forces that control the movement of the Anatolian and Aegean block, the stress pattern shows in these regions significant changes in the mean SHmax orientation as well as in the tectonic regime.

  8. Natural variability and anthropogenic effects in a Central Mediterranean core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, S.; Vivaldo, G.; Taricco, C.; Ghil, M.

    2012-04-01

    We evaluate the contribution of natural variability to the modern decrease in foraminiferal δ18O by relying on a 2200-yr-long, high-resolution record of oxygen isotopic ratio from a Central Mediterranean sediment core. Pre-industrial values are used to train and test two sets of algorithms that are able to forecast the natural variability in δ18O over the last 150 yr. These algorithms are based on autoregressive models and neural networks, respectively; they are applied separately to each of the δ18O series' significant variability components, rather than to the complete series. The separate components are extracted by singular-spectrum analysis and have narrow-band spectral content, which reduces the forecast error. By comparing the sum of the predicted low-frequency components to its actual values during the Industrial Era, we deduce that the natural contribution to these components of the modern δ18O variation decreased gradually, until it reached roughly 40%, as early as the end of the 1970s.

  9. Natural variability and anthropogenic effects in a Central Mediterranean core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, S.; Vivaldo, G.; Taricco, C.; Ghil, M.

    2011-10-01

    We evaluate the contribution of natural variability to the modern decrease in foraminiferal δ18O by relying on a 2200-years-long, high-resolution record of oxygen isotopic ratio from a Central Mediterranean sediment core. Pre-industrial values are used to train and test two sets of algorithms that are able to forecast the natural variability in δ18O over the last 150 yr. These algorithms are based on autoregressive models and neural networks, respectively; they are applied separately to each of the δ18O series' significant variability components, rather than to the complete series. The separate components are extracted by singular-spectrum analysis and have narrow-band spectral content, which reduces the forecast error. By comparing the sum of the predicted components to the actual values during the Industrial Era, we deduce that the natural contribution to the modern δ18O variation decreased gradually, until it reached roughly 40% as early as the end of the 1970s.

  10. Temperature trends in Malta (central Mediterranean) from 1951 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdies, C.

    2012-08-01

    There is as yet scanty published information on climate trends at a local scale within the central Mediterranean region. This is the most updated study that focuses on detailed understanding of air temperature shifts based on standard observations gathered from the Maltese islands. This analysis leads to a number of conclusions, most significant being (1) that the rate of change in the mean temperature is +1.1 °C between 1951 and 2010, (2) a warming trend of +1.2 and +1.1 °C exists in the maximum and minimum temperature, respectively, over the same period, (3) that the strongest anomalous warming has occurred during the last 30 years, particularly during the months of June, August and October, and (4) the local temperature trend is in the same category of air temperature trends detected in the nearby Island of Sicily (Catania, Italy), Perpignan (France) and Dar el-Beida (Algeria). Local data also show differences in the temperature trends, especially pronounced between the two 30-year periods of 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. This study provides an understanding of temperature shifts at recommended small spatio-temporal scales.

  11. Influence of paired subduction zones: insight into Central Mediterranean tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Meghan Samantha; Moresi, Louis; Faccenna, Claudio; Funiciello, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    The Hellenic and Calabrian slabs are subducting the last remnant of the Ionian oceanic lithosphere into the deep mantle beneath the Central Mediterranean. Seismic tomography studies have provided clear images of the present day morphology of the subducted lithosphere [1]. Tectonic studies have shown that the Calabrian slab has rolled back into its current geometry with episodes of back-arc spreading that have now ceased [2]. Conversely, GPS observations along with tectonic reconstructions show that the Hellenic slab is currently rolling back and appears to have accelerated in the past ~15 My [3], which has resulted in the only region of backarc spreading still active in the Mediterranean. Observations of seismic anisotropy from SKS splitting [4] indicate toroidal flow patterns at the edges of the subducted slabs, which lead to interpretations of mantle convection and flow. Rollback in a confined setting has allowed the two slabs to become a plate-tectonic pushmi-pullyu [5]. The evolution of each slab is necessarily dependent on the other as they are both subducting the same lithosphere in opposite directions and are sufficiently close together that their induced mantle flow patterns must interact strongly. Although this seems to be an oddity in the classical picture of plate tectonics, we note that rollback-dominated subduction is more likely to be important in the highly-confined setting of a closing ocean where the oceanic lithosphere is not always able to develop into a freely-moving plate. Under such conditions, back-to-back pairings of subducting slabs are potentially more common. To investigate this setting, we present preliminary numerical models of paired subduction zones that we have developed using Underworld. We include variations in the strength and buoyancy of the surrounding (over-riding) plates and account for the presence of continentally-derived basement in the Adriatic sea. The geodynamic models allow for exploration into the timing, mechanics

  12. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  13. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  14. Chemical fingerprinting and source tracing of obsidian: the central Mediterranean trade in black gold.

    PubMed

    Tykot, Robert H

    2002-08-01

    Chemical fingerprinting using major or trace element composition is used to characterize the Mediterranean island sources of obsidian and can even differentiate as many as nine flows in the Monte Arci region of Sardinia. Analysis of significant numbers of obsidian artifacts from Neolithic sites in the central Mediterranean reveals specific patterns of source exploitation and suggests particular trade mechanisms and routes. The use of techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, the electron microprobe, neutron activation analysis, and laser ablation ICP mass spectrometry are emphasized in order to produce quantitative results while minimizing damage to valuable artifacts. PMID:12186566

  15. Population Genetic History of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Annamaria; Mona, Stefano; Sà, Rui M.; D’Onghia, Gianfranco; Maiorano, Porzia

    2015-01-01

    Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i) the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii) a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from “virgin” deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective ‘rescue effect’ contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman’s coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be particularly

  16. Mixed dentition analysis in Libyan schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Bugaighis, Iman; Karanth, Divakar; Elmouadeb, Hawa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the applicability of Tanaka and Johnston and Moyers’ methods of prediction in Libyan subjects and secondary aim was to develop a new prediction method for the examined population if required. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 343 Libyan schoolchildren with age ranged from 12 to 17 years; 169 males age matched with 174 females, all with no craniofacial abnormalities and orthodontically untreated. The mesiodistal (MD) tooth widths were measured and compared with the estimated values derived from Tanaka and Johnston equations and from Moyers’ probability tables at 35%, 50% and 75% respectively using Paired t-tests. The constants a and b in the linear regression equation (y = a + bx), the correlation coefficient, the coefficient of determination and the standard errors of estimate were computed. Results: Significant sexual dimorphism in lower incisors mesiodistal width was observed. There were significant discrepancies between the current measurements and those estimated from Tanaka and Johnston's equation and Moyers’ tables. New linear regression equations were derived for both sexes to allow precise prediction for Libyan subjects. The correlation coefficients between the total MD width of the mandibular permanent incisors and that of the maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars were found to be 0.66 and 0.68 for males and 0.57 and 0.58 in females, respectively. Conclusions: It appears that there is a limitation in the application of Tanaka and Johnston's equation and Moyers’ methods to Libyan subjects. The developed prediction equation is more accurate for predicting the MD widths of unerupted canine and premolars of Libyan population. PMID:24987652

  17. Deep into the roots of the Libyan Tuareg: a genetic survey of their paternal heritage.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Claudio; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Primativo, Giuseppina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga

    2011-05-01

    Recent genetic studies of the Tuareg have begun to uncover the origin of this semi-nomadic northwest African people and their relationship with African populations. For centuries they were caravan traders plying the trade routes between the Mediterranean coast and south-Saharan Africa. Their origin most likely coincides with the fall of the Garamantes who inhabited the Fezzan (Libya) between the 1st millennium BC and the 5th century AD. In this study we report novel data on the Y-chromosome variation in the Libyan Tuareg from Al Awaynat and Tahala, two villages in Fezzan, whose maternal genetic pool was previously characterized. High-resolution investigation of 37 Y-chromosome STR loci and analysis of 35 bi-allelic markers in 47 individuals revealed a predominant northwest African component (E-M81, haplogroup E1b1b1b) which likely originated in the second half of the Holocene in the same ancestral population that contributed to the maternal pool of the Libyan Tuareg. A significant paternal contribution from south-Saharan Africa (E-U175, haplogroup E1b1a8) was also detected, which may likely be due to recent secondary introduction, possibly through slavery practices or fusion between different tribal groups. The difference in haplogroup composition between the villages of Al Awaynat and Tahala suggests that founder effects and drift played a significant role in shaping the genetic pool of the Libyan Tuareg. PMID:21312181

  18. Stalagmite-inferred abrupt hydroclimate changes in the central Mediterranean over the past 6500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H. M.; Shen, C. C.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Y.; Mii, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mediterranean, as one of the global climate change "hot spots", was faced with severe drought over the recent decades. Investigation of regional paleo-hydroclimate evolution helps improve climate projection and adaption strategy. Here, we present a new decadal-resolved record documenting hydroclimate in the central Mediterranean from an Italian stalagmite since 6500 years ago. Eighty high-precision absolute U-Th dates with 2-sigma uncertainty better than ±20 years and 560 oxygen isotopic ratio data show several abrupt drying events with an average of 600 mm precipitation decrease in less than 80 years since the mid-Holocene. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) could dominantly govern the centennial-scale hydroclimate variability, especially for a period of 4500 to 2000 years ago. Total solar irradiance (TSI) also partially affected this regional precipitation. The obscure relationship between stalagmite and global/local mean surface temperature sequences, in contradict to previous studies, implies complex internal feedback of global warming and atmospheric circulation in the Mediterranean. Our result suggests that the twenty-first century Mediterranean drying trend is significant but not unprecedented in the past six thousand years.

  19. Evidence of a dense water vein along the Libyan continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, G. P.; Bonanno, A.; Zgozi, S.; Basilone, G.; Borghini, M.; Buscaino, G.; Cuttitta, A.; Essarbout, N.; Mazzola, S.; Patti, B.; Ramadan, A. B.; Schroeder, K.; Bahri, T.; Massa, F.

    2008-02-01

    For the first time it was possible to investigate a still poorly known region of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Libyan continental margin. An oceanographic cruise, performed during summer 2006, revealed an important and novel feature: a dense vein flowing along the continental slope. The paper describes the vein evolution with some insights on its dynamic and furnishes an estimate of its transport, which results to be comparable with the Adriatic Deep Water production rate. The cascading into a steep canyon which incises the continental shelf suggests that the vein may play an important role in ventilating the deep layers of the Ionian Sea.

  20. Microbial contribution to carbon biogeochemistry in the Central Mediterranean Sea: Variability of activities and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Filippo; Azzaro, Maurizio; Caruso, Gabriella; Decembrini, Franco; Leonardi, Marcella; Maimone, Giovanna; Monticelli, Luis S.; Raffa, Francesco; Santinelli, Chiara; Zaccone, Renata; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio

    2005-08-01

    This paper concerns the current debate as to whether oceans are heterotrophic or autotrophic environments. Microbes are responsible for the assimilation and remineralization of CO 2 in the sea and microbial processes are involved in the Earth climatic change. The variability of microbial biomass and activities were studied in the Mediterranean Sea which represents a suitable basin for mapping the trophic regimes by the study of biogeochemical processes. The surveys were carried out in the epi-, meso- and bathy-pelagic zones of the Central Mediterranean Sea from 1996 to 2002. Bacterial abundance, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and β-glucosidase (β-GLU) activities, bacterial carbon production (BCP), community respiration (R) and primary production (PP) were the main parameters investigated. Biomass and activities seasonally varied in epipelagic and, to some extent, in meso- and bathy-pelagic layers too and several trophic ratios were determined, showing different scenarios in the different areas and seasons. In the euphotic layer, bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) widely ranged between 4% and 50% showing a decreasing trend from estuaries towards pelagic areas in alignment with the trophic gradient from the Northern Adriatic to the Ionian Sea. However, BGE did not correlate to PP and temperature. The Central Mediterranean Sea showed different trophic regimes in the examined areas and seasons. In the Northern Adriatic Sea in winter, the trophic balance appeared to move towards autotrophy and a positive C budget resulted. An opposite scenario happened in summer when the trophic balance moved to heterotrophy and a negative C budget occurred. In the Ionian Sea, the overall balance turned always towards remineralization. However, on annual time scale, the Central Mediterranean Sea seems to show a tendency towards a heterotrophic system.

  1. Mitochondrial control region variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis populations from the central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Giantsis, Ioannis A; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species' inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  2. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Giantsis, Ioannis A.; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  3. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauria, V.; Gristina, M.; Attrill, M. J.; Fiorentino, F.; Garofalo, G.

    2015-08-01

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world’s sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400-800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lauria, V; Gristina, M; Attrill, M J; Fiorentino, F; Garofalo, G

    2015-01-01

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world's sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400-800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:26272502

  5. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Lauria, V.; Gristina, M.; Attrill, M. J.; Fiorentino, F.; Garofalo, G.

    2015-01-01

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world’s sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400–800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:26272502

  6. Towards climatological study on the characteristics of aerosols in Central Africa and Mediterranean sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhalifa, Jamel; Chaabane, Mabrouk

    2016-02-01

    The atmosphere contains molecules, clouds and aerosols that are sub-millimeter particles having a large variability in size, shape, chemical composition, lifetime and contents. The aerosols concentration depends greatly on the geographical situation, meteorological and environmental conditions, which makes aerosol climatology difficult to assess. Setting up a solar photometer (automatic, autonomous and portable instrument) on a given site allows carrying out the necessary measurements for aerosol characterization. The particle microphysical and optical properties are obtained from photometric measurements. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial variability of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in several Mediterranean regions and Central Africa, we considered a set of simultaneous data in the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from six sites, two of which are located in Central Africa (Banizoumbou and Zinder Airport) and the rest are Mediterranean sites (Barcelona, Malaga, Lampedusa, and Forth Crete). The results have shown that the physical properties of aerosols are closely linked to the climate nature of the studied site. The optical thickness, single scattering albedo and aerosols size distribution can be due to the aging of the dust aerosol as they are transported over the Mediterranean basin.

  7. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; Van Campo, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20th century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas. PMID:27126207

  8. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; Van Campo, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20(th) century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas. PMID:27126207

  9. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; van Campo, Elise

    2016-04-01

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20th century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas.

  10. New growth charts for Libyan preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bordom, J H; Billot, L; Gueguen, R; Deschamps, J R

    2008-01-01

    To draw up new growth charts for Libyan children under 5 years of age, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in urban and rural areas in 2 regions of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from June 1999 to February 2000. Using WHO cluster sampling methodology, 1473 infants and children of both sexes aged between 0 and 59 months were selected from residential areas, maternal and child health centres, kindergartens and the delivery section of hospitals. Growth charts for weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height were plotted and smoothed, to provide reference curves for clinical, epidemiological and research purposes. In addition, mean Z-scores were analysed by sociodemographic variables collected from interviews with parents. Factors with a strong influence on childhood growth patterns were child's age, mother's education level and sex. PMID:19161116

  11. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter–gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. PMID:26337550

  12. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-12-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter-gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. PMID:26337550

  13. Stable isotope evidence for shifting Mediterranean climatic influences in Western Romania, East-Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, Aurel; Viorica, Nagavciuc; Carmen, Bădăluţă

    2015-04-01

    composition of precipitation in north and central Romania is similar, while during periods of low NAO index, precipitations in NW and SW Romania have different isotopic patterns, clearly showing the influence of the Mediterranea moisture (i.e., a shift towards more positive values and a higer d-excess, closer to the Eastern Mediterranan Water Line, in SW). These finding suggest that it is possible to reconstruct past change in the strength of the NAO and the northward expansion of Mediterranean climatic influences, by analyzing (for their isotopic composition) pairs of similar sedimentary archives from N and S Romania.

  14. Interplay of plate convergence and arc migration in the central Mediterranean (Sicily and Calabria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2016-04-01

    Key components in the current geodynamic setting of the central Mediterranean are continuous, slow Africa-Eurasia plate convergence (~5 mm/yr) and arc migration. This combination encompasses roll-back, tearing and detachment of slabs, and leads to back-arc opening and orogeny. Since ~30 Ma the Apennnines-Calabrian and Gibraltar subduction zones have shaped the western-central Mediterranean region. Lithospheric tearing near slab edges and the accompanying surface expressions (STEP faults) are key in explaining surface dynamics as observed in geologic, geophysical and geodetic data. In the central Mediterranean, both the narrow Calabrian subduction zone and the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front show convergence, with a transfer (shear) zone connecting the distinct SW edge of the former with the less distinct, eastern limit of the latter (similar, albeit on a smaller scale, to the situation in New Zealand with oppositely verging subduction zones and the Alpine fault as the transfer shear zone). The ~NNW-SSE oriented transfer zone (Aeolian-Sisifo-Tindari(-Ionian) fault system) shows transtensive-to-strike slip motion. Recent seismicity, geological data and GPS vectors in the central Mediterranean indicate that the region can be subdivided into several distinct domains, both on- and offshore, delineated by deformation zones and faults. However, there is discussion about the (relative) importance of some of these faults on the lithospheric scale. We focus on finding the best-fitting assembly of faults for the transfer zone connecting subduction beneath Calabria and convergence north of Sicily in the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front. This includes determining whether the Alfeo-Etna fault, Malta Escarpment and/or Ionian fault, which have all been suggested to represent the STEP fault of the Calabrian subduction zone, are key in describing the observed deformation patterns. We first focus on the present-day. We use geodynamic models to reproduce observed GPS

  15. Tooth size discrepancy in a Libyan population, a cross-sectional study in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Bugaighis, Iman; Karanth, Divakar

    2015-01-01

    Objetives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the tooth size discrepancy (TSD) in a group of Libyan schoolchildren, and to compare TSD between sexes. Material and Methods: The sample comprised 333 Libyan schoolchildren (162 males with a mean (SD) age of 14.4 (1.1) years, and 171 females with a mean age of 14.1 (1.1) years). Anterior and overall TSD ratios were computed using descriptive statistics. Sex differences were statistically assessed using an independent t-test (P<0.05). Results: Males showed significantly wider MD tooth width compared to females (P<0.05), except for the maxillary first premolars and mandibular central incisors. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the paired (right and left sides) tooth measurements except for the maxillary and mandibular central and lateral incisors as well as mandibular canines. The mean (SD) for overall and anterior TSD ratios were 91.3% (2.1) and 78.2% (2.6), respectively, with no significant sex differences for both variables (P> 0.05). The percentages of participants showing more than 2 SD variation for the anterior and overall ratios comprised 3% and 4.2% of the total sample, respectively. Conclusions: The anterior and overall TSD ratios for the examined subjects were established and showed no significant sexual dimorphism. Key words:Tooth size discrepancy, Libyan, schoolchildren. PMID:25810819

  16. Correlates of Life Satisfaction for Old Libyans Compared with the Judgments of Libyan Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shebani, Bashir L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Libyan undergraduates (N=106) and their aged relatives (N=109) completed questionnaires measuring life satisfaction in old age. Younger subjects rated social relationships outside the family and having basic physical needs met in old age as more important than did older subjects. Findings and implications for services to Libya's elderly are…

  17. Tracing the Mediterranean climate influence over the central Balkans (southeast Europe) during the past 350 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Marković, Slobodan; Boesken, Janina; Bačević, Nikola; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past climate variability based on the study of paleoclimate archives may help in better understanding the forcing mechanisms and extent of any future climate change. In some regions, such as Eastern Europe, loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are one of the most important terrestrial archives of Quaternary paleoclimate and its spatial and temporal dynamics. Studies of LPS from the Middle and Lower Danube basins fundamentally improved understanding of the European Quaternary climate and environmental evolution. The central Balkans (central Serbia) is situated in a transition zone between the temperate-continental climate zone to the north and Mediterranean climate to the south. Up to now this area has been poorly investigated concerning the paleoclimate evolution on a longer term, albeit this region is considered more sensitive to the relative influence associated to the Mediterranean climate influence than the Carpathian basin further north. To fill this gap we conducted a high-resolution multiproxy investigation on the Stalać LPS in the central Balkan (Serbia). Located at the southern limits of European loess distribution and within the Mediterranean climate influence, the Stalać section has potential for better understanding of past regional climate dynamics. We discuss grain-size (granulometric fractions, U-ratio), environmental magnetic (χ, χfd), geochemical (major and trace elements) and colour (L*, a*, b* values) data from the Stalać section in terms of switching sediment provenance sources modulated by past environmental conditions. We can show that the Carpathian Basin and central Balkans were influenced by different environmental conditions during past ~350 ka. A general higher continentality of the climate during the late Pleistocene can be observed over the Stalać section and the Carpathian Basin, indicating that this trend is more than a regional feature. Our results indicate warmer and/or more humid last glacial cycles compared to

  18. North-south palaeohydrological contrasts in the central Mediterranean during the Holocene: tentative synthesis and working hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magny, M.; Combourieu Nebout, N.; de Beaulieu, J. L.; Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Colombaroli, D.; Desprat, S.; Francke, A.; Joannin, S.; Peyron, O.; Revel, M.; Sadori, L.; Siani, G.; Sicre, M. A.; Samartin, S.; Simonneau, A.; Tinner, W.; Vannière, B.; Wagner, B.; Zanchetta, G.; Anselmetti, F.; Brugiapaglia, E.; Chapron, E.; Debret, M.; Desmet, M.; Didier, J.; Essallami, L.; Galop, D.; Gilli, A.; Haas, J. N.; Kallel, N.; Millet, L.; Stock, A.; Turon, J. L.; Wirth, S.

    2013-04-01

    On the basis of a multi-proxy approach and a strategy combining lacustrine and marine records along a north-south transect, data collected in the Central Mediterranean within the framework of a collaborative project have led to reconstruction of high-resolution and well-dated palaeohydrological records and to assessment of their spatial and temporal coherency. Contrasting patterns of palaeohydrological changes have been evidenced in the Central Mediterranean: south (north) of around 40° N of latitude, the middle part of the Holocene was characterised by lake-level maxima (minima), during an interval dated to ca. 10 300-4500 cal BP to the south and 9000-4500 cal BP to the north. Available data suggest that these contrasting palaeohydrological patterns operated throughout the Holocene, both on millennial and centennial scales. Regarding precipitation seasonality, maximum humidity in the Central Mediterranean during the middle part of the Holocene was characterised by humid winters and dry summers north of ca. 40° N, and humid winters and summers south of ca. 40° N. This may explain an apparent conflict between palaeoclimatic records depending on the proxies used for reconstruction as well as the synchronous expansion of tree species taxa with contrasting climatic requirements. In addition, south of ca. 40° N, the first millennium of the Holocene was characterised by very dry climatic conditions not only in the Eastern, but also in the Central and the Western Mediterranean zones as reflected by low lake levels and delayed reforestation. These results suggest that, in addition to the influence of the Nile discharge reinforced by the African monsoon, the deposition of Sapropel 1 has been favoured (1) by an increase in winter precipitation in the northern Mediterranean borderlands, and (2) by an increase in winter and summer precipitation in the southern Mediterranean area. The climate reversal following the Holocene climate optimum appears to have been punctuated by

  19. Deglacial and Holocene vegetation and climatic changes in the southern Central Mediterranean from a direct land-sea correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desprat, S.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; Essallami, L.; Sicre, M. A.; Dormoy, I.; Peyron, O.; Siani, G.; Bout Roumazeilles, V.; Turon, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    Despite a large number of studies, the long-term and millennial to centennial-scale climatic variability in the Mediterranean region during the last deglaciation and the Holocene is still debated, including in the southern Central Mediterranean. In this paper, we present a new marine pollen sequence (core MD04-2797CQ) from the Siculo-Tunisian Strait documenting the regional vegetation and climatic changes in the southern Central Mediterranean during the last deglaciation and the Holocene. The MD04-2797CQ marine pollen sequence shows that semi-desert plants dominated the vegetal cover in the southern Central Mediterranean between 18.2 and 12.3 ka cal BP, indicating prevailing dry conditions during the deglaciation, even during the Greenland Interstadial (GI)-1. Across the transition Greenland Stadial (GS)-1 - Holocene, Asteraceae-Poaceae steppe became dominant till 10.1 ka cal BP. This record underlines with no chronological ambiguity that even though temperatures increased, deficiency in moisture availability persisted into the early Holocene. Temperate trees and shrubs with heath underbrush or maquis expanded between 10.1 and 6.6 ka, corresponding to Sapropel 1 (S1) interval, while Mediterranean plants only developed from 6.6 ka onwards. These changes in vegetal cover show that the regional climate in southern Central Mediterranean was wetter during S1 and became drier during the mid- to late Holocene. Wetter conditions during S1 were likely due to increased winter precipitation while summers remained dry. We suggest, in agreement with published modeling experiments, that the early Holocene increased melting of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in conjunction with weak winter insolation played a major role in the development of winter precipitation maxima in the Mediterranean region in controlling the strength and position of the North Atlantic storm track. Finally, our data provide evidence for centennial-scale vegetation and climatic changes in the southern Central

  20. Terminal Stage Subduction in the Central Mediterranean: Horizontal and Vertical Motions in a Dynamic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortel, R.; Spakman, W.; Van der Meulen, M. J.

    2001-12-01

    The overall geodynamic nature of the Mediterranean region is that of a convergent plate boundary zone, between the Eurasian and African plates. Regional scale processes, however, do not only show evidence of the expected compression but also of extension. Here we present a dynamic framework for the Tertiary evolution of the region in terms of a convergent plate boundary zone in a late to terminal stage. The landlocked basin setting concept (le Pichon, 1982) serves as a starting condition for the lithospheric processes in this stage. We use the 3D results from seismic tomography studies, numerical modelling, in combination with geological, geophysical and geodetic data to investigate how the region evolved from this starting condition. Particular emphasis is put on the central Mediterranean/ Apennines region. The vertical motions along the Apenninic foredeeps were studied in detail. They show a migrating pattern of subsidence and uplift, which is in support of migrating slab detachment as the underlying cause. The geodynamic evolution is represented as a hierarchy of processes with interconnected vertical and horziontal motions and associated stress field variations, from roll-back and back-arc extension to (a suite of) smaller scale vertical and horizontal motions along plate boundaries. Stress concentration in combination with lithospheric rheology leads to highly transient stages in the evolution. We propose that slab detachment plays a key role in the plate boundary processes. It involves gravitational and thermally induced vertical motions, each class with its specific time scale. We conclude that the dynamics of the Mediterranean region are largely governed by the internal dynamics of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary zone, with "gravitational settling" as the basic process.

  1. An improved real-time seismic network in the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2014-05-01

    The Central Mediterranean is a region of active tectonics characterised by the interaction of a number of varied and sometimes poorly understood processes. Superimposed on the convergent scenario of the African plate pushing northwestward, a NE-SW directed extensional regime is active in the Sicily Channel, expressed in the form of a seismically active east-west trending system of strike-slip lineaments and a series of pull-apart grabens. The offshore seismicity of the Sicily channel, generally limited to magnitudes below 4.5, is normally difficult to quantify precisely, due to poor station coverage, yet it is believed that its analysis will considerably improve our understanding of the processes affecting the region. We present recent improvements to real and virtual seismic networking in the Central Mediterranean, based at the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU), University of Malta. Within the project SIMIT (B1-2.19/11) funded by the Italia-Malta Operational Programme 2007-2013, earthquake monitoring on the Maltese Islands is being upgraded through the installation of a further two broadband stations, one of which will be on the smaller island of Gozo. A new network, ML (Malta Seismic Network), has been internationally registered with the FDSN. At the same time, the installation and implementation of SeisComP3 has enabled the setting up of a virtual, real-time Central Mediterranean network, made up of 18 stations in Southern Italy (including Sicily, Lampedusa and Pantelleria) belonging to the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, 3 stations in Tunisia (National Institute of Meteorology of Tunisia) and the 3 stations on the Maltese Islands. This will allow us to rapidly perform more accurate hypocentral locations in the region. The virtual network, which also incorporates a number of more distant stations, has been tuned to issue SMS alerts for potentially felt events in the Sicily Channel detected by the network, and for strong earthquakes

  2. Horizontal crustal motion in the central and eastern Mediterranean inferred from Satellite Laser Ranging measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Robbins, John W.; Dunn, Peter J.; Torrence, Mark H.

    1994-01-01

    Four campaigns to acquire Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements at sites in the Mediterranean region have been completed. These measurements to the LAGEOS satellite, made largely by mobile systems, cover a time span beginning in November 1985 and ending in June 1993. The range data from 18 sites in the central and eastern Mediterranean have been simultaneously analyzed with data acquired by the remainder of the global laser tracking network. Estimates of horizontal motion were placed into a regional, northern Europe-fixed, kinematic reference frame. Uncertainties are on the order of 5 mm/yr for sites having at least four occupations by mobile systems and approach 1 mm/yr for permanently located sites with long histories of tracking. The resulting relative motion between sites in the Aegean exhibit characteristics of broadly distributed pattern of radial extension, but at rates that are about 50% larger than those implied from studies of seismic strain rates based on seismicity of magnitude 6 or greater or across the region. The motion estimated for sites in Turkey exhibit velocity components associated with the westward motion of the Anatolian Block relative to Eurasia. These results provide a present-day 'snapshot' of ongoing deformational processes as experienced by the locations occupied by SLR systems.

  3. A Preliminary Look at the Crust and Upper Mantle of North Africa Using Libyan Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M

    2005-08-05

    In recent years, LLNL has been developing methods to jointly invert both surface wave dispersion data and teleseismic receiver functions. The technique holds great promise in accurately estimating seismic structure, including important tectonic parameters such as basin thickness, crustal thickness, upper mantle velocity, etc. We proposed applying this method to some recently available data from several Libyan stations, as we believe the technique has not been applied to any stations in Libya. The technique holds the promise of improving our understanding of the crust and upper mantle in Libya and North Africa. We recently requested seismic data from stations GHAR (Gharyan) and MARJ (Al Marj) in Libya for about 20 events. The events were large events at regional distances suitable for making dispersion measurements. An example of waveforms recorded at the two stations from an earthquake in Italy is shown in Figure 1. The paths traverse the Ionian Sea. Notice the slow short period group velocities of the surface waves across the Mediterranean, particularly to the easternmost station MARJ. However, because of data availability, signal-to-noise ratio, etc. we were unable to make measurements for every one of these events at both stations. Figure 2 shows a map of paths for 20 sec Rayleigh waves in the eastern Mediterranean region. Paths measured at the two Libyan stations are shown in green. Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements at 20 sec period are sensitive to velocities in the upper 20 km or so, and reveal sediment thickness, crustal velocity, and crustal thickness. Tomographic inversions reveal the sharp group velocity contrast between regions with deep sedimentary basins and those without. Figure 3, the result of an inversion made before adding the new dispersion measurements, shows slow group velocities in the Black Sea, Adriatic Sea, and Eastern Mediterranean. In general, these features correspond well with the sediment thickness model from Laske, shown in Figure

  4. Aerosol Typing by 3-Wavelength Elastic Lidar Signals Over the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Maria Rita; Burlizzi, Pasquale

    2016-06-01

    Elastic lidar signals at 355, 532, and 1064 nm combined with aerosol optical thicknesses (AOTs) from sunphotometer measurements collocated in space and time have been used to retrieve columnar lidar ratio (LR) values at the lidar wavelengths by a constrained iterative inversion procedure. Then, the relationships of LRs with AOTs, Ångström exponents, fine mode fractions (η), and fine mode radii (Rf) have been investigated for the aerosol typing. η and Rf values have been retrieved from a graphical framework. It is shown that the implemented methodology has allowed identifying three main aerosol types over the Central Mediterranean which are designed as urban/industrial, marine-polluted, and mixed-dust. Results on the relationships of LRs with AOTs, Å, η, and Rf for each aerosol type represent main paper results.

  5. The Central-Western Mediterranean: Anomalous igneous activity in an anomalous collisional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustrino, Michele; Duggen, Svend; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    The central-western Mediterranean area is a key region for understanding the complex interaction between igneous activity and tectonics. In this review, the specific geochemical character of several 'subduction-related' Cenozoic igneous provinces are described with a view to identifying the processes responsible for the modifications of their sources. Different petrogenetic models are reviewed in the light of competing geological and geodynamic scenarios proposed in the literature. Plutonic rocks occur almost exclusively in the Eocene-Oligocene Periadriatic Province of the Alps while relatively minor plutonic bodies (mostly Miocene in age) crop out in N Morocco, S Spain and N Algeria. Igneous activity is otherwise confined to lava flows and dykes accompanied by relatively greater volumes of pyroclastic (often ignimbritic) products. Overall, the igneous activity spanned a wide temporal range, from middle Eocene (such as the Periadriatic Province) to the present (as in the Neapolitan of southern Italy). The magmatic products are mostly SiO 2-oversaturated, showing calcalkaline to high-K calcalcaline affinity, except in some areas (as in peninsular Italy) where potassic to ultrapotassic compositions prevail. The ultrapotassic magmas (which include leucitites to leucite-phonolites) are dominantly SiO 2-undersaturated, although rare, SiO 2-saturated (i.e., leucite-free lamproites) appear over much of this region, examples being in the Betics (southeast Spain), the northwest Alps, northeast Corsica (France), Tuscany (northwest Italy), southeast Tyrrhenian Sea (Cornacya Seamount) and possibly in the Tell region (northeast Algeria). Excepted for the Alpine case, subduction-related igneous activity is strictly linked to the formation of the Mediterranean Sea. This Sea, at least in its central and western sectors, is made up of several young (< 30 Ma) V-shaped back-arc basins plus several dispersed continental fragments, originally in crustal continuity with the European

  6. Mediterranean climate patterns and wine quality in North and Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalu, John David; Baldi, Marina; Dalla Marta, Anna; Orlandini, Simone; Maracchi, Gianpiero; Dalu, Giovanni; Grifoni, Daniele; Mancini, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Results show that the year-to-year quality variation of wines produced in North and Central Italy depends on the large-scale climate variability, and that the wine quality improvement in the last four decades is partially due to an increase of temperature and to a decrease of precipitation in West and Central Mediterranean Europe (WME; CME). In addition, wine quality is positively correlated with air temperature throughout the entire active period of the grapevine, weakly negatively correlated with precipitation in spring, and well negatively correlated in summer and fall. The month-to-month composites of the NAO anomaly show that, in years of good quality wine, this anomaly is negative in late spring, oscillates around zero in summer, and is positive in early fall; while, in years of bad quality wine, it is positive in late spring and summer, and negative in early fall, i.e. its polarity has an opposite sign in spring and fall in good versus bad years. The composite seasonal maps show that good wines are produced when the spring jet stream over the Atlantic diverts most of the weather perturbations towards North Europe, still providing a sufficient amount of rainwater to CME; when summer warming induced by southerly winds is balanced by the cooling induced by westerly winds; and when a positive geopotential anomaly over WME shelters CME from fall Atlantic storms. Bad quality wines are produced when the jet stream favors the intrusion of the Atlantic weather perturbations into the Mediterranean. Results suggest that atmospheric pattern persistencies can be used as precursors for wine quality forecast.

  7. Marine response to climate changes during the last five millennia in the central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaritelli, G.; Vallefuoco, M.; Di Rita, F.; Capotondi, L.; Bellucci, L. G.; Insinga, D. D.; Petrosino, P.; Bonomo, S.; Cacho, I.; Cascella, A.; Ferraro, L.; Florindo, F.; Lubritto, C.; Lurcock, P. C.; Magri, D.; Pelosi, N.; Rettori, R.; Lirer, F.

    2016-07-01

    We present a high-resolution paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last five millennia from a shallow water marine sedimentary record from the central Tyrrhenian Sea (Gulf of Gaeta) using planktonic foraminifera, pollen, oxygen stable isotope, tephrostratigrapy and magnetostratigrapy. This multiproxy approach allows to evidence and characterize nine time intervals associated with archaeological/cultural periods: Eneolithic (base of the core-ca. 2410 BCE), Early Bronze Age (ca. 2410 BCE-ca. 1900 BCE), Middle Bronze Age-Iron Age (ca. 1900 BCE-ca. 500 BCE), Roman Period (ca. 500 BCE-ca. 550 CE), Dark Age (ca. 550 CE-ca. 860 CE), Medieval Climate Anomaly (ca. 860 CE-ca. 1250 CE), Little Ice Age (ca. 1250 CE-ca. 1850 CE), Industrial Period (ca. 1850 CE-ca. 1950 CE), Modern Warm Period (ca. 1950 CE-present day). The reconstructed climatic evolution in the investigated sedimentary succession is coherent with the short-term climate variability documented at the Mediterranean scale. By integrating the planktonic foraminiferal turnover from carnivorous to herbivorous-opportunistic species, the oxygen isotope record and the pollen distribution, we document important modification from the onset of the Roman Period to the present-day. From ca. 500 CE upwards the documentation of the cooling trend punctuated by climate variability at secular scale evidenced by the short-term δ18O is very detailed. We hypothesise that the present day warm conditions started from the end of cold Maunder event. Additionally, we provide that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) directly affected the central Mediterranean region during the investigated time interval.

  8. Mediterranean climate patterns and wine quality in North and Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Dalu, John David; Baldi, Marina; Marta, Anna Dalla; Orlandini, Simone; Maracchi, Gianpiero; Dalu, Giovanni; Grifoni, Daniele; Mancini, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Results show that the year-to-year quality variation of wines produced in North and Central Italy depends on the large-scale climate variability, and that the wine quality improvement in the last four decades is partially due to an increase of temperature and to a decrease of precipitation in West and Central Mediterranean Europe (WME; CME). In addition, wine quality is positively correlated with air temperature throughout the entire active period of the grapevine, weakly negatively correlated with precipitation in spring, and well negatively correlated in summer and fall. The month-to-month composites of the NAO anomaly show that, in years of good quality wine, this anomaly is negative in late spring, oscillates around zero in summer, and is positive in early fall; while, in years of bad quality wine, it is positive in late spring and summer, and negative in early fall, i.e. its polarity has an opposite sign in spring and fall in good versus bad years. The composite seasonal maps show that good wines are produced when the spring jet stream over the Atlantic diverts most of the weather perturbations towards North Europe, still providing a sufficient amount of rainwater to CME; when summer warming induced by southerly winds is balanced by the cooling induced by westerly winds; and when a positive geopotential anomaly over WME shelters CME from fall Atlantic storms. Bad quality wines are produced when the jet stream favors the intrusion of the Atlantic weather perturbations into the Mediterranean. Results suggest that atmospheric pattern persistencies can be used as precursors for wine quality forecast. PMID:23152193

  9. Crust and Upper Mantle of North Africa Using Libyan Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Eshwehdi, A.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of North Africa using Libyan seismic data. Libya sits at the transition between the relatively aseismic continental crust of the African plate and the seismically active oceanic crust under the Mediterranean Sea which is subducting under the Eurasian Plate along the Calabrian, Hellenic, and Cyprean Arcs. The country also encompasses the Sirte Basin to the north and the smaller Murzuk and Kufra basins in the south. Broadband data from several seismic stations in Libya provide an opportunity for studying the velocity structure of the region. We have made some preliminary dispersion measurements from these stations and have found notable improvements in the group velocity tomography model by incorporating the additional measurements. We will be adding to this analysis by making dispersion measurements from regional events and receiver functions for teleseismic events. Recently, we have been employing methods to jointly invert both surface wave dispersion data and teleseismic receiver functions. The technique holds great promise in accurately estimating seismic structure, including important tectonic parameters such as basin thickness, crustal thickness, upper mantle velocity, as well as more detail about the upper mantle (lithospheric thickness and presence of anisotropy). We propose to apply this method to data from several Libyan stations where we can and, in the absence of receiver functions, invert the dispersion data only. The technique holds the promise of improving our understanding of the crust and upper mantle in Libya and how it fits into the larger tectonic picture of North Africa.

  10. Multi-proxy constraints on sapropel formation during the late Pliocene of central Mediterranean (southwest Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plancq, Julien; Grossi, Vincent; Pittet, Bernard; Huguet, Carme; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Mattioli, Emanuela

    2015-06-01

    The late Pliocene (Piacenzian) in the Mediterranean region was punctuated by short-lived episodes of widespread deposition of organic-rich sedimentary layers known as sapropels. The causes of their formation remain a long-standing debate in the science community, and require disentangling the roles of climatic/oceanographic processes that triggered higher primary productivity or enhanced organic matter preservation. The lack of data, especially of sea temperatures at sufficient temporal resolution, is one of the main challenges to solve this debate. Here, we present new organic geochemistry and micropaleontological data from the late Pliocene at Punta Grande/Punta Piccola sections (southwest Sicily) that allow untangling the mechanisms that favored the formation of two sapropel series (noted S and A) in the central Mediterranean area during this period. Sea surface (SSTs) and subsurface temperatures were estimated using three distinct organic geochemical proxies namely the alkenone unsaturation index (UK‧37), the long-chain diol index (LDI) and the tetraether index (TEX86). Reconstructed SSTs are relatively stable throughout the late Pliocene and ∼4 °C higher than modern Mediterranean SSTs, which is consistent with the climatic conditions inferred for this period from paleoclimate modeling. An increase in SST is, however, recorded by UK‧37 and LDI proxies across each sapropel horizon, supporting that the two sapropel series S and A were formed during warmer climate conditions. The comparison of SST data with variations in accumulation rates of total organic carbon and lipid-biomarkers (alkenones, long-chain alkyl diols, archaeal and bacterial tetraethers), and with changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages, indicates that the studied sapropels might have formed under different environmental conditions. The first series of sapropels (S), deposited between 3.1 and 2.8 Ma, is likely due to a better preservation of organic matter, induced by the development

  11. A sharp Moho step under the Central and Eastern Betics, Western Mediterranean region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Heit, Benjamin; Morales, Jose; Heit, Xiaohui; Molina-Aguilera, Antonio; Stich, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We map the lithospheric structure under the central and eastern Betics (western Mediterranean region) interpreting P-receiver functions obtained from two dense seismic profiles (HIRE and Transcorbe profiles of ~120 km and 160 km of length, respectively). The goal is to study the lithospheric structure and its variations between the different geological domains, from the Alboran domain in the south (metamorphic rocks), the External zones (sedimentary rocks) and the Variscan terrains of the Iberian Massif in the north. One of the profiles (HIRE), North-South oriented, crosses the Sierra Nevada Mountains, one of the prominent features in the Western Mediterranean tectonic region with the highest topography of the Iberia peninsula (~3400 m). The spacing between stations, around 2km, allows mapping with high accuracy of the variations of the crustal structure. We observe a sharp Moho step of ~15 km under the Internal zones of the Alboran domain coinciding the thinner crust with the highest topography along the profile. This agrees with the prior hypothesis about the lack of crustal root underneath Sierra Nevada Mountains and opens a question about the source of the dynamic compensation of its topography. Previous studies showed that the Iberian crust understrust the Alboran domain under its contact with the External zones observing the presence of slab-type feature of Iberian lithosphere at the western Betics while tearing and delamination of this Iberian slab is proposed at eastern Betics. We observe that the Iberian crust undertrust the Alboran domain and terminate sharply under the contact between the Alpujarride and the Nevado-Filabre complexes (Alboran domain).

  12. A sharp Moho step under Central and Eastern Betics, Western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Aguilera-Molina, Antonio; Heit, Benjamin; Morales, Jose; Yuan, Xiaohui; Stich, Daniel; Martin, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Previous geophysical studies in the northern limit of the western Mediterranean region have showed that the Iberian crust understrusts the Alboran domain under its contact with the External zones. They observe the presence of slab-type feature of Iberian lithosphere at the western Betics and interpret tearing and delamination of this Iberian slab at central and eastern Betics. To map the variations of the lithospheric structure between the different geological domains under central and eastern Betics, we deploy two dense seismic profiles (~120 and ~160 km length). The spacing between stations, around 2-3 km, allows mapping with high accuracy variations of the crustal structure. By interpreting P-receiver functions, we observe sharp Moho steps of ~15-17 km underneath the Internal zones (Alboran domain) at both profiles. The images suggest that the Iberian crust undertrusts the more deformed Alboran crust and terminates sharply under the contact between the Alpujarride and the Nevado-Filabre complexes (Alboran domain). The thickness of the Iberian crust near the edge, ~17 km, and its position along the contact suggest that the breaking of the Iberian slab occurs in the transitional crust of the Iberian Paleomargin.

  13. Seismic rays and traveltime tomography of strongly heterogeneous mantle structure: application to the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serretti, Paola; Morelli, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    the main features quite well, we verify how non-linear inversion and 3-D ray tracing significantly improve the results, especially when we attempt to reconstruct a realistic structure. We also apply the finite-difference, non-linear, traveltime tomography to data from the ISC to retrieve upper-mantle structure in the Central Mediterranean. We verify that the non-linear inversion is able to reveal sharpened velocity contrasts and thinner bodies than linear inversion. Clear differentiation found in the non-linear result, between signatures of northern and southern Dinarides—showing lithosphere subducting only beneath the southern sector—is more coherent with the regional geodynamic framework. Such improvements due to non-linear mantle tomography may contribute to the general picture of slab detachment and small-scale mantle convection in the Mediterranean region, and therefore, significantly impact on geodynamic implications of resulting models.

  14. Plate boundary evolution in the western-central Mediterranean: From the past to the present.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortel, Rinus; Faccenna, Claudio; Govers, Rob; Polonia, Alina; Baes, Marzieh

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of the Calabrian and Gibraltar arcs and that of the margins of northern Africa and Sicily are part of the final phase of opening of the western Mediterranean basins. Jointly, they are the central topic of the TopoMed project concerning the plate boundary reorganization of the western-central Mediterranean, one of the projects of the TOPO-EUROPE programme (EUROCORES/ESF). The structure and evolution of the Gibraltar arc region are discussed in a separate presentation. This final stage of opening shows intriguing lateral variations from the Calabrian Arc, via the northern margin of Sicily to the North-African (Algerian) margin. In concert, they provide an excellent opportunity to study the evolution of an expanding oceanic realm that may be at the verge of entering a new phase of closure. Our studies encompass detailed analyses of deep penetration seismic data, multibeam bathymetry and field observations, and numerical model experiments addressing lithospheric scale process-oriented aspects. Special attention is given to the aspect that the region is embedded in a context of ongoing Africa-Eurasia plate convergence and to the role of structures, inherited from earlier stages of basin opening, in controlling the recent and ongoing evolution. For the Calabrian accretionary wedge the focus is on assessing the present state of deformation, including seismic activity, and other accompanying processes. We show that the Calabrian wedge is segmented (in direction along the arc) in two different lobes, the western and eastern lobe corresponding with detached and still continuous parts of the subducting slab, respectively. For the Northern Sicily margin we propose that its earlier history involving STEP faulting has preconditioned the lithosphere structure to the extent that it promotes initiation of a new southward-dipping subduction zone. The northern African margin is in a very special transitional situation in which the retreating northward subduction has

  15. Subjective and objective wine quality in Central Mediterranean in relation to large scale climate patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marina; Dalu, John David; Dalla Marta, Anna; Orlandini, Simone; Maracchi, Gianpiero; Dalu, Giovannangelo; Grifoni, Daniele; Mancini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Subjective wine ranking is based on three factors: appearance (eye), smell (nose) and taste (palate); this kind of subjective ranking is often preferred over that based on technical objective means. Wine quality depends on its composition, which is a function of a number of factors: grapevine variety, soil type, cultivation techniques, and climate conditions. Between them, the soil is the main fixed factor; the positive trend is determined by a combination of improved cultural techniques and of warming related to climate change; while the climate variability is the main factor in determining the year-to-year wine quality variations. Therefore, the analysis of the grape composition before harvest is crucial for establishing the quality-climate correlations. In this work, 40 years of objective and subjective wine quality data collected in Italy are analyzed in relation to the climate conditions. Results show that the year-to-year quality variation of wines produced in North and Central Italy depends on the large scale climate variability, and that the wine quality improvement in the last four decades is partially due to an increase of temperature and to a decrease of the precipitations in West and Central Mediterranean Europe (WME; CME). In addition, wine quality is positively correlated with air temperature throughout the entire active period of the grapevine; weakly negatively correlated with precipitation in spring, and well negatively correlated in summer and fall. The month-to-month composites of the NAO anomaly show that, in years of good quality wine, this anomaly is negative in late spring, oscillates around zero in summer, and is positive in early fall; while, in years of bad quality wine, it is positive in late spring and summer, and negative in early fall; i.e. its polarity has an opposite sign in spring and fall in good versus bad years. The composite seasonal maps show that good wines are produced when the spring jet stream over Atlantic diverts most of

  16. Potential Use of HF Radar for Tsunami Detection in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokacar, Tulay; Necmioglu, Ocal; Ozer, Ceren

    2016-04-01

    Today, HF radar is recognized as internationally cost-effective and efficient solution to provide near-real time measurements that cover a large area continuously over time for ocean hazards warning and long term ocean monitoring studies such as, seasonal forecasts of climate, hurricanes, s torm surges and large-scale ocean circulation changes. These radar systems recently became an operational tool in coastal monitoring worldwide. They are used for many operational applications that include ship detection, tracking, guidance, distribution of pollutants, fishery and oceanography. HF radar data used for the tsunami warnings, can also be used for the other purposes and be of potential interest to wide application area users and stakeholders. Moreover multi user applications will ensure the system is maintained operationally over the long term. Hence the system is cost effective also with regards to maintenance. New algorithms allow useful detection and verification for tsunami detection. While technical monitoring capacity and the algorithms for tsunami detection is improved significantly, further studies are required to obtain complete wave height determination. We analysed the available technology and algorithms for the purpose of tsunami detection in the central-eastern Mediterranean and its connected Seas (Aegean and Black Sea). Since the study area is characterized by narrow continental shelf area, the HF radar observation for the purpose of tsunami detection is possible in restricted areas. While extensive continental shelves in the northeastern Black Sea and along the coast of Tunisia in the central Mediterranean let tsunami detection 2.5 hours before tsunami waves hit the coast, the detection is possible around 1 hr or less in advance for the remaining basins with wide continental shelf areas. The bathymetric structure is important for deciding the applicability of HF radar systems for the tsunami detection in continental shelf areas, which can be covered by

  17. New data on the Holocenic sea-level rise in NW Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, F.; Cremona, G.; Immordino, F.; Puglisi, C.; Romagnoli, C.; Silenzi, S.; Valpreda, E.; Verrubbi, V.

    2002-09-01

    The emerged and submerged coastal tracts of selected areas in NW Sicily (San Vito Lo Capo Promontory and Marettimo Island in the Egadi Archipelago) have been studied by means of an interdisciplinary approach (geomorphological and neotectonic surveys, palaeontological, depositional and petrographical observations) with the aim to characterize the coastal evolution of the sector over a wide time frame (Late Pleistocene and Holocene) and to recognize the geological indicators of relative sea-level fluctuations. Neotectonic studies performed all along the coastal sector through the check of the present-day height of marine notches and of the inner margin of marine terraces of Eutyrrhenian age allowed to assess the entity of post-Tyrrhenian differential crustal movements in the area. The calculated rates of uplift confirm the relative stability of the area in the last 125 ka and that the relative corrections introduced can be considered negligible in the reconstruction of sea-level rise in the last thousand years. On the base of these considerations, the sea-level rise curve which has been drawn for the Holocene through the radiometric dating ( 14C and U/Th) of submerged speleothems and Vermetid reefs is assumed to gain a regional significance and to represent a good reference datum for the Central-Southern Mediterranean Sea. In addition, the sea-level rise data are in good agreement with the predicted sea-level curves based on geophysical models previously applied to the same study areas.

  18. A Miocene tectonic inversion in the Ionian Sea (central Mediterranean): Evidence from multichannel seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallais, Flora; Gutscher, Marc-André; Graindorge, David; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Klaeschen, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the Central and Eastern Mediterranean are remnants of the Neo-Tethys. However, the orientation and timing of spreading of this domain remain controversial. Here, we present time migrated and pre-stack depth migrated NW-SE oriented Archimede (1997) lines together with the PrisMed01 (1993) profile to constrain the evolution of the Ionian basin. Our interpretation allows us to identify a large-scale set of SW-NE striking reverse faults beneath the Ionian Abyssal Plain. These primarily NW vergent faults have a characteristic spacing of 10 to 20 km and a dip ranging from 60 to 65°. Following very recent paleogeographic reconstructions, we propose that the set of N°55 features initially formed as normal faults during NW-SE trending seafloor spreading of the Ionian basin after its late Triassic-early Jurassic rifting. Based on geometric comparisons with the intraplate deformation observed beneath the Central Indian Ocean, we show that the inherited oceanic normal faults were reactivated under compression as reverse faults. Well-developed Tortonian syntectonic basins developed NW of the major faults and the base of the Messinian evaporites (Mobile Unit) is slightly folded by the activity of the faults. We show that 3-4 km of total shortening occurs over a 80 km wide area beneath the Ionian Abyssal Plain, resulting in a bulk shortening of 3.5-5%. We propose a link between the Tortonian-early Messinian inversion of the fault pattern and a plate tectonic reorganization prior to the main phase of back-arc opening of the Tyrrhenian domain.

  19. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of contemporary mantle flow and tectonic stress beneath the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Aoudia, Abdelkrim; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2010-02-01

    The structure, density and effective viscosity of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Central Mediterranean influence lithospheric deformation, mantle flow, and tectonic stress state. To estimate the contribution of buoyancy forces to regional dynamics, three-dimensional finite-element models are developed to determine contemporary uppermost mantle flow and tectonic stresses. We use density models for the crust and uppermost mantle derived from S-wave seismic velocities and constrained by gravity data. The viscosity model is constrained by the observed strain rate and regional heat flow data. The modeled movement of the uppermost crust is consistent with the northeast-oriented motion of the lithosphere and is in an agreement with the geodetic measurements. The modeled flow patterns of the lower crust and uppermost mantle are consistent with the regional observations. The models predict (i) northwest-oriented movements beneath the southeast part of the Adriatic Sea region, (ii) the northeastern subduction beneath the western part of the Adriatic Sea, (iii) the upwelling beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea and its eastern coast, (iv) the western movement of the Ionian Sea sub-plate, and (v) the subduction beneath the western Calabria region. Our models predict also a distinct compressional regime along the northeast part of the Italian peninsula and to the east of Sicily, and a tensional regime beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea, Umbria-Marche region, and Ionian Sea. The predicted tectonic stress regimes in the northern and central Apennines are in agreement with stress regimes derived from earthquake fault-plane solutions. Changes in the predicted crustal stress pattern and magnitude are likely to be caused by buoyancy-driven mantle circulation beneath the region rather than by gravitational potential energy differences in the crust itself. Based on the model results, we conclude that the buoyancy forces play an important role in the contemporary tectonics of the region.

  20. Calcareous Nannofossil Assemblages from the Central Mediterranean over the Last Four Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incarbona, A.; Ziveri, P.; di Stefano, E.; Lirer, F.; Tranchida, G.; Vallefuoco, M.; Mortyn, G.; Patti, B.; Sprovieri, R.; Bonanno, A.; Censi, P.; Ferraro, L.; Mazzola, S.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-12-01

    We present calcareous nannofossil data of four cores and box-cores from the central Mediterranean (Bansic cruises Station 272, 37°17’N, 12°48’E, 226 m depth; Bansic cruises Station 342, 36°42’N, 13°55’E, 858 m depth; Bansic cruises Station 407, 36°22’N, 14°26’E, 345 m depth; Core C90-1M, 40°35’N, 14°42’E, 103 m depth) characterised by exceptionally high sedimentation rates. These cores were chosen in oceanographic sensitive areas of the Northern Sicily Channel, within semi-permanent features due to surface current meandering, and in a coastal and shallow site of the Tyrrhenian Sea. The chronological framework of the upper part of these cores was reconstructed by 210Pb radiometric activity. Tentatively, the chronology of the lower part of the cores has been assigned by the development of constant flux-constant sedimentation models. On this basis, sedimentary materials span the last 200-350 years. In general, the placolith/Florisphaera profunda ratio (a proxy for productivity levels) values remain quite stable in the samples of each core, but they are enclosed in distinctive fields which are coherent with the hydrological setting of the cores. However, at least in two box-cores from the Sicily Channel (Bansic cruises, Station 342 and Station 407), a statistically significant decrease in F. profunda percentage values below AD 1850 might suggest increased productivity associated to the youngest phase of the Little Ice Age. Apparently, no sign of global warming and of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient are visible from our data. We argue that the relatively small oceanographic changes (at least for organisms adapted to live in a wide range of ecological conditions), the wide uncertainty associated to the microscope countings and possible disturbances (among others bioturbation) in the recovered sedimentary material might have masked possible changes in coccolithophore assemblages.

  1. Libyan made steels quality and standers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajouri, Ali Musbah; Raddad, Basher; Abozreba, Moktar K.; Akrim, Mosbah A.

    2012-09-01

    Libyan Iron and Steel Company (LISCO) produce in excess of 1.3 million tons steel/year, using Medrix process utilizing local natural gas. LISCO products are Bars, Rods, Sections, hot and cold Rolled Sheets and Coils. During cutting &shaping of LISCO sheets with definite dimension, the product was deformed to an irregular shape. Samples used in the present case study were coded as (D) deformed and (ND) not deformed. Certain measured samples subjected for chemical analysis, mechanical tests, heat treatment &finally microstructure was studied as well. The conclusion was that the quality of materials used for the investigation in accordance with the use for heavy duty trucks (IVECO) & fits the standard (15-2812), and the material classified as a steel FEE (420), tension results and vickers hardness results are in accordance with the specified material. Consequently all of those testing &examinations, confirm that crucial deformation problem of plate during the shaping depends mainly on the asymmetry of residual stresses, related principally to the difference of work-hardening intensity, where the cooling rate during rolling of hot/cold sheets should be uniform &it is recommended that heat treatments should takes place as well.

  2. Prevalence of Fabry Disease in Familial Mediterranean Fever Patients from Central Anatolia of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Huzmeli, Can; Candan, Ferhan; Alaygut, Demet; Bagci, Gokhan; Akkaya, Lale; Bagci, Binnur; Sozmen, Eser Yıldırım; Kurtulgan, Hande Kucuk; Kayatas, Mansur

    2016-08-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A (AGALA) activity. FD and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) have typical clinical similarities, and both diseases may progress to end-stage renal diseases. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of FD in patients with FMF from Central Anatolia of Turkey. The study group consisted of 177 FMF patients, followed up by the Adult and Pediatric Nephrology Clinic of Cumhuriyet University Hospital. Screening for AGALA activity was performed by the dry blood spot method. Mutation analysis for GLA gene was carried out for patients having an AGALA enzyme activity value lower than the normal reference value. Low AGALA activity was detected in 23 (13 %) patients. Heterozygous GLA gene mutation c.[937G>T] p.[D313Y] was detected in one female patient (0.56 %). The patient was a 53-year-old female with proteinuria and who had undergone left nephrectomy; her glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by scintigraphy was found to be 70 ml/min. She had M694V mutation and no clinical manifestation of FD. In our study, the prevalence rate of FD was found as 0.56 % in FMF patients. The similarities between the symptoms of FMF and FD might lead to a diagnostic dilemma in physicians at countries where FMF is observed frequently. Although the prevalence of FD is rare, physicians should keep in mind that FD has an ambiguous symptomology pattern of FMF. PMID:27105876

  3. Composition, provenance and source weathering of Mesozoic sandstones from Western-Central Mediterranean Alpine Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, F.

    2014-03-01

    Forty-two Mesozoic sandstone samples from three different sedimentary successions of the Internal Domains along the Western-Central Mediterranean Alpine Chains (Betic Cordillera, Rif Chain and Calabria-Peloritani Arc) were chemically analyzed to characterize their composition and the degree of weathering in the source area(s). The Rif Chain sandstones have SiO2 contents higher than those of the Calabria-Peloritani Arc and Betic Cordillera sandstones, whereas Al2O3 contents are higher in the Calabria-Peloritani Arc sandstones rather than in the Rif Chain and Betic Cordillera sandstones. The indices of compositional variability (ICV) of the studied samples are generally less than 1, suggesting that the samples are compositionally mature and were likely dominated by recycling. Recycling processes are also shown by the Al-Zr-Ti diagram indicating zircon addition and, thus, recycling processes. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values are quite homogeneous for the Calabria-Peloritani Arc (mean = 76) and Betic Cordillera sandstones (mean = 55), whereas the Rif Chain sandstones are characterized by CIA values ranging from 54 to 76. The CIW and PIA values are high for all the studied sandstones indicating intense weathering at the source areas. The different values of weathering rates among the studied sandstones may be related to variations of paleoclimatic conditions during the Mesozoic, that further favored recycling processes. Thus, these differences among the studied samples, may be related to an increase in continental palaeoweathering conditions and sediment recycling effects from the Middle Triassic to the earliest Jurassic due to rising humidity. In addition, regional tectonic movements promoted structural changes that allowed sedimentary recycling and subsidence, which in turn caused diagenetic K-metasomatism. These processes could significantly affect the CIW and PIA weathering indices, which likely monitor a cumulative effect, including several cycles of

  4. Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Ciappa, Achille; Costabile, Salvatore

    2014-07-15

    The Egadi Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the western side of the Sicily Channel (Central Mediterranean) is exposed to a high risk of oil pollution from the tanker routes connecting the eastern and western basins of the Mediterranean Sea. Areas where an oil spill would do most damage, and thus where surveillance should be concentrated, are identified in this study by Lagrangian tracers tracked backwards in time from points along the MPA perimeter using data spanning six years from 2006 to 2011. Results indicate that the areas where oil surveillance would be most beneficial are segments of the tanker routes south of Sicily (highly frequented) and north of Sicily (scarcely frequented), both extending about 150 miles from November to March and 100 miles in the other months. The third route, close to the Tunisian shore, is the most frequented by oil tankers but the threat period is limited to November and December. PMID:24934441

  5. On the Risk of Mediterranean and Sub-tropical Climate Expansion into Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farda, Ales; Štěpánek, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Szabó-Takács, Beata

    2015-04-01

    expansion of Mediterranean climate types into Central Europe and changes affecting the climate regime of individual regions. Moreover, it appears that urbanized landscape will act as the factor enhancing the intensity and the pce of this change.

  6. Tectonics of the Central Anatolia Plateau between the Black Sea and the East Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Fernandez-Blanco, David; Willett, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    The Central Anatolia Plateau, focus point of the TopoEurope Vertical Anatolia Movement Project, is an elevated area (ca. 1.5km) with fairly smooth topography bounded to the N and to the S by mountain ranges (Pontides and Taurus) and flanked by marine domains (Black Sea and Cilicia Basin-Eastern Mediterranean). Towards the south the Cilicia Basin passes to the Island of Cyprus and eventually to the Cyprus subduction zone and African plate. To constrain the evolution of the CAP from its birth in the Miocene to present, we present the evolution of an upper crustal section stretching from the Black Sea to Cyprus with particular focus on a 350km long segment from the central part of the Plateau (Tüz Gölü) to the Cilicia Basin. This entire area occupies an upper plate position with respect to the Cyprus subduction zone. Tectonics from Early to Late Miocene times were fairly simple and characterized by a gently southward dipping basement experiencing generalized subsidence. Depositional environments gradually changed from continental in the north to shallow marine in the south. The overall tectonic regime during this stage is poorly constrained. In the Late Miocene the entire area of the future CAP began moving upward. At the same time, subsidence continued in the Cilicia basin. Uplift above sea level in the south is nicely recorded by the termination of marine sedimentation and the onset of erosion. Dominant tectonic structures during this stage are associated with N-S shortening. The largest structures caused the formation of the large S-dipping monocline characteristics of S Turkey. The coexistence of upward and downward movements (in the CAP and in the Cilicia basin respectively) as well as the dominant contractional regime suggest that the development of the CAP is related to dynamic changes in the Cyprus subduction zone. We validate this hypothesis with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled models. We demonstrate that the growth of the upper plate forearc basin system

  7. Conjunctions in Argumentative Writing of Libyan Tertiary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Muftah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was an attempt to investigate the use of conjunctions in argumentative essays written by English as a Foreign Language fourth-year undergraduate Libyan students majoring in English at Omar Al-Mukhtar University in Libya. A corpus of 32 argumentative essays was collected from a sample of 16 students in order to be investigated…

  8. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the lateral abdominal wall of local Libyan ewes

    PubMed Central

    Tmumen, S.K.; Al-Azreg, S.A.; Abushhiwa, M.H.; Alkoly, M.A.; Bennour, E.M.; Al­Attar, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Gross and histopathological features of surgically excised squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) observed in thirteen local Libyan ewes were reported. The age of the ewes enrolled in the current study ranged from 2 to 3 years. The cases were admitted to private veterinary clinics in south-western region of Tripoli, Libya, during the period between July 2014 and October 2015. All lesions were located in the right and left lateral abdominal wall (caudo-ventrally) with a size range of 8 to 11cm in diameter. The tumor masses have been removed by surgical excision. The histopathological examination of surgically excised masses has revealed the characteristic cell nests of SCC showing central keratinization and hyalinization with presence of apoptotic bodies, fattened keratinocytes, and a heavy interstitial infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The follow up of the cases showed no signs of tumor reoccurrence. In conclusion, SCC in Libyan sheep affects mainly the woolless areas and can be successfully removed by surgical excision. PMID:27622155

  9. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the lateral abdominal wall of local Libyan ewes.

    PubMed

    Tmumen, S K; Al-Azreg, S A; Abushhiwa, M H; Alkoly, M A; Bennour, E M; Al Attar, S R

    2016-01-01

    Gross and histopathological features of surgically excised squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) observed in thirteen local Libyan ewes were reported. The age of the ewes enrolled in the current study ranged from 2 to 3 years. The cases were admitted to private veterinary clinics in south-western region of Tripoli, Libya, during the period between July 2014 and October 2015. All lesions were located in the right and left lateral abdominal wall (caudo-ventrally) with a size range of 8 to 11cm in diameter. The tumor masses have been removed by surgical excision. The histopathological examination of surgically excised masses has revealed the characteristic cell nests of SCC showing central keratinization and hyalinization with presence of apoptotic bodies, fattened keratinocytes, and a heavy interstitial infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The follow up of the cases showed no signs of tumor reoccurrence. In conclusion, SCC in Libyan sheep affects mainly the woolless areas and can be successfully removed by surgical excision. PMID:27622155

  10. The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, invading the Mediterranean Basin, originates from a single introduction from Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Blin, Aurélie; Le Goff, Isabelle; Desneux, Nicolas; Reyes, Maritza; Tabone, Elisabeth; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Niño, Laura; Lombaert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Lepidopteran pest of tomato, Tuta absoluta, is native to South America and is invasive in the Mediterranean basin. The species' routes of invasion were investigated. The genetic variability of samples collected in South America, Europe, Africa and Middle East was analyzed using microsatellite markers to infer precisely the source of the invasive populations and to test the hypothesis of a single versus multiple introductions into the old world continents. This analysis provides strong evidence that the origin of the invading populations was unique and was close to or in Chile, and probably in Central Chile near the town of Talca in the district of Maule. PMID:25667134

  11. Comparing the Gibraltar and Calabrian subduction zones (central western Mediterranean) based on seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argnani, Andrea; Battista Cimini, Giovanni; Frugoni, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Montuori, Caterina

    2016-04-01

    The Central Western Mediterranean (CWM) was shaped by a complex tectonic and geodynamic evolution. Deep seismicity and tomographic studies point to the existence, under the Alboran and Tyrrhenian Seas, of lithospheric slabs extending down to the bottom of the mantle transition zone, at 660 km depth. Two narrow arcs correspond to the two slabs, the Gibraltar and Calabrian Arcs (e.g., Monna et al., 2013; Montuori et al., 2007). Similarities in the tectonic and mantle structure of the two areas have been explained by a common subduction and roll-back mechanism for the opening of the CWM, in which the two arcs are symmetrical end products. In spite of this unifying model, a wide amount of literature from different disciplines shows that many aspects of the two areas are still controversial. We present a new 3-D tomographic model at mantle scale for the Calabrian Arc and compare it with a recently published 3-D tomographic model for the Gibraltar Arc by Monna et al (2013). The two models are based on non-linear inversion of teleseismic phase arrivals, and have scale and parametrization that allow for a direct comparison. Unlike previous studies the tomographic models here presented include Ocean Bottom Seismometer broadband data, which improved the resolution of the mantle structures in the marine areas surrounding the arcs. We focus on key features of the two models that constrain reconstructions of the geodynamic evolution of the CWM (e.g., Monna et al., 2015). At Tortonian time the opening of the Tyrrhenian basin was in its initial stage, and the Calabrian arc formed subsequently; on the contrary, the Gibraltar arc was almost completely defined. We hypothesize that the complexity of the continental margin approaching the subduction zone played a key role during the final stages of the arc formation. References Monna, S., G. B. Cimini, C. Montuori, L. Matias, W. H. Geissler, and P. Favali (2013), New insights from seismic tomography on the complex geodynamic evolution

  12. Late-Pleistocene evolution of the East Mediterranean shallow continental shelf of north-central Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtienberg, Gilad; Dix, Justin; Waldmann, Nicolas; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Bookman, Revital; Roskin, Joel; Bialik, Or; Golan, Arik; Sivan, Dorit

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level fluctuations are a dominant and dynamic mechanism that control coastal environmental through time. This is especially the case for the successive regressions and transgressions over the last interglacial cycle, which have shaped the deposition, preservation and erosion patterns of unconsolidated sediments currently submerged on continental shelves. The current study focuses on an integrated high-resolution marine and terrestrial litho-stratigraphic and geophysical framework of the north-central Mediterranean coastal zone of Israel. The interpretation enabled the reconstruction of the coastal evolution over the last ˜130 ka. A multi-disciplinary approach was applied by compiling existing elevation raster grids, bathymetric charts, detailed lithological borehole data-sets, a dense 110 km long sub-bottom geophysical survey and seven continuous boreholes sediment records. Based on seismic stratigraphic analysis, observed geometries, and reflective appearances, six bounding surfaces and seven seismic units were identified and characterized. Meanwhile, the chronostratigraphy of the terrestrial side was constructed through integration of magnetic susceptibility, sedimentological and geochemical analysis with 17 new OSL ages. The seismic units were correlated with the available terrestrial borehole data and then associated to the retrieved terrestrial chronostratigraphy to produce a 4D reconstruction model of the paleo-landscape. The entire unconsolidated sequence overlies a calcareous aeolianite (locally named Kurkar unit) dated from ˜131 - ˜104 ka, which represents the top of the last interglacial cycle dune sediments. The lower unconsolidated unit consists of a red silty loam dated to ˜71 ka. This Red-Paleosol unit is overlaid by a dark brown clayey silty loam This Brown-Paleosol unit dates to ˜58 - ˜36 ka and is overlaid by a dark silty clay wetland deposit dated to ˜21 - ˜10 ka. The wetland unit is topped by a quartz sand dated to ˜6.6 - 0.1 ka

  13. Estimation of real evapotranspiration and its variation in Mediterranean landscapes of central-southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivera-Guerra, L.; Mattar, C.; Galleguillos, M.

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ETd) is a key controller in the ecohydrological processes of semi-arid landscapes. This is the case of the dry land in Chile's central-southern zone, where forestry, farming and livestock activities must adapt to precipitation with considerable year-on-year variations. In this study, the spatial distribution of ETd was estimated in relation to the land use map and physical parameters of the soil. The ETd was estimated through the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI) using data from weather stations and remote data provided by the ASTER and MODIS sensors for November 2004 and 2006, respectively. The spatial variability of ETd was compared among different plant types, soil textural classes and depths using non-parametric statistical tests. In this comparison, the highest rates of ETd were obtained in the forest covers with values of 7.3 ± 0.8 and 8.4 ± 0.8 mm d-1 for 2004 and 2006, respectively. The lowest values were estimated for pastures and shrublands with values of 3.5 ± 1.2 mm d-1 and for crops with rates of 4.4 ± 1.6 mm d-1. Comparison of the ETd of the native forest covers and plantations of exotic species showed statistically significant differences; however, no great variation was noted, at least in the study months. Additionally, the highest rates of ETd were found in the clay loam textures (6.0 ± 1.8 and 6.4 ± 2.0 mm d-1) and the lowest rates in the sandy loam soils (3.7 ± 1.6 and 3.9 ± 1.6 mm d-1) for 2004 and 2006, respectively. The results enable analysis of the spatial patterns of the landscape in terms of the relation between water consumption, ET and the biophysical characteristics of a Mediterranean ecosystem. These results form part of the creation of tools useful in the optimization of decision-making for the management and planning of water resources and soil use in territories with few measuring instruments.

  14. The Augias megaturbidite in the central Ionian Sea (central Mediterranean) and its relation to the Holocene Santorini event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieke, W.; Werner, F.

    2000-09-01

    A thick mud turbidite, up to 24 m in thickness (termed the "Augias turbidite") is decribed from the Ionian and Sirte Abyssal Plains and the adjacent slopes of the Calabrian Rise and the Mediterranean Ridge. The material of the megaturbidite is derived from the Gulf of Sirte (revealed by its high aragonite content) and, through erosion, from the Sirte Rise. The shallow water sediments making up the turbidite were probably mobilized by a tsunami caused by the Minoan Santorini collapse around 3500 yr B.P. The volume of the mobilized sediments is calculated as a minimum of 65 km 3. Isolated turbidites of the same age deposited on the upper slope of the Mediterranean Ridge may consist of tsunami-mobilized shallow water material as well as of earthquake-triggered sediment from the flanks of local depressions.

  15. A key continental archive for the last 2 Ma of climatic history of the central Mediterranean region: A pilot drilling in the Fucino Basin, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaccio, B.; Regattieri, E.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Galli, P.; Mannella, G.; Niespolo, E.; Peronace, E.; Renne, P. R.; Nomade, S.; Cavinato, G. P.; Messina, P.; Sposato, A.; Boschi, C.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.; Sadori, L.

    2015-12-01

    An 82 m long sedimentary succession was retrieved from the Fucino Basin, the largest intermountain tectonic depression of the central Apennines. The basin hosts a succession of fine-grained lacustrine sediments (ca. 900 m-thick) possibly continuously spanning the last 2 Ma. A preliminary tephrostratigraphy study allows us to ascribe the drilled 82 m long record to the last 180 ka. Multi-proxy geochemical analyses (XRF scanning, total organic/inorganic carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, oxygen isotopes) reveal noticeable variations, which are interpreted as paleohydrological and paleoenvironmental expressions related to classical glacial-interglacial cycles from the marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 to present day. In light of the preliminary results, the Fucino sedimentary succession is likely to provide a long, continuous, sensitive, and independently dated paleoclimatic archive of the central Mediterranean area.

  16. Brothers in arms: Libyan revolutionaries bond like family

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Harvey; McQuinn, Brian; Buhrmester, Michael; Swann, William B.

    2014-01-01

    What motivates ordinary civilians to sacrifice their lives for revolutionary causes? We surveyed 179 Libyan revolutionaries during the 2011 conflict in Libya. These civilians-turned-fighters rejected Gaddafi’s jamahiriyya (state of the masses) and formed highly cohesive fighting units typical of intense conflicts. Fighters reported high levels of “identity fusion”—visceral, family-like bonds between fighters and their battalions. Fusion of revolutionaries with their local battalions and their own families were extremely high, especially relative to Libyans who favored the revolution but did not join battalions. Additionally, frontline combatants were as strongly bonded to their battalion as they were to their own families, but battalion members who provided logistical support were more fused with their families than battalions. Together, these findings help illuminate the social bonds that seem to motivate combatants to risk their lives for the group during wartime. PMID:25385591

  17. An investigation of the meteorological and photochemical factors influencing the background rural and marine surface ozone levels in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalabokas, P. D.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Ellul, R.; Kleanthous, S.; Repapis, C. C.

    A study on the spatial distribution as well as an investigation of the possible factors influencing the observed variations of summer (JJA) rural and marine surface ozone background in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean is performed, following observations showing that the 60 ppb EU Air Quality Standard for Human Health Protection is frequently exceeded in the area. For this purpose the measurements of the following four Eastern Mediterranean stations are analyzed: Giordan Lighthouse-Gozo, Malta; Aliartos-Central Greece; Finokalia-Crete, Greece and Ag. Marina, Cyprus. The measured summer afternoon rural and marine ozone levels in Central Greece and on Crete Island are quite comparable, but are found to be significantly higher (by about 15-20%) than the corresponding levels in Malta and Cyprus. After investigating the characteristic meteorological conditions associated with high and low rural and marine surface ozone concentrations, it appears that an important factor leading to high tropospheric ozone values in the Eastern Mediterranean area is the anticyclonic influence of the high-pressure domination over the Central Mediterranean and the Balkans. The rural and marine surface ozone stations located across the Aegean Channel are also influenced by the long-range transport of polluted air masses from the European continent in the boundary layer during summer and the subsequent photochemical ozone production. This characteristic northern flow during summer is created by the combination of the Central Mediterranean anticyclone with the Middle-East low-pressure system. On the other hand, the lowest ozone levels, particularly in the Crete and Cyprus stations, are associated with an extension to the west of the Middle-East low and weak pressure gradients over the Eastern Mediterranean and an upper air trough in the North Eastern Europe.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  19. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  20. Aerosol optical properties at Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean) 1. Influence of transport and identification of different aerosol types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, G.; di Sarra, A.; Meloni, D.; Piacentino, S.; Chamard, P.

    2005-07-01

    Aerosol optical depth andÅngström exponent were obtained from multi filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) observations carried out at the island of Lampedusa, in the Central Mediterranean, in the period July 2001-September 2003. The average aerosol optical depth at 495.7 nm, τ, is 0.24±0.14; the averageÅngström exponent, α, is 0.86±0.63. The observed values of τ range from 0.03 to 1.13, and the values of α vary from -0.32 to 2.05, indicating a large variability in aerosol content and size. In cloud-free conditions, 36% of the airmasses come from Africa, 25% from Central-Eastern Europe, and 19% from Western France, Spain and the North Atlantic. In summer, 42% of the airmasses are of African origin. In almost all cases African aerosols display high values of τ and low values of α, typical of Saharan dust (average values of τ and α are 0.36 and 0.42, respectively). Particles originating from Central-Eastern Europe show relatively large average values of τ and α (0.23 and 1.5, respectively), while particles from Western France, Spain and the North Atlantic show the lowest average values of τ (0.15), and relatively small values of α (0.92). Intermediate values of α are often connected with relatively fast changes of the airmass originating sector, suggesting the contemporary presence of different types of particles in the air column. The largest values of α (about 2) were observed in August 2003, when large scale forest fires in Southern Europe produced consistent amounts of fine combustion particles that were transported to the Central Mediterranean by a persistent high pressure system over Central Europe. Smoke particles in some cases mix with desert dust, producing intermediate values of α. The seasonal distribution of the meteorological patterns over the Mediterranean, the efficiency of the aerosol production mechanisms, and the variability of the particles' residence time produce a distinct seasonal cycle of aerosol optical depths and

  1. Stress tolerance, genetic analysis and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from Mediterranean leguminous shrubs in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; Puertas-Mejía, Miguel Angel; de Felipe, María del Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Nine root-nodulating bacterial isolates were obtained from the leguminous shrubs Spartium junceum, Adenocarpus hispanicus, Cytisus purgans, Cytisus laburnuum, Retama sphaerocarpa and Colutea arborescens in areas of Central Spain. A poliphasic approach analyzing phenotypic, symbiotic and genetic properties was used to study their diversity and characterize them in relation to Mediterranean conditions. Stress tolerance assays revealed marked variations in salinity, extreme pH and cadmium tolerance compared with reference strains, with the majority showing salinity, alkalinity and Cd tolerance and three of them growing at acid pH. Variation within the 16S rRNA gene was examined by amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and direct sequencing to show genetic diversity. Phylogeny confirmed the close relationship of four isolates with Bradyrhizobium canariense, three with Phylobacterium myrsinacearum, one with Rhizobium rhizogenes and another with Mesorhizobium huakuii. The cross inoculation tests revealed wide spectra of nodulation. This is the first report of P. myrsinacearum being able to nodulate these leguminous shrubs, and also the first time reported the association between B.canariense, R. rhizogenes and M. huakuii and C. laburnuum, C. purgans and C. arborescens, respectively. These results suggested that native rhizobia could be suitable candidates as biofertilizers and/or inoculants of leguminous shrubs with restoration or revegetation purposes in Mediterranean areas. PMID:18784916

  2. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, "NEMO-SN1", deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz-1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9-22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise. PMID:26581104

  3. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, “NEMO-SN1”, deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz–1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9–22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise. PMID:26581104

  4. Crustal structures under the active volcanic areas of central and eastern Mediterranean (M-44)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasparini, P. (Principal Investigator); Mantovani, M. S. M.; Monaco, F.; Pierattini, D.; Fedi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Programs are being adapted to the UNIVAC 1000 computer and others are being developed for immediate utilization in processing MAGSAT data. stability intermediate for lower continental crust and to upper manele conditions. Attempts to residuate crustal anomalies from one selected profile passing through western mediterranean using procedures commonly used at NASA yielded dubious results because of uncertainties in the adoption of coefficients in the expression accounting for the effect of equatorial ring currents and the empirical approach used for other corrections. Instead, filtering techniques are to be applied to each profile once investigator B tapes relative to the whole planet are received.

  5. Pelagic cephalopods of the central Mediterranean Sea determined by the analysis of the stomach content of large fish predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Teresa; Battaglia, Pietro; Pedà, Cristina; Perzia, Patrizia; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Esposito, Valentina; Andaloro, Franco

    2012-09-01

    The pelagic cephalopod fauna of the central Mediterranean Sea was investigated through stomach content analyses of large fish predators. A total of 124 Xiphias gladius, 22 Thunnus thynnus, 100 Thunnus alalunga, and 25 Tetrapturus belone were analyzed. Overall, 3,096 cephalopods belonging to 23 species and 16 families were identified. The cephalopod fauna in the study area is dominated by Sepiolidae, Ommastrephidae, and Onychoteuthidae. The sepiolid Heteroteuthis dispar was the most abundant species ( n = 1,402) while the ommastrephid Todarodes sagittatus showed the highest biomass. They can be considered key-species in the pelagic food web of the study area. The neutrally buoyant Histioteuthis bonnellii, H. reversa, and Chiroteuthis veranyi seem to characterize the deeper water layers. Given the difficulty in sampling pelagic cephalopods, the presence of cephalopod beaks in the stomach of predators represents a fundamental tool to assess the biodiversity and the ecological importance of these taxa in the marine ecosystem.

  6. Long-term precipitation variability in the Ionian Islands, Greece (Central Mediterranean): climatic signal analysis and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalimeris, A.; Founda, D.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Pierros, F.

    2012-07-01

    The present study examines the variability of the precipitation regime across the Ionian Islands complex, Greece (Central Mediterranean), for a period spanning more than one century. Significant negative long-term linear trends in the annual precipitation totals are observed, more pronounced in the southern parts of the studied area, while a climatic discontinuity possibly occurred during the 1970s, manifested first in the southern Ionian. Statistically significant nonlinear trends and subdecadal intermittent oscillations were detected using Monte Carlo singular spectral analysis. The correlation of the winter precipitation variability at Ionian complex with the North Atlantic Oscillation anomalies was also investigated and extended in the frequency domain. Finally, future projections were performed using an ensemble of Regional Climatic Models. Model simulations suggested a decrease of the order of ˜20% or more in the mean annual precipitation of the area by the end of the century.

  7. VOC emissions of smouldering combustion from Mediterranean wildfires in central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtyugina, Margarita; Calvo, Ana Isabel; Nunes, Teresa; Alves, Célia; Fernandes, Ana Patrícia; Tarelho, Luís; Vicente, Ana; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of trace gases and C5-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Mediterranean wildfires occurring in Portugal in summer 2010 were studied. Fire smoke was collected in Tedlar bags and analysed for CO, CO2, total hydrocarbons (THC) and VOCs. The CO, CO2 and THC emission factors (EFs) were 206 ± 79, 1377 ± 142 and 8.1 ± 9 g kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. VOC emissions from Mediterranean wildfires were reported for the first time. Aromatic hydrocarbons were major components of the identified VOC emissions. Among them, benzene and toluene were dominant compounds with EFs averaging 0.747 ± 0.303 and 0.567 ± 0.422 g kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. Considerable amounts of oxygenated organic volatile compounds (OVOCs) and isoprenoids were detected. 2-Furaldehyde and hexanal were the most abundant measured OVOCs with EFs of 0.337 ± 0.259 and 0.088 ± 0.039 g kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. The isoprenoid emissions were dominated by isoprene (EF = 0.207 ± 0.195 g kg-1 dry biomass burned) and α-pinene (EF = 0.112 ± 0.093 g kg-1 dry biomass burned). Emission data obtained in this work are useful for validating and improving emission inventories, as well for carrying out modelling studies to assess the effects of vegetation fires on air pollution and tropospheric chemistry.

  8. The Ionian Abyssal Plain (central Mediterranean Sea): Morphology, subbottom structures and geodynamic history an inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieke, W.; Hirschleber, H. B.; Dehghani, G. A.

    2003-09-01

    In order to understand the structure and evolution of the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary complex, it is necessary to understand the structure and history of its foreland. The Ionian Abyssal Plain is one of the varying types of foreland. The state of knowledge for that is presented. Its contour and detailed relief are described for the first time. Based on published and hitherto unpublished seismic data, information on the thickness of the Plio-Quaternary and on the Messinian evaporites are presented. Of particular interest are data concerning the pre-Messinian reflectors. They indicate a pattern of tilted blocks and horst-like features created in pre-Messinian time by tensional tectonics. Varying subsidence continued, however, during Messinian time and controlled the thickness of evaporites. At some places (e.g. Victor Hensen Seahill) vertical tectonics seem to be still active. The main tectonic structures of the Ionian Abyssal Plain are not related to the process of the present accretion and subduction at the Africa/Eurasia plate boundary but are pre-existing and should influence the internal structure of the Mediterranean Ridge which is still growing at the expense of the foreland. As a consequence of our structural evidence, we favour the following interpretation: the Ionian Abyssal Plain is not a remainder of the Jurassic Tethyan ocean but originated by extensive attenuation of continental crust.

  9. Solar-hydrogen energy system for a Libyan coastal county (El-Gharabulli)

    SciTech Connect

    El-Osta, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    A model for a solar-hydrogen energy system was developed for a Libyan Coastal (Mediterranean) County, (i.e., El-Gharabulli). Present energy and economic conditions were studied. A comparison of the present conditions with the proposed solar-hydrogen energy system is presented. In the model, it is proposed to cover the southern parts of the county with photovoltaic cells in order to provide partly the electric energy needs of the county for the different sectors, such as domestic, commercial and industrial, as well as to electrolyze water to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen would be stored and distributed for different uses, such as fuel for transportation and industry, and as gas for domestic and commercial use. Part of the hydrogen would be used though fuel cells to generate electricity for night times and cloudy days when the sun is not available. The area under the photovoltaic cells would be partly shaded, which would provide suitable environment for growing some varieties of cash crops. Sea water would be desalinated through a desalination plant on the coast to provide fresh water for domestic, commercial and industrial use, as well as for irrigation of the new agricultural areas in the south.

  10. The role of carbon from recycled sediments in the origin of ultrapotassic igneous rocks in the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conticelli, Sandro; Avanzinelli, Riccardo; Ammannati, Edoardo; Casalini, Martina

    2015-09-01

    The Central Mediterranean region is one of the most important areas on Earth for studying subduction-related potassic and ultrapotassic magmatism, derived from partial melting of the metasomatised lithospheric mantle wedge. In this region, leucite-free (i.e., lamproite) and leucite-bearing (i.e., kamafugite, leucitite, and plagioleucitite) ultrapotassic rocks closely occur, in a time-related progression, linked to the evolution of both the mantle source and the regional tectonic regime. Time- and space-related magmatism migration followed the roll-back of the subducting slab and the anticlockwise drift of the Italian Peninsula. Leucite-free silica-rich lamproites are restricted to the early stage of magmatism and are associated with ultrapotassic shoshonites and high-K calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. Leucite-bearing (i.e., Roman Province) rocks are erupted consistently later than lamproite-like and associated shoshonitic rocks, with post-leucititic volcanism occurring in the late stage of volcanic activity with eruption of alkali-basaltic to latitic and trachytic rocks, often after major caldera-forming events. Present-day ultrapotassic volcanism is restricted to the Neapolitan area. Central Mediterranean potassic and ultrapotassic rocks are extremely enriched in incompatible trace elements with variable fractionation of Ta, Nb, and Ti in comparison to Th and large ion lithophile elements (LILE). They are also variably enriched in radiogenic Sr and Pb and unradiogenic Nd. The main geochemical and isotopic signatures are consistent with sediment recycling within the mantle wedge via subduction. A twofold metasomatism, induced by the recycle of pelitic sediments and dehydration of lawsonite-bearing schists generates the early metasomatic events that enriched the mantle wedge from which leucite-free ultrapotassic rocks (i.e., lamproite) were generated. Recycling of carbonate-rich pelites played an important role in the shift to silica-undersaturated ultrapotassic rocks

  11. Human-climate interactions in the central Mediterranean region during the last millennia: The laminated record of Lake Butrint (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morellón, Mario; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Ariztegui, Daniel; Brushulli, Brunhilda; Sinopoli, Gaia; Wagner, Bernd; Sadori, Laura; Gilli, Adrian; Pambuku, Arben

    2016-03-01

    Lake Butrint (39°47 N, 20°1 E) is a ca. 21 m deep, coastal lagoon located in SW Albania where finely-laminated sediments have been continuously deposited during the last millennia. The multi-proxy analysis (sedimentology, high-resolution elemental geochemistry and pollen) of a 12 m long sediment core, supported by seven AMS radiocarbon dates and 137Cs dating, enable a precise reconstruction of the environmental change that occurred in the central Mediterranean region during the last ∼4.5 cal kyrs BP. Sediments consist of triplets of authigenic carbonates, organic matter and clayey laminae. Fluctuations in the thickness and/or presence of these different types of seasonal laminae indicate variations in water salinity, organic productivity and runoff in the lake's catchment, as a result of the complex interplay of tectonics, anthropogenic forcing and climate variability. The progradation of the Pavllo river delta, favoured by variable human activity from the nearby ancient city of Butrint, led to the progressive isolation of this hydrological system from the Ionian Sea. The system evolved from an open bay to a restricted lagoon, which is consistent with archaeological data. An abrupt increase in mass-wasting activity between 1515 and 1450 BC, likely caused by nearby seismic activity, led to the accumulation of 24 homogenites, up to 17 cm thick. They have been deposited during the onset of finely laminated sedimentation, which indicates restricted, anoxic bottom water conditions and higher salinity. Periods of maximum water salinity, biological productivity, and carbonate precipitation coincide with warmer intervals, such as the early Roman Warm Period (RWP) (500 BC-0 AD), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (800-1400 AD) and recent times (after 1800 AD). Conversely, lower salinity and more oxic conditions, with higher clastic input were recorded during 1400-500 BC, the Late Roman and the Early Medieval periods (0-800 AD) and during the Little Ice Age (1400-1800 AD

  12. Occurrence, distribution and characteristics of beached plastic production pellets on the island of Malta (central Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Holmes, Luke

    2011-02-01

    The distribution, abundance and chemical characteristics of plastic production pellets on beaches of the island of Malta have been determined. Pellets were observed at all locations visited and were generally most abundant (> 1000m⁻² at the surface) on the backshores of beaches with a westerly aspect. Most pellets were disc-shaped or flattened cylinders and could be categorised as white, yellow, amber or brown. The polymeric matrix of all pellets analysed by infrared spectroscopy was polyethylene and the degree of yellowing or darkening was associated with an increase in the carbonyl index, hence extent of photo-oxidation or aging. Qualitatively, pellets are similar to those reported for other regions of the Mediterranean in surveys spanning three decades, suggesting that they are a general and persistent characteristic of the region. PMID:21030052

  13. Aerosol optical properties at Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean). 1. Influence of transport and identification of different aerosol types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, G.; di Sarra, A.; Meloni, D.; Piacentino, S.; Chamard, P.

    2006-03-01

    Aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent were obtained from multi filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) observations carried out at the island of Lampedusa, in the Central Mediterranean, in the period July 2001-September 2003. The average aerosol optical depth at 495.7 nm, τ, is 0.24±0.14; the average Ångström exponent, α, is 0.86±0.63. The observed values of τ range from 0.03 to 1.13, and the values of α vary from -0.32 to 2.05, indicating a large variability in aerosol content and size. In cloud-free conditions, 36% of the airmasses come from Africa, 25% from Central-Eastern Europe, and 19% from Western France, Spain and the North Atlantic. In summer, 42% of the airmasses is of African origin. In almost all cases African aerosols display high values of τ and low values of α, typical of Saharan dust (average values of τ and α are 0.36 and 0.42, respectively). Particles originating from Central-Eastern Europe show relatively large average values of τ and α (0.23 and 1.5, respectively), while particles from Western France, Spain and the North Atlantic show the lowest average values of τ (0.15), and relatively small values of α (0.92). Intermediate values of α are often connected with relatively fast changes of the airmass originating sector, suggesting the contemporary presence of different types of particles in the air column. Clean marine conditions are rare at Lampedusa, and are generally associated with subsidence of the airmasses reaching the island. Average values of τ and α for clean marine conditions are 0.11 and 0.86, respectively. The largest values of α (about 2) were observed in August 2003, when large scale forest fires in Southern Europe produced consistent amounts of fine combustion particles, that were transported to the Central Mediterranean by a persistent high pressure system over Central Europe. Smoke particles in some cases mix with desert dust, producing intermediate values of α. The seasonal distribution of

  14. Bioremediation potential of diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

    PubMed

    Koshlaf, Eman; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Taha, Mohamed; Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Makadia, Tanvi H; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-11-01

    Bioremediation is a broadly applied environmentally friendly and economical treatment for the clean-up of sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, the application of this technology to contaminated soil in Libya has not been fully exploited. In this study, the efficacy of different bioremediation processes (necrophytoremediation using pea straw, bioaugmentation and a combination of both treatments) together with natural attenuation were assessed in diesel contaminated Libyan soils. The addition of pea straw was found to be the best bioremediation treatment for cleaning up diesel contaminated Libyan soil after 12 weeks. The greatest TPH degradation, 96.1% (18,239.6mgkg(-1)) and 95% (17,991.14mgkg(-1)) were obtained when the soil was amended with pea straw alone and in combination with a hydrocarbonoclastic consortium respectively. In contrast, natural attenuation resulted in a significantly lower TPH reduction of 76% (14,444.5mgkg(-1)). The presence of pea straw also led to a significant increased recovery of hydrocarbon degraders; 5.7log CFU g(-1) dry soil, compared to 4.4log CFUg(-1) dry soil for the untreated (natural attenuation) soil. DGGE and Illumina 16S metagenomic analyses confirm shifts in bacterial communities compared with original soil after 12 weeks incubation. In addition, metagenomic analysis showed that original soil contained hydrocarbon degraders (e.g. Pseudoxanthomonas spp. and Alcanivorax spp.). However, they require a biostimulant (in this case pea straw) to become active. This study is the first to report successful oil bioremediation with pea straw in Libya. It demonstrates the effectiveness of pea straw in enhancing bioremediation of the diesel-contaminated Libyan soil. PMID:27479774

  15. From regional to site specific SPTHA through inundation simulations: a case study for three test sites in Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Romano, Fabrizio; Volpe, Manuela; Brizuela, Beatriz; Piatanesi, Alessio; Basili, Roberto; Lorito, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    We propose a procedure that enables the quantification of tsunami hazard at specific target sites through numerical simulations, accounting for the full variability of potential seismic sources. To this end, we developed a method that reduces the computational effort required by a very large number of detailed inundation simulations by adopting the offshore tsunami propagation patterns used for regional Seismic PTHA (SPTHA) as a proxy for the subsequent hazard estimate. The reduction of the computational effort is based on a two steps filtering procedure of the offshore SPTHA, through which a reduced number of scenarios to be modelled for inundation is selected. Each scenario represents a larger set of sources that form a cluster of potential tsunamis with similar impact on the target area. This filtering procedure is completely based on the tsunami profiles offshore, and it represents a generalization of the method proposed in Lorito et al. (2015) allowing i) to consider a much larger set of input linear simulations, and ii) to control the within-cluster variance of each selected cluster of seismic sources (thence, indirectly the artificial uncertainty introduced in probabilistic inundation maps by this filtering process). Here we present the preliminary results obtained for three test sites in central Mediterranean (Milazzo and Siracusa, Southern Italy, and Thessaloniki, Northern Greece). We preliminary perform a regional SPTHA covering the whole Mediterranean, in which the aleatory variability is quantified considering about 2 × 107 different seismic sources, and epistemic uncertainty is explored through an ensemble model based on more than ×105 alternative model implementations. For each site, separately, few hundreds of "representative scenarios" are filtered out of all the potential seismic sources. Then, the inundations caused by such scenarios is explicitly modelled and the site-specific SPTHA obtained, allowing a complete characterization of the tsunami

  16. Reconstruction of Holocene Climate Variability within the Central Mediterranean Using Lake Sediments from the Akrotiri Peninsula, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, C. R.; Rosenmeier, M. F.; Cavallari, B. J.; Curtis, J. H.; Weiss, H.

    2005-12-01

    Middle and late Holocene geochemical records from the Limnes depression, a small sinkhole located within the Akrotiri Peninsula, Crete, document centennial and millennial-scale climate variability within the central Mediterranean region. The oldest sediments of the basin consist largely of fibrous plant macrofossils and organic matter and likely indicate lake filling and expansion of wetland vegetation beginning ~5700 radiocarbon years before present (14C-yrs B.P.) (4550 B.C.). The basal peat layers grade into predominantly open water and less shallow lacustrine deposits by 4500 14C-yrs B.P (3200 B.C.). Continuous open water sedimentation within the Limnes core is interrupted by a number of distinct lag deposits and peaty deposits centered at 3700, 1600, and 350 14C-yrs B.P (2100 B.C., 500 A.D., and 1500 A.D.) indicating periods of significantly lowered lake level or perhaps lake desiccation. These ages coincide roughly with oxygen isotope (δ18O) minima measured in biogenic carbonates (ostracod shells) and support the inference for low lake stage. Trace element (Ca, Mg, and Sr) concentrations in ostracod shells from the Limnes core parallel the oxygen isotope record, suggesting that the data reflect basin hydrology rather than changes in the isotopic composition of rainfall. Furthermore, covariance in both δ18O and Mg concentrations eliminate temperature as a control on the oxygen isotope record. Sediments from the basin also contain aragonite remains of the green alga Chara and isotope analysis of the calcite may record additional paleoenvironmental information. The paleoclimate history inferred from the Limnes record correlates temporally (albeit tenuously) to previous paleoenvironmental data that document abrupt onset of arid conditions in the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia ca. 2200 B.C. Moreover, stratigraphic and geochemical evidence of low lake level (drying) within the Limnes basin at 2100 B.C. may correspond to the termination of the Early Minoan

  17. Sedimentary record of Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonia, A.; Romano, S.; Vaiani, S. C.; Gasparotto, G.; Gasperini, L.; Nelson, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Ionian Sea is a landlocked basin where convergence between Africa and Eurasia produced the emplacement of two opposite verging subduction/rollback systems (i.e. the Calabrian and the Hellenic Arcs). It is one of the most seismically active regions in the Mediterranean Sea and has been struck repeatedly by destructive historical earthquakes, often associated with tsunamis. Slab tearing in a pre-collisional setting is reflected in dynamic topography with high uplift rates of the coastal mountain belts, accompanied with a great sediment discharge to the continental margins. This increases the susceptibility to mass failures implying a strong interplay between active tectonics, seismic shaking, mass flows and tsunami generation.We investigated the effects of historic earthquakes on abyssal marine sedimentation through the analysis of the turbidite record in tectonically controlled basins. Holocene resedimented units in the deep Ionian Sea represent more than 90% of the total thickness of the sedimentary record. We dated the most recent turbidite sequences using different radiometric methods and the results suggest that turbidite emplacement was triggered by major historic earthquakes and tsunamis recorded in the region (i.e. AD 365 Crete and AD 1169, 1693 and 1908 Italian earthquakes).Textural, micropaleontological, geochemical and mineralogical signatures reveal that turbidite beds are stacked sandy units, which have different compositions suggesting coeval multiple failures. They are characterized by organic-rich sandy layers, containing a mixture of lithic clasts, plant fragments and displaced benthic foraminifera derived from several sources and bathymetric ranges. Structure and composition of each turbidite unit, combined with geochemical and isotopic analysis on organic carbon, are being refined to unravel the relative contribution of seismic shaking and tsunami wave loading on mass flow processes generation.Turbidites may be considered as the sedimentary

  18. Refining and augmenting Central Mediterranean Tephrochronologies using visible and non-visible distal ash layers from the Upper Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, A.; Trincardi, F.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lowe, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    The development of long and well dated regional records of environmental change is essential if we are to understand the long term working of the environmental system. The application of volcanic ash layers as time-parallel markers is developing as a tool to link archaeological and geological sequences. This presentation will make a key contribution to the PROMESS 1 European Project - PROfiles across Mediterranean Sedimentary System (http://promess1.pangaea.de/ ). The project aims to understand the sediment systems of Continental Margins by investigating changes in sea level, oceanographic regime and sediment flux. The precise and robust chronological control that is required to address these issues is frequently unavailable using traditional chronological techniques. Tephrochronology offers the potential of isochronous marker horizons that can provide independent age estimates and be used to correlate terrestrial and marine sequences over several glacial-interglacial cycles. Here we will summarise new tephrochronological results for the PROMESS-1 marine core PRAD 1-2, obtained from a water depth of 184m in the central Adriatic. The recovered sediment sequence is 71m long, spans at least 3 glacial-interglacial cycles and analysis of foraminiferal assemblages suggests the sequence extends back to Marine Isotope Stage 10. Current Central Mediterranean tephrochronology schemes are largely or entirely based on analysis of visible tephra layers. Density separation extraction techniques have been developed (Turney 1998; Blockley et al, 2005) which demonstrate that many more non-visible tephra layers exist than have previously been recognised in Mediterranean sequences, greatly enhancing the potential of tephrochronology as an independent dating method. A detailed Adriatic tephrochronology for the last 100kyr will be presented which indicates a more complicated eruptive history than visible tephra layers have previously suggested. 24 discrete and undisturbed non

  19. High-frequency fluxes of labile compounds in the central Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutx, M.; Momzikoff, A.; Striby, L.; Andersen, V.; Marty, J. C.; Vescovali, I.

    2000-03-01

    Sinking particles were collected every 4 h with drifting sediment traps deployed at 200 m depth in May 1995 in a 1-D vertical system during the DYNAPROC observations in the northwestern Mediterranean sea. POC, proteins, glucosamine and lipid classes were used as indicators of the intensity and quality of the particle flux. The roles of day/night cycle and wind on the particle flux were examined. The transient regime of production from late spring bloom to pre-oligotrophy determined the flux intensity and quality. POC fluxes decreased from, on average, 34 to 11 mg m -2 d -1, representing 6-14% of the primary production under late spring bloom conditions to 1-2% under pre-oligotrophic conditions. Total protein and chloroplast lipid fluxes correlated with POC and reflected the input of algal biomass into the traps. As the season proceeded, changes in the biochemical composition of the exported material were observed. The C/N ratio rose from 7.8 to 12. Increases of serine (10-28% of total proteins), total lipids (7-9 to 14-28% of POC) and reserve lipids (1-5 to 5-22% of total lipids) were noticeable, whereas total protein content in POC decreased (20-27 to 18-7%). N-acetyl glucosamine, a tracer of fecal pellet flux, showed that zooplankton grazing was a major vector of downward export during the decaying bloom. Against this background pattern, episodic events specifically increased the flux, modifying the quality and the settling velocity of particles. Day/night signals in biotracers (POC, N-acetyl glucosamine, protein and chloroplast lipids) showed that zooplankton migrations were responsible for sedimentation of fresh material through fast sinking particles ( V=170-180 m d -1) at night. Periodic signatures of re-processed material (high lipolysis and bacterial biomass indices) suggested that other zooplankton fecal pellets or small aggregates, probably of lower settling velocities ( V<170 m d -1), contributed to the flux during calm periods. At the beginning of the

  20. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy) within the Oligo-Miocene central Mediterranean geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maino, Matteo; Decarlis, Alessandro; Felletti, Fabrizio; Seno, Silvio

    2013-06-01

    analyze the tectono-sedimentary and thermochronometric constraints of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (TPB) and its adjoining orogen, the Ligurian Alps, providing new insights on the basin evolution in response to a changing geodynamic setting. The geometry of the post-metamorphic faults of the Ligurian belt as well as the fault network that controlled the Oligo-Miocene TPB deposition has been characterized through a detailed structural analysis. Three main faulting stages have been distinguished and dated thanks to the relationships among faults and basin stratigraphy and thermochronometric data. The first stage (F1, Rupelian-Early Chattian) is related to the development of extensional NNW-directed faults, which controlled the exhumation of the orogen and the deposition of nearshore clastics. During the Late Chattian, the basin drowning is marked by mudstones and turbidites, which deposition was influenced by the second faulting stage (F2). This phase was mainly characterized by NE- to ENE-striking faults developed within a transtensional zone. Since the Miocene, the whole area was dominated by transpressive tectonics. The sedimentation was represented by a condensed succession followed by a very thick, turbiditic complex. At the regional scale, this succession of events reflects the major geodynamic reorganization in the central Mediterranean region during the Oligo-Miocene times, induced by the late-collisional processes of the Alps, by the eastward migration of the Apennines subduction and by the opening of extensional basins (i. e., the Liguro-Provençal Ocean).

  1. Public health research support through the European structural funds in central and eastern Europe and the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health research provides evidence for practice across fields including health care, health promotion and health surveillance. Levels of public health research vary markedly across European Union (EU) countries, and are lowest in the EU's new member states (in Central and Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean). However, these countries now receive most of the EU's Structural Funds, some of which are allocated to research. Methods STEPS, an EU-funded study, sought to assess support for public health research at national and European levels. To identify support through the Structural funds, STEPS drew information from country respondents and internet searches for all twelve EU new member states. Results The EU allocates annually around €7 billion through the Structural Funds for member states' own use on research. These funds can cover infrastructure, academic employment, and direct research grants. The programmes emphasise links to business. Support for health research includes major projects in biosciences, but direct support for public health research was found in only three countries - Cyprus, Latvia and Lithuania. Conclusions Public health research is not prioritised in the EU's Structural Funds programme in comparison with biomedicine. For the research dimension of the new European programme for Structural Funds 2014-2002, ministries of health should propose public health research to strengthen the evidence-base for European public health policy and practice. PMID:22480250

  2. Feeding habits of the Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (L. 1758), in the central Mediterranean Sea (Strait of Messina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Pietro; Andaloro, Franco; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Esposito, Valentina; Malara, Danilo; Musolino, Simona; Pedà, Cristina; Romeo, Teresa

    2013-03-01

    The study of feeding habits of the Atlantic bluefin tuna was carried out in 123 specimens, ranging from 115 to 222 cm fork length (FL) and collected during spring seasons of 2010 and 2011 in the central Mediterranean Sea (Strait of Messina). The analysis of stomach contents allowed us to identify 91 taxa of prey items, mainly belonging to Teleostea (54), Cephalopoda (20) and Crustacea (13). The percentage of index of relative abundance ( IRI) shows the highest values for the myctophid Hygophum benoiti (% IRI = 22.854) and the stomiid Chauliodus sloani (% IRI = 15.124), followed by the oegopsid squid Illex coindetii (% IRI = 14.316). The broad spectrum of prey items could suggest a generalist behavior of this predator, with several species that occasionally occurs in its diet. However, if prey are grouped into food categories, the importance of mesopelagic and benthopelagic fishes can be appreciated (54.41 % of % IRI). The assessment of the hypothetical foraging rhythm of the Atlantic bluefin tuna highlighted that its feeding activity is concentrated on diel migrating fauna during night and on larger preys upon daylight. The predation on the high-energetic food as mesopelagic and bathypelagic fishes during the pre-spawning and the spawning period may bring an energetic advantage in tuna metabolism and gonadal maturation

  3. Expression of clock genes period and timeless in the central nervous system of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella.

    PubMed

    Kobelková, Alena; Závodská, Radka; Sauman, Ivo; Bazalová, Olga; Dolezel, David

    2015-04-01

    Homologous circadian genes are found in all insect clocks, but their contribution to species-specific circadian timing systems differs. The aim of this study was to extend research within Lepidoptera to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying circadian clock plasticity and evolution. The Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Pyralidae), represents a phylogenetically ancestral lepidopteran species. We have identified circadian rhythms in egg hatching, adult emergence, and adult locomotor activity. Cloning full-length complementary DNAs and further characterization confirmed one copy of period and timeless genes in both sexes. Both per and tim transcripts oscillate in their abundance in E. kuehniella heads under light-dark conditions. PER-like immunoreactivity (PER-lir) was observed in nuclei and cytoplasm of most neurons in the central brain, the ventral part of subesophageal complex, the neurohemal organs, the optic lobes, and eyes. PER-lir in photoreceptor nuclei oscillated during the day with maximal intensity in the light phase of the photoperiodic regime and lack of a signal in the middle of the dark phase. Expression patterns of per and tim messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were revealed in the identical location as the PER-lir was detected. In the photoreceptors, a daily rhythm in the intensity of expression of both per mRNA and tim mRNA was found. These findings suggest E. kuehniella as a potential lepidopteran model for circadian studies. PMID:25637625

  4. Lowermost Mantle Velocity Estimations Beneath the Central North Atlantic Area from Pdif Observed at Balkan, East Mediterranean, and American Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, Marian; Ghica, Daniela Veronica; Gosar, Andrej; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis; Hofstetter, Rami; Polat, Gulten; Wang, Rongjiang

    2015-02-01

    Lowermost mantle velocity in the area 15°S-70°N latitude/60°W-5° W longitude is estimated using two groups of observations, complementary to each other. There are 894 Pdif observations at stations in the Balkan and Eastern Mediterranean areas from 15 major earthquakes in Central and South America. Another 218 Pdif observations are associated with four earthquakes in Greece/Turkey and one event in Africa, recorded by American stations. A Pdif slowness tomographic approach of the structures immediately above the core-to-mantle boundary (CMB) is used, incorporating corrections for ellipticity, station elevation and velocity perturbations along the ray path. A low-velocity zone above CMB with a large geographical extent, approximately in the area (35-65°N) × (40-20°W), appears to have the velocity perturbations exceeding the value actually assumed by some global models. Most likely, it is extended beneath western Africa. A high-velocity area is observed west of the low-velocity zone. The results suggest that both Cape Verde and Azorean islands are located near transition areas from low-to-high velocity values in the lowermost mantle.

  5. Spatial variations in feeding habits and trophic levels of two small pelagic fish species in the central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rumolo, P; Bonanno, A; Barra, M; Fanelli, E; Calabrò, M; Genovese, S; Ferreri, R; Mazzola, S; Basilone, G

    2016-04-01

    Trophic ecology of adults of European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) was examined and compared among various regions of central Mediterranean Sea. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were adopted as a tool to determine changes in feeding behaviour of adults of sardines and anchovies. In the study period (summer) a clear geographical pattern was recognized in the isotopic composition of both species, with an increasing trend northward. The highest variations in isotopic signal were linked to the geographical positions of the samples and, especially, between pairs of areas: South Sicily/South Campania and Gulf of Gaeta/South Elba. Higher isotope values were found in the anchovies and sardines caught in northern Tyrrhenian Sea, while lower values were mostly estimated in the southern region. Higher carbon and nitrogen isotopes may reflect a more coastal behaviour of both species, being (13)C-enriched source from benthic primary producers in addition to phytoplankton. Variations in the nitrogen isotope ratio may reflect not only differences in the trophic level of prey species, but also variations in the baseline level of food webs. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding behaviour of both species is directly or indirectly influenced by local factors, or by resource partitioning based on zooplankton size. Findings can supply knowledge needed for improving fish stock management and promoting plans able to take into account also local ecosystem analysis. PMID:26895386

  6. Characterization of PM10 chemical composition and its variability in relation to different sources in the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, Giulia; Nava, Silvia; Chiari, Massimo; Lucarelli, Franco; Becagli, Silvia; Traversi, Rita; Marconi, Miriam; Rugi, Francesco; Udisti, Roberto; di Sarra, Alcide; Pace, Giovanni; Meloni, Daniela; Bommarito, Carlo; Sferlazzo, Damiano

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are estimated to play a relevant role in climate change, also in relation to global warming and to the hydrological cycle; information on aerosol sources and impact are among the data needed to constrain uncertainties in climate change models. This is particularly important in the Mediterranean basin, whose atmosphere is heavily polluted and characterized by strong influences from both natural and anthropogenic emissions. An investigation aimed at assessing the aerosol sources affecting the Central Mediterranean basin has been carried out by applying the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model to a 2-year long data set of PM10 mass concentration and chemical composition of samples collected on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E, 45 m a.s.l.). Lampedusa is an ideal site for this kind of studies, as it is far from continental pollution sources (the nearest coast, in Tunisia, is more than 100 km away). Samples were collected on a daily basis; after mass gravimetric measurements, different portions of the samples were analyzed for the ionic content by Ion Cromatography (IC), for soluble metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), and for the total (soluble + insoluble) elemental composition by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Data from years 2007 and 2008 are used in this study. Seven sources were resolved: sea-salt, mineral dust, biogenic emissions, primary ship emissions, secondary sulphate, secondary nitrate, and biomass burning emissions. The chemical profiles of each source were identified and compared with literature data; the temporal evolution of each source was studied, in relation to seasonal changes and influence of different source regions. Air mass backward trajectories were also used in the analysis. Daily absolute and relative contributions of the aerosol produced by each of the seven resolved sources to the PM10 in Lampedusa were also obtained. On average, each of the sources

  7. Marine litter in Mediterranean sandy littorals: Spatial distribution patterns along central Italy coastal dunes.

    PubMed

    Poeta, Gianluca; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

    2014-12-15

    Sandy shores are generally considered important sinks for marine litter and the presence of this litter may represent a serious threat to biotic communities and dune integrity mostly due to cleaning activities carried out through mechanical equipment. In spring (April-May) 2012 we sampled 153 2×2m random plots to assess the spatial distribution patterns of litter on Central Italy sandy shores. We analysed the relationship between the presence of litter and coastal dune habitats along the sea-inland gradient. Our results showed that the most frequent litter items were plastic and polystyrene. Differences of marine litter spatial distribution were found between upper beach and fore dune habitats and fixed dune habitats: embryo dune and mobile dune habitats show the highest frequency of litter, but, surprisingly, marine litter did not impact fixed dune habitats, these possibly acting as a natural barrier protecting the inner part of the coast from marine litter dispersion. PMID:25455823

  8. Evolution of the central Catalan margin of the Valencia trough (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartrina, M. T.; Cabrera, L.; Jurado, M. J.; Guimerà, J.; Roca, E.

    1992-03-01

    The evolution of the central Catalan margin was conditioned by major fault activity and thermal processes generated by crustal thinning. The continental margin structure is characterised by major NE-SW-striking, southeast-dipping basement faults which have given rise to a graben, half-graben and horst system. These faults acted essentially as normal faults. No major Neogene strike-slip activity has affected the continental margin, although minor episodic variations from the dominant extensional regime to strike-slip tectonics cannot be discounted. Two major structural evolutionary stages took place at the margin, the transition from one stage to the other being gradual: (1) rifting stage (Late Oligocene? to early Burdigalian) related to the opening of the Valencia trough and from which originated both the Barcelona and Vallès-Penedès half-grabens; (2) thermal subsidence stage (late Burdigalian to present) generated by the subsequent crustal cooling and thinning. Fault activity during this stage was essentially concentrated in the major half-graben bounding faults. The sedimentary evolution of the central sector of the Catalan margin was controlled by the tectonic and crustal evolution as well as by the successive sea-level and paleoclimatic changes which affected the region. Drastic changes in the depositional systems took place during the transition from the rifting stage into the thermal subsidence stage. During Aquitanian-Langhian time—characterized by an overall trend of pulsating encroachment of marine conditions over the continental margin—a noticeable diversity of depositional systems (alluvial, lacustrine, coastal evaporitic, fan delta-bay-shelf, carbonate platform systems) developed. From the latest Serravallian up to the present, the depositional framework was less varied due to a general lowering of sea-level and to the final onlapping of most of older structural highs, which are now buried below the Miocene sediments. Two progradational

  9. Mantle-derived helium in sedimentary basins of Central Mediterranean: Geologic and tectonic constrains on fluids accumulation and migration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, Antonio; Grassa, Fausto; Pennino, Valentina; Rizzo, Andrea; Sulli, Attilio

    2013-04-01

    The geodynamics of the central Mediterranean is characterized by the interaction between the European plate and the African one. In this setting Sicily is a sector of the Appenine-Maghrebide accretionary prism, which is located between two areas affected by extensional tectonics (Sicily Channel to the south and the Thyrrenian back arc basin to the north). In the present study we present the first dataset of helium isotopic composition measured in fluids released from the central-western Sicily. With the aim to constrain the transfer system of fluids in this area we relate the results of geochemical investigations with the stratigraphy and structural setting, derived from field geology, deep boreholes and new seismic reflection, gravimetry and magnetometry data. Significant mantle-derived helium (0.4central western Sicily. CH4-dominated gases are released from mud volcanoes and feed everlasting fires mainly located in the central region, where upper Oligocene-Miocene terrigenous cover Mesozoic carbonatic units. The abundance of CH4, usually linked to the presence of hydrocarbons- and/or organic matter-rich layers, is almost exclusively linked to the Messinian evaporitic and pre-evaporitic levels (containing diatomites). On the other hand, CO2 is mainly associated to the thermal groundwaters circulating mainly in Mesozoic limestone and dolomite, which here constitute the bulk of the deformed wedge of the Sicilian chain (up to 15 km thick). In thermal waters, we found a positive correlation between water temperature, ranging between 22.1°C and 59°C, and helium isotopic ratio. Taking into consideration that helium rises from the mantle coupled to CO2 and others components, we discussed CO2 and CH4 coupled to helium. Our samples did no show any correlation between C/3He vs. R/Ra and only samples of the Sciacca thermal basin show C/3He in the typical ranges of

  10. Consultation on the Libyan health systems: towards patient-centred services

    PubMed Central

    El Oakley, Reida M.; Ghrew, Murad H.; Aboutwerat, Ali A.; Alageli, Nabil A.; Neami, Khaldon A.; Kerwat, Rajab M.; Elfituri, Abdulbaset A.; Ziglam, Hisham M.; Saifenasser, Aymen M.; Bahron, Ali M.; Aburawi, Elhadi H.; Sagar, Samir A.; Tajoury, Adel E.; Benamer, Hani T.S.

    2013-01-01

    The extra demand imposed upon the Libyan health services during and after the Libyan revolution in 2011 led the ailing health systems to collapse. To start the planning process to re-engineer the health sector, the Libyan Ministry of Health in collaboration with the World Health Organisation (WHO) and other international experts in the field sponsored the National Health Systems Conference in Tripoli, Libya, between the 26th and the 30th of August 2012. The aim of this conference was to study how health systems function at the international arena and to facilitate a consultative process between 500 Libyan health experts in order to identify the problems within the Libyan health system and propose potential solutions. The scientific programme adopted the WHO health care system framework and used its six system building blocks: i) Health Governance; ii) Health Care Finance; iii) Health Service Delivery; iv) Human Resources for Health; v) Pharmaceuticals and Health Technology; and vi) Health Information System. The experts used a structured approach starting with clarifying the concepts, evaluating the current status of that health system block in Libya, thereby identifying the strengths, weaknesses, and major deficiencies. This article summarises the 500 health expert recommendations that seized the opportunity to map a modern health systems to take the Libyan health sector into the 21st century. PMID:23359277

  11. Climate variability analysis of winter temperatures in the central Mediterranean since 1500 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Bellocchi, Gianni; Bertolin, Chiara; Camuffo, Dario

    2014-04-01

    This work presents the reconstruction of a time series of annual winter air temperatures across Central and Southern Italy for the period 1500-2010 that largely overlaps the Little Ice Age (LIA) period (1300-1850). A detailed analysis was undertaken on winter mean temperature data using both observations (1871-2010) and proxy-based reconstructions (1500-1870). Based on this homogeneized reconstructed series, a time-dependency in low-frequency time-pattern of temperatures (70- and 130-year cycles) was suggested although the temporal oscillation was not merely periodic. The LIA was characterized by marked climatic variability over this part of Southern Europe, with particular emphasis during the so-called "Maunder Minimum" (MM), between 1645 and 1715. The interannual variability of low temperatures, in particular, makes the MM an outstanding climatic period. There is some consistency that patterns of warming conditions observed in recent times also occurred in the past. Quasiperiodic cycles appear as a consequence of stochastic resonance emerging in long time scales but the variability inherent to the series of winter temperatures, although likely generated by processes internal to the climate system, is difficult to forecast because the system is chaotic and affected by unpredictable noise.

  12. The prevalence of malocclusion in urban Libyan schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Bugaighis, Iman; Karanth, Divakar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of malocclusion and its distribution among 12-17 year old Urban Libyan schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: A total of 900 subjects were examined, of which 343 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 169 males and 174 females. Molar relationship, overjet (OJ), overbite (OB), midline deviation, crossbite, and crowding/spacing were recorded. Sexual dimorphism was explored using descriptive statistics and the Chi-square tests. Results: The prevalence of malocclusion was 95.6%. Class I, Class II division 1, Class II division 2 and Class III malocclusions comprised 66.5%, 21.9%, 3.5%, and 3.7% respectively of the total sample. The OJ percentage of 51% (zero-3.5 mm), 48.4% (>3.5 mm), 0.6% (≤−3.5 mm to >zero) was recorded, with no significant sex differences (P=0.225). A normal overbite, increased and open bites were observed in 39.9%, 55.1%, and 2.3% of the group respectively with no sexual dimorphism (P=0.970). Crossbite was present in 13.1% of the group, with no significant sex difference (P=0.469). Crowding in the maxillary and mandibular arches were observed in13.9%, and 12.2% respectively. Spacing occurred in 9.4% and 7.9% of the examined maxillary and mandibular arches respectively, with no significant sex difference regarding the presence of spacing/crowding in the maxillary arch (P>0.05). Males, however, had significantly more spacing and less crowding in the mandibular arch (P<0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of malocclusion in Libyan schoolchildren is among the highest reported in the literature. Crowding is among the least reported manifestations of malocclusion. PMID:24987636

  13. Geophysical Investigations on Malta (Central Mediterranean) using Ambient Noise: Assessing Array Performance and Influence of a Thick Low Velocity Layer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrugia, D.; Paolucci, E.; D'Amico, S.; Galea, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The use of microtremors to obtain shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles of the subsurface is becoming a widespread approach due to its various advantages. Noise measurements were carried out at four sites on Malta (Central Mediterranean). Array techniques were first tested in an area where a ≈45 m layer of soft Blue Clay (BC) overlies the harder limestone. Three array configurations (two arrays of 17 geophones in an L-shape and circle respectively and one 42 geophone array in an L-shape) were tested and processed using the f-k and two SPAC techniques: Modified and Extended SPAC. No significant difference was observed in the dispersion curve from the two short arrays despite having different shapes. However, a significant variation was observed between the dispersion curve from the long and short arrays in the low frequency part. A joint inversion, using two direct search methods, of the dispersion and the H/V curve was then used to obtain the Vs profile for the site, with most of the profiles being in agreement both in terms of velocity and depth. A study was also conducted at three other sites on Malta where hard Upper Coralline Limestone (UCL) overlies the soft BC creating a velocity inversion in the soil profile. The shape of the effective dispersion curves obtained using ESAC show both an inverse dispersive trend and normal dispersion. This shape is tentatively explained in terms of the presence of higher mode Rayleigh waves. A Genetic Algorithm approach was then used to jointly invert the H/V and Rayleigh wave dispersion curve. It was observed that the BC velocity was higher when overlain by a large thickness of UCL. This could be linked to the effective pressure caused by the hard UCL, making the BC more compact, and having a higher velocity. The theoretical implications of a prominent low-velocity layer on site amplification and the interpretation of ambient noise data are investigated and discussed.

  14. The monitoring and forecasting system of Etna volcanic plumes for reinforcement of the aviation safety on the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, M.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1979 explosive activity of Etna volcano produced many short-lived and two long-lived ash plume forming eruptions that disrupted the operations of Catania and Reggio Calabria airports and create difficulties to the air traffic in the central Mediterranean region. National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) is charged of the monitoring of Etna eruptive phenomena. It cooperates with the National Civil Protection Department, the Agency for Civil Aviation (ENAC), the Air Traffic Control company (ENAV) and the Italian Air Force for warning continuously the aviation authorities about the occurring of the ash cloud on Sicilian airspace and the ash fallout on Catania airport. The objective of INGV is to develop and implement a system for monitoring and forecasting volcanic plumes of Etna. Monitoring is based at present on multispectral infrared satellite imagery received at high-rate from METEOSAT, ground-based visual and thermal cameras, a Doppler Radar for volcanic-jet monitoring and some ash fallout detectors. Forecasting is using a multi-model approach that is performed every day through a fully automatic procedures for: i) downloading weather forecast data from meteorological mesoscale models; ii) running models of tephra dispersal, iii) plotting hazard maps of volcanic ash dispersal and deposition for certain scenarios and, iv) publishing the results on a web-site dedicated to the Civil Protection. Simulations are based on eruptive scenarios obtained by analysing of field data collected from recent Etna eruptions. Forecasting is, hence, supported by plume observations carried out by the monitoring network. The monitoring and forecasting system was tested successfully on some explosive events occurred during 2006 and 2007, and will be tested again during the Volcanic Ash Exercise of ICAO EUR/NAT in November 2009.

  15. Mercury speciation in fish tissues from a Mediterranean River basin: the Tagus River (central Spain) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez; Bernardo, F J Guzmán; Moreno, M Jiménez; Ropero, M J Patiño; Serrano, A de Marcos

    2011-11-01

    An assessment of mercury (Hg) accumulation in fish from the Tagus River aquatic system (central Spain), which has been influenced by pollution from industrial and urban development, was performed. Total Hg (THg), inorganic Hg (IHg), and monomethylmercury (MMHg) were determined in muscle and liver of different fish species, including Cyprinus carpio, Ameiurus melas, and Chondrostoma miegii, sampled from three locations. Although concentrations of THg and Hg species showed wide variability among the fish species, they were also found to be considerably dependent on location and fish tissue. Relative contents of MMHg to THg in muscle varied from 60 to 88%, whereas those found in liver ranged from 7 to 59%. Mean THg concentrations ranged from 126 to 810 ng/g (dry weight [dw]) in liver and from 159 to 1057 ng/g dw in muscle. Therefore, the mean THg concentration in all fish muscle samples was far lower than the maximum residue level recommended by the European Union for fishery products. Nevertheless, the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle reported in this study were somewhat increased compared with other areas geographically distant from most major anthropogenic Hg sources and, in some cases, even greater than those previously reported elsewhere in more polluted areas. In contrast, Hg contents in liver were lower than those found in Hg-contaminated areas, but they were within the range found in other areas exposed to diffuse sources of pollution by Hg. Thus, this article provides an overview of the concentration and distribution of Hg species in fish muscle and liver tissues samples taken from a freshwater system in the Mediterranean River basin. PMID:21472454

  16. Spatial analysis of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) male population in a mediterranean agricultural landscape in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Sciarretta, A; Zinni, A; Mazzocchetti, A; Trematerra, P

    2008-04-01

    The results obtained from the spatial analysis of pheromone-baited trap catch data of Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) males are reported. The research was undertaken in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. In the study area, vineyards (of Vitis vinifera L.) are the predominant cultivation, surrounded by hedgerows and small woodlots, and interspersed with cereal crops and olive groves. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of L. botrana, inside and outside vineyards, and to evaluate the effect of the landscape elements on pest distribution. A trend orientation over the experimental area was observed along the direction from northwest to southeast. Correlograms fitted using a spherical model showed in all cases an aggregated distribution and an estimated range having a mean of 174 m in 2005 and 116 m in 2006. Contour maps highlighted that spatial distribution of L. botrana was not limited to vineyards, but its presence is high particularly inside olive groves. The adult distribution on the experimental area changed during the season: hot spots of flight I were positioned inside olive groves; during flights II and III, they were concentrated in vineyards. L. botrana males were also captured in uncultivated fields, but never in high densities. Our results showed that a large proportion of the adult population of L. botrana inhabits areas outside those usually targeted by pest management programs. Thus, in Mediterranean agro-ecosystems, it is highly recommended to consider the whole landscape, with particular attention to olive crops. PMID:18419910

  17. Persistence and co-occurrence of demersal nurseries in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): Implications for fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, G.; Fortibuoni, T.; Gristina, M.; Sinopoli, M.; Fiorentino, F.

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the nurseries of seven commercially important demersal species of the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): red mullet, European hake, horned octopus, deep-water rose shrimp, greater forkbeard, Norway lobster and giant red shrimp. An eleven-year series of data collected through experimental trawling in the Strait of Sicily during spring and autumn was analyzed. The spatio-temporal persistence of the high-density aggregations (hot spots) of juvenile individuals in their first year of life was investigated to identify habitats that serve as nurseries. The density of recruits within the persistent nurseries was used as a proxy of the unit area contribution of individuals which recruit to the adult population. The spatial distribution patterns of the recruits of most the species were well defined and very stable in the long term. Persistent and potentially highly productive nurseries of European hake, deep-water rose shrimp and greater forkbeard were identified off the southern coast of Sicily. Persistent areas of recruits concentration were also observed for the other species investigated, but their specific potential contribution of individuals to the adult population was not substantial compared to adjacent grounds. The close or overlapped localization of sites which regularly host vulnerable life stages of different exploited species, revealed an area of great ecological significance which probably plays a major role in the dynamics of the fishery resources in the Strait of Sicily. Appropriate spatial protection measures of this area, including marine protected area designation, could complement conventional management approach for ensuring the long-term sustainability of these fisheries and stocks conservation.

  18. Low sea-level stand emplacement of megaturbidites in the western and eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, R. G.; Reeder, M. S.; Anastasakis, G.; Stow, D. A. V.; Thomson, J.; Kähler, G.

    2000-09-01

    Piston cores from the Balearic and Herodotus Abyssal Plains in the Mediterranean Sea show that the Late Pleistocene to Holocene sedimentary sequence is dominated by turbidite muds. On each plain, one turbidite bed is conspicuous by its thickness, and this bed can be correlated basinwide on the basis of geochemical compositional analysis and its apparent correspondence with a distinct acoustically transparent layer on high-resolution seismic records. These megabeds on the two plains represent megaturbidites of very large volume (300-600 km 3 each) and are shown by AMS radiocarbon dating to have been emplaced during the last low stand of sea-level at the height of the last glacial maximum. The megabed on the Balearic Abyssal Plain is derived from the southern European margin and is the main sedimentation event over the last 120 ka. It emplaced as much material as was deposited by smaller flows during the previous 25 ka. Sedimentation rate curves for the Balearic Abyssal Plain show that falling sea-level correlates with increased terrigenous deposition, and that gross sedimentation rates in the basin increased as sea level fell from 120-18 ka due to more frequent emplacement of distal turbidites. The Herodotus Abyssal Plain megabed is derived from the Libyan-Egyptian continental shelf west of the Nile Delta and was the dominant sedimentation event in this basin during the past 60 kyr. High-resolution seismic profiles from the Ionian and Sirte Abyssal Plains in the central Mediterranean also suggest possible low sea-level emplacement of megabeds in these regions. Available evidence suggests widespread emplacement of megaturbidites throughout the Mediterranean at the last glacial maximum. Although the triggering mechanisms for these events remain speculative, catastrophic destabilisation of the margin after a long period of accumulation with an increased rate of sediment supply is suggested.

  19. Experimental determination of short- and long-wave dust radiative effects in the Central Mediterranean and comparison with model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, S.; Burlizzi, P.; Perrone, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Downward and upward irradiance measurements, in the short-wave (SW) and long-wave (LW) spectral range, have been used in combination with simultaneous aerosol optical depths (AODs) to experimentally determine the instantaneous and clear-sky aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing (DRF) at the surface, during a desert dust outbreak which affected the Central Mediterranean from 9 to 13 July 2012. AODs were retrieved from AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun/sky photometer measurements collocated in space and time. The importance of downward and upward radiative flux measurements to properly account for both the surface albedo dependence on the solar zenith angle, and the land surface temperature (TLS) has been highlighted. Measured radiative fluxes were in reasonable agreement with the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) and AERONET corresponding ones collocated in space and time. SW and LW downward fluxes at the surface decreased up to 9% and increased up to 13%, respectively, as a consequence of a factor 5 increase of the AOD at 675 nm (AOD675). This is due to the cooling and warming effect of desert dust in the SW and LW spectral range, respectively. In fact, we have also found that the TLS increased at a rate of about 250 K per unit increase of the AOD675. The aerosol DRF at the surface varied from - 8 to - 74 W m- 2 and from + 1.2 to + 9.6 W m- 2 in the SW and LW spectral domains, respectively. In particular, we have found that the LW-DRF on average offsets 14% of the related SW component. It is shown that a two-stream radiative transfer model can reproduce the experimental findings at the surface by replacing the refractive indices typical of dust particles with the ones obtained for a mixture made of dust and soot particles. The dust contamination by anthropogenic particles during its transport to the monitoring site located several hundred kilometers away from the source region was responsible for this last result. We have also found by model

  20. Late Neogene kinematics of intra-arc oblique shear zones: The Petilia-Rizzuto Fault Zone (Calabrian Arc, Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, J. P.

    1994-10-01

    The kinematics of intra-arc shear zones play a key role in the secondary shaping of orogenic arcs such as the Calabrian Arc (central Mediterranean). Comparison of the Neogene structural development of the Petilia-Rizzuto Fault Zone and the basement structure of the bordering Sila massif reveals that the fault zone is the surface expression of a deep NW-SE trending sinistral crustal oblique shear zone. This shear zone continues over a length of more than 130 km across the northern segment of the Calabrian Arc and shows a post-Eocene sinistral displacement of about 50 km. The late Neogene forearc basin development and syndepositional tectonics along the fault zone are reconstructed in great detail by analyzing the middle Miocene-Recent tectonic sequence stratigraphy. A strike-slip cycle can be recognized whereby the subsequent activity of Riedel shears, tensional faults, and P shears, positive flower structures and principle displacement wrench faults, can accurately be traced in time. Observed phenomena are discussed in terms of the activity of a conjugate system of oblique thrust zones within the growing accretionary complex. The evolution of special types of thrust belt basins is illustrated. These include oblique thin-skinned pull-apart basins, oblique rhomboidal "harmonica" basins, and "detached slab" basins (new terms introduced here), evolving one into the other. A new feature illustrated is the recurrent basin inversion which generated passive roof duplexes through back-shear motion and out-of-sequence thrusting along the wedge. The fault patterns and the style of inversion tectonics imply an E-W directed axis of effective compressive stress in this part of the arc. This resulted from an interaction of (1) local E-W directed compression related to a differential displacement of two parallel segments of the arc (generated by the migration to the southeast of the Calabrian Arc and opening of the Tyrrhenian backarc basin); (2) alternating NW-SE directed

  1. Evidence for ships emissions in the Central Mediterranean Sea from aerosol chemical analyses at the island of Lampedusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becagli, S.; Sferlazzo, D. M.; Pace, G.; di Sarra, A.; Bommarito, C.; Calzolai, G.; Ghedini, C.; Lucarelli, F.; Meloni, D.; Monteleone, F.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2011-11-01

    Measurements of aerosol chemical composition made on the island of Lampedusa, south of the Sicily channel, during years 2004-2008, are used to identify the influence of ship emissions on aerosol particles in the Central Mediterranean. Evidence of ship emissions influence is found in 17% of the daily samples. Aerosol samples influenced by ships are characterized by elevated Ni and V soluble fraction (about 80% for aerosol from ships, versus about 40 % for crustal particles), high V and Ni to Si ratios, and values of Vsol>6 ng m-3. Back trajectories analysis on the selected events show that air masses prevalently come from the Sicily channel, where an intense ship traffic occurs. Vsol, Nisol, and non-sea salt SO42- (nssSO42-) show a marked seasonal behaviour, with an evident summer maximum. Such a pattern can be explained by several processes: (i) increased photochemical activity in summer, leading to a faster production of secondary aerosols, mainly nssSO42-, from the oxidation of SO2 in the ship plume; (ii) stronger marine boundary layer (MBL) stability in summer, leading to higher concentration of emitted compounds in the lowest atmospheric layers; (iii) more frequent meteorological conditions leading to consecutive days with trajectories from the Sicily channel in summer. A very intense event in spring 2008 was studied in detail, also using size segregated chemical measurements. These data show that elements arising from heavy oil combustion (V, Ni, Al, Fe) are distributed in the sub-micrometric fraction of the aerosol, and the metals are present as free metals, carbonates, oxides hydrates or labile complex with organic ligands, so that they are dissolved in mild condition (HNO3, pH1.5). Data suggest a characteristic nssSO42-/V ratio in the range 200-400 for ship emission aerosols in summer at Lampedusa. By using the value of 200 a lower limit for the ship contribution to total sulphates is estimated. Ship emissions account, as a summer average, at least for 1

  2. Incipient Crustal Stretching across AN Active Collision Belt: the Case of the Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, S.; Tortorici, G.; Romagnoli, G.; Pavano, F.

    2012-12-01

    In the Central Mediterranean, the differential roll-back of the subducting Nubia Plate caused the Neogene-Quaternary extrusion of the Calabrian arc onto the oceanic Ionian slab, and the opening of the oceanic Tyrrhenian Basin, in the overriding Eurasia Plate. The differential motion at the edges of the arc was largely accommodated along transform faults that propagated across the orogenic belt. Since the Late Quaternary, the southern edge of the arc has been replaced by the roughly N-S oriented Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (SCRZ) that formed as the NNW-directed normal faults of NE Sicily, crossing the orogenic belt, have linked the NNE-oriented Tyrrhenian margin of southern Calabria with the NNW-trending Africa-Ionian boundary of southeastern Sicily. Our study focused on the Sicily shoulder of the SCRZ, where the transition zone between the extensional belt and the still active Nubia-Eurasia convergent margin is characterized by two distinct mobile crustal wedges, both lying on an upwarped Mantle, where a re-orientations of the σ1 is combined with volcanism (e.g. Etna, Aeolian islands) and a huge tectonic uplift. In southeastern Sicily, the Hyblean-Etnean region evolved, since about 0.85 Ma, as an indipendent crustal wedge, moving towards the NNW and pointing to the active Mt. Etna volcano. A local ENE crustal stretching accompanied the traslation of the block and pre-dated the ESE-oriented extension governing the propagation of the southernmost branch of the SCR, which started at about 330 ka B.P.. Similarly, the Peloritani-Aeolian region, flanked by the 125 ka-old NE-Sicily branch of the rift zone, represents a mostly submerged crustal wedge that migrates towards the NE, diverging from the rest of the Sicily collision zone and pointing to the Stromboli volcano. The Peloritani-Aeolian block is characterized by the occurrence of a wide central NE-oriented collapsed basin contoured by an actively uplifting region, whose tectonic boundaries are evidenced by a sharp

  3. Perceived barriers to preventive dental care among Libyan dentists

    PubMed Central

    Arheiam, Arheiam; Masoud, Ibtisam; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Aim To explore the barriers to providing preventive dental care to patients, as perceived by Libyan dentists working in Benghazi. Settings and design A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among dentists working in Benghazi, Libya. Materials and methods All dentists registered with the Dental Association of Benghazi and with 2 or more years of practice were invited to participate. The questionnaire collected information on participants’ demographic and professional characteristics as well as the patient-, practice- and dentist-related barriers to providing preventive dental care. Statistical analysis Scores for each type of barrier were compared by demographic and professional characteristics in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results One hundred and seventy five dentists returned the questionnaires (response rate: 79%) and 166 had complete information on all the variables selected for analysis (75%). The majority were females (70%), aged between 23 and 34 years (85%), was working in the public health sector (43%), and had up to 5 years of service (46%). Patient-related barriers were scored the highest, followed by practice- and dentist-related barriers. Dentists with mixed practice reported lower scores on patient- and practice-related barriers than those in public or private practice. Conclusion Respondents were generally aware of the barriers to preventive dentistry and perceived the barriers as being more related to their patients than to their practices or themselves. However, these perceptions varied by practice sector. PMID:24767673

  4. The surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, N.; Millot, C.; Taupier-Letage, I.

    2003-04-01

    and they can be tracked for months/years propagating at speeds up to a few km/d. In the southern Ionian, large eddies are generated as soon as the bathymetry is sufficiently deep (few 100s m), and they drift either alongslope or seaward. An eddy initially found East of Sicily has been shown to drift southwards until Libya and disturb the alongslope circulation there more than two years after its generation. All the eddies originated either in the North (including older drifting Pelops) or in the South can drift in the central Ionian and create there a complex eddy field that, being only partially investigated, was incorrectly associated with the alleged "Atlantic Ionian Stream" and "Mid-Ionian Jet". On average, AW does not cross the Ionian in its central and/or northern parts but ultimately concentrates in the southern Ionian along the western Libyan slope as an anticlockwise flow, which is unstable and generate anticyclonic eddies. These Libyan eddies then propagate downstream along the eastern Libyan slope and eventually interact with Ierapetra, thus increasing the interannual variability of the latter (that not only depends, henceforth, on the Etesians intensity). In addition, Ierapetra can survive more than one year, drift or remain motionless, merge with a former Ierapetra and/or reach later the Libyan and Egyptian slopes. At the entrance of the Levantine, Libyan eddies tend to follow the deep isobaths and thus detach from their parent current, and Ierapetra as well. Therefore, contrary to what has been believed hitherto, the area known as "Mersa-Matruh" is occupied not by a recurrent/permanent feature but by slowly propagating and merging anticyclonic eddies originated elsewhere. The northwestern edges of such mesoscale eddies must have been confused with a northeastward "Mid-Mediterranean Jet". The area known as Shikmona is in fact an offshore anticyclonic structure continuously fed by various kinds of small-scale eddies originated alongslope. Both the

  5. Beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas: evidence of central European glacial refugia for a temperate forest mammal species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).

    PubMed

    Deffontaine, V; Libois, R; Kotlík, P; Sommer, R; Nieberding, C; Paradis, E; Searle, J B; Michaux, J R

    2005-05-01

    This study details the phylogeographic pattern of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, a European rodent species strongly associated with forest habitat. We used sequences of 1011 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene from 207 bank voles collected in 62 localities spread throughout its distribution area. Our results reveal the presence of three Mediterranean (Spanish, Italian and Balkan) and three continental (western, eastern and 'Ural') phylogroups. The endemic Mediterranean phylogroups did not contribute to the post-glacial recolonization of much of the Palaearctic range of species. Instead, the major part of this region was apparently recolonized by bank voles that survived in glacial refugia in central Europe. Moreover, our phylogeographic analyses also reveal differentiated populations of bank voles in the Ural mountains and elsewhere, which carry the mitochondrial DNA of another related vole species, the ruddy vole (Clethrionomys rutilus). In conclusion, this study demonstrates a complex phylogeographic history for a forest species in Europe which is sufficiently adaptable that, facing climate change, survives in relict southern and northern habitats. The high level of genetic diversity characterizing vole populations from parts of central Europe also highlights the importance of such regions as a source of intraspecific genetic biodiversity. PMID:15836645

  6. Relative sea level trend and variability in the central Mediterranean in the time span 1872-2014 from tide gauge data: implications for future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzidei, Marco; Vecchio, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    We used tidal data collected in the time span 1872-2014 from a set of historical and modern stations located in the central Mediterranean, along the coasts of Italy, France, Slovenia and Croatia. The longest records span across the last two or three centuries for the tidal stations of Genova, Marseille, Trieste and Venice. While data from Bakar, Dubrovink, Rovinji and Split, all located along the coast of the Adriatic sea, provide valid records for a time span about 50 years long. In addition to these stations, since 1998 become available for the Italian region new sea level data from the dense national tidal network (www.mareografico.it). These digital stations are collecting data continuously at 10 minute sampling interval with a nominal accuracy at 1 mm. Therefore, in addition to the historical stations, we have the opportunity to analyze a sea level data set that cover about the last 16 years. In this study we show and discuss the results of our analysis of sea level data for the central Mediterranean, providing new insights on sea level trend and variability for about the past 140 years. Finally, based on sea level data and IPCC reports, we provide future sea level projections for this region for the year 2100 with implications for coastal flooding of lowland areas.

  7. Miocene climate as recorded on slope carbonates : examples from Malta (Central Mediterranean) and Northeastern Australia (Marion Plateau, ODP LEG 194)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Cédric Michaël

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated the slope carbonates of two Miocene carbonate systems: the Maltese Islands (in the Central Mediterranean) and the Marion Plateau (Northeastern Australia, drilled during ODP Leg 194). The aim of the study was to trace the impact of the Miocene cooling steps (events Mi1-Mi6) in these carbonate systems, especially the Mi3 event, which took place around 13.6 Ma and deeply impacted the marine oxygen isotope record. This event also profoundly impacted oceanographic and climatic patterns, eventually leading to the establishment of the modern ice-house world. In particular, East Antarctica became ice covered at that period. The rational behind the present study was to investigate the impact that this event had on shallow water systems in order to complement the deep-sea record and hence acquire a more global perspective on Miocene climate change. The Maltese Islands were investigated for trends in bulk-rock carbon and oxygen isotopes, as well as bulk-rock mineralogy, clay minerals analysis and organic geochemisty. Results showed that the mid Miocene cooling event deeply impacted sedimentation at that location by changing sedimentation from carbonate to clay-rich sediments. Moreover, it was discovered that each phase of Antarctic glaciation, not just the major mid Miocene event, resulted in higher terrigenous input on Malta. Mass accumulation rates revealed that this was linked to increased runoff during periods when Antarctica was glaciated, and thus that the carbonate sediments were “diluted” by clay-rich sediments. The model subsequently developed to explain this implies feedback from Antarctic glaciations creating cold, dense air masses that push the ITCZ Northward, thus increasing precipitation on the North African subcontinent. Increased precipitation (or stronger African monsoon) accelerated continental weathering and runoff, thus bringing more terrigenous sediment to the paleo-location of the slope sediments of Malta. Spectral

  8. some morphological effects related to a non-uniform uplifting of crustal blocks in Northern Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    -in section- constitute polylines assimilable to arcs of circumference with different rays of bending. In map view, the evolution of the drainage network is characterised also from a different development of the river channels of different orders. Particularly, in the slope that is more subject to uplift the drainage network is more branched, with larger formation of river orders with respect to the opposite slope. If we suppose that the crustal block underwent to uplift and tilting is eroded from several idrographic networks that are identified in more drainage basins, at the end of the process, in absence of large-scale deformations as folding and faulting, the slope asimmetry of every main valley is maintained but, for tilting direction about orthogonal with respect to the directions of the rivers, a different altimetric development will be observed of the main rivers. If to the tilting and uplift of the crustal block are associated internal deformations as folds and faults, then the asymmetry of the slopes not always may result clearly evident, as well as the altimetric development of the main valleys. Regarding the above concepts, we recognised a non-uniform uplift and large-scale recent faulting in Northern Sicily (Central Mediterranean), both from drainage network pattern analisys, slopes geometries and structural data. The data sets have been compared with the uplift rate and seismicity distributions, allowing us to recognise different crustal blocks in which the northern Sicily chain may be divided. Each chain block reflects characteristic morphometric pattern of the drainage basins. The morphostructural setting, the distribution of seismicity and the orientation of the recent faults indicate that the main neotectonic narrow deformation zones bounding the crustal blocks range from NW-SE, NE-SW and W-E.

  9. Fluid escape structures in the Graham Bank region (Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean) revealing volcanic and neotectonic activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spatola, Daniele; Pennino, Valentina; Basilone, Luca; Interbartolo, Francesco; Micallef, Aaron; Sulli, Attilio; Basilone, Walter

    2016-04-01

    In the Sicily Channel, (Central Mediterranean), two geodynamic processes overlap each other, the Maghrebides-Apennines accretionary prism and the Sicily Channel rift. Moreover, the northwestern sector (Banks sector) is characterised by an irregular seafloor morphology linked to the recent volcanic and tectonic activity.In order to discriminate the role exerted by both the processes in the morphostructural setting of the area we used a dataset of both high and very high resolution single-channel and multi-channel profiles, acquired in the frame of the RITMARE project respectively with CHIRP and sparker, and airgun sources, and high resolution (5 m cell) morpho-bathymetric data. The data allowed us to identify and characterise two areas where different geological features (sedimentary and volcanic) are prevailing. They present fluid escaping evidence, which often appears to be active and generating different types of morphologies (both positive and negative). In the western sector we recognised pockmarks at water depths of 195 to 317 m, with diameters from 25 to 580 m, depths from 1.3 to 15 m, and slope up to 23°. They show sub-circular shape in plan-view and reflectors with upward concavity in cross section, and are oriented along a NW-SE trend.The CHIRP and multichannel profiles highlight fluids that affect the Plio-Quaternary succession, especially in areas where the top surface of the Messinian succession is shallower. Conversely, wipe-out acoustic facies were recognised in proximity of: i) extensional faults of Mesozoic age with NW-SE trend; ii) dip/strike slip faults of Cenozoic age with NW-SE, N-S and about NNE-SSW trends, and iii) extensional neo-tectonic faults with NW-SE and NNW-SSE trends. We cannot exclude that they could feed the shallower reservoir producing a mixing between the two. In the eastern sector we recognised a cluster of volcanoes composed of seven cone-shaped structures (SCV1-7), pertaining to a wide area known as Graham Bank. A detailed

  10. Abundances of Demersal Sharks and Chimaera from 1994-2009 Scientific Surveys in the Central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ragonese, Sergio; Vitale, Sergio; Dimech, Mark; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Bibliographic and data gathered in scientific bottom trawl surveys carried out off the Southern Coasts of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea), from 1994 to 2009 and between a depth of 10 and 800 m, were analysed in order to prepare a checklist of demersal sharks and chimaera, which are species sensitive to fisheries exploitation. Out of the 27 previously reported demersal shark and chimaera taxa in the Mediterranean, only 23 were found in literature and 20 sampled during the surveys in the investigated area. Among the species sampled in the surveys, only 2 ubiquitous (Squalusblainville and Scyliorhinuscanicula) and 3 deep-water (Chimaeramonstrosa, Centrophorusgranulosus and Galeusmelastomus) species showed a wide geographical distribution with a consistent abundance. Excluding the rare (such as Oxynotuscentrina) or uncommon shark (e.g. Squalusacanthias), the estimated frequencies of occurrence and abundance indexes show a possible risk of local extinction for the almost exclusively (e.g. angelshark, Squatina spp.) or preferential (e.g. Scyliorhinusstellaris) neritic species. PMID:24086386

  11. Amount and distribution of neustonic micro-plastic off the western Sardinian coast (Central-Western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea; Caliani, Ilaria; Marra, Stefano; Camedda, Andrea; Coppa, Stefania; Alcaro, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Giannetti, Matteo; Coppola, Daniele; Cicero, Anna Maria; Panti, Cristina; Baini, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Massaro, Giorgio; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Matiddi, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A plethora of different sampling methodologies has been used to document the presence of micro-plastic fragments in sea water. European Marine Strategy suggests to improve standard techniques to make future data comparable. We use Manta Trawl sampling technique to quantify abundance and distribution of micro-plastic fragments in Sardinian Sea (Western Mediterranean), and their relation with phthalates and organoclorine in the neustonic habitat. Our results highlight a quite high average plastic abundance value (0.15 items/m(3)), comparable to the levels detected in other areas of the Mediterranean. "Site" is the only factor that significantly explains the differences observed in micro-plastic densities. Contaminant levels show high spatial and temporal variation. In every station, HCB is the contaminant with the lowest concentration while PCBs shows the highest levels. This work, in line with Marine Strategy directives, represents a preliminary study for the analysis of plastic impact on marine environment of Sardinia. PMID:24776304

  12. Eastern Mediterranean hydroclimate over the late glacial and Holocene, reconstructed from the sediments of Nar lake, central Turkey, using stable isotopes and carbonate mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Jonathan R.; Jones, Matthew D.; Leng, Melanie J.; Noble, Stephen R.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Sahy, Diana; Eastwood, Warren J.; Roberts, C. Neil

    2015-09-01

    There is a lack of high-resolution records of hydroclimate variability in the Eastern Mediterranean from the late glacial and early Holocene. More knowledge of the speed of climate shifts and the degree to which they were synchronous with changes in the North Atlantic or elsewhere is required to understand better the controls on Eastern Mediterranean climate. Using endogenic carbonate from a sediment sequence from Nar Gölü, a maar lake in central Turkey, dated by varve counting and uranium-thorium methods, we present high-resolution (˜25 years) oxygen (δ18O) and carbon isotope records, supported by carbonate mineralogy data, spanning the late glacial and Holocene. δ18Ocarbonate at Nar Gölü has been shown previously to be a strong proxy for regional water balance. After a dry period (i.e. evaporation far exceeding precipitation) in the Younger Dryas, the data show a transition into the relatively wetter early Holocene. In the early Holocene there are two drier periods that appear to peak at ˜9.3 ka and ˜8.2 ka, coincident with cooling 'events' seen in North Atlantic records. After this, and as seen in other records from the Eastern Mediterranean, there is a millennial-scale drying trend through the Mid Holocene Transition. The relatively dry late Holocene is punctuated by centennial-scale drought intervals, at the times of 4.2 ka 'event' and Late Bronze Age societal 'collapse'. Overall, we show that central Turkey is drier when the North Atlantic is cooler, throughout this record and at multiple timescales, thought to be due to a weakening of the westerly storm track resulting from reduced cyclogenesis in the North Atlantic. However, some features, such as the Mid Holocene Transition and the fact the early Holocene dry episodes at Nar Gölü are of a longer duration than the more discrete 'events' seen in North Atlantic records, imply there are additional controls on Eastern Mediterranean hydroclimate.

  13. Libyan Desert Glass: New field and Fourier transform infrared data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, F.; Poupeau, G.; Badou, A.; Le Bourdonnec, F. X.; Sacquin, Y.; Dubernet, S.; Bardintzeff, J. M.; Véran, M.; Smith, D. C.; Diemer, E.

    2013-12-01

    Results are presented of new geological observations and laboratory analyses on Libyan Desert Glass (LDG), a unique kind of impact glass found in Egypt, probably 28.5-29.4 million years in age. A new LDG occurrence has been discovered some 50 km southward of the main LDG occurrences in the Great Sand Sea. From Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, the molecular structure of LDG is refined and significant differences are shown between LDG specimens and other pure silica glasses (fulgurite, industrial fused quartz, and amorphous biogenic silica) that are related to differences in their structures. The slight variations observed here for the mean Si-O-Si angle between the different glasses are attributed to their thermal histories. With regard to the other glasses analyzed, the LDG infrared spectral parameters point to a higher ratio of discontinuities and defects in the tetrahedral (SiO4) network. The quantitative mineralogical constitutions of sandstones and quartzites from the LDG geological setting were analyzed by FTIR. Cretaceous sandstones have a specific composition (about 90 wt% quartz, 10% dickite), clearly different from the Paleozoic ones (about 90 wt% quartz, but ≥7% kaolinite). It is shown that the reddish silts bearing the LDG are constituted mainly of microquartz enriched with dickite, whose particle size distribution is characteristic of fluvio-lacustrine deposits, probably Oligocene to Miocene in age. The target rocks, most probably quartz sand, resulted from the weathering (loss of the cementing microquartz) of the Cretaceous sandstones from the Gilf Khebir Plateau with deposition in a high-energy environment.

  14. Doctors’ opinions of information provided by Libyan pharmaceutical company representatives

    PubMed Central

    Alssageer, Mustafa A.; Kowalski, Stefan R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the opinions of Libyan doctors regarding the quality of drug information provided by pharmaceutical company representatives (PCRs) during detailing visits. Method An anonymous survey was conducted among 1,000 doctors from selected institutes in Tripoli, Benghazi and Sebha. Doctors were asked questions regarding the quality of information provided during drug-detailing visits. Results A questionnaire return rate of 61% (608 returned questionnaires out of 1,000) was achieved. The majority (n=463, 76%) of surveyed participants graded the quality of information provided as average. Approximately, 40% of respondents indicated that contraindications, precautions, interactions and adverse effects of products promoted by PCRs were never or rarely mentioned during promotional visits, and 65% of respondents indicated that an alternative drug to the promoted product was never or rarely mentioned by the representatives. More than 50% of respondents (n=310, 51%) reported that PCRs were not always able to answer all questions about their products. Only seven respondents (1%) believed that PCRs never exaggerated the uniqueness, efficacy or safety of their product. The majority of respondents (n=342, 56%) indicated that verbal information was not always consistent with written information provided. Seven per cent of respondents (n=43) admitted that they did not know whether or not the verbal information provided by PCRs was consistent with written information. Conclusion Doctors believe that the provision of drug information by PCRs in Libya is incomplete and often exaggerated. Pharmaceutical companies should ensure that their representatives are trained to a standard to provide reliable information regarding the products they promote. PMID:23205141

  15. Prevalence of malocclusion in urban libyan preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Bugaighis, Iman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This cross-sectional observational study aimed at quantifying primary dentition parameters and exploring differences in those parameters between included age groups. Materials and Methods: The examined sample comprised 800 preschool children, 3- to 5-year-old in Benghazi city, of which 500 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Primary canine relationship, spacing/crowding, overjet (OJ) and overbite (OB), occlusal relationship was carried out using Federation Dentaire Internationale (1973), modified to the primary dentition. Results: The prevalence of bilateral Class I, Class II, and Class III canine relationship was 69.6%, 22.4%, and 4.4%, respectively. The prevalence of asymmetric canine relationship was 3.6% with no significant difference between gender and age groups. Spacing, closed dentition, and crowding were observed in: 81.6%, 13,4% and 5% respectively in the upper arch, and 58.5%, 24.8%, and 16.7% correspondently in the lower arch. OJ and OB ranging between 1 and 3 mm were found in 82.6% and 56.5%, respectively. An OJ and OB of >3 mm was observed in 11.4% and 35%, respectively, and of edge to edge incisal relationship anteroposteriorly and vertically in 4.6% and 6% in this order. Anterior crossbite and anterior openbite were noted in 1.4% and 2.6%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between OJ and OB and age (P≥0.241). Additionally, there was no significant sex difference in the value of OJ (P=0.561). But, the mean OB value in boys was significantly greater than in girls. Conclusions: The current findings provide an insight into the prevalence of occlusal traits in urban Libyan preschool children and highlight the significance of early detection of malocclusion to assist in achieving effective and individualized long-term treatment planning. PMID:24987642

  16. Towards a detailed distal tephrostratigraphy in the Central Mediterranean: The last 20,000 yrs record of Lago Grande di Monticchio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, Sabine; Kraml, Michael; Keller, Jörg

    2008-10-01

    A detailed compilation of distal tephrostratigraphy comprising the last 20,000 yrs is given for the Central Mediterranean region. A total of 47 distinct ash layers identified in the maar lake sediments of Lago Grande di Monticchio (Basilicata, Southern Italy) are compared with proximal and distal terrestrial-marine tephra deposits in the circum-central Mediterranean region. The results of these studies provide valuable information for reconstructing the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene dispersal of pyroclastic deposits from south Italian explosive volcanoes, in particular Somma-Vesuvius, the Campi Flegrei caldera, Ischia Island and Mount Etna. Prominent tephras are discussed with respect to their reliability as dating and correlation tools in sedimentary records. Ashes from Plinian eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius (i.e. Avellino, Mercato, Greenish, Pomici di Base), for instance, are well-defined by their distribution patterns and their unique composition. The widespread Y-1 tephra from Mount Etna, on the other hand, derived most likely from two distinct Plinian events with changing wind conditions, and therefore becomes a less reliable stratigraphic marker. Statistical-numerical calculations are presented in order to discriminate between Holocene tephras from the Campi Flegrei caldera (i.e. Astroni 1-3, Agnano Monte Spina, Averno 1, Lagno Amendolare), since these ashes are characterized by an almost indistinguishable chemical fingerprint. As a highlight, numerous Campanian eruptions of proposed low-intensity have been identified in the distal site of Monticchio suggesting a revision of existing tephra dispersal maps and re-calculation of eruptive conditions. In summary, the tephra record of Monticchio is one of the key successions for linking both, terrestrial records from Central-southern Italy and marine sequences from the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic and Ionian Seas.

  17. A forgotten collection: the Libyan ethnobotanical exhibits (1912-14) by A. Trotter at the Museum O. Comes at the University Federico II in Naples, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Ethnobotanical Collection from the Libyan territories of the botanist Alessandro Trotter is included in the Oratio Comes Botanical Museum at the Faculty of Agraria at the University Federico II in Naples. Trotter explored different territories of Libya, mainly Tripolitania, between 1912-1924, collecting plant specimens and the drugs most frequently sold in the markets. The Libyan herbarium currently includes over 2300 sheets of mounted and accessioned plants. The drugs, mostly acquired by Trotter from Tripolitanian markets, were identified and packed in 87 paper sheets or boxes. Trotter added ethnobotanical information for each species when available. Methods A database of the herbarium species and the drugs has been carried out, after a taxonomic update. Nomenclature has been revised according to the African flowering plants database and the World Checklist of selected plant families, and a comparison with currently available ethnopharmacological data from North African has been attempted. Results In this study, ethnopharmacological data related to about 80 species of flowering plants and to 4 lichens are presented. The plants are mainly from Mediterranean or Sub-Saharan habitats and belong to 37 different families; Lamiaceae was the most cited family, with 10 accessions. Generally, the aerial parts of the plants are the most frequently used (28 species), followed by leaves (15 species), flowers and seeds (9 species), fruits (7 species) and hypogean organs (roots, rhizomes, tubers: 5 species). Plants were generally processed in very simple ways: infusion or decoction of the plants were prepared and orally administered or used for topical applications. A wide range of conditions was treated, ranging from mental disorders to skin affections. All the organs of human body are considered, but the pathologies of gastro-intestinal tract, respiratory system and those related to traumatic accidents were the most frequently mentioned. The comparison with the

  18. Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean during the project Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangoiti, Gotzon; Millán, Millán M.; Salvador, Rosa; Mantilla, Enrique

    During the warm season (March-September), high ozone concentrations have been reported at the coastal and mountain monitoring stations of the eastern Iberia coast (Millán et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D7) 8811, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4 (2000) 487). The vegetation protection threshold of current Directive 92/72/EEC and the World Health Organisation guideline for the protection of crops and semi-natural vegetation are systematically exceeded during the whole period. The main objective of the present study is to search for the origin of these chronic pollution levels: to search for the reason(s) for such high O 3 concentrations during such a long period. A mesoscale model is used to reproduce the diurnal cycle of winds and stability/layering over the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB), at a sufficient space/temporal resolution, under a typical recursive synoptic condition during the warm season: data from the flight tracks of the European Project—Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area—are used to substantiate the model results. Times of residence and the final distribution of pollutants entering the WMB are estimated using single-particle Lagrangian trajectories and a multiple-particle dispersion model. Our results show that the marine boundary layer and the lower troposphere in the region between the Balearic Islands and eastern Iberia are subject to a flow regime that tends to accumulate pollutants within large circulations, covering the entire western basin. We have also shown a diurnal pulsation of the Tramontana/Mistral wind regime, which can transport new pollutants into the area (background concentrations of 50-65 ppb of O 3 of continental European origin) that are added to local emissions and re-circulated within the coastal breezes at eastern Iberia for periods of more than five days. Local emissions and wind configuration contribute to increase the O 3 concentrations up to 100 ppb and even more.

  19. Terms of Address in Libyan Arabic Compared to Other Arabic Varieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abugharsa, ?Azza B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion about the terms of address used mainly in Libyan Arabic, and how they are similar and/or different from the terms used in other Arabic societies. In addition, the current paper describes how the use of such terms is determined by various social factors and perceptions, and how it is emphasized that these titles…

  20. Utilizing E-Learning Systems in the Libyan Universities: Case Study; Tripoli University, Faculty of Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almansuri, Aisha Ammar; Elmansuri, Rowad Adel

    2015-01-01

    E-learning in teaching and learning considered as the easy way to use information and communication technology by using of the internet. With the support of E-learning higher education can be delivered anywhere and at any time. Although E-Learning is very importance in Libyan higher education, It's implementation is facing many challenges in the…

  1. Non-Native Language as the Unmarked Code in Bilingual Utterances of Libyan Children in USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abugharsa, Azza

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of multiple cultures and languages on the bilingual utterances of Libyan children who live in the United States and who have acquired English after they arrived there at ages from 3 to 5. Data analysis is based on the Markedness Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993) in order to determine which language is the unmarked code…

  2. Mediterranean diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E

    2000-12-01

    Mortality statistics from the WHO database covering the period 1960 to 1990 have provided intriguing evidence that something unusual has been affecting in a beneficial way the health of the Mediterranean population. In recent papers, which evaluated the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, it was concluded that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. Direct evidence in support of the beneficial properties of the Mediterranean diet has also become available. These data were derived from three studies, which have used a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight desirable key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region. The conclusion of these studies is that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean one is associated with longer survival. The Greek version of the Mediterranean diet is dominated by the consumption of olive oil and by high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and an antioxidant action provides a plausible explanation for the apparent benefits. Wild edible greens frequently eaten in rural Greece in the form of salads and pies contain very high quantities of flavonoids-- considerably higher than those found in red wine or black tea. While there is no direct evidence that these antioxidants are central to the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, indirect evidence from epidemiological data and the increasing understanding of their mechanisms of action suggest that antioxidants may play a major role. PMID:11242471

  3. Environmental quality assessment of Grand Harbour (Valletta, Maltese Islands): a case study of a busy harbour in the Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Teresa; D'Alessandro, Michela; Esposito, Valentina; Scotti, Gianfranco; Berto, Daniela; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Noventa, Seta; Giuliani, Silvia; Macchia, Simona; Sartori, Davide; Mazzola, Angelo; Andaloro, Franco; Giacobbe, Salvatore; Deidun, Alan; Renzi, Monia

    2015-12-01

    Contamination levels by plastic debris, trace elements and persistent organic pollutants were assessed and related to macrobenthic diversity within soft bottoms of Grand Harbour (Malta, Central Mediterranean). Sediment toxicity was evaluated by ecotoxicological method, deploying Bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), Echinodermata (Paracentrotus lividus) and Crustacea (Corophium orientale). Univariate analysis (Pearson's test) was used to test relationships between biodiversity indices, pollutants and grain size. A multivariate approach (PERMANOVA) was applied to investigate for any significant differences among sampling stations concerning plastic abundances and to test the relationship between infaunal abundances and pollutant concentrations (the BIOENV test). Significant differences in the plastic abundances were found between sampling stations. The lowest value for Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index was associated to the highest sediment pollution level. Multivariate analyses suggest that MBT and TBT were factors that most influenced macrozoobenthic abundance and biodiversity. The bivalve Corbula gibba and the introduced polychaete Monticellina dorsobranchialis were the most abundant found species. PMID:26563234

  4. Applying electrical resistivity tomography and biological methods to assess the surface-groundwater interaction in two Mediterranean rivers (central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, Sanda; Gómez Ortiz, David; Lillo Ramos, Javier; Rasines Ladero, Ruben; Persoiu, Aurel

    2014-05-01

    Delineation of the extent of hyporheic zone (HZ) in river ecosystems is problematic due to the scarcity of spatial information about the structure of riverbed sediments and the magnitude and extent of stream interactions with the parafluvial and riparian zones. The several existing methods vary in both quality and quantity of information and imply the use of hydrogeological and biological methods. In the last decades, various non-invasive geophysical techniques were developed to characterise the streambed architecture and also to provide detailed spatial information on its vertical and horizontal continuity. All classes of techniques have their strengths and limitations; therefore, in order to assess their potential in delineating the lateral and vertical spatial extents of alluvial sediments, we have combined the near-surface images obtained by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with biological assessment of invertebrates in two Mediterranean lowland rivers from central Spain. We performed in situ imaging of the thickness and continuity of alluvial sediments under the riverbed and parafluvial zone during base-flow conditions (summer 2013 and winter 2014) at two different sites with distinct lithology along the Tajuña and Henares Rivers. ERT was performed by installing the electrodes (1 m spacing) on a 47 m long transect normal to the river channel using a Wener-Schlumberger array, across both the riparian zones and the river bed. Invertebrates were collected in the streambed from a depth of 20-40 cm, using the Bou-Rouch method, and from boreholes drilled to a depth of 1.5 m in the riparian zone. The ERT images obtained at site 1 (medium and coarse sand dominated lithology) shows resistivity values ranging from ~20 to 80 ohm•m for the in-stream sediments, indicating a permeable zone up to ~ 0.5 m thick and extending laterally for ca. 5 m from the channel. These sediments contribute to active surface/hyporheic water exchanges and to low water retention in

  5. The Early Miocene "Bisciaro volcaniclastic event" (northern Apennines, Italy): a key study for the geodynamic evolution of the central-western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrera, Francesco; Martín-Martín, Manuel; Raffaelli, Giuliana; Tramontana, Mario

    2015-06-01

    The Early Miocene Bisciaro Fm., a marly limestone succession cropping out widely in the Umbria-Romagna-Marche Apennines, is characterized by a high amount of volcaniclastic content, characterizing this unit as a peculiar event of the Adria Plate margin. Because of this volcaniclastic event, also recognizable in different sectors of the central-western Mediterranean chains, this formation is proposed as a "marker" for the geodynamic evolution of the area. In the Bisciaro Fm., the volcaniclastic supply starts with the "Raffaello" bed (Earliest Aquitanian) that marks the base of the formation and ends in the lower portion of the Schlier Fm. (Late Burdigalian-Langhian p.p.). Forty-one studied successions allowed the recognition of three main petrofacies: (1) Pyroclastic Deposits (volcanic materials more than 90 %) including the sub-petrofacies 1A, Vitroclastic/crystallo- vitroclastic tuffs; 1B, Bentonitic deposits; and 1C, Ocraceous and blackish layers; (2) Resedimented Syn-Eruptive Volcanogenic Deposits (volcanic material 30-90 %) including the sub-petrofacies 2A, High- density volcanogenic turbidites; 2B, Low- density volcanogenic turbidites; 2C, Crystal- rich volcanogenic deposits; and 2D, Glauconitic- rich volcaniclastites; (3) Mixing of Volcaniclastic Sediments with Marine Deposits (volcanic material 5-30 %, mixed with marine sediments: marls, calcareous marls, and marly limestones). Coeval volcaniclastic deposits recognizable in different tectonic units of the Apennines, Maghrebian, and Betic Chains show petrofacies and chemical-geochemical features related to a similar calc-alkaline magmatism. The characterization of this event led to the hypothesis of a co-genetic relationship between volcanic activity centres (primary volcanic systems) and depositional basins (depositional processes) in the Early Miocene palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic evolution of the central-western Mediterranean region. The results support the proposal of a geodynamic model of this area

  6. Study on the location and fit of continents in western central Pangea with a focus on the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ohyeok; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin

    2015-04-01

    Since Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift more than a century ago, continuous effort to reconstruct the super continent Pangea has been carried out paleo-geographically during past several decades. Although a remarkable success has been achieved, there remains still a great uncertainty on the precise location and fits of the continents that constitute the Pangea. While the fits are recognized as quite complete for Gondwana, the northern part of Pangea, the fits for Laurasia which contains North Ameraica and Eurasia, are left with a lot of improvement. What the two giant continents look like when they were fitted to form the Pangea is also a unsolved question. Several hypothesis for the fits of Laurasia and Gondwana have been raised, and the scenarios of Pangea A1, Pangea A2, Pangea B, and Pangea C were proposed hitherto. Recently, an updated version very close to Pangea A2 was suggested by authors including Van der Voo, Trond H. Torsvik, which have improved several deficiencies of the Pangea A2. However, it was found that the new scenario cannot be fully supported by the paleomagnetism data. Furthermore, it is not in complete agreement with previous paleogeological surveys on major geological features such as Variscan and Caledonian orogenic belt, indicating that a more sophisticated scenario is needed still for the Pangea. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the continents in western central Pangea with a focus on the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean. A new fit of continents to form the Pangea is proposed, where the continents are fitted with enhanced accuracy compared to other models of Pangea particularly for the Mediterranean Sea, central America, Iran Plateau etc.. The results suggest that the continents were not distorted significantly on the process of drifting and merging during the past 200 million years.

  7. Long-range atmospheric transport of PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs to the central and eastern Mediterranean and changes of PCB and PBDE congener patterns in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Marie D.; Heil, Angelika; Kukučka, Petr; Kuta, Jan; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Lammel, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    The central and eastern Mediterranean is a receptor area for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted in western, central and eastern Europe, particularly during summer. Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, DDXs, PBDEs, penta- and hexachlorobenzene were measured during a ship-borne survey in the summer of 2010. The concentration of PCBs (sum of 7 congeners) was 3.61 (2.08-7.72) pg m-3, of which 6.7% was associated with the particulate phase. The mean concentration of DDT isomers and their metabolites, DDE and DDD, was 2.60 (0.46-7.60) pg m-3 (particulate mass fraction θ = 0.097), of penta- and hexachlorobenzene 0.22 (<0.39-2.80) pg m-3 and 6.29 (2.48-24.16) pg m-3, respectively, and of PBDEs (sum of 8 congeners) 7.31 (2.80-19.89) pg m-3. The air masses studied had been transported mostly across central Europe, some crossing western Europe. The observed changes of PCB congener patterns along transport routes are in agreement with the perception that the reaction with the OH radical is dominating PCB atmospheric lifetime, and indicate an overestimation of the second order gas-phase reaction rate coefficient of PCB153 with OH by structure-activity relationship.

  8. Use of Permanent and Non-permanent GPS Networks For The Analysis of The Geodynamics of The Central-mediterranean Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpelloni, E.; Anzidei, M.; Baldi, P.; Casula, G.; Galvani, A.; Pesci, A.; Shen, Z. K.

    The Mediterranean area represents the collision zone between the Africa/Arabian and Eurasian plates. The deformation pattern of this region is characterized by a complex space-time distribution of compressional and tensional events, with strong distortion and lateral migration of several hundred kilometers of the Paleocene and Neogene orogenic belts, mainly caused by indentation of the two African promontories, i.e. Adria and Arabia. As a final result of this complex evolution, this area is presently comprised of a high number of crustal wedges, moving independently or partially in- dependently with respect to one another. The number of permanent GPS stations in this area is actually not enough for a significant description of the strain rate field at the Mediterranean scale, but the integration between permanent and geophysical dedicated non-permanent GPS networks is now offering the possibility to combine in an unique and uniform reference frame all the data available, dramatically improving the picture of the complex deformation pattern in a so high tectonically fragmented zone. To give more constraints to the kinematics of this area, we combined more than ten years of GPS data collected on regional and local non-permanent networks in the Mediterranean, and in particular in the Italian area, with the ITRF2000 velocity solu- tion of the European Permanent GPS Network. We used the final combined solution, obtained following a sequential Kalman filter approach, to constrain a stable Europe reference frame by computing an Euler rotation pole from the velocities of some IGS stations. The residual velocity field with respect to this stable Europe reference frame shows interesting features for the relatively higher rate deforming zones, such as the Italian peninsula and the Aegean area. An analysis in terms of rigid block models has been performed in the areas with the higher GPS stations density, delineating some first order crustal wedges. The strain rate field

  9. Identification of the development mechanisms of an explosive cyclone in the central Mediterranean with the aid of the MSG satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroutzoglou, John; Flocas, Helena A.; Hatzaki, Maria; Keay, Kevin; Simmonds, Ian; Mavroudis, Anastasios

    2013-08-01

    The development mechanisms of an explosive cyclone over Central Mediterranean are examined, by relating the cloud patterns in the infrared, water vapour and visible channels of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite images, to the surface-upper air operational analyses and thermodynamic parameters, including potential and geostrophic vorticity analyses, potential and equivalent potential temperature, static stability and thermal heat fluxes. The specific case study derived from an updated climatology of Mediterranean explosive cyclones for the 2002-2010 period, being performed with the aid of the University of Melbourne Cyclone Tracking scheme (MS algorithm) and ERA-INTERIM datasets. It was found that during the ordinary cyclogenesis the increased mid-upper level relative humidity over Northern Algeria along with the enhanced moisture gradient in the area between Portugal and Spain; indicate the existence of a jet -streak, with the dry zone to be located on the cold side of the jet axis. The descent of the dry air is more pronounced within the left exit region of the jet streak in the poleward portion of an upper confluence zone. Six hours later, the eastward movement of the cloud pattern in the Northern African coasts significantly resembles the structure of a baroclinic leaf, being related to the early stages of surface frontogenesis, due to the deformation process within a strong wind field. During the time of rapid deepening, when the surface cyclone propagated from the Northern African coasts towards the area of Sicily - Gulf of Taranto, the development is characterised by the transition from the baroclinic leaf structure to the comma cloud one and finally the formation of a bent-back occlusion.

  10. Sea surface temperature variability in the central-western Mediterranean Sea during the last 2700 years: a multi-proxy and multi-record approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, M.; Cacho, I.; Frigola, J.; Canals, M.; Masqué, P.; Martrat, B.; Lirer, F.; Margaritelli, G.

    2015-11-01

    This study analyses the evolution of sea surface conditions during the last 2700 years in the central-western Mediterranean Sea based on six records as measured on five short sediment cores from two sites north of Minorca (cores MINMC06 and HER-MC-MR3). Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) were obtained from alkenones and Globigerina bulloides-Mg/Ca ratios combined with δ18O measurements to reconstruct changes in the regional Evaporation-Precipitation (E-P) balance. We reviewed the G. bulloides Mg/Ca-SST calibration and re-adjusted it based on a set of core top measurements from the western Mediterranean Sea. According to the regional oceanographic data, the estimated Mg/Ca-SSTs are interpreted to reflect spring seasonal conditions mainly related to the April-May primary productivity bloom. In contrast, the Alkenone-SSTs signal likely integrates the averaged annual signal. A combination of chronological tools allowed synchronizing the records in a common age model. Subsequently a single anomaly stack record was constructed for each proxy, thus easing to identify the most significant and robust patterns. The warmest SSTs occurred during the Roman Period (RP), which was followed by a general cooling trend interrupted by several centennial-scale oscillations. This general cooling trend could be controlled by changes in the annual mean insolation. Whereas some particularly warm SST intervals took place during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) the Little Ice Age (LIA) was markedly unstable with some very cold SST events mostly during its second half. The records of the last centuries suggest that relatively low E-P ratios and cold SSTs dominated during negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases, although SST records seem to present a close positive connection with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation index (AMO).

  11. Sea surface temperature variability in the central-western Mediterranean Sea during the last 2700 years: a multi-proxy and multi-record approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Mercè; Cacho, Isabel; Frigola, Jaime; Canals, Miquel; Masqué, Pere; Martrat, Belen; Casado, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O.; Pena, Leopoldo D.; Margaritelli, Giulia; Lirer, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the reconstructed evolution of sea surface conditions in the central-western Mediterranean Sea during the late Holocene (2700 years) from a set of multi-proxy records as measured on five short sediment cores from two sites north of Minorca (cores MINMC06 and HER-MC-MR3). Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from alkenones and Globigerina bulloides Mg / Ca ratios are combined with δ18O measurements in order to reconstruct changes in the regional evaporation-precipitation (E-P) balance. We also revisit the G. bulloides Mg / Ca-SST calibration and re-adjusted it based on a set of core-top measurements from the western Mediterranean Sea. Modern regional oceanographic data indicate that Globigerina bulloides Mg / Ca is mainly controlled by seasonal spring SST conditions, related to the April-May primary productivity bloom in the region. In contrast, the alkenone-SST signal represents an integration of the annual signal. The construction of a robust chronological framework in the region allows for the synchronization of the different core sites and the construction of "stacked" proxy records in order to identify the most significant climatic variability patterns. The warmest sustained period occurred during the Roman Period (RP), which was immediately followed by a general cooling trend interrupted by several centennial-scale oscillations. We propose that this general cooling trend could be controlled by changes in the annual mean insolation. Even though some particularly warm SST intervals took place during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the Little Ice Age (LIA) was markedly unstable, with some very cold SST events mostly during its second half. Finally, proxy records for the last centuries suggest that relatively low E-P ratios and cold SSTs dominated during negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases, although SSTs seem to present a positive connection with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index.

  12. New multi-beam bathymetric map of the Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean): Evidence for active sedimentary and morpho-tectonic processes along the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, M. A.; Kopp, H.; Krastel, S.; Bohrmann, G.; Garlan, T.; Zaragosi, S.; Klaucke, I.; Wintersteller, P.; Loubrieu, B.; Le Faou, Y.; San Pedro, L.; Dominguez, S.; Rovere, M.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    A combined dataset of multi-beam bathymetry, based on 5 recent marine geophysical surveys since 2010 as well as a compilation of earlier surveys, now spans the vast majority of the Ionian Sea and the active margin of East Sicily and Calabria. (The new surveys are: R/V Meteor cruise 86, 2010 PI - S. Krastel; MocoSed R/V PourquoiPas 2012 PI - T. Garlan; Circee R/V Suroit 2013 PI - M.-A. Gutscher; R/V Meteor cruise 111, 2014 PI's - H. Kopp, M.-A. Gutscher; R/V Meteor cruise 112, 2014 PI - G. Bohrmann). This new compilation of mostly unpublished bathymetric data is presented as a 2 arc-sec (60m) grid and reveals fine-scale structures on the seafloor in unprecedented detail. These include the deeply incised Malta-Hyblean Escarpment, numerous submarine canyons, broad regions of relatively flat seafloor dominated by fields of sediment waves, the gently undulating anticlinal fold-and-thrust belts of two accretionary wedge complexes related to the Hellenic subduction (W Mediterranean ridge) and to the Calabrian arc. These accretionary wedges intersect and overlap and define two of the three sides of the triangular Ionian abyssal plain. The internal structure of these morpho-tectonic provinces as well as the transition zones between them is also imaged by high-resolution 72-channel seismic reflection profiles. Together these data offer new insights into the interaction and competition between active sedimentary and tectonic processes shaping this part of the Central Mediterranean. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe).

  13. Miocene climate as recorded on slope carbonates : examples from Malta (Central Mediterranean) and Northeastern Australia (Marion Plateau, ODP LEG 194)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Cédric Michaël

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated the slope carbonates of two Miocene carbonate systems: the Maltese Islands (in the Central Mediterranean) and the Marion Plateau (Northeastern Australia, drilled during ODP Leg 194). The aim of the study was to trace the impact of the Miocene cooling steps (events Mi1-Mi6) in these carbonate systems, especially the Mi3 event, which took place around 13.6 Ma and deeply impacted the marine oxygen isotope record. This event also profoundly impacted oceanographic and climatic patterns, eventually leading to the establishment of the modern ice-house world. In particular, East Antarctica became ice covered at that period. The rational behind the present study was to investigate the impact that this event had on shallow water systems in order to complement the deep-sea record and hence acquire a more global perspective on Miocene climate change. The Maltese Islands were investigated for trends in bulk-rock carbon and oxygen isotopes, as well as bulk-rock mineralogy, clay minerals analysis and organic geochemisty. Results showed that the mid Miocene cooling event deeply impacted sedimentation at that location by changing sedimentation from carbonate to clay-rich sediments. Moreover, it was discovered that each phase of Antarctic glaciation, not just the major mid Miocene event, resulted in higher terrigenous input on Malta. Mass accumulation rates revealed that this was linked to increased runoff during periods when Antarctica was glaciated, and thus that the carbonate sediments were “diluted” by clay-rich sediments. The model subsequently developed to explain this implies feedback from Antarctic glaciations creating cold, dense air masses that push the ITCZ Northward, thus increasing precipitation on the North African subcontinent. Increased precipitation (or stronger African monsoon) accelerated continental weathering and runoff, thus bringing more terrigenous sediment to the paleo-location of the slope sediments of Malta. Spectral

  14. Two-year study of lipophilic marine toxin profile in mussels of the North-central Adriatic Sea: First report of azaspiracids in Mediterranean seafood.

    PubMed

    Bacchiocchi, Simone; Siracusa, Melania; Ruzzi, Angela; Gorbi, Stefania; Ercolessi, Manuela; Cosentino, Maria Anna; Ammazzalorso, Patrizia; Orletti, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    Since the late 1980s, the North-central Adriatic Sea has frequently experienced blooms of harmful algal species, producing marine lipophilic toxins (MLTs) which accumulate in mussels and pose a serious threat to consumer health. Here, we present a 2-year LC-MS/MS study (2012-2014) of the MLT profile in mussels from the North-central Adriatic Sea in the context of the presence of toxic phytoplankton concentrations in seawater. Okadaic acid increased in mussels from all areas during the summer and autumn-winter periods with a rising trend between 2012 and 2014. In the same periods, Dinophysis sp. increased in abundance in seawater, but the highest densities of algae did not always coincide with the highest levels of toxins in mussels. Yessotoxins (YTXs) content in mussel increased sharply in the autumn-winter periods even exceeding the legal limit; although this accumulation did not always correlated with the YTX-producers in water (such as Lingulodinium polyedrum and Protoceratium reticulatum) a massive bloom of Gonyaulax spinifera was reported in November 2013, suggesting the role of this species in YTXs shellfish contamination. Traces of Azaspiracid 2 (AZA-2) were observed often in mussels during the study period, confirming for the first time the presence of this biotoxin in Mediterranean seafood. PMID:26455996

  15. Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) an early warning indicator species of global warming in the central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colloca, Francesco; Mastrantonio, Gianluca; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Ligas, Alessandro; Sartor, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The effect of temperature increase on the stock of the deep-sea pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) was analysed along the western coasts of Italy (North Tyrrhenian-Ligurian Sea: Geographical Sub-Area 9). This crustacean is currently one of the most important commercial species of the trawl fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea. Landings of the species in the North Tyrrhenian-Ligurian Sea have grown consistently during the last years following a rapid increase in the stock size. Since the deep-sea pink shrimp stock is exploited on the same fishing ground of other heavily overexploited stocks in a full mixed and poorly selective fishery, its condition seems to be largely independent of the current fishing exploitation pattern suggesting a positive role of climate change on the dynamic of the stock. To test this hypothesis we investigated the effect of sea surface temperature (SST) on density and distribution of P. longirostris by means of general additive models (GAMs). Two different models were developed for the whole stock and for the recruits (CL < 20 mm) using time series of MEDITS (International bottom trawl survey in the Mediterranean) survey density indices (n km- 2) covering the period 1995-2010. Predictors included were geographical coordinates, quarterly averaged minimum SST, sampling depth and year. Spawners density was included as predictor into the GAM for recruits. The best GAM for the whole stock explained 67.1% of the total deviance, showing a clear increase in density in concomitance with the expansion of the stock northward. We found a significant positive effect of the min SST of all seasons, as expected considering that P. longirostris spawn all year round, with the highest influence played by summer min SST, either in the same or previous year. The best model for recruits explained 64.9% of the total deviance. Recruitment increased linearly with the density of spawners showing a positive temporal trend and an expansion northward. The observed

  16. Distribution and biological features of the common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758), in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busalacchi, B.; Bottari, T.; Giordano, D.; Profeta, A.; Rinelli, P.

    2014-12-01

    A synthetic analysis of the distribution, abundance and some biological traits of the common pandora ( Pagellus erythrinus) was performed. Data were gathered in 15 experimental bottom trawl surveys carried out off the southern Tyrrhenian Sea from 1994 to 2008. A total of 2,166 P. erythrinus were found in the investigated area, with a preference for the upper continental shelf (10-100 m). The highest persistence was recorded in the trawl-banned areas. The sex ratio Sr = F/( F + M) ranged between 0.60 and 0.96 (overall 0.78). The size at which 50 % of the individuals were mature was 157 and 170 mm total length for females and males, respectively. The length-weight relationship for all individuals was described by the following parameters: a = 0.016 and b = 2.905. Growth was evaluated (sexes combined) by applying length-based methods; up to eight significant modal components were evidenced. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for the whole population were estimated at L ∞ = 454 mm, K = 0.08 and t 0 = -2.57. The present results are in agreement with the information available for the other Mediterranean stocks suggesting common biological features.

  17. Tsunami early warning in the central Mediterranean: effect of the heterogeneity of the seismic source on the timely detectability of a tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.

    2012-04-01

    The central Mediterranean, and in particular the coasts of southern Italy, is one of the areas with the highest tsunami hazard in Europe. Limiting our attention to earthquake-generated tsunamis, the sources of historical events hitting this region, as well as the largest part of the potential tsunamigenic seismic sources mapped there, are found at very short distances from the closest shorelines, reducing the time needed for the tsunami to attack the coasts themselves to few minutes. This represents by itself an issue from the Tsunami Early Warning (TEW) perspective. To make the overall problem even more intriguing and challenging, it is known that large tsunamigenic earthquakes are generally characterized by highly heterogeneous distributions of the slip on the fault. This feature has been recognized clearly, for instance, in the giant Sumatra 2004, Chile 2010, and Japan 2011 earthquakes (magnitude 9.3, 8.8 and 9.0, respectively), but it was a property also of smaller magnitude events occurred in the region considered in this study, like the 28 December 1908 Messina Straits tsunamigenic earthquake (M=7.2). In terms of tsunami impact, the parent fault slip heterogeneity usually determines a high variability of run-up and inundation on the near-field coasts, which further complicates the TEW problem. The information on the details of the seismic source rupture coming from the seismic (and possibly geodetic) networks, though of primary importance, is typically available after a time that is comparable or larger than the time comprised between the generation and the impact of the tsunami. In the framework of the EU-FP7 TRIDEC Project, we investigate how a proper marine sensors coverage both along the coasts and offshore can help posing constraints on the characteristics of the source in near-real time. Our approach consists in discussing numerical tsunami scenarios in the central Mediterranean involving different slip distributions on the parent fault; the

  18. Temperature record and sapropel formation during the late Pliocene in central Mediterranean: a multi-proxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plancq, Julien; Grossi, Vincent; Huguet, Carme; Pittet, Bernard; Rosell-Mele, Antoni; Mattioli, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    The late Pliocene (Piacenzian; 3.6-2.6 Myr) in the Mediterranean region is characterized by the deposition of organic-rich sedimentary layers named sapropels. Sapropel formation has been related to the strengthening of the precessionally-controlled African monsoon, triggering enhanced primary productivity and/or improved organic matter preservation. However, the relative importance of surface-ocean productivity versus deep-water preservation for sapropel formation remains a long standing debate among the science community. Here, we used a multi-proxy approach to characterize long-term environmental conditions and to discuss sapropel formation during the late Pliocene at Punta Grande/Punta Piccola sections (southwest Sicily). Sea and air temperatures were reconstructed using all the lipid biomarker-based temperature proxies currently available: the alkenone unsaturation index (UK'37), the tetraether index (TEX86), the Long-chain Diol Index (LDI), and the degree of methylation/cyclization of branched tetraether (MBT/CBT). Results show that sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) were relatively stable throughout the late Pliocene, but that consistent increases are recorded in most sapropel layers. SST record was then compared with variations in total organic carbon proportions, lipid biomarkers contents and nannofossil assemblages. Based on these observations, two mechanisms of formation can be inferred for each sapropel. A first series of sapropels is likely due to a better preservation of organic matter, due to the development of a thermohaline stratification of the water column and to oxygen depleted bottom waters. The second series of sapropels is more likely due to enhanced primary productivity in a non-stratified water column.

  19. Seasonal spatial pattern and community structure of zooplankton in waters off the Baleares archipelago (Central Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Macias, V.; Vicente, L.; Molinero, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the zooplankton community in two different areas of the Baleares Archipelago, Western Mediterranean, using data obtained in autumn (December 2009) and summer (July 2010). Micrometazooplankton and mesozooplankton samples were collected in the 0-200 m layer above the shelf (200 m) and the slope (900 m) of each area by a 53 μm and a 200 μm mesh size net respectively. The zooplankton biomass (expressed as dry weight) was higher in autumn than in summer (9.30 and 6.95 mg m- 3, respectively) with an important contribution of micrometazooplankters (29% and 41% of total biomass respectively). The latter fraction overwhelmed in the entire metazooplankton abundance, suggesting a non-negligible role as potential food for fish in the epipelagic waters of the Baleares archipelago. The abundance of micrometazooplankton was two-fold higher in December (3581 ind. m- 3) than in July (1585 ind. m- 3), represented mainly by small copepods and nauplii. Likewise, the mesozooplankton community showed smaller difference between months (554 and 390 ind. m- 3, in December and July). Micrometazooplankton abundance was higher in the northern area than in the southern area during autumn, probably linked to the presence of a front, while the opposite was found in summer. In both periods and areas copepods dominated, and within the highly diverse community ten species and their juveniles accounted for 70% of the community. In both areas, Clausocalanus (C. pergens + paululus and C. arcuicornis), Paracalanus parvus, Oncaea media, Oithona plumifera and Acartia clausi were abundant in autumn, whereas Centropages typicus, Temora stylifera and Mecynocera clausi were mainly present in summer. ANOSIM analysis revealed significant differences in the mesozooplankton community composition between months while differences between areas were detected only in summer.

  20. Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis among Libyans

    PubMed Central

    El Jilani, Mouna M.; Mohamed, Abdenaser A.; Zeglam, Hamza Ben; Alhudiri, Inas M.; Ramadan, Ahmad M.; Saleh, Saleh S.; Elkabir, Mohamed; Amer, Ibrahim Ben; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Enattah, Nabil S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a common oral disease characterized by inflammation in the supporting tissue of the teeth ‘the periodontium’, periodontal attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss. The disease has a microbial etiology; however, recent findings suggest that the genetic factors, such as vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms, have also been included. Aim Investigation of the relationship between VDR gene polymorphisms and CP among Libyans. Materials and methods In this study, we examined 196 unrelated Libyans between the ages of 25 and 65 years, including 99 patients and 97 controls. An oral examination based on Ramfjord Index was performed at different dental clinics in Tripoli and information were collected using a self-reported questionnaire. DNA was extracted from buccal swabs; the VDR ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and were sequenced using Sanger Method. Results A significant difference in the newly detected ApaI SNP C/T rs#731236 was found (p=0.022), whereas no significant differences were found in ApaI SNP G/T rs#7975232, BsmI SNP A/G rs#1544410, and FokI SNP A/G rs#2228570 between patients and controls (p=0.939, 0.466, 0.239), respectively. Conclusion VDR ApaI SNP C/T rs#731236 may be related to the risk of CP in the Libyan population. PMID:25795245

  1. Lectotype designation for seven species names in the Daucus guttatus complex (Apiaceae) from the central and eastern Mediterranean basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Daucus guttatus complex includes 2-4 species growing from central and northern Italy to the Middle East. They are characterized by being usually annuals up to 50 cm high; and the primary umbels up to 7 cm in diameter with less than 25(35) rays. Discolored umbels are frequent, bearing one to seve...

  2. Centennial- to millennial-scale climate oscillations in the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea between 20,000 and 70,000 years ago: evidence from a high-resolution geochemical and micropaleontological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprovieri, Mario; Di Stefano, Enrico; Incarbona, Alessandro; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Pelosi, Nicola; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio; Sprovieri, Rodolfo

    2012-07-01

    Here we present a high-resolution faunal, floral and geochemical (stable isotopes and trace elements) record from the sediments of Ocean Drilling Program Site 963 (central Mediterranean basin), which shows centennial/millennial-scale resemblance to the high-northern latitude rapid temperature fluctuations documented in the Greenland ice cores between 20 and 70 kyr BP. Oxygen and carbon isotopes, planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil distributions suggest that Dansgaard-Oeschger (D/O) and Heinrich events (HE) are distinctly expressed in the Mediterranean climate record. Moreover, recurrent though subdued oscillations not previously identified in the Lateglacial Mediterranean sediments document a significant centennial-scale climate variability in the basin that is greater than previously thought. Alternations between climate regimes dominated by polar outbreaks during D/O stadials and warm D/O interstadials, with associated intensification of continental runoff, are well expressed in the ODP Site 963. These place the Mediterranean basin as an often overlooked recorder of the interplay between large- and regional- scale climate controls at intermediate latitudes, and of the possible interactions between different components of the climate system. Significant changes in Ba/Ca values measured in Globigerinoides ruber shells from a number of D/O stadials and interstadials suggest enhanced freshwater input from the north-eastern Mediterranean borderland during the D/O interstadials. However, the short duration of 3D stratification events never led to complete oxygen consumption along the water column, but clear effects of sluggish 3D circulation in the basin are testified to by negative excursions in δ13C measured in selected species of planktic and benthic foraminifera. HEs are constantly associated with lightening in the δ18O record of planktic foraminifera, possibly because of the impact of iceberg melting in the Iberian Margin on Mediterranean

  3. Deformation history during chain building deduced by outcrop structural analysis: The case of the Sicilian fold-and-thrust belt (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoli, G.; Nigro, F.; Favara, R.; Renda, P.; Salvaggio, G.

    2015-11-01

    The Sicilian fold-and-thrust belt is located in the central Mediterranean area, and it represents the south-eastern arcuate segment of the Apennine-Maghrebide orogen. The tectonic evolution of the Sicilian belt is documented after outcrop analysis of small-scale structural features carried out throughout the region. Results are consistent with the following four main deformation stages having affected the study area, from the oldest to the youngest: (i) multilayer weakening; (ii) folding-and-thrusting, (iii) extension, and (iv) renewed thrusting. The first deformation stage included three different substages (layer-parallel shortening, bed-parallel simple shear and fold nucleation), the second one by both thrusting and fold amplification and tightening. The third deformation stage involved re-activation of the pre-existing mechanical discontinuities and formation of low-to-high angle normal faults. Out-of-sequence thrusting postdated the aforementioned extensional stage, and formed the latest orogenic deformation stage that affected the Sicilian belt.

  4. Seismotectonics of northeastern Sicily and southern Calabria (Italy): New constraints on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector for the central Mediterranean geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfı, L.; Barberi, G.; Musumeci, C.; Patanè, D.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector of central Mediterranean area, including the Aeolian Islands, southern Calabria, and northeastern Sicily, where the convergence between Eurasian and African Plates has given rise to a complicated collisional/subduction complex. A high-quality data set of about 3000 earthquakes has been exploited for local earthquake tomography and focal mechanisms computation together with available source mechanisms from published catalogues. The results depict new details of a network of faults which enables the concurrent existence of adjacent compressional and extensional domains. In particular, tomographic images, seismic events distribution, and focal mechanisms pinpoint the geometry and activity of a lithospheric-scale tear faults system which, with a NW-SE trend through Sicily and the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas, represents the southern edge of the Ionian subduction trench zone. At crustal depth, this tearing is well highlighted by a rotation of the maximum horizontal stress, moving across the area from west toward east. In addition, the shallow normal fault regime, characterizing the southern Calabria and northeastern Sicily mainland, south of the NW-SE lineament, changes in the deeper part of the crust. Indeed, a NE-SW earthquake distribution, gently dipping NW, and inverse fault solutions indicate a still active contractional deformation in eastern Sicily, caused by the Africa-Eurasia convergence and well framed with the current compressive regime along the southern Tyrrhenian zone and at the front of the Sicilian Chain-Foreland.

  5. Seismotectonics of Northeastern Sicily and Southern Calabria (Italy): New constraints on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector for the Central Mediterranean geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfì, Luciano; Barberi, Graziella; Musumeci, Carla; Patanè, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding on the tectonic structures featuring in a crucial sector of central Mediterranean area, including the Aeolian Islands, southern Calabria and northeastern Sicily, where the convergence between Eurasian and African plates has given rise to a complicated collisional/subduction complex. A high quality dataset of about 3000 earthquakes has been exploited for local earthquake tomography and focal mechanisms computation. Results depict undiscovered details of a network of faults which enables the contemporary existence of adjacent compressional and extensional domains. In particular, tomographic images, seismic events distribution and focal mechanisms pinpoint the geometry and activity of a lithospheric-scale tear faults system which, with a NW-SE trend through Sicily and the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas, represents the southern edge of the Ionian subduction trench zone. At crustal depth, this tearing is well highlighted by a rotation of the maximum horizontal stress, moving across the area from west toward east. In addition, the shallow normal fault regime, characterising the northeastern Sicily mainland, south of the NW-SE lineament, changes in the deeper part of the crust. Indeed, a NE-SW earthquake distribution, NW gently dipping, and inverse fault solutions indicate a still active contractional deformation in the eastern Sicily, caused by the Africa-Eurasia convergence and well framed with the current compressive regime along the southern Tyrrhenian zone and at the front of the Sicilian Chain-Foreland.

  6. Nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) in the Eastern-Central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlucci, Roberto; Giuseppe, Lembo; Porzia, Maiorano; Francesca, Capezzuto; Alessandra, Marano Chiara; Letizia, Sion; Teresa, Spedicato Maria; Nicola, Ungaro; Angelo, Tursi; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2009-08-01

    The spatial pattern of the nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) (Linnaeus, 1758) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846) was studied in the South Adriatic and North Ionian Seas (Eastern-Central Mediterranean) applying geostatistical techniques and data from time series trawl surveys conducted in the area. The analysed variables were: R (number of recruits/km 2) and R/Tot (fraction of recruits on the total sampled population). The structural analysis showed a spatial pattern of both variables characterized by continuity on a small scale. Predictions of nursery area localization with probability of finding recruits at different threshold values were obtained through median indicator kriging. For the red mullet the nurseries were mainly identified in the South Adriatic Sea off the Gargano peninsula and between Molfetta and Monopoli within 50 m in depth. The main concentration of hake juveniles was found to be between 100 and 200 m in depth along the Gargano peninsula and between Otranto and Santa Maria di Leuca, where a nursery of deep-water rose shrimp was also detected. An overlapping depth, between 100 and 200 m, was identified for hake and deep-water rose shrimp nurseries. Protection of these areas through limitations of fishing pressure is discussed.

  7. Mutation and polymorphism of the prion protein gene in Libyan Jews with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gabizon, R.; Rosenmann, H.; Meiner, Z.; Kahana, I. ); Kahana, E. ); Shugart, Y.; Ott, J. ); Prusiner, S.B. )

    1993-10-01

    The inherited prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders which are not only genetic but also transmissible. More than a dozen mutations in the prion protein gene that result in nonconservative amino acid substitutions segregate with the inherited prion diseases including familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In Israel, the incidence of CJD is about 1 case/10[sup 4] Libyan Jews. A Lys[sub 200] substitution segregates with CJD and is reported here to be genetically linked to CJD with a lod score of >4.8. Some healthy elderly Lys[sub 200] carriers > age 65 years were identified, suggesting the possibility of incomplete penetrance. In contrast, no linkage was found between the development of familial CJD and a polymorphism encoding either Met[sub 129] or Val[sub 129]. All Libyan Jewish CJD patients with the Lys[sub 200] mutation encode a Met[sub 129] on the mutant allele. Homozygosity for Met[sub 129] did not correlate with age at disease onset or the duration of illness. The frequency of the Met[sub 129] allele was higher in the affected pedigrees than in a control population of Libyan Jews. The frequency of the Met[sub 129] and Val[sub 129] alleles in the control Libyan population was similar to that found in the general Caucasian population. The identification of three Libyan Jews homozygous for the Lys[sub 200] mutation suggests frequent intrafamilial marriages, a custom documented by genealogical investigations. 26 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Fishing management scenarios to rebuild exploited resources and ecosystems of the Northern-Central Adriatic (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouzai, Nadia; Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel; Santojanni, Alberto; Arneri, Enrico; Christensen, Villy

    2012-10-01

    We examined various fishing management options to recover exploited marine resources and ecosystems of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea. Dynamic simulations were based on a spatial ecological model previously calibrated with time series of data. Scenarios regarding spatial management were evaluated with the establishment of two marine protected areas, respectively, in the Pomo pit and the northern region. In addition, three temporal simulations of temporary closures and overall reduction of fishing effort of demersal and pelagic fleets (bottom, mid-water trawls and purse seines) were also considered. Simulations were run for 45 years (1975-2020), including the calibration period (1975-2002), and changes in biomass and catch of marine resources were analyzed. Our results confirm that current fishing management in the Adriatic Sea does not have clear beneficial impacts for the recovery of exploited resources, which will remain depleted in 2020 if "business as usual" continues. Simulations of alternative management suggest that both protected areas could be beneficial for fish population recovery predicting an increase in the biomass of commercial fish and predatory organisms. Simulations of temporary closures and overall reduction of fishing effort also show significant benefits for several commercial resources. We argue that both management measures may be effective tools to recover exploited ecosystems of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea and halt the decline of marine resources.

  9. Structural development of the central Kyrenia Range (north Cyprus) in its regional setting in the eastern Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.; Kinnaird, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed structural analysis of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological development of the central segment of the Kyrenia Range in its regional tectonic context is given here. The structural evidence comes from five structural traverses, outcrop observations, small-scale structures and related regional evidence. The majority of the structures are fault planes, of which a subordinate number exhibit slickenlines (fault plane data, n = 2688; with kinematics, n = 537). Additional kinematic data were obtained from C-S fabrics and folds. Small-scale structures in each stratigraphic unit were `backstripped' to reveal relative chronology. Synthesis of the structural information indicates three phases of convergence-related deformation: (1) Late Cretaceous, associated with greenschist facies metamorphism, followed by exhumation that was probably associated with WNW-ESE to ENE-WSW-trending high-angle faulting; (2) Mid-Eocene, associated with southward thrusting, coupled with ~N-S strike-slip (transfer faulting) and oblique faulting in an overall sinistral transpressive stress regime; (3) Late Miocene-earliest Pliocene, involving southward thrusting and folding, localised back-thrusting, extensive fault reactivation and large-scale segmentation of the range. Intense uplift of the Kyrenia Range took place during the Plio-Pleistocene, possibly related to the collision of the Eratosthenes Seamount with the Cyprus trench to the south of the island. The three main convergent phases relate to stages of northward subduction and diachronous continental collision affecting the northerly, active continental margin of the Southern Neotethys.

  10. Mediterranean diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you should take a calcium supplement. Wine is a common part of a Mediterranean eating ... but some people should not drink alcohol. Avoid wine if you are prone to alcohol abuse, pregnant, ...

  11. Improved astronomical age constraints for the middle Miocene climate transition based on high-resolution stable isotope records from the central Mediterranean Maltese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourik, Anja A.; Abels, Hemmo A.; Hilgen, Frederik J.; Di Stefano, Agata; Zachariasse, Willem Jan

    2011-03-01

    Marine outcrops of the Globigerina Limestone and Blue Clay formations on the Maltese Islands in the central Mediterranean document the middle Miocene climate transition between ˜15 and 13.5 million years ago. Here high-resolution benthic and planktic oxygen isotope records have been constructed for this enigmatic interval in Cenozoic climate evolution. Detailed biostratigraphic correlations to the astronomically tuned La Vedova section in northern Italy allow revision of the tuning of the Blue Clay Formation, constraining the age of the sediments directly above the formation boundary and hence the Mi-3b oxygen isotope event and Serravallian Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP). Biostratigraphic age control and cyclic patterns in the benthic carbon isotope record further lead to an astronomically-tuned age model for the Upper Member of the Globigerina Limestone Formation. Start of sedimentation of the Upper Globigerina Limestone is dated at ˜14.95 Ma, and the oldest Blue Clay sediments have a revised astronomical age of 13.76 ± 0.02 Ma. Our data indicates that a hiatus between 13.95 and 13.76 Ma cannot be excluded and could have implications for the Serravallian GSSP currently defined in this section. The global middle Miocene cooling is reflected in the benthic oxygen isotope record, showing a ˜0.6‰ increase (Mi-3b) between ˜13.95 and 13.76 Ma. A divergence between the planktic and benthic oxygen and carbon isotope records after 13.76 Ma could point to a decrease in ventilation, possibly related to increased fresh water influx after the climate transition.

  12. Spatial variation of present-day stress field and tectonic regime in Tunisia and surroundings from formal inversion of focal mechanisms: Geodynamic implications for central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumaya, A.; Ben Ayed, N.; Delvaux, D.; Ghanmi, M.; Zargouni, F.; Khayati Ammar, H.; Kadri, A.

    2015-12-01

    We compiled 123 focal mechanisms from various sources for Tunisia and adjacent regions up toSicily, to image the current stress field in the Maghrebides chain (from Tunisia to Sicily) and its foreland. Stressinversion of all the available data provides a first-order stress field with a N150°E horizontal compression(SHmax) and a transpressional tectonic regime, but the obtained stress tensor poorly fit to the data set.Weseparated them into regional subsets (boxes) in function of their geographical proximity, kinematicregime, homogeneity of kinematic orientations, and tectonic setting. Their respective inversion evidencessecond- and third-order spatial variations in tectonic regime and horizontal stress directions. The stressfield gradually changes from compression in the Maghrebides thrust belt to transpression and strike slipin the Atlassic and Pelagian foreland, respectively, where preexisting NW-SE to E-W deep faults systemare reactivated. This spatial variation of the sismotectonic stress field and tectonic regime is consistentwith the neotectonic stress field determined by others from fault slip data. The major Slab Transfer EdgePropagator faults (i.e., North-South Axis-Hammamet relay and Malte Escarpment), which laterally delimitthe subducting slabs, play an active role in second- and third-order lateral variations of the tectonicregime and stress field orientations over the Tunisian/Sicilian domain. The past and current tectonicdeformations and kinematics of the central Mediterranean are subordinately guided by the plateconvergence (i.e., Africa-Eurasia), controlled or influenced by lateral slab migration/segmentation andby deep dynamics such as lithosphere-mantle interaction.

  13. Lung Function Impact from Working in the Pre-Revolution Libyan Quarry Industry

    PubMed Central

    Draid, Marwan M.; Ben-Elhaj, Khaled M.; Ali, Ashraf M.; Schmid, Kendra K.; Gibbs, Shawn G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lung impact from working within the Libyan quarry industry, and if the length of work impacted the degree of degradation. Eighty three workers from eight silica quarries in the Nafusa Mountains of Libya opted to participate. These quarries were working the upper cretaceous geological structure. Eighty-five individuals who lived in Gharyan City with no affiliation to quarry operations participated as controls. Spirometry variables evaluated were Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume at 1.0 second (FEV1), FVC/FEV1 and Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Control and exposed groups had no differences in terms of height, weight, or smoking status (p = 0.18, 0.20, 0.98, respectively). Prior to adjustment for other variables, FVC, FEV1, and PEF are all significantly lower in the exposed group (p = 0.003, 0.009, 0.03, respectively). After adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking status, there remain significant differences between the control and exposed groups for FVC, FEV1, and PEF. This analysis demonstrated that exposure to quarry dust has a detrimental effect on lung function, and that pre-revolution Libyan quarry workers were being exposed. This study shows that any exposure is harmful, as the reduction in lung function was not significantly associated with years of exposure. PMID:25961801

  14. Information Memory Processing and Retrieval: Cultural Differences of Libyan and American Children in a Sorting and Piagetian Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attashani, Abdulrazik; Pesenti, Roberto A.

    Reported is a study related to a Project on an Information Memory Model in which the performance of children living in two different cultures (Libyan and American) was compared on two problem solving tasks to investigate cultural differences in memory information processing. One task was the chemical bodies experiment studied by Piaget and…

  15. The Social Supervision and Its Role in Developing of the School Social Service in Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekali, Karima A. A.; zain, Abdul-Aziz

    2010-01-01

    The new direction of the social control over the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is a phase that began in Tripoli city in 1990. After opening of the Office of Education ministry, education and health as a result of the efforts made by the Department of Education, which affected the evolution of modern educational thought, which emphasizes the process of…

  16. A seven year record of Saharan dust outbreaks over the Central Mediterranean Sea:chemical characterization, size distribution and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becagli, Silvia; Marconi, Miriam; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Bommarito, Carlo; Calzolai, Giulia; Chiari, Massimo; di Sarra, Alcide; Gomez-Amo, Jose Louis; Lucarelli, Franco; Meloni, Daniela; Pace, Giandomenico; Traversi, Rita; Severi, Mirko; Udisti, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Saharan dust largely affects air pollution and climate. This study aims at determining the mineral contribution to PM10 in the Central Mediterranean Sea based on 7 years of PM10 chemical composition measurements at the island of Lampedusa (35.5°N, 12.6° E). Total content and soluble fractions of selected elements and metals are used to characterize the dust events. The soluble + insoluble contribution is determined by PIXE, (Particles Induced X-ray Emission), while the composition of the soluble fraction by ICP-AES, (Inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy) after extraction with HNO3 at pH1.5. The solubility of each element and its size distribution are analyzed with the aim of obtaining information on their sources, mixing processes, and availability for the environment. The Saharan dust contribution to the total PM was estimated by considering Al, Si, Ca, non-sea-salt Na, K and Fe oxides. During strong Saharan dust events PM10 is often higher than 50μg m-3, and the dust contribution is about 50%. The crustal aerosol amount and contribution to PM10 shows a very small seasonal dependence; conversely, the dust optical depth displays an evident annual cycle, with a strong summer maximum (monthly average aerosol optical depth at 500 nm as large as 0.28 in June-August). We found that only 49% of the events identified from optical properties over the air column display a high dust content at the ground level, demonstrating that Saharan dust transport frequently occurs above the marine boundary layer, with negligible or small impact on the surface aerosol properties. The average size distribution obtained by Optical Particle Counter during the days with high mineral content comprises three modes, whose median radii are at about 0.29 um, 2.2 um, and 7.2 um, respectively. Solubility of each elements present a large variability in the condition of extraction, but usually in Saharan dust events the solubility is lower than in non-Saharan dust events

  17. Hydrological and thermal changes along the last 2.7 kyr in the central-western Mediterranean based on a multi-archive approach: speleothem and marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Mercè; Cacho, Isabel; Fornós, Joan J.; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Edwards, Larry; Cheng, Hai; Frigola, Jaime

    2016-04-01

    Climatic conditions over the last 2.7 kyr are reconstructed in base to six speleothems from a cave in Mallorca and a group of sediment cores from the Menorca Rise. Speleothem records provide a solid chronology in base to high resolution U/Th dating. Both δ 13C and particularly δ 18O records show pronounced oscillations related to pre-roman times as the Dark Middle Ages, the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. The geochemical proxies from the six studied speleothems have been stacked in a unique record, which provides decadal-multidecadal resolution. In parallel, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) conditions have been reconstructed in base to Globigerina bulloides-Mg/Ca ratios from a group of multicore records, and they have been combined with δ18O data to reconstruct changes in the evaporation-precipitation ratio of the basin. These records have also been stacked in a single anomaly curve after the accurate construction of robust multi-proxy chronologies (Cisneros et al., under evaluation). The comparison of the marine and speleothem records reveal the occurrence of synchronous changes in both SST and humidity conditions over land along the last 2.7 kyr, although the relationship of these two climatic variables changed along the different climatic events. These results support that the driest conditions occurred during part of the Roma Classic Period and also during the Medieval Climate Anomaly when climate conditions were mostly warm, but also during the second part of the Little Ice Age when cold conditions dominated. This combined land-sea proxy approach offers a powerful tool to reconstruct past climate variability with highly precise chronologies. REFERENCES: M. Cisneros, I. Cacho, J. Frigola, M. Canals, P. Masqué, B. Martrat, F. Lirer, and G. Margaritelli. Sea surface temperature variability in the central-western Mediterranean Sea during the last 2700 years: a multi-proxy and multi-record approach. Submitted on 28 Sep 2015 for open discussion on

  18. The impact of Mount Etna's sulphur emissions to the atmospheric composition, aerosol properties and radiative transfer in the central Mediterranean: 14 years of statistic analysis using observations and Lagrangian modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, Pasquale; Zanetel, Claudia; di Sarra, Alcide; Salerno, Giuseppe; Tapparo, Andrea; Briole, Pierre; Legras, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions influence tropospheric and stratospheric composition, the Earth's radiation budget from the regional to the global scale, and then the Earth's climate. While the impact of the strong explosive eruptions reaching the stratosphere is relatively well known, the influence of the more frequent weak volcanic activity, including passive degassing, on the tropospheric aerosol properties and on the radiation budget is still largely unknown. Most of the radiative effects of moderate eruptions are associated with changes of the aerosol size distribution, composition, and shape. Emission of primary particles, mainly ash, and secondary aerosols through gas-to-particle conversion of volatile sulphur compounds contribute to affect the aerosol properties. Mount Etna's continuous degassing and episodic explosive eruptions is an important source of particles and gases for the Mediterranean atmosphere, with, e.g., ten times larger emissions of volatile sulphur compounds than the anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. The impact of Mount Etna on the atmospheric composition, the aerosol chemical, microphysical and optical properties, the clouds occurrence and properties, the radiative balance and the regional climate in the Mediterranean are not known and probably underestimated. In this contribution, the downwind impact of Mount Etna's sulphur emissions in the central Mediterranean is estimated over the period 2000-2013 using long-term series of sulphur dioxide column and Ångströms exponent observations at the the ENEA (Ente Nazionale per l'Energia e l'Ambiente) Station for Climate Observations on the small island of Lampedusa (35.5°N, 12.6°E). These observations are linked to the information on the volcanic source, in terms of 1) the local dynamics, using a long series of trajectories and plume dispersion information obtained with the FLEXPART Lagrangian mode, and 2) the emission strength, using the long-term series of daily sulphur dioxide

  19. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy: A Libyan experience

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, A.; Tarsin, R.; ElHabbash, B.; Zagan, N.; Markus, R.; Drebeka, S.; AbdElmola, K.; Shawish, T.; Shebani, A.; AbdElmola, T.; ElUsta, A.; Ehtuish, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to assess the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB), to ascertain the risk factors for complications and determine the optimal period of observation. The radiologist (A.M.) at the National Organ Transplant Centre, Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya, performed 86 PRBs between February 1, 2006, and January 31, 2008, using an automated biopsy gun with 16-gauge needle. Coagulation profile was done in all the patients. All patients were kept on strict bed rest for six hours post-procedure. Eighty six renal biopsies were performed on 78 patients referred from rheumatology department and eight post-kidney transplant recipients; 23 were males with age range 15 – 56 years and 63 females with age range 16 – 66 years. A mean of 17.5 glomeruli were present in each specimen. A glomerular yield of less than five glomeruli was seen in four biopsies. Class I lupus nephritis (LN) was seen in 1 patient, class II lupus nephritis in 7 patients, class III LN in 13 patients and class IV LN in 29 patients. All the eight renal allografts were diagnosed as acute tubular necrosis or acute interstitial rejection. The risk of post-biopsy bleeding was higher in women, older patients and higher PTT. The overall complication rate was 5.8%. Three complications were observed within six hours of biopsy. No late complication was seen. PRB under real-time ultrasound-guidance is a safe and efficacious procedure to establish the histological diagnosis and should be done as out-patient procedure. Observation time of six hours post-biopsy is optimal. PMID:20835320

  20. Seismic stratigraphy and deformational styles of the offshore Cyrenaica (Libya) and bordering Mediterranean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yem, Lionel Mbida; Camera, Laurent; Mascle, Jean; Ribodetti, Alessandra

    2011-04-01

    Off northwest Libya the Cyrenaica foreland basin domain and its Pan-African continental crust, which constitute the African promontory, are overthrusted by the Mediterranean Ridge Complex. The thrust belt contact and its seismic stratigraphy have been analysed using pre-stack depth-migrated multichannel seismic (MCS) lines recorded during the MEDISIS survey (2002). The geometry and sedimentary distribution analysis through the wedge-top depocentres allow reconstruction of schematic cross-sections of the tectono-sedimentary wedge that includes two major thrust sequences separated by an apparently poorly deformed transition zone. Based on time-space variation of several piggyback basins, we propose that these thrust sequences relate to distinct phases of shortening. (1) A first event, which probably occurred just prior to the Messinian crisis in latest Miocene (Tortonian times?) and (2) A second event, that has finally led to the present-day overthrusting of the Mediterranean Ridge over the Libyan continental slope.

  1. Tephrochronology of the astronomically-tuned KC01B deep-sea core, Ionian Sea: insights into the explosive activity of the Central Mediterranean area during the last 200 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insinga, D. D.; Tamburrino, S.; Lirer, F.; Vezzoli, L.; Barra, M.; De Lange, G. J.; Tiepolo, M.; Vallefuoco, M.; Mazzola, S.; Sprovieri, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present a major, trace and rare earth element characterization of single glass shards from fifteen tephra layers found in the astronomically-tuned KC01B deep-sea core (Ionian Sea, Central Mediterranean-36°15.25‧N, 17°34.44‧E, 3642 m water depth). KC01B is considered a reference core for the Mediterranean area since it provides a new reliable astronomical tuned timescale for the last 1.112 My (Lourens, 2004). The studied deposits punctuate the marine record in a time span ranging from ca 16 ka to ca 191 ka B.P. encompassing the climatic zones Y, X, W and V. They are related to volcanic activity of the Campania Plain, Aeolian Islands, Mt. Etna and Pantelleria Island. Along with major main markers of the Central Mediterranean area such as Y-1, Y-5, and X-6, astronomically dated at 16.7 ka, 39.1 ka, and 110.5 ka, respectively, the succession contains a number of well preserved deposits which can represent useful inter-archive instruments of correlation. The Campania Plain, in particular, sourced at least nine compositionally homogeneous tephra layers prior to the Campanian Ignimbrite event. The data obtained in this work provide a new detailed analytical reference database for Ionian Sea tephrochronology and for proximal-distal correlation studies. They may help to unravel from the marine record the history of poorly known or unknown explosive activity on land since the middle Pleistocene along with chemical composition, size and dispersal of the products.

  2. Saharan dust aerosol over the central Mediterranean Sea: optical columnar measurements vs. aerosol load, chemical composition and marker solubility at ground level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, M.; Sferlazzo, D. M.; Becagli, S.; Bommarito, C.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; di Sarra, A.; Ghedini, C.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Lucarelli, F.; Meloni, D.; Monteleone, F.; Nava, S.; Pace, G.; Piacentino, S.; Rugi, F.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at the determination of the mineral contribution to PM10 in the central Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 7 yr of PM10 chemical composition daily measurements made on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E). Aerosol optical depth measurements are carried out in parallel while sampling with a multi-stage impactor, and observations with an optical particle counter were performed in selected periods. Based on daily samples, the total content and soluble fraction of selected metals are used to identify and characterize the dust events. The total contribution is determined by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) while the composition of the soluble fraction by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy) after extraction with HNO3 at pH 1.5. The average PM10 concentration at Lampedusa calculated over the period June 2004-December 2010 is 31.5 μg m-3, with low interannual variability. The annual means are below the EU annual standard for PM10, but 9.9% of the total number of daily data exceed the daily threshold value established by the European Commission for PM (50 μg m-3, European Community, EC/30/1999). The Saharan dust contribution to PM10 was derived by calculating the contribution of Al, Si, Fe, Ti, non-sea-salt (nss) Ca, nssNa, and nssK oxides in samples in which PIXE data were available. Cases with crustal content exceeding the 75th percentile of the crustal oxide content distribution were identified as dust events. Using this threshold we identify 175 events; 31.6% of them (55 events) present PM10 higher than 50 μg m-3, with dust contributing by 33% on average. The annual average crustal contribution to PM10 is 5.42 μg m-3, reaching a value as high as 67.9 μg m-3, 49% of PM10, during an intense Saharan dust event. The crustal aerosol amount and contribution to PM10 shows a very small seasonal dependence; conversely, the dust columnar burden displays an evident annual cycle, with a strong summer maximum (monthly

  3. Review of miscible flood performance, Intisar 'D' field, Socialist people's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

    SciTech Connect

    DesBrisay, C.L.; El Ghussein, B.; Holst, P.H.; Misellati, A.

    1981-01-01

    The Intisar 'D' reservoir is a major oil field in the Sirte Basin of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. The field has been developed with bottom-water injection for pressure support and crestal high pressure miscible gas injection for enhanced oil recovery and gas conservation. This paper presents details of the reservoir performance and simulation study. Field performance results, have been history matched with a three-dimensional, 1,615-grid, two-component black oil simulator. The simulator prediction runs indicate that the final oil recovery efficiency for this dual displacement process will be approximately 70 percent. This high recovery is attributed to effective miscible displacement and gravity drainage together with efficient bottom-water displacement. 4 refs.

  4. Libyan National Health Services The Need to Move to Management-by-Objectives

    PubMed Central

    El Taguri, A; Elkhammas, EA; Bakoush, O; Ashammakhi, N; Baccoush, M; Betilmal, I

    2008-01-01

    In the last four decades, there has been a substantial horizontal expansion of health services in Libya. This resulted in improvement in morbidity and mortality, in particularly those related to infectious disease. However, measures such as the national performance gap indicator reveal an underperforming health system. In this article, we discuss aspects related to the Libyan health system and its current status including areas of weakness. Overcoming current failures and further improvement are unlikely to occur spontaneously without proper planning. Defining community health problems, identifying unmet needs, surveying resources to meet them, establishing SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, and realistic and time specific) objectives, and projecting administrative action to accomplish the proposed programs, are a must. The health system should rely on newer approaches such as management-by-objectives and risk-management rather than the prevailing crisis-management attitude. PMID:21499467

  5. Paleoecology reconstruction from trapped gases in a fulgurite from the late Pleistocene of the Libyan Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Navarro, Gonzalez R.; Mahan, S.A.; Singhvi, A.K.; Navarro-Aceves, R.; Rajot, J.-L.; McKay, C.P.; Coll, P.; Raulin, F.

    2007-01-01

    When lightning strikes the ground, it heats, melts, and fuses the sand in soils to form glass tubes known as fulgurites. We report here the composition of CO2, CO, and NO contained within the glassy bubbles of a fulgurite from the Libyan Desert. The results show that the fulgurite formed when the ground contained 0.1 wt% organic carbon with a C/N ratio of 10-15 and a ??13C of -13.96???, compositions similar to those found in the present-day semiarid region of the Sahel, where the vegetation is dominated by C4, plants. Thermoluminescence dating indicates that this fulgurite formed ???15 k.y. ago. These results imply that the semiarid Sahel (at 17??N) reached at least to 24??N at this time, and demonstrate that fulgurite gases and luminescence geochronology can be used in quantitative paleoecology. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  6. Estimate of the Saharan dust shortwave and photosynthetic radiative forcing efficiency at the surface during the propagation of a gravity wave in the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sarra, Alcide; Fuà, Daniele; Meloni, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    This study is based on measurements made at ENEA Station for Climate Observations (35.52° N, 12.63° E, 50 m asl) on the island of Lampedusa, in the Southern part of the Central Mediterranean. A quasi periodic oscillation of aerosol optical depth, column water vapour, shortwave (SW) and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) is observed to occur during the morning of 7 September 2005. The quasi-periodic wave is present from about 6 to 10 UT, with solar zenith angles (SZA) varying between 77.5° and 37.2° . In this period the aerosol optical depth at 500 nm, ?, varies between 0.29 and 0.41; the column water vapour, cwv, varies between 2.4 and 2.8 cm. The oscillations of ? and cwv are in phase, while the modulation of the downward surface irradiances is in opposition of phase with respect to ? and cwv. The period of the oscillation is about 13 min. The oscillation is attributed to the propagation of a gravity wave which modulates the structure of the planetary boundary layer. The measured aerosol optical properties are typical of cases dominated by Saharan dust, with the Ångström exponent comprised between 0.5 and 0.6. The backtrajectory analysis for that day shows that airmasses overpass Northern Libya (trajectories arriving below 2000 m), Tunisia and Northern Algeria (trajectories arriving above 2000 m), carrying Saharan dust particles to Lampedusa. The combined modulation of downward irradiance, water vapour column, and aerosol optical depth is used to estimate the aerosol effect on the irradiance. From the irradiance-optical depth relation, the aerosol surface direct forcing efficiency (FE) is derived, under the assumption that during the measurement interval the aerosol microphysical properties do not appreciably change. As a first step, all SW irradiances are reported to the same cwv content (2.6 cm), by using radiative transfer model calculations. Reference curves describing the downward SW and PAR irradiances are constructed by using measurements obtained

  7. Kinematics and active faults in Western Greece in the framework of Central and Eastern Mediterranean geodynamics: new insights from GPS and field work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perouse, E.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Sébrier, M.; Rabaute, A.; Sorel, D.; Arsenikos, S.; Briole, P.

    2011-12-01

    Western Greece is the transition area between fast extension in the Gulf of Corinth, dextral transpression in the Ionian islands associated to the NW termination of the Hellenic subduction zone and collision of the Apulian platform and Eurasia plate in Epirus. We use a multi-scale approach to investigate the kinematics of this challenging region. As the kinematic boundary conditions of this region are complex, we propose a large scale kinematic model that encompasses both Central and Eastern Mediterranean. We use Haines and Holt (1993) method to derive a continuous velocity and strain rate field by interpolating model velocities that are fitted in a least square sense to published GPS velocities. The main results of our model are: (1) We minimize the motion of the Hyblean plateau in Sicily and Apulia to derive a pole of rotation for the Ionian block following D'Agostino et al. (2008). This rotation pole also minimizes the Ionian basin motion; (2) We propose a "southward drag" of SW Balkans associated to the retreat of the Hellenic slab. The southward motion of the Aegean block with respect to Eurasia is gradually accommodated in the Balkans, so that the propagation of the North Anatolian Fault throughout is not required; (3) On absolute plates motion reference frame (Kreemer 2009), our results suggest a surface toroidal motion located above the NW edge of the Hellenic slab. We discuss whether this clockwise surface toroidal motion mimics toroidal astenospheric flow or not. At a smaller scale, we perform kinematic calculations to distinguish whether surface movements measured by GPS in Western Greece are due to block motion or diffuse deformation. Interseismic strain influence of the shallow subduction interface on surface velocity vectors is tested. To constrain the active structures that accommodate the present strain, we carried out a Quaternary geology and geomorphology field work in Etolo-Akarnania region (Western Greece). We establish a new map of active

  8. Recolonization patterns of ants in a rehabilitated lignite mine in central Italy: Potential for the use of Mediterranean ants as indicators of restoration processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ottonetti, L.; Tucci, L.; Santini, G.

    2006-03-15

    Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages were sampled with pitfall traps in three different habitats associated with a rehabilitated mine district and in undisturbed forests in Tuscany, Italy. The four habitats were (1) open fields (3-4 years old); (2) a middle-age mixed plantation (10 years); (3) an old-age mixed plantation (20 years); and (4) an oak woodland (40 years) not directly affected by mining activities. The aim of the study was to analyze ant recolonization patterns in order to provide insights on the use of Mediterranean ant fauna as indicators of restoration processes. Species richness and diversity were not significantly different among the four habitats. However, multivariate analyses showed that the assemblages in the different habitats were clearly differentiated, with similarity relationships reflecting a successional gradient among rehabilitated sites. The observed patterns of functional group changes along the gradient broadly accord with those of previous studies in other biogeographic regions. These were (1) a decrease of dominant Dolichoderinae and opportunists; (2) an increase in the proportion of cold-climate specialists; and (3) the appearance of the Cryptic species in the oldest plantations, with a maximum of abundance in the woodland. In conclusion, the results of our study supported the use of Mediterranean ants as a suitable tool for biomonitoring of restoration processes, and in particular, the functional group approach proved a valuable framework to better interpret local trends in terms of global ecological patterns. Further research is, however, needed in order to obtain a reliable classification of Mediterranean ant functional groups.

  9. The level of selenium and some other trace elements in different Libyan arable soils using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    El-Ghawi, U M; Al-Fakhri, S M; Al-Sadeq, A A; Bejey, M M; Doubali, K K

    2007-10-01

    Elemental analysis of soils from two different arable regions in Libya was carried out to measure the level of many trace elements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of 10 elements, viz., (Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Sc, Se, Th, and Zn), using their long-lived radionuclides. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing two IAEA soil reference materials: IAEA Soil-7 and IAEA leak sediment SL-1; precision has been estimated by triplicate analysis of the sample and that of the reference material. Irradiations were carried out at the Tajura Research Center reactor, at 5-MW power level. It is clear that in the Libyan soil selenium concentration is somewhat lower than in other countries. The results show that trace metal concentrations in Libyan clay surface soil are higher than the sandy soil. PMID:17914223

  10. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    (FLEXPART) for inspecting the transport and dispersion of volcanic plume over the Mediterranean region and the radiative transfer model UVSPEC for inspecting radiative forcing of volcanic sulphates over the Mediterranean region. Preliminary results exploring the Central-Southern Mediterranean, reveal that thought only 2 -7% of Mt. Etna's volcanic clouds disperses over this region, volcanic impact might be relevant in both SO2 abundances and sulphate-volcanogenic derived aerosol.

  11. Reprint of: Long-range atmospheric transport of PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs to the central and eastern Mediterranean and changes of PCB and PBDE congener patterns in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Marie D.; Heil, Angelika; Kukučka, Petr; Kuta, Jan; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Lammel, Gerhard

    2015-11-01

    The central and eastern Mediterranean is a receptor area for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted in western, central and eastern Europe, particularly during summer. Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, DDXs, PBDEs, penta- and hexachlorobenzene were measured during a ship-borne survey in the summer of 2010. The concentration of PCBs (sum of 7 congeners) was 3.61 (2.08-7.72) pg m-3, of which 6.7% was associated with the particulate phase. The mean concentration of DDT isomers and their metabolites, DDE and DDD, was 2.60 (0.46-7.60) pg m-3 (particulate mass fraction θ = 0.097), of penta- and hexachlorobenzene 0.22 (<0.39-2.80) pg m-3 and 6.29 (2.48-24.16) pg m-3, respectively, and of PBDEs (sum of 8 congeners) 7.31 (2.80-19.89) pg m-3. The air masses studied had been transported mostly across central Europe, some crossing western Europe. The observed changes of PCB congener patterns along transport routes are in agreement with the perception that the reaction with the OH radical is dominating PCB atmospheric lifetime, and indicate an overestimation of the second order gas-phase reaction rate coefficient of PCB153 with OH by structure-activity relationship.

  12. Mapping cold-water coral habitats at different scales within the Northern Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean): an assessment of coral coverage and associated vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Savini, Alessandra; Vertino, Agostina; Marchese, Fabio; Beuck, Lydia; Freiwald, André

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the distribution of Cold-Water Coral (CWC) habitats on the northern Ionian Margin (Mediterranean Sea), with an emphasis on assessing coral coverage at various spatial scales over an area of 2,000 km(2) between 120 and 1,400 m of water depth. Our work made use of a set of data obtained from ship-based research surveys. Multi-scale seafloor mapping data, video inspections, and previous results from sediment samples were integrated and analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based tools. Results obtained from the application of spatial and textural analytical techniques to acoustic meso-scale maps (i.e. a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the seafloor at a 40 m grid cell size and associated terrain parameters) and large-scale maps (i.e. Side-Scan Sonar (SSS) mosaics of 1 m in resolution ground-truthed using underwater video observations) were integrated and revealed that, at the meso-scale level, the main morphological pattern (i.e. the aggregation of mound-like features) associated with CWC habitat occurrences was widespread over a total area of 600 km(2). Single coral mounds were isolated from the DTM and represented the geomorphic proxies used to model coral distributions within the investigated area. Coral mounds spanned a total area of 68 km(2) where different coral facies (characterized using video analyses and mapped on SSS mosaics) represent the dominant macro-habitat. We also mapped and classified anthropogenic threats that were identifiable within the examined videos, and, here, discuss their relationship to the mapped distribution of coral habitats and mounds. The combined results (from multi-scale habitat mapping and observations of the distribution of anthropogenic threats) provide the first quantitative assessment of CWC coverage for a Mediterranean province and document the relevant role of seafloor geomorphology in influencing habitat vulnerability to different types of human pressures. PMID:24466332

  13. The role of sea surface circulation and hydrographic processes in anchovy spawning and larvae distribution in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Bignami, Francesco; Patti, Bernardo; Santoleri, Rosalia; Fiorentino, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most important resources of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite its abundance and relevance, the anchovy population off the Mediterranean coasts exhibits a patchy distribution. Moreover, its biology and the influence of environment on its variability is poorly known. We here use data from ichthyoplankton-surveys carried out during the peak spawning season in order to analyze abundance and age of anchovy larvae in the Strait of Sicily, with respect to sea surface dynamic and hydrographic parameter patterns. The Strait of Sicily dynamics is characterized by upwelling regions, fronts, vortices, and filaments, with a consequent complexity in the spatial distribution of oceanographic parameters and anchovy larvae. To investigate the role of mesoscale features and oceanographic environment on the latter, anchovy larvae observations were paired to remote sensing data (such as sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, primary production, surface wind speed as well as light attenuation, absorption, and particle backscattering coefficients) and Lagrangian and Eulerian numerical simulations results for ocean currents and larval transport. The subsequent analysis shows and quantifies how the Atlantic Ionian Stream (AIS, a meandering current of Atlantic origin) path and variability, as well as the upwelling-induced south Sicilian coastal current, have consequences for anchovy spawning and larvae distribution. These currents transport anchovy larvae towards the Sicilian coast's south-eastern tip, where larvae are then retained in a frontal structure. However, significant cross-shore transport events due to relatively cold filament-like baroclinic instabilities generated by wind-induced coastal upwelling were also observed. Finally, the larval age distribution qualitatively agrees well with this transport pattern.

  14. Mapping Cold-Water Coral Habitats at Different Scales within the Northern Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean): An Assessment of Coral Coverage and Associated Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Savini, Alessandra; Vertino, Agostina; Marchese, Fabio; Beuck, Lydia; Freiwald, André

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the distribution of Cold-Water Coral (CWC) habitats on the northern Ionian Margin (Mediterranean Sea), with an emphasis on assessing coral coverage at various spatial scales over an area of 2,000 km2 between 120 and 1,400 m of water depth. Our work made use of a set of data obtained from ship-based research surveys. Multi-scale seafloor mapping data, video inspections, and previous results from sediment samples were integrated and analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based tools. Results obtained from the application of spatial and textural analytical techniques to acoustic meso-scale maps (i.e. a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the seafloor at a 40 m grid cell size and associated terrain parameters) and large-scale maps (i.e. Side-Scan Sonar (SSS) mosaics of 1 m in resolution ground-truthed using underwater video observations) were integrated and revealed that, at the meso-scale level, the main morphological pattern (i.e. the aggregation of mound-like features) associated with CWC habitat occurrences was widespread over a total area of 600 km2. Single coral mounds were isolated from the DTM and represented the geomorphic proxies used to model coral distributions within the investigated area. Coral mounds spanned a total area of 68 km2 where different coral facies (characterized using video analyses and mapped on SSS mosaics) represent the dominant macro-habitat. We also mapped and classified anthropogenic threats that were identifiable within the examined videos, and, here, discuss their relationship to the mapped distribution of coral habitats and mounds. The combined results (from multi-scale habitat mapping and observations of the distribution of anthropogenic threats) provide the first quantitative assessment of CWC coverage for a Mediterranean province and document the relevant role of seafloor geomorphology in influencing habitat vulnerability to different types of human pressures. PMID:24466332

  15. Benign Orofacial Lesions in Libyan Population: A 17 Years Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, Marwa; Abdulmajid, Ziad S.; Taher, Elsanousi M.; El Kabir, Mohamed A.; Benrajab, Mohamed A.; Kwafi, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the frequency and type of benign orofacial lesions submitted for diagnosis at Tripoli Medical Centre over 17 years period (1997-2013). Materials and Methods: Entries for specimens from patients were retrieved and compiled into 9 diagnostic categories and 82 diagnoses. Results: During the 17 years period, a total of 975 specimens were evaluated, it comprised a male-female ratio of 0.76:1. The mean age of biopsied patients was 36.3±18.32 years. The diagnostic category with the highest number of specimens was skin and mucosal pathology (22.87%); and the most frequent diagnosis was pyogenic granuloma (14.05%). Conclusion: Pyogenic granuloma, lichen planus, radicular cyst and fibroepithelial polyp were found to be the most predominant diagnoses. Frequencies of most benign orofacial diseases were comparable to similar studies in the literature and to those reported from the eastern region of Libya. Further surveys are needed to define the epidemiology of orofacial diseases in Libyan population. PMID:26962370

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination among Libyan children using a simple economic model

    PubMed Central

    Alkoshi, Salem; Maimaiti, Namaitijiang; Dahlui, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus infection is a major cause of childhood diarrhea in Libya. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in that country. Methods We used a published decision tree model that has been adapted to the Libyan situation to analyze a birth cohort of 160,000 children. The evaluation of diarrhea events in three public hospitals helped to estimate the rotavirus burden. The economic analysis was done from two perspectives: health care provider and societal. Univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty in some values of the variables selected. Results The three hospitals received 545 diarrhea patients aged≤5 with 311 (57%) rotavirus positive test results during a 9-month period. The societal cost for treatment of a case of rotavirus diarrhea was estimated at US$ 661/event. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio with a vaccine price of US$ 27 per course was US$ 8,972 per quality-adjusted life year gained from the health care perspective. From a societal perspective, the analysis shows cost savings of around US$ 16 per child. Conclusion The model shows that rotavirus vaccination could be economically a very attractive intervention in Libya. PMID:25499622

  17. Ultrastructural study of host-parasite relationship and pathogenicity of Eimeria sp. infecting Libyan Jird (Meriones libycus) (Lichtenstein, 1828).

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The relationship of Eimeria sp. and its host fat LibyanJird (Meriones libycus) was studied on an ultrastructural level. The host cellular organelles (nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus) and the changes of its infected intestinal epithelial cells during the development of parasitic stages (schizogony and gamogony) were studied and compared with those non-infected cells. The ultrastructures of intravacuolar tubules and folds in the parasitophorous vacuole (P.V.) were described. These fine structures may involve in the transporttation of materials from the host cell to across the parasitovorous vacuole (P.V.). PMID:23697012

  18. Epidemiological Overview of Hodgkin Lymphoma across the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Salati, Massimiliano; Cesaretti, Marina; Macchia, Matteo; Mistiri, Mufid El; Federico, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has always been a source of fascination to researchers due to its heterogeneous characteristics of presentation. HL is an uncommon neoplasm of B-cell origin with an incidence that varies significantly by age, sex, ethnicity, geographic location and socioeconomic status. This complex pattern was also found to be replicated among Mediterranean basin populations. HL incidence rates progressively decreased from industrialized European countries such as France (ASR=2.61) and Italy (ASR=2.39) to less developed nations such as Albania (ASR=1.34) and Bosnia Herzegovina (ASR=1.1). Regarding HL mortality we have found that countries with the lowest incidence rates show the highest number of deaths from this cancer and viceversa. Finally, a wide gap in terms of survival was showed across the Mediterranean basin with survival rates ranged from 82.3% and 85.1% among Italian men and women, to 53.3 % and 59.3% among Libyan men and women, respectively. Factors such as the degree of socio-economic development, the exposure to risk factors westernization-related, the availability of diagnostic practices along with different genetic susceptibilities to HL may explain its variation across Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the lack of health resources decisively contribute to the poor prognosis recorded in less developed region. In the future, the introduction of appropriate and accessible treatment facilities along with an adequate number of clinical specialists in the treatment of HL and other cancers are warranted in order to improve the outcomes of affected patients and treat a largely curable type of cancer in disadvantaged regions. PMID:25045456

  19. Statistical analysis of the eigenspace components of the two-dimensional, symmetric rank-two strain rate tensor derived from the space geodetic measurements (ITRF92-ITRF2000 data sets) in central Mediterranean and Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianqing; Grafarend, Erik W.

    2007-02-01

    In the deformation analysis with a 2-D (or planar and horizontal), symmetric rank-two deformation tensor in geosciences (geodesy, geophysics and geology), the eigenspace components of these random deformation tensors (principal components, principal directions) are of focal interest. With the new development of space-geodetic techniques, such as GPS, VLBI, SLR and DORIS, the components of deformation measures (such as the stress or strain tensor, etc.) can be estimated from their highly accurate regular measurement of positions and change rates and analysed by means of the proper statistical testing procedures. In this paper we begin with a review of the results of statistical inference of eigenspace components of the 2-D symmetric, rank-two random tensor (`random matrix'), that is, the best linear uniformly unbiased estimation (BLUUE) of the eigenspace elements and the best invariant quadratic uniformly unbiased estimate (BIQUUE) of its variance-covariance matrix. Then the geodynamic setting of the Earth and especially the selected investigated region-the central Mediterranean and Western Europe will be discussed. Thirdly, the ITRF sites are selected according to the history and quality of the ITRF realization series, and the related incremental velocities of selected ITRF sites are computed. Fourthly, the methods of derivation for the 2-D geodetic strain rates are introduced in order to obtain these strain rates from the incremental velocities. In the case study, both BLUUE and BIQUUE models as well as related hypothesis tests are applied to the eigenspace components of the 2-D strain rate tensor observations in the area of the central Mediterranean and Western Europe, as derived from the ITRF92 to ITRF2000 sequential station positions and velocities. The interpretation and comparison of these results with the geodynamic feature are followed. Furthermore the statistical inference of the eigenspace components provides us with not only the confidence regions of

  20. Fractionation profile and mobility pattern of metals in sediments from the Mediterranean Coast, Libya.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Samir M; Okbah, Mohamed A; El Haddad, Huda S; Soliman, Naglaa F

    2015-07-01

    A five-step sequential extraction technique, following Tessier's protocol, has been applied to determine the chemical association of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn with major sedimentary phases (exchangeable, carbonate, manganese and iron oxides, organic and residual fraction) in surface sediments from 14 stations off the Libyan Mediterranean coast. This study is a first approach of chemical fractionation of these metals in one of the most economically important area of the Libyan coastline in Mediterranean Sea. The total metal content was also determined. The total concentration of metals ranged from 5-10.5 mg/kg for Cd, 9.1-22.7 mg/kg for Cu, 141.8-1056.8 mg/kg for Fe, 18.9-56.9 mg/kg for Pb, and 11.6-30.5 mg/kg for Zn. The results of the partitioning study showed that the residual form was the dominant fraction of the selected metals among most of the studied locations. The degree of surface sediment contamination was computed for risk assessment code (RAC), individual contamination factor (ICF), and Global contamination factor (GCF). Risk assessment code classification showed that the relative amounts of easily dissolved phase of trace metals in the sediments are in the order of Pb>Zn>Cd>Cu>Fe. The results of ICF and GCF showed that Sirt and Abu Kammashand had higher GCF than other sites indicating higher environmental risk. In terms of ICF value, a decrease order in environmental risk by trace metals was Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Fe. Therefore, Pb had highest risk to water body. PMID:26070996

  1. Fully coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations for the central Mediterranean: Impact of enhanced hydrological parameterization for short and long time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senatore, Alfonso; Mendicino, Giuseppe; Gochis, David J.; Yu, Wei; Yates, David N.; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-12-01

    With the aim of developing a fully coupled atmosphere-hydrology model system, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was enhanced by integrating a new set of hydrologic physics parameterizations accounting for lateral water flow occurring at the land surface. The WRF-Hydro modeling system was applied for a 3 year long simulation in the Crati River Basin (Southern Italy), where output from the fully coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro was compared to that provided by original WRF model. Prior to performing coupled land-atmosphere simulations, the stand-alone hydrological model ("uncoupled" WRF-Hydro) was calibrated through an automated procedure and validated using observed meteorological forcing and streamflow data, achieving a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency value of 0.80 for 1 year of simulation. Precipitation, runoff, soil moisture, deep drainage, and land surface heat fluxes were compared between WRF-only and WRF/WRF-Hydro simulations and validated additionally with ground-based observations, a FLUXNET site, and MODIS-derived LST. Since the main rain events in the study area are mostly dependent on the interactions between the atmosphere and the surrounding Mediterranean Sea, changes in precipitation between modeling experiments were modest. However, redistribution and reinfiltration of local infiltration excess produced higher soil moisture content, lower overall surface runoff, and higher drainage in the fully coupled model. Higher soil moisture values in WRF/WRF-Hydro slightly influenced precipitation and also increased latent heat fluxes. Overall, the fully coupled model tended to show better performance with respect to observed precipitation while allowing more water to circulate in the modeled regional water cycle thus, ultimately, modifying long-term hydrological processes at the land surface.

  2. Early detection of metallo-β-lactamase NDM-1- and OXA-23 carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in Libyan hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mathlouthi, Najla; El Salabi, Allaaeddin Ali; Ben Jomàa-Jemili, Mariem; Bakour, Sofiane; Al-Bayssari, Charbel; Zorgani, Abdulaziz A; Kraiema, Abdulmajeed; Elahmer, Omar; Okdah, Liliane; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Chouchani, Chedly

    2016-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen causing various nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to characterise the molecular support of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from two Libyan hospitals. Bacterial isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods, and carbapenem resistance determinants were studied by PCR amplification and sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for typing of the isolates. All 36 imipenem-resistant isolates tested were identified as A. baumannii. The blaOXA-23 gene was detected in 29 strains (80.6%). The metallo-β-lactamase blaNDM-1 gene was detected in eight isolates (22.2%), showing dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii in Tripoli Medical Center and Burn and Plastic Surgery Hospital in Libya, including one isolate that co-expressed the blaOXA-23 gene. MLST revealed several sequence types (STs). Imipenem-resistant A. baumannii ST2 was the predominant clone (16/36; 44.4%). This study shows that NDM-1 and OXA-23 contribute to antibiotic resistance in Libyan hospitals and represents the first incidence of the association of these two carbapenemases in an autochthonous MDR A. baumannii isolated from patients in Libya, indicating that there is a longstanding infection control problem in these hospitals. PMID:27216382

  3. Molecular analysis of cystinuria in Libyan Jews: Exclusion of the SLC3A1 gene and mapping of a new locus on 19q

    SciTech Connect

    Wartenfeld, R.; Pras, E.; Pras, M.

    1997-03-01

    Cystinuria is a hereditary disorder of amino acid transport and is manifested by the development of kidney stones. In some patients the disease is caused by mutations in the SLC3A1 gene, which is located on the short arm of chromosome 2 and encodes a renal/intestinal transporter for cystine and the dibasic amino acids. In Israel cystinuria is especially common among Jews of Libyan origin. After excluding SLC3A1 as the disease-causing gene in Libyan Jewish patients, we performed a genomewide search that shows that the Libyan Jewish cystinuria gene maps to the long arm of chromosome 19. Significant linkage was obtained for seven chromosome 19 markers. A maximal LOD score of 9.22 was obtained with the marker D19S882. Multipoint data and recombination analysis placed the gene in an 8-cM interval between the markers D19S409 and D19S208. Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed for alleles of four markers, and a specific haplotype comprising the markers D19S225, D19S208, D19S220, and D19S422 was found in 11 of 17 carrier chromosomes, versus 1 of 58 Libyan Jewish noncarrier chromosomes. 40 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Mediterranean Outflow Mixing and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, James F.; O'Neil Baringer, Molly; Lueck, Rolf G.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Ambar, Isabel; Parrilla, Gregorio; Cantos, Alain; Kennelly, Maureen A.; Sanford, Thomas B.

    1993-02-01

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass.

  5. Mediterranean outflow mixing and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Price, J F; Baringer, M O; Lueck, R G; Johnson, G C; Ambar, I; Parrilla, G; Cantos, A; Kennelly, M A; Sanford, T B

    1993-02-26

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass. PMID:17732247

  6. Phylogenetic survey of metabolically active microbial communities associated with the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the Apulian plateau, Central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Michail M.; Cappello, Simone; Crisafi, Ermanno; Tursi, Angelo; Savini, Alessandra; Corselli, Cesare; Scarfi, Simona; Giuliano, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Living deep-water coral assemblages were discovered recently inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea between the depths of 300 and 1000 m off the Cape of Santa Maria di Leuca (Apulian platform, Ionian Sea). This living assemblage was dominated by two colonial scleractinian corals, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Two other corals, Desmophyllum crystagalli and Stenocyathus vermiformis were also recovered from this site, but were much less common. The composition of the metabolically active fraction of the microbial community associated with living specimens of L. pertusa was determined. Dead corals, proximal sediments and overlying seawater were also sampled and analyzed. Complementary 16S ribosomal DNA (crDNA) was obtained from total RNA extracted from all samples that had been subjected to reverse transcription-PCR amplification. Domain-specific 16S PCR primers were used to construct four different 16S crDNA libraries containing 45 Archaea and 201 Bacteria clones. Using Archaea-specific primers, no amplification products were obtained from any coral samples (live and dead). Living specimens of L. pertusa seem to possess a specific microbial community different from that of dead coral and sediment samples. The majority of all coral-associated riboclones was related to the Holophaga-Acidobacterium and Nitrospira divisions (80%). Moreover, more than 12% of all coral-associated riboclones formed a separate deep-branching cluster within the α- Proteobacteria with no known close relatives. The metabolically active fraction of the bacterial community colonizing the dead corals was dominated by Proteobacteria related to the gamma and epsilon subdivisions (74% and 26% of all clones, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of the Archaea clone library retrieved from proximal sediments indicated an exclusive dominance by the members of Crenarchaea Marine Group I (MGI), a lineage of unculturable microorganisms, widely distributed in marine habitats. In contrast, bacterial

  7. Diet and trophic ecology of the lanternfish Electrona risso (Cocco 1829) in the Strait of Messina (central Mediterranean Sea) and potential resource utilization from the Deep Scattering Layer (DSL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Pietro; Andaloro, Franco; Esposito, Valentina; Granata, Antonia; Guglielmo, Letterio; Guglielmo, Rosanna; Musolino, Simona; Romeo, Teresa; Zagami, Giacomo

    2016-07-01

    The feeding habits of the mesopelagic lanternfish Electrona risso from the Strait of Messina (central Mediterranean Sea) were analyzed for the first time. A total of 326 individuals were collected stranded along the Sicilian coast of the Strait of Messina from October 2012 to May 2013. Specimens ranged from 12.0 to 53.8 mm LS (mean LS = 38.6 ± 8.4 mm). Their stomach content was examined and prey composition and feeding strategy were investigated. The results indicate that E. risso is a specialist predator, which feeds mainly on the small mesopelagic fish Cyclothone braueri (%IRI = 74.06) and in minor proportion on zooplankton, with a prevalence of copepods. The specialized feeding strategy of E. risso is confirmed by the low value of Levins standardized index (Bj = 0.141), which indicated a restricted niche breadth. The value of the index of trophic level (TROPH) for E. risso resulted 4.20. The prey composition suggests that E. risso can be considered a weakly vertical migrating species, that feeds on the DSL crustacean and fish communities below 300 m of depth.

  8. Molecular architecture of Pipistrellus pipistrellus/Pipistrellus pygmaeus complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): further cryptic species and Mediterranean origin of the divergence.

    PubMed

    Hulva, Pavel; Horácek, Ivan; Strelkov, Petr P; Benda, Petr

    2004-09-01

    Previous genetic analyses have demonstrated that two phonic types of one of the most common European bats, the Common pipistrelle, belong to distinct species, although they are almost identical morphologically (45 kHz Pipistrellus pipistrellus and 55 kHz Pipistrellus pygmaeus). To reconstruct the history of the species complex and explain the codistribution of both forms in Europe and the Mediterranean, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on a 402-bp portion of the cytochrome b gene. Particular attention was paid to the eastern and southern parts of the range where no data were available. We found further distinctive allopatric haplotypes from Libya and Morocco. The difference of about 6-7% described in the Libyan population suggests the occurrence of a new species in the southern Mediterranean. The species status of Moroccan population is also discussed. The phylogeographic patterns obtained and analysis of fossil records support the hypothesis of expansion of both species into Europe from the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. The allopatric speciation model fits our data best. The paleobiographic scenario envisaged is corroborated also by molecular clock estimations and correlations with Late Neogene environmental changes in the Mediterranean region which ended with the Messinian salinity crisis. PMID:15288073

  9. A possible bridge between Adria and Africa: New palaeobiogeographic and stratigraphic constraints on the Mesozoic palaeogeography of the Central Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarcone, Giuseppe; Petti, Fabio M.; Cillari, Azzurra; Di Stefano, Pietro; Guzzetta, Dario; Nicosia, Umberto

    2010-12-01

    Dinosaur records in central and southern Italy testify to the occurrence of a diverse dinosaur fauna on the Apennine and Apulian carbonate platforms at least from the Tithonian to the Santonian. Most of the palaeogeographic reconstructions show these domains as topographically isolated areas, separated by deep pelagic basins and far from emerged continental areas. Thus, they hardly justify the long-lasting occurrence of these terrestrial vertebrates. Recent studies on the Mesozoic Panormide Carbonate Platform (western Sicily) yielded important stratigraphical and palaeontological data, which provide evidence for a convincing explanation of this unresolved problem. The recent discovery of a theropod bone in mid-Cretaceous peritidal levels of the Panormide Platform as well as the anomalous subsidence of this palaeogeographic domain, strongly support the existence of a crustal sector (filtering bridge) which connected Africa to Adria.

  10. 3D seismic geomorphology of mass transport complexes in a foredeep basin: Examples from the Pleistocene of the Central Adriatic Basin (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Valle, Giacomo; Gamberi, Fabiano; Rocchini, Patrizia; Minisini, Daniel; Errera, Alessia; Baglioni, Luca; Trincardi, Fabio

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic-reflection data has shed light on the character of a series of mass transport complexes (MTCs) emplaced during the Pleistocene in the Pescara Basin (Central Adriatic Sea, Italy). The Pescara Basin is the Plio-Pleistocene inner foredeep of the Central Apennines orogen, which was filled by a rapidly prograding, margin-scale clinoforms system. Three MTCs punctuate the normal turbiditic and hemipelagic sedimentary succession of the Pescara Basin foredeep. MTC_0 is the oldest one and covers an area of around 74 km2. It is composed of three different mass transport deposits (MTDs) resulting from individual collapses that involved a shelf-edge delta during a period of relative sea level rise. MTC_1, the intermediate age MTC, is the largest one, with an area of 90 km2. It has a 10 km wide cookie-bite headwall region that indents the upper slope and, in places, reaches the continental shelf-break. MTC_1 is made up of four laterally and vertically stacked MTDs which are the result of a composite set of failures that migrated progressively upslope in a sedimentary setting dominated by contourite deposits. MTC_2 is the youngest and the smallest one, with an area of 55 km2. It has a 5 km long headwall confined in correspondence with a sedimentary bulge developed in the upper slope. Its geomorphic setting leads us to consider two different episodes of failure rooted at different depths. The investigation of the MTCs, through the coupling of 3D seismic geomorphology, seismic facies analysis and rollover trajectory analysis, reveals that the type of sedimentary environment, the rate of sediment accumulation, the source region and the depth of rooting of the failure, are the major controlling factors on MTC evolution and emplacement. Each MTC of the Pescara Basin foredeep is generally confined within a discrete clinotheme. Finally, the rollover trajectory analysis has shown that, in the PB foredeep, a sediment failure can possibly occur at any

  11. 2700 years of Mediterranean environmental change in central Italy: a synthesis of sedimentary and cultural records to interpret past impacts of climate on society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensing, Scott A.; Tunno, Irene; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Florindo, Fabio; Noble, Paula; Archer, Claire; Zimmerman, Susan; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Cifani, Gabriele; Passigli, Susanna; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2015-05-01

    Abrupt climate change in the past is thought to have disrupted societies by accelerating environmental degradation, potentially leading to cultural collapse. Linking climate change directly to societal disruption is challenging because socioeconomic factors also play a large role, with climate being secondary or sometimes inconsequential. Combining paleolimnologic, historical, and archaeological methods provides for a more secure basis for interpreting the past impacts of climate on society. We present pollen, non-pollen palynomorph, geochemical, paleomagnetic and sedimentary data from a high-resolution 2700 yr lake sediment core from central Italy and compare these data with local historical documents and archeological surveys to reconstruct a record of environmental change in relation to socioeconomic history and climatic fluctuations. Here we document cases in which environmental change is strongly linked to changes in local land management practices in the absence of clear climatic change, as well as examples when climate change appears to have been a strong catalyst that resulted in significant environmental change that impacted local communities. During the Imperial Roman period, despite a long period of stable, mild climate, and a large urban population in nearby Rome, our site shows only limited evidence for environmental degradation. Warm and mild climate during the Medieval Warm period, on the other hand, led to widespread deforestation and erosion. The ability of the Romans to utilize imported resources through an extensive trade network may have allowed for preservation of the environment near the Roman capital, whereas during medieval time, the need to rely on local resources led to environmental degradation. Cool wet climate during the Little Ice Age led to a breakdown in local land use practices, widespread land abandonment and rapid reforestation. Our results present a high-resolution regional case study that explores the effect of climate change on

  12. Subaerial exposure and drowning processes in a carbonate platform during the Mesozoic Tethyan rifting: The case of the Jurassic succession of Western Sicily (central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulli, A.; Interbartolo, F.

    2016-01-01

    The Liassic carbonate platform succession outcropping at Monte Maranfusa (central Western Sicily) consists of a shallowing-upward sequence of peritidal carbonates, with Jurassic to Paleogene pelagic limestone and siliciclastic Tertiary covers above. The cyclic sequences of subtidal wackestones/packstones, intertidal microcrystalline carbonates with bird's-eye pores, and supratidal bioclastic grainstones are interbedded with dark layers of the following composition: 1) dark-gray, compact, and well-cemented limestone with blackish clasts, interpreted as calcretes (a type of carbonate soil) and 2) reddish calcite laminae, deformed by elongated cavities, filled with vadose silt, interpreted as paleokarst. This succession is crossed by almost vertical faults, of the Late Liassic to Miocene, which often coincides with neptunian dykes, filled by several generations of Toarcian-Early Miocene pelagic sediments. Another system of dykes, known as neptunian sills, filled by injected Upper Lias-Dogger pelagic sediments, lies parallel to the stratification. The parallel dykes were caused by the flexure of the platform during the Jurassic and presumably by a planar slip in the carbonate rocks, whereas neptunian dykes are caused by faulting episodes. Here, we present evidence that the dark layers in the Liassic succession of Monte Maranfusa, previously described by many authors only as parallel dykes, can actually be interpreted as a) neptunian sills, b) pedogenic calcretes, and c) paleospeleothems. Therefore, we found evidence of exposure/flooding intervals in the evolution of the carbonate platform during the Liassic, linked to different pulses in both the subsidence/tectonic activity and the sea-level oscillations. At the top, Fe-Mn crusts (hardgrounds) seal the carbonate platform succession, which is in turn overlain by condensed pelagic deposits, confirming its drowning during rifting processes.

  13. Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil and wild Libyan jird Meriones libycus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Adham, Khadiga G; Al-Eisa, Nadia A; Farhood, Manal H

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to document the impact of heavy metal pollution on the Libyan jird, Meriones libycus and to contribute to an environmental impact statement for the rapidly growing City of Riyadh. All metal concentrations in surface soil of a polluted site (within Riyadh City) were higherthan those from a reference site (outside the city).Although Pb declined versus earlier reports on Riyadh soil, Cd (0.97 microg g(-1)) and Hg (0.28 microg g(-1)) were above some of the most stringent quality guidelines (0.07-0.62 microg g(-1) for Cd and 0.14-0.18 microg g(-1) for Hg). Metal distribution in M. libycus proved site-related and organ-specific, recognizing a higher affinity of most tested metals towards the kidneys, liver and brain than the lung and heart. The comparatively lower site-specific accumulation of Pb in soft tissues was attributed primarily to its major hypothetical accumulation in bones, whereas, the transition rate of Hg from the liver was suggested to be lower to the brain than to the kidneys. Although a non hazardous status was assumed for Cu (11.27-13.16 microg g(-1)) and Hg (up to 0.207 microg g(-1)) in tissues of M. libycus, a potential risk was imposed by mean tissue concentrations of Cd (up to 3.29 microg g(01)), Ni (up to 1.48 microg g(-1)) and Pb (up to 1.94 microg g(-1)). On the grounds of the significantly higher metal levels in polluted soft tissues versus reference subjects, Libyan jirds possess high exposure potential and can be useful biomonitors of environmental metal contamination. PMID:22471221

  14. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 μSv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  15. Characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Libyan oil pipe scale using a germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, A. S.; Shutt, A. L.; Regan, P. H.; Matthews, M. C.; Alsulaiti, H.; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Radioactive scale formation in various oil production facilities is acknowledged to pose a potential significant health and environmental issue. The presence of such an issue in Libyan oil fields was recognized as early as 1998. The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) involved in this matter are radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) and their decay products, precipitating into scales formed on the surfaces of production equipment. A field trip to a number of onshore Libyan oil fields has indicated the existence of elevated levels of specific activity in a number of locations in some of the more mature oil fields. In this study, oil scale samples collected from different parts of Libya have been characterized using gamma spectroscopy through use of a well shielded HPGe spectrometer. To avoid potential alpha-bearing dust inhalation and in accord with safe working practices at this University, the samples, contained in plastic bags and existing in different geometries, are not permitted to be opened. MCNP, a Monte Carlo simulation code, is being used to simulate the spectrometer and the scale samples in order to obtain the system absolute efficiency and then to calculate sample specific activities. The samples are assumed to have uniform densities and homogeneously distributed activity. Present results are compared to two extreme situations that were assumed in a previous study: (i) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface proximal to the detector, simulating the sample lowest activity, and; (ii) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface distal to the detector, simulating the sample highest activity.

  16. Surface circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean using drifters (2005-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerin, R.; Poulain, P.-M.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Millot, C.; Ben Ismail, S.; Sammari, C.

    2009-03-01

    Within the framework of the EGITTO/EGYPT program, the spatial structure and the temporal variability of the surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea was studied by means of satellite-tracked drifters. A total of 97 drifters drogued to 15-m nominal depth were released between September 2005 and March 2007, either regularly along ship-of-opportunity routes (Sicily Channel) or within specific structures during dedicated campaigns (Levantine sub-basin). After editing and low-pass filtering, the drifter trajectories were used to estimate pseudo-Eulerian statistics: mean current, variance ellipses, mean and eddy kinetic energies. A statistical analysis was also performed dividing the dataset in two extended seasons (winter and summer). This study completes previous ones in the Sicily Channel and in the Ionian. Several veins are evidenced, together with a seasonal variability inducing a reversal of the circulation in the southern part of the Ionian. However, in this latter area, data are too scarce and the dynamics too complex to achieve a circulation pattern yet. Eastward, the general circulation is described as a counterclockwise flow along the Libyo-Egyptian and Middle East slopes. Part of this flow is deflected toward the open sea by the anticyclones generated alongslope by the Libyo-Egyptian current (Libyan and Egyptian eddies), by the wind (Ierapetra) or by the topography (over the Eratosthenes Seamount and off Latakia). The entrainment of this flow around successive eddies (paddle-wheels effect) results in an open sea eastward transport of Atlantic water. When the Libyan eddies (anticyclonic) are close to the slope, the westward current is stronger than the mean eastward current and the circulation is temporally and locally reversed. The strong variability induced by the eddies and the meteorological conditions hinder evenly covering all the study area. Additional deployments are required to improve further our understanding of the

  17. Dynamics of the Central Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, S.; Holt, W. E.; Haines, A. J.; Flesch, L. M.

    2003-12-01

    The Aegean is one of the fastest deforming regions on the planet. The northward motion of the Arabian plate, the westward drift of Turkey, right-lateral shear in Northern Aegean Sea, and complicated deformation patterns in Greece have long been of geophysical interest. In this work we seek to quantify the relative driving forces for active deformation within the Aegean. Specifically, we seek to quantify the role of body forces associated density variations within the lithosphere as well as the role of plate interaction in driving the active deformation there. Our numerical grid covers the entire Aegean region and the Turkish mainland. We first interpolate GPS data with continuous bi-cubic spline functions to define a kinematic solution. The density of grid areas used in the kinematic and dynamic modeling, together with the GPS data, are sufficient to delineate both rapidly deforming and rigid areas. Moreover, the model strain rate tensor field, defined by the fit to the GPS data, is in good agreement with the styles of active deformation inferred from earthquake moment tensor solutions. Our dynamic solutions involve a direct estimate of vertically averaged deviatoric stresses, using a thin-sheet parameterization. The deviatoric stress solution satisfies a set of balance equations for a non-accelerating continuum, where the governing force comes from the lateral variations in the graviatational potential energy, calculated assuming Airy-type isostatic compensation of topography. A second solution to the linear equations, without the body force term, is sought in a formal inversion to define a complete stress boundary solution. The deviatoric stress field associated with the boundary condition solution is added to the deviatoric stress field associated with the gravitational potential energy distribution to define a total solution. In the formal inversion the directions and relative magnitudes of principal axes of the total deviatoric stresses are constrained to be a best-fit with directions and relative magnitudes of principal strain rates, inferred from the interpolation of GPS observations. We obtained quite small vertically averaged deviatoric stress values for Western Turkey of 50-60 bars, which is roughly half of that calculated for the Western United States. The right lateral shear stresses are diffuse across a wide NE-SW trending band connecting the Marmara Sea region to Corinth Strait, where the GPS data show the largest strain rates (around 4.5 x 10-14s-1 within our grid cells). A remarkable feature is that gravitational potential energy distributions alone are sufficient to nearly completely define the right-lateral shear stress pattern in Marmara region. Elsewhere, gravitational potential energy differences and plate interaction act approximately equally to define the deviatoric stress field that drives deformation in the region. Using the vertically averaged deviatoric stress magnitudes from the dynamic solution, and the rates of strain from the kinematic solution, we solve for the vertically averaged effective viscosity field in the Aegean region. The Black Sea shows up as a region of high effective viscosity. Surprisingly the Anatolian block is defined by low deviatoric stress magnitudes, rather than by abnormally high effective strength.

  18. Solar dimming/brightening in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambezidis, Harry; Demetriou, Dora; Kaskaoutis, Dimitris; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2010-05-01

    Early analyses of solar radiation records have pointed to a widespread decline of surface solar radiation from the 1950s up to the 1980s in various parts of the world. This phenomenon was attributed to increasing air pollution and has been named "global dimming". More recent analyses with data records updated to near present suggested that surface solar radiation shows no sign of decrease anymore since the 1980s or even started to recover at many locations. This recovery has been named "solar brightening". Air pollution control and the economic breakdown of the former communist countries are the major influential factors for this transition. Further the influence of the recovery from the dimming caused by Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption in 1991 and internal climate variability with associated cloud variations were suggested to contribute to the brightening in the 1990s. Despite the interest in the solar dimming/brightening phenomenon the Mediterranean area has not attracted the attention of the scientists in this respect so far. Therefore, the present work tries to fill this gap by providing spatio-temporal analysis of the incoming short-wave solar radiation in the whole area of the Mediterranean Sea in the period 1979-2004 taken from satellites. To give better spatial information about the phenomenon the Mediterranean region has been divided into three sub-regions: the West Mediterranean, from Gibraltar to Corsica, the Central Mediterranean, from Corsica to the Ionian Sea, and the East Mediterranean, from the Ionian Sea to the shores of Syria. The analysis shows that the three sub-regions have not undergone the same spatio-temporal pattern of the phenomenon probably due to the different distribution of aerosols in the region.

  19. Fecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in a Libyan community

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), including the AmpC type, are important mechanisms of resistance among Enterobacteriaeceae. CTX-M type extended-spectrum β- lactamases, of which there are now over 90 variants, are distributed globally, yet appear to vary in regional distribution. AmpC β-lactamases hydrolyze third generation cephalosporins, but are resistant to inhibition by clavulanate or other β-lactamase inhibitors in vitro. Fecal carriage and rates of colonization by bacteria harboring these resistance mechanisms have been reported in patients with community-acquired infections and in healthy members of their households. Expression of these ESBLs compromises the efficacy of current antibacterial therapies, potentially increasing the seriousness of hospital- and community-acquired Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections. To investigate the occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in human fecal flora isolated from two pediatric populations residing in the Libyan cities Zleiten and Abou El Khoms. Isolates were further studied to characterize genes encoding β-lactam resistance, and establish genetic relationships. Methods Antibiotic resistance profiles of phenotypically characterized E. coli isolates recovered from the stools of 243 Libyan children during two surveillance periods in 2001 and 2007 were determined by the disk diffusion method. ESBL-screening was performed using the cephalosporin/clavulanate double synergy disc method, and the AmpC-phenotype was confirmed by the aminophenyl-boronic acid test. ESBL genes were molecularly characterized. Phylogenetic group and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were determined for ESBL-producing isolates and PFGE was performed to compare banding profiles of some dominant strains. Results ESBLs were identified in 13.4% (18/134) of E. coli isolates, and nine isolates (6.7%) demonstrated AmpC activity; all 18 isolates contained a CTX-M gene. Three CTX-M gene families (CTX-M-1, n = 9; CTX-M-15, n = 8

  20. Assessment of heavy metal and organic contaminants levels along the Libyan coast using transplanted mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Galgani, Francois; Chiffoleau, Jean Francois; Barrah, Mahmoud; Drebika, Usama; Tomasino, Corinne; Andral, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    Within the framework of the MYTIOR project in 2009, heavy metals and organic compounds contaminations were assessed in transplanted mussels in 16 different stations along the coasts of Libya. These stations were located at miles offshore industrial/urban sources but in open sea providing original results related to the background contamination rather than linked to a specific coastal source of pollutants. Results indicated mercury (Hg, 0.045-0.066 mg/kg dry weight (dw)), lead (Pb, 0.44-0, 71 mg/kg dw) and copper (Cu, 3.56-4.21 mg/kg dw) were in the same range or at lower value than control for all stations. Chromium (Cr) in Meleta (3.08 mg/kg dw) and Bomba (3.80 mg/kg dw) and Cadmium values in all stations (1.21-2.41 mg/kg dw) were above control. Meleta, stations from the gulf of Syrt and the three eastern stations were the most affected stations by nickel (max at 5.83 mg/kg dw in Syrt) when zinc was in the same range (141-197 mg/kg dw) and above the control (92 mg/kg dw) at all stations. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels were found in the range of 16.8-42.8 mg/kg (dry weight) indicating low levels along the Libyan coast with acenaphthene and benzo (a, b, k) pyrenes detected mainly in western Libya. The study of PAH ratios indicated a mixed petrogenic/pyrolytic origin. The only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in Libya were PCB 101 in one location and PCB 153 in Tripoli, Garrapoli, Syrt, Ras Lanuf and Benghazi (1.2-1.9 μg/kg dw). Insecticides were lower than control in all stations except DDT, only detected in Misratah (3.5 μg/kg dw). Overall, the results indicated a low background contamination and a low pollution extent according to the environmental pressure occurring offshore the Libyan coast. PMID:24870291

  1. On the occurrence of the fireworm Eurythoe complanata complex (Annelida, Amphinomidae) in the Mediterranean Sea with an updated revision of the alien Mediterranean amphinomids

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Andrés; Barroso, Rômulo; Anadón, Nuria; Paiva, Paulo C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The presence of two species within the Eurythoe complanata complex in the Mediterranean Sea is reported, as well as their geographical distributions. One species, Eurythoe laevisetis, occurs in the eastern and central Mediterranean, likely constituting the first historical introduction to the Mediterranean Sea and the other, Eurythoe complanata, in both eastern and Levantine basins. Brief notes on their taxonomy are also provided and their potential pathways for introduction to the Mediterranean are discussed. A simplified key to the Mediterranean amphinomid genera and species of Eurythoe and Linopherus is presented plus an updated revision of the alien amphinomid species reported previously from the Mediterranean Sea. A total of five exotic species have been included; information on their location, habitat, date of introduction and other relevant features is also provided. PMID:24146576

  2. Quality of Root Canals Performed by the Inaugural Class of Dental Students at Libyan International Medical University.

    PubMed

    Elemam, Ranya F; Abdul Majid, Ziad Salim; Groesbeck, Matt; Azevedo, Álvaro F

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to radiographically evaluate technical quality of root canal fillings performed by dental undergraduates at Libyan International Medical University in Libya. Methods. Root canal cases were treated at university dental clinic from the fall of 2012 to the fall of 2013 by the fourth and fifth year dental students. Students used step-back preparation and cold lateral compaction in the treatment. Radiographs were reviewed over a two-year period from initial procedure to final restoration. Radiographs were evaluated for adequacy or inadequacy by length, density, and taper. Length inadequacy was classified as short or overextended. Overall quality was considered "adequate" based on all three variables. Chi-square tested differences between teeth groupings and adequacy classification. Significant p value results were adjusted by Bonferroni correction. Results. Adequate length of root canal fillings were observed in roughly half of all samples (48.6%). Density was adequate in 75.8% of the samples. Taper was observed as adequate in 68.8%. Higher quality was evident in anterior teeth (plus premolars) versus molars (65.6% versus 43.3%, resp.; p < 0.04). Conclusion. Overall quality of endodontic treatment performed by undergraduate dental students was adequate in 53.9% of the cases. Significant opportunity exists to improve the quality of root canals provided by dental students. PMID:26124834

  3. Quality of Root Canals Performed by the Inaugural Class of Dental Students at Libyan International Medical University

    PubMed Central

    Elemam, Ranya F.; Abdul Majid, Ziad Salim; Groesbeck, Matt; Azevedo, Álvaro F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to radiographically evaluate technical quality of root canal fillings performed by dental undergraduates at Libyan International Medical University in Libya. Methods. Root canal cases were treated at university dental clinic from the fall of 2012 to the fall of 2013 by the fourth and fifth year dental students. Students used step-back preparation and cold lateral compaction in the treatment. Radiographs were reviewed over a two-year period from initial procedure to final restoration. Radiographs were evaluated for adequacy or inadequacy by length, density, and taper. Length inadequacy was classified as short or overextended. Overall quality was considered “adequate” based on all three variables. Chi-square tested differences between teeth groupings and adequacy classification. Significant p value results were adjusted by Bonferroni correction. Results. Adequate length of root canal fillings were observed in roughly half of all samples (48.6%). Density was adequate in 75.8% of the samples. Taper was observed as adequate in 68.8%. Higher quality was evident in anterior teeth (plus premolars) versus molars (65.6% versus 43.3%, resp.; p < 0.04). Conclusion. Overall quality of endodontic treatment performed by undergraduate dental students was adequate in 53.9% of the cases. Significant opportunity exists to improve the quality of root canals provided by dental students. PMID:26124834

  4. Ovarian function of the Algerian wild Libyan jird, Meriones libycus during seasonal reproductive cycle: histological and immunohistochemical expression.

    PubMed

    Smaï-Hamdidouche, S; Gernigon-Spychalowicz, T; Khammar, F; Exbrayat, J M

    2013-01-01

    Meriones libycus (Libyan jird), a nocturnal Saharan rodent, is characterized by a seasonal reproductive cycle with a short active phase (spring and early summer) and a long resting period (late summer, autumn, winter). Histological and immunohistochemical techniques were performed in order to study the seasonal variations in mature ovaries. During the breeding season, the ovary showed a continuous cyclical activity, the various stages of folliculogenesis from primordial to preovulatory follicles were observed; broken follicles and corpora lutea were also observed. During sexual quiescence, the ovarian cycle was interrupted; anovulation was observed without any corpus luteum. Non mature antral follicles entered the atretic process. Steroid and steroidogenic enzyme activities were studied using indirect immunohistochemistry. 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone hormones and P450 aromatase (P450 arom) were detected in the different components of the ovary and in various stages of healthy and atretic follicles during the seasonal reproductive cycle. Our results indicate that during ovarian folliculogenesis in breeding season steroids hormone and P450 arom present important activities. In comparison with the resting period, steroidogenesis and steroidogenic enzyme activity became less pronounced in the healthy preantral follicle; it seemed that steroid biosynthesis was reduced and could be involved in the stimulation and maintenance of the ovarian structural integrity in early follicle development. In conclusion, the histological and immunohistochemical seasonal variations of ovaries in Meriones libycus support the hypothesis that seasonal fluctuations are indirectly involved in regulating reproduction, inducing significant changes in both ovarian morphology and its hormonal function. PMID:23233063

  5. Tracking rainfall in the northern Mediterranean borderlands during sapropel deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toucanne, Samuel; Angue Minto'o, Charlie Morelle; Fontanier, Christophe; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Jorry, Stephan J.; Jouet, Gwenaël

    2015-12-01

    The role of mid-latitude precipitation in the hydrological forcing leading to the deposition of sapropels in the Mediterranean Sea remains unclear. The new GDEC-4-2 borehole, East Corsica margin (northern Tyrrhenian Sea), provides the first precisely dated evidence for enhanced rainfall in the Western Mediterranean during warm intervals of interglacial periods over the last 547 kyr. Comparison of GDEC-4-2 proxy records with pollen sequences and speleothems from the central and eastern Mediterranean reveals that these pluvial events were regional in character and occurred probably in response to the intensification of the Mediterranean storm track along the northern Mediterranean borderlands in autumn/winter. Our dataset suggests that the timing of maxima of the Mediterranean autumn/winter storm track precipitation coincide with that of the North African summer monsoon and sapropel deposition. Besides highlighting a close coupling between mid- and low-latitude hydrological changes, our findings suggest that during warm intervals of interglacial periods the reduced sea-surface water salinities, together with the high flux of nutrient and organic matter, produced by the monsoonal Nile (and wadi-systems) floods, were maintained throughout the winter by the Mediterranean rainfall. This provides an important additional constraint on the hydrological perturbation causing sapropel formation.

  6. Decreased summer drought affects plant productivity and soil carbon dynamics in Mediterranean woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precipitation patters are expected to change in the Mediterranean region within the next decades, with projected decreases in total rain fall and increases in extreme events. We manipulated precipitation patterns in a Mediterranean woodland, dominated by Arbustus unedo L., in Central Italy, to study...

  7. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Schwabe, Arthur D.; Terasaki, Paul I.; Barnett, Eugene V.; Territo, Mary C.; Klinenberg, James R.; Peters, Robert S.

    1977-01-01

    The success of colchicine therapy in the management of familial Mediterranean fever has provided new direction to investigations into the pathogenesis of this disease. Examination of HLA antigen frequencies in 53 patients with familial Mediterranean fever and appropriate controls, as well as various immunologic studies have yielded no significant differences. However, B lymphocyte typing and assays for immune complexes, lymphokines and prostaglandins may be of potential interest. Preliminary studies indicate that leukocytes of patients with familial Mediterranean fever release increased amounts of lysozyme (P<0.01), when subjected to high temperatures, and of both lysozyme and myeloperoxidase at low osmotic concentrations. The known and potential effects of colchicine on leukocyte and cellular metabolism, and the current status of colchicine prophylaxis are reviewed. In patients receiving an optimum colchicine dose of 1.5 to 1.8 mg per day, side effects have been minimal and the frequency of attacks has been decreased significantly. PMID:878470

  8. Mediterranean sea level variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigo, I.; Sánchez Reales, J. M.; García, D.; Chao, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we report an updated study of the sea level variations for the Mediterranean sea for the period from October 1992 to January 2008. The study addresses two mayor issues: (i)The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface height (SSH) from radar altimetry measurements (from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) + Jason-1, etc.). We use EOF analysis to explain most of its interannual variation, and how the different basins interact. (ii) The analysis of dynamics and balance of water mass transport for the whole period. We estimate the steric SSH by combining the steric SSH estimated from temperature and salt profiles simulated by the ECCO model with time-variable gravity (TVG) data (from GRACE) for the Mediterranean Sea. The estimated steric SSH together with the SSH obtained from altimetry allow for a more realistic estimation of the water mass variations in the Mediterranean for the whole period.

  9. Emergence of Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates Collected from Some Libyan Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mathlouthi, Najla; Areig, Zaynab; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Bakour, Sofiane; Ali El Salabi, Allaaeddin; Ben Gwierif, Salha; Zorgani, Abdulaziz A; Ben Slama, Karim; Chouchani, Chedly; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates recovered from Libyan hospitals between April 2013 and April 2014. In total, 49 strains (24 P. aeruginosa and 25 A. baumannii) were isolated, including 21 P. aeruginosa and 22 A. baumannii isolates (87.75%) resistant to imipenem (minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥16 μg/ml). The blaVIM-2 gene was detected in 19 P. aeruginosa isolates. All imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates showed the presence of OprD mutations. Acquired OXA-carbapenemase-encoding genes were present in all A. baumannii isolates: blaOXA-23 (n=19) and blaOXA-24 (n=3). Finally, a total of 13 and 17 different sequence types were assigned to the 21 P. aeruginosa and the 22 A. baumannii carbapenem-resistant isolates, respectively. This study is the first report describing imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolated from patients in Libya. We report the first case of co-occurrence of blaVIM-2 with oprD porin loss in identical isolates of P. aeruginosa in Libya and demonstrate that these oprD mutations can be used as a tool to study the clonality in P. aeruginosa isolates. We also report the first identification of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates harboring blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, and blaOXA-48-like genes in Libya. PMID:25587875

  10. Impact of heavy metal pollution on the hemogram and serum biochemistry of the Libyan jird, Meriones libycus.

    PubMed

    Adham, Khadiga G; Al-Eisa, Nadia A; Farhood, Manal H

    2011-09-01

    The stress profiles of the hemogram and serum biochemistry were determined in the context of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb) exposure in the wild libyan jird, Meriones libycus, from one of Riyadh's polluted areas versus a reference site. Coupling the pronounced drop in platelets (PLT) (28%) and mean platelet volume (MPV) (17%) with the insignificant responses of other red blood cell indices, suggests bone marrow suppression that is characterized by thrombocytopenia as an initial abnormality. The species-specific stress leukogram for M. libycus is expressed by leukocytosis (66%), monocytosis (40%), lymphocytosis (23%) with eosinopenia (81%) and neutropenia (42%). Hyperglycemia (50%), hyper-low-density-lipoproteinemia (38%), hypocortisolism (85%) and hypotriglyceridemia (55%) depicted serum biochemistry profile. In polluted jirds, the elevated activities of pseudocholinesterase (PChE) and serum marker enzymes (alanine aminotransferase ALT, aspartate aminotransferase AST and creatine kinase CK) strongly suggest functional damage of the liver and/or heart. A potential role of PChE in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism is implied in the joint rise of both indices and in the recognized relationship between PChE and lipid metabolites. While increased utilization in lipid metabolism and energy synthesis could rationalize the inhibition of the normal patterns of triglycerides and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the inhibited activities of LDH could additionally be attributed to its hormetic behavior towards low and high metal concentrations. The overall findings presented here documented the relevance of M. libycus in biomonitoring and predicting the risk imposed on human populations living in polluted areas. PMID:21601906

  11. δ18O and chemical composition of Libyan Desert Glass, country rocks, and sands: New considerations on target material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Sighinolfi, Giampaolo; de Michele, Vincenzo; Selmo, Enricomaria

    2011-02-01

    Oxygen isotope and chemical measurements were carried out on 25 samples of Libyan Desert Glass (LDG), 21 samples of sandstone, and 3 of sand from the same area. The δ18O of LDG samples range from 9.0‰ to 11.9‰ (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water [VSMOW]); some correlations between isotope data and typological features of the LDG samples are pointed out. The initial δ18O of a bulk parent material may be slightly increased by fusion due to the loss of isotopically light pore water with no isotope exchange with oxygen containing minerals. Accordingly, the δ18O of the bulk parent material of LDG may have been about 9.0 ± 1‰ (VSMOW). The measured bulk sandstone and sand samples have δ18O values ranging from 12.6‰ to 19.5‰ and are consequently ruled out as parent materials, matching the results of previous studies. However, separated quartz fractions have δ18O values compatible with the LDG values suggesting that the modern surface sand inherited quartz from the target material. This hypothesis fits previous findings of lechatelierite and baddeleyite in these materials. As the age of the parent material reported in previous studies is Pan-African, we measured the δ18O values of bulk rock and quartz from intrusives of Pan-African age and the results obtained were compatible with the LDG values. The main element abundances (Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na) in our LDG samples conform to previous estimates; Fe, Mg, and K tend to be higher in heterogeneous samples with dark layers. The hypothesis of a low-altitude airburst involving silica-rich surface materials deriving from weathered intrusives of Pan-African age, partially melted and blown over a huge surface by supersonic winds matches the results obtained.

  12. Extra-Mediterranean refugia: The rule and not the exception?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Some decades ago, biogeographers distinguished three major faunal types of high importance for Europe: (i) Mediterranean elements with exclusive glacial survival in the Mediterranean refugia, (ii) Siberian elements with glacial refugia in the eastern Palearctic and only postglacial expansion to Europe and (iii) arctic and/or alpine elements with large zonal distributions in the periglacial areas and postglacial retreat to the North and/or into the high mountain systems. Genetic analyses have unravelled numerous additional refugia both of continental and Mediterranean species, thus strongly modifying the biogeographical view of Europe. This modified notion is particularly true for the so-called Siberian species, which in many cases have not immigrated into Europe during the postglacial period, but most likely have survived the last, or even several glacial phases, in extra-Mediterranean refugia in some climatically favourable but geographically limited areas of southern Central and Eastern Europe. Recently, genetic analyses revealed that typical Mediterranean species have also survived the Last Glacial Maximum in cryptic northern refugia (e.g. in the Carpathians or even north of the Alps) in addition to their Mediterranean refuge areas. PMID:22953783

  13. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    PubMed

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Dinouli, Anny; Tsiros, Vasileios-Zikos; Tsalkou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS), with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures. PMID:25793975

  14. The Mediterranean and Black Sea Fisheries at Risk from Overexploitation

    PubMed Central

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C.; Dinouli, Anny; Tsiros, Vasileios-Zikos; Tsalkou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS), with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures. PMID:25793975

  15. Is there a Mediterranean bioethics?

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Is there a special Mediterranean approach to Bioethics and if so what are the roots of this approach? And why not a Bosphorus, or a 'lake Michigan' bioethics? The answer to such a question depends on the focus one takes on defining 'Mediterranean'? On the one hand one can refer to the Mediterranean region which includes the surrounding coasts, having Europe on its northern coast line, northern Africa on its southern coast line (and these will include the north and South West coasts), and in the Eastern region countries which border with Middle-Eastern countries. This approach is the approach currently being taken by European Parliamentarians when they speak about the Mediterranean, namely including countries like France, Italy and Libya. On the other hand there is the look upon the Mediterranean as 'Southern Europe'; this is a more 'traditional' way on how westerners view the Mediterranean. This common approach is often recognized when, for example, we speak of 'Mediterranean diet', or, 'Mediterranean Temperament'. It would include Eastern countries like Greece and Cyprus. This article focuses on these two approaches to Mediterranean ethics after discussing issues pertaining to the region which are important to define in this context. It then analyses the need for having a Mediterranean approach to bioethical issues. PMID:23070886

  16. Complete penetrance of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Libyan Jews carrying the E200K mutation in the prion protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, S.; Mastrianni, J. A.; Wrensch, M.; Gabizon, R.; Meiner, Z.; Kahana, I.; Rosenmann, H.; Kahana, E.; Prusiner, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a prion disease which is manifest as a sporadic, inherited, and transmissible neurodegenerative disorder. The mean age at onset of CJD is approximately 60 years, and as such, many people destined to succumb undoubtedly die of other illnesses first. The delayed onset of CJD has complicated the analysis of inherited forms of the illness and led to the suggestion that mutations in the prion protein (PrP) gene are necessary but not sufficient for prion disease despite genetic linkage; indeed, an environmental factor such as a ubiquitous virus has been proposed as a second necessary factor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To examine what appeared to be incomplete penetrance, we applied a life-table analysis to clinical and pedigree data from a cluster population of Libyan Jews in which the E200K mutation is prevalent. The study population included 42 affected and 44 unaffected members of 13 Libyan Jewish families, all of whom possessed the E200K mutation. RESULTS: The calculated value using life table analysis is 0.77 at age 70 which increases to 0.89 if a mutation carrier survives to age 80 and 0.96 if age 80 is surpassed. CONCLUSIONS: These data argue that the E200K mutation alone is sufficient to cause prion disease and does so in an age-dependent manner. PMID:8529127

  17. Illness perceptions of Libyans with T2DM and their influence on medication adherence: a study in a diabetes center in Tripoli

    PubMed Central

    Ashur, Sana Taher; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Bosseri, Soad; Morisky, Donald E.; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    Background The surrounding environment influences the constitution of illness perceptions. Therefore, local research is needed to examine how Libyan diabetes patients perceive diabetes and how their perceptions influence their medication adherence. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology in Tripoli, Libya, between October and December 2013. A total of 523 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection; this included the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire and the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Results The respondents showed moderately high personal control and treatment control perceptions and a moderate consequences perception. They reported a high perception of diabetes timeline as chronic and a moderate perception of the diabetes course as unstable. The most commonly perceived cause of diabetes was Allah's will. The prevalence of low medication adherence was 36.1%. The identified significant predictors of low medication adherence were the low treatment control perception (p=0.044), high diabetes identity perception (p=0.008), being male (p=0.026), and employed (p=0.008). Conclusion Diabetes illness perceptions of type 2 diabetic Libyans play a role in guiding the medication adherence and could be considered in the development of medication adherence promotion plans. PMID:26714569

  18. There are many Mediterranean diets.

    PubMed

    Noah, A; Truswell, A S

    2001-01-01

    Interest in Mediterranean diet began 30 years ago, when Ancel Keys published the results of the famous Seven Countries Study, Since 1945, almost 1.3 million people have come to Australia from Mediterranean countries as new settlers. There are 18 countries with coasts on the Mediterranean sea: Spain, southern France, Italy, Malta, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Malta, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. This study from which this report derives aims to investigate the influence of the food habits of immigrants from Mediterranean countries on Australian food intake. Here we look at the 'traditional' food habits of the above Mediterranean countries as told by 102 people we interviewed in Sydney, who came from 18 Mediterranean countries to Sydney. Most of the informants were women, their age ranged from 35 to 55 years. The interview was open-ended and held in the informant's home. It usually lasted around 1 1/2 hours. The interview had three parts. Personal information was obtained, questions relating to the food habits of these people back in their original Mediterranean countries and how their food intake and habits have changed in Australia were also asked. From the interviews, we have obtained a broad picture of 'traditional' food habits in different Mediterranean countries. The interview data was checked with books of recipes for the different countries. While there were similarities between the countries, there are also important differences in the food habits of the Mediterranean countries. Neighbouring countries' food habits are closer than those on opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea. We suggest that these food habits can be put into four groups. The data here refer to food habits in Mediterranean countries 20 or 30 years ago, as they were recovering from the Second World War. There is no single ideal Mediterranean diet. Nutritionists who use the concept should qualify the individual country and the time in

  19. Consensus Document on Intermittent Claudication from the Central European Vascular Forum (C.E.V.F.)-3rd revision (2013) with the sharing of the Mediterranean League of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, and the North Africa and Middle East Chapter of International Union of Angiology.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, G M; Kalodiki, E; L Gašpar, L; Martini, R; Minar, E; Angelides, N; Nicolaides, A N; Novo, S; Visonà, A; Prior, M; Arosio, E; Hussein, E A; Poredos, P; Antignani, P L; Avram, R; Roztocil, K; Stvrtinova, V; Kozak, M; Vacula, I

    2014-08-01

    This paper is the review of the Consensus Document on Intermittent Claudication of the Central European Vascular Forum (CEVF), published in 2008, and and shared with the North Africa and Middle East Chapter of International Union of Angiology and the Mediterranean League of Angiology and Vascular Surgery. The Document presents suggestions for general practitioners and vascular specialists for more precise and appropriate management of PAD, particularly of intermittent claudication, and underlines the investigations that should be required by GPs and what the GP should expect from the vascular specialist (angiologist, vascular surgeon). The idea of the Faculty is to produce a short document, which is an easy reference in daily clinical practice, both for the GPs and vascular specialists. PMID:25056165

  20. A synoptic characterization of the dust transport in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Marco; Pasqui, Massimiliano; Crisci, Alfonso; Guarnieri, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    In this work the daily dust transport over the Mediterranean basin is characterized through circulation type classification (CTC) methods. The dust loads are estimated through the aerosol optical depth (AOD) simulated by the GOCART model in the period 2000-2007 and remote-sensed by the MODIS in the period 2001-2010. The dust transport from the Sahara is identified linking the AOD anomalies to the thermal anomalies into the Mediterranean, studying the covariance modes of AOD and air temperature at 850 hPa from the MERRA dataset. The time series of the expansion coefficients associated to the first two covariance modes allow to describe the dust transport in the eastern, western and central Mediterranean sub-basins. The circulation types are classified using the MERRA geopotential height at 700 hPa in the period 1979-2010, the performance of the CTC methods in the characterization of the dust anomalies is evaluated and the best method is selected. Results show that a T-mode PCA method with 14 classes allows the characterization of dust transport and thermal anomalies in the eastern and western Mediterranean, while the variability in the central Mediterranean is well characterized by a S-mode PCA method with 10 classes. Moreover, extreme dust events over the western, central and eastern Mediterranean are identified, and the associated synoptic circulation patterns evolution is studied. Extreme dust events in the western Mediterranean are associated with high-pressure conditions limiting the development of lows to the western North Africa, while the eastward evolution of cyclones over the central Mediterranean and Northern Africa accompanies dust events in the central and eastern Mediterranean.

  1. Contrasted patterns of hyperdiversification in Mediterranean hotspots.

    PubMed

    Sauquet, Hervé; Weston, Peter H; Anderson, Cajsa Lisa; Barker, Nigel P; Cantrill, David J; Mast, Austin R; Savolainen, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Dating the Tree of Life has now become central to relating patterns of biodiversity to key processes in Earth history such as plate tectonics and climate change. Regions with a Mediterranean climate have long been noted for their exceptional species richness and high endemism. How and when these biota assembled can only be answered with a good understanding of the sequence of divergence times for each of their components. A critical aspect of dating by using molecular sequence divergence is the incorporation of multiple suitable age constraints. Here, we show that only rigorous phylogenetic analysis of fossil taxa can lead to solid calibration and, in turn, stable age estimates, regardless of which of 3 relaxed clock-dating methods is used. We find that Proteaceae, a model plant group for the Mediterranean hotspots of the Southern Hemisphere with a very rich pollen fossil record, diversified under higher rates in the Cape Floristic Region and Southwest Australia than in any other area of their total distribution. Our results highlight key differences between Mediterranean hotspots and indicate that Southwest Australian biota are the most phylogenetically diverse but include numerous lineages with low diversification rates. PMID:19116275

  2. Seasonal differences in intraseasonal and interannual variability of Mediterranean Sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zveryaev, Igor I.

    2015-04-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) data from the NOAA OI SST data set for 1982-2011 are used to investigate intraseasonal and interannual variability of Mediterranean SST during winter and summer seasons. It is shown that during winter the intraseasonal SST fluctuations are larger than the interannual SST variations in the western Mediterranean (e.g., the Tyrrhenian Sea), but smaller in the central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. In summer, the intraseasonal SST fluctuations are larger in almost the entire Mediterranean basin. Also summertime intraseasonal SST fluctuations are larger (up to three times near the Gulf of Lions) than their wintertime counterparts in the entire Mediterranean basin. The interannual SST variations are larger during summer in the western and central Mediterranean Sea and during winter in its eastern part. The leading empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the Mediterranean SST and of the intensities of its intraseasonal fluctuations are characterized by the differing spatial-temporal structures both during winter and summer implying that their interannual variability is driven by different physical mechanisms. During winter, the EOF-1 of SST is associated with the East Atlantic teleconnection, whereas EOF-1 of the intensity of intraseasonal fluctuations is not linked significantly to regional atmospheric dynamics. The second EOFs of these variables are associated, respectively, with the East Atlantic/West Russia and the North Atlantic teleconnections. While during summer the atmospheric influence on Mediterranean SST is generally weaker, it is revealed that the EOF-1 of the intensity of intraseasonal SST fluctuations is linked to the Polar teleconnection.

  3. Association of Hyperglycemia with In-Hospital Mortality and Morbidity in Libyan Patients with Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Benamer, Sufyan; Eljazwi, Imhemed; Mohamed, Rima; Masoud, Heba; Tuwati, Mussa; Elbarsha, Abdulwahab M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hyperglycemia on admission and during hospital stay is a well-established predictor of short-term and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Our study investigated the impact of blood glucose levels on admission and in-hospital hyperglycemia on the morbidity and mortality of Libyan patients admitted with acute coronary syndromes (acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina). Methods In this retrospective study, the records of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome to The 7th Of October Hospital, Benghazi, Libya, between January 2011 and December 2011 were reviewed. The level of blood glucose on admission, and the average blood glucose during the hospital stay were recorded to determine their effects on in-hospital complications (e.g. cardiogenic shock, acute heart failure, arrhythmias, and/or heart block) and mortality. Results During the study period, 121 patients with diabetes were admitted with acute coronary syndrome. The mortality rate in patients with diabetes and acute coronary syndrome was 12.4%. Patients with a mean glucose level greater than 200mg/dL had a higher in-hospital mortality and a higher rate of complications than those with a mean glucose level ≤200mg/dL (27.5% vs. 2.6%, p<0.001 and 19.7% vs. 45.5%, p=0.004, respectively). There was no difference in in-hospital mortality between patients with a glucose level at admission ≤140mg/dL and those admitted with a glucose level >140mg/dL (6.9% vs. 14.3%; p=0.295), but the rate of complications was higher in the latter group (13.8% vs. 34.1%; p=0.036). Patients with admission glucose levels >140mg/dL also had a higher rate of complications at presentation (26.4% vs. 6.9%; p=0.027). Conclusion In patients with diabetes and acute coronary syndrome, hyperglycemia during hospitalization predicted a worse outcome in terms of the rates of in-hospital complications and in-hospital mortality. Hyperglycemia at the time of admission was also associated with

  4. Detecting slab structure beneath the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Meghan S.; Sun, Daoyuan; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    The presence of subducted slabs in the Mediterranean has been well documented with seismic tomography, however, these images, which are produced by smoothed, damped inversions, underestimate the sharpness of the structures. The position and extent of the slabs and the presence possible tears or gaps in the subducted lithosphere are still debated, yet the shape and location these structures are important for kinematic reconstructions and evolution of the entire subduction zone system. Extensive distribution of broadband seismic instrumentation in the Mediterranean (Italian National Seismic Network in Italy and the NSF-PICASSO project in Spain and Morocco) has allowed us to use alternative methodologies to detect the position of the slabs and slab tears beneath the Central and Western Mediterranean. Using S receiver functions we are able to identify S-to-p conversions from the bottom of the subducted slab and a lack of these signals where there are gaps or tears in the slab. We also analyze broadband waveforms for changes in P wave coda from deep (> 300 km depth) local earthquakes. The waveform records for stations in southern Italy and around the Betic-Rif show large amplitude, high frequency (f > 5 Hz) late arrivals with long coda after relatively low-frequency onset. High frequency arrivals are the strongest from events whose raypaths travel within the slab to the stations where they are recorded allowing for mapping of where the subducted material is located within the upper mantle. These two methods, along with inferring the slab position from fast P-wave velocity perturbations in tomography and intermediate depth seismicity, provide additional geophysical evidence to aid in interpretation of the complex, segmented slab structure beneath the Mediterranean.

  5. The Palaeoclimate of Wadi Shati, Libyan Sahara: the last 130 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Nick A.; Lem, Rachel E.; Armitage, Simon J.; White, Kevin H.; El-Hawat, Ahmed; Salem, Mustafa J.; Hounslow, Mark; Franke, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The Fezzan region of Libya forms a large closed basin that contains a wealth of ancient palaeolake and riverine sediments indicative of past humidity in the central Sahara. We have used remote sensing, DEM analysis and Ultra Ground Penetrating Radar to map these features and have dated them using OSL and radiocarbon methods. Results suggest humid conditions during both MIS 5 and the Holocene with larger lakes and more extensive river systems being present during MIS 5 suggestive of greater humidity at this time. A 4m core was collected from Holocene sediments of the largest lake found in the region (1200 km2 during MIS5 and 660 km2 during the Holocene). Core sediments were dated using OSL and analysed using XRF, Ion Chromatography, Laser Granulometry and chemical extractions for ostracods, diatoms, pollen and phytoliths. The base of the core is dominated by clays deposited in a perennial lake environment from 7.75 ka to 6.6 ka. Gypsum deposition started at about 6.5 ka indicating a more arid environment. Four clay layers are found amongst the gypsum from 6.3 to 6.25 ka, 6.2 to 6.1, 6.0 to 5.8 and 5.7-5.6 ka suggests that aridification was not a sudden event, but consisted of a series of arid/humid oscillations before the lake finally desiccated just before 5 ka. No pollen, diatoms or ostracods are preserved in the sediments but phytoliths were present. Both tree and grass phytoliths were found in lower parts of the core, suggesting a wooded savannah environment from 7.75 to about 7 ka. Trees decline and grass increases up the core, signifying an increasingly arid environment. By the time the first gypsum bed is deposited at about 6.5 ka trees have disappeared and grass dominates. These results do not support the hypothesis of a sudden aridification of the Sahara at 4.9 ka and instead suggest that in the Fezzan region a gradual aridification had started by 7.75 ka and that the climate oscillated during the lake desiccation that started at 6.5 ka and was complete by

  6. Suitability of Pines and Other Conifers as Hosts for the Invasive Mediterranean Pine Engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), was detected in North America in 2004 and is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and reproduces on pines. To identify p...

  7. Soil erosion modelling of the Mediterranean basin in the context of land use and climate changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdan, Olivier; Desprats, Jean-François; Fouché, Julien; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Cheviron, Bruno; Simonneaux, Vincent; Raclot, Damien; Mouillot, Florent

    2010-05-01

    Hydric erosion is one of the major causes of soil degradation. It results from the interaction of several parameters which vary in space and time. Global warming and the land use changes expected during the 21st century are going to influence the soils deterioration and the erosion processes. In order to protect the soil resource under the current bioclimatic context and prevent the future consequences, it is essential to apprehend the erosion risk. Many studies developed the soil erosion risk modelling at various scales from regional to European scale. The MESOEROS project is the first which aims to understand the soil loss risk on the whole Mediterranean basin for the current climate context and also for the predicting climate changes expected for the 21st century. Two models are used: MESALES (expert rules model) and PESERA (physical based model). Both provide the soil erosion risk into five classes. Model inputs, soils properties (crusting and erodibility), climate data, DEM and land use data, come from the most recent and validated datasets, homogenised on the whole study area. After being calibrated with watersheds data and the PESERA modelling on Europe, the two modelling results are analysed. Both MESALES and PESERA present an erosion risk contrast around the Mediterranean basin. MESALES estimates Italia, Andalusia, Catalan and Aragon regions, western part of Greece and Balkan region as threatened areas while PESERA models the arable region of Castellan y Leon, Near East and the high atlas range in Morocco as subjected to an erosion risk. The two methods model parts of northern Morocco, centre and European part of Turkey, Lebanon and northern Portugal at risk while southern France, Libyan coasts and southern Greece are never threatened. Analyses of the parameter influences on the models and the modelling validation allow understanding the integration of climate change on modelling results. MESALES and PESERA point out an evolution of the soil erosion risk

  8. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  9. Dust in the Mediterranean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 24, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), acquired this true-color image of a large cloud of dust blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea. The dust storm has persisted in the region for at least a week. In this image, the brownish dust plume appears to originate about 260 miles (400 km) east of Algiers, Algeria, and is blowing toward the northwest coast of Sardinia, Italy. SeaWiFS flies aboard the OrbView-2 Satellite. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE

  10. Evaluation of Rainfall-Runoff Models for Mediterranean Subcatchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilek, A.; Berberoglu, S.; Donmez, C.

    2016-06-01

    The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA), a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  11. Clastic depositional styles and reservoir potential of Mediterranean basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bouma, A.H. )

    1990-05-01

    A variety of tectonic styles and activities throughout the late Mesozoic and younger epochs influenced sediment transport to the Mediterranean basins and, consequently, the approach needed to finding reservoir-type clastics. The style of the present-day basins varies from west to east, with large basinal depressions and continental rises in the western province, more elongate shapes in the central area, and numerous small basins and trenches in the eastern Mediterranean. In general terms, all these basins contain a similar fill: a deep-water sequence older than late Miocene, overlain by upper Miocene evaporites, and topped by Pliocene-Quaternary clastics. The exact type of fill depends on several factors, including proximity to the sediment source, climatic conditions, subsidence and tectonic activity, and tectono-eustatic or glacio-eustatic oscillations. Investigations on many of the clastic reservoirs in Mediterranean basins should emphasize submarine fans. The modern Mediterranean Sea contains several mid-sized fans (Rhone, Ebro, Valencia, and Nile fans) and many small ones (e.g., Crati Fan). There are several well-studied Tertiary subsurface and outcropping turbidite systems. The concept of deep-water marine sands, and many of the initial studies, began with some of the now classic outcrops in Italy, France, and Spain. A well-integrated study of both modern and ancient turbidite series is needed to construct basic exploration models for the Mediterranean region. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Identification, cloning and regulation of cDNA encoding aldo-keto reductase 1B7 in the adrenal gland of two Saharan rodents Meriones libycus (Libyan jird) and Gerbillus gerbillus (gerbil).

    PubMed

    Mataoui-Mazari, Houria; Amirat, Zaïna; Khammar, Farida; Martinez, Antoine

    2011-12-01

    Aldo-Keto Reductase 1B7 (AKR1B7) is a mouse aldose reductase-like protein with two major sites of expression, the vas deferens and the adrenal cortex. In the adrenal cortex, Akr1b7 is an adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-responsive-gene whose product scavenges harmful byproducts of steroidogenesis and limits stress response through the biosynthesis of prostaglandin F2α. The purpose of the present study was to explore the possible expression of AKR1B7 in the adrenal glands of two saharan rodents, Libyan jird and Lesser Egyptian gerbil. Western blot analyses demonstrated that a protein related to murine/rat AKR1B7 was highly expressed in adrenals and absent from vas deferens of both saharan species. Based on conserved sequences between mouse and rat, full length cDNA were cloned and sequenced in both species while hormonal regulation and tissue localization were explored in Libyan jird. Both cDNA encoded the expected 316 amino acids protein typical of AKR1B subfamily and contained the highly conserved catalytic tetrad consisting in Asp-44, Tyr-49, Lys-78 and His-111 residues. The deduced proteins shared higher identities with aldose reductase-like, i.e. AKR1B7 (86-94%), AKR1B8 and AKR1B10 (83-86%) than with aldose reductase group, i.e. AKR1B1 and AKR1B3 (70%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Libyan jird and gerbil enzymes were more closely related to murine and rat AKR1B7 than to the other AKR1B members. Northern blot analyses of total RNA from Libyan jird adrenals showed a single mRNA transcript of 1.4 kb whose expression was dependent on circulating ACTH levels. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that adrenal glands of Libyan jird and gerbil express both an ortholog of the murine/rat Akr1b7 gene and that ACTH-responsiveness is at least conserved in Libyan jird. PMID:21963864

  13. Floating debris in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    Results from the first large-scale survey of floating natural (NMD) and anthropogenic (AMD) debris (>2 cm) in the central and western part of the Mediterranean Sea are reported. Floating debris was found throughout the entire study area with densities ranging from 0 to 194.6 items/km(2) and mean abundances of 24.9 AMD items/km(2) and 6.9 NMD items/km(2) across all surveyed locations. On the whole, 78% of all sighted objects were of anthropogenic origin, 95.6% of which were petrochemical derivatives (i.e. plastic and styrofoam). Maximum AMD densities (>52 items/km(2)) were found in the Adriatic Sea and in the Algerian basin, while the lowest densities (<6.3 items/km(2)) were observed in the Central Tyrrhenian and in the Sicilian Sea. All the other areas had mean densities ranging from 10.9 to 30.7 items/km(2). According to our calculations, more than 62 million macro-litter items are currently floating on the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin. PMID:25127501

  14. Strontium and neodymium isotopic study of Libyan Desert Glass: Inherited Pan-African age signatures and new evidence for target material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, P.; Müller-Sohnius, D. M.

    2002-04-01

    Libyan Desert Glass (LDG) is an impact-related, natural glass of still unknown target material. We have determined Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic ratios from seven LDG samples and five associated sandstones from the LDG strewn field in the Great Sand Sea, western Egypt. Planar deformation features were recently detected in quartz from these sandstones. 87Sr/86Sr ratios and e-Nd values for LDG range between 0.71219 and 0.71344, and between -16.6 and -17.8, respectively, and hence are distinct from the less radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70910-0.71053 and e-Nd values from -6.9 to -9.6 for the local sandstones from the LDG strewn field. Previously published isotopic ratios from the Libyan BP and Oasis crater sandstones are generally incompatible with our LDG values. LDG formation undoubtedly occurred at 29 Ma, but neither the Rb-Sr nor the Sm-Nd isotopic system were rehomogenised during the impact event, as we can deduce from Pan-African ages of ~540 Ma determined from the regression lines from a total of 14 LDG samples from this work and the literature. Together with similar Sr and Nd isotopic values for LDG and granitoid rocks from northeast Africa west of the Nile, these findings point to a sandy matrix target material for the LDG derived from a Precambrian crystalline basement, ruling out the Cretaceous sandstones of the former "Nubian Group" as possible precursors for LDG.

  15. Libyan Desert, Libya, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Desert landscapes such as this part of the northern Sahara (27.0N, 11.0E) may be analogous to other planets which have no soil or plant growth. The dark rocks in this view are probably volcanic in origin and have many stream beds leading into the dune areas. These stream beds carry sediments towards the lower terrain where the water evaporates, leaving the sediments to be wind blown into the complex dune patterns. The red color comes from iron oxides.

  16. Qibla in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rius-Piniés, Mònica

    Orientation toward Mecca has been compulsory for Muslims in all time periods and in all places. In fact, mosques were built in such a way as to help believers to pray toward the right direction. Nevertheless, the alignment of the sacred buildings was not always exact, and many did not actually face the Kaaba. There are many reasons for this "mistake", the main one being that at the time of the construction of the most important mosques, the astronomical and geographical knowledge needed to make accurate calculations was lacking. In the Mediterranean area, the scholars who were most involved in this task were the fuqahā' (experts in Islamic jurisprudence) who were sometimes well versed in astronomical knowledge or, at least, were skilled in the practice of popular astronomy. The combination of astronomy and religion, mixed with the political and topographical conditions, produces a unique area of study which remains controversial today.

  17. Alcohol in the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Rimm, E B; Ellison, R C

    1995-06-01

    Alcohol consumption clearly reduces risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in populations throughout the world and may contribute to lower rates of CVD among residents of Mediterranean countries. In addition, overall mortality rates are generally slightly lower among moderate drinkers than among abstainers. However, several studies have linked alcohol consumption (even amounts equivalent to two drinks daily) to increased rates for certain cancers, especially breast cancer in women. A Mediterranean diet, which is high in fruit, vegetables, and grains, also typically includes one to two drinks per day. Whether one to two drinks adversely affect cancer incidence in the presence of a Mediterranean diet has not been fully explored. With the evidence currently available, we conclude that alcohol, when consumed responsibly in most populations, is an important component of the Mediterranean diet and a component of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:7754991

  18. Sprite climatology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Rubanenko, Lior; Ben-Ami, Yuval; Arnone, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of 436 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (< 40% of events) between 00:30 and 02:15 LST (22:30-00:15 UT; LST = UT + 2). The detection times of sprites are well-correlated with a relative increase in the fraction of + CG strokes, which exhibit maxima between 00:00 and 02:00 LST. The morphological distribution of 339 sprites, that we were able to clearly identify, is dominated by column sprites (49.3%), with angels (33.0%) and carrots (25.7%) being less frequent. This is similar to reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan and summer ones in Central Europe. Other shapes such as trees, wishbones, etc. appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.5% of observations, with 83.5% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogenous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). Our observations suggest winter Mediterranean thunderstorms to have a vertical structure in between high tropical convective systems and the lower cloud-top cells in Japan. The climatology shows the Eastern Mediterranean to be a major sprite producer in Northern Hemisphere winter, and offers ground-based coverage for future space missions.

  19. Sprite Climatology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Rubanenko, Lior; Ben-Ami, Yuval; Arnone, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of 436 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (< 40% of events) between 00:30-02:15 LST (22:30-00:15 UT; LST=UT+2). The detection times of sprites are well-correlated with a relative increase in the fraction of +CG strokes, which exhibit maxima between 00:00-02:00 LST. The morphological distribution of 339 sprites, that we were able to clearly identify, is dominated by column sprites (49.3%), with angels (33.0%) and carrots (25.7%) being less frequent. This is similar to reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan and summer ones in central Europe. Other shapes such as trees, wishbones, etc. appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.5% of observations, with 83.5% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogeneous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). Our observations suggest winter East Mediterranean thunderstorms to have a vertical structure that is an intermediate type between high tropical convective systems and the lower cloud-top cells in winter thunderstorms over the Sea of Japan. The climatology shows that the Eastern Mediterranean is a major sprite producer during Northern Hemisphere winter, and thus the existing and future optical observation infrastructure in Israel offers ground-based coverage for upcoming space missions that aim to map global sprite activity.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the marine environment, particularly in the Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, H.; Freitag, D.; Korte, F.

    1984-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possess a low water solubility, a high n-octanol/water partition coefficient, and a high persistence, particularly those which are highly chlorinated. Because of these properties they are bioaccumulated in many organisms in the environment. PCBs are still manufactured industrially and used in the Mediterranean countries (e.g., Italy, Spain, and France). Production figures for these countries and for the FRG, the United Kingdom, and the United States between 1973 and 1979 are given. The concentrations of PCBs in marine air, water, sediments, microplankton , algae, mussels, fish, and other marine organisms including seabirds from the Mediterranean area are reviewed and compared with PCB concentrations in marine samples from non-Mediterranean regions. Levels of PCBs in seawater are highest in the western and central Mediterranean. The data for mussels and fish give a clear indication that the PCB levels are higher in the Northwest and the Tyrrhenian Sea than in the eastern Mediterranean. The FDA in June 1979 set 2 mg/kg as the temporary maximum concentration for PCBs in fish and shellfish. The PCB residues in some fish from the northwestern Mediterranean and Tyrrhenian Sea and in some mussels from the Adriatic Sea are higher than this limit. The amount of PCBs ingested via food by the Mediterranean population is unknown.

  1. Unique chemistry of a diamond-bearing pebble from the Libyan Desert Glass strewnfield, SW Egypt: Evidence for a shocked comet fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramers, Jan D.; Andreoli, Marco A. G.; Atanasova, Maria; Belyanin, Georgy A.; Block, David L.; Franklyn, Chris; Harris, Chris; Lekgoathi, Mpho; Montross, Charles S.; Ntsoane, Tshepo; Pischedda, Vittoria; Segonyane, Patience; Viljoen, K. S. (Fanus); Westraadt, Johan E.

    2013-11-01

    We have studied a small, very unusual stone, here named “Hypatia”, found in the area of southwest Egypt where an extreme surface heating event produced the Libyan Desert Glass 28.5 million years ago. It is angular, black, shiny, extremely hard and intensely fractured. We report on exploratory work including X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with EDS analysis, deuteron nuclear reaction analysis, C-isotope and noble gas analyses. Carbon is the dominant element in Hypatia, with heterogeneous O/C and N/C ratios ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 and from 0.007 to 0.02, respectively. The major cations of silicates add up to less than 5%. The stone consists chiefly of apparently amorphous, but very hard carbonaceous matter, in which patches of sub-μm diamonds occur. δ13C values (ca. 0‰) exclude an origin from shocked terrestrial coal or any variety of terrestrial diamond. They are also higher than the values for carbonaceous chondrites but fall within the wide range for interplanetary dust particles and comet 81P/Wild2 dust. In step heating, 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from 40 to the air value (298), interpreted as a variable mixture of extraterrestrial and atmospheric Ar. Isotope data of Ne, Kr and Xe reveal the exotic noble gas components G and P3 that are normally hosted in presolar SiC and nanodiamonds, while the most common trapped noble gas component of chondritic meteorites, Q, appears to be absent. An origin remote from the asteroid belt can account for these features. We propose that the Hypatia stone is a remnant of a cometary nucleus fragment that impacted after incorporating gases from the atmosphere. Its co-occurrence with Libyan Desert Glass suggests that this fragment could have been part of a bolide that broke up and exploded in the airburst that formed the Glass. Its extraordinary preservation would be due to its shock-transformation into a weathering-resistant assemblage.

  2. Climate Change Threatens Coexistence within Communities of Mediterranean Forested Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the hot spots of climate change. This study aims at understanding what are the conditions sustaining tree diversity in Mediterranean wet forests under future scenarios of altered hydrological regimes. The core of the work is a quantitative, dynamic model describing the coexistence of different Mediterranean tree species, typical of arid or semi-arid wetlands. Two kind of species, i.e. Hygrophilous (drought sensitive, flood resistant) and Non-hygrophilous (drought resistant, flood sensitive), are broadly defined according to the distinct adaptive strategies of trees against water stress of summer drought and winter flooding. We argue that at intermediate levels of water supply the dual role of water (resource and stress) results in the coexistence of the two kind of species. A bifurcation analysis allows us to assess the effects of climate change on the coexistence of the two species in order to highlight the impacts of predicted climate scenarios on tree diversity. Specifically, the model has been applied to Mediterranean coastal swamp forests of Central Italy located at Castelporziano Estate and Circeo National Park. Our results show that there are distinct rainfall thresholds beyond which stable coexistence becomes impossible. Regional climatic projections show that the lower rainfall threshold may be approached or crossed during the XXI century, calling for an urgent adaptation and mitigation response to prevent biodiversity losses. PMID:23077484

  3. Cretaceous rudist-reefs of the Mediterranean realm

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, J.M. )

    1988-08-01

    Cretaceous rudist-reefs are well represented in the Mediterranean region on outcrops, and several subsurface examples are major hydrocarbon reservoirs. Most rudist reefs are part of large carbonate platforms and show both ecologic and sedimentologic zonation; localized rudist banks are rare and are confined to perideltaic environments. Rudists are the major builders, but rich fauna and flora accompany them. Together, these components produced large amounts of bioclastic debris that accumulated on reef slopes as grain-flow and debris-flow deposits. Much of the primary porosity was occluded by micritic matrix and early cements, but dissolution of the aragonitic rudist skeleton and dolomitization can produce extensive secondary porosity. Reefs appears in the Aptian, reach their acme in the Cenomanian and Senonian, but are missing in the Turonian. The early Turonian disappearance is probably the result of changes in global ocean circulation, and the Maestrichtian demise correlates with a sea level fall. Three reef provinces are recognizable: (1) western Mediterranean corresponding to the passive margins of Sardinia and Aquitain-Pyrenees-Iberia; (2) African including Maghreb and the Middle East; and (3) central Mediterranean composed of the Italian, Dinaric, Hellenic, and Turkish platforms separated from the western Mediterranean by the Alpine geosyncline.

  4. Climate change threatens coexistence within communities of Mediterranean forested wetlands.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the hot spots of climate change. This study aims at understanding what are the conditions sustaining tree diversity in Mediterranean wet forests under future scenarios of altered hydrological regimes. The core of the work is a quantitative, dynamic model describing the coexistence of different Mediterranean tree species, typical of arid or semi-arid wetlands. Two kind of species, i.e. Hygrophilous (drought sensitive, flood resistant) and Non-hygrophilous (drought resistant, flood sensitive), are broadly defined according to the distinct adaptive strategies of trees against water stress of summer drought and winter flooding. We argue that at intermediate levels of water supply the dual role of water (resource and stress) results in the coexistence of the two kind of species. A bifurcation analysis allows us to assess the effects of climate change on the coexistence of the two species in order to highlight the impacts of predicted climate scenarios on tree diversity. Specifically, the model has been applied to Mediterranean coastal swamp forests of Central Italy located at Castelporziano Estate and Circeo National Park. Our results show that there are distinct rainfall thresholds beyond which stable coexistence becomes impossible. Regional climatic projections show that the lower rainfall threshold may be approached or crossed during the XXI century, calling for an urgent adaptation and mitigation response to prevent biodiversity losses. PMID:23077484

  5. The Mediterranean surface wave climate inferred from future scenario simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, P.; Cogo, S.; Galati, M. B.; Sanna, A.

    2008-09-01

    This study is based on 30-year long simulations of the wind-wave field in the Mediterranean Sea carried out with the WAM model. Wave fields have been computed for the 2071-2100 period of the A2, B2 emission scenarios and for the 1961-1990 period of the present climate (REF). The wave model has been forced by the wind field computed by a regional climate model with 50 km resolution. The mean SWH (Significant Wave Height) field over large fraction of the Mediterranean sea is lower for the A2 scenario than for the present climate during winter, spring and autumn. During summer the A2 mean SWH field is also lower everywhere, except for two areas, those between Greece and Northern Africa and between Spain and Algeria, where it is significantly higher. All these changes are similar, though smaller and less significant, in the B2 scenario, except during winter in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, when the B2 mean SWH field is higher than in the REF simulation. Also extreme SWH values are smaller in future scenarios than in the present climate and such SWH change is larger for the A2 than for the B2 scenario. The only exception is the presence of higher SWH extremes in the central Mediterranean during summer for the A2 scenario. In general, changes of SWH, wind speed and atmospheric circulation are consistent, and results show milder marine storms in future scenarios than in the present climate.

  6. Combining digital elevation data (SRTM/ASTER), high resolution satellite imagery (Quickbird) and GIS for geomorphological mapping: A multi-component case study on Mediterranean karst in Central Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siart, Christoph; Bubenzer, Olaf; Eitel, Bernhard

    2009-11-01

    Remote sensing data have become more and more popular for geomorphological investigations because their steadily increasing level of detail and accessibility opens up new potentials. In this context, this paper examines the application and quality of digital elevation models (SRTM and ASTER DEMs), high resolution satellite imagery (Quickbird) and GIS techniques for the detection and mapping of karst landforms (mainly enclosed depressions) at different scales in the Ida Mountains of Central Crete. Besides discussing methodological issues and evaluating suitability potentials, we conducted an exemplary case study based on spatial analysis of the regional karst morphology. Different input datasets and processing methods are applied (GIS-based analysis, land cover classification, raster calculations, etc.) in order to carry out an area-wide surveying and mapping of karst depressions. The findings are supported and validated by auxiliary field studies. Due to the level of detail and occasional data errors, an exclusive use of satellite imagery or digital elevation models for automatic karst landform detection performs insufficiently. Our results demonstrate that mapping karst features through remote sensing is significantly dependent on scale of interest, existing environmental conditions and data quality. A semi-automatic data integration approach on the basis of digital datasets generated by combined satellite image processing and DEM analysis yields the best results, especially when indirect karst-indicating variables like iron oxide-rich sediments are included as detection criteria. The multi-component application presented in this paper provides a time-saving and effective tool for meso- to macro-scale object detection and extensive study areas. However, the potential of fully automated karst feature mapping still needs to be explored in future work. Concerning the spatial dimension of karstification in Central Crete, the GIS-based results allow differentiating

  7. Mutual interaction between the West African Monsoon on the summer Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, M.; Baldi, M.; Dalu, G. A.

    2009-04-01

    Many studies have show that the West African Monsoon (WAM) is teleconnected with neighbouring regions, as the Mediterranean (Med) basin and the Tropical Atlantic, but also it is sensitive to the perturbations occurring even in remote regions, as the Indian sub-continent and the Tropical Pacific, these teleconnections being active on several time-scales, from intraseasonal to multidecadal. The WAM plays also an active role in the regional atmospheric circulation, inducing significant changes in rainfall, moisture, temperature, and wind distribution up to the North Africa. Within this framework, recent works were focused on the teleconnection between WAM and Med. WAM is strengthened by the north-easterly advection of moisture from the Med Sea, and, since the subsiding monsoonal air often invades the Med, there is a 2-way interaction between WAM and Med summer circulation. We study these interactions, applying SVD analysis to global NCEP Reanalysis and to rainfall data from CMAP, during the extended monsoonal season from May to October, on interannual and on intraseasonal time-scale. Dynamical features are explored using composite analysis, focusing on the role of this connection in the heat waves occurrence in the Med. We find that a strong WAM intensifies the Hadley meridional circulation, with a strengthening of the north Atlantic anticyclone and a weakening, even blocking, of the westerly flow in the Med. A deep inland penetration of WAM produces a northern shift of the Libyan anticyclone, with subsidence and high pressure affecting mainly the western Med. The positive feedback is due to the intensification of north-easterly flow from the eastern Med, which, reaching the Sahara desert, intensifies the intertropical front, favouring abundant monsoonal precipitation because of the added moist air.

  8. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece. PMID:17361068

  9. Seasonal expression of KiSS-1 and the pituitary gonadotropins LHβ and FSHβ in adult male Libyan jird (Meriones libycus).

    PubMed

    Boufermes, R; Richard, N; Le Moguen, K; Amirat, Z; Khammar, F; Kottler, M L

    2014-06-10

    The molecular mechanisms operating on a seasonal time-scale and regulating functions such as reproduction are poorly understood in animals living in desert environments. Kisspeptin, the product of the KiSS-1 gene, plays a critical role in control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis that orchestrates the reproductive system in vertebrates. We report a sequence analysis of KiSS-1 and the pituitary luteinising hormone-beta (LHβ) and follicle-stimulating hormone-beta (FSHβ) in the Libyan jird (Meriones libycus), a seasonal breeding rodent that is sexually active during spring and quiescent in fall. We also assessed gene expression by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction during the non-breeding and breeding seasons. The KiSS-1 cDNA sequence analysis showed high homology between M. libycus and all other rodents (94%) and humans (92%). KiSS-1 expression was higher during the breeding season than that during the non-breeding season. In contrast, LHβ and FSHβ expression levels were higher during the non-breeding season in autumn and varied in an opposite manner with testicular, seminal vesicle weights and plasma testosterone levels. Our results extend the role for KiSS-1 in activating the HPG axis in this desert rodent in its natural biotope by relaying environmental cues as in other seasonal non-desert rodent models. PMID:24786546

  10. FINE STRUCTURAL STUDY ON EMERIA SP. INFECTING THE LIBYAN JIRDS (MERIONES LIBYCUS) IN SAUDI ARABIA: MEROGONY, MACROGAMETOGENESIS AND HOST-PARASITE RELATIONSHIP.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Abdullah D; Alanazi, Ashraf E Said; El-Kabbany, Amira I

    2015-08-01

    Ultrastructural characteristics of merogony and the development of mature merozoits and macrogametogensis of Eimeria sp. infecting the Libyan jird were investigated. Mono and binucleated schizonts were detected. Developed merozoites showed all the apicomplexan architecture (Pellicle, conoid, rhoptries, micronemes ... etc). Transformation into macrogametes were studied. Early macrogamonts characterized by the loss of all apicomblexan characters and the appearance of wall-forming bodies were the first indication for macrogametogenesis. As development precepded, two types of wall forming bodies (I, II) were clearly detected. Cell organelles including amylopectin granules and lipid globules were greatly increased in mature macrogametes. Young oocyst (zygote) with double-layer oocyst wall were also detected. Host cell reaction due to infection included hypertrophy of the infected host cell, enlargement, deformation and displacement of the host cell nucleus. Swollen and degeneration of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic vacuolation of the host cell. All parasite stages were enclosed in parasitophorous vacuole limited by unit membrane. Extended damage effect appeared in some neighboring host cell indicating the secretion of some toxins by the parasite. PMID:26485841

  11. Comparative Patterns of Plant Invasions in the Mediterranean Biome

    PubMed Central

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Delipetrou, Pinelopi; Vilà, Montserrat; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G.; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Wardell-Johnson, Grant; Henderson, Lesley; Fuentes, Nicol; Ugarte-Mendes, Eduardo; Rundel, Philip W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare and contrast the patterns of alien plant invasions in the world’s five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs). We expected landscape age and disturbance history to have bearing on levels of invasion. We assembled a database on naturalized alien plant taxa occurring in natural and semi-natural terrestrial habitats of all five regions (specifically Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus from the Mediterranean Basin, California, central Chile, the Cape Region of South Africa and Southwestern - SW Australia). We used multivariate (hierarchical clustering and NMDS ordination) trait and habitat analysis to compare characteristics of regions, taxa and habitats across the mediterranean biome. Our database included 1627 naturalized species with an overall low taxonomic similarity among the five MCRs. Herbaceous perennials were the most frequent taxa, with SW Australia exhibiting both the highest numbers of naturalized species and the highest taxonomic similarity (homogenization) among habitats, and the Mediterranean Basin the lowest. Low stress and highly disturbed habitats had the highest frequency of invasion and homogenization in all regions, and high natural stress habitats the lowest, while taxonomic similarity was higher among different habitats in each region than among regions. Our analysis is the first to describe patterns of species characteristics and habitat vulnerability for a single biome. We have shown that a broad niche (i.e. more than one habitat) is typical of naturalized plant species, regardless of their geographical area of origin, leading to potential for high homogenization within each region. Habitats of the Mediterranean Basin are apparently the most resistant to plant invasion, possibly because their landscapes are generally of relatively recent origin, but with a more gradual exposure to human intervention over a longer period. PMID:24244443

  12. Marine storminess in the Mediterranean in future climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, P.

    2009-09-01

    This talk reviews the analysis that is presently available on marine storms, their climatology and change in future climate scenarios. The cyclones that are responsible for the storms are analyzed using a regional climate model simulations of present day (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100, A2 and B2 emission scenarios) and the differences between northern Europe and Mediterranean are discussed. In the A2 and B2 scenarios the annual average storm track intensity increases over the North-East Atlantic and decreases over the Eastern Mediterranean region with respect to present day conditions,. The number of cyclones decreases in future scenarios throughout Europe, except over the central Europe and Mediterranean in summer, where it increases. This overall change pattern is larger in the A2 than in the B2 simulations. Wind-wave field changes are discussed considering a similar analysis. The mean SWH (Significant Wave Height) field over large fraction of the Mediterranean Sea is lower for the A2 scenario than for the present climate during winter, spring and autumn. During summer the A2 mean SWH field is also lower everywhere, except for two areas, those between Greece and Northern Africa and between Spain and Algeria, where it is significantly higher. All these changes are similar, though smaller and less significant, in the B2 scenario, except during winter in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, when the B2 mean SWH field is higher than in the REF simulation. Also extreme SWH values are smaller in future scenarios than in the present climate and such SWH change is larger for the A2 than for the B2 scenario. In general, changes of SWH, wind speed and atmospheric circulation are consistent, and results show milder marine storms in future scenarios than in the present climate.

  13. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  14. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, K.; Chiggiato, J.; Bryden, H. L.; Borghini, M.; Ben Ismail, S.

    2016-01-01

    One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected. PMID:26965790

  15. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Chiggiato, J; Bryden, H L; Borghini, M; Ben Ismail, S

    2016-01-01

    One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected. PMID:26965790

  16. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, K.; Chiggiato, J.; Bryden, H. L.; Borghini, M.; Ben Ismail, S.

    2016-03-01

    One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected.

  17. Modelling ozone stomatal flux of wheat under mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Fernández, I.; Bermejo, V.; Elvira, S.; de la Torre, D.; González, A.; Navarrete, L.; Sanz, J.; Calvete, H.; García-Gómez, H.; López, A.; Serra, J.; Lafarga, A.; Armesto, A. P.; Calvo, A.; Alonso, R.

    2013-03-01

    Correct estimation of leaf-level stomatal conductance (gsto) is central for current ozone (O3) risk assessment of wheat yield loss based on the absorbed O3 phytotoxic dose (POD). The gsto model parameterizations developed in Europe must be checked in the different climatic regions where they are going to be applied in order to reduce the uncertainties associated with the POD approach. This work proposes a new gsto model parameterization for estimating POD of Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under Mediterranean conditions, based on phenological observations over 25 years and gsto field measurements during 5 growing seasons. Results show that POD in the Mediterranean area might be higher than previously estimated. However, caution must be paid when assessing the risk of yield loss for wheat in this area since field validation of O3 impacts is still limited.

  18. Mediterranean Europe as an area of endemism for small mammals rather than a source for northwards postglacial colonization.

    PubMed Central

    Bilton, D T; Mirol, P M; Mascheretti, S; Fredga, K; Zima, J; Searle, J B

    1998-01-01

    There is a general perception that central and northern Europe were colonized by range expansion from Mediterranean refugia at the end of the last glaciation. Data from various species support this scenario, but we question its universality. Our mitochondrial DNA studies on three widespread species of small mammal suggest that colonization may have occurred from glacial refugia in central Europe-western Asia. The haplotypes on the Mediterranean peninsulae are distinctive from those found elsewhere. Rather than contributing to the postglacial colonization of Europe, Mediterranean populations of widespread small mammals may represent long-term isolates undergoing allopatric speciation. This could explain the high endemism of small mammals associated with the Mediterranean peninsulae. PMID:9699314

  19. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  20. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  1. [Mediterranean lymphoma mimicking Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Jouini, S; Ayadi, K; Mokrani, A; Wachuku, E; Hmouda, H; Gourdie, R

    2001-07-01

    We report an uncommon localization of mediterranean lymphoma of the terminal ileum in a 28 year-old male patient. Ultrasound and Computed Tomography showed moderate regular and symmetrical intestinal wall thickening simulating Crohn's disease. We highlight the role of computed tomography in the diagnosis, staging and detection of complications. PMID:11507451

  2. Surface circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean using drifters (2005-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerin, R.; Poulain, P.-M.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Millot, C.; Ben Ismail, S.; Sammari, C.

    2009-11-01

    Within the framework of the EGITTO/EGYPT programs, the spatial structure and the temporal variability of the surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea was studied with satellite-tracked drifters. A total of 97 drifters drogued to 15-m nominal depth were released between September 2005 and March 2007, regularly along ship-of-opportunity routes in the Sicily Channel and within specific structures during dedicated campaigns in the Levantine sub-basin. This study complements previous ones in the former and in the Ionian, but it is the first one in the latter. After editing and low-pass filtering, the drifter trajectories were used to estimate pseudo-Eulerian statistics: mean current, variance ellipses, mean and eddy kinetic energies. A statistical analysis was also performed dividing the dataset in two extended seasons (winter and summer). A branching behaviour of the surface water after passing through the Sicily Channel is evidenced, together with a seasonal variability inducing a reversal of the circulation in the southern part of the Ionian. In the Levantine, the surface circulation describes an eastward flow along the Libyan and Egyptian slopes (the Libyo-Egyptian Current: LEC) that continues in a cyclonic circuit along the Middle East and Turkish slopes. This general alongslope circuit can be perturbed locally and temporally by the numerous anticyclonic eddies that co-exist in the Levantine, mainly created by the instability of the LEC in the south (Libyo-Egyptian Eddies: LEEs), but also by the wind (Ierapetra and Pelops), and by the topography (over the Eratosthenes Seamount and off Latakia). The most frequent perturbation is the entrainment of part of the flow seaward: the LEEs close to the slope can interact with the LEC, which then spreads more or less around them, so that a series of contiguous LEEs (paddle-wheel effect) can possibly result in an eastward offshore transport (the so-called Mid Mediterranean Jet). Additionally, when

  3. Tectonic and petrologic evolution of the Western Mediterranean: the double polarity subduction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Vergés, Jaume; Fernàndez, Manel; Torné, Montserrat; Casciello, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The geochemical composition of the mantle beneath the Mediterranean area is extremely heterogeneous. This feature results in volcanic products whose geochemical features in some cases do not correspond to the geodynamic environment in which they are sampled and that is observed at present day. The subduction-related models that have been developed during the last decades to explain the evolution of the Western Mediterranean are mainly based on geologic and seismologic evidences, as well as petrography and age of exhumation of the metamorphic units that compose the inner parts of the different arcs. Except few cases, most of these models are poorly constrained from a petrologic point of view. Usually the volcanic activity that affected the Mediterranean area since Oligocene has been only used as a corollary, and not as a key constrain. This choice is strictly related to the great geochemical variability of the volcanic products erupted in the Western Mediterranean, due to events of long-term recycling affecting the mantle beneath the Mediterranean since the Variscan Orogeny, together with depletion episodes due to partial melting. We consider an evolutionary scenario for the Western Mediterranean based on a double polarity subduction model according to which two opposite slabs separated by a transform fault of the original Jurassic rift operated beneath the Western and Central Mediterranean. Our aim has been to reconstruct the evolution of the Western Mediterranean since the Oligocene considering the volcanic activity that affected this area since ~30 Ma and supporting the double polarity subduction model with the petrology of the erupted rocks.

  4. Mineral content in grains of seven food-grade sorghum hybrids grown in Mediterranean environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a major crop used for food, feed and industrial purposes worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the mineral content in grains of seven white food-grade sorghum hybrids bred and adapted for growth in the central USA and grown in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. The ...

  5. Viruses in a deep oligotrophic sea: Seasonal distribution of marine viruses in the epi-, meso- and bathypelagic waters of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiopoulos, Iordanis; Pitta, Paraskevi

    2012-08-01

    Marine viruses and their main hosts were studied in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ionian, Libyan and Aegean Seas) during two sampling cruises (mixing and water column stratification periods). Samples were collected from the surface to 4000 m depth. Total abundance of viruses and prokaryotes was determined by Flow Cytometry (FCM). Viruses were separated into three groups according to their fluorescence signal. Viral abundance ranged from 1.2×105 viruses ml-1 to 2.7×107 viruses ml-1 and varied significantly between areas, depth zones and seasons. Prokaryotic cell abundance varied from 1.7×104 cells ml-1 to 1.5×106 cells ml-1 presenting a strong positive correlation with viral abundance. Stations and depths influenced by the Black Sea Water in the North Aegean Sea presented the highest values of viral abundance and Viruses to Prokaryotes Ratio (VPR). Vertical distributions of VPR were attributed to different water masses. The increased viral abundance and VPR values that were detected during the stratification period may be explained by the seasonal changes in prokaryotic cell characteristics (cell size, nucleic acid content). These significant seasonal distributions were also found below 1000 m indicating a possible viral activity in the bathypelagic ocean.

  6. Treatment of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Gradoni, L.; Bryceson, A.; Desjeux, P.

    1995-01-01

    Up-to-date information is given on the epidemiological situation of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in nine Mediterranean countries, and on drug regimens adopted in the management of ZVL patients in each country. Results of experimental and clinical trials on the efficacy and tolerability of liposomal amphotericin B in laboratory animals and in patients with ZVL are presented, as well as conclusions and recommendations on drug regimens to be used in the treatment of ZVL. PMID:7743590

  7. Seismic noise recored by seafloor observatories at Mediterranean sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mariagrazia; Monna, Stephen; Frugoni, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Favali, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is an area highly exposed to geo-hazards, such as seismic and volcanic activity. Real-time and continuous monitoring of its coastal areas is needed to ensure rapid warning and mitigate the effects of natural disasters. Seafloor observatories for near-real-time and real-time interactive long-term monitoring of ocean processes which are part of the EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory, www.emso-eu.org) Research Infrastructure, have been deployed in sites of the Mediterranean basin. We present long-term time series acquired by GEOSTAR-class seafloor observatories deployed in four sites of Mediterranean areas: Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas (deep seafloor Central-Mediterranean sites) and the Marmara Sea and Gulf of Corinth (shallow seafloor Eastern-Mediterranean sites). We generated a reference model of the background seismic noise based on data collected from seismometers installed on board seafloor observatories. We concentrate on interesting and peculiar features of the noise signal in the frequency band 0.003-50 Hz. The main contribution in the short period band >5Hz (<2s) comes from anthropic noise (e.g. shipping noise). In this band we also find a peak around 0.8Hz (1.25s) which appears to be a persistent characteristic of the Mediterranean basins. Seasonal variations (summer-winter) are visible in the microseismic band 0.05-0.5Hz (2-20s). In particular in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian deep seafloor sites we can distinguish the splitting of the DF (Double Frequency peak) in the long period (LPDF) and the short period (SPDF) peaks. Our study shows the presence of the LPDF, well visible at the deep seafloor sites, and seasonal variations of the LPDF and the SPDF amplitudes ratio, suggesting that the SPDF depends on the sea wave regime generated by local winds. For the deep seafloor sites we can also appreciate the contribution of infragravity waves (<0.05Hz). Our observations confirm the dependence of the

  8. The Mediterranean Oscillation and precipitation in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, Tobias; Menzel, Lucas

    2014-05-01

    Most of the precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) is associated with mid-latitude cyclones (Black, 2011). Furthermore, a low pressure over this region is often accompanied by a high pressure in the Western Mediterranean (WM). This pattern has been referred to as the Mediterranean Oscillation and given rise to the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI), which can be expressed as pressure differences between Algiers in the WM and Cairo in the EM (Palutikof et al., 1996). In this study, the relationship between the MOI and precipitation in the Jordan River region, located in the EM is addressed. First of all, 30 precipitation series were tested for homogeneity and serial correlation. Thereafter, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses were applied to the homogenous series and the years 1960-1993. The results showed that the EOF-1 explained 60-71% of the precipitation variance and received a significant correlation with the MOI in December-February whereas no correlation was obtained for the EOF-2. In order to obtain the large scale pressure anomalies associated with winter precipitation in the study region, the EOF-1 coefficient time series was correlated with Sea Level Pressure (SLP) obtained for ca. 23° W to 70° E and 5° N to 67° N. This resulted in a correlation coefficient between -0.5 and 0.5; where negative values correspond to below normal SLP, and positive values to above normal SLP by the time of rainfall in the study region. The spatial pattern showed above normal SLP over central Europe and the WM and below normal SLP in the EM. Hence, it was reminiscent of the Mediterranean Oscillation and consistence with the results from the previous correlation analysis. The probability of precipitation during negative and positive MOI phases was thereafter derived by fitting gamma distributions to monthly precipitation. The result showed that negative MOI phases are associated with low- and below normal winter precipitation whereas positive MOI phases

  9. [Amyloidosis and familial Mediterranean fever].

    PubMed

    Pras, M

    1986-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (F. M. F.) is an autosomal recessive disorder occurring most commonly in Sepharadi Jews and Armenians. Two phenotypic features characterize the disease: brief episodic febrile attacks of peritonitis, pleuritis or synovitis recurring from childhood or adolescence and the development of systemic amyloidosis. Attacks are accompanied by striking elevations of acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A protein. The amyloidosis of Familial Mediterranean Fever is of the AA type, and manifest clinically as a nephropathy that passes through proteinuria, nephrotic and uremic stages to renal death. Although there is ethnic variation in the incidence of amyloidosis of F. M. F. in our patient population--predominantly Sepharadi Jews of North African extraction--an amyloidotic death at an early age is their genetic destiny. Since the introduction in 1972 of colchicine to prevent the febrile attacks, the drug has been proven and become the main stay of therapy. Today, colchicine has been shown to be effective in preventing amyloidosis as well as the febrile attacks in Familial Mediterranean Fever. End stage renal disease is not the end of the road for patients with F.M.F. because of improving outlook for dialysis and renal transplantation in these patients. PMID:2943362

  10. Mean sea-level height variations in the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, Susanna; Bruni, Sara; Errico, Maddalena; Petracca, Fernanda; Raicich, Fabio; Santi, Efisio

    2015-04-01

    The Italian tide gauge network has experienced difficulties during last century. However, historical time series, starting from the end of the ninetieth century, are available in the PSMSL data base (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level, http://www.psmsl.org/data/). Data from the early 1980s can also be obtained from the data base of ISPRA (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, http://www.mareografico.it). In 1998, the Italian national tide gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale - RMN) was completely restructured; it consists of 36 homogeneously distributed stations providing measurements sampled every 10 minutes. We have analyzed both the historical and the recent time series of a sub set of stations located in the Tyrrhenian area by using the Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) approach. The EOF analysis allows describing one data set as a linear combination of orthogonal components, or modes, that depend on position only, while the linear combination coefficients are functions of time only. Each mode is associated to a percentage of the total variance of the original data set, which accounts for the relative importance of the corresponding mode of variability. The aim of this work is to identify common modes which could possibly be related to wide area crustal deformation and/or to climatic fluctuations, such as the inverted barometer effect.

  11. Miocene reef facies of pelagian block, central Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Pedley, H.M.

    1988-02-01

    Miocene reefs outcrop in the Maltese Islands, southeastern Sicily, and the pelagian island of Lampedusa. Several rapid eustatic sea level fluctuations affected these late Tortonian-early Messinian build-ups; normal salinities appear to have been maintained during these events. In addition to sea floor topography, reef development appears to have been controlled by turbulence. Encruster-dominated patch reefs are typical of platform and shallow ramp situations where turbulence is high. Branching and massive coral assemblages are typical of fore-reef curtains and steep slope substrates.

  12. Miocene reef facies of Pelagian Block, central Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Pedley, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Miocene reefs outcrop in the Maltese Islands, southeastern Sicily, and the pelagian island of Lampedusa. Several rapid eustatic sea level fluctuations affected these late Tortonian-early Messinian build-ups; normal salinities appear to have been maintained during these events. Substrate, topography, sedimentation rate, and tectonic/eustatic events controlled reef development, which can be grouped into three settings: The most stable situation, the oldest Maltese and southeastern Sicilian reefs, has a ramp profile 15-30 km wide. The outermost zone consists of a broad belt of the large benthic foraminifer Heterostegina (compared with the underyling Oligocene beds rich in Lepidocyclina). Coralline algal carbonates, commonly rhodolitic, form a broad biostromal up-ramp association, kilometers in width, which commonly extends into the shallowest parts of the shelf. Scattered across the shallower ramp areas, in water depths generally less than 10 m, are coral-algal patch reefs, rarely larger than 20-50 m in diameter, commonly with truncated tops, and dominated by crustose coralline algae and the corals Porites and Tarbellastraea.

  13. Climate Local Information over the Mediterranean to Respond User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruti, P.

    2012-12-01

    CLIM-RUN aims at developing a protocol for applying new methodologies and improved modeling and downscaling tools for the provision of adequate climate information at regional to local scale that is relevant to and usable by different sectors of society (policymakers, industry, cities, etc.). Differently from current approaches, CLIM-RUN will develop a bottom-up protocol directly involving stakeholders early in the process with the aim of identifying well defined needs at the regional to local scale. The improved modeling and downscaling tools will then be used to optimally respond to these specific needs. The protocol is assessed by application to relevant case studies involving interdependent sectors, primarily tourism and energy, and natural hazards (wild fires) for representative target areas (mountainous regions, coastal areas, islands). The region of interest for the project is the Greater Mediterranean area, which is particularly important for two reasons. First, the Mediterranean is a recognized climate change hot-spot, i.e. a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming. Second, while a number of countries in Central and Northern Europe have already in place well developed climate service networks (e.g. the United Kingdom and Germany), no such network is available in the Mediterranean. CLIM-RUN is thus also intended to provide the seed for the formation of a Mediterranean basin-side climate service network which would eventually converge into a pan-European network. The general time horizon of interest for the project is the future period 2010-2050, a time horizon that encompasses the contributions of both inter-decadal variability and greenhouse-forced climate change. In particular, this time horizon places CLIM-RUN within the context of a new emerging area of research, that of decadal prediction, which will provide a strong potential for novel research.

  14. First Gammaherpesvirus detection in a free-living Mediterranean bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Lecis, Roberta; Tocchetti, Marco; Rotta, Andrea; Naitana, Salvatore; Ganges, Llilianne; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Recently, herpes viruses have been detected in different cetacean species from the Atlantic and in Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). While pathogens such as cetacean morbillivirus have been widely studied following recent epizootics, herpesvirus (HV) distribution and pathogenic effects in cetaceans are still understudied. This study reports the first molecular identification of a Gammaherpesvirus in the genital mucosa of a free-living Mediterranean bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) stranded off the coast of central Italy. Sequenced herpesviral PCR product was closely related to other HVs recently isolated in the genital mucosa of various cetacean species. PMID:25632684

  15. A Mediterranean atmospheric observatory in Corsica within the framework of HyMEx, ChArMEx and MERMEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, D.

    2009-04-01

    Corsica is an island, located in the remote western Mediterranean Sea, regularly affected by intense meteorological events: windstorms, heavy precipitation, waves and coastal erosion, drought, forest fire, and lightning as a result of its topography. All these events are crucial for the economic activity of Corsica, which is mainly based on tourism, nautical activities, agriculture and farming. In spite of recent improvements in operational forecasting, numerical weather predictions regularly fail to reproduce the intensity and distribution of precipitation of heavy rainstorms at the mesoscale. Local weather forecasters still have difficulties in predicting such precipitation events, particularly over the sea close to complex topography. Corsica is also relevant for the study of most of intense precipitation cases affecting continental south eastern France and northern Italy, which are generally characterized by low level warm and wet fluxes from the south channelled not only by the continental orography but also by the Corsica-Sardinia island ridges. An upstream following of such heavy rainfall further south in the Mediterranean basin should allow a preconditioning phase study. Its geographical situation would allow Corsica to play the as yet unexploited role of a "sentry" for these events. In addition, Corsica is located near the most cyclogenetic area of the western Mediterranean basin. In addition and due to the presence of various aerosol types over the Mediterranean region, such as mineral dust particles (mostly transported from the Saharan-Libyan deserts), anthropogenic aerosols (due to urban and industrial activities along the Mediterranean coast), but also biomass burning from forest fires and marine aerosols, atmospheric particles are likely to have a significant impact on the regional climate and on the hydrological cycle over the Med. basin. In parallel and due to high deposition fluxes of desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols (which sources are close

  16. Obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (eastern Tunisia) and the PIXE elemental compositions of the Mediterranean peralkaline obsidians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier; Poupeau, Gérard; Boussofara, Ridha; Dubernet, Stéphan; Moretto, Philippe; Compin, Matthieu; Mulazzani, Simone

    2015-09-01

    The provenance of 37 obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (central Mediterranean Sea) was determined by PIXE. It is shown that they came from the two main obsidian sources, Balata dei Turchi and Lago di Venere, of the Pantelleria Island. A comparison of the PIXE elemental composition of geological vs. archaeological obsidians of central and western Mediterranean shows that their sources present elemental compositions homogeneous enough to make possible sourcing studies. However, a comparison between the distributions of geological and archaeological obsidians chemistry shows that the PIXE source qualifications do not cover yet the whole of their internal variations.

  17. Mediterranean diet: the past and the present.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A

    2001-08-01

    Mortality statistics from the World Health Organization have provided early evidence that diet in the Mediterranean countries has been affecting the health of the respective populations and, in particular, their coronary health. Keys (1) has taken the lead arguing that the traditional Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects on health. Recent studies, capturing the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, have documented that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. An attempt to conceptualize the proper diet and to make it able to function has been reported and a score has been developed and evaluated. Studies among the elderly in Greece, Denmark, Australia, Spain and China have shown that the overall Mediterranean dietary pattern was more important for longevity than single nutrients. These findings suggest, therefore, that a Mediterranean diet is associated with longer survival. Two additional questions should be addressed at this time: Is the Mediterranean diet an integral entity, or the sum of identifiable components that can and should be separately considered in the development of guidelines? Is the Mediterranean diet or its major components transferable to populations living far from the Mediterranean area? Answers to these questions would be important for scientific and policy reasons. The dietary patterns that prevail in the Mediterranean area have many common characteristics, most of which stem from the fact that olive oil plays an important role in all of them. Thus, although different regions in the Mediterranean basin have their own diets, it is legitimate to consider them as variants of a single entity, the Mediterranean diet. The Mediterranean diet can be described as the dietary pattern found in the olive growing areas of the Mediterranean region, in the late '50s and early '60s, when the consequences of World War II were overcome, but the fast-food culture had not reached the area yet (2

  18. Early maximum extent of paleoglaciers from Mediterranean mountains during the last glaciation

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Villar, D.; Carrasco, R. M.; Pedraza, J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Willenbring, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    Mountain glaciers respond directly to changes in precipitation and temperature, thus their margin extent is a high-sensitivity climate proxy. Here, we present a robust 10Be chronology for the glacier maximum areal extent of central Spain paleoglaciers dated at 26.1 ± 1.3 ka BP. These glaciers reached their maximum extent several thousand years earlier than those from central Europe due to the increased precipitation within a cold period between 25 to 29 ka BP, as confirmed by a local speleothem record. These paleoclimate conditions impacted the maximum extent of mountain glaciers along the western and central Mediterranean region. The cause and timing of the enhanced precipitation implies a southward shift of the North Atlantic Polar Front followed by storm tracks in response to changes in insolation via orbital parameters modulation. Thus, these mountain paleoglaciers from the Mediterranean region record an ocean-continent climate interaction triggered by external forcing. PMID:23783658

  19. Early maximum extent of paleoglaciers from Mediterranean mountains during the last glaciation.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Villar, D; Carrasco, R M; Pedraza, J; Cheng, H; Edwards, R L; Willenbring, J K

    2013-01-01

    Mountain glaciers respond directly to changes in precipitation and temperature, thus their margin extent is a high-sensitivity climate proxy. Here, we present a robust (10)Be chronology for the glacier maximum areal extent of central Spain paleoglaciers dated at 26.1 ± 1.3 ka BP. These glaciers reached their maximum extent several thousand years earlier than those from central Europe due to the increased precipitation within a cold period between 25 to 29 ka BP, as confirmed by a local speleothem record. These paleoclimate conditions impacted the maximum extent of mountain glaciers along the western and central Mediterranean region. The cause and timing of the enhanced precipitation implies a southward shift of the North Atlantic Polar Front followed by storm tracks in response to changes in insolation via orbital parameters modulation. Thus, these mountain paleoglaciers from the Mediterranean region record an ocean-continent climate interaction triggered by external forcing. PMID:23783658

  20. Mediterranean diets: are they environmentally responsible?

    PubMed

    Gussow, J D

    1995-06-01

    Dietary recommendations made to promote health seldom, if ever, take account of environmental implications of producing recommended foods. This paper considers several aspects of the traditional Mediterranean diet in relation to global sustainability. Plant-centered diets, such as those consumed around the Mediterranean Sea during the 1950s and 1960s, would be environmentally beneficial because they imply need for a much smaller population of domestic animals and, consequently, lowered demand on soil, water, and energy resources. Although fish consumption is high in some Mediterranean diets, fish should not be used to replace animal flesh because all of the world's major fisheries are currently overexploited. As for the appropriateness of Mediterranean fresh fruit and vegetables (which would need to be imported into non-Mediterranean regions), locally producible substitutes should be used wherever possible to reduce the environmental costs of transporting food great distances. Research is needed to examine the environmental consequences of certain exports such as olive oil. PMID:7754992

  1. Last interglacial East Mediterranean sapropels: Testing the freshwater hypothesis using coastal proxy records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauz, Barbara; Elmejdoub, Noureddine; Rogerson, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Current understanding of sapropel formation in the Eastern Mediterranean suggests a combination of anoxia and enhanced primary productivity. Enhanced anoxia is thought to have resulted from freshwater input into the Eastern Mediterranean most likely originating from the Nile and from wadis draining Saharan lakes. We investigated Mediterranean sediment sequences on the coasts of North Africa and Levant using conventional sedimentological and optical dating techniques in order to understand the coastal response to external forcing when sapropels S5, S4 and S3 formed at ~125 ka, ~105 ka and ~83 ka in various East Mediterranean sub-basins. The sediment sequences show sharp switches between siliciclastic and carbonate dominated nearshore environment where carbonate-rich sediments are composed of oolitic grainstones. The oolitic sediments represent a period of elevated annual sea-surface temperature and lack of fluvial discharge at ~113 ka on the Levant coast, at ~110 ka on the coast west of the Nile delta (El Asmar and Wood 2000) and at ~80 ka on the north Saharan coast. Both the timing and duration of the arid period are different on each coast owing to the interplay between local processes and external forcing. For the Levantine Sea these differences confirm the dominant role of the Nile discharge in generating conditions for sapropels to form. For the central east Mediterranean the differences indicate dominant external forcing after ~110 ka, exerted by the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, because arid shorelines existed contemporaneously with the formation of S4 andS3. While it is hard to find the unequivocal evidence, we feel our data rule out a Saharan lakes source of freshwater for the central East Mediterranean Sea after ~110 ka and thereby implicitly, a spatial and temporal varying freshwater input.

  2. Saharan dust deposition may affect phytoplankton growth in the Mediterranean sea at ecological time scales.

    PubMed

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  3. Saharan Dust Deposition May Affect Phytoplankton Growth in the Mediterranean Sea at Ecological Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  4. Worldwide epidemiology of liver hydatidosis including the Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Biondi, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Mistretta, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide incidence and prevalence of cystic echinococcosis have fallen dramatically over the past several decades. Nonetheless, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) remains a major public health issue in several countries and regions, even in places where it was previously at low levels, as a result of a reduction of control programmes due to economic problems and lack of resources. Geographic distribution differs by country and region depending on the presence in that country of large numbers of nomadic or semi-nomadic sheep and goat flocks that represent the intermediate host of the parasite, and their close contact with the final host, the dog, which mostly provides the transmission of infection to humans. The greatest prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in human and animal hosts is found in countries of the temperate zones, including several parts of Eurasia (the Mediterranean regions, southern and central parts of Russia, central Asia, China), Australia, some parts of America (especially South America) and north and east Africa. Echinococcosis is currently considered an endemic zoonotic disease in the Mediterranean region. The most frequent strain associated with human cystic echinococcosis appears to be the common sheep strain (G1). This strain appears to be widely distributed in all continents. The purpose of this review is to examine the distribution of E. granulosus and the epidemiology of a re-emerging disease such as cystic echinococcosis. PMID:22509074

  5. Drought Variability in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.

    2010-12-01

    Projections from general circulation models are consistent in identifying the Mediterranean Basin as a region of expected drying in response to increased greenhouse gases. The Mediterranean and its bordering countries, while giving rise to the classic “Mediterranean” climate-type, are characterized by a complex precipitation climatology, with strong influences from land-sea contrasts, topography, intrusions of polar air from various lowland pathways, and occasional tropical influence from systems originating south of the Atlas Mountains. Identification of an anthropogenic signature of drying with instrumental climate data can benefit from information on the natural spatio-temporal variability of drought on time scales of decades to centuries in this complex precipitation regime. An expanding tree-ring network will eventually yield multi-century drought records for the region (117 chronologies now developed or in progress). Aspects of spatio-temporal variability on shorter time scales in the southern part of the Mediterranan Basin (south of about 40°N) are examined in this presentation with the aid of gridded precipitation, temperature and Z-index - a dimensionless intermediate variable in Palmer Drought Index computation. Cross-spectral analysis is applied to summarize covariance of drought-related variables across the region. Ocean-atmosphere circulation indices are explored for direct causative factors in episodes of exceptional widespread seasonal and multi-season drought in the region.

  6. Persistence across Pleistocene ice ages in Mediterranean and extra-Mediterranean refugia: phylogeographic insights from the common wall lizard

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pleistocene climatic oscillations have played a major role in structuring present-day biodiversity. The southern Mediterranean peninsulas have long been recognized as major glacial refugia, from where Northern Europe was post-glacially colonized. However, recent studies have unravelled numerous additional refugia also in northern regions. We investigated the phylogeographic pattern of the widespread Western Palaearctic lizard Podarcis muralis, using a range-wide multilocus approach, to evaluate whether it is concordant with a recent expansion from southern glacial refugia or alternatively from a combination of Mediterranean and northern refugia. Results We analyzed DNA sequences of two mitochondrial (cytb and nd4) and three nuclear (acm4, mc1r, and pdc) gene fragments in individuals from 52 localities across the species range, using phylogenetic and phylogeographic methods. The complex phylogeographic pattern observed, with 23 reciprocally monophyletic allo- parapatric lineages having a Pleistocene divergence, suggests a scenario of long-term isolation in multiple ice-age refugia across the species distribution range. Multiple lineages were identified within the three Mediterranean peninsulas – Iberia, Italy and the Balkans - where the highest genetic diversity was observed. Such an unprecedented phylogeographic pattern - here called “refugia within all refugia” – compasses the classical scenario of multiple southern refugia. However, unlike the southern refugia model, various distinct lineages were also found in northern regions, suggesting that additional refugia in France, Northern Italy, Eastern Alps and Central Balkans allowed the long-term persistence of this species throughout Pleistocene glaciations. Conclusions The phylogeography of Podarcis muralis provides a paradigm of temperate species survival in Mediterranean and extra-Mediterranean glacial refugia. Such refugia acted as independent biogeographic compartments for the long

  7. Direct Radiative Effect of Intense Dust Outbreaks in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Obiso, V.; Basart, S.; Jorba, O.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Gassó, S.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The broader Mediterranean basin is affected by intense desert dust outbreaks in spring. In the present study, we make use of satellite observations and modelling to investigate dust radiative impacts during three consecutive dust outbreaks occurred over the Mediterranean in the period 9/4-15/4/2008. The direct radiative effect (DRE) is estimated by using two simulations run with the NMMB/BSC-Dust model, where the interaction between dust aerosols and radiation is activated and deactivated, respectively. The simulation domain covers the North Africa, the Middle East and Europe at 0.25ºx0.25° and 40σ-layers. The first outbreak took place over the central and eastern Mediterranean on the 9th reaching aerosol optical depths (AODs) close to 1. The second one, with AODs up to 2, lasted from 10th to 14th affecting mainly the central Mediterranean. The third one, with AODs up to 5, affected the Iberian Peninsula on the 15th. DREs are computed for the outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), the absorbed radiation into the atmosphere (ATMAB), for the downwelling (SURF) and the absorbed (NETSURF) radiation at surface, for the shortwave (SW), longwave (LW) and NET (SW+LW) radiation. According to our results, it is evident that DREs' spatial patterns are driven by those of AOD. Negative (cooling) instantaneous DRETOA, DRESURF and DRENETSURF values up to -500W/m2, -700W/m2 and -600W/m2, respectively, and positive (warming) instantaneous DREATMAB up to 340W/m2 are found for the SW spectrum, during daytime. Opposite but less pronounced effects are encountered for the LW radiation and during nightime. Due to these perturbations on the radiation field, the surface temperature is reduced locally by up to 8°C during daytime and increased by up to 4°C during nightime. It is found that the regional average NET DREs can be as large as -12W/m2, -45W/m2, -30W/m2 and 27W/m2 for TOA, SURF, NETSURF and ATMAB, respectively. Impacts on atmospheric stability and dust

  8. The Mediterranean: Strategic hub of oil activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1988-06-20

    The author says, the Mediterranean has always been a hub of oil industry activity. Pipeline and canal links into the Middle East, sizable oil and gas production along the North African shore, and access to the huge European markets through terminals on the southern European coast combine to give the region great strategic importance. The outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war emphasized the Mediterranean's key role in transporting Middle Eastern crude. This special Journal report provides an exclusive look at operations of Middle East, European, and North African countries on the rim of the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Effects of Extreme Climate on Mediterranean Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xoplaki, Elena

    2009-04-01

    Climate Extremes During Recent Millennia and Their Impact on Mediterranean Societies; Athens, Greece, 13-16 September 2008; Climatic extremes in the past few thousand years have severely affected societies throughout the Mediterranean region and have changed the outcome of historical events in some instances. Climatic extremes—droughts, floods, prolonged cold and heat—affect society in a variety of ways, operating through famine, disease, and social upheaval. These topics were discussed at an interdisciplinary symposium at the National and Kapodistrian University, in Greece, that brought together climatologists, paleoclimatologists, anthropologists, geologists, archaeologists, and historians working in the greater Mediterranean region.

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of Mediterranean drought events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, R.; Sousa, P.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.

    2009-04-01

    The original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and a recent adaptation to European soil characteristics, the Self Calibrated PDSI (or scPDSI) proposed by Schrier et al (2005) were used. We have computed monthly, seasonal and annual trends between 1901 and 2000 but also for the first and second halves of the 20th century. Results were represented only when achieving a minimum level of statistical significance (either 5% or 10% using a Mann-Kendall test) and confirm that the majority of the western and central Mediterranean is getting drier in the last decades of the 20th century while Turkey is generally getting wetter (Trigo et al., 2006). The spatio-temporal variability of these indices was evaluated with an EOF analysis, in order to reduce the large dimensionality of the fields under analysis. Spatial representation of the first EOF patterns shows that EOF 1 covers the entire Mediterranean basin (16.4% of EV), while EOF2 is dominated by a W-E dipole (10% EV). The following EOF patterns present smaller scale features, and explain smaller amounts of variance. The EOF patterns have also facilitated the definition of four sub-regions with large socio-economic relevance: 1) Iberia, 2) Italian Peninsula, 3) Balkans and 4) Turkey. The inter-annual variability of the regional spatial droughts indices for each region was analyzed separately. We have also performed an evaluation of their eventual links with large-scale atmospheric circulation indices that affect the Mediterranean basin, namely the NAO, EA, and SCAND. Finally we have evaluated the main sources of moisture affecting two drought prone areas in the western (Iberia) and eastern (Balkans) Mediterranean. This analysis was performed by means of backward tracking the air masses that ultimately reach these two regions using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al., 1998) and meteorological analysis data from the ECMWF to track atmospheric moisture. This was done for a five-year period (2000

  11. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  12. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  13. Modelling the background aerosol climatologies (1989-2010) for the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Jerez, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Aerosol levels and composition are influenced by multiple atmospheric physico-chemical processes that can affect them from its release point (as primary aerosol), or via gas-to-particle conversion processes that give rise to secondary aerosols. The contribution of the various aerosol sources, the role of long-range transport and the contribution of primary and secondary particulate matter to the ambient aerosol concentrations over Europe are not well known (Kulmala et al., 2009). Focusing on the Mediterranean, Querol et al. (2009) point out that there is a lack of studies on the variability of particulate matter (PM) along the Mediterranean basin, necessary for understanding the special features that differentiate aerosol processes between the western, eastern and central Mediterranean basins. In this perspective, modelling systems based on state-of-science chemistry transport models (CTMs) are fundamental elements to investigate the transport and chemistry of pollutants behaviour at different scales and to assess the impact of emissions in aerosol levels and composition. Therefore, this study aims to summarise the results on the levels and chemical composition of aerosols along the Mediterranean basin, highlighting the marked gradient between the western-central-eastern coasts. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the seasonality of PM composition and levels. For this purpose, the regional modelling system WRF-CHIMERE-EMEP has been implemented for conducting a full transient simulation for the ERA-Interim period (1989-2010) using year-to-year changing EMEP emissions. The domain of study covers Europe with a horizontal resolution of 25 km and a vertical resolution of 23 layers in the troposphere; however the analysis focuses on the Mediterranean area. The PM levels and composition are compared to the measured values reported by the EMEP network, showing a good agreement with observations for both western and eastern Mediterranean. The modelling results for

  14. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    PubMed

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  15. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  16. Mediterranean diets and metabolic syndrome status in the PREDIMED randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Babio, Nancy; Toledo, Estefanía; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Castañer, Olga; Bulló, Mònica; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Sorlí, José V.; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little evidence exists on the effect of an energy-unrestricted healthy diet on metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the long-term effect of Mediterranean diets ad libitum on the incidence or reversion of metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial — a multicentre, randomized trial done between October 2003 and December 2010 that involved men and women (age 55–80 yr) at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary interventions: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts or advice on following a low-fat diet (the control group). The interventions did not include increased physical activity or weight loss as a goal. We analyzed available data from 5801 participants. We determined the effect of diet on incidence and reversion of metabolic syndrome using Cox regression analysis to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Over 4.8 years of follow-up, metabolic syndrome developed in 960 (50.0%) of the 1919 participants who did not have the condition at baseline. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome did not differ between participants assigned to the control diet and those assigned to either of the Mediterranean diets (control v. olive oil HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.94–1.30, p = 0.231; control v. nuts HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.92–1.27, p = 0.3). Reversion occurred in 958 (28.2%) of the 3392 participants who had metabolic syndrome at baseline. Compared with the control group, participants on either Mediterranean diet were more likely to undergo reversion (control v. olive oil HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.15–1.58, p < 0.001; control v. nuts HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.08–1.51, p < 0.001). Participants in the group receiving olive oil supplementation showed significant decreases in both central obesity and high fasting glucose (p = 0.02); participants in the group supplemented with nuts showed a

  17. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epub 2013 Sep 9. Review. Citation on PubMed Lidar M, Kedem R, Berkun Y, Langevitz P, Livneh ... 090401. Epub 2009 Dec 15. Citation on PubMed Lidar M, Livneh A. Familial Mediterranean fever: clinical, molecular ...

  18. Night Views Over the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the Mediterranean Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 6, 2011, from 22:58:09 to 23:13:15 GMT,...

  19. [Mediterranean diet. Characteristics and health benefits].

    PubMed

    Serra Majem, Lluís; García Alvarez, Alicia; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the concept of Mediterranean Diet or Diets and to describe the associated health benefits recognised by the scientific community. The characteristics of the Mediterranean Diet are described as well as the effects the foods comprising it have on the most common pathologies such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition's consensus based Healthy Diet Pyramid, along with Greece's pyramid for food guidelines for the adult population (from the Greek Ministry of Health), are presented and compared. They are the graphic representation of the food and physical activity guides of two typically Mediterranean countries. Nutritional and sociological trends are also discussed and their impact on the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet. PMID:15584472

  20. Probing continental collision in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.

    Knowledge about the processes of continental collisional would unlock a wealth of data for the field of tectonics, but such processes have been poorly documented by academic ocean drilling. On the basis of 1993 data confirming that the easternmost Mediterranean is in the initial stages of continental collision, the Ocean Drilling Program has scheduled two legs of drilling for summer 1995 in the eastern and western parts of the Mediterranean Sea.Effects of continental collision in the easternmost Mediterranean include the Quaternary uplift of Cyprus [Poole and Robertson, 1991] and the break up and subsidence of the Eratosthenes Seamount, which is located in the easternmost Mediterranean between Cyprus and the Levantine Basin (Figure 1).

  1. Anoxic basins of the eastern Mediterranean: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cita, M. B.

    1991-02-01

    It is well known that the Mediterranean Sea underwent several episodes of basin-wide stagnation in the Plio/Pleistocene, but extant anoxic basins were first discovered between 1983 and 1984 in the Strabo Trench and in the southwestern slopes of the Mediterranean Ridge, facing the Sirte Abyssal Plain. Since then, several expeditions were carried out to investigate the geology and physiography of the basins as well as the physical and chemical characters of the water column. Although the geodynamic settings of the Tyro and Bannock basins are quite different, they are very deep, closed and filled by dense, salty, cold brines, whose presence is attributed to submarine dissolution of Messinian evaporites. Bannock Basin is interpreted as a collapse basin, with a complex configuration, central domes and several satellite basins most of which are anoxic. Unlike the Tyro Basin, it is characterized by precipitation of gypsum, occurring as euhedral crystals within the sediments, and dredged along the steep wall bordering the main basin to the East. The interface separating normal seawater from the brines corresponds to a well-defined pycnocline with a density contrast of approximately 20%, where strong bacterial activity seems to occur and a sudden decrease in transmittance is recorded. Studies on the water column document drastic changes of all the various parameters measured (O2, H2S, Ca, PO4, Ba) across the interface. Sediments deposited beneath the brines are anoxic. This kind of geologically induced anoxia is persistent and diachronous, in contrast with the isochronous, episodic, repetitive and climatically induced anoxia recorded in the same area of the eastern Mediterranean.

  2. Emergence of Toscana virus in the mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Charrel, Remi N; Bichaud, Laurence; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2012-10-12

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus, identified in 1971, from Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus perfiliewi in central Italy. TOSV belongs to the Phlebovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae family. As other bunyaviruses, the genome of TOSV consists of 3 segments (S for small, M for Medium, and L for Large) respectively encoding non structural and capsid proteins, envelope structural proteins, and the viral RNA-dependant RNA-polymerase. It is transmitted by sand flies. Therefore its distribution is dictated by that of the arthropod vectors, and virus circulation peaks during summertime when sandfly populations are active. Here, we reviewed the epidemiology of TOSV in the old world. First evidence of its pathogenicity for humans, specifically its propensity to cause central nervous system (CNS) infections such as meningitis and encephalitis, was reported in central Italy. After 2000, it was recognized that TOSV had a much larger geographic distribution than initially believed, and was present in most of the Western European countries located on the northern border of the Mediterranean Sea (Portugal, Spain, France, Greece, Croatia) as well as eastern countries such as Cyprus and Turkey. In the countries where TOSV is present, it is among the three most prevalent viruses in meningitis during the warm seasons, together with enteroviruses and herpesviruses. Up to now, epidemiological data concerning Northern Africa and other countries located south of the Mediterranean are scarce. TOSV must be considered an emerging pathogen. Despite the important role played by TOSV in CNS infections, it remains a neglected agent and is rarely considered by physicians in diagnostic algorithms of CNS infections and febrile illness during the warm season, probably because of the lack of information. PMID:24175218

  3. Late Miocene diversification of the genus Hydrochus (Coleoptera, Hydrochidae) in the west Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Galiana, Amparo; Ribera, Ignacio

    2011-05-01

    We provide a reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships, the geographical and temporal origin, and the mode of diversification of the Mediterranean species of the aquatic beetle family Hydrochidae (Coleoptera, Hydrophiloidea). A total of ca. 3KB of sequence data of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 62 specimens of 21 species of Hydrochus, including all western Mediterranean species but one. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian methods and an evolutionary rate of 0.0115 substitutions/site/MY, and used an ultrametric calibrated tree to construct a Lineage Through Time (LTT) plot to test alternative models of diversification. A well resolved, well supported phylogeny showed that all western Mediterranean Hydrochus formed a clade, sister to a group including species with a central and eastern European distribution. The origin of the western Mediterranean clade was estimated to be at ca. 13MY, and the speciation events took place between this time and the end of the Messinian, at about 5.3MY. The LTT plot best fitted a model with a shift in the rate of diversification at ca. 8 MY, with a single speciation event (originating two Iberian endemics) subsequent to this period. We conclude that most of the western Mediterranean species of Hydrochidae, including the Ibero-Maghrebian endemics, are ancient elements likely to have remained in the same geographical area since their Miocene origin. Our results add to a growing body of evidence showing the importance of Mediterranean long-term, Tertiary refugia as both cradles and museums of diversity. PMID:21354316

  4. Mediterranean summer climate and the importance of Middle-East Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Isla; Seager, Richard; Shaw, Tiffany; Ting, Mingfang

    2015-04-01

    In summer, the atmospheric circulation over the Mediterranean is characterized by localized intense subsidence and low level northerlies over the central- to eastern portion of the basin. Here, simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 are used to investigate the influence of the elevated terrain of North Africa and the Middle East on this summertime circulation. This builds on previous work that recognized a role for North African topography in localizing the Mediterranean subsidence. By flattening the two regions of elevated terrain in the model it is demonstrated that, while they both conspire to produce about 30% of the summertime subsidence, contrary to previous work, the mountains of the Middle-East dominate in this topographic contribution by far. This topography, consisting primarily of the Zagros Mountain range, alters the circulation throughout the depth of the troposphere over the Mediterranean, and further East. The model results suggest that about 20% of the Mediterranean summertime moisture deficit can be attributed to this mountain induced circulation. This topography, therefore, plays an important role in the climate of the Mediterranean and the large scale circulation over the rest of Eurasia during the summer. Further stationary wave modelling reveals that the mountain influence is produced via mechanical forcing of the flow. The greatest influence of the topography occurs when the low level incident flow is easterly, as happens during the summer, primarily due to the presence of condensational heating over Asia. During other seasons, when the low level incident flow is westerly, the influence of Middle-East topography on the Mediterranean is negligible.

  5. Seven ambiguities in the Mediterranean palaeoenvironmental narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzedakis, P. C.

    2007-09-01

    A review of seven outstanding issues on Mediterranean palaeoenvironments is presented. These are related to the dominant orbital pacing of climate variability, the length of the interglacial vegetation succession, the influence of the African summer monsoon, the seasonality of precipitation during boreal insolation maxima, the moisture balance during glacial maxima and the appearance of the mediterranean-type climate rhythm and evolution of mediterranean sclerophyllous plants. What emerges is that (1) marine δ 18O planktonic and SST records show that precession has been a fundamental tempo of Mediterranean climate change, representing both a low-latitude signal (runoff from North Africa) and the direct influence of insolation at Mediterranean latitudes, but high-latitude glacial effects (41-kyr and 100-kyr cycles) became superimposed after 2.8 Ma. Sapropel and dust deposition patterns in marine cores reveal that obliquity also has an effect on Mediterranean climate through dry-wet oscillations, which are independent of glacial-interglacial variability. (2) The temperate part of interglacial vegetation succession has a duration of approximately half a precession cycle. This persisted during the interval of obliquity-dominated glacial cycles (˜2.8-1 Ma), with distinct forest successions following the precessional cycles. However, these are not always separated by an open vegetation phase because of minimal ice growth, producing an impression of a prolonged interglacial forest interval. (3) The effect of an enhanced African monsoon during summer insolation maxima has been mainly indirect, in terms of Nile discharge and runoff along the North African coast, leading to increased freshwater input into the Mediterranean Sea, reduced deep-water ventilation and sapropel deposition. (4) The notion of an accentuated summer rain regime in the northern Mediterranean borderlands also contributing to a freshening of the Mediterranean Sea during boreal insolation maxima is not

  6. Relationship between 210Pbex and soil characteristics in Mediterranean hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, L.; Navas, A.; Machin, J.

    2012-04-01

    Natural occurring fallout 210Pb (half live, 22.2 yr) offers the potential for use as a radiotracer of soil movement in a similar manner to 137Cs in diverse agricultural landscapes of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the content of 210Pbex, physico-chemical soil properties and physiographic factors of Mediterranean mountain hillslopes in order to infer the relationship between these properties analyzed in selected cultivated and undisturbed soils. The study area is located in a subhumid Mediterranean agroecosystem in the central part of the Pyrenees. Along two hillslope transects a total of 31 soil cores were collected with different land uses, soil types, lithologies, altitude, orientation and slope gradient. The 210Pbex mass activities ranged between 0.8 and 54.7 Bq kg-1 and the 210Pbex inventories varied between 318 and 7298 Bq m-2. The Anova test indicated significant differences in the mean of 210Pbex mass activities for different land uses and ranges of altitude, while significant differences were found in the mean of 210Pbex inventories for different land uses, slope gradients, ranges of altitude and different soil types. Significant positive correlations were found between 210Pbex mass activity and total organic carbon (TOC) and stoniness, respectively, but inverse relation was observed with clay content despite expected. Nevertheless, when differentiating between land uses, in uncultivated soils the correlations decrease and in cultivated soils no significant correlations were found. On the other hand, no significant correlations were found between the 210Pbex inventories and soil properties analyzed. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Cluster analysis were used to generate a hypothesis that the distribution pattern of radioisotope was influenced by the variation in soil properties and physiographic factors. PCA results showed that TOC, stones and altitude were the major soil factors responsible for variations of 210Pbex mass

  7. A mechanism for African monsoon breaks: Mediterranean cold air surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2009-01-01

    Surges of cold air from the Mediterranean into northern Africa during the boreal summer are documented, and their influence on monsoon breaks is analyzed using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission rainfall estimates and reanalysis products. Between 1998 and 2006, 6-10 cold air surges occurred each summer, with low-level temperature anomalies ranging from less than -1 K to over -6 K. Composite analysis indicates that cold air surges over northern Africa persist for 2-10 days and travel equatorward at approximately 5.5 m s-1, which is 0.5-1.5 m s-1 faster than the observed climatological low-level meridional flow. Northern African cold surges have characteristics similar to surges observed elsewhere in the world, including a hydrostatically induced ridge of surface pressure and an amplified upper tropospheric ridge/trough pattern. The African cold surge is preceded by the passage of a shortwave trough and an intensification of the upper tropospheric subtropical westerly jet streak over the Mediterranean Sea. These events are associated with increased confluence in the jet entrance region over the central Mediterranean, an enhanced direct secondary circulation, subsidence, and low-level ageostrophic northerly flow over northeastern Africa. Composite analysis shows that the passage of a cold surge is associated with an enhancement in convective activity over southern Algeria, western Niger, northern Mali, and Mauritania 2 to 5 days before the surge reaches the eastern Sahel (˜17.5°N), when northeasterly flow channeled between the Atlas and Ahaggar Mountains strengthens and transports relatively moist air from the western Mediterranean and eastern North Atlantic over the region and increases moisture convergence over western Africa north of 20°N. Over the eastern Sahel of Sudan and eastern Chad, the composite results reveal a break in convective activity and decrease in low-level convergence when the surge arrives that persists for about 6 days. These results offer

  8. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  9. Update of the European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) Catalog: an Insight on Notable Recent Mediterranean Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondrelli, S.; Salimbeni, S.; Ekström, G.; Morelli, A.

    2006-12-01

    The European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) Catalog collects solutions routinely computed since 1997 for earthquakes with moderate magnitude (4.5≤ M ≤ 5.5) in the Mediterranean region. The database represents an extension to smaller magnitudes of the Harvard global CMT catalog, based on analysis of seismograms recorded at regional distance, and modeling of intermediate period surface waves. The catalog, updated to 2005, includes about 650 events, and represents a valuable tool for seismotectonic and geodynamic studies. The most interesting seismic sequences in the most recent years occurred in Northern Africa (Boumerdes, Algerian coast in 2003 and Al Hoceima, Morocco in 2004) and in the Southern Greece, Dodecanese area and Aegean Sea (August 2003 and 2004, October 2005). For most of the events of these sequences moment tensor solutions were not available in the literature. We further extended the catalog back in time for the Italian region, as far as allowed by availability of digital data --- i.e. since 1977 --- with the same analysis and inversion method used for current seismicity. The new dataset includes events in many seismic zones where moderate seismicity had previously been scarcely documented, e.g. the Po Plain and the Adriatic Sea. In particular, both older and more recent seismicity in the Central Adriatic Sea holds particular interest, as the region had often been depicted as aseismic. New solutions, providing new information on the geometry of seismic deformation, mainly represent moderate magnitude events, that can effectively be modeled by the method we use.

  10. Summer fire predictability in a Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Raül; Turco, Marco; Bedía, Joaquín; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Each year approximately 500000 hectares burn in Europe. Most of them are consequence of Mediterranean summer fires that lead to damages to the natural environment causing important economic and life losses. In order to allow the preparedness of adequate prevention measures in European Mediterranean regions, a better understanding of the summer fire predictability is crucial. Climate is a primary driver of the interannual variability of fires in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, controlling fuel flammability and fuel structure [1, 2]. That is, summer fires are linked to current-year climate values (proxies for the climatic factors that affect fuel flammability) and to antecedent climate variables (proxies for the climatic factors influencing fine fuel availability and connectivity). In our contribution we explore the long-term predictability of wildfires in a Mediterranean region (NE Spain), driving a multiple linear regression model with observed antecedent climate variables and with predicted variables from the ECMWF System-4 seasonal forecast. The approaches are evaluated through a leave-one-out cross-validation over the period 1983-2010. While the ECMWF System-4 proved of limited usefulness due to its limited skill, the model driven with antecedent climate variables alone allowed for satisfactory long-term prediction of above-normal fire activity, suggesting the feasibility of successful seasonal prediction of summer fires in Mediterranean-type regions. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. Climatic Change, 125: 369-380, 2014.

  11. Atlantic forcing of the Mediterranean oligotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, I. E.; RíOs, A. F.; GarcíA-Lafuente, J.; Navarro, G.; Makaoui, A.; SáNchez-RomáN, A.; Rodriguez-Galvez, S.; Orbi, A.; RuíZ, J.; PéRez, F. F.

    2012-06-01

    The Mediterranean Sea shows a peculiar anomaly in its nutrient pattern compared to the global ocean, as there is decrease in nutrient concentration from west to east. This feature has been attributed to the antiestuarine circulation at the Strait of Gibraltar, where an eastward flow of Atlantic nutrient-poor surface waters is compensated by a westward countercurrent of Mediterranean nutrient-rich deep waters. This water exchange has been suggested as the ultimate cause for the oligotrophy of the Mediterranean basin, even though only a few studies have accurately examined the magnitude of the nutrient flux through the Strait of Gibraltar. In this work, data from the Gibraltar Fixed Time series (GIFT) between 2005 and 2008 were used to assess nutrient distributions. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange and using the Mediterranean outflow recorded in situ, the net export of nutrients from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic was calculated as 139 and 4.8 Gmol yr-1 of nitrate and phosphate, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the Atlantic inflow is not nutrient depleted and in particular contains significant levels of phosphate, which is the limiting factor for biological productivity in the eastern Mediterranean. The distribution of the quasi-conservative parameter N* in the western and eastern basins indicated that nitrate-deficient surface waters are transformed into phosphate-deficient bottom waters by internal cycling processes. Therefore, phosphate depletion in the Mediterranean does not have its origin in the entry of a phosphorus-impoverished Atlantic inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar.

  12. African dust outbreaks over the Mediterranean Basin during 2001-2011: concentrations, phenomenology and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pey, Jorge; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andres; Forastiere, Franceso; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations, phenomenology and trends of African dust outbreaks over the whole Mediterranean Basin werestudied on an 11-year period (2001-2011). This work has been performed in the context of the MED-PARTICLES (LIFE programme, EU) project, devoted to quantify short-term health effects of particulate matter over the Mediterranean region by distinguishing different particle sizes, chemical components and sources, with emphasis in the effects of African dust. In order to evaluate conduct this investigation, PM10 data from 19 regional and suburban background sites West to East in the Mediterranean area were compiled. After identifying the daily occurrence of African dust outbreaks, a methodology for estimating natural dust contributions on daily PM10 concentrations was applied. Our findings point out that African dust outbreaks are sensibly more frequent in southern sitesacross the Mediterranean, from 30 to 37 % of the annual days, whereas they occur less than 20% of the annual days in northern sites. The central Mediterranean emerges as a transitional area, with slightly higher frequency of dust episodes in its lower extreme when compared to similar latitudinal positions in western and eastern sides of the Basin. A decreasing south to north gradient of African dust contribution to PM10, driven by the latitudinal position of the monitoring sites at least 25°E westwards across the Basin,is patent across the Mediterranean. From 25°E eastwards, higher annual dust contributions are encountered due to the elevated annual occurrence of severe episodesof dust but also because of inputs from Middle Eastern deserts. Concerning seasonality patterns and intensity characteristics, a clear summer prevalence is observed in the western part, with low occurrence of severe episodes (daily dust averages over 100 µg m-3 in PM10); no seasonal trend is detected in the central region, with moderate-intensity episodes; and significantly higher contributions are common in autumn

  13. Characterising the Last Interglacial: High-resolution palaeoclimatic records from the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Alice; Martrat, Belen; Skinner, Luke; Tzedakis, Polychronis; Grimalt, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Evidence of abrupt climate variability during the Last Interglacial (approximately equivalent to MIS 5e) and glacial inception is detected in a variety of palaeoarchives but the nature of the variability is not yet satisfactorily resolved, nor are the causes fully understood. To improve our understanding of the climatic forcing and response to abrupt variability, detailed palaeoclimate data from a range of sites are required. The sensitivity of the Mediterranean region to global climate change makes it an ideal location from which to investigate variability during interglacials on decadal to millennial- timescales. We present a high-resolution palaeoclimatic record from the Central Mediterranean Sea with an aim of better understanding interglacial climate evolution and variability in the Mediterranean and its links to high- and low-latitude climate systems. High-resolution alkenone- and faunal-based sea surface temperature and pollen data are presented for the mid-latitude ODP Site 963 in the Strait of Sicily. This coupled terrestrial-marine record allows in situ assessment of the leads and lags of climate change in the terrestrial and marine environments. The new data provide evidence for intra-interglacial variability both on land and in the ocean, with a similar level of climate variability to that seen in the North Atlantic marine and Greenland ice core records. Our results suggests a close relation between the high northern latitudes and the Mediterranean during the Last Interglacial.

  14. Deep-sea tsunami deposits triggered by the explosion of Santorini (3500 y BP), eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cita, M. B.; Aloisi, G.

    2000-09-01

    The collapse of the Santorini caldera after the catastrophic eruption of the Bronze Age, 3500 y BP, caused a tsunami wave that had catastrophic effects in the Ionian basin, including its deepest parts. Pelagic turbidites of local origin were deposited on the bottom of small perched basins of the Southern Calabrian, Western and Central Mediterranean Ridges (type A homogenite) whereas a megaturbidite of distal origin, presumably triggered by the tsunami wave hitting the shoreline of the Sirte Gulf, was deposited on the Ionian and Sirte Abyssal Plains, extending eastwards as far as the Western Herodotous Trough depositing a thick, acoustically transparent layer (type B homogenite). Three core transects crossing the deformation front of the Mediterranean Ridge are presented and discussed. A fourth transect of giant piston cores was collected on the abyssal plains located to the south of the Mediterranean Ridge. All those to the west of the collision zone contain the Holocene homogenite with a thickness in excess of 20 m, whereas the cores taken from the Herodotous Abyssal Plain east of the collision zone are devoid of the homogenite. Sedimentological analyses were performed on the only giant core that penetrated the sandy base of the homogenite and the underlying pelagic sediments of late Pleistocene (last glacial) age. The African provenance of this typical type B homogenite is corroborated by shallow-water fauna derived from the North African shelf. No sedimentological characteristics peculiar to tsunamiites are observed in the deep-sea homogenite of the eastern Mediterranean.

  15. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L.

    2014-11-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period.

  16. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock.

    PubMed

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L

    2014-01-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period. PMID:25424371

  17. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock

    PubMed Central

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L.

    2014-01-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period. PMID:25424371

  18. Climatology of the 500-hPa mediterranean storms associated with Saudi Arabia wet season precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Kamil, S.; Ammar, K.; Keay, Kevin; Alamoudi, A. O.

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between the Mediterranean 500-hPa storm tracks and wet season (November-April) rainfall over Saudi Arabia is investigated. The analysis is based on the application of an objective tracking scheme to the 6-hourly 500-hPa geopotential height ERA-Interim dataset (0.75° × 0.75°) for the period 1979-2012. The resulting tracks are then associated with the ERA-Interim rainfall events over Saudi Arabia. The association procedure showed that 34 % of the tracks are related to about 70 % of the rainfall. These associated tracks are used to construct climatology. A climatology of these storm tracks revealed that the eastern Mediterranean region is the preferred location for cyclogenesis with a maximum in the southwest parts of the Black Sea. The study also examined the mean radius, average intensity and average depth of the storms. The number of tracks in winter (December-February) is about 60 % of the total number which confirms the major contribution of the Mediterranean storms to rainfall over Saudi Arabia. A significant negative trend was found for storm cyclogenesis over the central Mediterranean, and the Black sea. A significant trend decrease in track density is observed over most of the northern parts of Saudi Arabia. The peaks of storm activities are observed in December and January in 1996, 1997 and 2009. Storm activity generally declines after 2000, especially in the second half of the wet season months (February-April).

  19. Metabolic acceleration in Mediterranean Perciformes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Papandroulakis, Nikos

    2014-11-01

    Larval stages are considered the most critical of fish development. During a very short period of time (2 to 3 months), larvae undergo major morphoanatomical and functional changes in order to transform into juveniles while remaining functioning (developing, eating, surviving). Depending on species and environmental conditions, patterns in larval development may vary. We study the patterns of larval development for nine fish species of Perciformes reared under aquaculture conditions and compare them in terms of species-specific parameters derived from DEB theory. We extended the standard DEB model to include metabolic acceleration during the larval period, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis. Metabolic acceleration has as a consequence that larvae initially grow slower than juveniles and adults. Our results indicate that the species with higher acceleration have lower growth rates at birth and they also suggest that metabolic acceleration is related to spawning season. High metabolic acceleration of demersal species is associated with summer-autumn spawning in the Mediterranean, where temperature is high and food availability is low.

  20. Myxozoan infections in Mediterranean mariculture.

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, O

    2006-06-01

    Fish mariculture has dramatically expanded in recent years in Mediterranean countries. In this scenario, several pathological problems have logically arisen and parasitological etiologies are increasingly being reported, either as primary or secondary pathogens. Myxozoa is the most diverse and economically important group of fish parasites, and several species are known to cause or contribute to losses in mariculture. Species of the genus Enteromyxum currently constitute the most serious parasitological threat. Some unusual biological characters, such as wide host spectrum and direct fish-to-fish transmission, together with high virulence for some host species, combine a dangerous cocktail which is emerging in recent years. Closed-system (recirculation) and heated-water locations are especially sensitive to chronic infections by these parasites, which can cause serious mortality and even discourage culture of some fish species at certain locations (i.e, Diplodus puntazzo). The presentation presents an overview of recent advances in research of marine myxozoans, focusing mainly in the most pathogenic, Enteromyxum spp. The incidence of these and other emerging infections, and the design of potential strategies for control will be introduced. PMID:16881390

  1. Seasonality of Arctic Mediterranean Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieper, Christoph; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Mediterranean communicates through a number of passages with the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Most of the volume exchange happens at the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge: warm and saline Atlantic Water flows in at the surface, cold, dense Overflow Water flows back at the bottom and fresh and cold Polar Water flows out along the East Greenland coast. All surface inflows show a seasonal signal whereas only the outflow through the Faroe Bank Channel exhibits significant seasonality. Here we present a quantification of the seasonal cycle of the exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland ridge based on volume estimates of the in- and outflows within the last 20 years (ADCP and altimetry). Our approach is comparatistic: we compare different properties of the seasonal cycle like the strength or the phase between the different in- and outflows. On the seasonal time scale the in- and outflows across the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge are not balanced. The net flux thus has to be balanced by the other passages on the Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait as well as runoff from land.

  2. [Concept of the Mediterranean diet in modern European nutrition].

    PubMed

    Smoliar, V I

    2001-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of the conception of the Mediterranean diet that has become to be shared by many leading nutritionists of Europe over the last decade as a possible reference model of nutrition for inhabitants of many countries of Central, Northern and Eastern Europe. An association is shown between some nutritional factors and indices for general mortality, mortality from ischemic heart disease and cancer of certain localizations. A positive effect has been unraveled of monounsaturated fatty acids together with negative effects of saturated fatty acids on the process of beta-oxidization and mitochondrial functions in the cardiac muscle. On the basis of the analysis of the existing data a conclusion has been reached that annexes to the existing principles of the A. A. Pokrovsky's optimum nourishment formula are necessary. PMID:11692685

  3. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  4. The features of a "Mediterranean" Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Leone, Salvino

    2012-11-01

    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of "Mediterranean" Bioethics that could distinguish it from a "Northern-European and Northern-American" one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the "father" of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on "virtues" and their practice. In this perspective we can already note a strong difference with actual North-European or American principialist ethics. But a second consideration concerns the role that great Mediterranean religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) had in the construction of the ethical thought especially on the matter of life and its respect. So, in our pluralistic and multicultural society is absolutely necessary to rescue an approach that considers both "lungs" of ethical thought (Mediterranean and Northern one) and highlights the role that Mediterranean Ethics still has in this way. PMID:22441971

  5. The dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wernli, Heini; Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the three-dimensional dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones. The analysis is based on a composite approach of the 200 most intense cyclones during the period 1989-2008 that have been identified and tracked using the output of a coupled ocean-atmosphere regional simulation with 20 km horizontal grid spacing and 3-hourly output. It is shown that the most intense Mediterranean cyclones have a common baroclinic life cycle with a potential vorticity (PV) streamer associated with an upper-level cyclonic Rossby wave breaking, which precedes cyclogenesis in the region and triggers baroclinic instability. It is argued that this common baroclinic life cycle is due to the strongly horizontally sheared environment in the Mediterranean basin, on the poleward flank of the quasi-persistent subtropical jet. The composite life cycle of the cyclones is further analyzed considering the evolution of key atmospheric elements as potential temperature and PV, as well as the cyclones' thermodynamic profiles and rainfall. It is shown that most intense Mediterranean cyclones are associated with warm conveyor belts and dry air intrusions, similar to those of other strong extratropical cyclones, but of rather small scale. Before cyclones reach their mature stage, the streamer's role is crucial to advect moist and warm air towards the cyclones center. These dynamical characteristics, typical for very intense extratropical cyclones in the main storm track regions, are also valid for these Mediterranean cases that have features that are visually similar to tropical cyclones.

  6. The dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wernli, Heini; Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the three-dimensional dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones. The analysis is based on a composite approach of the 200 most intense cyclones during the period 1989-2008 that have been identified and tracked using the output of a coupled ocean-atmosphere regional simulation with 20 km horizontal grid spacing and 3-hourly output. It is shown that the most intense Mediterranean cyclones have a common baroclinic life cycle with a potential vorticity (PV) streamer associated with an upper-level cyclonic Rossby wave breaking, which precedes cyclogenesis in the region and triggers baroclinic instability. It is argued that this common baroclinic life cycle is due to the strongly horizontally sheared environment in the Mediterranean basin, on the poleward flank of the quasi-persistent subtropical jet. The composite life cycle of the cyclones is further analyzed considering the evolution of key atmospheric elements as potential temperature and PV, as well as the cyclones' thermodynamic profiles and rainfall. It is shown that most intense Mediterranean cyclones are associated with warm conveyor belts and dry air intrusions, similar to those of other strong extratropical cyclones, but of rather small scale. Before cyclones reach their mature stage, the streamer's role is crucial to advect moist and warm air towards the cyclones center. These dynamical characteristics, typical for very intense extratropical cyclones in the main storm track regions, are also valid for these Mediterranean cases that have features that are visually similar to tropical cyclones.

  7. Quantitative reconstruction of the Holocene climate in the Mediterranean basin inferred from marine and continental pollen records: model/data comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyron, Odile; Magny, Michel; Combourieu Nebout, Nathalie; Goring, Simon; Brayshaw, David; Joannin, Sebastien; Kouli, Katerina; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Brugiapaglia, Elisabetta E.; Kotthoff, Ulrich; Pross, Joerg; Sadori, Laura; Fletcher, William; Desprat, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    The Holocene period is particularly well investigated in the Mediterranean area by a large amount of data (palynologi¬cal, speleothems, or lake-level evidence). All these data show the Holocene to have a complex pat¬tern of climatic change across the Mediterranean region with strong and spatial and temporal variability. Recent studies based on lake-level records from Italy suggest a North-South climatic partition in the central Mediterranean through the Holocene (Magny et al., 2012). If the recent precipitation estimates based on pollen records of these Italian lakes seem support these interpretation (Peyron et al., 2012), given the scarcity of reliable palaeoclimatic records in the north and central-south Mediterranean, new evidence is needed to validate this hypothesis at the scale of the Mediterranean basin, particularly in East and West Mediterranean regions. This study aims to provide robust and precise quantitative estimates of the Holocene climate in the Mediterranean region based on: (1) A multi-method approach to better assess the error of reconstruction inherent in pollen-based climate predictions; (2) Four high-resolution pollen records taken from lakes located along a latitudinal gradient from the northern Italy to the south Italy. Three lakes are from peninsular Italy (Lake Ledro, Lake Accesa, Lake Trifoglietti), and one is from Sicily (Lake Pergusa). In addition, one pollen record is located in Greece (Tenaghi Philippon); (3) Six high-resolution pollen records taken from marine cores located along a longitudinal gradient from the Alboran Sea to the Aegean Sea (cores ODP 976, MD95-2043, MD90-917, MD04-2797, SL152, and NS14). These quantitative estimates of the Holocene climate will be compared to the simulations performed with a regional model (Brayshaw et al., 2010). We investigate climatic trends during the Holocene and test the hypothesis proposed by Magny et al., (2012) of opposite mid-Holocene summer precipitation regimes between the north-central

  8. Mediterranean Diet and Workplace Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Korre, Maria; Tsoukas, Michael A; Frantzeskou, Elpida; Yang, Justin; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies confirm relationships between the consumption of certain foods and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Mediterranean diet patterns have long been associated with a reduced risk of major diseases and many favorable health outcomes. Data from observational, longitudinal, and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that Mediterranean-style diets can improve body mass index and body weight, reduce the incidence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome risk factors, decrease cardiovascular morbidity and coronary heart disease mortality, as well as decrease all-cause mortality. Recently, efforts have attempted to improve dietary habits in the workplace, by modifying food selection, eating patterns, meal frequency, and the sourcing of meals taken during work. Evidence supporting the Mediterranean diet and the potential cardioprotective role of healthier diets in the workplace are reviewed here, and promising strategies to improve metabolic and cardiovascular health outcomes are also provided. PMID:25328563

  9. Dsp in Moroccan Mediterranean Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachid, Fadel

    At sea temperate, there is usually a sole major floraison of the phytoplancton (in the spring) that exhausts the available stock of nutritious salt. This phenomenon is natural. It's more known under the name of "red tide or colored waters", it brings about a danger, with hazardous consequences on the wildlife water wildlife. The toxins emitted by certain seaweeds, of this phytoplancton, are transmitted through the trophic chain to man. Sometimes the contamination of these sea fruits provokes empoisoning to the consumers. Sometimes phytoplanctonics efflorescences do not present any significant coloring but can generate an increased liberation of toxins in sea water. The relative concentration of the one here then is detected in the shellfishes. These organisms concentrate the phocotoxines in their hepatopancreas. These are therefore bio potential indicators of the sea environment. We studied, in parallel, the variation of the characteristic abiotics of the Mediterranean sites previously choosen (physico-chimicals parameters and oceanographics parameters) and the variation of the relative toxicity of the bio indicators in every site. It in springs that the zones navies, subjected to important water provisions coming from a river, undergo several excessive floraisons during the spring and the summer, thanks to their continuous supplying in nutriments. We noted that the arrival new water masses. We draw from this that the coastal areas, due to the precipitations of the winter, translates itself at the level of the embouchure of the estuary Oued Laou by the maximum concentration of contained toxins in the shellfishes and that these waters were loaded with drifts of the olive waste, liquid loss abandoned to himself after extraction of the oil of the renowned olives of this region.

  10. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980’s, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  11. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  12. Seismogenic nodes in the Mediterranean orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A.; Panza, G.; Soloviev, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2003-04-01

    The central segment of the Mediterranean orogenic belt (the Apennines, Alps, Carpathians, Balkanides, and Dinarides) has been studied to identify seismogenic nodes, specific structures formed at the intersections of fault zones. The nodes have been delineated with the morphostructural zoning (MSZ) based on the concept that the lithosphere is built-up by different-scale blocks, separated by mobile boundaries. With MSZ we compiled the morphostructural map (scale 1:1,000,000) for the study region using the GIS technology. The map shows the hierarchical block-structure of the region, the boundary zones bounding blocks, and the loci of the nodes. Three-level hierarchy has been established for the blocks and their boundaries. All the recorded M >= 6.0 earthquakes nucleate at the nodes delineated by MSZ, i.e. ignoring the seismic record. The nodes capable of M >= 6.5 earthquakes are identified with the criteria of high seismicity nodes, previously derived from pattern recognition in the Pamirs -Tien Shan region. In the study region, with the employed criteria 29 out of the 33 nodes, hosting the observed M >= 6.5 events, have been classified as prone to M >= 6.5 earthquakes. With the exception of the Carpatho-Balkanides system, where the recognition procedure is inapplicable due to the insufficient number of sample nodes for the learning stage, we recognized the seismogenic nodes (D), prone to M >= 6.0 earthquakes, with the pattern recognition algorithm CORA-3. The recognition is performed using geomorphic, morphostructural, and gravity parameters relevant to seismicity. The majority of D nodes is associated with the first and second rank boundaries, i.e. larger earthquakes originate at the boundaries of larger blocks. Characteristic traits of D nodes selected by CORA-3 suggest an increased fragmentation of the crust and high intensity of tectonic movements in the D nodes vicinities. We identify a number of D nodes, where strong earthquakes are not recorded till present

  13. Drilling probes Mediterranean climate and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ODP Legs 160; 161 Shipboard Scientific Party

    Marine sediments are an important repository of information on climatic change, and retrieving sediment sequences from climate-sensitive areas is an important aspect of paleoclimate research. In the spring of 1995, over 7000 m of sediments that reach back more than 5 million years to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary were recovered in the Mediterranean by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 160 and 161. Because the Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed, land-locked basin with restricted, open-ocean water exchange, the composition of these sediments is especially sensitive to climate change, and environmental signals are preserved in great detail.

  14. Variability of the moisture sources around the Mediterranean Basin during 1980-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, M.; Drumond, A.; Nieto, R.; García Herrera, R.; Gimeno, L.

    2012-04-01

    Peninsula, Eastern Mediterranean, Western Africa, Central Africa and Eastern Africa. We also traced (E-P) forwards trajectories over 3 areas over the Mediterranean Sea, these areas were selected based on the climatological atmospheric moisture flux divergence. As previous works using only a 5-year period the method determine how the Mediterranean Sea can affect the surrounding areas and also remote regions. In general, that the North Atlantic basin and the western Mediterranean Sea are the main moisture source regions affecting the western target regions, Iberian Peninsula, France and Western North Africa. The eastern target regions are affected by each surrounding sea areas (recycling). In central Mediterranean regions both type of sources of moisture (remote and recycling) are important. It is remarkable the role of the subtropical and tropical North Atlantic Ocean source of moisture (extending from the Gulf of Mexico to Africa) in the western and central regions. The Lagrangian diagnostic can be applied to other data set as the re-analysis of the ECMWF with a higher time covering, around 40 years. The use of around 20 years of data is particularly important for studying interannual variability of moisture transport and the influence of the large-scale climate modes that affect the Mediterranean region, for instance the NAO. This topic constitutes one of the fundamental understandings for the future to know with more detail the hydrological cycle of the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Characterization of aerosol episodes in the greater Mediterranean Sea area from satellite observations (2000-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Torres, O.

    2016-03-01

    An algorithm able to identify and characterize episodes of different aerosol types above sea surfaces of the greater Mediterranean basin (GMB), including the Black Sea and the Atlantic Ocean off the coasts of Iberia and northwest Africa, is presented in this study. Based on this algorithm, five types of intense (strong and extreme) aerosol episodes in the GMB are identified and characterized using daily aerosol optical properties from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMI-Aura. These aerosol episodes are: (i) biomass-burning/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) dust/sea-salt (DSS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The identification and characterization is made with our algorithm using a variety of aerosol properties, namely aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), fine fraction (FF), effective radius (reff) and Aerosol Index (AI). During the study period (2000-2007), the most frequent aerosol episodes are DD, observed primarily in the western and central Mediterranean Sea, and off the northern African coasts, 7 times/year for strong episodes and 4 times/year for extreme ones, on average. The DD episodes yield 40% of all types of strong aerosol episodes in the study region, while they account for 71.5% of all extreme episodes. The frequency of occurrence of strong episodes exhibits specific geographical patterns, for example the BU are mostly observed along the coasts of southern Europe and off the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, the MX episodes off the Spanish Mediterranean coast and over the Adriatic and northern Aegean Sea, while the DSS ones over the western and central Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, the extreme episodes for all but DD aerosol display more patchy spatial patterns. The strong episodes exhibit AOD at 550 nm as high as 1.6 in the southernmost parts of central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, which rise up to 5 for the extreme, mainly DD and DSS, episodes. Although more

  16. Ancient wells and their geoarchaeological significance in detecting tectonics of the Israel Mediterranean coastline region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nir, Yaacov; Eldar, Iris

    1987-01-01

    Eight ancient water wells, representing the late Bronze Age to the Crusades period (ca. 3100 700 B.P.), have recently been excavated (six by the authors) and reopened at archaeological sites (tels) along the southern and central Mediterranean coast of Israel. Evidence of ancient freshwater levels directly reflects on possible neotectonics of the region and on eustatic changes of sea level. There is substantial disagreement about the tectonic stability of the Israel Mediterranean coastal region during the past 3500 yr, whether there was a large-magnitude tectonic event (one of the largest known for recent times) during the period in discussion or whether the region was tectonically quiet. We tested the instability hypothesis by using geoarchaeological data from the wells and found no evidence for significant tectonic deformation of the central and southern Israel coast in the past 3100 yr. The “ancient water-well” method can, with appropriate modifications, be used all around the Mediterranean and other coasts elsewhere in the world where ground-water-sea-level relations are alike. Now in the digging of wells we must not disdain reflection, but must devote much acuteness and skill to the consideration of the natural principles of things. Vitruvius Pollio, Architectura, Book VIII, Chapter VI (25 B.C.)

  17. The future of terrestrial mammals in the Mediterranean basin under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Maiorano, Luigi; Falcucci, Alessandra; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Psomas, Achilleas; Pottier, Julien; Baisero, Daniele; Rondinini, Carlo; Guisan, Antoine; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin is considered a hotspot of biological diversity with a long history of modification of natural ecosystems by human activities, and is one of the regions that will face extensive changes in climate. For 181 terrestrial mammals (68% of all Mediterranean mammals), we used an ensemble forecasting approach to model the future (approx. 2100) potential distribution under climate change considering five climate change model outputs for two climate scenarios. Overall, a substantial number of Mediterranean mammals will be severely threatened by future climate change, particularly endemic species. Moreover, we found important changes in potential species richness owing to climate change, with some areas (e.g. montane region in central Italy) gaining species, while most of the region will be losing species (mainly Spain and North Africa). Existing protected areas (PAs) will probably be strongly influenced by climate change, with most PAs in Africa, the Middle East and Spain losing a substantial number of species, and those PAs gaining species (e.g. central Italy and southern France) will experience a substantial shift in species composition. PMID:21844047

  18. Present-day kinematics of the Mediterranean: A comprehensive overview of GPS results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu

    2012-12-01

    I combine recently published GPS results to derive a geodetic horizontal velocity field consistent at the scale of the Mediterranean and the surrounding Alpine belts. The velocity field is then used to discuss the boundary conditions around each major deforming area in the Mediterranean, to describe the main patterns of motion and deformation, to critically review the existing kinematics models and to finally point out the main unresolved kinematics questions. Strain rate in Europe north of the Alpines belt is dominated by the signature of the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and tectonic strain remains below the current accuracy of GPS results. In the western Mediterranean, deformation is restricted to the Betics, the Alboran and the Morrocan Rif, with west-to-southwestward motion with respect to Iberia, which is part of stable Europe. Shortening, consistent with the relative Nubia/Eurasia plate motion, is found throughout the Maghrebides, but the distribution of deformation in northern Africa remains largely unknown. The central Mediterranean is dominated by the counter-clockwise rotation of the Adriatic. The junction between the southern Adriatic domain and Nubia has yet to be firmly established. The deformation over a wide area, east of the Maghrebides, in Tunisia and the gulf of Sirte in Libya still remains to be quantified. In the eastern Mediterranean, the velocity field is dominated by a general anti-clockwise rotation and a general trend towards the Hellenic trench, with velocity magnitude increasing with decreasing distances from the trench. This trend is observed not only in the Aegean and Anatolia, but also in the southern Balkans. Geodetic results emphasize that the convergence of the Nubia and Arabia plates towards Eurasia directly controls the deformation across only very few segments along the plate boundary zone. Additional processes are therefore required to explain the observed velocity field and deformation pattern.

  19. Mediterranean waters along and across the Strait of Gibraltar, characterization and zonal modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Cristina; Sammartino, Simone; García-Lafuente, Jesús; Bellanco, María J.; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Hydrological data collected in the Strait of Gibraltar have been used to examine the distribution and spatial-temporal evolution of the water masses in the area. The spatial variability has been addressed by means of a clustering method that determines the affinity of a collection of temperature-salinity samples to one of the water masses involved in the exchange. The method, which has been applied to a nearly-synoptic data set, highlights the clear evolution of the Mediterranean Waters as they flow westward through the Strait. While up to four different Mediterranean Waters are spatially distinguishable east of the main sill of Camarinal in the Strait, most of their differentiating characteristics are eroded after flowing over this restrictive topography due to mixing. West of the sill, therefore, speaking of a unique Mediterranean Water seems more appropriate. The same applies to the North Atlantic Central Water flowing in the opposite direction, which is noticeably modified along its path to the Mediterranean Sea, most of its transformation taking place in the Camarinal sill surroundings. A series of repeated transects carried out in the eastern and western sides of the Strait, provided a temporal analysis of the water masses evolution: the temporal variability manifests seasonality in the surface waters, while interannual signal is mainly detected in the deeper water masses. It is worth remarking the statistically significant positive trend of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (0.009 °C/year) and Winter Intermediate Water (0.03 °C/year), with the latter showing also intermittent occurrence in the Strait.

  20. The dark portion of the Mediterranean Sea is a bioreactor of organic matter cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, G. M.; Bianchelli, S.; Decembrini, F.; de Domenico, E.; Danovaro, R.; Dell'Anno, A.

    2012-06-01

    Total prokaryotic abundance, prokaryotic heterotrophic production and enzymatic activities were investigated in epi-, meso- and bathypelagic waters along a longitudinal transect covering the entire Mediterranean Sea. The prokaryotic production and enzymatic activities in deep waters were among the highest reported worldwide at similar depths, indicating that the peculiar physico-chemical characteristics of the Mediterranean Sea, characterized by warm temperatures (typically 13°C also at abyssal depths), support high rates of organic carbon degradation and incorporation by prokaryotic assemblages. The higher trophic conditions in the epipelagic waters of the Western basin resulted in significantly higher prokaryotic production and enzymatic activities rates than in the Central-Eastern basin. While all of the variables decreased significantly from epi- to meso- and bathypelagic waters, cell-specific hydrolytic activity and cell-specific carbon production significantly increased. In addition, the deep-water layers were characterized by low half-saturation constants (Km) of all enzymatic activities. These findings suggest that prokaryotic assemblages inhabiting the dark portion of the Mediterranean Sea are able to channel degraded carbon into biomass in a very efficient way, and that prokaryotic assemblages of the deep Mediterranean waters work as a "bioreactor" of organic matter cycling. Since prokaryotic production and enzymatic activities in deep water masses were inversely related with oxygen concentration, we hypothesize a tight link between prokaryotic metabolism and oxygen consumption. As climate change is increasing deep-water temperatures, the predicted positive response of prokaryotic metabolism to temperature increases may accelerate oxygen depletion of deep Mediterranean waters, with cascade consequences on carbon cycling and biogeochemical processes on the entire deep basin.

  1. Results from the MEDLFOOD project: MEDiterranean sea-level change and projection for future FLOODing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, Alessio; Antonioli, Fabrizio; Benjamin, Jonathan; Bicket, Andrew; Fontana, Alessandro; Furlani, Stefano; Vacchi, Matteo

    2014-05-01

    For over four decades, the Mediterranean Sea (with its small tidal ranges and relatively low-energy storms which favour the preservation of coastal sea-level markers) has been the theatre for several studies related to field- measurements of past sea levels using RSL markers. In the Mediterranean, different types of source data have been used to reconstruct RSLs including biological, sedimentological, geomorphological and archaeological. Much greater amounts of published data exists and such literature, still rapidly growing, has led to the obvious consequence of fragmented information. As such, data are only occasionally reviewed with reference to specific location, but not as a whole, since there has never been a concerted effort to compile this into an organic, yet central database which could then be analysed on a truly 'Mediterranean scale'. The main aim of the MEDFLOOD project, sponsored by INQUA is to create a comprehensive, coherent, spatially explicit and updatable database containing Holocene and MIS 5.5 RSL data available in literature for the Mediterranean basin. The database, coupled with considerations on vertical land movements due to tectonics, volcanic and isostatic effects, will create an enhanced platform for evidence-supported projections of future sea level which can in turn be used to supplement coastal-flooding models and maps, as well as a key baseline resource for prospecting for submerged prehistory in the region. In this work we present the beta version of the database and the methods we used to build it, alongside with the results of the first analyses on Mediterranean relative sea level markers.

  2. Morbillivirus and Pilot Whale Deaths, Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Esperón, Fernando; Herraéz, Pedro; de los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa; Clavel, Cristina; Bernabé, Antonio; Sánchez-Vizcaino, J. Manuel; Verborgh, Philippe; DeStephanis, Renaud; Toledano, Francisco; Bayón, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of a lethal morbillivirus infection of long-finned pilot whales occurred in the Mediterranean Sea from the end of October 2006 through April 2007. Sequence analysis of a 426-bp conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicates that the virus is more closely related to dolphin morbillivirus than to pilot whale morbillivirus. PMID:18439363

  3. Climatic Feedbacks and Desertification: The Mediterranean Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, M. M.; Estrela, M. J.; Sanz, M. J.; Mantilla, E.; Martín, M.; Pastor, F.; Salvador, R.; Vallejo, R.; Alonso, L.; Gangoiti, G.; Ilardia, J. L.; Navazo, M.; Albizuri, A.; Artíñano, B.; Ciccioli, P.; Kallos, G.; Carvalho, R. A.; Andrés, D.; Hoff, A.; Werhahn, J.; Seufert, G.; Versino, B.

    2005-03-01

    Mesometeorological information obtained in several research projects in southern Europe has been used to analyze perceived changes in the western Mediterranean summer storm regime. A procedure was developed to disaggregate daily precipitation data into three main components: frontal precipitation, summer storms, and Mediterranean cyclogenesis. Working hypotheses were derived on the likely processes involved. The results indicate that the precipitation regime in this Mediterranean region is very sensitive to variations in surface airmass temperature and moisture. Land-use perturbations that accumulated over historical time and greatly accelerated in the last 30 yr may have induced changes from an open, monsoon-type regime with frequent summer storms over the mountains inland to one dominated by closed vertical recirculations where feedback mechanisms favor the loss of storms over the coastal mountains and additional heating of the sea surface temperature during summer. This, in turn, favors Mediterranean cyclogenesis and torrential rains in autumn-winter. Because these intense rains and floods can occur anywhere in the basin, perturbations to the hydrological cycle in any part of the basin can propagate to the whole basin and adjacent regions. Furthermore, present levels of air pollutants can produce greenhouse heating, amplifying the perturbations and pushing the system over critical threshold levels. The questions raised are relevant for the new European Union (EU) water policies in southern Europe and for other regions dominated by monsoon-type weather systems.

  4. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  5. MEDITERRANEAN FRUITS: ANCIENT HISTORY AND MODERN PROMISE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Davis, California is home of the national collections of most Mediterranean-adapted fruits and nuts (including fig, olive and pomegranate), while the NCGR at Riverside, CA maintains the dates and citrus. Our missions are to acquire, preserve, charac...

  6. The Mediterranean diet: a view from history.

    PubMed

    Haber, B

    1997-10-01

    Although the virtues of the Mediterranean diet have been advocated since the Renaissance, adoption of the diet outside the Mediterranean region has proved difficult but not impossible. Efforts at promoting dietary change have been explored in the writings of Europeans and Americans since 1614 when Giacomo Castelvetro, an exile from Modena, Italy, published a book in England on Italian fruit, herbs, and vegetables. The historical causes of resistance by groups and individuals-culture, class, sex, and human psychology-are revealed by asking the question, What does food mean to people? Particularly instructive are failed efforts by well-meaning late-19th-century American reformers to hasten the assimilation of newly arrived immigrants by interfering with their eating habits. The establishment of the New England Kitchen, which provided inexpensive Yankee cooking intended to Americanize poor immigrants, served only to expedite food distribution networks between California farms and urban centers, allowing mainly Mediterranean groups to eat their customary foods. Successful efforts at change are also explored, leading to the conclusion that the satisfying flavors of the Mediterranean diet provide the best chance of influencing people to abandon unhealthy foods in favor of fresh vegetables, fruit, grains, and olive oil. The diet must be promoted, however, not only by medical and nutritional authorities, but also by people who have the power to persuade: authorities on cooking and experts in advertising and marketing. PMID:9322586

  7. Dolphin Morbillivirus Epizootic Resurgence, Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Raga, Juan-Antonio; Domingo, Mariano; Corteyn, Mandy; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco-Javier; Barrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007, >100 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, were found dead along the coast of the Spanish Mediterranean. Of 10 dolphins tested, 7 were positive for a virus strain closely related to the dolphin morbillivirus that was isolated during a previous epizootic in 1990. PMID:18325265

  8. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  9. Box modeling of the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Stone, Peter H.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2012-02-01

    In ˜1990 a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1 Sv, three times larger than the Adriatic source. We develop a simple three-box model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The three boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian seas. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We conjecture that the change in the deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean sea is attributed to a switch between the different states on the thermohaline circulation; this switch may result from decreased temperature and/or increased salinity over the Aegean sea.

  10. Meteotsunami occurrence frequency along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Marinella; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A number of research studies describe exceptional destructive meteotsunami events since long time whereas no systematic database is available of moderate events because sea level data were recorded with insufficient resolution. Sea level measurements recently collected with high sampling rate, one per minute or less, by tide gauges positioned along the Mediterranean coasts are examined, aiming to analyze the occurrence of oscillation events in the tsunami frequency range. Sea level data from operating tide stations inside the Mediterranean basin are made publicly available through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Sea Level Monitoring Facility web site (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org/). After the implementation of a rigorous quality check procedure to the raw water level time series, Hilbert transform is applied to two hour high-pass filtered observations to identify tsunami-like oscillation events. Events of seismic origin are identified by consistency between earthquake occurrence and tsunami wave travel time from the earthquake epicenter to the specific tide gauge. Similar analyses are performed to exclude sea waves induced harbor seiches events. A list of probable meteotsunami episodes occurred in the Mediterranean region is so compiled and their occurrence frequency and intensity statistics are evaluated at the different tide gauge sites over the time period of high frequency water level data availability ranging from five to seven years. The effects of atmospheric conditions and seabed topography are discussed. Detection and characterization of meteotsunamis, both of exceptional character and of weak intensity, represent an essential step toward improved assessments of coastal flooding risk along the Mediterranean coasts.

  11. Atmospheric trace element and major ion concentrations over the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Identification of anthropogenic source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güllü, Gülen; Doğan, Güray; Tuncel, Gürdal

    Concentrations of elements and ions measured in aerosol samples collected from March 1992 to the end of December 1993 were investigated to identify source regions affecting chemical composition of aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. Collected samples were analyzed for approximately 40 elements and ions using a combination of atomic absorption spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography and colorimetry. Statistical techniques, such as enrichment factors and a non-parametric bootstrapped potential source contribution function, were applied on the data set to determine main source types and source regions of anthropogenic particles in the eastern Mediterranean basin. Source regions of two previously defined anthropogenic components, namely a long-range transported component and a local pollution component, were identified. The main source areas for pollutants reaching the eastern Mediterranean basin were determined as southern and western parts of Turkey, central and eastern regions of Ukraine, east of Belarus, Greece, Georgia, Romania, coastal areas along France and Spain and coastal areas around the Black Sea, Russia. More distant source regions in the South of UK and Sweden, the central part of Algeria, the northeastern part of Turkey, Russia, Germany, Hungary, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and coastal areas of Egypt, Israel and Italy do affect aerosol composition in the eastern Mediterranean, but transport from these regions cannot account for the highest 20% of the measured pollutant concentrations.

  12. Regional and long-range transport scenarios for photo-oxidants on the Mediterranean basin in summer

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, M.; Mantilla, E.; Salvador, R.; Kallos, G.

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric research, begun in 1988, has shown that the dynamics of air pollutants in the Mediterranean basin in summer are governed by processes ranging from local to large meso-scale with diurnal cycles. Large scale convection over some regions, and up-slope winds in others, can inject aged pollutants into the Mid-troposphere, where they can participate in long-range processes within Southern and Central Europe. Two scenarios have been identified for the regional and long-range transport of photo-oxidants and other pollutants within, and out of, the Western Mediterranean basin. The first scenario involves the pollutants injected over the Spanish Central Plateau directly into the mid-troposphere, and the second, the reservoir layers created along the Mediterranean coast. In the second scenario the key components are: the semi-permanent high(er) pressure area over the colder waters in the Gulf of Lion-Western Mediterranean basin, the mountain ranges which surround it, and the coastal processes. During the day the coastal circulations renovate the upper reservoir layers while the lower ones are drawn inland with the sea-breeze, and effective flow is mostly perpendicular to the coast.

  13. Environmental control on Emiliania huxleyi coccolithophore calcification in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amario, Barbara; Grelaud, Michael; Ziveri, Patrizia

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea, a "natural laboratory" characterized by strong environmental gradients, is likely to undergo serious alterations due to climate change and ocean acidification. These processes are expected to affect also phytoplankton distribution. Coccolithophores are the only phytoplankton calcifying group and laboratory studies on E. huxleyi, the most abundant and widely distributed species of coccolithophores worldwide, yield strain-specific results. Culture experiments must be integrated with observations in the natural environment to understand existing interactions between drivers, and to verify population structures in different areas. Two transects spanning the south-western and south-eastern basins have been investigated, combining data from April 2011 (Meteor cruise M84/3) and May 2013 (MedSeA cruise). E. huxleyi coccolith morphometry was analyzed to determine average mass and length. These results were then compared with morphological observations performed on the largely dominant E. huxleyi Type A through scanning electron microscope (SEM). We distinguished four main calcification morphologies within E. huxleyi Type A: low-calcified (A1), medium-calcified (A2), high-calcified with closed central area (A3a), and open central area (A3b). E. huxleyi coccolith mass was strongly and positively correlated with the relative abundance of a particular morphology. Moreover, the calcification morphologies were preferentially distributed in the Mediterranean according to specific combinations of environmental variables, which included the carbonate chemistry system. The distribution of E. huxleyi Type A calcification morphologies in the Mediterranean is likely to be influenced by climate changes. Coccolithophore calcification degree is connected to the carbon cycle through photosynthesis / calcification ratio and sedimentation (particulate inorganic and organic carbon reaching the seafloor). This study aims to provide a basis for future investigations on the

  14. Subduction segmentation during slab rollback and the origin of Mediterranean oroclines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2013-04-01

    The intimately linked processes of slab rollback, subduction segmentation and oroclinal bending have played a major role in the Cenozoic geodynamics of the Mediterranean region. The initiation of rapid rollback occurred after final collision in the Alps and the indentation of Adria onto Europe. The resulting Mediterranean subduction zones, rather than accommodating the convergence of Africa and Europe, have facilitated escape tectonics by laterally migrating away from the collisional zone. Subduction rollback gave rise to the formation of extensional backarc basins, and was accompanied by oroclinal bending, and progressive segmentation of the subduction zone by lithospheric-scale tear faults. One of the most pronounced expressions of such tear faults is found in the area of the Tyrrhenian Sea, where progressive curvature of the retreating subduction zone resulted in vertical lithosphere tearing along tear faults and the development of a slab window beneath the central Apennines. Some of these tear faults provided pathways for asthenospheric-derived melting, giving rise to "tear-related" volcanism from the type recognized in Etna and Vulture. Lamproitic magmatism was possibly also associated with slab tear faulting, as demonstrated, for example, in the dextral strike-slip system of the northern Alboran domain. New data from one of these faults, the dextral Socovos Fault, show that clusters of lamproitic dykes along the fault zone become younger from east to west, in accordance with the westward propagation of the segmented subduction zone. The segmentation of the Mediterranean subduction zone has played a primary role in the formation of oroclines. Such oroclines could potentially be subjected to tightening due to subsequent collisional processes, giving rise to a complex contorted orogenic structure. The "Mediterranean-type" oroclines, therefore, could be used as a template for understanding complex ancient oroclines, such as those found in Variscan Europe, Central

  15. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  16. Mineral dust deposition in Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Bergmatti, Gilles; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Chevaillier, Servanne; Roulet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; Siour, Guillaume; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Massanet, Ana; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Di Sarra, Giogio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Dulac, François; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    North African deserts are the world's largest sources of atmospheric mineral dust produced by aeolian erosion. Saharan dust is frequently transported toward Europe over the Mediterranean basin. When deposited in oceanic areas, mineral dust can constitute a key input of nutrients bioavailable for the oceanic biosphere. For instance, Saharan dust deposited in the in the Mediterranean Sea can be a significant source of nutrient like Fe, P and N during summer and autumn. Our objective is to study the deposition Saharan mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin and to improve how deposition processes are parameterized in 3D regional models. To quantify the deposition flux of Saharan dust in the western Mediterranean region a specific collector (CARAGA) to sample automatically the insoluble atmospheric particle deposition was developed (LISA-ICARE) and a network of CARAGA collectors have been set up. Since 2011, eight CARAGA are then deployed in Frioul, Casset, Montandon and Ersa in France, Mallorca and Granada in Spain, Lampedusa in Italia, and Medenine in Tunisia, along a South-North gradient of almost 2000km from the North African coast to the South of Europe. We observe 10 well identified dust Saharan deposition events at Lampedusa and 6 at Mallorca for a 1-yr sampling period. These dust events are sporadic and the South-North gradient of deposition intensity and frequency is observed (the highest dust mass sampled at the stations are : 2,66 g.m-2 at Lampedusa ; 0,54 g.m-2 at Majorque ; 0,33 g.m-2 at Frioul ; 0,16 g.m-2 at Casset). The ability of the CHIMERE model to reproduce the deposition measurements is tested. The mineral dust plumes simulated over the western Mediterranean basin are also compared to satellite observations (OMI, MODIS) and in-situ measurements performed during the ChArMEx campaign and in the AERONET stations.

  17. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:24114475

  18. Effects of natural and anthropogenic processes in the distribution of marine litter in the deep Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; De Mol, Ben; Company, Joan B.; Coll, Marta; Sardà, Francesc

    2013-11-01

    The distribution, type and quantity of marine litter accumulated on the bathyal and abyssal Mediterranean seafloor has been studied in the framework of the Spanish national projects PROMETEO and DOS MARES and the ESF-EuroDEEP project BIOFUN. Litter was collected with an otter trawl and Agassiz trawl while sampling for megafauna on the Blanes canyon and adjacent slope (Catalan margin, north-western Mediterranean) between 900 and 2700 m depth, and on the western, central and eastern Mediterranean basins at 1200, 2000 and 3000 m depth. All litter was sorted into 8 categories (hard plastic, soft plastic, glass, metal, clinker, fabric, longlines and fishing nets) and weighed. The distribution of litter was analysed in relation to depth, geographic area and natural (bathymetry, currents and rivers) and anthropogenic (population density and shipping routes) processes. The most abundant litter types were plastic, glass, metal and clinker. Lost or discarded fishing gear was also commonly found. On the Catalan margin, although the data indicated an accumulation of litter with increasing depth, mean weight was not significantly different between depths or between the open slope and the canyon. We propose that litter accumulated in the canyon, with high proportions of plastics, has predominantly a coastal origin, while litter collected on the open slope, dominated by heavy litter, is mostly ship-originated, especially at sites under major shipping routes. Along the trans-Mediterranean transect, although a higher amount of litter seemed to be found on the Western Mediterranean, differences of mean weight were not significant between the 3 geographic areas and the 3 depths. Here, the shallower sites, also closer to the coast, had a higher proportion of plastics than the deeper sites, which had a higher proportion of heavy litter and were often affected by shipping routes. The weight of litter was also compared to biomass of megafauna from the same samples. On the Blanes slope

  19. Characterization of intense aerosol episodes in the Mediterranean basin from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    contribution of fine to total aerosol (Fine fraction) and their UV absorption efficiency (Aerosol index). For each one of these parameters appropriate upper or lower thresholds are set and applied. According to our results, the most frequent aerosol episodes are DD, being observed in the western and central Mediterranean basin 11 (strong episodes) and 4 (extreme episodes) times/year, respectively, on average. The DD episodes yield 40% of the total number of all strong aerosol episodes, while their contribution rises up to 49% and 71.5% for all extreme episodes over land and sea, respectively. The strong episodes exhibit AOD values as high as 1.6 in the southernmost parts of central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, with values rising up to 5 for extreme episodes, mainly DD and SS. Although more than 90% of aerosol episodes last 1 day, there are few cases, mainly strong DD episodes, which last up to 6 days. Independently of their type, the Mediterranean aerosol episodes occur more frequently in spring and summer and more rarely during winter. The analysis indicates a decreasing tendency of Mediterranean aerosol episodes from 2000 to 2007. 5-days back trajectories for extreme episodes show that air masses inducing BU episodes mostly originate from Europe, those causing DD episodes primarily originate from or travel across North Africa, while SS-like episodes are associated with air masses moving across the northern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Weak Concordance between Fish and Macroinvertebrates in Mediterranean Streams

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Stefano; Mancini, Laura; Pace, Giorgio; Scalici, Massimiliano; Tancioni, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Although anthropogenic degradation of riverine systems stimulated a multi-taxon bioassessment of their ecological integrity in EU countries, specific responses of different taxonomic groups to human pressure are poorly investigated in Mediterranean rivers. Here, we assess if richness and composition of macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages show concordant variation along a gradient of anthropogenic pressure in 31 reaches across 13 wadeable streams in central Italy. Fish and invertebrate taxonomic richness was not correlated across sites. However, Mantel test showed that the two groups were significantly, albeit weakly, correlated even after statistically controlling for the effect of environmental variables and site proximity. Variance partitioning with partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that the assemblages of the two groups were influenced by different set of environmental drivers: invertebrates were influenced by water organic content, channel and substratum features, while fish were related to stream temperature (mirroring elevation) and local land-use. Variance partitioning revealed the importance of biotic interactions between the two groups as a possible mechanisms determining concordance. Although significant, the congruence between the groups was weak, indicating that they should not be used as surrogate of each other for environmental assessments in these Mediterranean catchments. Indeed, both richness and patterns in nestedness (i.e. where depauperate locations host only a subset of taxa found in richer locations) appeared influenced by different environmental drivers suggesting that the observed concordance did not result from a co-loss of taxa along similar environmental gradients. As fish and macroinvertebrates appeared sensitive to different environmental factors, we argue that monitoring programmes should consider a multi-assemblage assessment, as also required by the Water Framework Directive. PMID:23251432

  1. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The motivation for this session is the statement or claim that Mediterranean areas are sensitive to erosion and desertification. One result of the LEDDRA Approach, which is applying the Complex Adaptive (CAS)paradigm at study sites in Mediterranean Spain, Greece and Italy is that there is just a single socio-environmental system in which land degradation is being caused by the actions of people and the Mediterranean soils have co-eveolved with people under the influence of fire and grazing. They are therefore resilient, and this was demonstrated by Naveh and Thornes. Also the Medalus field sites showed very low rates of erosion. With examples from different Mediterranean landscapes, it is considered that Mediterranean landscapes went through an initial phase of being sensitive to erosion which ended up with the original soils before ploughing or deforestation, being eroded from most of the areas, In some places these are found. LEDDRA The Leddra approach is to consider different states which are separated by transitions. The first state is that of the deforestaion and destruction of the forest that took place 6000 10000 years ago, in the Eastern and Northern Mediterranean, and 2000 to 4,000 years ago in large areas of the Western Mediterranean, and 100 to 400 years ago in California. Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The second state involves appropriating and settling the land from indigenous people and introducing cattle and sheep and Mediterranean crops. The current state of desertification is one in which erosion occurs because of the use of specific cultivation methods and subsidies for irrigating and producing crops outside of their range. In the Mediterranean landscape State, such as found near Santiago in Chile and in Crete, society gains many cultural benefits from grazing. However, the consequences of this are that the whole ecosystem is maintained in an arid state, so that areas in Crete receiving 800-1100 mm rainfall have a semi arid vegetation, instead

  2. Olive domestication and diversification in the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Diez, Concepcion M; Trujillo, Isabel; Martinez-Urdiroz, Nieves; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis; Marfil, Pedro; Gaut, Brandon S

    2015-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea ssp. europaea) is the most important oil fruit crop in temperate areas, but the origin of the cultivated olive remains unclear. The existence of one or several domestication events in the Mediterranean Basin (MB) is still debated. We analyzed a dataset of 387 cultivated and wild accessions that were genotyped at 25 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci. The sample represented genetic diversity at the geographic extremes of the MB. We inferred relationships among samples and also applied approximate Bayesian computation to estimate the most probable demographic model of our samples. Cultivated olives clustered into three different gene pools (Q1, Q2 and Q3), corresponding loosely to the west, central and eastern MB, respectively. Q1 consisted primarily of accessions from southern Spain, retained the fingerprint of a genetic bottleneck, and was closely related to accessions from the eastern MB. Q2 showed signs of recent admixture with wild olives and may derive from a local domestication event in the central MB. Overall our results suggest that admixture shaped olive germplasm and perhaps also local domestication events. PMID:25420413

  3. Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route

    PubMed Central

    Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Brucato, Nicolas; Duranthon, Francis; Guilaine, Jean; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    The Neolithic is a key period in the history of the European settlement. Although archaeological and present-day genetic data suggest several hypotheses regarding the human migration patterns at this period, validation of these hypotheses with the use of ancient genetic data has been limited. In this context, we studied DNA extracted from 53 individuals buried in a necropolis used by a French local community 5,000 y ago. The relatively good DNA preservation of the samples allowed us to obtain autosomal, Y-chromosomal, and/or mtDNA data for 29 of the 53 samples studied. From these datasets, we established close parental relationships within the necropolis and determined maternal and paternal lineages as well as the absence of an allele associated with lactase persistence, probably carried by Neolithic cultures of central Europe. Our study provides an integrative view of the genetic past in southern France at the end of the Neolithic period. Furthermore, the Y-haplotype lineages characterized and the study of their current repartition in European populations confirm a greater influence of the Mediterranean than the Central European route in the peopling of southern Europe during the Neolithic transition. PMID:21628562

  4. Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route.

    PubMed

    Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Brucato, Nicolas; Duranthon, Francis; Guilaine, Jean; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2011-06-14

    The Neolithic is a key period in the history of the European settlement. Although archaeological and present-day genetic data suggest several hypotheses regarding the human migration patterns at this period, validation of these hypotheses with the use of ancient genetic data has been limited. In this context, we studied DNA extracted from 53 individuals buried in a necropolis used by a French local community 5,000 y ago. The relatively good DNA preservation of the samples allowed us to obtain autosomal, Y-chromosomal, and/or mtDNA data for 29 of the 53 samples studied. From these datasets, we established close parental relationships within the necropolis and determined maternal and paternal lineages as well as the absence of an allele associated with lactase persistence, probably carried by Neolithic cultures of central Europe. Our study provides an integrative view of the genetic past in southern France at the end of the Neolithic period. Furthermore, the Y-haplotype lineages characterized and the study of their current repartition in European populations confirm a greater influence of the Mediterranean than the Central European route in the peopling of southern Europe during the Neolithic transition. PMID:21628562

  5. First in situ observations of the deep-sea carnivorous ascidian Dicopia antirrhinum Monniot C., 1972 in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecho, A.; Aguzzi, J.; Company, J. B.; Canals, M.; Lastras, G.; Turon, X.

    2014-01-01

    Dicopia antirrhinum C. Monniot, 1972 is a rare species of deep-sea ascidian belonging to the Family Octacnemidae, reported at depths of 1000-2500 m in European Atlantic waters. Adult individuals have never been reported before in the Mediterranean Sea, where only seven juvenile specimens were found in 1975 at 500 m water depth in the Central basin (Malta). The affinities of these specimens with D. antirrhinum were noted, but lack of some typical characters of the species in juveniles prevented a definite taxonomical identification. No other member of the Octacnemidae has ever been found in the Mediterranean. In this study we describe the sampling of an adult specimen of D. antirrhinum at around 1100 m water depth on the flank of the La Fonera (Palamós) canyon, Northwestern Mediterranean, confirming their presence in the Mediterranean Sea. We also observed 5 individuals of this species on their natural habitat with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Our results highlight the potential occurrence of Octacnemidae, the presence of which has been largely overlooked, in several deep-sea canyon areas within the Western Mediterranean basin. These observations are important because they indicate the need for increased sampling effort with new technologies, such as ROVs, in ecologically relevant habitats such as canyons, in order to obtain a more accurate picture of deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Metazoan parasite infection in the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, from the Mediterranean Sea and comparison with Atlantic populations: implications for its stock characterization

    PubMed Central

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Garcia, Alexandra; Cipriani, Paolo; Santos, Miguel Neves; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Cimmaruta, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Thirteen parasite taxa were identified in the Mediterranean swordfish by morphological and genetic/molecular methods. The comparison of the identified parasite taxa and parasitic infection values observed in the Mediterranean swordfish showed statistically significant differences with respect to those reported for its Atlantic populations. A stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis of the individual fish examined showed a separation among three groups: one including fish from the Mediterranean Sea (CTS, STS, and IOS); one consisting of fish from the Central South (CS), Eastern Tropical (ET), and Equatorial (TEQ) Atlantic; and a third comprising the fish sampled from the North-West Atlantic (NW); the CN Atlantic sample was more similar to the first group rather than to the other Atlantic ones. The nematodes Hysterothylacium petteri and Anisakis pegreffii were the species that contributed most to the characterization of the Mediterranean swordfish samples with respect to these Atlantic ones. Anisakis brevispiculata, A. physeteris, A. paggiae, Anisakis sp. 2, Hysterothylacium incurvum, Hepatoxylon trichiuri, Sphyriocephalus viridis, and their high infection levels were associated with the swordfish from the Central and the Southern Atlantic areas. Finally, H. corrugatum, A. simplex (s.s.), Rhadinorhynchus pristis, and Bolbosoma vasculosum were related to the fish from the North-West (NW) Atlantic area. These results indicate that some parasites, particularly Anisakis spp. larvae identified by genetic markers, could be used as “biological tags” and support the existence of a Mediterranean swordfish stock. PMID:25057787

  7. Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED) summer 2013 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, M.; Dulac, F.; Formenti, P.; Nabat, P.; Sciare, J.; Roberts, G.; Pelon, J.; Ancellet, G.; Tanré, D.; Parol, F.; Denjean, C.; Brogniez, G.; di Sarra, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Arndt, J.; Auriol, F.; Blarel, L.; Bourrianne, T.; Chazette, P.; Chevaillier, S.; Claeys, M.; D'Anna, B.; Derimian, Y.; Desboeufs, K.; Di Iorio, T.; Doussin, J.-F.; Durand, P.; Féron, A.; Freney, E.; Gaimoz, C.; Goloub, P.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Grand, N.; Hamonou, E.; Jankowiak, I.; Jeannot, M.; Léon, J.-F.; Maillé, M.; Mailler, S.; Meloni, D.; Menut, L.; Momboisse, G.; Nicolas, J.; Podvin, T.; Pont, V.; Rea, G.; Renard, J.-B.; Roblou, L.; Schepanski, K.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sellegri, K.; Sicard, M.; Solmon, F.; Somot, S.; Torres, B.; Totems, J.; Triquet, S.; Verdier, N.; Verwaerde, C.; Waquet, F.; Wenger, J.; Zapf, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr) is a collaborative research program federating international activities to investigate Mediterranean regional chemistry-climate interactions. A special observing period (SOP-1a) including intensive airborne measurements was performed in the framework of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region (ADRIMED) project during the Mediterranean dry season over the western and central Mediterranean basins, with a focus on aerosol-radiation measurements and their modeling. The SOP-1a took place from 11 June to 5 July 2013. Airborne measurements were made by both the ATR-42 and F-20 French research aircraft operated from Sardinia (Italy) and instrumented for in situ and remote-sensing measurements, respectively, and by sounding and drifting balloons, launched in Minorca. The experimental setup also involved several ground-based measurement sites on islands including two ground-based reference stations in Corsica and Lampedusa and secondary monitoring sites in Minorca and Sicily. Additional measurements including lidar profiling were also performed on alert during aircraft operations at EARLINET/ACTRIS stations at Granada and Barcelona in Spain, and in southern Italy. Remote-sensing aerosol products from satellites (MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS) and from the AERONET/PHOTONS network were also used. Dedicated meso-scale and regional modeling experiments were performed in relation to this observational effort. We provide here an overview of the different surface and aircraft observations deployed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED period and of associated modeling studies together with an analysis of the synoptic conditions that determined the aerosol emission and transport. Meteorological conditions observed during this campaign (moderate temperatures and southern flows) were not favorable to producing high

  8. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties. PMID:26393643

  9. Climate field reconstructions of eastern Mediterranean hydroclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchukaitis, K. J.; Touchan, R.; Meko, D. M.; Cook, B.; Shishov, V.; Sivrikaya, F.; Attieh, J.; Stephan, J.; Ketmen, M.; Mitsopoulos, I.; Christou, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Mediterranean Basin has suffered from severe droughts in the past several decades and has been identified by general circulation models as a region likely to experience increasingly dry conditions as a consequence of anthropogenic climate change. Models disagree however on the magnitude of changes in precipitation, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration associated with projected drying in the region. Here we use a 'Point-to-Point' local principal components regression approach to develop climate field reconstructions of drought and precipitation variability in the eastern Mediterranean from a network of over 70 tree-ring width chronologies back to 1238 CE. Reconstructions reveal droughts substantially more severe than observed throughout the record, particularly in the 15th century when tree rings indicate an epoch of sustained drought conditions. Comparing this new reconstruction with our previous work in northwestern Africa shows a tendency for both regions to be simultaneously in drought, in agreement with climate models and limited observations.

  10. Large Spatial Scale Variability in Bathyal Macrobenthos Abundance, Biomass, α- and β-Diversity along the Mediterranean Continental Margin

    PubMed Central

    Baldrighi, Elisa; Lavaleye, Marc; Aliani, Stefano; Conversi, Alessandra; Manini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale deep-sea biodiversity distribution of the benthic fauna was explored in the Mediterranean Sea, which can be seen as a miniature model of the oceans of the world. Within the framework of the BIOFUN project (“Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Contrasting Southern European Deep-sea Environments: from viruses to megafauna”), we investigated the large spatial scale variability (over >1,000 km) of the bathyal macrofauna communities that inhabit the Mediterranean basin, and their relationships with the environmental variables. The macrofauna abundance, biomass, community structure and functional diversity were analysed and the α-diversity and β-diversity were estimated across six selected slope areas at different longitudes and along three main depths. The macrobenthic standing stock and α-diversity were lower in the deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean basin, compared to the western and central basins. The macrofaunal standing stock and diversity decreased significantly from the upper bathyal to the lower bathyal slope stations. The major changes in the community composition of the higher taxa and in the trophic (functional) structure occurred at different longitudes, rather than at increasing water depth. For the β-diversity, very high dissimilarities emerged at all levels: (i) between basins; (ii) between slopes within the same basin; and (iii) between stations at different depths; this therefore demonstrates the high macrofaunal diversity of the Mediterranean basins at large spatial scales. Overall, the food sources (i.e., quantity and quality) that characterised the west, central and eastern Mediterranean basins, as well as sediment grain size, appear to influence the macrobenthic standing stock and the biodiversity along the different slope areas. PMID:25225909

  11. Large spatial scale variability in bathyal macrobenthos abundance, biomass, α- and β-diversity along the Mediterranean continental margin.

    PubMed

    Baldrighi, Elisa; Lavaleye, Marc; Aliani, Stefano; Conversi, Alessandra; Manini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale deep-sea biodiversity distribution of the benthic fauna was explored in the Mediterranean Sea, which can be seen as a miniature model of the oceans of the world. Within the framework of the BIOFUN project ("Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Contrasting Southern European Deep-sea Environments: from viruses to megafauna"), we investigated the large spatial scale variability (over >1,000 km) of the bathyal macrofauna communities that inhabit the Mediterranean basin, and their relationships with the environmental variables. The macrofauna abundance, biomass, community structure and functional diversity were analysed and the α-diversity and β-diversity were estimated across six selected slope areas at different longitudes and along three main depths. The macrobenthic standing stock and α-diversity were lower in the deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean basin, compared to the western and central basins. The macrofaunal standing stock and diversity decreased significantly from the upper bathyal to the lower bathyal slope stations. The major changes in the community composition of the higher taxa and in the trophic (functional) structure occurred at different longitudes, rather than at increasing water depth. For the β-diversity, very high dissimilarities emerged at all levels: (i) between basins; (ii) between slopes within the same basin; and (iii) between stations at different depths; this therefore demonstrates the high macrofaunal diversity of the Mediterranean basins at large spatial scales. Overall, the food sources (i.e., quantity and quality) that characterised the west, central and eastern Mediterranean basins, as well as sediment grain size, appear to influence the macrobenthic standing stock and the biodiversity along the different slope areas. PMID:25225909

  12. Sediment transport in two mediterranean regulated rivers.

    PubMed

    Lobera, G; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean climate is characterized by highly irregular rainfall patterns with marked differences between wet and dry seasons which lead to highly variable hydrological fluvial regimes. As a result, and in order to ensure water availability and reduce its temporal variability, a high number of large dams were built during the 20th century (more than 3500 located in Mediterranean rivers). Dams modify the flow regime but also interrupt the continuity of sediment transfer along the river network, thereby changing its functioning as an ecosystem. Within this context, the present paper aims to assess the suspended sediment loads and dynamics of two climatically contrasting Mediterranean regulated rivers (i.e. the Ésera and Siurana) during a 2-yr period. Key findings indicate that floods were responsible for 92% of the total suspended sediment load in the River Siurana, while this percentage falls to 70% for the Ésera, indicating the importance of baseflows on sediment transport in this river. This fact is related to the high sediment availability, with the Ésera acting as a non-supply-limited catchment due to the high productivity of the sources (i.e. badlands). In contrast, the Siurana can be considered a supply-limited system due to its low geomorphic activity and reduced sediment availability, with suspended sediment concentration remaining low even for high magnitude flood events. Reservoirs in both rivers reduce sediment load up to 90%, although total runoff is only reduced in the case of the River Ésera. A remarkable fact is the change of the hydrological character of the River Ésera downstream for the dam, shifting from a humid mountainous river regime to a quasi-invariable pattern, whereas the Siurana experiences the opposite effect, changing from a flashy Mediterranean river to a more constant flow regime below the dam. PMID:26372613

  13. The alarming decline of Mediterranean fish stocks.

    PubMed

    Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas; Maravelias, Christos D; Tserpes, George

    2014-07-21

    In recent years, fisheries management has succeeded in stabilizing and even improving the state of many global fisheries resources [1-5]. This is particularly evident in areas where stocks are exploited in compliance with scientific advice and strong institutional structures are in place [1, 5]. In Europe, the well-managed northeast (NE) Atlantic fish stocks have been recovering in response to decreasing fishing pressure over the past decade [3-6], albeit with a long way to go for a universal stock rebuild [3, 7]. Meanwhile, little is known about the temporal development of the European Mediterranean stocks, whose management relies on input controls that are often poorly enforced. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of 42 European Mediterranean stocks of nine species in 1990-2010, showing that exploitation rate has been steadily increasing, selectivity (proportional exploitation of juveniles) has been deteriorating, and stocks have been shrinking. We implement species-specific simulation models to quantify changes in exploitation rate and selectivity that would maximize long-term yields and halt stock depletion. We show that stocks would be more resilient to fishing and produce higher long-term yields if harvested a few years after maturation because current selectivity is far from optimal, especially for demersal stocks. The European Common Fisheries Policy that has assisted in improving the state of NE Atlantic fish stocks in the past 10 years has failed to deliver similar results for Mediterranean stocks managed under the same policy. Limiting juvenile exploitation, advancing management plans, and strengthening compliance, control, and enforcement could promote fisheries sustainability in the Mediterranean. PMID:25017210

  14. box modeling of the eastern mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Stone, P. H.

    2003-04-01

    Recently (~1990) a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1Sv=10^6m^3/s, three times larger then the Adriatic source. We develop a simple 3 box-model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The 3 boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian sea. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analytically analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We consider two cases for which the temperatures of the boxes are (i) fixed or (ii) variable. After setting the parameters to correspond to the Eastern Mediterranean we find that the system has two stable states, one with (i) two thermally dominant sources of deep water formation in the Adriatic and Aegean and the other with (ii) a salinity dominant source of deep water formation in the Adriatic and a thermally dominant source in the Aegean. While the Adriatic thermally dominant source is comparable to the observed flux of 0.3Sv the Aegean source has much smaller flux than the observed value. This situation is analogous to the state of the thermohaline circulation pre 1990 where the only source of deep water formation was in the Adriatic. If we decrease the atmospheric temperature of the Aegean box by 2C in accordance with recent observations, we find that the deep water formation of the Aegean increases significantly to a value comparable to the recently observed flux.

  15. Mediterranean Miocene carbonates: facies models and diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban, M.E.

    1987-11-01

    Miocene carbonates can bridge the gap between Holocene and older carbonate sequences, thus enhancing understanding of depositional and diagenetic patterns. Miocene carbonates can bridge this gap because of their similarity to Holocene counterparts and the ease of using these carbonates to reconstruct tectonic, paleogeographic, and paleoclimatic settings. In the Mediterranean, the Miocene provides a superb set of exposures and a wide variety of facies models in different geologic settings.

  16. Thick bottom nepheloid layers in the western Mediterranean generated by deep dense shelf water cascading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, Pere; Madron, Xavier Durrieu de; Salat, Jordi; Schroeder, Katrin; Martín, Jacobo; Karageorgis, Aristomenis P.; Palanques, Albert; Roullier, François; Lopez-Jurado, José Luis; Emelianov, Mikhail; Moutin, Thierry; Houpert, Loïc

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of a compilation of deep CTD casts conducted in the western Mediterranean from 1998 to 2011 has documented the role that dense water formation, and particularly deep dense shelf water cascading off the Gulf of Lions, plays in transporting suspended particulate matter from the coastal regions down to the basin. Deep CTD casts reveal that after the 1999 and 2005-2006 deep cascading events the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) was characterized by the presence of a thick bottom nepheloid layer (BNL) that corresponded in thickness with a thermohaline anomaly generated by the mixture of dense waters formed by deep convection in the open sea and by deep cascading. This BNL can be hundreds of meters thick and in the central part of the basin usually exhibits suspended sediment concentrations of <0.1 mg/l above background levels, reaching higher concentrations close to the continental rise, with near-bottom peaks >1 mg/l. After winter 1999 the BNL spread from the Gulf of Lions and the Catalan margin over the northwestern Mediterranean basin, reaching west of the Balearic Islands and the Ligurian Sea, while after winters 2005-2006 the BNL covered the entire western Mediterranean basin. Thickness and concentration of the BNL tend to diminish with time but this trend is highly dependent on the volume of dense water generated, both by convection and cascading. After winter 1999 the BNL signal vanished in one year, but after winters 2005-2006 it lasted for longer and the turbidity signal can still be distinguished at present (2011). Particle size distribution in the BNL reveals the presence of large aggregates up to 1 mm in size formed by a mixture of single particles with the same bimodal grain size distribution as the surface sediments found in the northwestern Mediterranean slope and basin. Results presented in this paper highlight the fact that the WMDW can be periodically affected by the arrival of new dense waters loaded with suspended particles mainly

  17. Photooxidant dynamics in the Mediterranean basin in summer: Results from European research projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MilláN, M. M.; Salvador, R.; Mantilla, E.; Kallos, G.

    1997-04-01

    Most of the Mediterranean Sea is surrounded by mountains 1500 m or higher. Their east and south facing slopes favor the early formation of upslope winds, reinforcing the sea breezes. These slopes also act as orographic chimneys which link the surface winds directly with their return flows aloft, creating recirculations. To characterize the dynamics of pollutants in the Mediterranean basin and to compose a mosaic of the atmospheric circulations involved, the European Commission (EC) supported the following projects: (1) meso-meteorological cycles of air pollution in the Iberian Peninsula (MECAPIP), 1988-1991, intended to document the atmospheric circulations over the Iberian Peninsula; (2) regional cycles of air pollution in the west central Mediterranean area (RECAPMA), 1990-1991, which extended the characterization from the Atlantic coast of Portugal to Italy; and (3) south European cycles of air pollution (SECAP), 1992-1995, for the whole of the basin. The level of interpretation of the data and the elaboration and validation of working hypotheses across the basin have followed, in turn, with the corresponding lags in space and time. The purpose of this paper is to present a summary (to 1995) of the documented, as well as the postulated, processes involved. The MECAPIP and RECAPMA projects have shown that stacked layer systems form along the Spanish Mediterranean coasts, 2-3 km deep and more than 300 km wide, with the most recent layers at the top and the older ones near the sea. These act as a reservoir for aged pollutants to reenter land the next day, and tracer experiments have shown that turnover times are from 2 to 3 days. During the night, part of this system drifts along the coast. Under strong insolation these circulations become "large natural photochemical reactors," where most of the NOx emissions and other precursors are transformed into oxidants, acidic compounds, aerosols, and O3 (exceeding some EC directives for several months). Finally, the

  18. Litter decomposition patterns in a semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María, Almagro; Jorge, López; María, Martínez-Mena

    2010-05-01

    Accumulation of soil carbon is mainly controlled by the balance between litter production and litter decomposition. While aboveground litter decomposition in mesic systems is thought to be controlled by climate, litter quality, and soil faunal interactions (Aerts, 1997), it is becoming increasingly evident that factors other than water availability, including photodegradation, physical fragmentation of litter, and soil movement may play central roles in determining rates of carbon and nutrient turnover in arid and semiarid ecosystems (Whitford et al., 2002; Austin and Vivanco, 2006; Throop and Archer, 2007). Decomposition and its controls were studied using the litter-bag method by exposing two different litter types (Pinus halepensis Mill. and Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) for a 20 month period in two Mediterranean ecosystems of the eastern Iberian Peninsula: 1) a ~ 150-yr-old forest stand, and 2) an abandoned agricultural field. Both sites are covered by a typical Mediterranean shrubland (Rosmarinus officinalis, Quercus coccifera, and Juniperus oxycedrus) with scattered Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis). A single exponential decay model (Olson, 1963) fit the data well (R2 values ranging from 0.46 to 0.82). Litter types differed in their decomposition dynamics despite of similar initial content of C and N, and C:N ratios. Rosemary litter decomposed more rapidly than Aleppo pine litter across sites (R2 = 0.742; F= 132.18; P<0.0001). After 20 months, rosemary litterbags had significantly less mass than did Aleppo pine litterbags regardless of site (pooled across sites: rosemary = 44.77% ± 2.21% (mean ± SE), Aleppo pine = 70.25 % ± 2.21% (mean ± SE); F= 132.18; P<0.0001). There was also a significant site effect on decomposition rates. While P. halepensis litter decomposed 1.5 fold-more rapidly (R2= 0.68; F= 45.93; P<0.0001), R. officinalis litter decay rates were 1.2 fold-higher in forest than in abandoned field site. Soil temperature or water availability could

  19. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm. PMID:22033813

  20. The Mediterranean Diet: A History of Health

    PubMed Central

    ALTOMARE, Roberta; CACCIABAUDO, Francesco; DAMIANO, Giuseppe; PALUMBO, Vincenzo Davide; GIOVIALE, Maria Concetta; BELLAVIA, Maurizio; TOMASELLO, Giovanni; LO MONTE, Attilio Ignazio

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean tradition offers a cousine rich in colors, aromas and memories, which support the taste and the spirit of those who live in harmony with nature. Everyone is talking about the Mediterranean diet, but few are those who do it properly, thus generating a lot of confusion in the reader. And so for some it coincides with the pizza, others identified it with the noodles with meat sauce, in a mixture of pseudo historical traditions and folklore that do not help to solve the question that is at the basis of any diet: combine and balance the food so as to satisfy the qualitative and quantitative needs of an individual and in a sense, preserves his health through the use of substances that help the body to perform normal vital functions. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate that the combination of taste and health is a goal that can be absolutely carried out by everybody, despite those who believe that only a generous caloric intake can guarantee the goodness of a dish and the satisfaction of the consumers. That should not be an absolute novelty, since the sound traditions of the Mediterranean cuisine we have used for some time in a wide variety of tasty gastronomic choices, from inviting colors and strong scents and absolutely in line with health. PMID:23802101

  1. "Towards an even healthier Mediterranean diet".

    PubMed

    Estruch, R; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2013-12-01

    Dietary guidelines to promote good health are usually based on foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns predictive of chronic disease risk in epidemiologic studies. However, sound nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular prevention should be based on the results of large randomized clinical trials with "hard" end-points as the main outcome. Such evidence has been obtained for the Mediterranean diet from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial and the Lyon Heart Study. The traditional Mediterranean diet was that found in olive growing areas of Crete, Greece, and Southern Italy in the late 1950s. Their major characteristics include: a) a high consumption of cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; b) a relatively high-fat consumption, mostly provided by olive oil; c) moderate to high fish consumption; d) poultry and dairy products consumed in moderate to small amounts; e) low consumption of red meats, and meat products; and f) moderate alcohol intake, usually in the form of red wine. However, these protective effects of the traditional Mediterranean diet may be even greater if we upgrade the health effects of this dietary pattern changing the common olive oil used for extra-virgin olive oil, increasing the consumption of nuts, fatty fish and whole grain cereals, reducing sodium intake, and maintaining a moderate consumption of wine with meals. PMID:24263037

  2. Miocene to Pliocene osmium isotopic records of Mediterranean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Junichiro; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Gennari, Rocco; Lugli, Stefano; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco; Flecker, Rachel; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Sierro, Francisco; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2015-04-01

    In the late Miocene the Mediterranean Sea experienced a salinity crisis and thick sequences of evaporites precipitated across the basin. In this study we report Os isotopic records from drilled cores in the Mediterranean; the Balearic Sea, the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Ionian Basin and the Florence Rise. Pliocene sediments at all sites show 187Os/188Os values close to that of the coeval ocean water, indicating that the Mediterranean was connected to the North Atlantic. Evaporitic sediments deposited during the late Miocene however, have 187Os/188Os values lower than coeval ocean water values and samples from the eastern Mediterranean and Ionian basins are particularly low. Os isotopic ratios of the pre-evaporite sediments in the western Mediterranean are almost identical to that of the coeval ocean water. In contrast, equivalent sediments from the Florence Rise have significantly lower 187Os/188Os values. The offset of Mediterranean evaporite 187Os/188Os is attributed to limited exchange with the North Atlantic during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The source of unradiogenic Os is likely to be weathering of ultramafic rocks (ophiolites) cropping out in the Mediterranean's drainage basins. The offset in the Os ratio on the Florence Rise is attributed either to limited water exchange between eastern and western Mediterranean, or to local effects associated with exhumation of ophiolites around the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  3. Radiocarbon evidence for maritime pioneer colonization at the origins of farming in west Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zilhão, João

    2001-01-01

    Most radiocarbon dates for the earliest Neolithic cultures of west Mediterranean Europe are on samples of unidentified charcoal. If only results obtained on short lived samples (seeds, shells, and bone) of diagnostic material (domesticates, artifacts, and human remains) are considered, then the dates for the first appearance of the Neolithic package are indistinguishable statistically from central Italy to Portugal and cluster around 5400 calendar B.C. This rapidity of spread, no more than six generations, can be best explained in the framework of a maritime pioneer colonization model. PMID:11707599

  4. Speleothem records of western Mediterranean. Hydrological variability along the Last Interglacial Period and marine linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torner, Judit; Cacho, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Belmonte, Anchel; Sierro, Francisco J.; Frigola, Jaime; Martrat, Belen; Fornós, Joan; Arnau Fernández, Pedro; Hellstrom, John; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to identify and characterize regional hydrological variability in the western Mediterranean region in base to different geochemical parameters (δ18O, δ13C, and Mg/Ca ratios). Speleothems have been recovered from several caves located in southern central Pyrenees one and the others form the Balearic Islands. Their chronologies have been constructed in base on U/Th absolute dating and indicate that the speleothem sequences cover the end of the last interglacial and the glacial inception. One of the most remarkable features of the records is the intense and abrupt shift toward more arid conditions that marks the end of the last interglacial (MIS 5e). Furthermore, our speleothem records also show relatively humid but highly variable hydrological conditions during the interstadial periods from MIS 5c to 5a. These speleothem records have been compared with new generated western Mediterranean marine records from the Balearic Sea (MD99-2343) and Alboran Sea (OPD-977). Marine records include (1) proxies of sea surface temperature and changes in evaporation-precipitation rates based on pair analysis of δ18O and the Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides; (2) proxies of deep-water currents associated with the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) based on grain size analyses. The results reveal that arid conditions on land were coeval with cold sea surface sub-stages (MIS 5b and 5d), and also with increases in the intensity of the WMDW-related currents. By contrast, humid and hydrological unstable atmosphere conditions were synchronous with sea surface warm sub-stages, and lower WMDW-related currents intensities (MIS 5a, c and e). Consequently, our results highly evidence a strong atmospheric-oceanic coupling, involving parallel changes in both surface but also deep western Mediterranean Sea conditions during the last interglacial period and the glacial inception.

  5. A new morpho-bathymetric map of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascle, Jean; Brosolo, Laetitia

    2016-04-01

    A new morpho-bathymetric synthesis of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been compiled using a digital terrain model (DTM) based on a 100-meter grid. This DTM has been constructed using data provided by several peri-mediterranean Institutes, and collected using various swath bathymetry systems operated by different research vessels. One may estimate that 90% of the seabed extending by water depths higher than 2000m have been mapped using swath systems. The aim of this synthesis is chiefly to illustrate, in detail, the morphological features resulting from the various (sedimentary, tectonic, geochemical, magmatic, etc.) active geological processes operating on the four main physiographic domains, which characterize the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: the Calabria outer arc (Ionian Sea), the Mediterranean Ridge (most of the central basin), the Nile sedimentary cone (off Egypt) and the Eratosthenes seamount (south of Cyprus). For areas not yet covered by swath bathymetric systems the map has been completed by digital data extracted either from GEBCO or from EMODNET DTM files (http://www.gebco.net/data_and_products/gebco_digital_atlas/) (http://www.emodnet-hydrography.eu/). Several artifacts introduced by the use of these files, for example theoccurrences of their grids, can be detected along most of the steep continental slopes not yet mapped in detail, as well as in the southern domain of the Adriatic Sea. Similarly it has not been possible to systematically correct a few, but non-linear, discrepancies in Z values between various DTM files. Such discrepancies result either from the use of data collected by swath systems operating at different frequencies and/or from minor differences in seawater sound velocity corrections.

  6. A Late Cretaceous Contamination Episode of the European-Mediterranean Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piromallo, C.; Gasperini, D.; Macera, P.; Faccenna, C.

    2008-12-01

    One of the most debated issues about the Tertiary-Quaternary alkaline magmatism of the Euro- Mediterranean region is the assessment of both the nature of its mantle source and the mechanism responsible for the common HIMU-like (High μ=high 238U/204Pb) character of erupted lavas, enduring over about 100 million years in diverse tectonic environments. We reconcile here geochemistry, timing and locations of the main Na-rich alkaline volcanic centers, seismic tomography and plate kinematics. We propose that the common component of the Euro-Mediterranean mantle derives from a contamination episode triggered by the rise of the Central Atlantic Plume (CAP) head. Highly incompatible element ratios and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions indicate a common source for Na-rich alkali basalts of NE Atlantic, Europe and North Africa. Plate reconstruction shows that at Late Cretaceous-Paleocene time the oldest magmatic centers of the Euro-Mediterranean region were shifted more than 2000 km SW of their present day position, close to the CAP hot spot location, where seismic tomography detects a broad low seismic velocity region in the lower mantle. Thus, a possible common source for the Cenozoic Euro-Mediterranean volcanism could refer to this geographical area, representing both its Cretaceous paleo-position and geochemical endmember. The north-eastward migration of the Eurasian and African plates involved also the CAP contaminated mantle, which moved in the same direction coupled to the lithospheric plate, explaining the presence of geochemically-uniform material in the sub-lithospheric mantle. During the Tertiary, regional-scale convection and related processes such as rifting, back-arc spreading, slab detachment/windows, may have favored upwelling and partial melting of the frayed plume head material via adiabatic decompression, shaping the discontinuous spatial and temporal distribution of HIMU-like volcanics. The growing supply of subducted lithosphere may explain as well the

  7. Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Cardiovascular Outcomes—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Thaminda; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Wang, Amanda; Neal, Bruce; Jun, Min; Wong, Muh Geot; Jardine, Meg; Hillis, Graham S.; Perkovic, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Background A Mediterranean dietary pattern is widely recommended for the prevention of chronic disease. We sought to define the most likely effects of the Mediterranean diet on vascular disease and mortality. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register without language restriction for randomized controlled trials comparing Mediterranean to control diets. Data on study design, patient characteristics, interventions, follow-up duration, outcomes and adverse events were sought. Individual study relative risks (RR) were pooled to create summary estimates. Results Six studies with a total of 10950 participants were included. Effects on major vascular events (n = 477), death (n = 693) and vascular deaths (n = 315) were reported for 3, 5 and 4 studies respectively. For one large study (n = 1000) there were serious concerns about the integrity of the data. When data for all studies were combined there was evidence of protection against major vascular events (RR 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.53–0.75), coronary events (0.65, 0.50–0.85), stroke (0.65, 0.48–0.88) and heart failure (0.30, 0.17–0.56) but not for all-cause mortality (1.00, 0.86–1.15) or cardiovascular mortality (0.90, 0.72–1.11). After the study of concern was excluded the benefit for vascular events (0.69, 0.55–0.86) and stroke (0.66, 0.48–0.92) persisted but apparently positive findings for coronary events (0.73, 0.51–1.05) and heart failure (0.25, 0.05–1.17) disappeared. Conclusion The Mediterranean diet may protect against vascular disease. However, both the quantity and quality of the available evidence is limited and highly variable. Results must be interpreted with caution. PMID:27509006

  8. Adaptive Radiation in Mediterranean Cistus (Cistaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Beatriz; Lledó, María Dolores; Vargas, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background Adaptive radiation in Mediterranean plants is poorly understood. The white-flowered Cistus lineage consists of 12 species primarily distributed in Mediterranean habitats and is herein subject to analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a “total evidence” analysis combining nuclear (ncpGS, ITS) and plastid (trnL-trnF, trnK-matK, trnS-trnG, rbcL) DNA sequences and using MP and BI to test the hypothesis of radiation as suggested by previous phylogenetic results. One of the five well-supported lineages of the Cistus-Halimium complex, the white-flowered Cistus lineage, comprises the higher number of species (12) and is monophyletic. Molecular dating estimates a Mid Pleistocene (1.04±0.25 Ma) diversification of the white-flowered lineage into two groups (C. clusii and C. salviifolius lineages), which display asymmetric characteristics: number of species (2 vs. 10), leaf morphologies (linear vs. linear to ovate), floral characteristics (small, three-sepalled vs. small to large, three- or five-sepalled flowers) and ecological attributes (low-land vs. low-land to mountain environments). A positive phenotype-environment correlation has been detected by historical reconstructions of morphological traits (leaf shape, leaf labdanum content and leaf pubescence). Ecological evidence indicates that modifications of leaf shape and size, coupled with differences in labdanum secretion and pubescence density, appear to be related to success of new species in different Mediterranean habitats. Conclusions/Significance The observation that radiation in the Cistus salviifolius lineage has been accompanied by the emergence of divergent leaf traits (such as shape, pubescence and labdanum secretion) in different environments suggets that radiation in the group has been adaptive. Here we argued that the diverse ecological conditions of Mediterranean habitats played a key role in directing the evolution of alternative leaf strategies in this plant group. Key

  9. Droughts and forest fires in Mediterranean Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Most of the total burned area in Europe occurs in Mediterranean regions, with severe economic and environmental damage, life loss and an average of about 4500 km2 burned every year. A better understanding of the impacts on wildfires of environmental and socioeconomic changes is crucial to develop adequate measures of prevention, adaptation and mitigation in this area. Here we focus on the impact of droughts on fires in European Mediterranean regions (Portugal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Greece). This goal will be achieved through three specific supporting objectives: (1) Understanding past changes in fires in this region (extending the study of [1]); (2) Comparing and analyzing different drought indices (e.g. SPI, SPEI and SSI; see [2, 3] for more details on those indices); (3) Modeling the interaction between drought and fires (following and extending the study of [4]). We develop relatively simple regression models that link the fire activity to the key climate drivers. These models could be used to estimate fire responses to different climate change projections and environmental and socioeconomic scenarios ([5]). *References [1] Turco M., Llasat M. C., Tudela A., Castro X., and Provenzale A. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] Zengchao H., AghaKouchak A., Nakhjiri N., and Farahmand A. Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System. Scientific Data, 1:1-10, 2014. [3] Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. and López-Moreno, J. I. A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. Journal of Climate, 23:1696-1718, 2010. [4] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a Mediterranean environment (northeastern Iberian Peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [5] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von

  10. Estimation of Atlantic-Mediterranean netflow variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Peliz, Alvaro; Miranda, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The exchanges at the Strait of Gibraltar are extremely difficult to measure due to the strong temporal and across-strait variabilities; yet the Atlantic inflow into the Mediterranean is extremely important both for climate and to ecosystems. Most of the published numerical modeling studies do not resolve the Strait of Gibraltar realistically. Models that represent the strait at high resolution focus primarily in high frequency dynamics, whereas long-term dynamics are studied in low resolution model studies, and for that reason the Strait dynamics are poorly resolved. Estimating the variability of the exchanges requires long term and high-resolutions studies, thus an improved simulation with explicit and realistic representation of the Strait is necessary. On seasonal to inter-annual timescales the flow is essentially driven by the net evaporation contribution and consequently realistic fields of precipitation and evaporation are necessary for model setup. A comparison between observations, reanalysis and combined products shows ERA-Interim Reanalysis has the most suitable product for Mediterranean Sea. Its time and space variability are in close agreement with NOC 1.1 for the common period (1980 - 1993) and also with evaporation from OAFLUX (1989 - 2014). Subinertial fluctuations, periods from days to a few months, are the second most energetic, after tides, and are the response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations and local winds. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the Mediterranean cause sea level oscillations that induce a barotropic flow through the Strait. Candela's analytical model has been used to quantify this response in later studies, though comparison with observations points to an underestimation of the flow at strait. An improved representation of this term contribution to the Atlantic - Mediterranean exchange must be achieved on longer time-scales. We propose a new simulation for the last 36 years (1979 - 2014) for the Mediterranean - Atlantic

  11. A seesaw in Mediterranean precipitation during the Roman Period linked to millennial-scale changes in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermody, B. J.; de Boer, H. J.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Weber, S. L.; Wassen, M. J.; Dekker, S. C.

    2012-03-01

    We present a reconstruction of the change in climatic humidity around the Mediterranean between 3000-1000 yr BP. Using a range of proxy archives and model simulations we demonstrate that climate during this period was typified by a millennial-scale seesaw in climatic humidity between Spain and Israel on one side and the Central Mediterranean and Turkey on the other, similar to precipitation anomalies associated with the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern in current climate. We find that changes in the position and intensity of the jet stream indicated by our analysis correlate with millennial changes in North Atlantic sea surface temperature. A model simulation indicates the proxies of climatic humidity used in our analysis were unlikely to be influenced by climatic aridification caused by deforestation during the Roman Period. That finding is supported by an analysis of the distribution of archaeological sites in the Eastern Mediterranean which exhibits no evidence that human habitation distribution changed since ancient times as a result of climatic aridification. Therefore we conclude that changes in climatic humidity over the Mediterranean during the Roman Period were primarily caused by a modification of the jet stream linked to sea surface temperature change in the North Atlantic. Based on our findings, we propose that ocean-atmosphere coupling may have contributed to regulating Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation intensity during the period of analysis.

  12. Ecological Niche Models and Coalescent Analysis of Gene Flow Support Recent Allopatric Isolation of Parasitoid Wasp Populations in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Lozier, Jeffrey D.; Mills, Nicholas J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The integration of multiple complementary approaches is a powerful way to understand the processes of diversification and speciation. The parasitoid wasp Aphidius transcaspicus Telenga (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a parasitoid of Hyalopterus aphids across a wide geographic range. This species shows a remarkable degree of genetic structure among western, central, and eastern Mediterranean population clusters. In this paper we attempt to better characterize this genetic structure. Methodology/Principal Findings We use a Bayesian coalescent analysis of gene flow under the Isolation with Migration model using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers together with climate-based ecological niche models to better understand the genetic structure of A. transcaspicus in the Mediterranean. The coalescent analysis revealed low levels of migration among western and eastern Mediterranean populations (Nm<1) that were not statistically distinguishable from zero. Niche models showed that localities within population clusters each occupy areas of continuously high environmental suitability, but are separated from each other by large regions of completely unsuitable habitat that could limit dispersal. Overall, environmental characteristics were similar among the population clusters, though significant differences did emerge. Conclusions/Significance These results support contemporary allopatric isolation of Mediterranean populations of A. transcaspicus, which together with previous analyses indicating partial behaviorally mediated reproductive isolation, suggest that the early stages of cryptic speciation may be in progress. PMID:19521534

  13. Is long range transport of pollen in the NW Mediterranean basin influenced by Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns?

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Alarcon, Marta; Periago, Cristina; Belmonte, Jordina

    2015-11-01

    Climatic oscillations triggered by the atmospheric modes of the Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns have an important influence on the atmospheric circulation at synoptic scale in Western Mediterranean Basin. Simultaneously, this climate variability could affect a variety of ecological processes. This work provides a first assessment of the effect of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO) on the atmospheric long-range pollen transport episodes in the North-Eastern Iberian Peninsula for the period 1994-2011. Alnus, Ambrosia, Betula, Corylus and Fagus have been selected as allergenic pollen taxa with potential long-range transport associated to the Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns in the Western Mediterranean Basin. The results showed an increase of long range pollen transport episodes of: (1) Alnus, Corylus and Fagus from Western and Central Europe during the negative phase of annual NAO and AO; (2) Ambrosia, Betula and Fagus from Europe during the negative phase of winter WeMO; (3) Corylus and Fagus from Mediterranean area during the positive phase of the annual AO; and (4) Ambrosia from France and Northern Europe during the positive phase of winter WeMO. Conversely, the positive phase of annual NAO and AO are linked with the regional transport of Alnus, Betula and Corylus from Western Iberian Peninsula. The positive phase of annual WeMO was also positively correlated with regional transport of Corylus from this area. PMID:26125408

  14. Eutrophication and environmental policy in the Mediterranean Sea: a review.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2012-08-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a semienclosed basin connected with the open sea mainly through the Strait of Gibraltar. Due to the circulation pattern and the long residence time ranging between 80 and 100 years, the Mediterranean Sea is a sensitive environment to eutrophication pressures. The main body of water of the Mediterranean is characterized by very low nutrient concentrations, and therefore, the Mediterranean is classified among the most oligotrophic (very poor waters in nutrients) seas of the world's oceans. However, some coastal areas, mainly in the northern part of the basin, receive excessive loads of nutrients from sewage effluents, river fluxes, aquaculture farms, fertilizers, and industrial facilities, showing intense eutrophic phenomena with many adverse effects for the marine ecosystem and humans. Various national and international authorities, in addition to monitoring, have taken legal and administrative measures to mitigate eutrophication trends in the area. The Mediterranean environment is a good paradigm of integration of extensive legal framework, scientific knowledge, and administrative practices. The Barcelona Convention, the Mediterranean Action Plan, and European Union Directives on water quality and coastal management, together with scientific information derived from international research programs in the Mediterranean, provide a sound background for practical actions in eutrophication problems. In the present work, the problem of coastal eutrophication in the Mediterranean is reviewed in connection with public policies of the Mediterranean States based on national and international legislation and scientific knowledge on Mediterranean oceanography-ecology and actions coordinated by international bodies. These common actions and practices on coastal management are also discussed in relation to the need for sustainable development and protection of the coastal zone in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21956336

  15. Future sea-level rise in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    -eustatic values (i.e. they do not exceed the global average) and show little (but still significant) variations across the basin associated with the subsidence driven by the meltwater load. For year 2050, TIM calculations predict a sea-level rise of ~10 and ~30 cm for the mid range and the high end scenarios, respectively. Mainly because of the distinct mantle viscosity profiles adopted in ICE-5G(VM2) and KL05, the GIA patterns differ significantly and, in contrast with the TIM fingerprint, are both characterized by strong variations across the Mediterranean Sea, showing maximum values in the bulk of the basin. For the OR component, a significant geographical variation is observed across the Mediterranean sub-basins, corresponding to different Atlantic boundary conditionsAccording to this study, the total future sea-level rise for year 2050 will reach maximum values for the extreme scenario (hig-hend prediction for TIM, KL05 for GIA and EA1B2 for OR) of ˜ 27 cm in average with peak of ˜ 30 cm in the central sub-basins. Our results show that when these three components of future sea-level rise are simultaneously considered, the spatial variability is enhanced because of the neatly distinct geometry of the three fingerprints. References: Carillo, A., Sannino, G., Artale, V., Ruti, P., Calmanti, S., DellAquila, A., 2012, Clim. Dyn. 39 (9-10), 2167-2184; Fleming, K. and Lambeck, K., 2004, Quat. Sci. Rev. 23 (9-10), 1053-1077; Meehl, G.A., and 11 others, 2007, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press; Peltier W.R., 2004, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 32, 111-149; Spada, G. and Stocchi, P., 2007, Comput. and Geosci., 33(4), 538-562; Spada G., Bamber J. L., Hurkmans R. T. W. L., 2013, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1-5, 40.

  16. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  17. Acoustic facies of Holocene megaturbidites in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebesco, M.; Della Vedova, B.; Cernobori, L.; Aloisi, G.

    2000-09-01

    The acoustic facies of Holocene megaturbidites in the central-western abyssal plains of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is analysed, combining core lithology and synthetic seismograms produced on the basis of P-wave velocity profiles derived by multi-sensor core logging (from a core in the Western Herodotous Trough). The acoustic facies of the megaturbidite is divided in two layers: (1) an upper, transparent, low velocity layer, corresponding to structureless mud; (2) a lower, highly reflective, high velocity layer, corresponding to the graded sandy base. Correlation with sub-bottom profiler data allowed us to estimate in about 21-23 m the maximum total thickness of the two-layer megaturbidite in the Ionian Abyssal Plain. These results demonstrate that thicknesses traditionally computed on the basis of the acoustically transparent layer alone may produce a relevant underestimation of the total volume of the deposit. The total volume of the megaturbidite, extending over the Ionian and Sirte Abyssal Plains including the western Herodotous Trough, is therefore estimated in about 162±10 km 3.

  18. Mediterranean spotted fever and hearing impairment: a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Rossio, Raffaella; Conalbi, Valeria; Castagna, Valentina; Recalcati, Sebastiano; Torri, Adriana; Coen, Massimo; Cassulini, Lucia Restano; Peyvandi, Flora

    2015-06-01

    Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is caused by Rickettsia conorii and transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It is prevalent in southern Europe, Africa and central Asia. The disease usually has a benign course and is characterized by fever, myalgia and a characteristic papular rash with an inoculation eschar ('tache noir') at the site of the tick bite. Severe forms of disease can have cardiac, neurologic or renal involvement. Nervous system complications are unusual and may develop in the early phase of disease or as a delayed complication. Neurological symptoms include headache and alterations of the level of consciousness, and some cases of meningoenchefalitis and Guillain-Barrè syndrome have been also reported. Peripheral nerve involvement is reported only in a limited number of case reports. We describe a case of Rickettsia conorii that was complicated with hearing loss and did not respond to specific treatment. Hearing loss is a rare event, but clinicians should be aware of this complication. PMID:25892247

  19. Calendaricities and multimodality in the Eastern Mediterranean cyclonic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osetinsky, I.; Alpert, P.

    2006-06-01

    Calendaricities, or the occurrence of weather anomalies on fixed calendar dates, are investigated for the Eastern Mediterranean (EM). The anomalies discussed here are the maxima and minima in the frequency of occurrence of the EM synoptic systems bearing rainfall. Those are mostly the Winter Lows passing over Cyprus en route eastward of the Ionian Sea where they are generated in situ or come to from N. Italy. The Winter Lows produce the rainfall over the central and northern EM areas, including Cyprus, Israel, Lebanon, NW Syria, W. Jordan. The southern EM areas, i.e. S. Israel and NE Egypt, get rainfall followed by floods due to the Winter Lows as well, and in addition, due to a small proportion of the mostly dry Red Sea Troughs that occasionally turn out to cause heavy rainfall. The analysis of the daily resolved data based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis is carried out. A comparison of two 28-yr periods, 1948-1975 and 1976-2003, different in global climatology, showed their similarity in the timing of peaks in EM cyclonic activity. The winter was found to have five maxima of cyclonic activity, centered on early February and nearly bell-shaped over their magnitudes. This supports the earlier hypotheses of multimodality in the EM rainfall. The Red Sea Troughs have their main peak of occurrence in the late October - early November, and their small rain-bearing proportion falls as well on this period of a year.

  20. Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED) summer 2013 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, M.; Dulac, F.; Formenti, P.; Nabat, P.; Sciare, J.; Roberts, G.; Pelon, J.; Ancellet, G.; Tanré, D.; Parol, F.; di Sarra, A.; Alados, L.; Arndt, J.; Auriol, F.; Blarel, L.; Bourrianne, T.; Brogniez, G.; Chazette, P.; Chevaillier, S.; Claeys, M.; D'Anna, B.; Denjean, C.; Derimian, Y.; Desboeufs, K.; Di Iorio, T.; Doussin, J.-F.; Durand, P.; Féron, A.; Freney, E.; Gaimoz, C.; Goloub, P.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Grand, N.; Hamonou, E.; Jankowiak, I.; Jeannot, M.; Léon, J.-F.; Maillé, M.; Mailler, S.; Meloni, D.; Menut, L.; Momboisse, G.; Nicolas, J.; Podvin, J.; Pont, V.; Rea, G.; Renard, J.-B.; Roblou, L.; Schepanski, K.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sellegri, K.; Sicard, M.; Solmon, F.; Somot, S.; Torres, B.; Totems, J.; Triquet, S.; Verdier, N.; Verwaerde, C.; Wenger, J.; Zapf, P.

    2015-07-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr) is a collaborative research program federating international activities to investigate Mediterranean regional chemistry-climate interactions. A special observing period (SOP-1a) including intensive airborne measurements was performed in the framework of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ADRIMED) project during the Mediterranean dry season over the western and central Mediterranean basins, with a focus on aerosol-radiation measurements and their modeling. The SOP-1a took place from 11 June to 5 July 2013. Airborne measurements were made by both the ATR-42 and F-20 French research aircraft operated from Sardinia (Italy) and instrumented for in situ and remote-sensing measurements, respectively, and by sounding and drifting balloons, launched in Minorca. The experimental set-up also involved several ground-based measurement sites on islands including two ground-based reference stations in Corsica and Lampedusa and secondary monitoring sites in Minorca and Sicily. Additional measurements including lidar profiling were also performed on alert during aircraft operations at EARLINET/ACTRIS stations at Granada and Barcelona in Spain, and in southern Italy. Remote sensing aerosol products from satellites (MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS) and from the AERONET/PHOTONS network were also used. Dedicated meso-scale and regional modelling experiments were performed in relation to this observational effort. We provide here an overview of the different surface and aircraft observations deployed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED period and of associated modeling studies together with an analysis of the synoptic conditions that determined the aerosol emission and transport. Meteorological conditions observed during this campaign (moderate temperatures and southern flows) were not favorable to produce high level of atmospheric pollutants nor

  1. INTRODUCTION: DESERTIFICATION AND SECURITY - PERSPECTIVES FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book focuses on two basic concepts: security and desertification in the Mediterranean Region and their linkages. It emerged from a single meeting of the "Workshop on Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue" held in Valencia, Spain on 2-5 December 2003...

  2. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention. PMID:27251477

  3. An ecosystem model of an exploited southern Mediterranean shelf region (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia) and a comparison with other Mediterranean ecosystem model properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattab, Tarek; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Albouy, Camille; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Jarboui, Othman; Halouani, Ghassen; Cury, Philippe; Le Loc'h, François

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we describe an exploited continental shelf ecosystem (Gulf of Gabes) in the southern Mediterranean Sea using an Ecopath mass-balance model. This allowed us to determine the structure and functioning of this ecosystem and assess the impacts of fishing upon it. The model represents the average state of the ecosystem between 2000 and 2005. It includes 41 functional groups, which encompass the entire trophic spectrum from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels (e.g., fishes, birds, and mammals), and also considers the fishing activities in the area (five fleets). Model results highlight an important bentho-pelagic coupling in the system due to the links between plankton and benthic invertebrates through detritus. A comparison of this model with those developed for other continental shelf regions in the Mediterranean (i.e., the southern Catalan, the northern-central Adriatic, and the northern Aegean Seas) emphasizes similar patterns in their trophic functioning. Low and medium trophic levels (i.e., zooplankton, benthic molluscs, and polychaetes) and sharks were identified as playing key ecosystem roles and were classified as keystone groups. An analysis of ecosystem attributes indicated that the Gulf of Gabes is the least mature (i.e., in the earliest stages of ecosystem development) of the four ecosystems that were compared and it is suggested that this is due, at least in part, to the impacts of fishing. Bottom trawling was identified as having the widest-ranging impacts across the different functional groups and the largest impacts on some commercially-targeted demersal fish species. Several exploitation indices highlighted that the Gulf of Gabes ecosystem is highly exploited, a finding which is supported by stock assessment outcomes. This suggests that it is unlikely that the gulf can be fished at sustainable levels, a situation which is similar to other marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. DNA Barcoding for Species Assignment: The Case of Mediterranean Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Monica; Dimech, Mark; Arculeo, Marco; Biondo, Girolama; Martins, Rogelia; Carneiro, Miguel; Carvalho, Gary Robert; Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Costa, Filipe O.

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding enhances the prospects for species-level identifications globally using a standardized and authenticated DNA-based approach. Reference libraries comprising validated DNA barcodes (COI) constitute robust datasets for testing query sequences, providing considerable utility to identify marine fish and other organisms. Here we test the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to assign species to tissue samples from fish collected in the central Mediterranean Sea, a major contributor to the European marine ichthyofaunal diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings A dataset of 1278 DNA barcodes, representing 218 marine fish species, was used to test the utility of DNA barcodes to assign species from query sequences. We tested query sequences against 1) a reference library of ranked DNA barcodes from the neighbouring North East Atlantic, and 2) the public databases BOLD and GenBank. In the first case, a reference library comprising DNA barcodes with reliability grades for 146 fish species was used as diagnostic dataset to screen 486 query DNA sequences from fish specimens collected in the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Of all query sequences suitable for comparisons 98% were unambiguously confirmed through complete match with reference DNA barcodes. In the second case, it was possible to assign species to 83% (BOLD-IDS) and 72% (GenBank) of the sequences from the Mediterranean. Relatively high intraspecific genetic distances were found in 7 species (2.2%–18.74%), most of them of high commercial relevance, suggesting possible cryptic species. Conclusion/Significance We emphasize the discriminatory power of COI barcodes and their application to cases requiring species level resolution starting from query sequences. Results highlight the value of public reference libraries of reliability grade-annotated DNA barcodes, to identify species from different geographical origins. The ability to assign species with high precision from DNA samples of

  5. Sea level and climate forcing of the Sr isotope composition of late Miocene Mediterranean marine basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Frijia, G.; Castorina, F.; Dudas, F. Ö.; Iadanza, A.; Sampalmieri, G.; Cipollari, P.; Caruso, A.; Bowring, S. A.; Strecker, M. R.

    2014-07-01

    isotope records from marginal marine basins track the mixing between seawater and local continental runoff, potentially recording the effects of sea level, tectonic, and climate forcing in marine fossils and sediments. Our 110 new 87Sr/86Sr analyses on oyster and foraminifera samples from six late Miocene stratigraphic sections in southern Turkey, Crete, and Sicily show that 87Sr/86Sr fell below global seawater values in the basins several million years before the Messinian Salinity Crisis, coinciding with tectonic uplift and basin shallowing. 87Sr/86Sr from more centrally located basins (away from the Mediterranean coast) drop below global seawater values only during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. In addition to this general trend, 55 new 87Sr/86Sr analyses from the astronomically tuned Lower Evaporites in the central Apennines (Italy) allow us to explore the effect of glacio-eustatic sea level and precipitation changes on 87Sr/86Sr. Most variation in our data can be explained by changes in sea level, with greatest negative excursions from global seawater values occurring during relative sea level lowstands, which generally coincided with arid conditions in the Mediterranean realm. We suggest that this greater sensitivity to lowered sea level compared with higher runoff could relate to the inverse relationship between Sr concentration and river discharge. Variations in the residence time of groundwater within the karst terrain of the circum-Mediterranean region during arid and wet phases may help to explain the single (robust) occurrence of a negative excursion during a sea level highstand, but this explanation remains speculative without more detailed paleoclimatic data for the region.

  6. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  7. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  8. Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED) summer 2013 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, M.; Dulac, F.; Formenti, P.; Nabat, P.; Sciare, J.; Roberts, G.; Pelon, J.; Ancellet, G.; Tanré, D.; Parol, F.; Denjean, C.; Brogniez, G.; di Sarra, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Arndt, J.; Auriol, F.; Blarel, L.; Bourrianne, T.; Chazette, P.; Chevaillier, S.; Claeys, M.; D'Anna, B.; Derimian, Y.; Desboeufs, K.; Di Iorio, T.; Doussin, J.-F.; Durand, P.; Féron, A.; Freney, E.; Gaimoz, C.; Goloub, P.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Grand, N.; Hamonou, E.; Jankowiak, I.; Jeannot, M.; Léon, J.-F.; Maillé, M.; Mailler, S.; Meloni, D.; Menut, L.; Momboisse, G.; Nicolas, J.; Podvin, T.; Pont, V.; Rea, G.; Renard, J.-B.; Roblou, L.; Schepanski, K.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sellegri, K.; Sicard, M.; Solmon, F.; Somot, S.; Torres, B.; Totems, J.; Triquet, S.; Verdier, N.; Verwaerde, C.; Waquet, F.; Wenger, J.; Zapf, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr) is a collaborative research program federating international activities to investigate Mediterranean regional chemistry-climate interactions. A special observing period (SOP-1a) including intensive airborne measurements was performed in the framework of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region (ADRIMED) project during the Mediterranean dry season over the western and central Mediterranean basins, with a focus on aerosol-radiation measurements and their modeling. The SOP-1a took place from 11 June to 5 July 2013. Airborne measurements were made by both the ATR-42 and F-20 French research aircraft operated from Sardinia (Italy) and instrumented for in situ and remote-sensing measurements, respectively, and by sounding and drifting balloons, launched in Minorca. The experimental setup also involved several ground-based measurement sites on islands including two ground-based reference stations in Corsica and Lampedusa and secondary monitoring sites in Minorca and Sicily. Additional measurements including lidar profiling were also performed on alert during aircraft operations at EARLINET/ACTRIS stations at Granada and Barcelona in Spain, and in southern Italy. Remote-sensing aerosol products from satellites (MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS) and from the AERONET/PHOTONS network were also used. Dedicated meso-scale and regional modeling experiments were performed in relation to this observational effort. We provide here an overview of the different surface and aircraft observations deployed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED period and of associated modeling studies together with an analysis of the synoptic conditions that determined the aerosol emission and transport. Meteorological conditions observed during this campaign (moderate temperatures and southern flows) were not favorable to producing high

  9. Phycobiliprotein distribution across the western Mediterranean divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algarra, Patricia; Estrada, Marta; Niell, F. Xavier

    1988-08-01

    A modified method is presented to determine phycobiliprotein distribution across the western Mediterranean divergence. A deep C-phycoerythrin maximum is detected between 60 and 80 m, but when irradiance in the water column decreases this maximum is shallower and occurs at around the 1% light level. Even though other factors cannot be discarded, the relationships between C-phycoerythrin (associated to Synechococcus cyanobacteria), chlorophyll a and light intensity distributions suggest that this last factor plays an important role in the maintenance of the deep pigment maxima detected.

  10. Mediterranean Holocene climate, environment and human societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, Karin; Gogou, Alexandra.; Izdebski, Adam.; Luterbacher, Juerg.; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Xoplaki, Elena

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the reader to a special issue of articles that explores links and processes behind societal change, climate change and environmental change in a Holocene perspective in the Mediterranean region. All papers are, by purpose, co-authored by scientists representing different disciplines. The cross-cutting theme has been to reach beyond simple explanations of potential climate-society relationships and advance our understanding on how to improve research methods and theories in the field. The thirteen papers in this issue address these questions in three different ways, by i) conceptual/methodological approaches; ii) review papers; and iii) case studies.

  11. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

  12. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the

  13. Mediterranean desert dust outbreaks and their vertical structure based on remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Basart, S.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Marinou, E.; Amiridis, V.; Kazadzis, S.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.; Jorba, O.; Gassó, S.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    The main aim of the present study is to describe the vertical structure of the intense Mediterranean dust outbreaks, based on the use of satellite and surface-based retrievals/measurements. Strong and extreme desert dust (DD) episodes are identified at 1° × 1° spatial resolution, over the period March 2000-February 2013, through the implementation of an updated objective and dynamic algorithm. According to the algorithm, strong DD episodes occurring at a specific place correspond to cases in which the daily aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550 nm) exceeds or equals the long-term mean AOD550 nm (Mean) plus two standard deviations (SD) value being smaller than Mean + 4 · SD. Extreme DD episodes correspond to cases in which the daily AOD550 nm value equals or exceeds Mean + 4 · SD. For the identification of DD episodes additional optical properties (Ångström exponent, fine fraction, effective radius and Aerosol Index) derived by the MODIS-Terra & Aqua (also AOD retrievals), OMI-Aura and EP-TOMS databases are used as inputs. According to the algorithm using MODIS-Terra data, over the period March 2000-February 2013, strong DD episodes occur more frequently (up to 9.9 episodes yr-1) over the western Mediterranean while the corresponding frequencies for the extreme ones are smaller (up to 3.3 episodes yr-1, central Mediterranean Sea). In contrast to their frequency, dust episodes are more intense (AODs up to 4.1), over the central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, off the northern African coasts. Slightly lower frequencies and higher intensities are found when the satellite algorithm operates based on MODIS-Aqua retrievals, for the period 2003-2012. The performance of the satellite algorithm is assessed against surface-based daily data from 109 sun-photometric (AERONET) and 22 PM10 stations. The agreement between AERONET and MODIS AOD is satisfactory (R = 0.505 - 0.75) improving considerably when MODIS level 3 retrievals with higher sub-grid spatial

  14. Mediterranean-style closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, A.; Kapp, P.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Alpine-Himalayan belt expresses lateral variations in the architecture of continent-continent collisions and includes two end-member examples. One end-member, the Mediterranean, formed from a complex interaction between the Eurasian and Africa-Apulian plates which initiated rollback of Alpine-Tethys lithosphere and opened new ocean basins coeval with plate convergence. As the other end-member, the India-Asia collision is generally considered to have initiated following the closure of a single large ocean basin through the subduction of Neo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere beneath Eurasia. We propose that Mediterranean-style tectonics may have dominated during the closure of the Paleo-Tethys in central Asia based on new and previous observations. These include: (1) coeval Mid-Triassic HP-UHP metamorphism within the Qinling-Dabie orogen, Qiangtang metamorphic belt, and Indochina block; (2) coeval Late Triassic exhumation of the Qinling-Dabie orogen and Qiangtang metamorphic belt and accumulation of vast volumes of Upper Triassic flysch within the Paleo-Tethys ocean; (3) the north-south orientation of the Longman Shan thrust belt, the triangular map pattern of the Hoh-Xil-Songpan-Ganzi flysch complex, the oroclinal map patterns of Paleo-Tethys arc terranes, and the abrupt eastern termination of the Kunlun; (4) wide distribution of 224-210 Ma adakitic rocks; and (5) evidence for Late Triassic extension within terranes adjacent to the Paleo-Tethys. We propose near synchronous Mid-Triassic continent-continent collisions between the Qiangtang terrane of western Cimmerian-Gondwanan affinity and a Paleo-Tethys arc terrane or the Kunlun terrane, eastern Cimmeria-Indochina and South China block, and the South China and North China blocks. Resistance to continental subduction and oceanic slab breakoff led to a decrease in the northward drift of Gondwana-derived terranes and promoted rollback of subducting remnant Paleo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere. In particular, we suggest that

  15. Azimuthal anisotropy beneath north central Africa from shear wave splitting analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemnifi, Awad A.; Liu, Kelly H.; Gao, Stephen S.; Reed, Cory A.; Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Yu, Youqiang; Elmelade, Abdala A.

    2015-04-01

    This study represents the first multistation investigation of azimuthal anisotropy beneath the interior of north central Africa, including Libya and adjacent regions, using shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis. Data used in the study include recently available broadband seismic data obtained from 15 stations managed by the Libyan Center for Remote Sensing and Space Science, and those from five other stations at which data are publicly accessible. A total of 583 pairs of high-quality SWS measurements utilizing the PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases demonstrate primarily N-S fast orientations with an average splitting delay time of approximately 1.2 s. An absence of periodic azimuthal variation of the observed splitting parameters indicates the presence of simple anisotropy, and lack of correlation between surficial features and the splitting parameters suggests that the origin of the observed anisotropy is primarily asthenospheric. This conclusion is enhanced by nonperiodic azimuthal variation of the splitting parameters observed at one of the stations located near the boundary of areas with different anisotropic properties. We interpret the observed anisotropy to be the consequence of northward movement of the African plate relative to the asthenosphere toward the Hellenic and Calabrian subduction zones. Local variance in fast orientations may be attributable to flow deflection by the northern edge of the African continental root. The observations provide critical and previously lacking constraints on mantle dynamic models in the vicinity of the convergent boundary between the African and Eurasian plates.

  16. Human thermal comfort antithesis in the context of the Mediterranean tourism potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Kapsomenakis, Ioannis N.; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Polychroni, Iliana

    2016-04-01

    Weather and climate information are determinative factors in the decision of a touristic destination. The evaluation of the thermal, aesthetical and physical components of the climate is considered an issue of high importance in order to assess the climatic tourism potential. Mediterranean is an endowed region with respect to its temperate climate and impressive landscapes over the coastal environment and numerous islands. However, the harmony of the natural beauty is interrupted by extreme weather phenomena, such as heat and cold waves, heavy rains and stormy conditions. Thus, it is very important to know the seasonal behavior of the climate for touristic activities and recreation. Towards this objective we evaluated the antithesis in the human thermal perception as well as the sultriness, stormy, foggy, sunny and rainy days recorded in specific Greek touristic destinations against respective competitive Mediterranean resorts. Daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloudiness and precipitation, were acquired from the most well-known touristic sites over the Mediterranean for the period 1970 to present. These variables were used on one hand to estimate the human thermal burden, by means of the thermal index of Physiologically Equivalent temperature (PET) and on the other hand to interpret the physical and aesthetic components of the tourism potential, by utilizing specific thresholds of the initial and derived variables in order to quantify in a simple and friendly way the environmental footprint on desired touristic destinations. The findings of this research shed light on the climate information for tourism in Greece against Mediterranean destinations. Greek resorts, especially in the Aegean Islands appear to be more ideal with respect to thermal comfort against resorts at the western and central Mediterranean, where the heat stress within the summer season seems to be an intolerable pressure on humans. This could

  17. Fire regimes and vegetation responses in two Mediterranean-climate regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montenegro, G.; Ginocchio, R.; Segura, A.; Keely, J.E.; Gomez, M.

    2004-01-01

    Wildfires resulting from thunderstorms are common in some Mediterranean-climate regions, such as southern California, and have played an important role in the ecology and evolution of the flora. Mediterranean-climate regions are major centers for human population and thus anthropogenic impacts on fire regimes may have important consequences on these plant formations. However, changes in fire regimes may have different impacts on Mediterranean type-ecosystems depending on the capability of plants to respond to such perturbations. Therefore, we compare here fire regimes and vegetation responses of two Mediterranean-climate regions which differ in wildfire regimes and history of human occupation, the central zone of Chile (matorral) and the southern area of California in United States (chaparral). In Chile almost all fires result from anthropogenic activities, whereas lightning fires resulting from thunderstorms are frequent in California. In both regions fires are more frequent in summer, due to high accumulation of dry plant biomass for ignition. Humans have markedly increased fires frequency both in the matorral and chaparral, but extent of burned areas has remained unaltered, probably due to better fire suppression actions and a decline in the built-up of dry plant fuel associated to increased landscape fragmentation with less flammable agricultural and urban developments. As expected, post-fire plant regeneration responses differs between the matorral and chaparral due to differences in the importance of wildfires as a natural evolutionary force in the system. Plants from the chaparral show a broader range of post-fire regeneration responses than the matorral, from basal resprouting, to lignotuber resprouting, and to fire-stimulated germination and flowering with fire-specific clues such as heat shock, chemicals from smoke or charred wood. Plants from the matorral have some resprouting capabilities after fire, but these probably evolved from other environmental

  18. Temporal and spatial paleoproductivity patterns associated with Eastern Mediterranean sapropels: paleoceanographic significance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Torres, D.; Martinez-Ruiz, F.; Meyers, P. A.; Paytan, A.; Jimenez-Espejo, F. J.; Ortega-Huertas, M.

    2007-12-01

    Deposition of Eastern Mediterranean sapropels has been discussed in terms of enhanced primary productivity and/or preferential preservation due to anoxic conditions in the deep basin. However, formation of these organic enriched layers is not homogeneous across the basin and through time, and temporal and spatial patterns can be observed in organic carbon concentrations and depositional conditions. We used a transect of ODP sites in the Eastern Mediterranean for the study of such variations, covering the area of major influence of the European continent and incoming waters from the Western Mediterranean basin (Ionian basin, Site 964), a region of influence of the Nile River (Levantine basin, Site 967), the central region of the basin with minor continental influence (Mediterranean Ridge, Site 969), and shallower bathymetries (Eratosthenes Seamount, Site 966). A set of paleoproductivity related proxies has been applied in order to reconstruct the paleoceanographic conditions that led to the formation of sapropels. As a whole, sapropel formation corresponds to wetter periods occurring during precessional minima and appears associated to increased productivity, evidenced by Ba/Al, and TOC-Ba mass accumulation rates maxima. δ13C data indicate intensified carbon fixation during organic carbon entrapment in sediment, where as low δ15N values provide evidence of nitrogen fixation through cyanobacteria activity as a source of increased primary and export productivity. This overwhelming export productivity led to the depletion of deep water dissolved oxygen, thus improving organic matter preservation. The above mentioned proxies show that sapropels represent periods of high productivity in an otherwise oligotrophic basin. This productivity was initiated and sustained by a change in bacterial community to nitrogen-fixing organism favored by intensified continental drainage and nutrient input. In agreement to this observation, sapropel onset generally occurred earlier in

  19. Synoptic climatology of winter intense precipitation events along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, M.; Lionello, P.

    2013-07-01

    The link between winter (December-January-February) precipitation events at 15 Mediterranean coastal locations and synoptic features (cyclones and Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns) is analyzed. A list of precipitation events has been produced; q percentile thresholds (Thq) and corresponding frequency Nq (for q equal to 25, 50, 90 and 98) have been considered. A negative trend has been detected in total precipitation and N50 at many locations, while no significant trend in N25, N90 and N98 has been found. The negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern (EAWR) compete for exerting the largest influence on the frequency of the 25th, 50th and 90th percentiles, with EAWR and NAO exerting their largest influence in the central and western Mediterranean areas, respectively. All percentiles show a similar behavior except for the 98th percentile, which shows no convincing link to any teleconnection pattern. The cyclone tracks that are associated with precipitation events have been selected using the ERA-40 reanalysis data, and a strong link between intense precipitation and cyclones is shown for all stations. In general, the probability of detecting a cyclone within a distance of 20° from each station increases with the intensity of the precipitation event and decreases with the duration of a dry period. The origin and track of cyclones producing intense precipitation differ among different areas. When precipitation occurs in the northwestern Mediterranean, cyclones are generally either of Atlantic origin or secondary cyclones associated with the passage of major cyclones north of the Mediterranean Basin, while they are mostly generated inside the region itself for events at the eastern Mediterranean coast. An important fraction of intense events in the southern areas is produced by cyclones that are generated over northern Africa. The analysis of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500 h

  20. Mediterranean Way of Drinking and Longevity.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Attilio; Barale, Roberto; Bavaresco, Luigi; Faliva, Milena Anna; Gerbi, Vincenzo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Pezzotti, Mario; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    The relation between alcohol consumption and mortality is a J-shaped curve in most of the many studies published on this topic. The Copenhagen Prospective Population Studies demonstrated in the year 2000 that wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. Wine contains various poliphenolic substances which may be beneficial for health and in particular flavonols (such as myricetin and quercetin), catechin and epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, various phenolic acids and the stilbene resveratrol. In particular, resveratrol seems to play a positive effect on longevity because it increases the expression level of Sirt1, besides its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. Moderate wine drinking is part of the Mediterranean diet, together with abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat and a low intake of (red) meat. This healthy diet pattern involves a "Mediterranean way of drinking," that is a regular, moderate wine consumption mainly with food (up to two glasses a day for men and one glass for women). Moderate wine drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer. PMID:25207479

  1. Mediterranean Jellyfish Venoms: A Review on Scyphomedusae

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The production of natural toxins is an interesting aspect, which characterizes the physiology and the ecology of a number of marine species that use them for defence/offence purposes. Cnidarians are of particular concern from this point of view; their venoms are contained in specialized structures–the nematocysts–which, after mechanical or chemical stimulation, inject the venom in the prey or in the attacker. Cnidarian stinging is a serious health problem for humans in the zones where extremely venomous jellyfish or anemones are common, such as in temperate and tropical oceanic waters and particularly along several Pacific coasts, and severe cases of envenomation, including also lethal cases mainly induced by cubomedusae, were reported. On the contrary, in the Mediterranean region the problem of jellyfish stings is quite modest, even though they can have anyhow an impact on public health and be of importance from the ecological and economic point of view owing to the implications on ecosystems and on some human activities such as tourism, bathing and fishing. This paper reviews the knowledge about the various aspects related to the occurrence and the stinging of the Mediterranean scyphozoan jellyfish as well as the activity of their venoms. PMID:20479971

  2. Tsunami Catalogues for the Eastern Mediterranean - Revisited.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambraseys, N.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    We critically examine examine tsunami catalogues of tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean published in the last decade, by reference to the original sources, see Ambraseys (2008). Such catalogues have been widely used in the aftermath of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami for probabilistic hazard analysis, even to make projections for a ten year time frame. On occasion, such predictions have caused panic and have reduced the credibility of the scientific community in making hazard assessments. We correct classification and other spurious errors in earlier catalogues and posit a new list. We conclude that for some historic events, any assignment of magnitude, even on a six point intensity scale is inappropriate due to lack of information. Further we assert that any tsunami catalogue, including ours, can only be used in conjunction with sedimentologic evidence to quantitatively infer the return period of larger events. Statistical analyses correlating numbers of tsunami events derived solely from catalogues with their inferred or imagined intensities are meaningless, at least when focusing on specific locales where only a handful of tsunamis are known to have been historically reported. Quantitative hazard assessments based on scenario events of historic tsunamis for which -at best- only the size and approximate location of the parent earthquake is known should be undertaken with extreme caution and only with benefit of geologic studies to enhance the understanding of the local tectonics. Ambraseys N. (2008) Earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East: multidisciplinary study of 2000 years of seimicity, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (ISBN 9780521872928).

  3. Interaction of dense shelf water cascading and open-sea convection in the northwestern Mediterranean during winter 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrieu de Madron, X.; Houpert, L.; Puig, P.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Testor, P.; Bosse, A.; Estournel, C.; Somot, S.; Bourrin, F.; Bouin, M. N.; Beauverger, M.; Beguery, L.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.; Cassou, C.; Coppola, L.; Dausse, D.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Font, J.; Heussner, S.; Kunesch, S.; Lefevre, D.; Le Goff, H.; MartíN, J.; Mortier, L.; Palanques, A.; Raimbault, P.

    2013-04-01

    The winter of 2012 experienced peculiar atmospheric conditions that triggered a massive formation of dense water on the continental shelf and in the deep basin of the Gulf of Lions. Multiplatforms observations enabled a synoptic view of dense water formation and spreading at basin scale. Five months after its formation, the dense water of coastal origin created a distinct bottom layer up to a few hundreds of meters thick over the central part of the NW Mediterranean basin, which was overlaid by a layer of newly formed deep water produced by open-sea convection. These new observations highlight the role of intense episodes of both dense shelf water cascading and open-sea convection to the progressive modification of the NW Mediterranean deep waters.

  4. Biases and best approaches for assessing debris ingestion in sea turtles, with a case study in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Casale, Paolo; Freggi, Daniela; Paduano, Valentina; Oliverio, Marco

    2016-09-15

    In a sample of 567 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from the central Mediterranean, debris occurrence varied according to methods and turtle source, and was up to 80% in pelagic turtles. Frequencies of plastic types, size and color are also reported. These results and a critical review of 49 studies worldwide indicate that: (i) the detected occurrence of plastic (% turtles) is affected by several factors (e.g., necropsy/feces, ecological zone, type and date of finding, captivity period for feces collection), (ii) mixed dataset and opportunistic approaches provide results which are biased , not comparable, and ultimately of questionable value, (iii) only turtles assumed to have had a normal feeding behaviour at the time of capture or death should be considered, (iv) turtle foraging ecology and possible selectivity may undermine the use of turtles as indicator species for monitoring marine litter, as recently proposed for the Mediterranean. PMID:27321803

  5. Effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Blanca; Carta, Laura; Ángel, Miguel; Martínez-González; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns in the world due to its relation with a low morbidity and mortality for some chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to review literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and healthy aging. A MEDLINE search was conducted looking for literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease (or risk factors for cardiovascular disease), cancer, mental health and longevity and quality of life in the elderly population (65 years or older). A selection of 36 articles met the criteria of selection. Twenty of the studies were about Mediterranean diets and cardiovascular disease, 2 about Mediterranean diets and cancer, 3 about Mediterranean diets and mental health and 11 about longevity (overall survival) or mental health. The results showed that Mediterranean diets had benefits on risks factors for cardiovascular disease such as lipoprotein levels, endothelium vasodilatation, insulin resistance, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. Some positive associations with quality of life and inverse associations with the risk of certain cancers and with overall mortality were also reported. PMID:18494169

  6. Spatial patterns of macrophyte composition and landscape along the rocky shores of the Mediterranean-Atlantic transition region (northern Alboran Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermejo, Ricardo; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; Vergara, Juan J.; Hernández, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    The Alboran Sea is the westernmost ecoregion of the Mediterranean Sea. It is located in the vicinity of Strait of Gibraltar, the only natural connection of the Mediterranean Sea with global circulation. This ecoregion presents steep and highly variable environmental gradients, thus acting as a natural filter for Mediterranean and Atlantic species. This study aimed to analyse spatial patterns of littoral and upper sublittoral communities and their relationship with oceanographic conditions and coastal geomorphology, and to quantify littoral and upper sublittoral rocky shore communities at landscape scale. The results suggest that oceanographic conditions are the main factor to explain landscape patterns along the studied area, while geomorphological features should be related with local-scale variability. In this sense, three biogeographic subregions, matching with oceanographic patterns, were identified: western, central and eastern. These subregions showed significant differences in the structure and the composition of the littoral and upper sublittoral community, which can be explained by regional oceanographic dynamics. Posidonia oceanica, Cystoseira ericaefolia group and Mytilus spp. were the species that most contributed to landscape dissimilarity between the three subregions identified. The central oceanographic region, where the environmental conditions were more variable, showed the poorer and less differentiated flora, suggesting the existence of a divergent boundary between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea.

  7. Alimini Lakes Project (PAL). Human-environment interaction during the Holocene in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Primavera, Milena; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Simone, Oronzo; Caldara, Massimo; Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    environmental changes that allows contextualizing the local signature in the wider central and eas