Sample records for central oklahoma aquifer

  1. Potentiometric surface in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer, Oklahoma, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Magers, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    A study of the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer was started in 2008 to provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) hydrogeologic data and a groundwater flow model that can be used as a tool to help manage the aquifer. The 1973 Oklahoma water law requires the OWRB to do hydrologic investigations of Oklahoma's aquifers (termed 'groundwater basins') and to determine amounts of water that may be withdrawn by permitted water users. 'Maximum annual yield' is a term used by OWRB to describe the total amount of water that can be withdrawn from a specific aquifer in any year while allowing a minimum 20-year life of the basin (Oklahoma Water Resources Board, 2010). Currently (2010), the maximum annual yield has not been determined for the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Until the maximum annual yield determination is made, water users are issued a temporary permit by the OWRB for 2 acre-feet/acre per year. The objective of the study, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, was to study the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer to provide information that will enable the OWRB to determine the maximum annual yield of the aquifer based on different proposed management plans. Groundwater flow models are typically used by the OWRB as a tool to help determine the maximum annual yield. This report presents the potentiometric surface of the Central Oklahoma aquifer based on water-level data collected in 2009 as part of the current (2010) hydrologic study. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-724 by Christenson and others (1992) presents the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map. This 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map was made as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer that examined the geochemical and hydrogeological processes operating in the aquifer. An attempt was made to obtain water-level measurements for the 2009 potentiometric-surface map from the wells used for the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map. Well symbols with circles on the 2009 potentiometric-surface map (fig. 1) indicate wells that were used for the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map.

  2. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer, Oklahoma, 1987 to 2009, and simulation of available water in storage, 2010-2059

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Ryter, Derek; Neel, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Magers, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma. The study area for this investigation was the extent of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer is used for public, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supply. With the exception of Oklahoma City, all of the major communities in central Oklahoma rely either solely or partly on groundwater from this aquifer. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, incorporating parts of Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties, has a population of approximately 1.2 million people. As areas are developed for groundwater supply, increased groundwater withdrawals may result in decreases in long-term aquifer storage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, investigated the hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow in the aquifer using a numerical groundwater-flow model. The purpose of this report is to describe an investigation of the Central Oklahoma aquifer that included analyses of the hydrogeology, hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer, and construction of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate groundwater levels and for water-budget analysis. A calibrated transient model was used to evaluate changes in groundwater storage associated with increased future water demands.

  3. Comparison of ground-water quality in samples from selected shallow and deep wells in the central Oklahoma aquifer, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The aquifer units of the Central Oklahoma aquifer underlie about 2,890 square miles of central Oklahoma and are used extensively to supply water for municipal, domestic, industrial, and agricultural needs. The Central Oklahoma aquifer also is commonly referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer because the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation yield the greatest quantities of usable water for domestic and high-capacity wells. The major water-quality concerns for the Central Oklahoma aquifer described by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program (1987 to 1992) were elevated concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in shallow water and the occurrence of arsenic, chromium, and selenium in parts of the aquifer. The quality of water from deep public-water supply wells in the Central Oklahoma aquifer is monitored by the State of Oklahoma. The chemical quality of water from shallow domestic wells is not monitored, and, therefore, there is a concern that well owners may be unknowingly ingesting water with nitrate nitrogen, arsenic, chromium, selenium, and other chemical constituents at concentrations that are considered harmful. As a result of this concern, the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborated on a study to sample water during June 2003 through August 2005 from 23 shallow wells (less than 200 feet in depth) and 28 deep wells (200 feet or greater in depth) completed in the bedrock aquifer units of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. The objectives of the study were to describe the chemical quality of water from shallow and deep wells and to determine if the differences in constituent concentrations are statistically significant. Water from shallow wells had significantly higher concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, and nitrate nitrogen than water from deep wells. There were no significant differences between concentrations of dissolved solids, sodium, and fluoride in water from shallow and deep wells. Water from 9 shallow wells had nitrate nitrogen concentrations greater than 2 milligrams per liter, suggesting nitrogen sources at land surface have had an effect on water from these wells. Water from three shallow wells (13 percent) exceeded the nitrate nitrogen maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in drinking water. Water from shallow wells had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic, chromium, iron, and selenium than water from deep wells, whereas, concentrations of barium, copper, manganese, and zinc were similar. Water-quality data indicate that arsenic frequently occurs in shallow ground water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer, but at low concentrations (<10 micrograms per liter). The occurrence of chromium and selenium in water from shallow wells was infrequent and at low concentrations in this study. It does not appear that the quality of water from a shallow well can be predicted based on the quality of water from a nearby deep well. The results show that in general terms, shallow ground water has significantly higher concentrations of most major ions and significantly lower concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and selenium than water from deep wells.

  4. Climate Change Impacts on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in South-Central Oklahoma due to Projected Precipitation Variations

    E-print Network

    Osborne, Cesalea

    2014-11-19

    data to aquifer outcrop • Calculated precipitation values for aquifer outcrop area • Graphed results Aquifer Data • Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer outcrop area • Hydrography (lakes, rivers, streams) Geological Data • Carbonate aquifer • Made of dolomite...

  5. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountains area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, Roy W.; Hanson, Ronald L.; Davis, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Rocks that make up the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer crop out over ~500 mi2 in the Arbuckle Mountains province in south-central Oklahoma. The aquifer consists of limestone, dolomite, and sandstone of the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups of Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and is about 5,000-9,000 ft thick. The rocks were subjected to intensive folding and faulting associated with major uplift of the area during Early to Late Pennsylvanian time.

  6. Analysis of regional aquifers in the central Midwest of the United States in Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming :summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Helgesen, J.O.; Signor, D.C.; Leonard, R.B.; Imes, J.L.; Christenson, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Large quantities of ground water are available for use from three regional aquifer systems in the central Midwest of the United States. Parts of the lowermost aquifer contain nearly immobile brine and may be hydrologically suitable for material storage or waste disposal. Results of numerical modeling and geochemical analyses confirm general concepts of ground-water flow in the regional aquifer systems.

  7. Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, J.R.; Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

  8. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square miles in eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set represents a compilation of information from digital and paper sources and personal communication. This boundary is an update to the boundary published in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, and this report supersedes Open-File Report 99-267. The purpose of this data set is to refine and update the extent of the High Plains aquifer based on currently available information. This data set represents a compilation of arcs from a variety of sources and scales that represent the 174,000 square-mile extent of the High Plains aquifer within the eight states. Where updated information was not available, the original boundary extent defined by OFR 99-267 was retained. The citations for the sources in each State are listed in the 00README.txt file. The boundary also contains internal polygons, or 'islands', that represent the areas within the aquifer boundary where the aquifer is not present due to erosion or non-deposition. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

  9. Parasitism of aphids in canola fields in central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter canola, Brassica napus L., production in Oklahoma has increased from essentially 0 ha in 2001 to 40,500 ha in 2011, and acreage is expected to continue to increase. Three aphid species typically infest canola fields in central Oklahoma, the turnip aphid Lypaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), the cab...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF SUBSURFACE BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH TWO SHALLOW AQUIFERS IN OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial microflora of two shallow aquifers in Oklahoma was characterized by direct observation with light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM), by plating, and by examination of colony morphology and distribution. Total cell counts varied only slightly from sample to sample, w...

  11. Hydrogeologic data for the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Fabian, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a compilation of hydrogeologic data collected for an areal ground-water investigation of the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas. The study area includes parts of Greer, Harmon, and Jackson counties in Oklahoma and parts of Childress, Collingsworth, Hall, Hardeman, and Wilbarger counties in Texas. The Blaine aquifer consists of cavernous gypsum and dolomite beds. Water from the Blaine aquifer supports a local agriculture based mainly on irrigated cotton and wheat. The purpose of the study was to determine the availability, quantity, and quality of ground water from the Blaine aquifer and associated units. This report provides a reference for some of the data that was used as input into a computer ground-water flow model that simulates ground-water flow in the Blaine aquifer. The data in this report consists of: (1) Monthly or periodic water-level measurements in 134 wells; (2) daily mean water-level measurements for 11 wells equipped with water-level recorders; (3) daily total precipitation measurements from five precipitation gages; (4) low-flow stream-discharge measurements for 89 stream sites; (5) miscellaneous stream-discharge measurements at seven stream sites; (6) chemical analyses of surface water from 78 stream sites during low-flow periods; (7) chemical analyses of ground water from 41 wells; and (8) chemical analyses of runoff water collected at five sites.

  12. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  13. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  14. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  15. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  16. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  17. Digital geologic map of Fort Smith Quadrangle, east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This data set consists of digital data and accompanying documentation of the surficial geology of the 1:250,000-scale Fort Smith quadrangle, Oklahoma. The original data are from the Geologic Map, sheet 1 of 4, included in the Oklahoma Geological Survey publication, Reconnaissance of the water resources of the Fort Smith quadrangle, east-central Oklahoma, Hydrologic Atlas 1, Marcher, 1969. The geology was compiled by M.V. Marcher, in 1967.

  18. Potentiometric Surfaces in the Springfield Plateau and Ozark Aquifers of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Czarnecki, John B.; Mugel, Douglas N.

    2008-01-01

    The Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers are important sources of ground water in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. Water from these aquifers is used for agricultural, domestic, industrial, and municipal water sources. Changing water use over time in these aquifers presents a need for updated potentiometric-surface maps of the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. The Springfield Plateau aquifer consists of water-bearing Mississippian-age limestone and chert. The Ozark aquifer consists of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian age water-bearing rocks consisting of dolostone, limestone, and sandstone. Both aquifers are complex with areally varying lithologies, discrete hydrologic units, varying permeabilities, and secondary permeabilities related to fractures and karst features. During the spring of 2006, ground-water levels were measured in 285 wells. These data, and water levels from selected lakes, rivers, and springs, were used to create potentiometric-surface maps for the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. Linear kriging was used initially to construct the water-level contours on the maps; the contours were subsequently modified using hydrologic judgment. The potentiometric-surface maps presented in this report represent ground-water conditions during the spring of 2006. During the spring of 2006, the region received less than average rainfall. Dry conditions prior to the spring of 2006 could have contributed to the observed water levels as well. The potentiometric-surface map of the Springfield Plateau aquifer shows a maximum measured water-level altitude within the study area of about 1,450 feet at a spring in Barry County, Missouri, and a minimum measured water-level altitude of 579 feet at a well in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Cones of depression occur in Dade, Lawrence and Newton Counties in Missouri and Delaware and Ottawa Counties in Oklahoma. These cones of depression are associated with private wells. Ground water in the Springfield Plateau aquifer generally flows to the west in the study area, and to surface features (lakes, rivers, and springs) particularly in the south and east of the study area where the Springfield Plateau aquifer is closest to land surface. The potentiometric-surface map of the Ozark aquifer indicates a maximum measured water-level altitude of 1,303 feet in the study area at a well in Washington County, Arkansas, and a minimum measured water-level altitude of 390 feet in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The water in the Ozark aquifer generally flows to the northwest in the northern part of the study area and to the west in the remaining study area. Cones of depression occur in Barry, Barton, Cedar, Jasper, Lawrence, McDonald, Newton, and Vernon Counties in Missouri, Cherokee and Crawford Counties in Kansas, and Craig and Ottawa Counties in Oklahoma. These cones of depression are associated with municipal supply wells. The flow directions, based on both potentiometric-surface maps, generally agree with flow directions indicated by previous studies.

  19. Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A report on the research activities at the USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Laboratory in Stillwater, Oklahoma, were compiled for WERA-066 Meeting that was held in Ft. Collins, Colorado, February 13, 2008. Research presentations included barley breeding research, sorghum breeding research, wheat br...

  20. Geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits of the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake, central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to describe the geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River between Lake Overholser and Eufaula Lake, an area of about 1,835 square miles, and to determine the maximum annual yield of ground water. A 1982 water-level map of the alluvial and terrace aquifer was prepared using field data and published records. Data from test holes and other data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board were used to establish the approximate thickness of the alluvial and terrace deposits. The North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, near Oklahoma City, to Eufaula Lake is paralleled by a 2- to 3-mile wide band of alluvium. Scattered terrace deposits on either side of the alluvium reach an extreme width of 8 miles. Rocks of Permian age bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from the west to the midpoint of the study area; Pennsylvanian rocks bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from that point eastward. Three major aquifers are present in the study area: the alluvial and terrace aquifer, consisting of alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age in a narrow band on either side of the North Canadian River; the Garber-Wellington aquifer of Permian age, consisting of an upper unconfined zone and a lower confined zone separated by relatively impermeable shales; and the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of Pennsylvanian age. At locations were the alluvial and terrace aquifer overlies either of the other aquifers, there is hydraulic continuity between the alluvial and terrace aquifer and the other aquifers, and water levels are the same. Most large-scale municipal and industrial pumping from the Garber-Wellington aquifer is from the lower zone and has little discernible effect upon the alluvial and terrace aquifer. The total estimated base flow of the North Canadian River for the studied reach is 264 cubic feet per second. Evapotranspiration from the basin in August is about 60 cubic feet per second for the North Canadian River from Lake Overholser to a measuring station above Eufaula Lake. Estimated recharge rates to the alluvial and terrace aquifer in the basin range from 1.7 inches at the west edge of the study area to 7.0 inches at the east edge. Total permitted withdrawal from the aquifer, according to records of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, ranged from 2,107 acre-feet per year in 1942 to about 21,415 acre-feet per year in 1982. Simulations of the alluvial and terrace aquifer from Lake Overholser to Eufaula Lake were made using a finite-difference model developed by McDonald and Harbaugh (1984). The area of the aquifers was subdivided into a finite-difference grid having 30 rows and 57 columns with cells measuring 1 mile in the north-south direction and 2 miles in the east-west direction. The model was calibrated in two steps: A steady-state calibration simulated head distribution prior to extensive pumping of the aquifer in 1942, and a transient calibration simulated head distribution after extensive pumpage. The final horizontal hydraulic conductivity used for the alluvial and terrace aquifer was 0.0036 feet per second (310 feet per day) at all locations. The recharge rate for the alluvial and terrace aquifer ranged from 1.7 inch per year in the west to 7.0 inches per year in the east, and averaged about 3.3 inches per year. A specific yield of 15 percent was used for the transient simulation. Permitted pumpage for 1942 through 1982 was used in the digital model to estimate the annual volume of water in storage in the alluvial and terrace aquifer for the years for this time period. The 1982 permitted pumpage rates were used for projections for 1983 to 2020. The estimated volume of water in storage was 1,940,000 acre-feet in 1982. Because the estimated recharge rate is equal to the allowed pumpage rate in 1982, the projected volume of water in storage in both 1993 and 2020 was 1,890,000 acre-feet.

  1. STUDY OF THE ARBUCKLE-SIMPSON AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study directed by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation will investigate the hydrogeology of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in south-central Oklahoma. The five year study will involve field investigations including the installation of ne...

  2. Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Brian C.; McGuire, Virginia L.

    1999-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the Central United States, 1980 to 1996. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 5,429 wells measured in both 1980 and 1996. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar. The contours were converted into a digital map at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  3. A study of the relationship between certain moisture parameters and severe convective storms in central Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Scott, Carven Allen

    1977-01-01

    A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CERTAIN MOISTURE PARAMETERS AND SEVERE CONVECTIVE STORMS IN CENTRAL OKLAHOMA A Thesis by CARVEN ALLEN SCOTT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CERTAIN MOISTURE PARAMETERS AND SEVERE CONVECTIVE STORMS IN CENTRAL OKLAHOMA A Thesis by CARVEN ALLEN SCOTT Approved as to style...

  4. Estimated predevelopment discharge to streams from the High Plains Aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma, southwestern Kansas, and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, R.R.; Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the High Plains aquifer in Okla homa was initiated in 1996 to: (1) provide the information needed by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board to manage the quantity of water produced from the aquifer; and (2) provide base line water-chemistry data. The approach used to meet the first objective is to develop a digital ground-water flow model. The model will be cali brated, in part, by comparing simulated and esti mated predevelopment discharge from the aquifer to streams and cross-boundary flow. This report presents the estimated predevelopment discharge to streams from the High Plains aquifer. Streamflow data were the primary source of information used to estimate predevelopment dis charge from the High Plains aquifer. Data from 30 streamflow stations between the Arkansas and Canadian Rivers were considered in the analysis, and winter low-flow frequencies for 7-, 14-, and 30-day periods were determined for 25 stations. The 14-day low flow with a recurrence interval of 2 years was the primary value used to estimate pre development discharge from the aquifer. The streams that drain the eastern part of the High Plains aquifer in Kansas (generally east of 99.5 longitude) are estimated to have had large predevelopment discharge from the aquifer, and most of them received discharge from near their headwaters. For streams with more than one streamflow gage, the upper perennial reaches appeared to have gained more discharge from the aquifer than the lower reaches. The total predevel opment discharge from the aquifer in this area to several streams is estimated to have been about 312 cubic feet per second, not including discharge that probably went directly to the Arkansas River. The Cimarron River and its tributaries are estimated to have gained about 78 cubic feet per second, but nearly one-half that amount was lost in the lower reaches of the river. The cause of the loss in the lower reaches is unknown. The Beaver River and its tributaries are estimated to have gained a net of about 10 cubic feet per second above Wolf Creek with the upper reaches gaining more than the lower reaches. Wolf Creek is estimated to have gained 30 cubic feet per second over its total length.

  5. Groundwater-Flow Model of the Ozark Plateaus Aquifer System, Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Jones, Perry M.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effect that increased water use is having on the long-term availability of groundwater within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, a groundwater-flow model was developed using MODFLOW 2000 for a model area covering 7,340 square miles for parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Vertically the model is divided into five units. From top to bottom these units of variable thickness are: the Western Interior Plains confining unit, the Springfield Plateau aquifer, the Ozark confining unit, the Ozark aquifer, and the St. Francois confining unit. Large mined zones contained within the Springfield Plateau aquifer are represented in the model as extensive voids with orders-of-magnitude larger hydraulic conductivity than the adjacent nonmined zones. Water-use data were compiled for the period 1960 to 2006, with the most complete data sets available for the period 1985 to 2006. In 2006, total water use from the Ozark aquifer for Missouri was 87 percent (8,531,520 cubic feet per day) of the total pumped from the Ozark aquifer, with Kansas at 7 percent (727,452 cubic feet per day), and Oklahoma at 6 percent (551,408 cubic feet per day); water use for Arkansas within the model area was minor. Water use in the model from the Springfield Plateau aquifer in 2005 was specified from reported and estimated values as 569,047 cubic feet per day. Calibration of the model was made against average water-level altitudes in the Ozark aquifer for the period 1980 to 1989 and against waterlevel altitudes obtained in 2006 for the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. Error in simulating water-level altitudes was largest where water-level altitude gradients were largest, particularly near large cones of depression. Groundwater flow within the model area occurs generally from the highlands of the Springfield Plateau in southwestern Missouri toward the west, with localized flow occurring towards rivers and pumping centers including the five largest pumping centers near Joplin, Missouri; Carthage, Missouri; Noel, Missouri; Pittsburg, Kansas; and Miami, Oklahoma. Hypothetical scenarios involving various increases in groundwater-pumping rates were analyzed with the calibrated groundwater-flow model to assess changes in the flow system from 2007 to the year 2057. Pumping rates were increased between 0 and 4 percent per year starting with the 2006 rates for all wells in the model. Sustained pumping at 2006 rates was feasible at the five pumping centers until 2057; however, increases in pumping resulted in dewatering the aquifer and thus pumpage increases were not sustainable in Carthage and Noel for the 1 percent per year pumpage increase and greater hypothetical scenarios, and in Joplin and Miami for the 4 percent per year pumpage increase hypothetical scenarios. Zone-budget analyses were performed to assess the groundwater flow into and out of three zones specified within the Ozark-aquifer layer of the model. The three zones represented the model part of the Ozark aquifer in Kansas (zone 1), Oklahoma (zone 2), and Missouri and Arkansas (zone 3). Groundwater pumping causes substantial reductions in water in storage and induces flow through the Ozark confining unit for all hypothetical scenarios evaluated. Net simulated flow in 2057 from Kansas (zone 1) to Missouri (zone 3) ranges from 74,044 cubic feet per day for 2006 pumping rates (hypothetical scenario 1) to 625,319 cubic feet per day for a 4 percent increase in pumping per year (hypothetical scenario 5). Pumping from wells completed in the Ozark aquifer is the largest component of flow out of zone 3 in Missouri and Arkansas, and varies between 88 to 91 percent of the total flow out of zone 3 for all of the hypothetical scenarios. The largest component of flow into Oklahoma (zone 2) comes from the overlying Ozark confining unit, which is consistently about 45 percent of the total. Flow from the release of water in storage, from general-head boundaries, and from zones 1 and 3 is cons

  6. Distribution and variability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the alluvial, High Plains, Rush Springs, and Blaine aquifers in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers are the primary source of water for drinking and agricultural purposes in western Oklahoma. Health concerns about consuming nitrogen and an increased reliance on ground water for drinking necessitate a better understanding of the cause and effect of contamination from nutrients. The purpose of this project was to compile nutrients data from the National Water Information System data base for the alluvial aquifers west of longitude 98 degrees W. and from three bedrock aquifers, High Plains, Rush Springs, and Blaine, and provide this information in a report for future projects and for the facilitation of nutrient source management. The scope of the work consisted of (1) compiling ground-water quality data concerning nitrogen and phosphorus ions, (2) constructing boxplots illustrating data variability, (3) maps for each aquifer showing locations of wells when nitrogen and phosphorus ions were measured in ground water and where concentrations of nitrate and nitrite, reported as nitrogen, exceed the maximum contaminant level, and (4) calculating summary statistics. Nutrient data were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey data base called the National Water Information System. Data were restricted to ground-water samples, but no restrictions were placed on well and water use or date and time of sampling. Compiled nutrient data consist of dissolved and total concentrations of the common nitrogen and phosphorus ions measured in ground water. For nitrogen these ions include nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and nitrite plus nitrate. All concentrations are reported in milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Phosphorus in ground water is measured as the orthophosphate ion, and is reported in milligrams per liter as phosphorus. Nutrient variability is illustrated by a standard boxplot. The data are presented by aquifer or hydrologic subregion for alluvial aquifers, with one boxplot constructed for each nutrient compound if more than four analyses are present. Maps for each aquifer show where nitrogen and phosphorus have been measured in ground water and where the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite exceed the maximum contaminant level. A statistical summary for each aquifer and subregion show if censored data were present, number of samples in each data set, largest minimum reporting level for each nutrient compound, percentiles used to construct boxplots, and minimum and maximum values. Also given are the number of wells sampled in each aquifer and the number of wells exceeding the maximum contaminant level.

  7. Oklahoma Structural Engineers Association Central Chapter Monthly Meeting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    The need for Special Inspections vary based on building code requirements, local building requirements, and the owner's specifications. The need for special inspections and how to communicate the results with all interested parties will be discussed during this meeting. The views of the City of Oklahoma City, a structural engineering firm, and a testing company will be offered followed by

  8. Contamination of wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer by abandoned zinc and lead mines, Ottawa County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.

    1995-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in Ottawa County Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. Water in the Roubidoux aquifer in eastern Ottawa County has relatively low dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 mg/L) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. The Boone Formation is stratigraphically above the Roubidoux aquifer and is the host rock for zinc and lead sulfide ores, with the richest deposits located in the vicinity of the City of Picher. Mining in what became known as the Picher mining district began in the early 1900's and continued until about 1970. The water in the abandoned zinc and lead mines contains high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Water from the abandoned mines is a potential source of contamination to the Roubidoux aquifer and to wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer. Water samples were collected from wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer in the Picher mining district and from wells outside the mining district to determine if 10 public supply wells in the mining district are contaminated. The chemical analyses indicate that at least 7 of the 10 public supply wells in the Picher mining district are contaminated by mine water. Application of the Mann-Whitney test indicated that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination are different in water samples from wells in the mining area as compared to wells outside the mining area. Application of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination were higher in current (1992-93) data than in historic (1981-83) data, except for pH, which was lower in current than in historic data. pH and sulfate, alkalinity, bicarbonate, magnesium, iron, and tritium concentrations consistently indicate that the Cardin, Commerce 1, Commerce 3, Picher 2, Picher 3, Picher 4, and Quapaw 2 wells are contaminated.

  9. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in north-central Oklahoma: 1992–2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Michalsky; Frederick Denn; Connor Flynn; Gary Hodges; Piotr Kiedron; Annette Koontz; James Schlemmer; Stephen E. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at

  10. Multi-year precipitation variations and water resources in west-central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistent, multi-year departures in annual precipitation from mean have been observed in central Oklahoma. Precipitation departures caused by a sequence of predominantly wet or dry years and lasting 5 or more years are called wet or dry periods, respectively. Impacts of wet and dry periods on water...

  11. Plan of study for the High Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The Ogallala Formation and associated Tertiary and Quarternary deposits from the principal aquifers supporting irrigation in the High Plains of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The volume of water in storage within the aquifers is declining in most of the High Plains because water is being withdrawn in excess of the rate of replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains aquifer system to develop the geohydrologic data base and computer models of the ground-water flow system needed to evaluate the response of the aquifer system to ground-water management alternatives. This report describes the objectives, plan, and organization of the study and outlines the work to be accomplished in each State in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Regional behavior and evolution of the Edwards aquifer (South-Central Texas).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabeza Diaz de Cerio, Yoar; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Green, Ronald T.; Fratesi, Beth; Bertetti, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Karst aquifers are highly heterogeneous systems where flow regime is dominated by dissolution conduits. It is important to know the behavior of these conduit networks in order to being able to manage them correctly. In this work we focus on the Edwards aquifer, one of the most prolific artesian aquifers in the world, that is located in south-central Texas, USA, and included in the Trinity-Edwards system. A regional flow model for the Edwards aquifer has been developed using the code TRANSIN IV. For this purpose, It was necessary a reconceptualization of previous conceptual models of Edwards aquifer in order to include the contributing zone and evaluate the role that this area plays in the Edwards aquifer recharge. Chemical data for major and trace elements in the study area have been used for evaluating the relations between Trinity and Edwards aquifers and the evolution of dissolution within the Edwards aquifer.

  13. Relationship of cliff swallows, ectoparasites, and an Alphavirus in west-central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Hopla, C E; Francy, D B; Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 250 isolates of a newly recognized virus, related to western equine encephalitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), were obtained from cimicid bugs, Oeciacus vicarius; Cliff Swallows, Hirundo pyrrhonata; and House Sparrows, Passer domesticus in a study area in west-central Oklahoma at Buggy Creek and Caddo Canyons. Antigenicity of the virus strains varied slightly from isolate to isolate. This paper summarizes the ecology of the area by describing in general the flora and fauna there. PMID:8381870

  14. Processes affecting ?34S and ?18O values of dissolved sulfate in alluvium along the Canadian River, central Oklahoma, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.; Breit, George N.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2009-01-01

    The ?34S and ?18O values for dissolved sulfate in groundwater are commonly used in aquifer studies to identify sulfate reservoirs and describe biogeochemical processes. The utility of these data, however, often is compromised by mixing of sulfate sources within reservoirs and isotope fractionation during sulfur redox cycling. Our study shows that, after all potential sulfate sources are identified and isotopically characterized, the ?34SSO4 and ?18OSO4 values differentiate processes such as sulfate-source mixing, sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and organosulfur decomposition. During bacterial reduction of sulfate, the values reflect kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation and exchange of oxygen isotopes between sulfate and water. Detailed analysis of the chemistry (Cl and SO4 concentrations) and isotopic composition (?2HH2Oand ?18OH2O) of groundwater in an alluvial aquifer in Central Oklahoma, USA allowed the identification of five distinct end members that supply water to the aquifer (regional groundwater flowing into the study area, river water, leachate from a closed landfill that operated within the site, rain, and surface runoff). The ?34SSO4 and ?18OSO4 values in each end member differentiated three sources of sulfate: sulfate dissolved from Early to Late Permian rocks within the drainage basin (?34SSO4 = 8–12‰ and ?18OSO4 = 10‰), iron sulfides oxidized by molecular oxygen during low water-table levels (?34SSO4 = ? 16‰ and ?18OSO4 = 10‰), and organosulfur compounds (predominately ester sulfates) from decomposition of vegetation on the surface and from landfill trash buried in the alluvium (?34SSO4 = 8‰ and ?18OSO4 = 6‰). During bacterial reduction of these sulfate sources, similar isotope fractionation processes are recorded in the parallel trends of increasing ?34SSO4 and ?18OSO4 values. When extensive reduction occurs, the kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation (estimated by ?H2S–SO4 = ? 23‰) results in the steady increase of ?34SSO4values to greater than 70‰. Equilibrium isotope fractionation during exchange of sulfate oxygen and water oxygen, a process not commonly observed in field-based studies, is documented in ?18OSO4 values asymptotically approaching 21‰, the value predicted for conditions at the study site (?SO4–H2O = 27‰). These results show that recognition of all potential sulfate sources is a critical first step to resolving complexities in ?34SSO4 and ?18OSO4 data. The approach taken in this study can be used in other aquifer systems where the identification of multiple sulfate sources and sulfur redox cycling is important to understanding natural processes and anthropogenic influences.

  15. An aquifer vulnerability assessment of the Paluxy Aquifer, central Texas, USA, using GIS and a modified DRASTIC approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fritch, T.G.; McKnight, C.L.; Yelderman, J.C. Jr.; Arnold, J.G.

    2000-03-01

    The Paluxy aquifer in north-central Texas is composed primarily of Lower Cretaceous clastics. This aquifer provides water for both domestic and agricultural purposes in the region. The study area for this investigation incorporates the outcrop and recharge areas, as well as the confined and unconfined portions of the aquifer. The purpose of this investigation is to perform a groundwater vulnerability assessment on the Paluxy aquifer using the GRASS 4.1 geographic information system combined with a modified DRASTIC approach. DRASTIC is an acronym for the variables that control the groundwater pollution potential (Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of the vadose zone, and Conductivity of the aquifer). Using such an approach allows one to investigate the potential for groundwater contamination on a regional, rather than site-specific, scale. Based upon data from variables such as soil permeability, depth to water, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and topography, subjective numerical weightings have been assigned according to the variable's relative importance in regional groundwater quality. The weights for each variable comprise a GIS map layer. These map layers are combined to formulate the final groundwater pollution potential map. Using this method of investigation, the pollution potential map for the study area classified 47% of the area as having low pollution potential, 26% as having moderate pollution potential, 22% as having high pollution potential, and 5% as having very high pollution potential.

  16. Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity 2009-2014 induced by massive wastewater injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keranen, Kathleen M.; Abers, Geoffrey A.; Weingarten, Matthew; Bekins, Barbara A.; Ge, Shemin

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas production provides a rapidly growing energy source; however high-producing states in the United States, such as Oklahoma, face sharply rising numbers of earthquakes. Subsurface pressure data required to unequivocally link earthquakes to injection are rarely accessible. Here we use seismicity and hydrogeological models to show that distant fluid migration from high-rate disposal wells in Oklahoma is likely responsible for the largest swarm. Earthquake hypocenters occur within disposal formations and upper-basement, between 2-5 km depth. The modeled fluid pressure perturbation propagates throughout the same depth range and tracks earthquakes to distances of 35 km, with a triggering threshold of ~0.07 MPa. Although thousands of disposal wells may operate aseismically, four of the highest-rate wells likely induced 20% of 2008-2013 central US seismicity.

  17. Hydrogeological framework of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

    1996-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system underlies about 42,000 square miles of west-central Texas, where mostly gently dipping Lower Cretaceous strata comprise three regional aquifers and two regional confining units. The aquifers are the Edwards Aquifer of the Balcones fault zone, the Trinity Aquifer of the Balcones fault zone and Hill County, and the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer of the Edwards Plateau and Trans-Pecos. The Navarro-Del Rio confining unit confines the downdip part of the Edwards Aquifer, and the Hammett confining unit confines the updip, basal part of the Trinity Aquifer and a small southeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer. Transmissivity averages less than 10,000 feet squared per day throughout more than 90 percent of the study area as the result of widespread cementation and secondary mineral growth. However, in fractured and leached rocks in the Balcones fault zone, transmissivity averages about 750,000 feet squared per day in the Edwards aquifer, which occupies less than 10 percent of the area.

  18. Controlled-source electromagnetic mapping of a faulted sandstone aquifer in central Texas 

    E-print Network

    Gorman, Erin Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Controlled-source electromagnetic mapping (CSEM) techniques were used to identify lateral variations in electrical conductivity associated with faults and facies contacts in a shallow sandstone aquifer in central Texas. The purpose of the research...

  19. Quality of water in the Trinity and Edwards aquifers, south-central Texas, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fahlquist, Lynne; Ardis, Ann F.

    2004-01-01

    During 1996?98, the U.S. Geological Survey studied surface- and ground-water quality in south-central Texas. The ground-water components included the upper and middle zones (undifferentiated) of the Trinity aquifer in the Hill Country and the unconfined part (recharge zone) and confined part (artesian zone) of the Edwards aquifer in the Balcones fault zone of the San Antonio region. The study was supplemented by information compiled from four ground-water-quality studies done during 1996?98. Trinity aquifer waters are more mineralized and contain larger dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride concentrations compared to Edwards aquifer waters. Greater variability in water chemistry in the Trinity aquifer likely reflects the more variable lithology of the host rock. Trace elements were widely detected, mostly at small concentrations. Median total nitrogen was larger in the Edwards aquifer than in the Trinity aquifer. Ammonia nitrogen was detected more frequently and at larger concentrations in the Trinity aquifer than in the Edwards aquifer. Although some nitrate nitrogen concentrations in the Edwards aquifer exceeded a U.S. Geological Survey national background threshold concentration, no concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public drinking-water standard. Synthetic organic compounds, such as pesticides and volatile organic compounds, were detected in the Edwards aquifer and less frequently in the Trinity aquifer, mostly at very small concentrations (less than 1 microgram per liter). These compounds were detected most frequently in urban unconfined Edwards aquifer samples. Atrazine and its breakdown product deethylatrazine were the most frequently detected pesticides, and trihalomethanes were the most frequently detected volatile organic compounds. Widespread detections of these compounds, although at small concentrations, indicate that anthropogenic activities affect ground-water quality. Radon gas was detected throughout the Trinity aquifer but not throughout the Edwards aquifer. Fourteen samples from the Trinity aquifer and 10 samples from the Edwards aquifer exceeded a proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public drinking-water standard. Sources of radon in the study area might be granitic sediments underlying the Trinity aquifer and igneous intrusions in and below the Edwards aquifer. The presence of tritium in nearly all Edwards aquifer samples indicates that some component of sampled water is young (less than about 50 years), even for long flow paths in the confined zone. About one-half of the Trinity aquifer samples contained tritium, indicating that only part of the aquifer contains young water. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of water provide indicators of recharge sources to the Trinity and Edwards aquifers. Most ground-water samples have a meteorological isotopic signature indicating recharge as direct infiltration of water with little residence time on the land surface. Isotopic data from some samples collected from the unconfined Edwards aquifer indicate the water has undergone evaporation. At the time that ground-water samples were collected (during a drought), nearby streams were the likely sources of recharge to these wells.

  20. The Impact of High Wind Events on the Central Business District of Oklahoma City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Dustin; Basara, Jeffrey; Hall, J. R.

    2004-05-01

    It is critical to understand airflow through cities due to the possibilities of biological and chemical terrorist attacks, pollution, and accidental chemical spills. Currently very few studies have used field measurements of wind conditions within a city to study urban air flow. This paper investigates the airflow at specific locations within Oklahoma City during two synoptic high wind events and one convective high wind event using data collected at fifteen different sites within the central business district. For the synoptic cases, wind vector magnitudes and directions were averaged for each site before and after the frontal passage. For all cases, wind speed and direction comparisons were made between the individual PWID sites and some wind flow patterns within the city were deduced. Possible reasons for these wind flows based on building structure, PWID location, and street orientation is also discussed. It was found that air flow through Oklahoma City is extremely complex, though some small and large scale wind flow patterns appeared to emerge. This conclusion emphasizes the need for further study regarding wind flows through cities to better understand how pollutants and chemical/biological agents might flow through a city under a wide variety of weather conditions.

  1. Carbonate aquifer of the Central Roswell Basin: recharge estimation by numerical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rehfeldt, K.R.; Gross, G.W.

    1982-02-01

    The flow of ground water in the Roswell, New Mexico, Artesian Basin, has been studied since the early 1900s and varied ideas have been proposed to explain different aspects of the ground water flow system. The purpose of the present study was to delineate the spatial distribution and source, or sources, of recharge to the carbonate aquifer of the central Roswell Basin. A computer model was used to simulate ground water flow in the carbonate aquifer, beneath and west of Roswell and in the Glorieta Sandstone and Yeso Formation west of the carbonate aquifer.

  2. Earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms in central Oklahoma reveal a complex system of reactivated subsurface strike-slip faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Benz, H. M.; Herrmann, R. B.; Bergman, E. A.; Earle, P.; Holland, A.; Baldwin, R.; Gassner, A.

    2015-04-01

    The sharp increase in seismicity over a broad region of central Oklahoma has raised concern regarding the source of the activity and its potential hazard to local communities and energy industry infrastructure. Since early 2010, numerous organizations have deployed temporary portable seismic stations in central Oklahoma in order to record the evolving seismicity. In this study, we apply a multiple-event relocation method to produce a catalog of 3639 central Oklahoma earthquakes from late 2009 through 2014. Regional moment tensor (RMT) source parameters were determined for 195 of the largest and best recorded earthquakes. Combining RMT results with relocated seismicity enabled us to determine the length, depth, and style of faulting occurring on reactivated subsurface fault systems. Results show that the majority of earthquakes occur on near-vertical, optimally oriented (NE-SW and NW-SE), strike-slip faults in the shallow crystalline basement. These are necessary first-order observations required to assess the potential hazards of individual faults in Oklahoma.

  3. Methanogens in Central Texas aquifers: a microbiological and molecular study 

    E-print Network

    MacRae, Martha Jean Davies

    1992-01-01

    equivalent amounts of DNA. The concentration of DNA was determined with a spectrophotometer equipped with ultra-violet light (Shimadzu, UV 1201). Optical density (O. D. ) at 260 nm (DNA) and 280 nm (protein) was recorded and the total amount of DNA... of the study area, the Edwards aquifer, consists mostly of limestone. It was sampled in San Antonio (E1175) and the Barton Springs region of Austin (E420) (Figure 4) (68). The lithology of an aquifer determines the type of organic material available...

  4. Historical saturated thickness of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and selected contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ardis, Ann F.; Barker, Rene A.

    1993-01-01

    The saturated thickness of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system exceeds 1,000 feet in the southern part of the aquifer system and thins to less than 100 feet near the northern limits. The Edwards- Trinity aquifer system of west-central Texas is composed primarily of Cretaceous limestone and dolomite. The three aquifers comprising the aquifer system are the Edwards aquifer of the Balcones fault zone, the Trinity aquifer of the Balcones fault zone and Hill Country, and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer of the Edwards Plateau and Trans-Pecos. The two confining units within the aquifer system are the Hammett and the Navarro-Del Rio confining units, neither of which is laterally extensive throughout the entire aquifer system. The saturated thickness was determined by subtracting the altitude of the base of the aquifer system from the altitude of the historical potentiometric surface. Variations in saturated thickness result from variations in the altitude of the base of the aquifer and the altitude of the historical potentiometric surface. Troughs and ridges on the pre-Cretaceous surface upon which the aquifer system rests affect the thickness of saturation. The potentiometric surface is depressed in areas of stream dissection, resulting in less saturated thickness in these areas.

  5. Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer of central Israel, its development and possible use as a storage reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1964-01-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian formations constitute a highly permeable dolomite and limestone aquifer in central Israel. The aquifer is on the west limb of an anticlinorium that trends north-northeast. In places it may be as much as 800 meters thick, but in the report area, largely the foothills of the Judean-Ephraim Mountains where the water development is most intensive, its thickness is generally considerably less. In some places the aquifer occurs at or near the land surface, or it is covered by sandy and gravelly coastal-plain deposits. However, in a large part of the area, it is overlain by as much as 400 meters of relatively impermeable strata, and it is probably underlain by less permeable Lower Cretaceous strata. In general the aquifer water is under artesian pressure. The porosity of the aquifer is characterized mainly by solution channels and cavities produced by jointing and faulting. In addition to the generally high permeability of the aquifer, some regions, which probably coincide with ancient drainage patterns and (or) fault zones, have exceptionally high permeabilities. The source of most of the water in the aquifer is believed to be rain that falls on the foothills area. The westward movement of ground water from the mountainous outcrop areas appears to be impeded by a zone of low permeability which is related to structural and stratigraphic conditions along the western side of the mountains. Gradients of the piezometric surface are small, and the net direction of water movement is westward and northwestward under natural conditions. Locally, however, the flow pattern may be in other directions owing to spatial variations in permeability in the aquifer, the location of natural discharge outlets, and the relation of the aquifer to adjacent geologic formations. There probably is also a large vertical component of flow. Pumping has modified the flow pattern by producing several irregularly shaped shallow depressions in the piezometric surface although, to date, no unwatering of the aquifer has occurred. In the central part of the area, pumping has induced some infiltration from overlying coastal-plain formations. Injecting and storing surplus water seasonally in the aquifer should be feasible at almost any place. However, the movement and recovery of the injected water probably could be controlled most easily if the water were injected where depressions have been formed in the piezometric surface.

  6. Generalized potentiometric surface of the Catahoula aquifer in central Louisiana, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Angel, Jr.; Whiteman, Charles D., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Generalized contours of the altitude of water levels in wells completed in the Catahoula aquifer in central Louisiana, are illustrated by this map. Most water level measurements used in compiling the map were made in 1980; however, in parts of the State where water levels from 1980 were unavailable and where evidence indicated little change in water level, some measurements from as early as 1961 and as late as 1982 were used. Groundwater levels in and near the outcrop areas fluctuate 2 ft or less yearly and no significant long-term declines have occurred. The slow downward trend in water level altitude since early 1976 may be caused by pumpage from the Catahoula aquifer by a rural water system approximately 3 miles away. Recharge to the Catahoula aquifer occurs by rainfall on the upland outcrop-subcrop areas. Saltwater occurs throughout the Catahoula aquifer downgradient from the outcrop area. The ' approximate limit of freshwater ' line on the map indicates the downgradient limit of water with a concentration of chloride < 250 mg/L; the line was determined using water quality data and analysis of resistivity curves from geophysical well logs. Water from the Catahoula aquifer is used for municipal, industrial, and domestic purposes. Total pumpage from the aquifer in Louisiana was slightly over 1.1 million gallons/day in 1980. Local cones of depression result from pumpage just east of Anacoco in Vernon Parish and northwest of Jonesville in Catahoula Parish. (Lantz-PTT)

  7. Petrology of lower and middle Eocene carbonate rocks, Floridan aquifer, central Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Thayer; J. A. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Study of cores from a US Geological Survey test well near Polk City, Florida, indicates that the Avon Park-Lake City (Claibornian) and Oldsmar (Sabinian) Limestones, which comprise most of the Floridan aquifer in central Florida, can be divided into six microfacies: foraminiferal mudstone, foraminiferal wackestone-packstone, foraminiferal grainstone, nodular anhydrite, laminated dolomicrite, and replacement dolomite. Dolomite containing variable amounts of nodular

  8. Carbonate aquifer of the Central Roswell Basin: recharge estimation by numerical modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Rehfeldt; G. W. Gross

    1982-01-01

    The flow of ground water in the Roswell, New Mexico, Artesian Basin, has been studied since the early 1900s and varied ideas have been proposed to explain different aspects of the ground water flow system. The purpose of the present study was to delineate the spatial distribution and source, or sources, of recharge to the carbonate aquifer of the central

  9. Potentiometric surface of the upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, May 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Anita G.

    2011-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2011. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when groundwater levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 45.74 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2010 through May 2011) was 6.85 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.59 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2011). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September from 1975 through 2010. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period May 23-27, 2011. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a "snapshot" of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal low water-level condition.

  10. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2008. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 46.95 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2007 through May 2008) was 5.83 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.78 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2008). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period May 19-23, 2008. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. A corresponding potentiometric-surface map was prepared for areas east and north of the Southwest Florida Water Management District boundary by the U.S. Geological Survey office in Orlando, Florida (Kinnaman and Dixon, 2008). Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal low water-level condition.

  11. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, September 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish-water desalination in coastal communties (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2005. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface, connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in a tightly cased well that taps a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 55.19 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2004 through September 2005) was 2.00 inches above the historical cumulative average of 53.19 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2005). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to the most recent calendar year) and are updated monthly by the SWFWMD. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the SWFWMD, is part of a semiannual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the USGS during September 19-23, 2005. Suppplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. A corresponding potentiometric-surface map was prepared for areas east and north of the SWFWMD boundary by the USGS office in Altamonte Springs, Florida (Kinnaman, 2006). Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal low water-level condition.

  12. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 39.50 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2006 through September 2007) was 13.42 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.92 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period September 17-21, 2007. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. A corresponding potentiometric-surface map was prepared for areas east and north of the Southwest Florida Water Management District boundary by the U.S. Geological Survey office in Orlando, Florida (Kinnaman and Dixon, 2008). Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal high water-level condition.

  13. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 41.21 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2006 through May 2007) was 11.63 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.84 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period May 21-25, 2007. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. A corresponding potentiometric-surface map was prepared for areas east and north of the Southwest Florida Water Management District boundary by the U.S. Geological Survey office in Orlando, Florida (Kinnaman and Dixon, 2007). Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal low water-level condition.

  14. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Anita G.

    2009-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2008. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 50.63 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2007 through September 2008) was 2.26 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.89 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2008). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period September 15-19, 2008. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. A corresponding potentiometric-surface map was prepared for areas east and north of the Southwest Florida Water Management District boundary by the U.S. Geological Survey office in Orlando, Florida (Kinnaman and Dixon, 2009). Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal high water-level condition.

  15. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-central Florida, May 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2010. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when groundwater levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 55.21 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2009 through May 2010) was 2.55 inches above the historical cumulative average of 52.66 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2010). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period May 17-21, 2010. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal low water-level condition.

  16. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2006. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 46.06 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2005 through September 2006) was 6.91 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.97 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2006). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during September 18-22, 2006. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. A corresponding potentiometric-surface map was prepared for areas east and north of the Southwest Florida Water Management District boundary by the U.S. Geological Survey office in Orlando, Florida (Kinnaman, 2007). Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal high water-level condition.

  17. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, May 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.; Blanchard, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is a highly productive aquifer and supplies more than 10 times the amount of water pumped from either the surficial aquifer system or the intermediate aquifer system in most of the study area (Duerr and others, 1988). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2005. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in a tightly cased well that taps a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 67.27 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2004 through May 2005) was 14.20 inches above the historical cumulative average of 53.07 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), 2005). The above average precipitation is attributed to the active hurrican season for Florida in 2004. Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to the most recent completed calendar year) and are updated monthly by the SWFWMD. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the SWFWMD, is part of a semiannual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the USGS during May 23-27, 2005. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. A corresponding potentiometric-surface map was prepared for areas east and north of the SWFWMD boundary by the USGS office in Altamonte Springs, Florida (Kinnaman, 2006). Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal low water-level condition. Water levels in about 19 percent of the wells measured in May 2005 were lower than the May 2004 water levels (Blanchard and others, 2004). Data from 409 wells indicate that the May 2005 water levels ranged from about 5 feet below to about 18 feet above the May 2004 water levels (fig. 1). The largest water-level declines occurred in southwestern Hernando County, northeastern Hillsborough County, and parts of Hillsborough, Sumter, and Sarasota Counties. The largest water-level rises occurred in southeastern Hillsborough County, eastern Manatee County, and western Hardee County (fig. 1). Water levels in about 95 percent of the wells measured in May 2005 were lower than the September 2004 water levels (Blanchard and Seidenfeld, 2005). Data from 405 wells indicate that the May 2005 water levels ranged from about 22 feet below to 14 feet above the September 2004 water levels. The largest water-level decline was in east-central Manatee County and the largest water-level rise was in central Sarasota County.

  18. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in north-central Oklahoma: 1992-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalsky, Joseph; Denn, Frederick; Flynn, Connor; Hodges, Gary; Kiedron, Piotr; Koontz, Annette; Schlemmer, James; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2010-04-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloud-screening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun's elevation is greater than 9.25°. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

  19. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hydrologic Conditions in West-Central Florida The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2006. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 50.23 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2005 through May 2006) was 2.82 inches below the historical cumulative average of 53.05 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2006). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period May 15-19, 2006. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. A corresponding potentiometric-surface map was prepared for areas east and north of the Southwest Florida Water Management District boundary by the U.S. Geological Survey office in Altamonte Springs, Florida (Kinnaman, 2006). Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal low water-level condition. Water-Level Changes Water levels in about 95 percent of the wells measured in May 2006 were lower than the May 2005 water levels (Ortiz and Blanchard, 2006). May 2006 water levels in 403 wells ranged from about 26 feet below to about 6 feet above May 2005 water levels (fig. 1). Significant water level declines occurred in eastern Manatee County, southwestern Polk County, southeastern Hillsborough County, and in all of Hardee County. The largest water level declines occurred in southwestern Hardee County. The largest water level rises occurred in south-central Pasco County, northeastern Levy County, northwestern Marion County, and along the gulf coast from Pasco County to Citrus County (fig. 1). Water levels in about 96 percent of the wells measured in May 2006 were lower than the September 2005 water levels (Ortiz, 2006). May 2006 water levels in 397 wells ranged from about 31 feet below to 3 feet above the September 2005 water levels. The largest water level decline was in west-central Hardee County and the largest rise in water levels was in south-central Pasco County.

  20. High Plains Aquifer Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, D. R.

    2004-12-01

    The High Plains Aquifer encompasses 174,000 square miles in eight states and provides the primary source of potable water to the region. The hydrologic cycle exhibits great diversity across this geological basin, with significant expanses experiencing sustained declines in groundwater elevation (e.g., portions of the southern and central basins in Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) while other areas are experiencing rises (e.g., portions of the northern basin in central Nebraska). The proposed High Plains Aquifer Hydrologic Observatory would promote significant scientific advancement in hydrology related to: (1) Recharge and evapotranspiration, (2) Surface water-groundwater exchange in dynamic riparian corridors, (3) Ecological role of vegetation in the hydrologic cycle, (4) Human systems and the hydrologic cycle, (5) Multi-scale monitoring, modeling & analysis, (6) Climate change studies, and (7) Utilization of remote sensing technology

  1. Development of a Unified Hydrostratigraphic Framework for the Floridan Aquifer System in Central and Southern Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, R. S.

    2008-05-01

    The mostly carbonate Floridan aquifer system (FAS) of central and southern Florida is a widely used resource with a complex hydrostratigraphic framework that is managed primarily in a subregional context according to water management jurisdictional boundaries. As use of the FAS increases, a consistent regional hydrostratigraphic framework is needed for effective management across these boundaries. Stratigraphic marker horizons within and near the top of FAS were delineated and mapped to develop a preliminary, correlative stratigraphic framework. This framework was used to identify and determine aquifers, subaquifers, and confining units and map their spatial distribution. These horizons are based on lithologic changes and geophysical log signatures identified in previous studies, and they were extended throughout the study area primarily by correlation of natural gamma-ray logs. The FAS consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, middle confining unit, and Lower Floridan aquifer. A regional, productive zone is delineated and informally referred to as the Avon Park permeable zone. This zone is present over most of the study area and is characterized by thick units of dolostone with interbedded limestone and high fracture permeability. The zone has been identified in different regions in previous studies, either as the upper part of the Lower Floridan aquifer or as the lower part of the Upper Floridan aquifer. In this study it is generally considered to be within the middle confining unit. Transmissivity of the Avon Park permeable zone, a major source of water supply, generally ranges from less than 1x104 up to 1.6x106 ft2/day, and is greatest in central Florida where dolomite is developed as a major component of the zone. A large area of low transmissivity (less than 105 ft2/day) in southern Florida coincides with an area where limestone is the predominant lithology within the zone. Major uses of the FAS now include withdrawal for public and agricultural supply, including treatment with reverse osmosis, aquifer storage and recovery, and disposal of treated wastewater. Water-level and water-quality conflicts could arise between these competing uses, and delineating the extent and hydraulic connectivity of the Avon Park permeable zone within the FAS may help managers and others predict and minimize such conflicts.

  2. Geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks of the Biscayne aquifer in central Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.; Williams, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluations of the lithostratigraphy, lithofacies, paleontology, ichnology, depositional environments, and cyclostratigraphy from 11 test coreholes were linked to geophysical interpretations, and to results of hydraulic slug tests of six test coreholes at the Snapper Creek Well Field (SCWF), to construct geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks for the study area in central Miami-Dade County, Florida. The resulting geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks are consistent with those recently described for the Biscayne aquifer in the nearby Lake Belt area in Miami-Dade County and link the Lake Belt area frameworks with those developed for the SCWF study area. The hydrogeologic framework is characterized by a triple-porosity pore system of (1) matrix porosity (mainly mesoporous interparticle porosity, moldic porosity, and mesoporous to megaporous separate vugs), which under dynamic conditions, produces limited flow; (2) megaporous, touching-vug porosity that commonly forms stratiform groundwater passageways; and (3) conduit porosity, including bedding-plane vugs, decimeter-scale diameter vertical solution pipes, and meter-scale cavernous vugs. The various pore types and associated permeabilities generally have a predictable vertical spatial distribution related to the cyclostratigraphy. The Biscayne aquifer within the study area can be described as two major flow units separated by a single middle semiconfining unit. The upper Biscayne aquifer flow unit is present mainly within the Miami Limestone at the top of the aquifer and has the greatest hydraulic conductivity values, with a mean of 8,200 feet per day. The middle semiconfining unit, mainly within the upper Fort Thompson Formation, comprises continuous to discontinuous zones with (1) matrix porosity; (2) leaky, low permeability layers that may have up to centimeter-scale vuggy porosity with higher vertical permeability than horizontal permeability; and (3) stratiform flow zones composed of fossil moldic porosity, burrow related vugs, or irregular vugs. Flow zones with a mean hydraulic conductivity of 2,600 feet per day are present within the middle semiconfining unit, but none of the flow zones are continuous across the study area. The lower Biscayne aquifer flow unit comprises a group of flow zones in the lower part of the aquifer. These flow zones are present in the lower part of the Fort Thompson Formation and in some cases within the limestone or sandstone or both in the uppermost part of the Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation. The mean hydraulic conductivity of major flow zones within the lower Biscayne aquifer flow unit is 5,900 feet per day, and the mean value for minor flow zones is 2,900 feet per day. A semiconfining unit is present beneath the Biscayne aquifer. The boundary between the two hydrologic units is at the top or near the top of the Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation. The lower semiconfining unit has a hydraulic conductivity of less than 350 feet per day. The most productive zones of groundwater flow within the two Biscayne aquifer flow units have a characteristic pore system dominated by stratiform megaporosity related to selective dissolution of an Ophiomorpha-dominated ichnofabric. In the upper flow unit, decimeter-scale vertical solution pipes that are common in some areas of the SCWF study area contribute to high vertical permeability compared to that in areas without the pipes. Cross-hole flowmeter data collected from the SCWF test coreholes show that the distribution of vuggy porosity, matrix porosity, and permeability within the Biscayne aquifer of the SCWF is highly heterogeneous and anisotropic. Groundwater withdrawals from production well fields in southeastern Florida may be inducing recharge of the Biscayne aquifer from canals near the well fields that are used for water-management functions, such as flood control and well-field pumping. The SCWF was chosen as a location within Miami-Dade County to study the potential for such recharge to the Biscayne aquifer from the C–2 (Snapper Creek) canal that roughly divides the

  3. Potential for downward leakage to the Floridan Aquifer, Green Swamp area, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative evaluation of the potential for downward leakage from the surficial sand aquifer to the underlying Floridan aquifer was made for the Green Swamp area (about 870 sq mi) in central Florida. Downward leakage, or recharge, is limited under natural conditions owing to the nearness to land surface of the potentiometric surface of both the sand aquifer and the underlying Floridan aquifer. Continuous cores of the unconsolidated section were obtained at 74 sites in the study area and were evaluated for downward leakage potential based on grain-size distribution. Sand percentage was estimated for each interval or bed from microscopic examination of the core samples. The four maps prepared from this data show sand thickness, clay thickness, relative vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds and the relative potential for downward leakage. About 20 percent (178 sq mi) of the area classified has a relatively good potential for downward leakage; almost 50 percent of the area has a relatively poor potential. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 147 micrograms per liter. Both samples had alkaline pH values, 8.0 and 8.4, respectively. Uranium concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 383 micrograms per liter with 5 of 20 samples exceeding the Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter; the five wells with uranium concentrations exceeding 30 micrograms per liter had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and gross alpha-particle activity showed a positive relation to pH, with the highest concentrations and activity in samples having pH values of 8.0 or above. The groundwater samples contained dissolved oxygen and high concentrations of bicarbonate; these characteristics are also factors in increasing uranium solubility. Concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 (combined) ranged from 0.03 to 1.7 picocuries per liter, with a median concentration of 0.45 picocuries per liter for all samples. Radon-222 concentrations ranged from 95 to 3,600 picocuries per liter with a median concentration of 261 picocuries per liter. Eight samples having pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.7 exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picocuries per liter for radon-222. Eight samples exceeded the 15 picocuries per liter Maximum Contaminant Level for gross alpha-particle activity at 72 hours (after sample collection) and at 30 days (after the initial count); those samples had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Gross beta-particle activity increased in 15 of 21 samples during the interval from 72 hours to 30 days. The increase in gross beta-particle activity over time probably was caused by the ingrowth and decay of uranium daughter products that emit beta particles. Water-quality data collected for this study indicate that pH values above 8.0 are associated with potentially high concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and high gross alpha-particle activity in the study area. High pH values also are associated with potentially high concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and selenium in groundwater when these elements oc

  5. An Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment of the Paluxy Aquifer, Central Texas, USA, Using GIS and a Modified DRASTIC Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd G. Fritch; Cleavy L. McKnight; Joe C. Yelderman Jr.; Jeff G. Arnold

    2000-01-01

    D  epth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media,\\u000a Topography, Impact of the vadose zone, and\\u000a Conductivity of the aquifer). Using such an approach allows one to investigate the potential for groundwater contamination\\u000a on a regional, rather than site-specific, scale. Based upon data from variables such as soil permeability, depth to water,\\u000a aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and topography, subjective numerical weightings

  6. Investigating Vertical Mixing Between Two Carbonate Aquifers Using a Multiport Well, Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromann, J.; Wong, C. I.; Hunt, B.; Smith, B.; Banner, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the occurrence and extent of mixing between vertically-adjacent aquifers is critical to dual-aquifer management. This can be challenging due to variable well depths and uncertainty as to hydrostratigraphic sources of groundwater. This study uses a multiport monitor well to investigate the degree of aquifer mixing between the overlying Edwards aquifer and underlying Trinity aquifer in central Texas. The results will inform dual-aquifer management as the Trinity aquifer is being developed as an alternative water source to the Edwards aquifer due to pumping limits and projections of increasing water demand. Water levels from isolated hydrostratigraphic units (n = 19) were measured monthly in the well as climate conditions transitioned from wet to dry (Sept 2010 to May 2011). Groundwater was sampled over a two-week interval in May to June 2011. At the start of the monitoring interval, water levels were high in the Edwards and the uppermost units of the Trinity relative to the rest of the Trinity units. Water levels decreased to lower elevations, from about 635 to 585 ft-msl, under dry conditions. Water levels in the lowermost Trinity declined less, from about 630 to 620 ft-msl, under dry conditions. Two zones separating the Edwards and lowermost Trinity showed almost no head change during this period. The water-level variations between the two aquifers suggest that: i) vertical flow potential from the Edwards to the Trinity occurs during dry conditions, ii) the uppermost stratigraphic units of the Trinity and Edwards are mixing, and iii) portions of the Trinity behave as an aquitard, providing hydrologic separation between the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units. Groundwater samples indicate the presence of three distinct hydrochemical facies: Ca-HCO3 (Edwards), Ca-HCO3-SO4 (lowermost Trinity), and Ca-SO4 (Trinity-Glen Rose Fm), suggesting little vertical flow and mixing. Covariation between groundwater 87Sr/86Sr values and SO4 concentrations from units of the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units can be accounted for by a two-end-member fluid mixing model, which uses a unit from the Edwards and lowermost Trinity as end members. This may indicate that 87Sr/86Sr values and SO4 concentrations are controlled by varying extents of mixing between the two units. Groundwater from units in the Glen Rose Formation (between the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units) cannot be accounted for by this mixing process due to elevated SO4 concentrations likely associated with dissolution of evaporites. 87Sr/86Sr values of evaporites recovered from the well are consistent with 87Sr/86Sr values of groundwater from these Glen Rose units. Although the geochemical model results suggest possible mixing between the Edwards and Trinity aquifers, water-level variations and the presence of distinct hydrochemical facies indicate that vertical flow between the Edwards and Trinity is limited to the uppermost units of the Trinity. This study suggests that the Edwards aquifer and lowermost Trinity units are not likely in hydrologic communication and independent management may be possible.

  7. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, September 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2010. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when groundwater levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 53.17 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2009 through September 2010) was 0.41 inches above the historical cumulative average of 52.76 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2010). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District.

  8. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in North-Central Oklahoma: 1992 -2008

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    information on particle size. Determination of AOD by sunradiometry is especially robust compared Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference- filter sunradiometer with five aerosol bands

  9. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Anita G.

    2009-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2009. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 48.53 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2008 through May 2009) was 4.12 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.65 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2009). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period May 18-22, 2009. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. A corresponding potentiometric-surface map was prepared for areas east and north of the Southwest Florida Water Management District boundary by the U.S. Geological Survey office in Orlando, Florida (Kinnaman and Dixon, 2009). Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal low water-level condition. The potentiometric contours are generalized to synoptically portray the head in a dynamic hydrologic system, taking due account of the variations in hydrogeologic conditions, such as differing depths of wells, nonsimultaneous measurements of water levels, variable effects of pumping, and changing climatic influence. The potentiometric contours may not conform exactly with the individual measurements of water levels.

  10. Characterizing a complex aquifer system using geophysics, hydrodynamics and geochemistry: A new distribution of Miocene aquifers in the Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks (east-central Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaal, Fethi; Bédir, Mourad; Tarhouni, Jamila; Gacha, Ayadi Ben; Leduc, Christian

    2011-06-01

    The Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks are located in the Sahel region in east-central Tunisia. Active tectonics have divided the region into numerous sub-units, as result of multiple phases of distension and compression. The Miocene fluvio-deltaic sediment sandy layers have aquiferous capacities but their hydraulic properties are still unknown, due to the lack of investigation wells. This study proposes a new description of the regional hydrogeology of Miocene deposits. Seismic-reflection and wireline logging of petroleum and water wells were used to understand the structure and the geometry of the Miocene reservoirs. The groundwater flow and its relationship to the sedimentary and tectonic context were then identified by studying piezometry and hydrochemistry. Two Miocene deep aquifer systems were identified: (1) Zéramdine-Béni Hassen to the north and (2) Jébéniana-Ksour Essef to the south. These aquifers are separated by the Mahdia graben. Other major tectonic structures, such as the Zéramdine fault corridor, the Moknine graben, and the El-Jem half-graben represent lateral boundaries for these aquifers. Other deeper sandy and clayey-sandy reservoirs were also identified in the area. Their repartition, thickness and depth vary from one block to other. Hydrodynamics of the deep aquifers seems to be controlled by geological structures. Two independent compartments were identified: in the northern block groundwater flows from West to East and from Northwest to Southeast, while in the southern block it flows from Northwest to Southeast. Geochemical facies are of two types: Na-Ca-Cl-SO 4 for the Zéramdine-Béni Hassen deep aquifer and Na-Cl for the Jébéniana-Ksour Essef deep aquifer. The hydrodynamic and geochemical results confirm the sharing of the Miocene sediments into two aquifers.

  11. Calibrated models as management tools for stream-aquifer systems: the case of central Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Perkins, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    We address the problem of declining streamflows in interconnected stream-aquifer systems and explore possible management options to address the problem for two areas of central Kansas: the Arkansas River valley from Kinsley to Great Bend and the lower Rattlesnake Creek-Quivira National Wildlife Refuge area. The approach we followed implements, calibrates, and partially validates for the study areas a stream-aquifer numerical model combined with a parameter estimation package and sensitivity analysis. Hydrologic budgets for both predevelopment and developed conditions indicate significant differences in the hydrologic components of the study areas resulting from development. The predevelopment water budgets give an estimate of natural ground-water recharge, whereas the budgets for developed conditions give an estimate of induced recharge, indicating that major ground-water development changes the recharge-discharge regime of the model areas with time. Such stream-aquifer models serve to link proposed actions to hydrologic effects, as is clearly demonstrated by the effects of various management alternatives on the streamflows of the Arkansas River and Rattlesnake Creek. Thus we show that a possible means of restoring specified streamflows in the area is to implement protective stream corridors with restricted ground-water extraction. ?? 1993.

  12. Data for ground-water test hole near Butte City, Central Valley aquifer project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides preliminary data for the third of seven test holes drilled as part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 1 W., Glenn County, California, about one-half mile south of the town of Butte City. Drilled to a depth of 1,432 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 82 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 592 feet, 968 feet, and 1,330 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer , and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Nine cores and 49 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, and chemical quality of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  13. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  14. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater in the central part of the Dakota (Great Plains) aquifer, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosselin, D.C.; Harvey, F.E.; Frost, C.; Stotler, R.; Macfarlane, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota aquifer of the central and eastern Great Plains of the United States is an important source of water for municipal supplies, irrigation and industrial use. Although the regional flow system can be characterized generally as east to northeasterly from the Rocky Mountains towards the Missouri River, locally the flow systems are hydrologically complex. This study uses Sr isotopic data from groundwater and leached aquifer samples to document the complex subsystems within the Dakota aquifer in Nebraska and Kansas. The interaction of groundwater with the geologic material through which it flows has created spatial patterns in the isotopic measurements that are related to: long-term water-rock interaction, during which varying degrees of isotopic equilibrium between water and rock has been achieved; and the alteration of NaCl fluids by water-rock interaction. Specifically, Sr isotopic data distinguish brines from Kansas and western Nebraska from those in eastern Nebraska: the former are interpreted to reflect interaction with Permian rocks, whereas the latter record interaction with Pennsylvanian rocks. The Sr isotopic composition of groundwater from other parts of Nebraska and Kansas are a function of the dynamic interaction between groundwater and unlithified sediments (e.g., glacial till and loess), followed by interaction with oxidized and unoxidized sediments within the Dakota Formation. This study illustrates the power of combining Sr chemistry with more conventional geochemical data to obtain a more complete understanding of groundwater flow systems within regional aquifer systems where extensive monitoring networks do not exist. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogeology and analysis of aquifer characteristics in west-central Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broska, J.C.; Barnette, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pinellas County, Florida, conducted an investigation to describe the hydrogeology and analyze the aquifer characteristics in west-central Pinellas County. A production test well and four monitor wells were constructed in Pinellas County at Walsingham Park during 1996-97. Water-quality sampling, static and dynamic borehole geophysical surveys, and hydraulic tests were conducted at the wells to delineate the hydrogeology at Walsingham Park. A 9-day aquifer test was conducted to determine the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer system and observe the changes in water quality due to pumping. A numerical model was constructed to simulate the aquifer test and calculate values for hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient for permeable zones and confining units at Walsingham Park. Final calibrated values for hydraulic conductivity for the different permeable zones and confining units at the test site were 18 feet per day for Upper Zone A, 750 feet per day for Lower Zone A, 1 foot per day for Zone B, 1x10-4 feet per day for the intermediate confining unit, and 10 feet per day for the semiconfining unit separating Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A. Final calibrated values for storage coefficient were 3.1x10-4 for Upper Zone A, 8.6x10-5 for Lower Zone A, 2.6x10-5 for Zone B, 3.1x10-4 for the intermediate confining unit, and 4.3x10-5 for the semiconfining unit separating Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A. Estimates of transmissivity for Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A were about 2,500 and 37,500 feet squared per day, respectively.

  16. A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 49 synthetic organic compounds. Ten pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the upstream site and seven pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the downstream site. Pesticides detected at both sites were atrazine, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and trans-nonachlor. Additionally at the upstream site, heptachlor, pentachlorophenol, and prometon were detected. The pesticide metabolites p,p'-DDE, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane also were detected at both sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds aroclor-1016/1242, aroclor-1254, and aroclor-1260 were detected at both sites. The upstream site had 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon detections and the downstream site had 8 detections. Because of chromatographic interference during analysis, a positive identification of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could not be made. Consequently, there may have been a greater number of these compounds detected at both sites. A total of 36 synthetic organic compounds were detected at the two sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The upstream site had 21 synthetic organic compound detections: three detergent metabolites, two fecal indicators, three flame retardants, seven industrial compounds, five compounds related to personal care products, and beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol. Fifteen synthetic organic compounds were detected at the downstream site and included: one fecal indicator, three flame retardants, six industrial compounds, and five compounds related to personal care products.

  17. Impact of groundwater withdrawals on the interaction of multi-layered aquifers in the Viterbo geothermal area (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiocchi, Antonella; Lotti, Francesca; Piscopo, Vincenzo

    2013-09-01

    The impact of groundwater withdrawals on the interaction between multi-layered aquifers with different water qualities in the Viterbo geothermal area (central Italy) was studied. In this area, deep thermal waters are used to supply thermal spas and public pools. A shallow overlying aquifer carries cold and fresh water, used for irrigation and the local drinking-water supply. Starting with a conceptual hydrogeological model, two simplified numerical models were implemented: a steady-state flow model of the entire groundwater system, and a steady-state flow and heat transport model of a representative area, which included complex interactions between the aquifers. The impact of increased withdrawals associated with potential future development of the thermal aquifer must be considered in terms of the water temperature of the existing thermal sources. However, withdrawals from the shallow aquifer might also influence the discharge of thermal sources and quality of the water withdrawn from the shallow wells. The exploitation of the two aquifers is dependent on the hydraulic conductivity and thickness of the intervening aquitard, which maintains the delicate hydrogeological equilibrium. Effective methods to control this equilibrium include monitoring the vertical gradient between the two aquifers and the residual discharge of natural thermal springs.

  18. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and metamorphosed to some degree, thus rock types and their relationships vary over distance. Quaternary-age sediment and basalt compose the primary source of groundwater in the Wood River Valley aquifer system. These Quaternary deposits can be divided into three units: a coarse-grained sand and gravel unit, a fine-grained silt and clay unit, and a single basalt unit. The fine- and coarse-grained units were primarily deposited as alluvium derived from glaciation in the surrounding mountains and upper reaches of tributary canyons. The basalt unit is found in the southeastern Bellevue fan area and is composed of two flows of different ages. Most of the groundwater produced from the Wood River Valley aquifer system is from the coarse-grained deposits. The altitude of the pre-Quaternary bedrock surface in the Wood River Valley was compiled from about 1,000 well-driller reports for boreholes drilled to bedrock and about 70 Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) ambient-noise measurements. The bedrock surface generally mimics the land surface by decreasing down tributary canyons and the main valley from north to south; it ranges from more than 6,700 feet in Baker Creek to less than 4,600 feet in the central Bellevue fan. Most of the south-central portion of the Bellevue fan is underlain by an apparent topographically closed area on the bedrock surface that appears to drain to the southwest towards Stanton Crossing. Quaternary sediment thickness ranges from less than a foot on main and tributary valley margins to about 350 feet in the central Bellevue fan. Hydraulic conductivity for 81 wells in the study area was estimated from well-performance tests reported on well-driller reports. Estimated hydraulic conductivity for 79 wells completed in alluvium ranges from 1,900 feet per day (ft/d) along Warm Springs Creek to less than 1 ft/d in upper Croy Canyon. A well completed in bedrock had an estimated hydraulic conductivity value of 10 ft/d, one well completed in basalt had a value of 50 ft/d, and three wells completed in the confined system had values ranging from 32 to 52 ft/

  19. Data for ground-water test hole near Zamora, Central Valley Aquifer Project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, J.J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented for the first of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 34, T. 12 N. , R. 1 E., Yolo County, California, about 3 miles northeast of the town of Zamora. Drilled to a depth of 2,500 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 190 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 947, 1,401, and 2,125 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Eighteen cores and 68 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, diatom identification, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  20. Hydrogeology of and potential mining impacts on strippable lignite areas in the Denver Aquifer, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, N.E.; Williams, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study describes the hydrogeology of and potential impacts of mining on strippable lignite areas in the Denver aquifer in the east-central Colorado plains. Strippable lignitic coal seams , 20 to 60 ft thick, are present in the Denver Formation. The Denver aquifer, the saturated part of the Denver Formation, is likely to be affected locally by surface mining of lignite. Transmissivity of the aquifer in the study area ranges from 145 to 1,000 mg/L to the northeast in the study area as, hydraulic head decreases from 6,600 to 5,400 ft. Distance-drawdown curves show the extent of water level drawdown near a dewatered surface mine. After reclamation of the lignite mine pit, flow through the lignite spoil pile may increase the dissolved solids concentrations in the Denver aquifer. This increase could occur, because, as water from rain and overland flow percolates through the newly-exposed rock surfaces in the spoil material, minerals from the overburden can be dissolved in the water, which then joins with water from the aquifer. This increase could locally change streams, springs, and alluvial and bedrock aquifers. (USGS)

  1. Textural and stratigraphic controls on fractured dolomite in a carbonate aquifer system, Ocala limestone, west-central Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie B. Gaswirth; David A. Budd; Brian R. Crawford

    2006-01-01

    The Late Eocene Ocala Limestone is part of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, and in west-central Florida the Ocala forms a subregional semi-confining unit that separates underlying and overlying highly transmissive zones. In portions of the same area, the lower half of the Ocala is dolomitized and fractures are observed in cores. Where present, the fractures should locally enhance the hydraulic

  2. Stream and aquifer biology of south-central Texas; a literature review, 1973-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ourso, R.T.; Hornig, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes in table format 32 aquatic vertebrate (primarily fish), 54 aquatic invertebrate, and 13 aquatic plant studies available for the area of the South-Central Texas study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment. The studies, published mostly during 1973?97, pertain to the Guadalupe, San Antonio, and Nueces River Basins, the San Antonio-Nueces and Nueces-Rio Grande Coastal Basins, and the Edwards aquifer where it underlies the upper parts of the three river basins. The biology of the study-unit streams is determined mostly by the characteristics of the ecoregions they transect?the Edwards Plateau, Texas Blackland Prairies, East Central Texas Plains, Western Gulf Coastal Plain, and Southern Texas Plains. About 20 percent of the previous fish and invertebrate studies and about 75 percent of the aquatic plant surveys have centered on Comal Springs in Comal County and San Marcos Springs in Hays County. Although several important studies are available for the San Antonio region, documentation of aquatic biology for the remainder of the study unit is relatively sparse. The streams in the study unit, particularly in the Edwards Plateau, support three dominant biological groups?fish, aquatic invertebrates, and plants. Potential threats to these organisms include impoundments and flood-control projects, siltation from erosion, ground-water pumping, recreational activities, wastewater discharge, and introduction of non-native species. More than 30 non-native fish, invertebrate, and plant species have been introduced into the region. Of the 19 aquatic species Federally listed as endangered or threatened in Texas, 8 are associated with springs and spring runs in the study unit. All of the endangered species in the study unit are associated with springs and spring runs. A large number of endemic species in the study unit are associated with subterranean aquatic ecosystems, most likely a consequence of the unique proximity of the varied topographic and hydrologic conditions of the area and of the geological development of the Edwards aquifer. Ninety-one endemics, including 44 species found solely underground, are associated with the aquatic ecosystems (including springs) of the Edwards aquifer.

  3. Dissolved solids and sodium in water from the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krothe, Noel C.; Oliver, Joseph W.; Weeks, John B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer to provide: (1) Hydrologic information needed to evaluate the effects of continued ground-water development; and (2) computer models to predict aquifer response to changes in ground-water development. The plan of study for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis was described by Weeks (1978). A description of the High Plains aquifer and a map of the 1978 water table were presented by Gutentag and Weeks (1980). Maps of the bedrock geology, altitude of aquifer base, and saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer were published by Weeks and Gutentag (1981). Water-level and saturated-thickness changes, from predevelopment to 1980, were mapped by Luckey, Gutentag, and Weeks (1981). This report describes the areal distribution of dissolved solids and sodium in the water of the High Plains aquifer. Data used in this study were provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in each of the eight States in the High Plains. Their contribution is an integral part of this investigation.

  4. Cotton rats and other small mammals as hosts for immature Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) in central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Gage, K L; Hopla, C E; Schwan, T G

    1992-09-01

    Eight species of small mammals were evaluated as potential hosts for American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), in an upland, tallgrass prairie study site in central Oklahoma. Only hispid cotton rats, Sigmodon hispidus, and deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, were found to be important hosts for immature D. variabilis. Although D. varibilis larvae and nymphs frequently infested both cotton rats and deer mice, cotton rats were the most important host species for both immature stages in the study area. Cotton rats constituted 63.2% of the total 530 small mammals captured and were hosts to 85.2% of all larvae and 88.7% of all nymphs. Deer mice accounted for 19.8% of all small mammals captured and were hosts for 14.5% of the larvae and 10.8% of the nymphs recovered. The remaining small mammal species were hosts for less than 1% of the immature ticks collected. Larval infestations peaked during summer, whereas summer and spring peaks were noted for the nymphal infestations. The relative importance of cotton rats and deer mice as hosts for immature ticks could be largely, but not completely, explained by cotton rats being more than three times as abundant as deer mice. Attachment site data indicated that differences in grooming behavior also might be partially responsible for the larger infestations observed on cotton rats. Other possible ecological and behavioral explanations of the heavy infestations observed on cotton rats are discussed. PMID:1404263

  5. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains (fig. 1A). Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers (fig. 2) knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone (fig. 3). However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer (figs. 1A and 1B). The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in the Ogallala Formation is separated from overlying land-use practices by as much as 400 feet of unsaturated sediments. Consequently, one may hypothesize that recently recharged water is not present in the formation. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a reconnaissance study in 1999 to establish (a) if recently recharged water was present in the Ogallala Formation underlying irrigated cropland and (b) if agricultural land-use practices affect water quality. Results from the reconnaissance study will be used to determine whether a full-scale land-use study is warranted.

  6. Evolution of Oxygen and Hydrogen Stable Isotopic Composition in the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer, South-Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Paul, D.; Murray, K. E.

    2005-12-01

    The evolution of stable isotope composition of oxygen and hydrogen(?18O and ?D) in the Edwards-Trinity aquifer, in South Central Texas is modeled in both closed and open aquifer system to explain possible evaporation effects and mixing of various sources of water. Our modeling uses ?18O and ?D data reported by United States Geological Survey (USGS) from 1988 to 2001, in the Edwards unconfined, Edwards confined and the Trinity aquifers, as well as the Medina lake that overlies parts of these aquifers. The ?18O isotopic compositions of the Edwards confined (av.=-4.20±0.31‰) and Trinity (av.=-4.45±0.37‰) are generally more homogeneous than the Edwards unconfined (av.=-4.05±0.87‰). This is consistent with the higher groundwater velocity (3,000-12,000 ft/day) for the Edwards aquifer which may facilitate faster mixing resulting in homogenous isotopic composition. However, a closer look at data for each aquifer shows periodic variations with time that can be attributed mainly to seasonal effects (i.e.,temperature and precipitation). Groundwater compositions plot to the right of the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) while ?18O and ?D for each aquifer has a unique slope. To account for these trends, isotopic evolution both in open and closed system was modeled assuming Rayleigh fractionation effects during evaporation (both kinetic and equilibrium effects) and binary mixing. Results indicate that an average of 6%-10% evaporation can explain deviations (and the slope of the respective trends) of the groundwater data from LMWL. The isotopic composition of Edwards confined and Edwards unconfined water suggests derivation from a similar meteoric source. Simple binary mixing (10-60%) between end-members(average of Edwards/Trinity aquifer and Medina lake)accounts for water samples plotting along the mixing trend otherwise cannot be explained by evaporation model alone. One interesting result of this modeling is that in selective wells in the Trinity aquifer, the ?18O shows negative correlation (r2= 0.95) with altitude, and decrease by 0.04‰ per 100 ft increase in altitude.

  7. Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas --- Field testing and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIOS SOPHOCLEOUS; M. A. TOWNSEND; L. D. VOGLER; T. J. McCLAIN; E. T. MARKS; G. R. COBLE

    1988-01-01

    Sophocleous, M., Townsend, M.A., Vogler, L.D., McClain, T.J., Marks, E.T. and Coble, G.R., 1988. Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas -- Field testing and analysis. J. Hydrol., 98: 249-273. During the last several years, streamflows of a number of Kansas streams have been reduced as a result of groundwater declines. In order to better

  8. Chemical evolution and estimated flow velocity of water in the Trinity Aquifer, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Sonya A.; Lee, Roger W.; Busby, John F.

    1997-01-01

    Three permeable zones with varying lithology and water chemistry compose the Trinity aquifer, a principal source of water in the 5,500-square-mile study area in south-central Texas. The upper permeable zone locally yields small quantities of water to wells and was not included in this study. The middle permeable zone primarily is composed of limestone with minor amounts of dolostone. Terrigenous sand and marine limestone, with minor amounts of dolostone, are the principal lithologic units in the lower permeable zone. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 329 to 1,820 milligrams per liter in water samples from the middle permeable zone and from 518 to 3,030 milligrams per liter in water samples from the lower permeable zone. Principal hydrochemical facies in the middle permeable zone are calcium magnesium bicarbonate and calcium magnesium sulfate. Hydrochemical facies in ground-water samples from the lower permeable zone vary. Tritium concentrations as large as 5.3 tritium units in the southeastern part of the study area are indicative of relatively recent recharge. Results of a geochemical mass balance simulation along a flowpath in the middle permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 4.25 millimoles per liter of dolomite dissolved, 5.74 millimoles per liter of gypsum dissolved, 0.46 millimole per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 8.07 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 0.67 millimole per liter of calcium-for-sodium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. These results support dedolomitization as a principal chemical process in the middle permeable zone of the Trinity aquifer. Results of a simulation along a flowpath in the lower permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 0.41 millimole per liter of dolomite dissolved, 0.001 millimole per liter of gypsum dissolved, 9.58 millimoles per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 1.09 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 1.11 millimoles per liter of sodium-for-calcium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. Lower permeable zone processes indicate sodium chloride dissolution, dedolomitization, and cation exchange. Ground-water-flow velocities determined from adjusted carbon-14 ages, calculated using NETPATH, for selected flowpaths in the middle and lower permeable zones were about 1.7 feet per year and less than about 4.4 feet per year, respectively.

  9. Integrated geophysical interpretation for delineating the structural elements and groundwater aquifers at central part of Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araffa, Sultan Awad Sultan; Sabet, Hassan S.; Gaweish, Wael R.

    2015-05-01

    The study area is inhabited by Bedouins, suffering from scarcity of water necessary for domestic use and agricultural activities. The study area is located at central part of Sinai between Nakhl area and El Thamed area. Magnetic, gravity and geoelectric methods were used in this investigation to determine the groundwater aquifers and delineate the structural elements in the study area. Two hundreds and eighty eight magnetic and gravity stations were acquired by the EnviMag and Autograv CG3 instruments respectively. The magnetic data were processed by using Oasis Montaj. Reductions to the pole and 2D magnetic modeling were established to construct basement relief map. The depth to the basement rocks in the study area is ranging from 1200 m to 7000 m. The regional-residual separation and Euler deconvolution techniques were applied to the gravity data. Nine deep Vertical Electrical Sounding stations were measured to estimate the deep groundwater aquifer in the study area (Nubian Sandstone aquifer). The depth of upper surface of Nubian Sandstone aquifer is ranging between 975 m and 1100 m and affected by two major fault trends in the NE-SW and NW-SE directions.

  10. Aquifer tests at the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine, Pueblo of Laguna, west-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.; Davis, P.A.; Baldwin, J.A.; McaAda, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    The transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation, west-central New Mexico, was determined to be 24 sq ft/day at well M2 and 47 sq ft/day at well M3 from constant-discharge aquifer tests conducted at the Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine. The storage coefficient of the Jackpile sandstone bed was estimated to be 0.00018 at well M2 and 0.00029 at well M3 from the same tests. An aquifer test conducted at well M21 indicated the transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed was 2.0 sq ft/day and the storage coefficient was 0.00002. The transmissivity of an unnamed sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation was estimated from ' slug-test ' results to be about 20 sq ft/day. Water levels in this sandstone probably did not change due to pumping from the overlying Jackpile sandstone bed for 88 hours at an average discharge of 15.3 gallons/min. A constant discharge aquifer test at well M4C indicated that the transmissivity of the alluvium at this location was about 430 sq ft/day. Water levels in the underlying Jackpile sandstone bed began declining within 15 minutes after withdrawals of groundwater from the alluvial aquifer began. (USGS)

  11. Water Quality in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; McMahon, Peter B.; Dennehy, Kevin; Qi, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2004 assessment of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings for principal and other aquifers and major river basins across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, regional, State, and national issues. Conditions in the aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as drinking-water quality, the effects of agricultural practices on water quality, source-water protection, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the region and the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer summarized in this report are discussed in greater detail in other reports that can be accessed in Appendix 1 of http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa). This report accompanies the detailed and technical report of water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer 'Water-quality assessment of the High Plains aquifer, 1999-2004' (http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/)

  12. Oklahoma Today

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Published since the 1950s, Oklahoma Today is a production of several state agencies, and it is designed to showcase various cultural, historical, and social aspects of Oklahoma. Over the past several years, Oklahoma State University has digitized back issues of the magazine, and visitors can now read all the way back to the first issue from 1956. Visitors can browse back issues by decade, and they can also perform key-word searches. First-time visitors should start by reading through the spring 1960 issue, which contains pieces on rattlesnakes, Oklahoma wildflowers, and the Washington Irving Trail. While the name Washington Irving may not be commonly associated with Oklahoma, the author spent part of 1832 wandering through the state with a Native American guide. More recent issues feature profiles of singer Vince Gill and Route 66.

  13. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2013-04-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the local residents of the Gio Linh district. This coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 and is situated between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The elevation varies from 0.5 m at the seaside in the East to 19.5 m further inland. During the rainy season from August to April the precipitation is on average 2000 to 2700 mm. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Drinking water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. A SEAWAT groundwater model will be built to study the effects on the groundwater system. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Historical production records of an operational groundwater production well-field are available to be used for validation of the model. Finally, to achieve a sustainable integrated water resources management in the Gio Linh district different adaptive scenarios will be developed.

  14. Ground-water quality beneath irrigated agriculture in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, Breton W.; Becker, Mark F.; Pope, Larry M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, 30 water-quality monitoring wells were installed in the central High Plains aquifer to evaluate the quality of recently recharged ground water in areas of irrigated agriculture and to identify the factors affecting ground-water quality. Wells were installed adjacent to irrigated agricultural fields with 10- or 20-foot screened intervals placed near the water table. Each well was sampled once for about 100 waterquality constituents associated with agricultural practices. Water samples from 70 percent of the wells (21 of 30 sites) contained nitrate concentrations larger than expected background concentrations (about 3 mg/L as N) and detectable pesticides. Atrazine or its metabolite, deethylatrazine, were detected with greater frequency than other pesticides and were present in all 21 samples where pesticides were detected. The 21 samples with detectable pesticides also contained tritium concentrations large enough to indicate that at least some part of the water sample had been recharged within about the last 50 years. These 21 ground-water samples are considered to show water-quality effects related to irrigated agriculture. The remaining 9 groundwater samples contained no pesticides, small tritium concentrations, and nitrate concentrations less than 3.45 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. These samples are considered unaffected by the irrigated agricultural land-use setting. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate that commercial fertilizer was the dominant source of nitrate in 13 of the 21 samples affected by irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen isotope ratios for 4 of these 21 samples were indicative of an animal waste source. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in samples affected by irrigated agriculture, with large sulfate concentrations having strong correlation with large dissolved solids concentrations in these samples. A strong statistical correlation is shown between samples affected by irrigated agriculture and sites with large rates of pesticide and nitrogen applications and shallow depths to ground water.

  15. Potentiometric surface of the Black Creek Aquifer in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, December 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyke, William L.; Winner, M.D., Jr.; Brockman, Allen Richard

    1989-01-01

    Water level measurements were made in 95 wells open to the Black Creek aquifer at the end of 1986 to determine the configuration of its potentiometric surface over an area of about 4,900 sq mi in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The altitude of the potentiometric surface of the Black Creek ranges between 80 and 100 ft above sea level along the western limit of the aquifer. From there the potentiometric surface slopes southeasterly toward a large, elongated cone of depression that has coalesced from cones that have developed around three main pumping centers and several smaller ones. The potentiometric surface in the Black Creek has declined to more than 120 ft below sea level in the southernmost cone developing near Jacksonville in Onslow County.

  16. Key subsurface data help to refine Trinity aquifer hydrostratigraphic units, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, Charles D.; Clark, Allan K.

    2014-01-01

    The geologic framework and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers are important components for studying the nation’s subsurface heterogeneity and predicting its hydraulic budgets. Detailed study of an aquifer’s subsurface hydrostratigraphy is needed to understand both its geologic and hydrologic frameworks. Surface hydrostratigraphic mapping can also help characterize the spatial distribution and hydraulic connectivity of an aquifer’s permeable zones. Advances in three-dimensional (3-D) mapping and modeling have also enabled geoscientists to visualize the spatial relations between the saturated and unsaturated lithologies. This detailed study of two borehole cores, collected in 2001 on the Camp Stanley Storage Activity (CSSA) area, provided the foundation for revising a number of hydrostratigraphic units representing the middle zone of the Trinity aquifer. The CSSA area is a restricted military facility that encompasses approximately 4,000 acres and is located in Boerne, Texas, northwest of the city of San Antonio. Studying both the surface and subsurface geology of the CSSA area are integral parts of a U.S. Geological Survey project funded through the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. This modification of hydrostratigraphic units is being applied to all subsurface data used to construct a proposed 3-D EarthVision model of the CSSA area and areas to the south and west.

  17. Comparative evolution of Pennsylvanian platform margins in Oklahoma and north-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaves, A.W.; Puckette, J.O. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1991-08-01

    Pennsylvanian evolution of the Midland basin's eastern shelf and the northern shelves of the Anadarko and Arkoma basins demonstrates a strongly contrasting pattern with regard to the facies composition and stability of the shelf margin. For the Midland basin a carbonate ramp system developed adjacent to the Eastern shelf during the early Desmoinesian but received no coarse-grained clastic sediment until after the central Fort Worth basin was completely filled by Ouachita orogenic debris in the late Desmoinesian. At that time, a distinct north-south hingeline formed between the shelf and incipient Midland basin that allowed for subsequent vertical accretion of a Missourian-age double bank system. Due to the absence of active deltaic depocenters across the southern two-thirds of the shelf, the Missourian shelf margin did not prograde basinward nor did a submarine fan system develop adjacent to this reciprocal bank complex. Later, during the Virgilian, a single shelf-edge bank and submarine fan complex prograded the shelf edge westward. The shelf edges for the Anadarko and Arkoma basins demonstrate a significantly different pattern. Only during the late Desmoinesian (Marmaton Group) did a shelf-edge bank develop in association with shelf-slope reciprocal sedimentation. For the Anadarko basin, widespread submarine fans, fed from a northeasterly cratonic source, are first seen with Red Fork deposition. Post-Tonkawa cyclic sedimentation prograded the shelf edge southward and gave rise to a more carbonate-dominated shelf sequence. In virtually all instances the regressive submarine fan units indicate eustatic lowstands of sea level.

  18. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The East-Central Florida Transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into ET, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5,000 milligrams per liter in the Floridan aquifer system. Potential flow across the interface represented by this chloride concentration is simulated by the General Head Boundary Package. During 1995 through 2006, there were no major groundwater withdrawals near the freshwater and saline-water interface, making the general head boundary a suitable feature to estimate flow through the interface. The east-central Florida transient model was calibrated using the inverse parameter estimation code, PEST. Steady-state models for 1999 and 2003 were developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity (K) using average annual heads and spring flows as observations. The spatial variation of K was represented using zones of constant values in some layers, and pilot points in other layers. Estimated K values were within one order of magnitude of aquifer performance test data. A simulation of the final two years (2005-2006) of the 12-year model, with the K estimates from the steady-state calibration, was used to guide the estimation of specific yield and specific storage values. The final model yielded head and spring-flow residuals that met the calibration criteria for the 12-year transient simulation. The overall mean residual for heads, defining residual as simulated minus measured value, was -0.04 foot. The overall root-mean square residual for heads was less than 3.6 feet for each year in the 1995 to 2006 simulation period. The overall mean residual for spring flows was -0.3 cubic foot per second. The spatial distribution of head residuals was generally random, with some minor indications of bias. Simulated average ET over the 1995 to 2006 period was 34.47 inches per year, compared to the calculated average ET rate of 36.39 inches per year from the model-independent water-budget analysis. Simulated average net recharge to the surficial aquifer system was 3.58 inches per year, compared with the calculated average of 3.39 inches per year from the model-independent water-budget analysis. Groundwater withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system averaged about 920 million gallons per day, which i

  19. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffery B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The east-central Florida transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration, runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into evapotranspiration, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5,000 milligrams per liter in the Floridan aquifer system. Potential flow across the interface represented by this chloride concentration is simulated by the General Head Boundary Package. During 1995 through 2006, there were no major groundwater withdrawals near the freshwater and saline-water interface, making the general head boundary a suitable feature to estimate flow through the interface. The east-central Florida transient model was calibrated using the inverse parameter estimation code, PEST. Steady-state models for 1999 and 2003 were developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity (K) using average annual heads and spring flows as observations. The spatial variation of K was represented using zones of constant values in some layers, and pilot points in other layers. Estimated K values were within one order of magnitude of aquifer performance test data. A simulation of the final two years (2005-2006) of the 12-year model, with the K estimates from the steady-state calibration, was used to guide the estimation of specific yield and specific storage values. The final model yielded head and spring-flow residuals that met the calibration criteria for the 12-year transient simulation. The overall mean residual for heads, defining residual as simulated minus measured value, was -0.04 foot. The overall root-mean square residual for heads was less than 3.6 feet for each year in the 1995 to 2006 simulation period. The overall mean residual for spring flows was -0.3 cubic foot per second. The spatial distribution of head residuals was generally random, with some minor indications of bias. Simulated average evapotranspiration (ET) over the 1995 to 2006 period was 34.5 inches per year, compared to the calculated average ET rate of 36.6 inches per year from the model-independent water-budget analysis. Simulated average net recharge to the surficial aquifer system was 3.6 inches per year, compared with the calculated average of 3.2 inches per year from the model-independent waterbudget analysis. Groundwater withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system averaged about 800 milli

  20. Simulated effects of ground-water development on potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, William Edward; Gerhart, James M.

    1980-01-01

    A digital model of two-dimensional ground-water flow was used to predict changes in the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, 1976-2000, in a 5,938-square-mile area of west-central Florida. In 1975, ground water withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer for irrigation, phosphate mines, other industries, and municipal supplies averaged about 649 million gallons per day. Rates are projected to increase to about 840 million gallons per day by 2000. The model was calibrated under steady-state and transient conditions. Input parameters included transmissivity and storage coefficient of the Floridan aquifer; thickness, vertical hydraulic conductivity, and storage coefficient of the upper confining bed; altitudes of the water table and potentiometric surface; and ground-water withdrawals. Simulation of May 1976 to May 2000, using projected combined pumping rates for municipal supplies, irrigation, and industry (including existing and proposed phosphate mines), resulted in a rise in the potentiometric surface of about 10 feet in Polk County, and a decline of about 35 feet in parts of Manatee and Hardee Counties. The lowest predicted potentiometric level was about 30 feet below sea level. Predicted declines for November 1976 to October 2000 were generally 5 to 10 feet less than those for May 1976 to May 2000. (USGS)

  1. Simulated effects of ground-water development on potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, W.E.; Gerhart, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    A digital model of two-dimensional ground-water flow was used to predict changes in the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, 1976 to 2000, in a 5,938-square-mile area of west-central Florida. In 1975, ground water withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer for irrigation, phosphate mines, other industries, and municipal supplies averaged about 649 million gallons per day. Rates are projected to increase to about 840 million gallons per day by 2000. The model was calibrated under steady-state and transient conditions. Input parameters included transmissivity and storage coefficient of the Floridan aquifer; thickness, vertical hydraulic conductivity, and storage coefficient of the upper confining bed; altitudes of the water table and potentiometric surface; and ground-water withdrawals. Simulation of May 1976 to May 2000, using projected combined pumping rates for municipal supplies, irrigation, and industry (including existing and proposed phosphate mines), resulted in a rise in the potentiometric surface of about 10 feet in Polk County, and a decline of about 35 feet in parts of Manatee and Hardee Counties. The lowest predicted potentiometric level was about 30 feet below sea level. Predicted declines for November 1976 to October 2000 were generally 5 to 10 feet less than those for May 1976 to May 2000. (USGS)

  2. ADAPTATIONS OF INDIGENOUS BACTERIA TO FUEL CONTAMINATION IN KARST AQUIFERS IN SOUTH-CENTRAL KENTUCKY

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byl, Thomas D.; Metge, David W.; Daniel T. Agymang; Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The karst aquifer systems in southern Kentucky can be dynamic and quick to change. Microorganisms that live in these unpredictable aquifers are constantly faced with environmental changes. Their survival depends upon adaptations to changes in water chemistry, taking advantage of positive stimuli and avoiding negative environmental conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2001 to determine the capability of bacteria to adapt in two distinct regions of water quality in a karst aquifer, an area of clean, oxygenated groundwater and an area where the groundwater was oxygen depleted and contaminated by jet fuel. Water samples containing bacteria were collected from one clean well and two jet fuel contaminated wells in a conduit-dominated karst aquifer. Bacterial concentrations, enumerated through direct count, ranged from 500,000 to 2.7 million bacteria per mL in the clean portion of the aquifer, and 200,000 to 3.2 million bacteria per mL in the contaminated portion of the aquifer over a twelve month period. Bacteria from the clean well ranged in size from 0.2 to 2.5 mm, whereas bacteria from one fuel-contaminated well were generally larger, ranging in size from 0.2 to 3.9 mm. Also, bacteria collected from the clean well had a higher density and, consequently, were more inclined to sink than bacteria collected from contaminated wells. Bacteria collected from the clean portion of the karst aquifer were predominantly (,95%) Gram-negative and more likely to have flagella present than bacteria collected from the contaminated wells, which included a substantial fraction (,30%) of Gram-positive varieties. The ability of the bacteria from the clean portion of the karst aquifer to biodegrade benzene and toluene was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in laboratory microcosms. The rate of fuel biodegradation in laboratory studies was approximately 50 times faster under aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic, sulfur-reducing conditions. The optimum pH for fuel biodegradation ranged from 6 to 7. These findings suggest that bacteria have adapted to water-saturated karst systems with a variety of active and passive transport mechanisms.

  3. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF A SHALLOW UNCONFINED GROUND WATER AQUIFER POLLUTED BY MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microflora of a shallow anoxic aquifer underlying a municipal landfill In Oklahoma was characterized by direct light microscopy, most probable number of determinations of sulfate reducers and methanogens, and measurements of methanogenesis in aquifer samples containing either...

  4. Quantification of aquifer properties with surface nuclear magnetic resonance in the Platte River valley, central Nebraska, using a novel inversion method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irons, Trevor P.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Steele, Gregory V.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Woodward, Duane D.

    2012-01-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance, a noninvasive geophysical method, measures a signal directly related to the amount of water in the subsurface. This allows for low-cost quantitative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In practice, however, additional factors influence the signal, complicating interpretation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District, evaluated whether hydraulic parameters derived from surface nuclear magnetic resonance data could provide valuable input into groundwater models used for evaluating water-management practices. Two calibration sites in Dawson County, Nebraska, were chosen based on previous detailed hydrogeologic and geophysical investigations. At both sites, surface nuclear magnetic resonance data were collected, and derived parameters were compared with results from four constant-discharge aquifer tests previously conducted at those same sites. Additionally, borehole electromagnetic-induction flowmeter data were analyzed as a less-expensive surrogate for traditional aquifer tests. Building on recent work, a novel surface nuclear magnetic resonance modeling and inversion method was developed that incorporates electrical conductivity and effects due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities, both of which can have a substantial impact on the data. After comparing surface nuclear magnetic resonance inversions at the two calibration sites, the nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived parameters were compared with previously performed aquifer tests in the Central Platte Natural Resources District. This comparison served as a blind test for the developed method. The nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived aquifer parameters were in agreement with results of aquifer tests where the environmental noise allowed data collection and the aquifer test zones overlapped with the surface nuclear magnetic resonance testing. In some cases, the previously performed aquifer tests were not designed fully to characterize the aquifer, and the surface nuclear magnetic resonance was able to provide missing data. In favorable locations, surface nuclear magnetic resonance is able to provide valuable noninvasive information about aquifer parameters and should be a useful tool for groundwater managers in Nebraska.

  5. Properties and chemical constituents in ground water from the lower Wilcox Aquifer, Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Busby, John F.; Beckman, Jeffery D.

    1993-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers composed of sediments of mostly Cenozoic age that underlie about 230,000 sq mi of the Gulf Coastal Plain. These regional aquifers are part of three aquifer systems: (1) the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, (2) the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System, and (3) the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System. The water chemistry of the Lower Wilcox Aquifer, which is part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System is presented by a series of maps. These maps show the areal distribution of (1) the concentration of dissolved solids and temperature, (2) the primary water types and pH, (3) the concentration of major ions and silica, and (4) the milliequivalent ratios of selected ions. Dissolved constituents, pH, temperature, and ratios are based on the median values of all samples in each 100-sq-mi area. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer ranges from 18 mg/L near the outcrop in western Tennessee to 122,000 mg/L in a down-dip area in southern Mississippi. The primary water type is calcium bicarbonate in the outcrop area and sodium bicarbonate in all other areas of the aquifer within the limits of available data. The concentrations of major ions generally increase from the outcrop area to the down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio maps of selected ions in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer indicate some trends. The milliequivalent ratio of magnesium plus calcium to bicarbonate ranges from less than 0.1 to 40.4 and generally decreases from outcrop to down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio of bicarbonate to chloride ranges from 0.01 in southern Mississippi to 52.3 in northwestern Mississippi. This ratio increases from the outcrop toward the Mississippi River and from north to south in the northern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River whereas the ratio increases from outcrop to mid-dip and decreases from mid-dip to down-dip limit of the data in the southern part east of the Mississippi River.

  6. Ground-water quality in Quaternary deposits of the central High Plains aquifer, south-central Kansas, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Bruce, Breton W.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    2001-01-01

    Water samples from 20 randomly selected domestic water-supply wells completed in the Quaternary deposits of south-central Kansas were collected as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The samples were analyzed for about 170 water-quality constituents that included physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and radon. The purpose of this study was to provide a broad overview of ground-water quality in a major geologic subunit of the High Plains aquifer. Water from five wells (25 percent) exceeded the 500-milligrams-per-liter of dissolved solids Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water. The Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels of 250 milligrams per liter for chloride and sulfate were exceeded in water from one well each. The source of these dissolved solids was probably natural processes. Concentrations of most nutrients in water from the sampled wells were small, with the exception of nitrate. Water from 15 percent of the sampled wells had concentrations of nitrate greater than the 10-milligram-per-liter Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water. Water from 80 percent of the sampled wells showed nitrate enrichment (concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter), which is more than what might be expected for natural background concentrations. This enrichment may be the result of synthetic fertilizer applications, the addition of soil amendment (manure) on cropland, or livestock production. Most trace elements in water from the sampled wells were detected only in small concentrations, and few exceeded respective water-quality standards. Only arsenic was detected in one well sample at a concentration (240 micrograms per liter) that exceeded its proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (5.0 micrograms per liter). Additionally, one concentration of iron and two concentrations of manganese were larger than the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels of 300 and 50 micrograms per liter, respectively. Some occurrences of trace elements may have originated from human-related sources; however, the generally small concentrations that were measured probably reflect mostly natural sources for these constituents. A total of 47 pesticide compounds from several classes of herbicides and insecticides that included triazine, organophosphorus, organochlorine, and carbamate compounds and three pesticide degradation products were analyzed in ground-water samples during this study. Water from 50 percent of the wells sampled had detectable concentrations of one or more of these 47 compounds. The herbicide atrazine and its degradation product deethylatrazine were detected most frequently (in water from eight and nine wells, respectively); other pesticides detected were the insecticides carbofuran (in water from one well) and diazinon (in water from one well), and the herbicide metolachlor (in water from two wells). However, all concentrations of these compounds were small and substantially less than established Maximum Contaminant Levels. The use of pesticides in crop production probably is largely responsible for the occurrence of pesticides in the ground-water samples collected during this study. Although concentrations of detected pesticides were small (relative to established Maximum Contaminant Levels), the synergistic effect of these concentrations and long-term exposure to multiple pesticides on human health are unknown. Water samples from the Quaternary deposits were analyzed for 85 volatile organic compounds. Water from two wells (10 percent) had a detectable concentration of a volatile organic compound. Chloroform was detected at concen-trations of 0.18 and 0.25 microgram per liter, substantially less than the 100-microgram-per-liter Maximum Contaminant Level for total trihalomethanes. In general, the occurrence and detectio

  7. Hydrochemistry of the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, East-Central Illinois: indicators of recharge and ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, Chao-Li

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual model of the ground-water flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA), east-central Illinois, was developed using major ion chemistry and isotope geochemistry. The MVA is a 'basal' fill in the east-west trending buried bedrock valley composed of clean, permeable sand and gravel to thicknesses of up to 61 m. It is covered by a thick sequence of glacial till containing thinner bodies of interbedded sand and gravel. Ground water from the MVA was found to be characterized by clearly defined geochemical regions with three distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west. Ground water in the Onarga Valley, a northeastern tributary of the MVA, is of two types, a mixed cation-SO42- type and a mixed cation-HCO3- type. The ground water is enriched in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- which appears to be the result of an upward hydraulic gradient and interaction of deeper ground water with oxidized pyritic coals and shale. We suggest that recharge to the Onarga Valley and overlying aquifers is 100% from bedrock (leakage) and lateral flow from the MVA to the south. The central MVA (south of the Onarga Valley) is composed of relatively dilute ground water of a mixed cation-HCO3- type, with low total dissolved solids, and very low concentrations of Cl- and SO42-. Stratigraphic relationships of overlying aquifers and ground-water chemistry of these and the MVA suggest recharge to this region of the MVA (predominantly in Champaign County) is relatively rapid and primarily from the surface. Midway along the westerly flow path of the MVA (western MVA), ground water is a mixed cation-HCO3- type with relatively high Cl-, where Cl- increases abruptly by one to ??? two orders of magnitude. Data suggest that the increase in Cl- is the result of leakage of saline ground water from bedrock into the MVA. Mass-balance calculations indicate that approximately 9.5% of recharge in this area is from bedrock. Concentrations of Na+, HCO3-, As, and TDS also increase in the western MVA. Ground water in the MAK is of a Ca2+-HCO3- type. Mass-balance calculations, using Cl- as a natural, conservative tracer, indicate that approximately 17% of the ground water flowing from the confluence area is derived from the MVA.

  8. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudduha, M.; Uddin, A.; Saunders, J. A.; Lee, M.-K.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 µg/L to 191 µg/L with a mean concentration of 33 µg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO3 type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO4. The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 µg/L. Deeper aquifer (> 100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 µg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions.

  9. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamsudduha, M; Uddin, A; Saunders, J A; Lee, M-K

    2008-07-29

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 microg/L to 191 microg/L with a mean concentration of 33 microg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO(3) type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO(4). The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 microg/L. Deeper aquifer (>100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 microg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions. PMID:18502538

  10. Assessing Groundwater Availability in the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.; Christenson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Resources Program is conducting an assessment of groundwater availability to gain a clearer understanding of the status of the Nation's groundwater resources and the natural and human factors that can affect those resources. The goals of this national effort are to define the current status and improve understanding of the Nation's groundwater resources, to better estimate availability and suitability of those resources for use in the future, and to provide tools to estimate the future availability of ground-water for its various uses. Assessments will be completed for regional aquifer systems across the Nation to help characterize how much water we have, where groundwater resources are most stressed, how groundwater availability is changing, and where groundwater resources are most available for future use.

  11. Estimation of Recharge to the Middle Trinity Aquifer of Central Texas Using Water-Level Fluctuations 

    E-print Network

    Jennings, Marshall; Chad, Thomas; Burch, John; Creutzburg, Brian; Lambert, Lance

    2001-01-01

    . The TWDB also provided used equipment and installation support for continuous (analog) water-level monitoring equipment at well sites near Dripping Springs, Kerrville, Fredericksburg, and Blanco, TX, and assisted Edwards Aquifer Research & Data Center staff... and forming a stair-step, karst topography. For the purposes of this study, daily rainfall information was obtained from online databases from the National Climatic Data Center and in person (provisional records September – December, 2000) from the National...

  12. Estimation of Recharge to the Middle Trinity Aquifer of Central Texas Using Water-Level Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Jennings, Marshall; Chad, Thomas; Burch, John; Creutzburg, Brian; Lambert, Lance

    , 57-41-403, 1999-2000 ...38 Figure 16. Water Level and Rainfall, Hays County, 57-45-401, 1999-2000..........39 Figure 17. Water Level and Rainfall, Hays County, 57-63-703, 1999-2000..........40 Figure 18. Water Level and Rainfall, Kendall County, 57... of dry years followed by normal or even wet years, e.g. 1999-2000, cause baseflow in rivers and creeks to be irregular and cease in some years. In wet years, baseflow representing aquifer discharge can continue for months. This irregular nature...

  13. Fens, seasonal wetlands, and the unconfined pumice aquifer east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, M. L.; Large, A.; Mowbray, A.; Weatherford, J.; Webb, B.

    2013-12-01

    Fens and seasonal wetlands in the headwaters of the Klamath and Deschutes river basins in south-central Oregon are present in an area blanketed by 2 to 3 m of pumice during the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama. The lower pumice unit, moderately sorted coarse pumice lapilli to blocks (0.3 to 0.7 cm), phenocrysts, and lithics is 1.5 to 2 m thick; the upper pumice unit, poorly sorted lapilli to blocks (0.2 to 6 cm), minor phenocrysts, and lithics is 1 m thick. Pumice is a perched, unconfined aquifer over low permeability bedrock or pre-eruption fine-grained sediment. Early landscape response included partial erosion of pumice from pre-eruption valleys followed by partial filling by alluvium: phenocryst- and lithic-rich sand grading upward to glassy silt with rounded pumice pebbles. Groundwater-fed wetlands, fens, associated with the unconfined pumice aquifer occur as areas of diffuse groundwater discharge through gently sloping, convex surfaces underlain by up to 1.4 m of peat. Locally, focused discharge through the confining peat layer feeds low discharge streams. Carnivorous plants (sundews and pitcher plants) may be present. The sharp contact between peat and underlying pumice is an erosion surface that cuts progressively deeper into the upper and lower pumice units downslope. At the base of the slope peat with fen discharge feeding surface flow, alluvium with no surface flow, or a subtle berm separating the slope underlain by peat from the valley bottom underlain by alluvium may be present. Distinct vegetation changes take place at this transition. The erosion surface that underlies the peat layer in the fen is at the surface on the opposing valley wall and progressively rises up through the lower and upper pumice units: iron staining and cementation of pumice is locally prominent. Up to 1.5 m difference in water table occurs between the fen and opposing valley wall. Water table in piezometers screened in peat is at the surface. Locally, water table screened in pumice below the peat confining layer is up to 24 cm above the surface. Electrical conductivity in groundwater from the unconfined pumice aquifer ranged between 20 and 45 ?S/cm. Rarely, electrical conductivity greater than 250 ?S/cm is measured. Hydrochemistry indicates these waters are distinctly different (Ca-bicarbonate, [Fe] up to 22 mg/l) from water commonly encountered in the unconfined pumice aquifer (Na-bicarbonate, [Fe] less than 0.07 mg/l). Seasonally elevated water tables are present where pre-eruption topography allows snowmelt to accumulate in the unconfined pumice aquifer in valley bottoms and upland surfaces. Differential hardness of volcanic bedrock units control distribution in valley bottoms; emplacement processes and weathering of flow tops control distribution in upland settings. In both settings the lower pumice unit is saturated, but the upper pumice unit may be absent or thin. Alluvium commonly overlies pumice in valley bottoms. The water table may fluctuate up to 1.5 m from the spring snowmelt to late summer. Electrical conductivity in the pumice aquifer ranges between 19 and 250 ?S/cm and commonly increases at single sites as the dry season progresses.

  14. COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRACERS FOR ESTIMATION OF RECHARGE RATES IN THE GAM MODEL OF THE CENTRAL CARRIZO-WILCOX AQUIFER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Reedy; Bridget R. Scanlon; Alan R. Dutton

    The study area is in the outcrop area of the Simsboro Formation in the central part of the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer (fig. A-1). The Simsboro Formation generally consists of coarse- grained sediments, and recharge studies focused on this unit because recharge rates were expected to be higher in this than in other units of the Wilcox Group. The topography consists of

  15. Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline pH values (6.9-7.4) were detected in samples from one well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer, three production wells in the Rush Springs aquifer, and one well in an undefined Permian-aged aquifer. All well-head samples were oxic and arsenate was the only species of arsenic in water from 10 of the 12 production wells sampled. Arsenite was measured above the laboratory reporting level in water from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer and was the only arsenic species measured in water from the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer. Fluoride and uranium were the only trace elements, other than arsenic, that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water in well-head samples collected for the study. Uranium concentrations in four production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer ranged from 30.2 to 99 micrograms per liter exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 30 micrograms per liter for drinking water. Water from these four wells also had the largest arsenic concentrations measured in the study ranging from 30 to 124 micrograms

  16. Aerosol Optical and Chemical Properties Within and Without Clouds During an Airborne Field Campaign in Central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, E.; Lee, Y.; Alexander, M. L.; Hubbe, J. M.; Ogren, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are one of the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles' lifetime in the atmosphere. Here we present preliminary results showing aerosol optical and chemical properties obtained during the CHAPS field campaign within cloud drops and outside of clouds. The Cumulis Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS), sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program (ASP), took place in the vicinity of Oklahoma City in June, 2007. The intention of the study was to investigate the influence of clouds on aerosols and of aerosol on clouds. Duplicate sets of in-situ aerosol optical instruments were deployed on the ASP G-1 aircraft during the CHAPS campaign. One set of instruments was downstream of an isokinetic inlet designed to sample the ambient aerosol, the other set was downstream of a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) designed to sample and dry cloud droplets so that the cloud drop nuclei could be studied. Each instrument set comprised a 3-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and integrating nephelometer to provide spectral aerosol absorption, scattering and back-scattering and a particle counter to obtain aerosol number concentration. In addition, a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS) was able to sample on either inlet to provide information about the non-refractory chemical composition of the aerosol and cloud drop residuals. The data presented here will describe both how aerosol optical properties change upstream and downstream of a mid-size conurbation (Oklahoma City) and how ambient aerosol optical properties differ from those of the cloud drop nuclei. These changes in aerosol optical properties will be placed in the context of differences in chemical composition derived from the ToF-AMS.

  17. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1960

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1986-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is part of a regional aquifer system that extends into Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part of the State. The aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits. In western Kansas, the High Plains aquifer consists principally of the Ogallala Formation of the late Tertiary age and the overlying deposits of Quaternary age. In south-central Kansas, the aquifer consists of unconsolidated deposits principally of Quaternary age. Valley alluvium of Quaternary age also is included in the deposits in both areas. The High Plains aquifer is delimited on the east by outcrops of Permian or Cretaceous rocks and by unsaturated deposits of Quaternary age. The altitude and configuration of the water table during 1960 are shown for the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. The water table sloped generally from west to east at an average rate of 10 feet per mile. The altitude of the water table ranged from about 3,900 feet in the southwest corner of Sherman County, northwestern Kansas, to about 1,350 feet in northern Sedgwick County, southcentral Kansas. Groundwater moves perpendicular to the water table contours from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the east. Contours that cross stream valleys without flexure may indicate that the water table was below the streambed. Upstream flexure of water table contours along streams indicates that groundwater flowed toward, and discharged into, streams. This is most evident along the South Fork Republican River in Cheyenne County, Northwestern Kansas, and the South Fork Ninnescah River in Pratt and Kingman Counties, south-central Kansas. (USGS)

  18. Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.

    2009-04-01

    Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region Despite India's tremendous progress on all fronts after independence in 1947, the fact remains that it is one of the poorest nation in the world in terms of per capita income and energy consumption which is considered to be the gauge of the economic situation of any country. In case of India, it is nearly one tenth of the developed nations. If economic condition of its people is to be raised, then country has to boost its agriculture production which is largely monsoon dependent and to exploit its conventional and unconventional energy sources at a very rapid growth rate. Although, worldwide, 70% of the water that is withdrawn for human use is used for agriculture, 22% for industry and 8% is used for domestic services. But in India which is a low income country, 82% is used for agriculture, 10% for industry and 8% for domestic services. Therefore, India needs new sources of water to reduce the risk of dependency on the monsoon for the Sustainable Development of the country. It is in this connection that the Ambikapur Basin in the Central India has been studied for sustainable water withdrawal. At present, the crops in the Ambikapur region are totally monsoon dependent. However, with the initiatives of the State Government, 25 boreholes in an area of about 25 square kilometers have been drilled up to a depth of 500m and completed in the Gondwana sandstone. The water quality and the discharge rates have been established to sustain the crops of the area which is the only livelihood of the local people , in case the monsoon fails. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer like Transmissivity (T) and the Coefficient of Storage (S) were determined following the graphic method of Jacob and Theis. The rate of discharge (Q) of the pumped well was estimated at 4.05 x 10 to the power 3 cubic meters per second and the values of other parameters like T at the well being 2.5 x 10 to the power 3 square meters per second and, T and S at the piezometric head being 1.56 x 10 to the power 2 square meters per second and 5.8 % respectively. The Interference Tests show that the reservoir is communicable. The measurements of bottom hole pressure indicate that it was always greater than the hydrostatic pressure, therefore, the wells will have a self flow. The residency period of the water in the reservoir comes out to be nearly 30 to 40 years. The reservoir characteristics indicate that the Ambikapur aquifer offers vast water resource worth exploiting the judicious management of which can reduce the dependency of crops on the monsoon and can help a fast sustainable development of the region. Key words : Gondwana sandstone, Aquifer, Transmissivity, Piezometric head, Interference test,

  19. Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Rupert, M.G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for NO3 contamination in agricultural areas.

  20. Assessment of nonpoint-source contamination of the High Plains Aquifer in south-central Kansas, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgesen, John O.; Stullken, Lloyd E.; Rutledge, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water quality was assessed in a 5,000-square-mile area of the High Plains aquifer in south-central Kansas that is susceptible to nonpoint-source contamination from agricultural and petroleum-production activities. Of particular interest was the presence of agricultural chemicals and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons that might have been associated with brines that formerly were disposed into unlined ponds. Random sampling of ground water was done within a framework of discrete land-use areas (irrigated cropland, petroleum-production land containing former brine-disposal ponds, and undeveloped rangeland) of 3-10 square miles. Although true baseline water-quality conditions probably are rare, in this region they are represented most closely by ground water in areas of undeveloped rangeland. The sampling design enabled statistical hypothesis testing, using nonparametric procedures, of the effects of land use, unsaturated-zone lithology, and type of well sampled. Results indicate that regional ground-water quality has been affected by prevailing land-use activities, as shown by increased concentrations of several inorganic constituents. Ground water beneath irrigated cropland was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, potassium, fluofide, and nitrite plus nitrate than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Few nondegraded pesticides were detected in the aquifer, probably because of degradation and sorption. Atrazine was the most common, but only in small concentrations. round water beneath petroleum-production land was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Nonpoint-source contamination by oil-derived hydrocarbons was not discernible. The occurrences of trace organic compounds were similar between petroleum-production land and undeveloped rangeland, which indicates a natural origin for these compounds. The unsaturated zone in the study area is lithologically heterogeneous and contains substantial amounts of clay that inhibit the downward movement of water and solutes. Within the aquifer, the rate of lateral regional flow and solute transport is slow enough so that the ground-water quality reflects overlying land use in discrete areas of several square miles, but it is still sufficiently rapid so that the type of well sampled is not important in regional characterizations of water quality beneath irrigated cropland; the seasonal pumping of irrigation wells does not appear to divert regional flow enough to cause substantial local anomalies of more mineralized ground water.

  1. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Schalk, Charles W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 ?g/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45 ?m). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000 g/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The ?D and ?18O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater.

  2. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W; Nielsen, Martha G; Schalk, Charles W; Johnson, Carole D; Marvinney, Robert G; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 ?g/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45 ?m). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000 mg/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The ?D and ?(18)O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater. PMID:24842411

  3. Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma agriculture affects each of us every day, young and old, whether we live in largely rural regions or the state's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources promotes sustainable land use and embraces the land

  4. Regional evaluation of the hydrogeologic framework, hydraulic properties, and chemical characteristics of the intermediate aquifer system underlying southern west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2006-01-01

    Three major aquifer systems-the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system, and the Floridan aquifer system-are recognized in the approximately 5,100-square-mile southern west-central Florida study area. The principal source of freshwater for all uses is ground water supplied from the three aquifer systems. Ground water from the intermediate aquifer system is considered only moderately abundant compared to the Upper Floridan aquifer, but it is an important source of water where the Upper Floridan aquifer contains water too mineralized for most uses. In the study area, the potential ground-water resources of the intermediate aquifer system were evaluated by regionally assessing the vertical and lateral distribution of hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics. Although the intermediate aquifer system is considered a single entity, it is composed of multiple water-bearing zones separated by confining units. Deposition of a complex assemblage of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments during the late Oligocene to early Pliocene time resulted in discontinuities that are reflected in transitional and abrupt contacts between facies. Discontinuous facies produce water-bearing zones that may be locally well-connected or culminate abruptly. Changes in the depositional environment created the multilayered intermediate aquifer system that contains as many as three zones of enhanced water-bearing capacity. The water-bearing zones consist of indurated limestone and dolostone and in some places unindurated sand, gravel, and shell beds, and these zones are designated, in descending order, as Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3. Zone 1 is thinnest (<80 feet thick) and is limited to <20 percent (southern part) of the study area. Zone 2, the only regionally extensive zone, is characterized by moderately low permeability. Zone 3 is found in about 50 percent of the study area, has the highest transmissivities, and generally is in good hydraulic connection with the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. In parts of the study area, particularly in southwestern Hillsborough County and southeastern De Soto and Charlotte Counties, Zone 3 likely is contiguous with and part of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Transmissivity of the intermediate aquifer system ranges over five orders of magnitude from about 1 to more than 40,000 feet squared per day (ft2/d), but rarely exceeds 10,000 ft2/d. The overall transmissivity of the intermediate aquifer system is substantially lower (2 to 3 orders of magnitude) than the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. Transmissivity varies vertically among the zones within the intermediate aquifer system; Zone 2 has the lowest median transmissivity (700 ft2/d), Zone 1 has a moderate median transmissivity (2,250 ft2/d), and Zone 3 has the highest median transmissivity (3,400 ft2/d). Additionally, the transmissivity varies geographically (from site to site) within a zone. Specifically, a region of relatively low transmissivity (<100 ft2/d) throughout the vertical extent of the intermediate aquifer system is present in the central part of the study area. This low transmissivity region is encompassed by a larger region of moderately low transmissivity (<1,000 ft2/d) that covers a large part of the study area. Clay beds and fine-grained carbonates form the confining units between the water-bearing zones and are characterized by low leakance. Leakance through the intermediate aquifer system confining units ranges over 4 orders of magnitude from 4.2x10-7 to 6.0x10-3 feet per day per foot [(ft/d)/ft]. Despite the large range, the geometric mean and median leakances of individual confining units are within the same order of magnitude, 10-5 (ft/d)/ft, which is 2 orders of magnitude less than the median leakance of the semiconfining unit within the Upper Floridan aquifer. Major ion concentrations in water from the intermediate aquifer system, and throughout the ground-water flow system, generally increase with depth. T

  5. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium radioisotopes in 9 of the 12 samples (75 percent). The concentration of radium-224 exceeded that of radium-226 in five of the six (83 percent) samples when both were quantifiable. The radium concentration distribution differed by aquifer, with the highest Ra-228 concentrations present in the Englishtown aquifer system and the highest Ra-226 concentrations present in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer. Radium-224 generally contributed a considerable amount of gross alpha-particle activity to water produced from all the sampled aquifers, but was not the dominant radionuclide as it is in water from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, nor were concentrations greater than 1 pCi/L of radium-224 widespread. Gross alpha-particle activity was found to exceed the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 15 pCi/L in one sample (16 pCi/L) from the Vincentown aquifer. A greater part of the gross alpha-particle activity in water from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer resulted from the decay of Ra-226 than did the gross alpha-particle activity in the other sampled aquifers; this relation is consistent with the concentration distribution of the Ra-226 itself. Concentrations of radium-224 correlate strongly with those of both radium-226 and radium-228 (Spearman correlation coefficients, r, +0.86 and +0.66, respectively). The greatest concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were present in the most acidic ground water. All radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 concentrations greater than 2.5 pCi/L were present in ground-water samples with a pH less than 5.0. The presence of combined radium-226 and radium-228 concentrations greater than 5 pCi/L in samples from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Englishtown aquifer system was not nearly as common as in samples from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, likely because of the slightly higher pH of water from these aquifers relative to that of Kirkwood-Cohansey aqu

  6. Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Central Valley Aquifer System near Modesto, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Burow, Karen R.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Modesto, California. The well selected for study pumps on average about 1,600 gallons per minute from the Central Valley aquifer system during peak summer demand. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in the Modesto vicinity. Samples from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents uranium, nitrate, arsenic, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although none were present at concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards. Of these contaminants, uranium and nitrate pose the most significant water-quality risk to the public-supply well because human activities have caused concentrations in groundwater to increase over time. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and (or) fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Modesto: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) irrigation and agricultural and municipal pumping that drives contaminants downward into the primary production zone of the aquifer; (3) short-circuiting of contaminated water down the public-supply well during the low-pumping season; and (4) natural geochemical conditions of the aquifer. A local-scale computer model of groundwater flow and transport to the public-supply well was constructed to simulate long-term nitrate and uranium concentrations reaching the well. With regard to nitrate, two conflicting processes influence concentrations in the area contributing recharge to the well: (1) Beneath land that is being farmed or has recently been farmed (within the last 10 to 20 years), downward-moving irrigation waters contain elevated nitrate concentrations; yet (2) the proportion of agricultural land has decreased and the proportion of urban land has increased since 1960. Urban land use is associated with low nitrate concentrations in recharge (3.1 milligrams per liter). Results of the simulation indicate that nitrate concentrations in the public-supply well peaked in the late 1990s and will decrease slightly from the current level of 5.5 milligrams per liter during the next 100 years. A lag time of 20 to 30 years between peak nitrate concentrations in recharge and peak concentrations in the well is the result of the wide range of ages of water reaching the public-supply well combined with changing nitrogen input concentrations over time. As for uranium, simulation results show that concentrations in the public-supply well will likely approach the Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter over time; however, it will take more than 100 years because of the contribution of old water at depth in the public-supply well that dilutes uranium concentrations in shallower water entering the well. This allows time to evaluate management strategies and to alter well-construction or pumping strategies to prevent uranium concentrations from exceeding the drinking-water standard.

  7. Arsenic content in drinking-water supplies of an important volcanic aquifer in central Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Achene; Emanuele Ferretti; Luca Lucentini; Paola Pettine; Enrico Veschetti; Massimo Ottaviani

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated arsenic occurrence and distribution in ground waters of a large volcanic area in the central part of Italy. Samples were collected from 100 springs and wells currently supplying drinking water to the province of Viterbo. A complete chemical and physicochemical characterization of the samples was carried out. The concentration of the target element was

  8. Geomorphic and hydrologic assessment of erosion hazards at the Norman municipal landfill, Canadian River floodplain, Central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, J.A.; Whitney, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Norman, Oklahoma, municipal landfill closed in 1985 after 63 years of operation, because it was identified as a point source of hazardous leachate composed of organic and inorganic compounds. The landfill is located on the floodplain of the Canadian River, a sand-bed river characterized by erodible channel boundaries and by large variation in mean monthly discharges. In 1986, floodwaters eroded riprap protection at the southern end of the landfill and penetrated the landfill's clay cap, thereby exposing the landfill contents. The impact of this moderate-magnitude flood event (Q12) was the catalyst to investigate erosion hazards at the Norman landfill. This geomorphic investigation analyzed floodplain geomorphology and historical channel changes, flood-frequency distributions, an erosion threshold, the geomorphic effectiveness of discharge events, and other factors that influence erosion hazards at the landfill site. The erosion hazard at the Norman landfill is a function of the location of the landfill with respect to the channel thalweg, erosional resistance of the channel margins, magnitude and duration of discrete discharge events, channel form and hydraulic geometry, and cumulative effects related to a series of discharge events. Based on current climatic conditions and historical channel changes, a minimum erosion threshold is set at bankfull discharge (Q = 572 m3/s). The annual probability of exceeding this threshold is 0.53. In addition, this analysis indicates that peak stream power is less informative than total energy expenditures when estimating the erosion potential or geomorphic effectiveness of discrete discharge events. On the Canadian River, long-duration, moderate-magnitude floods can have larger total energy expenditures than shorter-duration, high-magnitude floods and therefore represent the most serious erosion hazard to floodplain structures.

  9. Conjunctive-use optimization model and sustainable-yield estimation for the Sparta aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.; Czarnecki, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Conjunctive-use optimization modeling was done to assist water managers and planners by estimating the maximum amount of ground water that hypothetically could be withdrawn from wells within the Sparta aquifer indefinitely without violating hydraulic-head or stream-discharge constraints. The Sparta aquifer is largely a confined aquifer of regional importance that comprises a sequence of unconsolidated sand units that are contained within the Sparta Sand. In 2000, more than 35.4 million cubic feet per day (Mft3/d) of water were withdrawn from the aquifer by more than 900 wells, primarily for industry, municipal supply, and crop irrigation in Arkansas. Continued, heavy withdrawals from the aquifer have caused several large cones of depression, lowering hydraulic heads below the top of the Sparta Sand in parts of Union and Columbia Counties and several areas in north-central Louisiana. Problems related to overdraft in the Sparta aquifer can result in increased drilling and pumping costs, reduced well yields, and degraded water quality in areas of large drawdown. A finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed for the Sparta aquifer using MODFLOW, primarily in eastern and southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Observed aquifer conditions in 1997 supported by numerical simulations of ground-water flow show that continued pumping at withdrawal rates representative of 1990 - 1997 rates cannot be sustained indefinitely without causing hydraulic heads to drop substantially below the top of the Sparta Sand in southern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Areas of ground-water levels below the top of the Sparta Sand have been designated as Critical Ground-Water Areas by the State of Arkansas. A steady-state conjunctive-use optimization model was developed to simulate optimized surface-water and ground-water withdrawals while maintaining hydraulic-head and streamflow constraints, thus determining the 'sustainable yield' for the aquifer. Initial attempts to estimate sustainable yield using simulated 1997 hydraulic heads as initial heads in Scenario 1 and 100 percent of the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rate as the lower specified limit in Scenario 2 led to infeasible results. Sustainable yield was estimated successfully for scenario 3 with three variations on the upper limit of withdrawal rates. Additionally, ground-water withdrawals in Union County were fixed at 35.6 percent of the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rate in Scenario 3. These fixed withdrawals are recognized by the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission to be sustainable as determined in a previous study. The optimized solutions maintained hydraulic heads at or above the top of the Sparta Sand (except in the outcrop areas where unconfined conditions occur) and streamflow within the outcrop areas was maintained at or above minimum levels. Scenario 3 used limits of 100, 150, and 200 percent of baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rates for the upper specified limit on 1,119 withdrawal decision variables (managed wells) resulting in estimated sustainable yields ranging from 11.6 to 13.2 Mft3/d in Arkansas and 0.3 to 0.5 Mft3/d in Louisiana. Assuming the total 2 Conjunctive-Use Optimization Model and Sustainable-Yield Estimation for the Sparta Aquifer of Southeastern Arkansas and North-Central Louisiana water demand is equal to the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rates, the sustainable yields estimated from the three scenarios only provide 52 to 59 percent of the total ground-water demand for Arkansas; the remainder is defined as unmet demand that could be obtained from large, sustainable surface-water withdrawals.

  10. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  11. Properties and chemical constituents in ground water from the middle Wilcox aquifer, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Busby, John F.; Beckman, Jeffery D.

    1993-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers composed of sediments of mostly Cenozoic age that underlie about 230,000 sq mi of the Gulf Coastal Plain. These regional aquifers are part of three aquifer systems: (1) the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, (2) the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System, and (3) the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System. The water chemistry of the Middle Wilcox Aquifer, which is part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System and the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System is presented by a series of maps. These maps show the area1 distribution of (1) the concentration of dissolved solids and temperature, (2) the primary water types and pH, (3) the concentration of major ions and silica, and (4) the milliequivalent ratios of selected ions. Dissolved constituents, pH, temperature, and ratios are based on the median values of all samples in each 100-sq-mi area. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Middle Wilcox Aquifer ranges from 26 mg/L in the northern part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System to 125,500 mg/L in a down-dip area in southeastern Texas. The primary water types, which are based on the most frequently observed type in each 100-sq-mi area, are calcium bicarbonate in the outcrop in Missouri, Kentucky, Mississippi, and southern Texas; sodium bicarbonate in the remaining outcrop areas and all areas from outcrop to mid-dip; and sodium chloride in all down-dip areas. The concentrations of major ions in water from the Middle Wilcox Aquifer generally increase from the outcrop area to the down-dip limit of the data. The milliequivalent ratio of magnesium plus calcium to bicarbonate ranges from less than 0.01 to 158 and generally decreases from outcrop to mid-dip and increases from mid-dip to the down-dip limit of the data. From the Sabine Uplift eastward to southwestern Alabama the ratio of bicarbonate to chloride generally decreases from outcrop to down-dip in the area west of the Mississippi River and shows localized trends east of the Mississippi River.

  12. Dissolved-solids concentrations and hydrochemical facies in water of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, P.W.; Ulery, R.L.; Rittmaster, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Much of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system contains freshwater, but sizable parts contain marginally fresh or slightly saline water. The predominant water type in the aquifer system is calcium bicarbonate; however, one of seven other hydrochemical facies characterizes the water in places. The median dissolved-solids concentration of water samples from the Edwards aquifer in the Balcones fault zone is 297 mg/L (milligrams per liter); the interquartile range is 93 mg/L. In the freshwater zone of the Edwards aquifer updip of a freshwater/saline-water transition zone, the water is almost exclusively calcium bicarbonate. The median dissolved-solids concentration of water samples from the Trinity aquifer in the Hill Country is 537 mg/L and the interquartile range is 573 mg/L. Four bicarbonate and sulfate facies, spread vertically throughout the saturated section, characterize most of the Hill Country analyses; calcium bicarbonate predominates. The median concentration of dissolved solids in water samples from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Edwards Plateau is 379 mg/L and the interquartile range is 547 mg/L. Freshwater is nearly everywhere in the southern and northeastern parts of the aquifer, and mostly slightly saline water is in the northwestern part. The distribution of hydrochemical facies shows a similar pattern to dissolved-solids concentration, with bicarbonate water nearly everywhere in the southern and northeastern parts of the aquifer. Sulfate and chloride facies characterize the northwestern part of the Edwards Plateau. The median concentration of dissolved solids among water samples from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Trans-Pecos is 929 mg/L and the interquartile range is 1,626 mg/L. Fresh, calcium bicarbonate water predominates in the southern part, and more saline mixed and sulfate waters are the most common in the northwestern part.

  13. Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for contamination of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Silver Springs ground-water basin, central Marion County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer, composed of a thick sequence of very porous limestone and dolomite, is the principal source of water supply in the Silver Springs ground-water basin of central Marion County, Florida. The karstic nature of the local geology makes the aquifer susceptible to contaminants from the land surface. Contaminants can enter the aquifer by seepage through surficial deposits and through sinkholes and drainage wells. Potential contaminants include agricultural chemicals, landfill leachates and petroleum products from leaking storage tanks and accidental spills. More than 560 sites of potential contamination sources were identified in the basin in 1990. Detailed investigation of four sites were used to define hydrologic conditions at representative sites. Ground-water flow velocities determined from dye trace studies ranged from about 1 foot per hour under natural flow conditions to about 10 feet per hour under pumping conditions, which is considerably higher than velocities estimated using Darcy's equation for steady-state flow in a porous medium. Water entering the aquifer through drainage wells contained bacteria, elevated concentrations of nutrients, manganese and zinc, and in places, low concentrations of organic compounds. On the basis of results from the sampling of 34 wells in 1989 and 1990, and from the sampling of water entering the Upper Floridan aquifer through drainage wells, there has been no widespread degradation of water quality in the study area. In an area of karst, particularly one in which fracture flow is significant, evaluating the effects from contaminants is difficult and special care is required when interpolating hydrogeologic data from regional studies to a specific. (USGS)

  14. Prokaryotic community structure in deep bedrock aquifers of the Austrian Central Alps.

    PubMed

    Larentis, Michael; Psenner, Roland; Alfreider, Albin

    2015-03-01

    The bacterial and archaeal diversity of deep groundwater systems was investigated based on 16S rRNA-SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) fingerprints. The study site included five boreholes along the projected Brenner Base Tunnel in the central Alps of Tyrol, Austria. To obtain representative samples, packer-sealed fractures were sampled at specific depths between 105 and 780 m below surface. Sequence analysis of SSCP bands obtained from 13 samples showed that between 29 and 62 % of the phylotypes belonged to a variety of Proteobacteria including representatives of typical freshwater bacteria of the genera Acidovorax, Aquabacterium, and Sphingomonas. Bacteroidetes (especially Flavobacterium), Firmicutes (Acetobacterium), and candidate division OP3-related sequences were observed in the majority of the analysed groundwaters. On average, 14 % of the detected prokaryotic phylotypes were affiliated with Archaea, comprising the phyla Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Most of the archaeal sequences showed low similarities to known cultivated species, with exception of two sequences having 98 % similarity to Methanosaeta sp. A considerable number of thaumarchaeal sequences belonged to two groups related to Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus phylotypes. An environmental clustering of the groundwater samples, based on the bacterial and archaeal phylogeny, revealed a clear distribution pattern of the samples (sites and depths) reflecting the hydrochemical characteristics and underlying geologies. PMID:25536902

  15. Demonstration optimization analyses of pumping from selected Arapahoe aquifer municipal wells in the west-central Denver Basin, Colorado, 2010–2109

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Declining water levels caused by withdrawals of water from wells in the west-central part of the Denver Basin bedrock-aquifer system have raised concerns with respect to the ability of the aquifer system to sustain production. The Arapahoe aquifer in particular is heavily used in this area. Two optimization analyses were conducted to demonstrate approaches that could be used to evaluate possible future pumping scenarios intended to prolong the productivity of the aquifer and to delay excessive loss of saturated thickness. These analyses were designed as demonstrations only, and were not intended as a comprehensive optimization study. Optimization analyses were based on a groundwater-flow model of the Denver Basin developed as part of a recently published U.S. Geological Survey groundwater-availability study. For each analysis an optimization problem was set up to maximize total withdrawal rate, subject to withdrawal-rate and hydraulic-head constraints, for 119 selected municipal water-supply wells located in 96 model cells. The optimization analyses were based on 50- and 100-year simulations of groundwater withdrawals. The optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells for a 50-year simulation time was about 58.8 cubic feet per second. For an analysis in which the simulation time and head-constraint time were extended to 100 years, the optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells was about 53.0 cubic feet per second, demonstrating that a reduction in withdrawal rate of about 10 percent may extend the time before the hydraulic-head constraints are violated by 50 years, provided that pumping rates are optimally distributed. Analysis of simulation results showed that initially, the pumping produces water primarily by release of water from storage in the Arapahoe aquifer. However, because confining layers between the Denver and Arapahoe aquifers are thin, in less than 5 years, most of the water removed by managed-flows pumping likely would be supplied by depleting overlying hydrogeologic units, substantially increasing the rate of decline of hydraulic heads in parts of the overlying Denver aquifer.

  16. InSAR detection of aquifer recovery: Case studies of Koehn Lake (central California) and Lone Tree Gold Mine (Basin and Range)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Greene, F.; Amelung, F.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic intervention in groundwater flow and aquifer storage often results in vertical movements of Earth's surface, which are well detected by InSAR observations. Most anthropogenic intervention occurs due to groundwater extraction for both agriculture and human consumption and results in land subsidence. However in some cases, ending anthropogenic intervention can lead to aquifer recovery and, consequently, surface uplift. In this study we present two such cases of aquifer recovery. The first case is the aquifer beneath Koehn Lake in Central California, which was overused to meet agricultural demands until the 1990's. The second case is the Lone Tree Gold Mine in Nevada that during active mining in the 1991-2006 groundwater pumping disrupted the aquifer and cause subsidence. But after mining ceased, groundwater flow was recovered and resulted in uplift. In both cases we studied the surface uplift using InSAR time series observations. We conduct an ERS and Envisat InSAR survey over Koehn Lake in California and Lone Tree Gold Mine in Nevada between 1992 and 2010. We followed the SBAS algorithm to generate a time-series of ground displacements and average velocities of pixels, which remain coherent through time in the SAR dataset. A total of 100 and 80 combined ERS and Envisat SAR dates are inverted for Koehn Lake and Lone Tree Gold Mine respectively. Results for the Koehn Lake area indicate a rapid uplift of about 3.5 mm/yr between 1992-2000 and a slower uplift rate of 1.6 mm/yr between 2000-2004, suggesting a decrease in the recovery process. The observed uplift correlates well with groundwater level increase in the Koehn Lake area. Results for the Lone Tree Gold Mine show a constant subsidence (~ 1 cm/yr) due to groundwater extraction between 1992-2006, but uplift of ~1 cm/yr since the beginning of 2007. In both case studies, InSAR observations reveal that the aquifer recovery is accompanied by surface uplift. We plan to use the InSAR observations and the groundwater level records to model and better understand aquifer recovery processes.

  17. Agriculture-related trends in groundwater quality of the glacial deposits aquifer, central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring and understanding trends in groundwater quality is necessary for determining whether changes in land-management practices have an effect on groundwater quality. This paper describes an approach that was used to measure and understand trends using data from two groundwater studies conducted in central Wisconsin as part of the USGS NAWQA program. One of the key components of this approach, determining the age of sampled groundwater, gave a temporal component to the snapshots of water quality that were obtained through synoptic-sampling efforts. This approach can be used at other locations where groundwater quality data are collected, groundwater age can be determined, and associated temporal data are available. Results of these studies indicate measured concentrations of nitrate and atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to historical patterns of fertilizer and atrazine use. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater have increased over time; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine increased and then decreased. Concentrations of nitrate also were correlated to screen depth below the water level and concentrations of dissolved O2; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to dissolved O2 and annual precipitation. To measure trends in concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine, the data, collected over a near-decadal period, were adjusted to account for changes in laboratory-reporting levels and analytical recoveries. Only after accounting for these changes was it apparent that the median concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine decreased over the near-decadal interval between sampling efforts. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of aquifer heterogeneity on ground-water flow and chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer near and within an active pumping well field, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tihansky, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations have been increasing over time in water from wells within and near the Eldridge-Wilde well field, near the coast in west-central Florida. Variable increases in chloride concentrations from well to well over time are the combined result of aquifer heterogeneity and ground-water pumping within the Upper Floridan aquifer. Deep mineralized water and saline water associated with the saltwater interface appear to move preferentially along flow zones of high transmissivity in response to ground-water withdrawals. The calcium-bicarbonate-type freshwater of the Upper Floridan aquifer within the study area is variably enriched with ions by mixing with introduced deep and saline ground water. The amount and variability of increases in chloride and sulfate concentrations at each well are related to well location, depth interval, and permeable intervals intercepted by the borehole. Zones of high transmissivity characterize the multilayered carbonate rocks of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Well-developed secondary porosity within the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones and the Avon Park Formation has created producing zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer. The highly transmissive sections of the Avon Park Formation generally are several orders of magnitude more permeable than the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, but both are associated with increased ground-water flow. The Ocala Limestone is less permeable and is dominated by primary, intergranular porosity. Acoustic televiewer logging, caliper logs, and borehole flow logs (both electromagnetic and heat pulse) indicate that the Tampa/Suwannee Limestone units are dominated by porosity owing to dissolution between 200 and 300 feet below land surface, whereas the porosity of the Avon Park Formation is dominated by fractures that occur primarily from 600 to 750 feet below land surface and range in angle from horizontal to near vertical. Although the Ocala Limestone can act as a semiconfining unit between the Avon Park Formation and the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, seismic-reflection data and photolinear analyses indicate that fractures and discontinuities in the Ocala Limestone are present within the southwestern part of the well field. It is possible that some fracture zones extend upward from the Avon Park Formation through the Ocala, Suwannee, and Tampa Limestones to land surface. These fractures may provide a more direct hydrologic connection between transmissive zones that are vertically separated by less permeable stratigraphic units. Ground water moves along permeable zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer in response to changes in head gradients as a result of pumping. Borehole geophysical measurements, including flow logs, specific conductance logs, and continuous monitoring of specific conductance at selected fixed depths, indicate that borehole specific conductance varies substantially with time and in response to pumping stresses. Ground-water mixing between hydrogeologic units likely occurs along highly transmissive zones and within boreholes of active production wells. Ground-water movement and water-quality changes were greatest along the most transmissive zones. Variable mixing of three water-type end members (freshwater, deepwater, and saltwater) occurs throughout the study area. Both deepwater and saltwater are likely sources for elevated chloride and sulfate concentrations in ground water. Mass-balance calculations of mixtures of the three end members indicate that deepwater is found throughout the aquifer units. Samples from wells within the southwestern part of the well field indicate that deepwater migrates into the shallow permeable units in the southwestern part of the well field. Deepwater contributes to elevated sulfate and chloride concentrations, which increase with depth and are elevated in wells less than 400 feet deep. The greatest increases in chloride concentrations over time are found in water from wells closest to the saltwater interface. Gro

  19. IMPLICATIONS OF NEW ARSENIC STANDARDS ON OKLAHOMA WATER RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new national standard for arsenic in drinking water supplies, slated to take effect in 2006, is having an unexpected impact on a number of Oklahoma communities. Currently, several municipalities in north central Oklahoma are in compliance with existing arsenic standards (50 ...

  20. Hydrogeology of stratified-drift aquifers and water quality in the Nashua Regional Planning Commission Area, south-central New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toppin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nashua Regional Planning Commission area in south-central New Hampshire is a 12-community area that is experiencing increases in population and in demands for water supply. The study area is underlain by 129 sq mi (40% of the area) of stratified drift which, where sufficiently saturated and permeable, form the most productive aquifers in the area. Eight towns use the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal water supply. The saturated thickness of stratified drift in the study area ranges from 0 or < 20 ft near aquifer boundaries to more than 100 ft in the Souhegan and Merrimack River valleys. The transmissivity of stratified drift ranges from < 2,000 sq ft/day throughout much of the area to more than 8,000 sq ft/day in the communities of Amherst, Brookline, Hollis, Hudson, Litchfield, Merrimack, Milford, Nashua, and Pelham. Directions of groundwater flow are generally from valley walls to surface waters, which act as drains for the stratified drift aquifers. The estimated total yield of community water-supply systems in the study area (surface and groundwater combined) is 22 mgd (million gallons per day). Analytical modeling indicates that an additional 12 mgd could be obtained from six aquifers located in the communities of Amherst, Litchfield, Merrimack, Milford, and Pelham. Other aquifers in the area, not modeled in the study, could also provide increased amounts of water especially where yields could be augmented by induced recharge of surface water. Groundwater quality in the study area is characterized by naturally elevated levels of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). Of 32 wells sampled, 7 exceeded EPA recommended drinking water limits for both Fe and Mn, and 3 wells exceeded the Mn limit only. The average total dissolved solids concentration for 32 samples was 121 mg/L. Groundwater in the area is slightly corrosive; pH 's ranged from 5.0-7.3. Groundwater contamination has been detected at two ' Superfund ' sites in the study area located in Milford and Nashua. At both sites, contamination of groundwater has caused the shutdown of municipal and private water supply wells. The widespread effect of applying highway deicing chemicals on groundwater quality is reflected by sodium (Na) concentrations that average 24 mg/L throughout the study area. At 11 of 32 sites sampled, EPA recommended limits for Na (20 mg/L) was exceeded. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Regional ground-water-flow models of surficial sand and gravel aquifers along the Mississippi River between Brainerd and St. Cloud, central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.; Cowdery, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents regional ground-waterflow models constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to satisfy the requirements of their Source Water Protection Plan (SWPP). Steady-state single-layer ground-water-flow models were constructed with the computer program MODFLOW to simulate flow in surficial sand and gravel aquifers along the Mississippi River between Brainerd and St. Cloud in central Minnesota. The hydrogeologic data that were used to construct the models were compiled from available sources. Calibrated values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and areal recharge for the aquifer in a northern model area were 70 m/d and 3.0x10-4 m/d, respectively. This model was sensitive to net areal recharge, vertical hydraulic conductivity of perennial streambed sediments, and horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The major source of net inflow to the model was from edge boundary cells. The major source of net outflow was ground-water discharge to perennial and ephemeral streams. Calibrated values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and areal recharge for the aquifer in a southern model area were 70 m/d and 6.0x10-4 m/d, respectively. This model was sensitive mostly to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Net areal recharge and ground-water discharge to perennial streams were the major sources of net inflow and outflow, respectively.

  2. Oklahoma Forestry Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Oklahoma Forestry Services (OFS) is "to conserve, enhance and protect the forest resources of Oklahoma for present and future generations." As part of this mission the OFS website contains information about fire reports, tree and forest health, and water quality. First-time visitors should start their journey through the site by clicking on the "Oklahoma's Forests" section. Here they will find information about Oklahoma's major forest types, the ecoregions of Oklahoma, and several Trees of Oklahoma fact sheets. Back on the homepage, visitors can learn about upcoming workshops and events, read a list of forestry bulletins, and find out about the Forest Heritage Center Museum. Residents of Oklahoma may also wish to look through the "Home and Community Trees" area to learn more about planning their own trees and Arbor Day related activities.

  3. Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association Pave the Way in the Oklahoma Memorial Union Courtyard. Now you can. The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association 900 Asp Ave an opportunity to add their names and graduation years to the stone plaza of the Oklahoma Memorial Union

  4. Stable and radio-isotope analysis to determine recharge timing and paleoclimate of sandstone aquifers in central and southeast Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Faitouri, Mohamed; Sanford, William E.

    2015-02-01

    Stable isotopes of water and 14C activities (percent modern carbon, pmc) were used to estimate the timing of recharge and paleoclimatic conditions during recharge for three sandstone aquifers in Libya. These aquifers are part of the Nubian Aquifer System, with current and planned groundwater development designed to produce 106 m3/day of water. 14C activities from water samples collected at three wellfields (Sarir, Tazerbo and Al Kufra) indicate recharge during late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Stable isotope compositions from all three locations are significantly depleted relative to modern water, indicating that the climate was more humid than today. These results are in line with previous regional groundwater studies. This was the first study of its kind for the aquifers at Tazerbo and Sarir wellfield. The Tazerbo wellfield, which produces from the deepest aquifer, had the oldest estimated recharge ages (late Pleistocene). For Sarir, 14C activities ranged from 6.30 to 41.42 pmc; the Sarir aquifer is leaky confined and this range is likely due to mixing of shallow younger water with older deeper water. At Al Kufra, the 14C activity (5.27 pmc) of a well which is part of an agriculture project, is greater than the activity of wells sampled in 1973 (0.5-2.0 pmc). The greater activity is likely due to the lowering of the regional potentiometric surface causing younger water to be captured after four decades of wellfield operation. It is recommended that periodic monitoring be done in large wellfields to identify changes in isotope compositions as production continues.

  5. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the Contoocook River basin, south-central New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, P.T.; Johnson, William

    1995-01-01

    Stratified-drift aquifers discontinuously underlie 121 mi2 (square miles) of the Contoocook River Basin, which has a total drainage area of 776 mi2. Maps of these aquifers, showing water-table configurations, saturated thicknesses, and transmissivities were prepared from well and test-hole data and seismic-refraction profiles. The distribution of stratified-drift aquifers is largely controlled by the Pleistocene glaciation process and the formation of multiple glacial lakes along the main stem of the Contoocook River. Locally, saturated thickness of stratified drift within these aquifers are as great as 200 feet. Estimated transmissivities exceed 8,000 ft2/d (squared feet per day) at three locations and is as high as 22,800 ft2/d at one location. Stratified-drift aquifers that have the greatest potential to supply additional amounts of water include the aquifers at Greenfield-Otter Brook and Hancock-Norway Pond. Potential yields to hypothetical supply wells were estimated for the Greenfield-Otter Brook, Hillsborough-Contoocook River, and Andover- Blackwater River aquifers by use of a analytical ground-water-flow model. The model results predict that the potential yields are greatest from the Greenfield-Otter Brook aquifer, yielding up to 1.85 gallons per day during half-year periods of no recharge. The effective ground-water recharge to the entire basin, which includes recharge to the till, bedrock, and stratified drift, is 13.9 in./yr (inches per year) (521 million gallons per day) on the basis of hydrograph separation of streamflow. The quality of water obtained from 11 observation wells and 10 municipal supply wells is generally suitable for drinking and most other domestic purposes. Ground water in the region has low alkalinity, is slightly acidic, and has low concentrations of dissolved solids. Concentrations of dissolved constituents in ground-water samples were generally less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels except for elevated iron concentrations (in water from six wells) and manganese concentrations in water from seven wells.

  6. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned CCDD sites; site assessments and remedial feasibility studies are ongoing in each State. Remediation alternatives addressed physical hazards and potential for groundwater transport of dissolved salt and petroleum hydrocarbons that might be leached from wastes. Remediation options included excavation of wastes and contaminated adjacent soils followed by removal to permitted disposal facilities or land farming if sufficient on-site area were available.

  7. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Estes, C. B.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    this, the Oklahoma Department of Energy designed a program to acquaint Oklahoma industry with the potential savings available through energy management and some basic techniques. The program is, entitled "Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program...

  8. Aquifer Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, produced by the United States Geological Survey, is all about aquifers. Many different types of aquifers are addressed, these include: sand and gravel, sandstone, sandstone and carbonate, carbonate-rock, and igneous and metamorphic. Links to other sites, such as aquifers on the US National Atlas, are also featured on the site.

  9. Characterizing a complex aquifer system using geophysics, hydrodynamics and geochemistry: A new distribution of Miocene aquifers in the Zéramdine and Mahdia–Jébéniana blocks (east-central Tunisia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fethi Lachaal; Mourad Bédir; Jamila Tarhouni; Ayadi Ben Gacha; Christian Leduc

    2011-01-01

    The Zéramdine and Mahdia–Jébéniana blocks are located in the Sahel region in east-central Tunisia. Active tectonics have divided the region into numerous sub-units, as result of multiple phases of distension and compression. The Miocene fluvio-deltaic sediment sandy layers have aquiferous capacities but their hydraulic properties are still unknown, due to the lack of investigation wells. This study proposes a new

  10. Urban flood analysis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; Huntzinger, T.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Patneaude, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Flood insurance study information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency is utilized to estimate future flood hazard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Techniques are described for estimating future urban runoff estimates. A method of developing stream cross section rating curves is explained. Future runoff estimates are used in conjuction with the rating curves to develop an estimate of 50- and 100- year flood profiles that would result from future urban development.

  11. Heat flow in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cranganu, C.; Deming, D. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 [sup 0]C/km (average 31.2 [sup 0]C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

  12. Heat flow in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cranganu, C.; Deming, D. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 {sup 0}C/km (average 31.2 {sup 0}C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

  13. Groundwater-Level Monitoring Program: Example from the Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer, Central Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian B. Hunt; Brian A. Smith; Stefani Campbell; Shu Liang

    Groundwater-levels are the most critical information collected about an aquifer indicating its hydrologic character and stresses. Water-level data are increasingly used by agencies to calibrate groundwater models and to design, implement, and monitor the effectiveness of groundwater management and conservation efforts. However, water-level data are often limited in frequency and geographic distribution for meaningful analyses. This paper presents an example

  14. Groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping of the Hajeb-jelma aquifer (Central Tunisia) using a GIS-based DRASTIC model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salwa Saidi; Salem Bouri; Hamed Ben Dhia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to elaborate a synthetic document for the assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in\\u000a the Hajeb-Jelma aquifer. The specific object is to incorporate the Geographical Information System (GIS) to generate groundwater\\u000a vulnerability and risk maps with DRASTIC model. Indeed, GIS could help to make the results of a complicated model more clear\\u000a through visual

  15. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  16. Investigating surface and groundwater mixing dynamics under varying antecedent moisture conditions in a karst aquifer, Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C.; Banner, J. L.; Musgrove, M.; Mahler, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    Variability in Sr concentrations and isotope values of groundwater from the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer during the period of November 2008 to March 2010 reflects a broad range of hydrologic conditions, and lends insight into surface and groundwater mixing dynamics. Surface water recharge rapidly moves through the karst groundwater system, making surface water quality an important component of groundwater quality. Understanding how surface and groundwater mixing changes in response to varying antecedent moisture conditions is critical to groundwater management. Within the Barton Spring segment, groundwater compositions are characterized by Sr concentrations (median = 1,600 ?g/l) and Sr isotope values (median = 0.70792) that reflect extensive interaction with the carbonate bedrock. Surface water, in contrast, has lower Sr concentrations (median = 290 ?g/l) and higher Sr isotope values (median = 0.70805) that reflect interaction with soils and urban water inputs. Groundwater was sampled from wells that accessed conduit and diffuse flow dominated parts of the aquifer and from the main discharge point (Barton Springs) of the aquifer segment. Samples were collected in conditions ranging from drought and near-historically low spring discharge to above average rainfall conditions and spring discharge. Groundwater sampled from a well accessing the diffuse part of the aquifer had consistent Sr concentrations and Sr isotope values, reflecting little to no surface water mixing. Groundwater sampled from a well accessing the conduit part of the aquifer had gradually decreasing Sr concentrations and increasing Sr isotope values with increasingly wetter hydrologic conditions, reflecting an increasing proportion of surface water mixing. While spring water also has decreasing Sr concentrations and increasing Sr isotope values with increasingly wetter hydrologic conditions, concentrations and isotope values begin to change only after spring discharge exceeded 50 cfs. The consistent values prior to a discharge of 50 cfs likely reflect a threshold effect, whereby the proportion of surface water in spring discharge was limited until hydrologic conditions reached a certain level. The results of this study demonstrate that 1) groundwater Sr concentrations and isotope variability track varying proportions of surface and groundwater in response to changing moisture conditions, and 2) surface and groundwater mixing varies between different components (i.e., conduit, diffuse, and discharge point) of the system.

  17. House Damage from 2011 Oklahoma Earthquake

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    House damage in central Oklahoma from the magnitude 5.6 earthquake on Nov. 6, 2011. Research conducted by USGS geophysicist Elizabeth Cochran and her university-based colleagues suggests that this earthquake was induced by injection into deep disposal wells in the Wilzetta North field....

  18. Estimated Withdrawals from Stream-Valley Aquifers and Refined Estimated Withdrawals from Selected Aquifers in the United States, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargent, B. Pierre; Maupin, Molly A.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Information Program compiles estimates of fresh ground-water withdrawals in the United States on a 5-year interval. In the year-2000 compilation, withdrawals were reported from principal aquifers and aquifer systems including two general aquifers - Alluvial and Other aquifers. Withdrawals from a widespread aquifer group - stream-valley aquifers - were not specifically identified in the year-2000 compilation, but they are important sources of ground water. Stream-valley aquifers are alluvial aquifers located in the valley of major streams and rivers. Stream-valley aquifers are long but narrow aquifers that are in direct hydraulic connection with associated streams and limited in extent compared to most principal aquifers. Based in large part on information published in U.S. Geological Survey reports, preliminary analysis of withdrawal data and hydrogeologic and surface-water information indicated areas in the United States where possible stream-valley aquifers were located. Further assessment focused on 24 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Withdrawals reported from Alluvial aquifers in 16 states and withdrawals reported from Other aquifers in 6 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico were investigated. Two additional States - Arkansas and New Jersey - were investigated because withdrawals reported from other principal aquifers in these two States may be from stream-valley aquifers. Withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers were identified in 20 States and were about 1,560 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), a rate comparable to withdrawals from the 10 most productive principal aquifers in the United States. Of the 1,560 Mgal/d of withdrawals attributed to stream-valley aquifers, 1,240 Mgal/d were disaggregated from Alluvial aquifers, 150 Mgal/d from glacial sand and gravel aquifers, 116 Mgal/d from Other aquifers, 28.1 Mgal/d from Pennsylvanian aquifers, and 24.9 Mgal/d from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Five States, including Colorado (552 Mgal/d), Kansas (384 Mgal/d), Oklahoma (126 Mgal/d), Kentucky (102 Mgal/d), and Ohio (100 Mgal/d), accounted for 81 percent of estimated stream-valley aquifer withdrawals identified in this report. Of the total withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers, about 63 percent (984 Mgal/d) were used for irrigation, 26 percent (400 Mgal/d) for public-supply, and 11 percent (177 Mgal/d) for self-supplied industrial uses. The largest estimated water withdrawals were from stream-valley aquifers associated with the South Platte (404 Mgal/d), Arkansas (395 Mgal/d), and Ohio (221 Mgal/d) Rivers.

  19. Water quality of the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer before and concurrent with large-scale artificial recharge, south-central Kansas, 1995-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappa, Daniel J.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Klager, Brian J.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Recharge activities at Phase I recharge wells have not resulted in substantial effects on groundwater quality in the area, likely because the total amount of water recharged is relatively small (1 billion gallons) compared to aquifer storage volume (greater than 990 billion gallons in winter 2012). The eastward movement of the Burrton chloride plume is likely being slowed by a line of recharge locations associated with Phase I; however, chloride concentrations in deep groundwater still advanced to less than one half mile from the central part of the study area. Water-quality constituents of concern (major ions, nutrients, trace elements, triazine herbicides, and fecal indicator bacteria) have not increased substantially and are likely more affected by climatological (natural recharge by precipitation) and natural (geochemical oxidation/reduction, metabolic and decay rates) processes than artificial recharge. Arsenic remains a water-quality constituent of concern because of natural and continued persistence of concentrations exceeding the Federal maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter, especially in the deeper parts of theEquus Beds aquifer.

  20. Oklahoma Tribes: A History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, Kevin

    1977-01-01

    Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…

  1. The past is the key to the future: how the groundwater recharge to carbonate aquifer in central Italy has changed in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Di Salvo, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Carbonate aquifers are important resources especially in mountainous regions because they are able to store huge quantities of groundwater in the humid periods and gradually release them during dry periods. Water quality is often excellent, hence they are regarded as strategic both for human consumption as well as for environmental uses. In many parts of the world this resources are largely exploited to supply large urban areas and possible negative effects of climate changes to their discharge is a great concern. The present study aims to analyze how the regimen of recharge to groundwater is affected by eventual non stationarity in temperature and precipitation during past decades. The case study (235 km2 ) is located in central Italy and feed the Nera river with an average discharge of about 3.3 m3/s. Daily data from 16 (7) stations monitoring precipitation (temperature) covering the area of interest over the period 1951-2013 were spatially homogenized by means of kriging at a 1 km2 resolution. The resulting daily maps were used to force a simple spatial distributed soil water budget model considering the local hydrogeological structure. The reconstructed daily recharge to the aquifer was then compared to the discharge of the groundwater system observed in the period 1991-1993 and 1996-2012 (discontinues measurements). Results show that minimum and maximum temperatures present a significant (95%) positive trend after the 1980, in acceleration after 1990 (+0.055 (+0.07 )°C/yr for the maximum T; +0.03 ( +0.06) °C/yr for the minimum T, for the periods 1980-2013 (1990-2013)); precipitation and recharge to the aquifer present a non-significant (95%) negative linear trend over the period 1951-2013 (-1.5 mm/yr and -3 Ls-1yr-1 respectively) without obvious changings points, indicating in first approximation a marginal impact of temperature non stationarity on the recharge. The decrease in the recharge to the aquifer, although not statistically significant, represents a reduction of 5.5% of the groundwater system discharge over the past 60 years.

  2. Oklahoma Historical Society

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Oklahoma Historical Society is "to preserve and perpetuate the history of Oklahoma and its people by collecting, interpreting and disseminating knowledge of Oklahoma and the Southwest." The Society maintains over 20 museums and historic sites, and they are also responsible for maintaining this website. On the homepage, visitors can learn about the sites they maintain, including the Pawnee Bill Ranch and the Pioneer Woman Museum. In the "Publications" area, visitors can read back issues of "The Chronicles of Oklahoma" dating from 1921 to 1962, and they can also find the "Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture". The Society's "Found in Collections" blog is a great way to learn about their current archival work, and visitors can read about textile preservation techniques and the Civil War. Also, the site includes podcasts created to profile various aspects of the state's history. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive email updates on new additions, programs, and exhibits.

  3. Effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and time scale on simulated ground-water exchange with Lake Starr, a seepage lake in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2003-01-01

    Lake Starr and other lakes in the mantled karst terrain of Florida's Central Lake District are surrounded by a conductive surficial aquifer system that receives highly variable recharge from rainfall. In addition, downward leakage from these lakes varies as heads in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer change seasonally and with pumpage. A saturated three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and model time scale on ground-water exchange with Lake Starr. The lake was simulated as an active part of the model using high hydraulic conductivity cells. Simulated ground-water flow was compared to net ground-water flow estimated from a rigorously derived water budget for the 2-year period August 1996-July 1998. Calibrating saturated ground-water flow models with monthly stress periods to a monthly lake water budget will result in underpredicting gross inflow to, and leakage from, ridge lakes in Florida. Underprediction of ground-water inflow occurs because recharge stresses and ground-water flow responses during rainy periods are averaged over too long a time period using monthly stress periods. When inflow is underestimated during calibration, leakage also is underestimated because inflow and leakage are correlated if lake stage is maintained over the long term. Underpredicted leakage reduces the implied effect of ground-water withdrawals from the Upper Floridan aquifer on the lake. Calibrating the weekly simulation required accounting for transient responses in the water table near the lake that generated the greater range of net ground-water flow values seen in the weekly water budget. Calibrating to the weekly lake water budget also required increasing the value of annual recharge in the nearshore region well above the initial estimate of 35 percent of the rainfall, and increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the deposits around and beneath the lake. To simulate the total ground-water inflow to lakes, saturated-flow models of lake basins need to account for the potential effects of rapid and efficient recharge in the surficial aquifer system closest to the lake. In this part of the basin, the ability to accurately estimate recharge is crucial because the water table is shallowest and the response time between rainfall and recharge is shortest. Use of the one-dimensional LEACHM model to simulate the effects of the unsaturated zone on the timing and magnitude of recharge in the nearshore improved the simulation of peak values of ground-water inflow to Lake Starr. Results of weekly simulations suggest that weekly recharge can approach the majority of weekly rainfall on the nearshore part of the lake basin. However, even though a weekly simulation with higher recharge in the nearshore was able to reproduce the extremes of ground-water exchange with the lake more accurately, it was not consistently better at predicting net ground-water flow within the water budget error than a simulation with lower recharge. The more subtle effects of rainfall and recharge on ground-water inflow to the lake were more difficult to simulate. The use of variably saturated flow modeling, with time scales that are shorter than weekly and finer spatial discretization, is probably necessary to understand these processes. The basin-wide model of Lake Starr had difficulty simulating the full spectrum of ground-water inflows observed in the water budget because of insufficient information about recharge to ground water, and because of practical limits on spatial and temporal discretization in a model at this scale. In contrast, the saturated flow model appeared to successfully simulate the effects of heads in the Upper Floridan aquifer on water levels and ground-water exchange with the lake at both weekly and monthly stress periods. Most of the variability in lake leakage can be explained by the average vertical head difference between the lake and a re

  4. Microbial ecology of a shallow unconfined ground water aquifer polluted by municipal landfill leachate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph E. Beeman; Joseph M. Suflita

    1987-01-01

    The microflora of a shallow anoxic aquifer underlying a municipal landfill in Oklahoma was characterized by direct light microscopy, most probable number determinations of sulfate reducers and methanogens, and measurements of methanogenesis in aquifer samples containing either endogenous or exogenous electron donors and various sulfate concentrations. Acridine orange direct counts of bacteria did not vary significantly with time or between

  5. Land Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction in the Tucson Active Management Area, South-Central Arizona, 1987-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carruth, Robert L.; Flynn, Pool; Donald, R.; Anderson, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey monitors land subsidence and aquifer-system compaction caused by ground-water depletion in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley - two of the three alluvial basins within the Tucson Active Management Area. In spring 1987, the Global Positioning System was used to measure horizontal and vertical positions for bench marks at 43 sites to establish a network for monitoring land subsidence in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley. Between 1987 and 2005, the original number of subsidence monitoring stations was gradually increased to more than 100 stations to meet the need for information in the growing metropolitan area. Data from approximately 60 stations common to the Global Positioning System surveys done after an initial survey in 1987 are used to document land subsidence. For the periods of comparison, average land-surface deformation generally is less than the maximum subsidence at an individual station and takes into account land-surface recovery from elastic aquifer-system compaction. Between 1987 and 1998, as much as 3.2 inches of subsidence occurred in Tucson Basin and as much as 4 inches of subsidence occurred in Avra Valley. For the 31 stations that are common to both the 1987 and 1998 Global Positioning System surveys, the average subsidence during the 11-year period was about 0.5 inch in Tucson Basin and about 1.2 inches in Avra Valley. For the approximately 60 stations that are common to both the 1998 and 2002 Global Positioning System surveys, the data indicate that as much as 3.5 inches of subsidence occurred in Tucson Basin and as much as 1.1 inches of subsidence occurred in Avra Valley. The average subsidence for the 4-year period is about 0.4 inch in Tucson Basin and 0.6 inch in Avra Valley. Between the 2002 and the 2005 Global Positioning System surveys, the data indicate that as much as 0.2 inch of subsidence occurred in Tucson Basin and as much as 2.2 inches of subsidence occurred in Avra Valley. The average subsidence for the 3-year period is about 0.7 inch in Avra Valley. Between 1987 and 2004-05, land subsidence was greater in Avra Valley than in Tucson Basin on the basis of the average cumulative subsidence for the stations that were common to the original Global Positioning System survey in 1987. The average total subsidence during the 17- to 18-year period was about 1.3 inches in Tucson Basin and about 2.8 inches in Avra Valley. Three stations in Tucson Basin showed subsidence greater than 4 inches for the period - 5 inches at stations C45 and X419 and 4.1 inches at station PA4. In Avra Valley, two stations showed subsidence for the 17- to 18-year period greater than 4 inches - 4.3 inches at station AV25 and 4.8 inches at station SA105. In 1983, fourteen wells were fitted with borehole extensometers to monitor water-level fluctuations and aquifer-system compaction. Continuous records of water level and aquifer-system compaction indicate that as much as 45 feet of water-level decline and 4 inches of aquifer-system compaction occurred in Tucson Basin from January 1989 through December, 2005. In Avra Valley, extensometer data indicate that as much as 55 feet of water-level decline and 1.7 inches of aquifer-system compaction occurred during the same time period. Rates of compaction vary throughout the extensometer network, with the greater rates of compaction being associated with areas of greater water-level decline and more compressible sediments. In Avra Valley, data from the Global Positioning System surveys indicate that more than half of the total subsidence of the land surface may be the result of aquifer-system compaction below the portion of the aquifer instrumented with the vertical extensometers. For the area in the northern part of Tucson Basin between the Rillito and Santa Cruz rivers, an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar interferogram indicates that about 1.65 inches of subsidence occurred between 2003 and 2006. Between 2002 and 2004, the Global Positioning System

  6. MAINE AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

  7. Is Oklahoma getting drier?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bing; Stackhouse, Paul, Jr.; Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Fan, Tai-Fang (Alice)

    2013-06-01

    Land surface hydrology is important to regional climate, ecosystem, agriculture, and even human activities. Changes in soil moisture can produce considerable impacts on socioeconomics. Analysis of assimilation model results, especially those from the Community Land Model, shows that soil moisture over Oklahoma region is continuously reduced from 1980 to 2009. The potential drying trend in the Oklahoma region is evaluated by observations taken during last three decades in this study. Satellite data from Global Precipitation Climatology Project exhibit a clear precipitation decrease in the Oklahoma region during the last decade or so compared with those of two or three decades ago. Accompanying with the precipitation variation, land surface net radiation and temperature over the region are found increases by satellite and/or in-situ measurements. These changes in regional climate conditions also likely result in reduction of regional evaporation and enhancement of sensible heat transport from land surface into the atmosphere as indicated in assimilated data. These observed and modeled evidences of the changes in regional water and energy cycles lead us to conclude that the soil moisture over the Oklahoma region was reduced during the last decade. This soil moisture drop could increase a risk in water shortage for agriculture in the Oklahoma state if the dry period continues. Further investigations on the drying in the Oklahoma State or even entire Southern Great Plains are needed to mitigate potential droughts, reductions in vegetation products, and other socioeconomic impacts.

  8. Configuration of the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and hydrogeology of the underlying pre-Cretaceous rocks, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

    1992-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system is underlain by an extensive complex of rocks, ranging from Late Cambrian through Late Triassic in age, that are typically about 10 to perhaps 1,000 times less permeable than those composing the aquifer system. The Cretaceous rocks of the aquifer system are separated from the pre-Cretaceous rocks by an unconformity that spans about 60 million years of erosion during the Jurassic Period. The upper surface of the pre-Cretaceous rock complex forms the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system. The configuration of the base reflects the original topography of the eroded pre-Cretaceous land surface plus the effects of subsequent deformation. The most permeable pre-Cretaceous rocks are in the eastern half of the study area where they compose the Hickory aquifer (in Upper Cambrian rocks), Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer (Upper Cambrian- Lower Ordovician), and Marble Falls aquifer (Lower Pennsylvanian). These aquifers are hydraulically connected to the northeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, as their up-turned margins crop out around the flanks of the breached Llano uplift. The Rustler aquifer in rocks of Late Permian age underlies parts of the Trans-Pecos region, where it yields small amounts of greatly mineralized water for industrial and agricultural purposes. The Dockum aquifer in rocks of Late Triassic age directly underlies the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in western parts of the study area, and locally increases the saturated thickness of the ground-water-flow system by an average of about 200 feet. Despite these notable exceptions, the collective effect of the pre-Cretaceous rocks is that 01 a barrier to ground-water flow, which limits the exchange of water across the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system.

  9. Historical potentiometric surface of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Peter W.; Ardis, Ann F.; Wynn, Kirby H.

    1993-01-01

    The historical potentiometric-surface map of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units is based on 1,789 water-level (or pressure-head) measurements made in wells between December 1915 and November 1969. The mapped data reflect a wide range of rainfall conditions. On the basis of interpretations of historical climatologic data by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, near- normal rainfall conditions preceded 55 percent of the measurements. Moderately dry conditions preceded 20 percent of the measurements; moderately wet conditions preceded 22 percent of the measurements; very dry conditions preceded less than 1 percent; and very wet conditions preceded 3 percent. The historical potentiometric-surface map represents general predevelopment conditions because negligible ground-water withdrawals existed in most areas when the water-level measurements used to construct the map were made. However, in Bexar, Reeves, Pecos, Reagan, and Upton Counties, early withdrawals caused declines in water levels that are reflected in water-level features shown on the map. Topographic relief and stream or spring drainage are two major factors affecting the configuration of the historical potentiometric surface. The strong influence of stream or spring drainage on the potentiometric surface shows that the regional direction of ground-water movement is largely dictated by the locations of major discharge feature. a

  10. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  11. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program 

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. C.; Webb, R. E.; Phillips, J. M.; Viljoen, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    series of tuition free Industrial Energy Management Conferences (over 20 given to date involving many Oklahoma industries). 2. A free energy newsletter entitled "Energy Channel" mailed to all participating Oklahoma industries. 3. A series of Energy...

  12. Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than in more urbanized areas. Much of the water in the area is of good quality, though some parts of this area have water quality impaired by very hard surface water and groundwater; large chloride concentrations in some smaller streams; relatively large concentrations of nutrients and counts of fecal-indicator bacteria in the North Canadian River; and chloride, iron, manganese, and uranium concentrations that exceed primary or secondary drinking-water standards in water samples collected from small numbers of wells. Substantial amounts of hydrologic and water-quality data have been collected in much of this area, but there are gaps in those data caused by relatively few streamflow-gaging stations, uneven distribution of surface-water quality sampling sites, lack of surface-water quality sampling at high-flow and low-flow conditions, and lack of a regularly measured and sampled groundwater network. This report summarizes existing water-use, climatic, geographic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and describes several means of filling gaps in hydrologic data for this area.

  13. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  14. Distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations and temperature in ground water of the gulf coast aquifer systems, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Weiss, Jonathan S.; Williamson, Alex K.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations and temperature in waters of 10 of the aquifers comprising the gulf coast aquifer systems of the Gulf Mexico Coastal Plain are mapped at a scale of 1:3,500,000. Dissolved solids concentration in the aquifers of the Tertiary System ranges from less than 500 mg/L at the outcrop and subcrop areas to as much as 150,000 mg/L at the downdip extent of these aquifers. A distinct band of sharply increasing concentration of dissolved-solids occurs at about middip of each aquifer of the Tertiary System. Dissolved-solids concentration in younger aquifers ranges from less than 500 mg/L in outcrop and subcrop areas to about 70,000 mg/L at the downdip extent of these aquifers. Temperature of waters in permeable Tertiary deposits ranges from about 18 C at the outcrop and subcrop areas to 90 C at the downdip extent of these aquifers. Temperature of waters in younger deposits ranges from about 14 C at the outcrop and subcrop areas to 30 C at their downdip extent. (USGS)

  15. Depositional setting and thin-section petrology of Misener Formation (Devonian) in northeast Nash and nearby fields, north-central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, B.M.; Mansfield, C.F.

    1987-08-01

    The Devonian-age Misener formation is a mixed quartzose-carbonate sequence that is widely but discontinuously distributed in northern Oklahoma. Eleven conventional cores representing five different Misener oil fields in Grant and Garfield Counties were examined to determine the depositional setting and petrology of the formation. The Misener ranges in thickness to approximately 60 ft and is everywhere overlain by the Woodford Shale. The Misener-Woodford sequence unconformably overlies the Hunton Group (Silurian-Devonian), Sylvan Shale (Ordovician). Core descriptions show the Misener to be a clean sand containing scattered disrupted clay laminae, shale clasts, and pyrite nodules. The contacts between the overlying Woodford Shale and the underlying Hunton and pre-Hunton strata are sharp and slightly undulose. Thin-section petrology indicates the Misener contains fine to medium-grained, rounded to subangular, quartz-rich sandstone with little or no dolomite and, in places, grades into a dolomite-rich sandstone with floating quartz grains. Quartz overgrowths are abundant and calcite cement is less common. Other components comprising the Misener strata include phosphatic shale clasts, phosphatic fossil fragments, glauconite, and chert. Porosity ranges from 0 to 14% and much of it appears to have been diagenetically induced.

  16. Development and calibration of a ground-water flow model for the Sparta Aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana and simulated response to withdrawals, 1998-2027

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.

    2003-01-01

    The Sparta aquifer, which consists of the Sparta Sand, in southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana is a major water resource and provides water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses. In recent years, the demand in some areas has resulted in withdrawals from the Sparta aquifer that substantially exceed replenishment of the aquifer. Considerable drawdown has occurred in the potentiometric surface forming regional cones of depression as water is removed from storage by withdrawals. These cones of depression are centered beneath the Grand Prairie area and the cities of Pine Bluff and El Dorado in Arkansas, and Monroe in Louisiana. The rate of decline for hydraulic heads in the aquifer has been greater than 1 foot per year for more than a decade in much of southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana where hydraulic heads are now below the top of the Sparta Sand. Continued hydraulic-head declines have caused water users and managers alike to question the ability of the aquifer to supply water for the long term. Concern over protecting the Sparta aquifer as a sustainable resource has resulted in a continued, cooperative effort by the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey to develop, maintain, and utilize numerical ground-water flow models to manage and further analyze the ground-water system. The work presented in this report describes the development and calibration of a ground-water flow model representing the Sparta aquifer to simulate observed hydraulic heads, documents major differences in the current Sparta model compared to the previous Sparta model calibrated in the mid-1980's, and presents the results of three hypothetical future withdrawal scenarios. The current Sparta model-a regional scale, three-dimensional numerical ground-water flow model-was constructed and calibrated using available hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and water-use data from 1898 to 1997. Significant changes from the previous model include grid rediscretization of the aquifer, extension of the active model area northward beyond the Cane River Formation facies change, and representation of model boundaries. The current model was calibrated with the aid of parameter estimation, a nonlinear regression technique, combined with trial and error parameter adjustment using a total of 795 observations from 316 wells over 4 different years-1970, 1985, 1990, and 1997. The calibration data set provides broad spatial and temporal coverage of aquifer conditions. Analysis of the residual statistics, spatial distribution of residuals, simulated compared to observed hydrographs, and simulated compared to observed potentiometric surfaces were used to analyze the ability of the calibrated model to simulate aquifer conditions within acceptable error. The calibrated model has a root mean square error of 18 feet for all observations, an improvement of more than 12 feet from the previous model. The current Sparta model was used to predict the effects of three hypothetical withdrawal scenarios on hydraulic heads over the period 1998-2027 with one of those extended indefinitely until equilibrium conditions were attained, or steady state. In scenario 1a, withdrawals representing the time period from 1990 to 1997 was held constant for 30 years from 1998 to 2027. Hydraulic heads in the middle of the cone of depression centered on El Dorado decreased by 10 feet from the 1997 simulation to 222 feet below NGVD of 1929 in 2027. Hydraulic heads in the Pine Bluff cone of depression showed a greater decline from 61 feet below NGVD of 1929 to 78 feet below NGVD of 1929 in the center of the cone. With these same withdrawals extended to steady state (scenario 1b), hydraulic heads in the Pine Bluff cone of depression center declined an 2 Development and Calibration of a Ground-Water Flow Model for the Sparta Aquifer of Southeastern Arkansas and North-Central Louisiana and Simulated Response to Withdrawa

  17. Projected ground-water development, ground-water levels, and stream-aquifer leakage in the South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas, 1979-2020

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kume, Jack; Lindgren, R.J.; Stullken, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite difference computer model was used to project changes in the potentiometric surface, saturated thickness, and stream aquifer leakage in an alluvial aquifer resulting from four instances of projected groundwater development. The alluvial aquifer occurs in the South Fork Solomon River valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake in north-central Kansas. In the first two projections, pumpage for irrigation was held constant at 1978 rates throughout the projection period (1979-2020). In the second two projections, the 1978 pumpage was progressively increased each yr through 2020. In the second and fourth projections, surface water diversions in the Osborne Irrigation Canal were decreased by 50 %. For the third and fourth projections, each grid-block in the modeled area was classified initially as one of six types according to whether it represented irrigable or nonirrigable land, to its saturated thickness, to its location inside or outside the canal-river area, and to its pumping rate. The projected base-flow rates (leakage from the aquifer to the river) were lower during the irrigation season (June, July, and August) than during the other months of the yr because of the decline in hydraulic head produced by groundwater pumpage. Stream depletion, calculated as a decrease below the average (1970-78) estimated winter base-flow rate of 16.5 cu ft/sec, varied inversely with base flow. For the first two projections, a constant annual cycle of well pumpage and recharge was used throughout the projection period. Aquifer leakage to the river was nearly constant by the mid-to-late 1990's, implying that flow conditions had attained a stabilized annual cycle. The third and fourth projections never attained an annual stabilized cycle because the irrigation pumpage rate was increased each year. By the early 1980's, the hydraulic head had fallen below river stage, reversing the hydraulic gradient at the stream-aquifer interface and resulting in net leakage from the river to the aquifer during the summer months. By the early 1990 's, the projected potentiometric surface of the aquifer was lower than the river stage even during the winter and spring months. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Use of double-mass curves to determine drawdown in a long-term aquifer test in north-central Volusia County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A test well withdrew water from the upper Floridan aquifer system at an average of 530 gallons per minute from June 1978 to July 1979. Ground-water levels were monitored in wells open to the upper Floridan (artesian) aquifer system and in wells open to the surficial (water-table) aquifer. Double-mass curves were used to separate drawdown from natural water-level fluctuations. Drawdowns in the Floridan were 4.3 feet at a site 350 feet away from the pumped well, 4.1 feet at a site 1,000 feet away, 1.0 foot at a site 1.0 mile away, and 0.4 foot at a site 5.8 miles away. After an initial drawdown of 0.2 foot at a surficial aquifer well 1,000 feet from the pumped well, there was some recovery, and long-term drawdown averaged less than 0.2 foot. In a five-day aquifer test during a period of no rainfall in 1976, the ratio of surficial aquifer drawdown to Floridan aquifer system drawdown reached equilibrum at 0.05. The results of the long-term test indicate that this ratio is the upper limit of long-term drawdown because of capture of evapotranspiration and runoff during the long-term test. (USGS)

  19. Hydrogeology, water quality, and water-resources development potential of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the Valdosta area, south-central Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, J.B.; Hacke, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Valdosta, Georgia area is adversely affected by direct recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Water enters the aquifer along a short reach of the river where sinkholes have formed in the stream bed. The water receives little filtration as it recharges the Upper Floridan aquifer through these sinkholes. Naturally occurring organic material in the river provides a readily available source of energy for the growth of microbiota in the aquifer. Microbiological processes and chemical reactions in the aquifer produce methane and hydrogen sulfide as the water from the river mixes with ground water and moves downgradient in the aquifer. Humic substances associated with the organic material in the ground water in this area can form trihalomethanes when the water is chlorinated for public supply. To assess areas most suitable for ground-water supply development, areal distributions of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane in the Upper Floridan aquifer were mapped and used to evaluate areas affected by recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Areas where concentrations of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane were less than or equal to 2.0 milligrams per liter, 0.5 milligrams per liter, and 100 micrograms per liter, respectively, were considered to be relatively unaffected by recharge from the river and to have the greatest potential for water- resources development.

  20. Strengthening Oklahoma Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Citizens' Commission on Education, Oklahoma City.

    Established by the state legislature in 1980, the Oklahoma Citizens' Commission on Education (OCCE) aimed to evaluate the state's schools and prescribe goals for its future educational system. This report presents OCCE's recommendations and background materials. The first section comprises OCCE's 42 recommendations and statements, with supporting…

  1. Sauroposeidon: Oklahoma's Native Giant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathew J. Wedel; Richard L. Cifelli

    Sauroposeidon, the largest dinosaur ever discovered in Oklahoma, is one of the largest dinosaurs that ever lived. Sauroposeidon is represented by a series of neck vertebrae, which show that it is a sauropod dinosaur closely related to Brachiosaurus. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the vertebrae reveal a net- work of small internal chambers. In life, the chambers would have been

  2. Texas-Oklahoma

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Texas-Oklahoma Border     ... important resources for farming, ranching, public drinking water, hydroelectric power, and recreation. Both originate in New Mexico and ... NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science ...

  3. Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1986-01-01

    The major Paleozoic artesian aquifers, the aquifers most favorable for continued development, in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming are the Tensleep Sandstone, the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite (Madison-Bighorn aquifer), and the Flathead Sandstone. The minor aquifers include the Goose Egg and Park City Formations (considered in the Ten Sleep area to be the lateral equivalent of the Phosphoria Formation) and the Amsden Formation. Most wells completed in the major and minor aquifers flow at the land surface. Wellhead pressures generally are less than 50 pounds per square inch for the Tensleep Sandstone, 150-250 pounds per square inch for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, and more than 400 pounds per square inch for the Flathead Sandstone. Flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and the Flathead Sandstone yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. The initial test of one well completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer indicated a flow rate of 14,000 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 500 to 1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and from about 90 to 325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Significant secondary permeability from fracturing in the Paleozoic aquifers allows local upward interformational movement of water, and this affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Water moves upward from the Tensleep and other formations, through the Goose Egg Formation, to discharge at the land surface as springs. Much of the spring flow is diverted for irrigation or is used for rearing fish. Decreases from original well pressures were not apparent in wells completed in the Tensleep Sandstone or in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer in the study area except for a few wells in or near the town of Ten Sleep. Most wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone, which also are open to the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, show a decrease of pressure from the time of completion to 1978. The decrease of pressure is partly the result of water moving from the Flathead Sandstone into the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, which has a lower potentiometric surface than does the Flathead Sandstone, even during the time the wells are not in operation. Pressure in some small-capacity wells completed in the Goose Egg Formation also has decreased near Ten Sleep. Most of the wells, particularly the irrigation wells, show a progressive decrease in pressure during the irrigation season but recover during periods of nonuse. Measurements of the pressure were made principally in 1953, 1962, 1970, and 1975-78. Well water from the Paleozoic aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but excessive hardness. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water are less than 300 milligrams per liter in the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, less than 200 milligrams per liter in the Flathead Sandstone, and as much as 450 milligrams per liter in the Goose Egg Formation. Bicarbonate is the major constituent, followed by calcium and magnesium. Relatively large concentrations of sulfate, as much as 490 milligrams per liter, were found, mainly in water from the Goose Egg Formation. The water has low sodium (alkali) and medium salinity; therefore, the water is satisfactory for irrigation and most other uses, if excessive hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 ? to 27.5 ? Celsius (51 ? to 81.5 ? Fahrenheit) within a range in depth of approximately 250 to 4,000 feet. This gives a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 ? Celsius per 100 feet (0.79 ? Fahrenheit per 100 feet).

  4. Groundwater Quality, Age, and Probability of Contamination, Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    The Eagle River watershed is located near the destination resort town of Vail, Colorado. The area has a fastgrowing permanent population, and the resort industry is rapidly expanding. A large percentage of the land undergoing development to support that growth overlies the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA), which likely has a high predisposition to groundwater contamination. As development continues, local organizations need tools to evaluate potential land-development effects on ground- and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. To help develop these tools, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, conducted a study in 2006-2007 of the groundwater quality, age, and probability of contamination in the ERWVFA, north-central Colorado. Ground- and surface-water quality samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, tritium, dissolved gases, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined with very low-level laboratory methods. The major-ion data indicate that groundwaters in the ERWVFA can be classified into two major groups: groundwater that was recharged by infiltration of surface water, and groundwater that had less immediate recharge from surface water and had elevated sulfate concentrations. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the USEPA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (250 milligrams per liter) in many wells near Eagle, Gypsum, and Dotsero. The predominant source of sulfate to groundwater in the Eagle River watershed is the Eagle Valley Evaporite, which is a gypsum deposit of Pennsylvanian age located predominantly in the western one-half of Eagle County.

  5. Fluorine in the rocks and sediments of volcanic areas in central Italy: total content, enrichment and leaching processes and a hypothesis on the vulnerability of the related aquifers.

    PubMed

    De Rita, Donatella; Cremisini, Carlo; Cinnirella, Alessandro; Spaziani, Fabio

    2012-09-01

    Rock, sediment and water samples from areas characterised by hydrothermal alterations in the Sabatini and Vico Volcanic Districts, near Rome and the large city of Viterbo, respectively, were collected and analysed to determine the total fluorine (F) content and to understand the F geochemical background level in the volcanic districts of central Italy. Leaching and alteration processes controlling the high concentration of F in water were also investigated. Fluorine concentrations were directly determined (potentiometrically) by an F selective electrode in water samples, while the procedure for rock samples included preliminary F dissolution through alkaline fusion. F concentrations higher than 800 mg kg(-1) were commonly found in the analysed rocks and sediments; the concentration depended on the lithology and on the distance from the alteration areas. A specific successive sampling campaign was conducted in three areas where the F content in sediments was particularly high; in the same areas, measurements of CO(2) flux were also performed to investigate the possible deep origin of F. To verify the relationships among the high F contents in rocks and sediments, the leaching processes involved and the presence of F in the aquifer, we also collected water samples in the western sector of the Sabatini Volcanic District, where hydrothermal manifestations and mineral springs are common. The data were processed using a GIS system in which the F distribution was combined with morphological and geological observations. The main results of our study are that (1) F concentrations are higher in volcanic and recently formed travertine (especially in hydrothermally altered sediments) than in sedimentary rocks and decrease with distance from hydrothermal alteration areas, (2) F is more easily leached from hydrothermally altered rocks and from travertine and (3) sediments enriched with F may indicate the presence of deep regional fractures that represent direct pathways of hydrothermal fluids from the crust to the surface. PMID:21968879

  6. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the state line were dominantly cow and horse with one ribotype from bird. Escherichia coli was detected in only one well sample. Bacterial ribotypes in water from that upgradient well indicated human and dog feces as sources for bacteria, and that on site wastewater treatment may not always be adequate in these highly permeable soils. Greater concentrations of nitrate in Cave Springs Branch and O'Brien Spring relative to the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall may be due, in part, to conversion of ammonia from poultry processing plant wastewater. The poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall sample collected in March 2000 contained greater concentrations of ammonia and total organic nitrogen plus ammonia than the spring, stream, and well samples collected during August 1999. Cave Springs Branch and Honey Creek contributed approximately equal loads of nitrogen to Honey Creek below the confluence and the greatest loads of nitrogen were introduced to Cave Springs Branch by the poultry processing plant wastewater outfall and O'Brien Spring. Nitrate concentrations in upgradient well samples ranged from 0.38 to 4.60 milligrams per liter, indicating that there are sources of ground-water nitrogen other than Cave Springs Branch, such as animal waste, fertilizer, or human waste. Nitrogen compounds in water from wells downgradient of Cave Springs Branch may be from Cave Springs Branch, fertilizers, animal waste, or human waste.

  7. Water quality of the Ogallala Formation, central High Plains aquifer within the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District, Texas Panhandle, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Haynie, Monti M.; Beussink, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    In cooperation with the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD), the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water-quality samples at 30 groundwater monitor wells in the NPGCD in the Texas Panhandle. All of the wells were completed in the Ogallala Formation of the central High Plains aquifer. Samples from each well were collected during February–March 2012 and in March 2013. Depth to groundwater in feet below land surface was measured at each well before sampling to determine the water-quality sampling depths. Water-quality samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace metals, and 6 of the 30 samples were analyzed for pesticides. There was a strong relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids as evidenced by a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.98. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from five wells exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Water from 3 of these 5 wells was near the north central part of the NPGCD. Nitrate values exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in 2 of the 30 wells. A sodium-adsorption ratio of 23.4 was measured in the sample collected from well Da-3589 in Dallam County, with the next largest sodium-adsorption ratio measured in the sample collected from well Da-3588 (12.5), also in Dallum County. The sodium-adsorption ratios measured in all other samples were less than 10. The groundwater was generally a mixed cation-bicarbonate plus carbonate type. Twenty-three trace elements were analyzed, and no concentrations exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water supplies. In 2012, 6 of the 30 wells were sampled for commonly used pesticides. Atrazine and its degradate 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine were detected in two samples. Tebuthiuron was detected in one sample at a detection level below the reporting level but above the long-term method detection level. There were no detections of the glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), or glufosinate.

  8. Geophysical logs for selected wells in the Picher Field, northeast Oklahoma and southeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.; Thomas, Tom B.; Overton, Myles D.; Goemaat, Robert L.; Havens, John S.

    1991-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in northeastern Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. The Roubidoux aquifer may be subject to contamination from abandoned lead and zinc mines of the Picher field. Water in flooded underground mines contains large concentrations of iron, zinc, cadmium, and lead. The contaminated water may migrate from the mines to the Roubidoux aquifer through abandoned water wells in the Picher field. In late 1984, the Oklahoma Water Resources Board began to locate abandoned wells that might be serving as conduits for the migration of contaminants from the abandoned mines. These wells were cleared of debris and plugged. A total of 66 wells had been located, cleared, and plugged by July 1985. In cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey took advantage of the opportunity to obtain geophysical data in the study area and provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board with data that might be useful during the well-plugging operation. Geophysical logs obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey are presented in this report. The geophysical logs include hole diameter, normal, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, natural-gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron logs. Depths logged range from 145 to 1,344 feet.

  9. Aquifer - Basin and range

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aquifer basics outlining the makeup of the basin and range aquifers. Description and maps of unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers. This site consists of information for the Southwestern portion of the United States, consisted of Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah.

  10. Oklahoma Healthy Homes Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fahad

    2011-01-01

    Compelling scientific evidence suggests that a strong association exists between housing-related hazards and the health and safety of their residents. Health, safety, and environmental hazards (such as asthma and allergy triggers), unintentional injury hazards, lead-based paint hazards, and poor indoor air quality are interrelated with substandard housing conditions. This article describes a Healthy Homes initiative to address these hazards in a coordinated fashion in the home, rather than taking a categorical approach, even in the presence of multiple hazards. It also provides an overview of Oklahoma's Healthy Homes initiative and its pilot project, the Tulsa Safe and Healthy Housing Project, which is currently administered in Tulsa in collaboration with Children First, Oklahoma's Nurse-Family Partnership program. This pilot project seeks to open new areas of research that can lead to a greater understanding of environmental health issues related to substandard housing in the United States, which will eventually make homes safer and healthier. PMID:21563709

  11. Oklahoma Digital Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A team of talented librarians at the Oklahoma State University Library have created this collection of 3,600 maps, a true find for those with an interest in Sooner history, geography, culture, and more. The cartographic resources are divided into four collections, including the WPA Collection and the USGS Collection. This first collection consists of almost 2,400 detailed county maps produced in the 1930s by the Works Progress Administration and the Oklahoma Tax Commission to determine real estate values. Moving on, the USGS Collection is made up of 300 detailed maps generated from 1892 to the 1950s documenting topographical conditions throughout the state. Interested parties can view all of the maps here via a nice digital image tool and are also welcome to search across the entire collection by keyword.

  12. Is Oklahoma getting drier?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, B.; Fan, T.; Xi, B.

    2010-12-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) models, especially the Community Land Model (CLM), show a continue reduction of soil moisture over Oklahoma region from 1980 to 2008. When the top 3.5 meter of surface is considered, the total water amounts estimated from models are within the ranges of 145-150, 140-145, 135-140, and 130-135 kg/m2 for the years of 1980-1986, 1987-1993, 1994-2000, and 2001-2008, respectively. A statistically significant decreasing trend of annual mean soil moisture is also found, indicating the region may experience a continuous drying period. Although the moisture change could be related to many factors, precipitation and evaporation potentially are the two dominant meteorological variables in determining the soil moisture variation. The rainfall amounts simulated by CLM are compared well with the satellite observations of Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Both exhibit significant decreases in the region from 1980 to 2008. The CLM rainfalls also agree well with the available in-situ rainfall measurements during 1997 to 2007 from the Oklahoma Mesonet, which consist of 120 stations over the Oklahoma. For evaporation, currently there are no reliable direct observations during the time period studied. Limited satellite observations from the Princeton land surface data set indicate likely increase of evaporation. The soil moisture and temperature from SGP has records starting 1997, which is not enough to show the trend because of large variability. But both SRB and ISCCP surface net radiative flux from 1983 to 2008 shows an increasing trend. This could support the idea of increase in evaporation. The general decreases in precipitation and possible enhancements in evaporation would reduce land surface water storage. The reduced soil moisture could have considerable impact on land surface vegetation. For the Oklahoma region, this change would have a great potential in influence of regional agriculture and society.

  13. Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Major Paleozoic artesian aquifers in the southeastern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming area, in descending order, the Tensleep Sandstone; the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite, which together form the Madison-Bighorn aquifer; and the Flathead Sandstone. Operating yields commonly are more than 1,000 gallons per minute from flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. The initial test of one well indicated a flow of 14,000 gallons per minute. Wellhead pressures range from less than 50 to more than 400 pounds per square inch. Transmissivities are 500-1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and 90-325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Despite extensive development for irrigation there have been few decreases in pressure. Some decreases in pressure have occurred in wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone. Fractures along linear structural features result in significant secondary permeability and allow upward interformational movement of water that affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces in the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Upward-moving water from the Tensleep and other formations discharges at the land surface as springs along or near these lineations. Water from the aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but has excessive hardness. The water is satisfactory for irrigation and other purposes when hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 degrees to 27.5 degrees C, giving a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 degrees C per 100 feet. (USGS)

  14. Digital-simulation and projection of water-level declines in basalt aquifers of the Odessa-Lind area, east-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luzier, J.E.; Skrivan, James A.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer program using finite-difference techniques simulates an intensively pumped, multilayered basalt-aquifer system near Odessa. The aquifers now developed are in the upper 1,000 feet of a regionally extensive series of southwesterly dipping basalt flows of the Columbia River Group. Most of the aquifers are confined. Those in the depth range of about 500 to 1,000 feet are the chief source of ground water pumped from irrigation wells. Transmissivity of these aquifers ranges from less than 2,700 feet squared per day to more than 40,000 feet squared per day, and storage coefficients range from 0.0015 to 0.006. Shallower aquifers are generally much less permeable, but they are a source of recharge to deeper aquifers with lower artesian heads; vertical leakage occurs along joints in the basalt and down uncased wells, which short circuit the aquifer system. For model analysis, the deeper, pumped aquifers were grouped and treated as a single layer with drawdown-dependent leakage from an overlying confining layer. Verification of the model was achieved primarily by closely matching observed pumpage-related head declines ranging from about 10 feet to more than 40 feet over the 4-year period from March 1967 to March 1971. Projected average annual rates of decline in the Odessa-Lind area during the 14-year period from March 1967 to March 1981 are: from 1 to 9 feet per year if pumpage is maintained at the 1970 rate of 117,000 acre-feet per year; or, from 3 to 33 feet per year if 1970 pumpage is increased to 233,000 acre-feet per year, which includes 116,000 acre-feet per year covered by water-right applications held in abeyance. In each case, projected drawdown on the northeast side of a major ground-water barrier is about double that on the southwest side because of differences in transmissivity and storage coefficient and in sources of recharge.

  15. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  16. Drinking-water quality and variations in water levels in the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer, west-central Jefferson County, Colorado. Water-resources investigations (interim)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Hall; C. J. Johnson

    1979-01-01

    In parts of the area, water for domestic use obtained from the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer contained excessive concentrations of dissolved fluoride, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved solids, dissolved iron, dissolved manganese, dissolved zinc, coliform bacteria, gross alpha radiation, and gross beta radiation. Based on water-quality analyses from 26 wells located in small urbanized areas, water from 21 of the wells

  17. Psychological response to the Oklahoma City bombing.

    PubMed

    Krug, R S; Nixon, S J; Vincent, R

    1996-01-01

    The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City was the most devastating terrorist activity that has occurred in America. Prevention of revictimization of persons seriously affected by the bombing was central to the planned response to this tragedy. Coordination and collaboration among local, state, and national agencies promoted effective clinical services provision, research facilitation, and prevention of revictimization. Information gathered from this cooperative effort will contribute to the effort to minimize the potential for such tragedies in the future as well as help to develop prevention and intervention strategies to reduce the effects when the next such disaster occurs. PMID:8682905

  18. Regional groundwater-flow model of the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and alluvial basin aquifer systems of northern and central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, D.R.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Leake, Stanley A.; Graser, Leslie F.

    2011-01-01

    A numerical flow model (MODFLOW) of the groundwater flow system in the primary aquifers in northern Arizona was developed to simulate interactions between the aquifers, perennial streams, and springs for predevelopment and transient conditions during 1910 through 2005. Simulated aquifers include the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and basin-fill aquifers. Perennial stream reaches and springs that derive base flow from the aquifers were simulated, including the Colorado River, Little Colorado River, Salt River, Verde River, and perennial reaches of tributary streams. Simulated major springs include Blue Spring, Del Rio Springs, Havasu Springs, Verde River headwater springs, several springs that discharge adjacent to major Verde River tributaries, and many springs that discharge to the Colorado River. Estimates of aquifer hydraulic properties and groundwater budgets were developed from published reports and groundwater-flow models. Spatial extents of aquifers and confining units were developed from geologic data, geophysical models, a groundwater-flow model for the Prescott Active Management Area, drill logs, geologic logs, and geophysical logs. Spatial and temporal distributions of natural recharge were developed by using a water-balance model that estimates recharge from direct infiltration. Additional natural recharge from ephemeral channel infiltration was simulated in alluvial basins. Recharge at wastewater treatment facilities and incidental recharge at agricultural fields and golf courses were also simulated. Estimates of predevelopment rates of groundwater discharge to streams, springs, and evapotranspiration by phreatophytes were derived from previous reports and on the basis of streamflow records at gages. Annual estimates of groundwater withdrawals for agriculture, municipal, industrial, and domestic uses were developed from several sources, including reported withdrawals for nonexempt wells, estimated crop requirements for agricultural wells, and estimated per capita water use for exempt wells. Accuracy of the simulated groundwater-flow system was evaluated by using observational control from water levels in wells, estimates of base flow from streamflow records, and estimates of spring discharge. Major results from the simulations include the importance of variations in recharge rates throughout the study area and recharge along ephemeral and losing stream reaches in alluvial basins. Insights about the groundwater-flow systems in individual basins include the hydrologic influence of geologic structures in some areas and that stream-aquifer interactions along the lower part of the Little Colorado River are an effective control on water level distributions throughout the Little Colorado River Plateau basin. Better information on several aspects of the groundwater flow system are needed to reduce uncertainty of the simulated system. Many areas lack documentation of the response of the groundwater system to changes in withdrawals and recharge. Data needed to define groundwater flow between vertically adjacent water-bearing units is lacking in many areas. Distributions of recharge along losing stream reaches are poorly defined. Extents of aquifers and alluvial lithologies are poorly defined in parts of the Big Chino and Verde Valley sub-basins. Aquifer storage properties are poorly defined throughout most of the study area. Little data exist to define the hydrologic importance of geologic structures such as faults and fractures. Discharge of regional groundwater flow to the Verde River is difficult to identify in the Verde Valley sub-basin because of unknown contributions from deep percolation of excess surface water irrigation.

  19. A multidisciplinary approach for the management of the water resources hosted in the multi-layer coastal aquifers of Central-Southern Tuscany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelli, M.; Doveri, M.; Cerrina Feroni, A.; Da Prato, S.; Ellero, A.; Marini, L.; Masetti, G.; Nisi, B.; Raco, B.

    2012-12-01

    The correct management of subterranean water resources should be based on the studies aimed to acquire informations about geological, hydrogeological and geochemical characteristics of water and aquifer. Taking in mind this idea, the subterranean water resources hosted in the multi-layer aquifers below the coastal plains of the Cecina River, Cornia River, Follonica, Grosseto, and Albegna River were recently investigated through a multidisciplinary approach in the framework of the Significant Groundwater Bodies (SGB) Project, funded by the Tuscany Region (Italy). In the first step, the distinction of main aquifer, aquitard, and aquiclude levels has been done by means of the geometrical reconstruction of the geological sequences, using available stratigraphical data. For each hydrogeological complex, the total volumes and the percentages of the different grain sizes were also calculated. The second step was addressed to elaborate the piezometric surfaces during low-flow and high-flow conditions, aimed to individuate the main flow pattern and the most exploited zones of the multi-layer aquifers. Moreover, considering the saturated zone and applying an effective porosity (weighed in function of grain sizes percentages), the amounts of the total water volumes stored in the aquifer system were estimate. The third step comprised the hydrogeochemical characterization of the areas of interest, by means of both: a deterministic approach, including the elaboration and interpretation of classification diagrams, Eh-pH plots, calculation of water speciation and saturation state, activity diagrams, etc. a geo-statistical approach, aimed to the study of the spatial distribution of the most significant geochemical parameters, such as the concentrations of chloride, sulfate, nitrate and boron. If suitable database is available, this multidisciplinary approach can allow to identify the main recharge areas and flow path and the physical-chemical processes (naturals or antropics) responsible of the peculiar chemical and isotopical characteristics of water resources. The application of this method is easy and can be used in others sites in which right management of water resources is needed.

  20. Water-level changes, 1980 TO 1997, and saturated thickness, 1996-97, in the High Plains Aquifer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Service provides this report detailing water level changes in the High Plains aquifer. Underlying one of the major agricultural regions in the world, the High Plains Aquifer includes parts of eight States -- Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The report describes "(1) water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from 1980 to 1997 and from 1996 to 1997, (2) the precipitation pattern in the High Plains region during 1996, and (3) estimated saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer in 1996-97."

  1. Hydrogeology of the Scioto River Valley near Piketon, South-Central Ohio a quantitative study of ground-water yield and induced infiltration in a glacial outwash aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norris, Stanley Eugene; Fidler, Richard E.

    1969-01-01

    A systematic study was made of one of Ohio's principal aquifers, a sand and gravel outwash in the Scioto River Valley, to determine the feasibility of developing a ground-water supply of 20 million gallons per day at a site near Piketon. The first part of the study was spent in determining the thickness and physical properties of the sand and gravel aquifer and in drilling test wells to determine the best site for the supply wells. The second part of the investigation was an aquifer infiltration test to determine the hydraulic properties of the aquifer and the conditions of stream recharge. A well 83 feet deep was drilled on the flood plain and was pumped for 9 days at the rate of 1,000 gallons per minute. Tile effect on the hydrologic system during and after the pumping was determined by measuring the water levels in an array of deep and shallow observation wells and in 8 drive-point wells installed in the bed of the river. Seldom have more comprehensive data been collected showing the effects of pumping on a natural, unconfined, hydrologic system. From these data were calculated the coefficient of transmissibility (215,000 gallons per day per foot) and the rate of streambed infiltration (0.235 million gallons per day per acre per foot). The aquifer was tested near the end of a long drought; so the ground-water levels and the river stage were very nearly following a level trend. Because the ground-water levels were essentially unaffected by extraneous influences, the test data are probably as precise and uncomplicated as is practical to obtain in the field. These data proved to be valid for use as design criteria for the location, spacing, and construction of four supply wells. The third part of the investigation was the testing and quantitative evaluation of the four supply wells before they were put into service. The wells were found to perform about as predicted, indicating that the hydraulic properties of the aquifer, as determined by standard methods, are fairly representative.

  2. Water quality of the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer before and concurrent with large-scale artificial recharge, south-central Kansas, 1995-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappa, Daniel J.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet describes baseline water quality of the Equus Beds aquifer and Little Arkansas River and water-quality effects of artificial recharge by the city of Wichita associated with Phase I (2007–present) of the Aquifer Storage and Recovery project. During 1995 through 2012, more than 8,800 surface water and groundwater water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for more than 400 compounds, including most of the compounds on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s primary drinking-water standards maximum contaminant level list and secondary drinkingwater regulations secondary maximum contaminant level list. Water-quality constituents of concern discussed in detail in this fact sheet are chloride, arsenic, total coliform bacteria, and atrazine. Sulfate, nitrate, iron, manganese, oxidation-reduction potential, and specific conductance also are constituents of concern and are discussed to a lesser extent.

  3. Simulation of the effects of management alternatives on the stream-aquifer system, South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, R.D.; Reed, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    With extensive irrigation use of both surface water and groundwater in the South Fork Solomon River valley shortages of these water supplies have been created. A two-dimensional digital model of transient groundwater flow was applied to investigate the potential effects on the stream aquifer system of seven management alternatives. These alternatives included proposals to conserve surface water supplies by lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay, replacing the lateral canals with pipe, removing phreatophytes, decreasing surface water use by 75%, 50%, or 25% and replacing it with groundwater sources, and continuing 1978 groundwater use and 1970-78 average surface water use until the end of the 20th century. Results were assessed by comparison of drawdowns of hydraulic head in the alluvial aquifer and base flow for each simulation. As listed in order of the smallest to the greatest potential effects on the system relative to drawdown and base flow the alternatives are: (1) removal of one-half of the phreatophytes; (2) continuation of 1978 groundwater withdrawals and average 1970-78 surface water supply; (3) replacement of the lateral canals with pipe; (4) lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay; (5) decrease of surface water use by 25% and replacement of it with groundwater; (6) decrease of surface water use by 50% and replacement of it with groundwater; and (7) decrease of surface water use by 75% and replacement of it with groundwater. The removal of one-half of the phreatophytes would result in a decrease in average drawdown in the alluvial aquifer to about 1.74 ft and an increase in base flow of the Solomon River to about 12.3 cu ft/sec. The decrease of surface water supply by 75 % and a corresponding increase in groundwater withdrawal would result in an increase in drawdown in the aquifer to about 2.5 ft and a decrease in base flow to about 6.8 cu ft/sec. (Lantz-PTT)

  4. Assessing the extent of induced leakage to an urban aquifer using environmental tracers: an example from Bishkek, capital of Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Morris; W. George Darling; Daren C. Gooddy; Rafael G. Litvak; Ilka Neumann; Ekaterina J. Nemaltseva; Inna Poddubnaia

    2006-01-01

    A groundwater residence time study of the deep fluvioglacial aquifer supplying Bishkek, capital of Kyrgyzstan, has found evidence of deep infiltration of recent recharge both in the main periurban wellfield and below the city. Commonly-employed hydrochemical markers detected urban influence in the city-centre to depths of 65–100 m, but gave no indication of the important role of induced river\\/canal bed leakage,

  5. Denitrification in a hypersaline lake-aquifer system (Pétrola Basin, Central Spain): the role of recent organic matter and Cretaceous organic rich sediments.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Alday, J J; Carrey, R; Valiente, N; Otero, N; Soler, A; Ayora, C; Sanz, D; Muńoz-Martín, A; Castańo, S; Recio, C; Carnicero, A; Cortijo, A

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural regions in semi-arid to arid climates with associated saline wetlands are one of the most vulnerable environments to nitrate pollution. The Pétrola Basin was declared vulnerable to NO3(-) pollution by the Regional Government in 1998, and the hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified body of water. The study assessed groundwater NO3(-) through the use of multi-isotopic tracers (?(15)N, ?(34)S, ?(13)C, ?(18)O) coupled to hydrochemistry in the aquifer connected to the eutrophic lake. Hydrogeologically, the basin shows two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas (Zone 1) to the lake (Zone 2), and a density-driven flow from surface water to the underlying aquifer (Zone 3). In Zones 1 and 2, ?(15)NNO3 and ?(18)ONO3 suggest that NO3(-) from slightly volatilized ammonium synthetic fertilizers is only partially denitrified. The natural attenuation of NO3(-) can occur by heterotrophic reactions. However, autotrophic reactions cannot be ruled out. In Zone 3, the freshwater-saltwater interface (down to 12-16 m below the ground surface) is a reactive zone for NO3(-) attenuation. Tritium data suggest that the absence of NO3(-) in the deepest zones of the aquifer under the lake can be attributed to a regional groundwater flow with long residence time. In hypersaline lakes the geometry of the density-driven flow can play an important role in the transport of chemical species that can be related to denitrification processes. PMID:25169874

  6. Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

  7. Biological assessment of environmental flows for Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, William L.; Seilheimer, Titus S.; Taylor, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale patterns in fish assemblage structure and functional groups are influenced by alterations in streamflow regime. In this study, we defined an objective threshold for alteration for Oklahoma streams using a combination of the expected range of 27 flow indices and a discriminant analysis to predict flow regime group. We found that fish functional groups in reference flow conditions had species that were more intolerant to flow alterations and preferences for stream habitat and faster flowing water. In contrast, altered sites had more tolerant species that preferred lentic habitat and slower water velocity. Ordination graphs of the presence and functional groups of species revealed an underlying geographical pattern roughly conforming to ecoregions, although there was separation between reference and altered sites within the larger geographical framework. Additionally, we found that reservoir construction and operation significantly altered fish assemblages in two different systems, Bird Creek in central Oklahoma and the Kiamichi River in southeastern Oklahoma. The Bird Creek flow regime shifted from a historically intermittent stream to one with stable perennial flows, and changes in fish assemblage structure covaried with changes in all five components of the flow regime. In contrast, the Kiamichi River flow regime did not change significantly for most flow components despite shifts in fish assemblage structure; however, most of the species associated with shifts in assemblage structure in the Kiamichi River system were characteristic of lentic environments and were likely related more to proximity of reservoirs in the drainage system than changes in flow. The spatial patterns in fish assemblage response to flow alteration, combined with different temporal responses of hydrology and fish assemblage structure at sites downstream of reservoirs, indicate that interactions between flow regime and aquatic biota vary depending on ecological setting. This supports the notion that regional variation in natural flow regimes could affect the development of flow recommendations.

  8. Simulation of groundwater and surface-water interaction and effects of pumping in a complex glacial-sediment aquifer, east central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, Jack R.; Carlson, Carl S.; Fairchild, Gillian M.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of groundwater pumping on surface-water features were evaluated by use of a numerical groundwater model developed for a complex glacial-sediment aquifer in northeastern Framingham, Massachusetts, and parts of surrounding towns. The aquifer is composed of sand, gravel, silt, and clay glacial-fill sediments up to 270 feet thick over an irregular fractured bedrock surface. Surface-water bodies, including Cochituate Brook, the Sudbury River, Lake Cochituate, Dudley Pond, and adjoining wetlands, are in hydraulic connection with the aquifer and can be affected by groundwater withdrawals. Groundwater and surface-water interaction was simulated with MODFLOW-NWT under current conditions and a variety of hypothetical pumping conditions. Simulations of hypothetical pumping at reactivated water supply wells indicate that captured groundwater would decrease baseflow to the Sudbury River and induce recharge from Lake Cochituate. Under constant (steady-state) pumping, induced groundwater recharge from Lake Cochituate was equal to about 32 percent of the simulated pumping rate, and flow downstream in the Sudbury River decreased at the same rate as pumping. However, surface water responded quickly to pumping stresses. When pumping was simulated for 1 month and then stopped, streamflow depletions decreased by about 80 percent within 2 months and by about 90 percent within about 4 months. The fast surface water response to groundwater pumping offers the potential to substantially reduce streamflow depletions during periods of low flow, which are of greatest concern to the ecological integrity of the river. Results indicate that streamflow depletion during September, typically the month of lowest flow, can be reduced by 29 percent by lowering the maximum pumping rates to near zero during September. Lowering pumping rates for 3 months (July through September) reduces streamflow depletion during September by 79 percent as compared to constant pumping. These results demonstrate that a seasonal or streamflow-based groundwater pumping schedule can reduce the effects of pumping during periods of low flow.

  9. 77 FR 34890 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...Oklahoma intends to revise its program to be no less effective than the Federal regulations and to improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Oklahoma program and this proposed amendment to that...

  10. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2011 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2011 Audited Financial Statements Independent Auditors' Report

  11. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2010 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2010 Audited Financial Statements Independent Auditors' Report

  12. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2008 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2008 Audited Financial Statements Independent Auditors' Report

  13. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2009 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2009 Audited Financial Statements Independent Auditors' Report

  14. Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water (transition zone). As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current freshwater supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey, San Antonio Water System, and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone.

  15. Constraints on recent earthquake source parameters, fault geometry and aftershock characteristics in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Benz, H.; Herrmann, R. B.; Bergman, E. A.; McMahon, N. D.; Aster, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    In late 2009, the seismicity of Oklahoma increased dramatically. The largest of these earthquakes was a series of three damaging events (Mw 4.8, 5.6, 4.8) that occurred over a span of four days in November 2011 near the town of Prague in central Oklahoma. Studies suggest that these earthquakes were induced by reactivation of the Wilzetta fault due to the disposal of waste water from hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") and other oil and gas activities. The Wilzetta fault is a northeast trending vertical strike-slip fault that is a well known structural trap for oil and gas. Since the November 2011 Prague sequence, thousands of small to moderate (M2-M4) earthquakes have occurred throughout central Oklahoma. The most active regions are located near the towns of Stillwater and Medford in north-central Oklahoma, and Guthrie, Langston and Jones near Oklahoma City. The USGS, in collaboration with the Oklahoma Geological Survey and the University of Oklahoma, has responded by deploying numerous temporary seismic stations in the region in order to record the vigorous aftershock sequences. In this study we use data from the temporary seismic stations to re-locate all Oklahoma earthquakes in the USGS National Earthquake Information Center catalog using a multiple-event approach known as hypo-centroidal decomposition that locates earthquakes with decreased uncertainty relative to one another. Modeling from this study allows us to constrain the detailed geometry of the reactivated faults, as well as source parameters (focal mechanisms, stress drop, rupture length) for the larger earthquakes. Preliminary results from the November 2011 Prague sequence suggest that subsurface rupture lengths of the largest earthquakes are anomalously long with very low stress drop. We also observe very high Q (~1000 at 1 Hz) that explains the large felt areas and we find relatively low b-value and a rapid decay of aftershocks.

  16. Co-seismic and post-seismic hydrogeological response of the Gran Sasso carbonate aquifer to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoruso, Antonella; Crescentini, Luca; Petitta, Marco; Rusi, Sergio; Tallini, Marco

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=6.3 April 6 2009 L'Aquila earthquake mainshock produced self-evident co-seismic and post-seismic changes in the hydrogeological setting of the Gran Sasso carbonate fractured aquifer (Adinolfi Falcone et alii, 2008; Barbieri et alii, 2005) in which the seismogenic Paganica Fault, which is responsible for the mainshock, is located (Anzidei et alii, 2009; Atzori et alii, 2009; Chiarabba et alii, 2009; Walters et alii, 2009): i) the sudden co-seismic disappearance of some springs localized exactly along the surface trace of the Paganica Fault; ii) co-seismic and post-seismic increases in the discharge of the Gran Sasso highway tunnel drainages (+20%) and of other springs (+10%) and iii) a progressive increase of the water table (+1m) at the boundary of the aquifer. Taking into account previous data collected since the '90s, and spot and aftershock monitoring data on spring discharge, spring turbidity, water table levels and rainfall events, a preliminary conceptual model of the earthquake's consequences on the Gran Sasso aquifer is proposed, excluding the contribution of seasonal recharge. Co-seismic effects registered immediately after the shock (i.e. disappearance of local springs and discharge peaks), are caused by pore pressure increase related to deformation. Post-seismic effects, observed in the months following the mainshock (i.e. discharges remaining higher than in the inter-seismic period and a progressive increase of the groundwater level), suggest a permanent change in groundwater hydrodynamics. Additional groundwater flowing towards aquifer boundaries and springs reflects a possible increase in hydraulic conductivity, which can be related to fracture clearing and/or dilatancy (Montgomery and Manga, 2003). To validate the proposed conceptual model we analyse pore pressure changes and the Darcy flow pattern immediately after L'Aquila earthquake for a layered poroelastic medium, using a Green's functions approach (Wang and Kumpel, 2003), and compare results with observations of co-seismic spring discharge changes. As regards the post-seismic phase, several springs in the Gran Sasso region exhibit long-lasting flow increase, but pore pressure changes can sustain flow changes for few days only. We treat the Gran Sasso acquifer as a homogenous/heterogeneous one-dimensional/annular-sectored aquifer and compare the observed changes and model predictions computed for a permanent or transient increase in permeability. References Adinolfi Falcone, R. et alii, 2008: Journal of Hydrology, v. 357, p. 368- 388. Anzidei, M. et alii, 2009: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 36, L17307, doi:10.1029/2009GL039145. Atzori, S. et alii, 2009: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 36, L15305, doi:10.1029/2009GL039293. Barbieri, M. et alii, 2005: Applied Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 2063-2081. Chiarabba, C. et alii, 2009: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 6, 18308, oi:10.1029/2009GL039627. Montgomery, D.R., and Manga, M., 2003: Science, v. 300, p. 2047-2049. Walters, R.J. et alii, 2009: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 36, L17312, doi:10.1029/2009GL039337. Wang, R., and H.-J. Kumpel, 2003: Geophysics, v. 68, p. 705-717.

  17. the university of oklahoma Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    the university of oklahoma ADVENTURE A Year Of Annual Report July 2005 ­ June 2006 #12;Board S S I O N Statement The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History at the University of Oklahoma Conducting and disseminating research to increase knowledge Teaching university students to develop critical

  18. 1Mohammed Atiquzzaman University of Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    Fairness in DiffServ Mohammed Atiquzzaman School of Computer Science University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK of Oklahoma DiffServ n Provides statistical guarantees to a few pre- defined per hop behavior Y Expedited University of Oklahoma Differentiated Service Network DiffServ Domain A DiffServ Domain B DiffServ Domain C

  19. Simulation of ground-water flow in the basin-fill aquifer of the Tularosa Basin, south-central New Mexico, predevelopment through 2040

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Glenn F.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrology of the basin-fill aquifer in the Tularosa Basin was evaluated through construction and calibration of steady-state and transient three-dimensional ground-water-flow simulations. Simulations were made using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference modular ground-water-flow computer software MODFLOW-96. The transient simulation covered 1948-2040. Both steady-state and transient simulations were calibrated by matching simulation output to available ground-water-level measurements. The root-mean-square error of the steady-state calibration in the well-calibrated area of the ground-water-flow simulation was 6.3 meters, and root-mean-square errors of individual transient-calibration points ranged from 0.8 to 17.0 meters. The areal distribution of water-level measurements used in the steady-state and transient calibrations restricts the well-calibrated area of the model to the eastern side of the Tularosa Basin. Water levels in the La Luz Creek subbasin area were underestimated by both the steady-state and transient models, suggesting that the hydrology of this area is not well represented in the model. About 143,000 cubic meters per day of recharge is estimated to enter the basin-fill aquifer from subbasins that rim the Tularosa Basin. The estimated recharge is about 4-5 percent of total precipitation in most subbasins. Approximately 88 percent of total recharge left the basin-fill aquifer as evapotranspiration under predevelopment conditions. Water levels were simulated for 1948, 1995, and 2040 under scenarios of zero and maximum return flows. Estimated return flows from municipalities were calculated on the basis of data in the Tularosa Basin Regional Water Plan for 2000-2040. Agricultural return flows were estimated primarily on the basis of ground-water-withdrawal, ground-water-depletion, surface-water-withdrawal, and surface-water-depletion data for the Tularosa Basin. The ground-water-flow simulation was sensitive to the return-flow scenario in the agricultural area near Tularosa and decreasingly sensitive to the south. Declines in simulated water levels near Tularosa between 1948 and 1995 were as large as 30 meters under the zero return-flow scenario and 15 meters under the maximum return-flow scenario. Declines in simulated water levels between 1995 and 2040 were as large as 25 meters under the zero return-flow scenario and 15 meters under the maximum return-flow scenario. Comparison of water levels measured near Tularosa in 1991 and water levels simulated under the maximum return-flow scenario for 1991 suggests that declines in simulated water levels near Tularosa may be overestimated under the zero return-flow scenario. Declines in simulated water levels near the City of Alamogordo well field between 1948 and 1995 were as large as 15 meters under the zero return-flow scenario and 10 meters under the maximum return-flow scenario. Simulated declines in water levels between 1995 and 2040 were nearly 15 meters under both return-flow scenarios assuming that all projected increases in withdrawal came from existing City of Alamogordo public-supply wells and all withdrawal from the wells came from the basin-fill aquifer. Declines in simulated water levels near the Holloman Air Force Base well fields between 1948 and 1995 and between 1995 and 2040 were less than 5 meters under both the zero and maximum return-flow scenarios. In 1995 under the zero return-flow scenario, an estimated 56,000 cubic meters of water per day was removed from aquifer storage. Of the approximately 199,000 cubic meters of water per day that left the aquifer under 1995 conditions, 40 percent left the basin-fill aquifer as ground-water withdrawal, 51 percent as evapotranspiration, 7 percent by interbasin ground-water flow into the Hueco Bolson, and 2 percent by flow into creeks and springs. Generalized directions of ground-water flow were simulated for 1948, 1995, and 2040 for much of the eastern part of the Tularosa Basin. Localized

  20. Geophysical Techniques Applied to a Stream-Aquifer System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Healey; G. P. Tsoflias; D. W. Steeples; P. Vincent; S. D. Sloan; C. D. McElwee

    2003-01-01

    In north central Kansas the Republican River and its associated alluvial sediments are important regional surface and groundwater supplies. A test site, adjacent to the Republican River (near Clay Center, KS), has been established within the porous alluvial sediments to study stream-aquifer interaction and aquifer heterogeneity. This is potentially important research for understanding how to maintain a desired stream flow

  1. The Active Bacterial Community in a Pristine Confined Aquifer

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of the active bacteria residing in a pristine confined aquifer provides unexpected insights into the ecology of iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the subsurface. At 18 wells in east-central Illinois, we trapped the microbes that attached to aquifer sedimen...

  2. Geohydrology of alluvium and terrace deposits of the Cimarron River from freedom to Guthrie, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Bergman, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Ground water in 1,305 square miles of Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie, Oklahoma, is used for irrigation, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. As much as 120 feet of clay, silt, sand, and gravel form an unconfined aquifer with an average saturated thickness of 28 feet. The 1985-86 water in storage, assuming a specific yield of 0.20, was 4.47 million acre-feet. The aquifer is bounded laterally and underlain by relatively impermeable Permian geologic units. Regional ground-water flow is generally southeast to southwest toward the Cimarron River, except where the flow direction is affected by perennial tributaries. Estimated average recharge to the aquifer is 207 cubic feet per second. Estimated average discharge from the aquifer by seepage and evapotranspiration is 173 cubic feet per second. Estimated 1985 discharge by withdrawals from wells was 24.43 cubic feet per second. Most water in the terrace deposits varied from a calcium bicarbonate to mixed bicarbonate type, with median dissolved-solids concentration of 538 milligrams per liter. Cimarron River water is a sodium chloride type with up to 16,600 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. A finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed and calibrated to test the conceptual model of the aquifer under steady-state conditions. The model was calibrated to match 1985-86 aquifer heads and discharge to the Cimarron River between Waynoka and Dover.

  3. Springwater geochemistry at Honey Creek State Natural Area, central Texas: Implications for surface water and groundwater interaction in a karst aquifer

    E-print Network

    Banner, Jay L.

    Springwater geochemistry at Honey Creek State Natural Area, central Texas: Implications for surface watersheds at the Honey Creek State Natural Area (HCSNA) in central Texas was undertaken to evaluate spatial similar, and each has springs discharging into Honey Creek, a tributary to the Guadalupe River

  4. STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES CODE -1 THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    of the University of Oklahoma is charged in the Constitution of the State of Oklahoma with governing the University of the United States and the State of Oklahoma and the University of Oklahoma Student Association. Those. Student Rights Students of the University of Oklahoma are guaranteed certain rights by the Constitutions

  5. Diurnal cycle of the Oklahoma City urban heat island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basara, Jeffrey B.; Hall, Peter K.; Schroeder, Amanda J.; Illston, Bradley G.; Nemunaitis, Kodi L.

    2008-10-01

    Between the dates of 28 June and 31 July 2003, the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field project was conducted in Oklahoma City and was the largest urban dispersion experiment ever in North America. Because the focus of JU2003 was on atmospheric processes within the urban environment, an extremely dense network of instrumentation was deployed in and around the central business district (CBD) both prior to and during the field experiment. Among the variables collected were high-resolution observations of air temperature from various instrument sources. Additional observations of air temperature were also collected at Oklahoma Mesonet stations in the rural areas surrounding Oklahoma City. Using an index value, the diurnal cycle of the urban heat island (UHI) for Oklahoma City, with respect to the surrounding rural terrain, was quantified. The results revealed a consistent mean nocturnal UHI greater than 1.5°C at both 2 and 9 m. However, observations at 2 m during JU2003 revealed a significant urban "cool" island during the convective portion of the day. The mean variability of temperature within the urban core of Oklahoma City increased significantly after sunrise, increased to a maximum near solar noon, and decreased following sunset. These results were inconsistent with the rural observations wherein the variability among sites was maximized during the nocturnal period. Finally, the vertical temperature gradient between 2 and 9 m demonstrated a clear and strong diurnal trend at the rural locations, whereas observations from the urban environment were nearly isothermal and consistent with near-neutral conditions throughout JU2003.

  6. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. C.; Estes, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    In Oklahoma, industry consumes about 35% of the total energy consumed. While it is true that much work has been done in the larger companies, most small to medium sized companies have yet to undertake a substantial energy management program. Often...

  7. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. C.; Webb, R. E.; Phillips, J. M.; Viljoen, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    , and in a senior-level engineering course in energy management being taught at Oklahoma State University. The equipment used includes: 1. A solar collector connected to a coffee pot to produce hot water for instant coffee. 2. A solar photo VOltaic...

  8. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  9. Percentage of Probability of Nonpoint-Source Nitrate Contamination of Recently Recharged Ground Water in the High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This raster data set represents the percentage of probability of nonpoint-source nitrate contamination (greater than the proposed background concentration of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as N) of recently (defined as less than 50 years) recharged ground water in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer covers approximately 175,000 square miles in eight States; Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Elevated nitrate concentrations above the background concentration have been detected in recently recharged (less than 50 years) ground water in the High Plains aquifer. This data set is derived from empirical models developed using multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the vulnerability of the High Plains aquifer to nitrate contamination from nonpoint sources. This data set was generated in a geographic information system from these models and represents the spatial extent of vulnerability of nitrate contamination greater than 4 mg/L across the aquifer.

  10. What Works in Oklahoma Schools: A Comprehensive Needs Assessment of Oklahoma Schools. Phase II State Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano Research Laboratory, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Phase II provides a more detailed examination of classroom variables important to achievement in Oklahoma schools. Where Phase I addressed all nine of the Oklahoma essential elements using survey data, Phase II focuses on what occurs in Oklahoma classrooms primarily using data from principal interviews, classroom observations (on-site), and video…

  11. Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  12. Hydrochemical characteristics and seasonal variations in groundwater quality of an alluvial aquifer in parts of Central Ganga Plain, Western Uttar Pradesh, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashid Umar; Izrar Ahmed; Fakhre Alam; Mohammad Muqtada Khan

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess major ion chemistry of groundwater in parts of the Central Ganga Plain and observe\\u000a seasonal variations in its chemical quality. Systematic sampling was carried out during November 2005 and June 2006. The major\\u000a ion chemistry of groundwater shows large variations, so much so that at times the meteoric signature seems to be completely

  13. Occurrence of Selected Organic Compounds in Groundwater Used for Public Supply in the Plio-Pleistocene Deposits in East-Central Nebraska and the Dawson and Denver Aquifers near Denver, Colorado, 2002-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bails, Jeffrey B.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Landon, Matthew K.; Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2009-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has an ongoing Source Water-Quality Assessment program designed to characterize the quality of water in aquifers used as a source of drinking-water supply for some of the largest metropolitan areas in the Nation. In addition to the sampling of the source waters, sampling of finished or treated waters was done in the second year of local studies to evaluate if the organic compounds detected in the source waters also were present in the water supplied to the public. An evaluation of source-water quality used in selected groundwater-supplied public water systems in east-central Nebraska and in the south Denver metropolitan area of Colorado was completed during 2002 through 2004. Fifteen wells in the Plio-Pleistocene alluvial and glacial deposits in east-central Nebraska (the High Plains study) and 12 wells in the Dawson and Denver aquifers, south of Denver (the South Platte study), were sampled during the first year to obtain information on the occurrence and distribution of selected organic chemicals in the source waters. During the second year of the study, two wells in east-central Nebraska were resampled, along with the associated finished water derived from these wells, to determine if organic compounds detected in the source water also were present in the finished water. Selection of the second-phase sampling sites was based on detections of the most-frequently occurring organic compounds from the first-year Source Water-Quality Assessment study results. The second-year sampling also required that finished waters had undergone water-quality treatment processes before being distributed to the public. Sample results from the first year of sampling groundwater wells in east-central Nebraska show that the most-frequently detected organic compounds were the pesticide atrazine and its degradate, deethylatrazine (DEA, otherwise known as 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine or CIAT), which were detected in 9 of the 15 wells (60 percent of the samples). The second most frequently detected organic compound was tetrachloroethylene, detected in 4 of the 15 wells (27 percent of the samples), followed by chloroform, trichloroethylene, and 2-hydroxyatrazine (2-hydroxy-4-isopropylamino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine, or OIET), present in 3 of the 15 wells (20 percent of the samples). The pesticide compounds deisopropylatrazine (2-chloro-6-ethylamino-4-amino-s-triazine, or CEAT), metolachlor, and simazine and the volatile organic compound cis-1,2-dichloroethylene were detected in 2 of the 15 wells, and the compounds diuron and 1,2-dichloroethane were detected in only 1 of the 15 wells during the first-year sampling. Most detections of these compounds were at or near the minimum reporting levels, and none were greater than their regulatory maximum contaminant level. There were few detections of organic compounds during the first year of sampling groundwater wells in the South Platte study area. The compounds atrazine, deethylatrazine, picloram, tetrachloroethylene, methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and bromoform were detected only once in all the samples from the 12 wells. Most detections of these compounds were at or near the minimum reporting levels, and none were greater than their regulatory maximum contaminant level. Second-year sampling, which included the addition of paired source- and finished-water samples, was completed at two sites in the High Plains study area. Source-water samples from the second-year sampling had detections of atrazine and deethylatrazine; at one site deisopropylatrazine and chloroform also were detected. The finished-water samples, which represent the source water after blending with water from other wells and treatment, indicated a decrease in the concentrations of the pesticides at one site, whereas concentrations remained nearly constant at a second site. The trihalomethanes (THMs or disinfec

  14. Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501

  15. Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.; Crandall, Christy A.; Lindgren, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management.

  16. University of Oklahoma Police Department

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    .Disposition: Date Reported: Location : Report #:04/09/14 - WED at 12:59 KUHLMAN COURT, ALL BLOCKS 14-0561 Address Court 04/09/14 - WED at 19:00 - 04/09/14 - WED at 21:00Date and Time Occurred From - Occurred To: CaseUniversity of Oklahoma Police Department Case Log Media Apr 09, 2014 Jun 09, 2014From to Date

  17. Modeling The Evolution Of A Regional Aquifer System With The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, C. F.; Dogrul, E. C.; Kadir, T. N.; Moncrief, M. R.; Shultz, S.; Tonkin, M.; Wendell, D.

    2006-12-01

    The finite element application IWFM has been used to develop an integrated groundwater-surface water model for California's Central Valley, an area of ~50,000 km2, to simulate the evolution of the groundwater flow system and historical groundwater-surface water interactions on a monthly time step from October 1921 to September 2003. The Central Valley's hydrologic system changed significantly during this period. Prior to 1920, most surface water flowed unimpeded from source areas in the mountains surrounding the Central Valley through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to the Pacific Ocean, and groundwater largely flowed from recharge areas on the valley rim to discharge as evapotransipration in extensive marshes along the valley's axis. Rapid agricultural development led to increases in groundwater pumping from ~0.5 km3/yr in the early 1920's to 13-18 km3/yr in the 1940's to 1970's, resulting in strong vertical head gradients, significant head declines throughout the valley, and subsidence of >0.3 m over an area of 13,000 km2. Construction of numerous dams and development of an extensive surface water delivery network after 1950 altered the surface water flow regime and reduced groundwater pumping to the current ~10 km3/yr, increasing net recharge and leading to local head gradient reversals and water level recoveries. A model calibrated to the range of historical flow regimes in the Central Valley will provide robust estimations of stream-groundwater interactions for a range of projected future scenarios. C2VSIM uses the IWFM application to simulate a 3-D finite element groundwater flow process dynamically coupled with 1-D land surface, stream flow, lake and unsaturated zone processes. The groundwater flow system is represented with three layers each having 1393 elements. Land surface processes are simulated using 21 subregions corresponding to California DWR water-supply planning areas. The surface-water network is simulated using 431 stream nodes representing 72 stream reaches, with 108 deliveries specified at 80 diversion locations. Monthly land use, agricultural crops, urban demand, precipitation, evapotranspiration, boundary stream flows and surface water diversions are specified, and the land-surface process calculates crop water demands and routes runoff to streams and deep percolation to the unsaturated zone. The stream process routes surface water flows, allocates available water to meet specified deliveries, and calculates stream-groundwater interactions. Groundwater pumping (which is not metered in California) can be specified or calculated by the model. Model calibration included automated selection of optimum hydraulic parameters using PEST, and manual selection of the areal and vertical distribution of groundwater pumping, to obtain the best match to historical groundwater heads and stream flows. The calibrated model is being used to calculate stream accretions and depletions for use in CALSIM-III, a reservoir-river simulation tool used for planning and management of the State Water Project and Central Valley Project, large surface water distribution networks in California's Central Valley.

  18. Chronology of migration by American coots in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Patterson, Craig T.

    1985-01-01

    American coots (Fulica americana) were studied on large reservoirs in north-central Oklahoma in 1979-1982 to determine chronologies of migrations by age- and sex class. Coots began migrating into Oklahoma in mid-September, numbers peaked in early to mid-October, and few birds were seen after 1 November. Some late migrants appeared in mid-December. In spring, coots began migrating in late February, numbers peaked in mid-April, and the last birds were seen in mid-May. Generally, adult and juvenile males and juvenile female coots migrated simultaneously in autumn, but adult females completed migration by 1 November. A few juveniles and adult males migrated in December. Adult coots preceded yearlings in spring. Despite annual and between-lake differences in chronology of autumn migration, most coots migrated before waterfowl hunting season in Oklahoma. Coot hunting seasons in mid-latitude states should commence before the general waterfowl season where management goals are to increase hunter interest and the harvest of birds.

  19. A Summary of Convective-Core Vertical Velocity Properties Using ARM UHF Wind Profilers in Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    A Summary of Convective-Core Vertical Velocity Properties Using ARM UHF Wind Profilers in Oklahoma cores over the central plains of the United States, accomplished using a novel and now-standard Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) scanning mode for a commercial wind-profiler system. A unique

  20. Soil water signature of the 2005-2006 drought under tallgrass prairie at Fort Reno, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined changes in the seasonal pattern of soil water content under a tall grass prairie in central Oklahoma as a result of the 2005-2006 drought. The seasonal pattern of soil water content in the top 50 cm of the soil profile was minimally impacted by the drought, as this portion of the...

  1. Report on the projected future climate of the Fort Cobb Watershed, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report provides technical information on projected climate change and associated monotonic trends of precipitation and air temperature at the ARS Fort Cobb Experimental Watershed in west-central Oklahoma. The report is an attachment to the full report of the multi-location project MLP 464: “Est...

  2. Water used by grazed pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan(L) Millsp] in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use by the warm-season annual pulse pigeon pea must be described to effectively use this legume as forage to support late-summer grazing by stocker cattle in the southern Great Plains (SGP). This study was conducted in central Oklahoma during 2008 to 2010 to quantify water and water use effici...

  3. Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and surrounding the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water, the transition zone. As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), San Antonio Water System (SAWS), and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone. During 2010 and 2011, the USGS, in cooperation with SAWS, conducted a study to further assess the potential for movement of the transition zone in part of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Equivalent freshwater heads were computed to investigate the transition from saline to freshwater zones in the San Antonio segment and evaluate the potential for lateral flow at the freshwater/saline-water interface. Data were collected within and surrounding the transition zone from 13 wells in four transects (East Uvalde, Tri-County, Fish Hatchery, and Kyle). Hydraulic head and geophysical log data were used to calculate equivalent freshwater heads and then analyzed to identify possible horizontal gradients across the transition zone and thus flow. Unlike previous studies that used indirect methods to calculate fluid conductivity from fluid resistivity, in this study geophysical tools that directly measured fluid conductivity were used. Electromagnetic (EM) flowmeter logs were collected under both ambient and stressed (pumping) conditions and were processed to identify vertical flow zones within the borehole. The San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer (the study area) is about 175 miles long and extends from the western groundwater divide near Brackettville in Kinney County to the eastern groundwater divide near Kyle in Hays County. The four transects consist of two to five wells per transect and were configured approximately perpendicular to and across the expected trace of the freshwater/saline-water interface. The deep flow zone indicated by the EM flowmeter data for East Uvalde transect well EU2 corresponds directly with a large, negative deflection of the fluid logs, indicating an inflow of fresher water from the Devils River Limestone. To the southwest, towards the freshwater/saline-water interface, this same flow zone was observed in well EU1, but with a reduction of flow, and displayed no apparent fluid curve deflections. The highest observed transmissivity of the study area was observed in the saline zone of the Tri-County transect, at well TC3, which had a total transmissivity of 24,900 square feet per day. Zones of high transmissivity throughout the study site were observed to not be continuous and are likely caused by localized secondary porosity such as intersecting faults or karst features. Although analyses of daily mean equivalent freshwater heads for the East Uvalde transect indicated that the gradient across the freshwater/saline-water interface varied between into and out of the freshwater zone, the data indicate that there was a slightly longer period during which the gradient was out of the freshwater zone. Analyses of all daily mean equivalent freshwater heads for the Tri-County transect indicated that the lateral-head gradients across the freshwater/saline-water interface were typically mixed (not indicative of flow into or out of freshwater zone). Assessment of the daily mean equivalent freshwater heads indicated that, although the lateral-head gradient at the Kyle transect varied between into and out of the freshwater zone, the lateral-head gradient was typically from the transition zone into the freshwater zone.

  4. Characterizing Earthquake Clusters in Oklahoma Using Subspace Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, N. D.; Benz, H.; Aster, R. C.; McNamara, D. E.; Myers, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    Subspace detection is a powerful and adaptive tool for continuously detecting low signal to noise seismic signals. Subspace detectors improve upon simple cross-correlation/matched filtering techniques by moving beyond the use of a single waveform template to the use of multiple orthogonal waveform templates that effectively span the signals from all previously identified events within a data set. Subspace detectors are particularly useful in event scenarios where a spatially limited source distribution produces earthquakes with highly similar waveforms. In this context, the methodology has been successfully deployed to identify low-frequency earthquakes within non-volcanic tremor, to characterize earthquakes swarms above magma bodies, and for detailed characterization of aftershock sequences. Here we apply a subspace detection methodology to characterize recent earthquakes clusters in Oklahoma. Since 2009, the state has experienced an unprecedented increase in seismicity, which has been attributed by others to recent expansion in deep wastewater injection well activity. Within the last few years, 99% of increased Oklahoma earthquake activity has occurred within 15 km of a Class II injection well. We analyze areas of dense seismic activity in central Oklahoma and construct more complete catalogues for analysis. For a typical cluster, we are able to achieve catalog completeness to near or below magnitude 1 and to continuously document seismic activity for periods of 6 months or more. Our catalog can more completely characterize these clusters in time and space with event numbers, magnitudes, b-values, energy, locations, etc. This detailed examination of swarm events should lead to a better understanding of time varying earthquake processes and hazards in the state of Oklahoma.

  5. Aquifer-characteristics data for West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Mathes, Melvin V.

    2001-01-01

    Specific-capacity, storage-coefficient, and specific-yield data for wells in West Virginia were compiled to provide a data set from which transmissivity could be estimated. This data can be used for analytical and mathematical groundwater flow modeling. Analysis of available storage-coefficient and (or) specific-yield data indicates the Ohio River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.20, which is characteristic of an unconfined aquifer. The Kanawha River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.003, which is characteristic of a semi-confined aquifer. The median storage coefficient of fractured-bedrock aquifers is only 0.007, which is characteristic of confined aquifers. The highest median transmissivity of a specific aquifer in West Virginia occurs in Ohio River alluvium (4,800 ft2/d); the second highest occurs in Kanawha River alluvium (1,600 ft2/d). The lowest median transmissivity (23 ft2/d) is for the McKenzie-Rose Hill-Tuscarora aquifer. Rocks of Cambrian age within the Waynesboro-Tomstown-Harpers-Weverton-Loudon aquifer had a low median transmissivity of only 67 ft2/d. Other aquifers with low transmissivities include the Hampshire Formation, Brallier-Harrell Formations, Mahantango Formations, Oriskany Sandstone, and the Conococheague Formation with median transmissivities of 74, 72, 92, 82, and 92 ft2/d, respectively. All other aquifers within the State had intermediate values of transmissivity (130-920 ft2/d). The highest median transmissivities among bedrock aquifers were those for aquifers within the Pennsylvanian age Pocahontas Formation (1,200 ft2/d) and Pottsville Group (1,300 ft2/d), and the Mississippian age Mauch Chunk Group (1,300 ft2/d). These rocks crop out primarily in the southern part of the State and to a lesser extent within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. The highest mean annual ground-water recharge rates within West Virginia (24.6 in.) occur within a band that extends through the central part of the State within the eastern part of the Kanawha River Basin. This area of relatively high relief has peaks higher than 4,000 ft and precipitation greater than 50 in./yr. The band of high recharge rates extends northward towards Pennsylvania and includes the Monongahela River Basin, which has a mean annual recharge of 21.4 inches. To the west of this central band lies a region of lower relief with much lower mean annual precipitation rates. Mean annual recharge for the Tug Fork, Twelvepole Creek, and Guyandotte River Basins is only 12.6 inches. For the western part of the Kanawha River Basin, mean recharge is 11.9 inches. The lowest mean annual recharge rates (8.4 in.) within the State occur in the Little Kanawha River Basin and the tributary streams in the region that discharge directly to the Ohio River. West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle is an area characterized by long linear northeast to southwest trending ridges and valleys. The mean annual ground-water recharge rate for this region, which is drained almost entirely by the Potomac River and its tributaries, is 9.4 inches. This area, which is located within a rain shadow resulting from orographic lifting in the higher altitude area to the west, receives less precipitation (approximately 30 in.) than the region to the west.

  6. Build Your Own Aquifer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity illustrates how water is stored in an aquifer, how groundwater can become contaminated, and how this contamination ends up in the drinking water well. They will also realize that many communities obtain their drinking water from underground sources called aquifers and that water suppliers or utility officials drill wells through soil and rock into aquifers to supply the public with drinking water. In addition, they will learn that homeowners who cannot obtain drinking water from a public water supply have private wells that tap the groundwater supply and that groundwater can become contaminated by improper use or disposal of harmful chemicals such as lawn care products and household cleaners.

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  8. Organic vegetable weed control research in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lane Agriculture Research Center is operated by Oklahoma State University and the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Located in southeastern Oklahoma, 13 resident scientists work cooperatively to develop production practices for organic vegetable production. On...

  9. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 Oklahoma Water. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) is located within the ISE and is responsible for developing and coordinating water research funding to address the needs of Oklahoma. To guide it in meeting

  10. Did Divorces Decline after the Oklahoma City Bombing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reddick, Rebecca; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2004-01-01

    The Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995 was an act of terrorism that had many potential influences on the city and state, including influences on families. We analyzed divorce data from 1985 to 2000 for all 77 counties in Oklahoma to assess the divorce response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Our prediction was that divorce rates in Oklahoma would…

  11. Oklahoma Whistleblower Act The Oklahoma Whistleblower Act (74 O.S. 840 -2.5) protects employees who

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Oklahoma Whistleblower Act The Oklahoma Whistleblower Act (74 O.S. §840 -2.5) protects employees that he or she has been retaliated against in violation of the Oklahoma Whistleblower Act may file grievance alleging retaliation in violation of the Oklahoma Whistleblower Act must be filed within sixty (60

  12. Ground-water movement and effects of coal strip mining on water quality of high-wall lakes and aquifers in the Macon-Huntsville area, north-central Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.C.; Davis, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Glacial drift and Pennsylvanian bedrock were mixed together forming spoil during pre-reclamation strip mining for coal in north-central Missouri. This restructuring of the land increases the porosity of the material, and increased aqueous concentrations of many dissolved constituents. Median sodium and bicarbonate concentrations were slightly greater, calcium 5 times greater, magnesium 6 times greater, manganese 15 times greater, iron 19 times greater, and sulfate 24 times greater in water from spoil than in water from glacial drift. Median potassium concentrations were slightly greater, and chloride concentrations were two times greater in water from glacial drift than in water from spoil. Water types in glacial drift and bedrock were mostly sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate; in spoil and lakes in the spoil, the water types were mostly calcium sulfate. median pH values in water from spoil were 6.6, as compared to 7.4 in water from glacial drift and 9.0 in water from bedrock. Neutralization of acid by carbonate rocks causes the moderate pH values in water from spoil; a carbonate system closed to the atmosphere may result in alkaline pH values in bedrock. Transmissivities generally are greatest for spoil, and decrease in the following order: alluvium, glacial drift, and bedrock. Recharge to spoil is from precipitation, lateral flow from glacial drift, and lateral and vertical flow from bedrock. The rate of recharge to the aquifers is unknown, but probably is small. Groundwater discharge from the glacial drift, bedrock, and spoil is to alluvium. 23 refs., 19 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Implementation of a 3-D groundwater flow model in a semi-arid region using MODFLOW and GIS tools: The Zéramdine-Béni Hassen Miocene aquifer system (east-central Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaal, Fethi; Mlayah, Ammar; Bédir, Mourad; Tarhouni, Jamila; Leduc, Christian

    2012-11-01

    In this work, an integrated methodology was developed to investigate hydrological processes in Zéramdine-Béni Hassen Miocene aquifer and to validate the groundwater proprieties deduced from the geological, geophysical, hydrodynamic and hydrochemical studies done in the region, using the coupling of groundwater flow model MODFLOW 2000 code with Geographic Information System tools. A 3-D groundwater flow model was developed for this aquifer using a large amount of available geological and hydrological data. The groundwater flow model was calibrated and validated with datasets during the 1980-2007 period. The results show that the ZBH aquifer exhibits the highest sensibility to changes of water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity. The model simulation shows a good degree of understand to the aquifer hydrogeology. The model can be regarded as a useful tool for analyzing the hydrological processes for complex groundwater that have similar geological and hydrogeological conditions and will help to propose a management rescue plan for the studied aquifer, especially for aquifer characterization in arid and semi arid regions.

  14. 40 CFR 147.1652 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...York § 147.1652 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifer or their portions exempted...the future exempt other aquifers or portions,...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1652 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...York § 147.1652 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifer or their portions exempted...the future exempt other aquifers or portions,...

  16. 40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Wyoming § 147.2554 Aquifer exemptions. In accordance...chapter, those portions of aquifers currently being...exemption applies only to the aquifers tabulated below,...

  17. 40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Wyoming § 147.2554 Aquifer exemptions. In accordance...chapter, those portions of aquifers currently being...exemption applies only to the aquifers tabulated below,...

  18. 40 CFR 147.2908 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Wells § 147.2908 Aquifer exemptions. (a...aquifer. (b) An aquifer or its portion that...a source of drinking water, and (2) It...

  19. 40 CFR 147.2102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Dakota § 147.2102 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted...the future exempt other aquifers or their...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Wyoming § 147.2554 Aquifer exemptions. In accordance...chapter, those portions of aquifers currently being...exemption applies only to the aquifers tabulated below,...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1652 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...York § 147.1652 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifer or their portions exempted...the future exempt other aquifers or portions,...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1652 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...York § 147.1652 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifer or their portions exempted...the future exempt other aquifers or portions,...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Wyoming § 147.2554 Aquifer exemptions. In accordance...chapter, those portions of aquifers currently being...exemption applies only to the aquifers tabulated below,...

  4. 40 CFR 147.2102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Dakota § 147.2102 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted...the future exempt other aquifers or their...

  5. 40 CFR 147.2908 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Wells § 147.2908 Aquifer exemptions. (a...aquifer. (b) An aquifer or its portion that...a source of drinking water, and (2) It...

  6. 40 CFR 147.2908 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Wells § 147.2908 Aquifer exemptions. (a...aquifer. (b) An aquifer or its portion that...a source of drinking water, and (2) It...

  7. 40 CFR 147.2908 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Wells § 147.2908 Aquifer exemptions. (a...aquifer. (b) An aquifer or its portion that...a source of drinking water, and (2) It...

  8. 40 CFR 147.2102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Dakota § 147.2102 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted...the future exempt other aquifers or their...

  9. 40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Wyoming § 147.2554 Aquifer exemptions. In accordance...chapter, those portions of aquifers currently being...exemption applies only to the aquifers tabulated below,...

  10. 40 CFR 147.2908 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Wells § 147.2908 Aquifer exemptions. (a...aquifer. (b) An aquifer or its portion that...a source of drinking water, and (2) It...

  11. 40 CFR 147.2102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Dakota § 147.2102 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted...the future exempt other aquifers or their...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1652 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...York § 147.1652 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifer or their portions exempted...the future exempt other aquifers or portions,...

  13. 40 CFR 147.2102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Dakota § 147.2102 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted...the future exempt other aquifers or their...

  14. Analyzing aquifers associated with gas reservoirs using aquifer influence functions

    E-print Network

    Targac, Gary Wayne

    1988-01-01

    ANALYZING AQUIFERS ASSOCIATED WITH GAS RESERVOIRS USING AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE TARGAC Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE V z May 1988 z V z z I- Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering ANALYZING AQUIFERS ASSOCIATED WITH GAS RESERVOIRS USING AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE TARGAC Approved as to style and content by: (Chair of Committ R...

  15. Change in Water in Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies about 175,000 square miles in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The aquifer is the principal source of water for irrigation and public supply in this area, which is one of the major agricultural areas in the United States. However, soon after groundwater irrigation began, water-level declines occurred in some parts of the aquifer. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resource agencies, began monitoring groundwater levels in the aquifer. Water levels are measured annually primarily in irrigation wells in winter to early spring (generally January to May, depending on location), when water levels generally have recovered from groundwater pumping for irrigation in the previous growing season and before the current year's irrigation season. The water-level elevation for predevelopment (about 1950) conditions was determined using water-level measurements from more than 20,000 wells. The water-level elevation for 2013 was measured in more than 9,000 wells. The water-level measurements were analyzed and interpolated to map discrete intervals of water-level changes from predevelopment to the year 2013. The change in the volume of drainable water stored in the aquifer was calculated using the mapped area of each water-level-change interval, the average water-level change within each mapped interval, and the estimated average specific yield for the aquifer.

  16. Tertiary Aquifer Modeling Within the Mississippi Embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csontos, R.; Waldron, B.; Anderson, J.

    2008-12-01

    The geologic and hydrogeologic characterization of the aquifers and their recharge area within the Central United States in west Tennessee, northern Mississippi and eastern Arkansas are poorly understood. Previous investigations have utilized overly generalized outcrop boundaries of the primary Tertiary aquifers based on sparse well log information and stream down-cutting to show formation location. Acquisition of data in the form of deep oil and gas wells along with shallow lignite borehole data from the North American Coal Company is enabling us to improve upon these prior formational boundaries and recharge area delineations. Additionally, utilization of those geophysical logs with numerous well log curves is allowing us to characterize each geologic unit as to the sand/clay composition, porosity, and depiction of facies changes within a three- dimensional context. This is made possible through the utilization of the oil industry standard mapping package, Petrel®. We use a combination of methods to illustrate the presence of clay bodies within the primary drinking water aquifer, historically modeled solely as a sand unit. Identification of these clay bodies will impact ground-water flow patterns and assist water utilities in reducing contamination threats. We will illustrate aquifer thickness variability owning to faulting and paleo-erosion that again may impact ground-water pathways.

  17. 1441210_2.DOC UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    1441210_2.DOC UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA DEFINED CONTRIBUTION RETIREMENT PLAN (Amended and Restated the right to amend, modify or terminate the Plan at any time. #12;1441210_2.DOC i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

  18. 76 FR 77578 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00057

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 12/07/2011. Incident: Earthquakes. Incident Period: 11/05/2011 and continuing. Effective Date: 12/07/2011. Physical Loan Application...

  19. 76 FR 31670 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1970-DR), dated 05/06/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 04/14/2011. Effective Date: 05/06/2011. Physical Loan...

  20. 75 FR 35103 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1917-DR), dated 06/11/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-line winds. Incident Period: 05/10/2010 through 05/13/2010. Effective Date:...

  1. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    E-print Network

    and encourages applications from candidates with diverse cultural backgrounds. #12;. Salary and other compensation are competitive with major research institutions. Oklahoma State University State University is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity/E-Verify Employer committed to diversity

  2. Ground-water movement and effects of coal strip mining on water quality of high-wall lakes and aquifers in the Macon-Huntsville area, north- central Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.C.; Davis, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Glacial drift and Pennsylvanian bedrock were mixed together forming spoil during pre-reclamation strip mining for coal in north-central Missouri. This restructuring of the land increases the porosity of the material, and increases aqueous concentrations of many dissolved constituents. Median sodium and bicarbonate concentrations were slightly greater, calcium 5 times greater, magnesium 6 times greater, manganese 15 times greater, iron 19 times greater, and sulfate 24 times greater in water from spoil than in water from glacial drift. Median potassium concentrations were slightly greater, and chloride concentrations were two times greater in water from glacial drift than in water from spoil. Water types in glacial drift and bedrock were mostly sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate; in spoil and lakes in the spoil, the water types were mostly calcium sulfate. Median pH values in water from spoil were 6.6, as compared to 7.4 in water from glacial drift and 9.0 in water from bedrock. Neutralization of acid by carbonate rocks causes the moderate pH values in water from spoil; a carbonate system closed to the atmosphere may result in alkaline pH values in bedrock. Transmissivities generally are greatest for spoil, and decrease in the following order: alluvium, glacial drift, and bedrock. Recharge to spoil is from precipitation, lateral flow from glacial drift, and lateral and vertical flow from bedrock. The rate of recharge to the aquifers is unknown, but probably is small. Groundwater discharge from the glacial drift, bedrock, and spoil is to alluvium. The direction of flow generally was from high-wall lakes in the spoil toward East Fork Little Chariton River or South Fork Claybank Creek. Significant differences (95% confidence level) in values and concentrations of aqueous constituents between spoil areas mined at different times (1940, 1952, and 1968) were obtained for pH, calcium, magnesium, manganese, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids, but not for iron. These differences are attributed to local variations in the geohydrologic system rather than spoil age. (Lantz-PTT)

  3. Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this grant was to increase the awareness of students of space sciences and commerce through experimentation. This objective was carried out through the award and administration, by OSIDA, the Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority, of eleven smaller grants to fund thirteen projects at schools determined by competitive application. Applications were graded on potential outreach, experimentation objectives and impact on students' awareness of space sciences. We chose projects from elementary, middle and high schools as well as colleges that would encourage students through research and experimentation to consider education and careers in related disciplines. Each organization did not receive an equal share of the grant; instead, OSIDA distributed the money to each project based on the organization's need. A copy of the dispersement record is enclosed with this final grant report. The projects covered topics such as: space colonization, space stations, constellations, model rocketry, and space commerce.

  4. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1. Regions 1 through 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: the Western Mountains; Alluvial Basins; Columbia LAVA Plateau; Colorado Plateau; High Plains; and Glaciated Central Region. (LCL)

  5. Applications of universal kriging to an aquifer study in New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pucci, A.A., Jr.; Murashige, J.A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of kriging for optimizing data collection and utility in a regional groundwater investigation of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in central New Jersey, Kriging was used to 1) estimate the altitude of an aquifer surface, 2) estimate hydraulic conductivities from point data, and 3) estimate the associated kriged errors. -from Authors

  6. TWO ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF OKLAHOMA AND NOTES ON XYRIS JUPICAI (XYRIDACEAE) IN OKLAHOMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Singhurst; Edwin L. Bridges; Walter C. Holmes

    Eleocharis flavescens and Rhynchospora scirpoides are reported as new to Oklahoma. Xyris jupicai, which has been mentioned as occurring in Oklahoma, is documented in the state by citation of voucher specimens. The overall distribution of these species in the West Gulf Coastal Plain is discussed.

  7. The Oklahoma State Study of Oklahoma's Public Higher Education Physical Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G., Ed.; And Others

    This project examines policies related to facilities at public institutions of higher education in Oklahoma in the context of a current legislative debate over a bond issue to fund facilities. The last bond issue for Oklahoma higher education was in 1968. Verification of a representative sample of 27 campus master plans validated an earlier…

  8. Virtual groundwater transfers from overexploited aquifers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Landon; Konar, Megan; Cai, Ximing; Troy, Tara J.

    2015-01-01

    The High Plains, Mississippi Embayment, and Central Valley aquifer systems within the United States are currently being overexploited for irrigation water supplies. The unsustainable use of groundwater resources in all three aquifer systems intensified from 2000 to 2008, making it imperative that we understand the consumptive processes and forces of demand that are driving their depletion. To this end, we quantify and track agricultural virtual groundwater transfers from these overexploited aquifer systems to their final destination. Specifically, we determine which US metropolitan areas, US states, and international export destinations are currently the largest consumers of these critical aquifers. We draw upon US government data on agricultural production, irrigation, and domestic food flows, as well as modeled estimates of agricultural virtual water contents to quantify domestic transfers. Additionally, we use US port-level trade data to trace international exports from these aquifers. In 2007, virtual groundwater transfers from the High Plains, Mississippi Embayment, and Central Valley aquifer systems totaled 17.93 km3, 9.18 km3, and 6.81 km3, respectively, which is comparable to the capacity of Lake Mead (35.7 km3), the largest surface reservoir in the United States. The vast majority (91%) of virtual groundwater transfers remains within the United States. Importantly, the cereals produced by these overexploited aquifers are critical to US food security (contributing 18.5% to domestic cereal supply). Notably, Japan relies upon cereals produced by these overexploited aquifers for 9.2% of its domestic cereal supply. These results highlight the need to understand the teleconnections between distant food demands and local agricultural water use. PMID:26124137

  9. Virtual groundwater transfers from overexploited aquifers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marston, Landon; Konar, Megan; Cai, Ximing; Troy, Tara J

    2015-07-14

    The High Plains, Mississippi Embayment, and Central Valley aquifer systems within the United States are currently being overexploited for irrigation water supplies. The unsustainable use of groundwater resources in all three aquifer systems intensified from 2000 to 2008, making it imperative that we understand the consumptive processes and forces of demand that are driving their depletion. To this end, we quantify and track agricultural virtual groundwater transfers from these overexploited aquifer systems to their final destination. Specifically, we determine which US metropolitan areas, US states, and international export destinations are currently the largest consumers of these critical aquifers. We draw upon US government data on agricultural production, irrigation, and domestic food flows, as well as modeled estimates of agricultural virtual water contents to quantify domestic transfers. Additionally, we use US port-level trade data to trace international exports from these aquifers. In 2007, virtual groundwater transfers from the High Plains, Mississippi Embayment, and Central Valley aquifer systems totaled 17.93 km(3), 9.18 km(3), and 6.81 km(3), respectively, which is comparable to the capacity of Lake Mead (35.7 km(3)), the largest surface reservoir in the United States. The vast majority (91%) of virtual groundwater transfers remains within the United States. Importantly, the cereals produced by these overexploited aquifers are critical to US food security (contributing 18.5% to domestic cereal supply). Notably, Japan relies upon cereals produced by these overexploited aquifers for 9.2% of its domestic cereal supply. These results highlight the need to understand the teleconnections between distant food demands and local agricultural water use. PMID:26124137

  10. IDAHO AQUIFER TYPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five aquifer types are presented: Unconsolidated alluvium, Snake River Plain alluvium, Snake River Plain basalt, Columbia River basalt, Sedimentary / volcanic rock. Should only be used for page-sized maps of state, due to the very generalized source materials & digitizing proce...

  11. Aquifers for energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minor

    1980-01-01

    Aquifers for energy storage, as well as other natural formations such as ponds, earth, or lakes, is the goal of a new five-year, US Department of Energy research and demonstration program called Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage, to be managed by the Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Initially, the program will demonstrate energy storage by pumping hot or cold water

  12. Inquiry and Aquifers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuenberger, Ted; Shepardson, Daniel; Harbor, Jon; Bell, Cheryl; Meyer, Jason; Klagges, Hope; Burgess, Willie

    2001-01-01

    Presents inquiry-oriented activities that acquaint students with groundwater sources, movement of water through aquifers, and contamination of groundwater by pollution. In one activity, students use well log data from web-based resources to explore groundwater systems. Provides sample well log data for those not having access to local information.…

  13. Ground-water Aquifers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This description of a ground-water aquifer has a graphic representation to accompany it. It is part of the U.S. Geologic Survey's Water Science for Schools website. Links to other parts of the site, such as definitions and types of wells, are included.

  14. Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2000-01-01

    The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of HydroSOLVE, Inc. These best fit theoretical response curves are based on a transmissivity of 24,000 ft2/d or a hydraulic conductivity of about 600 ft/d, a storage coefficient of 0.05, a specific yield of 0.42, and vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The theoretical type curves match the observed data fairly closely at Wells A and B until about 2,500 minutes and 1,000 minutes, respectively, after pumping began. The increasing rate of drawdown after these breaks is an indication that a no-flow boundary (an area with much lower hydraulic conductivity) likely was encountered and that Wells A and B may be completed in a part of the Elm aquifer with limited hydraulic connection to the rest of the aquifer. Additional analysis indicates that if different assumptions regarding the screened interval for Well B and aquifer anisotropy are used, type curves can be calculated that fit the observed data using a lower specific yield that is within the commonly accepted range. When the screened interval for Well B was reduced to 5 ft near the top of the aquifer and horizontal hydraulic conductivity was set to 20 times vertical hydraulic conductivity, the type curves calculated using a specific yield of 0.1 and a transmissivity of 30,200 ft2/d also matched the observed data from Wells A and B fairly well. A version of the Theim equilibrium equation was used to calculate the theoretical drawdown in an idealized unconfined aquifer when a perfectly efficient well is being pumped at a constant rate. These calculations were performed for a range of pumping rates, drawdowns at the wells, and distances between wells that might be found in a production well field in the Elm aquifer. Although the aquifer test indicates that hydraulic conductivity near the well may be adequate to support a production well, the comparison of drawdown and recovery curves indicates the possibility that heterogeneities may limit the productive capacity of specific loca

  15. Potential leakage between aquifers in a deeply anthropized coastal sedimentary basin (Recife, Brazil): Strontium isotope constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Bertrand, Guillaume; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Helene; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Due to an increasing demographic pressure, the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) went through remarkable changes of water and land uses over the last decades. These evolutions gave rise to numerous environmental consequences, such as a dramatic decline of the piezometric levels, groundwater salinization and contamination. This degradation of natural resources is linked to the increase of water demand, punctually amplified by drought periods which induced the construction of thousands of private wells. Recife was built on the estuarine area of the Capibaribe River and other small rivers. The Recife coastal plain is located in the geographic limits of the sedimentary basins of Cabo and Pernambuco-Paraíba which consist out of fluvial and marine geologic formations. It is composed of three main aquifers: the two semi-confined Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, both underlining the superficial Boa Viagem unconfined aquifer, which is the most directly exposed to contamination, since it is connected to mangroves, rivers, estuaries and highly urbanized areas. The Boa Viagem aquifer is made of marine terraces of sand, silt and clay has an average thickness of 40 m. The Cabo aquifer occurs in the south of Recife and comprises sandstones, siltstones and mudstones, with an average thickness of 90 m. The Beberibe aquifer occurs in the north and central area of Recife with an average thickness of 100 m of sandstones with intercalations of mudstone; it is the most important one, with the highest amount of good quality water. Both the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers contain large clay levels. The hydraulic connections between the three aquifers are not well known but isotopic studies have shown that the recharge processes are similar, suggesting that exchanges may occur and may be modified or amplified by overexploitation especially between the Cabo and Boa Viagem aquifers. Two other aquifers can be found west of the city: the Barreiras aquifer, characterized by alternating well stratified layers, is coated at its edges by the Boa Viagem aquifer. Mostly underlying the Beberibe and Barreiras aquifers with some outcrops, the Fissural aquifer is composed of basement rocks (granites/migmatites) with low storage capacity. The preliminary results of 62 groundwater samples from the five main aquifers are reported. This part of the study focuses on the major elements together with Sr isotopes to (1) characterize the signature of the different aquifer compartments of the 5 main aquifers, and (2)assess the potential connections between aquifers, e.g. vertical exchanges between the aquifers that can be modified or amplified by overexploitation or triggered through failed or improperly constructed wells.

  16. Final Report for the Joint Urban 2003 Atmospheric Dispersion Study in Oklahoma City: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory participation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was designed to collect meteorological and tracer data resolving atmospheric dispersion at scales-of-motion ranging from flows in and around a single city block, in and around several blocks in the downtown Central Business District (CBD), and into the suburban Oklahoma City area a few km from the CBD. Indoor tracer and flow measurements

  17. OSU Tulsa Library Jack H. Stout University of Oklahoma Memorabilia

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    :9 University of Oklahoma Magazine. Vol. XVI, No. 3, 1928. 1:10 University of Oklahoma Magazine. Vol. 18, No. 3, 1930. The University of Oklahoma Magazine, the successor to the University Empire, was published four before the game. 1:13 Women's Student Government Association Handbook for Fresh

  18. Drought and grazing effects on Oklahoma phlox (Polemoniaceae, Phlox oklahomensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oklahoma phlox (Phlox oklahomensis Wherry) is endemic to Butler, Chautauqua, Comanche, Cowley, and Elk Counties of Kansas and Woods and Woodward Counties of Oklahoma. The species comprises populations of a few scattered individuals to several hundred in mixed-grass prairie sites in Oklahoma where co...

  19. STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES CODE -1 THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    of the University of Oklahoma is charged in the Constitution of the State of Oklahoma with governing the University of the United States and the State of Oklahomaand the University of Oklahoma StudentAssociation. Those documents Rights Students of the University of Oklahomaare guaranteed certain rights by the Constitutions

  20. Why Norman?: Meteorology Comes to University of Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    Why Norman?: Meteorology Comes to University of Oklahoma by John M. Lewis A presentation at the 50th Anniversary University of Oklahoma's School of Meteorology October 8, 2010 #12;2 Extended Abstract A review of the University of Oklahoma's (OU's) meteorology program/department over its first 15 years

  1. Social and Economic Consequences of Indian Gaming in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kenneth W., II; Spilde, Katherine A.; Taylor, Jonathan B.

    2004-01-01

    The balancing framework of Indian gaming as it operates in Oklahoma constrains Oklahoma Indian nations from operating facilities according to the dictates of the marketplace on a large-scale Class III basis. Indian gaming actually brings substantial net economic benefits to the state, contrary to claims that Oklahoma Indian gaming benefits come at…

  2. A Legal Analysis of Litigation against Oklahoma Educators and School Districts under the Oklahoma Governmental Tort Claims Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacefield, Kevin Lee

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzed public court decisions in cases against Oklahoma school districts and their employees involving sovereign immunity claims filed under Oklahoma's Governmental Tort Claims Act. The questions addressed were: (1) How have the Oklahoma courts interpreted the Governmental Tort Claims Act, (Okla. Stat. tit. 51 Section 151 et…

  3. Aquifers In Nirgal Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, D.; Jaumann, R.

    The topographic information provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter has been used in combination with the Mars Observer Camera imagery to estimate the topo- graphic position of sapping pits and gully heads on the rim of Nirgal Vallis. Hence Nirgal Vallis is understood to be formed by groundwater sapping (1, 2, 3, 4) an aquifer is proposed as water supply. Gullies in the northern rim of Nirgal Vallis as discovered in Mars Observer Camera (MOC) images (5, 6) proof the existence of such an aquifer. Further evidence for sapping in Nirgal Vallis is demonstrated by short hanging tribu- taries with amphitheater-like heads. The basis of these sapping pits defines the con- tact of aquifer to aquiclude during the valley formation. The gully heads are much deeper under the local surface and the correlation of their topographic position with the valley depth indicate the subsidence of the groundwater level following the ver- tical erosion of the valley. This implies the existence of different groundwater tables over time confined by impermeable layers, whereas the gully head level is the most recent groundwater table which still may be erosional active under the conditions of increasing water pressure and ice barrier failure (5). The occurrence of more than one tilted sapping level at different topographic positions which are time-correlated with the erosional notching of the valley, either indicates different aquifers with litholog- ical aquicludes or a climate controlled subsidence of the permafrost layer acting as confining layer. References: (1) Baker et al., 1992, In: Mars, Univ. of Arizona Press. (2) Carr, 1995, JGR 100, 7479. (3) Malin and Carr, 1999, Icarus, 397, 589. (4) Jaumann and Reiss, 2002, LPSC. (5) Malin and Edgett, 2000, Science, 288, 2330. (6) Malin and Edgett, 2001, JGR 106, 23429.

  4. Denitrification in a deep basalt aquifer: implications for aquifer storage and recovery.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Dennis; Melady, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) can provide a means of storing water for irrigation in agricultural areas where water availability is limited. A concern, however, is that the injected water may lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. In many agricultural areas, nitrate is a limiting factor. In the Umatilla Basin in north central Oregon, shallow alluvial groundwater with elevated nitrate-nitrogen of <3?mg/L to >9?mg/L is injected into the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), a transmissive confined aquifer(s) with low natural recharge rates. Once recovery of the injected water begins, however, NO3 -N in the recovered water decreases quickly to <3?mg/L (Eaton et al. 2009), suggesting that NO3 -N may not persist within the CRBG during ASR storage. In contrast to NO3 -N, other constituents in the recovered water show little variation, inconsistent with migration or simple mixing as an explanation of the NO3 -N decrease. Nitrogen isotopic ratios (?(15) N) increase markedly, ranging from +3.5 to >?+50, and correlate inversely with NO3 -N concentrations. This variation occurs in <3?weeks and recovery of <10% of the originally injected volume. TOC is low in the basalt aquifer, averaging <1.5?mg/L, but high in the injected source water, averaging >3.0?mg/L. Similar to nitrate concentrations, TOC drops in the recovered water, consistent with this component contributing to the denitrification of nitrate during storage. PMID:23837490

  5. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical framework of regional aquifer system in Kali-Ganga sub-basin, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asad Umar; R. Umar; M. S. Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    The central Ganga Basin is one of the major groundwater reservoirs in India. The Kali-Ganga sub-basin is a micro watershed\\u000a of the central Ganga Basin, containing a number of productive aquifers. A detailed hydrogeological investigation was carried\\u000a out, which reveals the occurrence of a single-tier aquifer system down to 163?m?bgl (metres below ground level), but at places\\u000a it is interleaved

  6. Phosphate based immobilization of uranium in an oxidizing bedrock aquifer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L Jerden; A. K Sinha

    2003-01-01

    The unmined Coles Hill U deposit of south central Virginia represents a natural setting where U is stabilized by phosphate mineral precipitation in an oxidizing bedrock aquifer. Drill cores from the shallow portion of the deposit preserve a sharp Fe redox front defined by Fe(III) oxide staining. This front is located near a discontinuity in U mineralogy with U(IV) assemblages

  7. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Oklahoma. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Zelten, J.E.; Arndt, R.H.

    1994-03-01

    The value of Oklahoma nonfuel mineral production was nearly $252.6 million in 1992, a decrease of $22.9 million from that reported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines by State mineral producers in 1991. The value of the top three commodities produced, crushed stone, portland cement, and construction sand and gravel, exceeded $168.8 million and comprised almost 67% of the State's total nonfuel mineral value. Although rebounding from the recessionary period, the growth curve for several minerals produced in the State was minimal, and for several others it moved downward. Oklahoma ranked 35th nationally in total nonfuel mineral value. The State ranked 26th nationally in the production of industrial minerals, contributing about 1.38% of the $20.7 billion revenues received. Oklahoma ranked first in the Nation in crude gypsum production, second in the production of tripoli, and was the only domestic source of iodine.

  8. Hydrogeology, ground-water movement, and subsurface storage in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Frederick W.

    1989-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system of southern Florida is composed chiefly of carbonate rocks that range in age from early Miocene to Paleocene. The top of the aquifer system in southern Florida generally is at depths ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet, and the average thickness is about 3,000 feet. It is divided into three general hydrogeologic units: (1) the Upper Floridan aquifer, (2) the middle confining unit, and (3) the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer contains brackish ground water, and the Lower Floridan aquifer contains salty ground water that compares chemically to modern seawater. Zones of high permeability are present in the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. A thick, cavernous dolostone in the Lower Floridan aquifer, called the Boulder Zone, is one of the most permeable carbonate units in the world (transmissivity of about 2.5 x 107 feet squared per day). Ground-water movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer is generally southward from the area of highest head in central Florida, eastward to the Straits of Florida, and westward to the Gulf of Mexico. Distributions of natural isotopes of carbon and uranium generally confirm hydraulic gradients in the Lower Floridan aquifer. Groundwater movement in the Lower Floridan aquifer is inland from the Straits of Florida. The concentration gradients of the carbon and uranium isotopes indicate that the source of cold saltwater in the Lower Floridan aquifer is seawater that has entered through the karat features on the submarine Miami Terrace near Fort Lauderdale. The relative ages of the saltwater suggest that the rate of inland movement is related in part to rising sea level during the Holocene transgression. Isotope, temperature, and salinity anomalies in waters from the Upper Floridan aquifer of southern Florida suggest upwelling of saltwater from the Lower Floridan aquifer. The results of the study support the hypothesis of circulating relatively modern seawater and cast doubt on the theory that the saltwater in the Floridan aquifer system probably is connate or unflushed seawater from high stands of sea level. The principal use of the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida is for subsurface storage of liquid waste. The Boulder Zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer is extensively used as a receptacle for injected treated municipal wastewater, oil field brine, and, to a lesser extent, industrial wastewater. Pilot studies indicate a potential for cyclic storage of freshwater in the Upper Floridan aquifer in southern Florida.

  9. Aquifer Model in a Tank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students participating in this lab activity will construct a simulated aquifer in the classroom. The aquifer is constructed from readily available materials, and instructions, data sheets, vocabulary, and diagrams are provided. This simple model is intended for student inquiry into groundwater systems. Students are instructed to try things (within the context of the model), observe what happens, and record and interpret their observations. After this inquiry they will better understand aquifers and the issues of climate, spring flow, environmental protection, and water use.

  10. Lithologic and physicochemical properties and hydraulics of flow in and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, based on water-level and borehole geophysical log data, 1999-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Nyman, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas (hereinafter, the Edwards aquifer) is bounded to the south and southeast by a zone of transition from freshwater to saline water (hereinafter, the transition zone). The boundary between the two zones is the freshwater/saline-water interface (hereinafter, the interface), defined as the 1,000-milligrams per liter dissolved solids concentration threshold. This report presents the findings of a study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, to obtain lithologic properties (rock properties associated with known stratigraphic units) and physicochemical properties (fluid conductivity and temperature) and to analyze the hydraulics of flow in and near the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer on the basis of water-level and borehole geophysical log data collected from 15 monitoring wells in four transects during 1999-2007. No identifiable relation between conductivity values from geophysical logs in monitoring wells in all transects and equivalent freshwater heads in the wells at the times the logs were run is evident; and no identifiable relation between conductivity values and vertical flow in the boreholes concurrent with the times the logs were run is evident. The direction of the lateral equivalent freshwater head gradient and thus the potential lateral flow at the interface in the vicinity of the East Uvalde transect fluctuates between into and out of the freshwater zone, depending on recharge and withdrawals. Whether the prevailing direction on average is into or out of the freshwater zone is not clearly indicated. Equivalent freshwater head data do not indicate a prevailing direction of the lateral gradient at the interface in the vicinity of the Tri-County transect. The prevailing direction on average of the lateral gradient and thus potential lateral flow at the interface in the vicinity of the Kyle transect likely is from the transition zone into the freshwater zone. The hypothesis regarding the vertical gradient at the East Uvalde transect, and thus the potential for vertical flow near an interface conceptualized as a surface sloping upward in the direction of the dip of the stratigraphic units, is that the potential for vertical flow fluctuates between into and out of the freshwater zone, depending on recharge and withdrawals. At the Tri-County transect, a downward gradient on the fresh-water side of the interface and an upward gradient on the saline-water side are evidence of opposing potentials that appear to have stabilized the position of the interface over the range of hydrologic conditions that occurred at the times the logs were run. At the Fish Hatchery transect, an upward gradient on the saline-water side of the interface, coupled with the assumption of a sloping interface, implies a vertical gradient from the transition zone into the freshwater zone. This potential for vertical movement of the interface apparently was opposed by the potential (head) on the freshwater side of the interface that kept the interface relatively stable over the range of hydrologic conditions during which the logs were run. The five flow logs for Kyle transect freshwater well KY1 all indicate upward flow that originates from the Glen Rose Limestone, the uppermost unit of the Trinity aquifer; and one log for well KY2 shows upward flow entering the borehole from the Trinity aquifer. These flow data constitute evidence of the potential for flow from the Trinity aquifer into the Edwards aquifer in the vicinity of the Kyle transect. Subsurface temperature data indicate that flow on average is more active, or vigorous, on the freshwater side of the interface than on the saline-water side. A hydraulic connection between the transition zone and the freshwater zone is indicated by similar patterns in the hydrographs of the 15 transect monitoring wells in and near the transition zone and three county index wel

  11. Feasibility of heavy oil recovery in the U.S. midcontinent (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Midcontinent of the United States (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma) has three heavy oil resource areas: the carbonates of central and western Kansas, the Pennsylvanian Age consolidated sandstone reservoirs of the Tristate Heavy Oil Belt (southeastern Kansas, western Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma), and the unconsolidated or easily friable sand- stone reservoirs of south-central Oklahoma. The heavy oil resource volume of the carbonates is unknown and relatively untested because of the difficulty in producing viscous oil from low-permeability carbonates. Since the 1960s, the Tristate Heavy Oil Belt has been the site of numerous pilots and operations that tested many different techniques for oil production. The region was a proving ground for many thermal enhanced oil recovery projects (steam, cyclic steam, in situ combustion, hot solvent injection, etc.). Most of the projects produced more oil than primary production, but the geology of the formations limited significant economic oil production. The best opportunity for significant, economic heavy oil production is from the steeply dipping, unconsolidated or easily friable sandstone reservoirs of south-central Oklahoma. Several of these reservoirs are thicker, more continuous, have high permeability and can be exploited by using gravity drainage and steam to reduce oil viscosity. The Midcontinent is not anticipated to become a significant heavy oil producer even if oil prices were significantly higher than $151 barrel because of the nature of the resource and the limited refining capability in the area. Local refineries were designed to process light sweet crude and have little heavy ends processing capability to accommodate additional heavy oil.

  12. Geologic structure, hydrology, and water quality of the Laramie-Fox Hills aquifer in the Denver Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1981-01-01

    The Laramie-Fox Hills aquifer underlies an area of about 6,700 square miles in east-central Colorado and is an important water supply for many residents in the area. Population increases have produced increasing demands for ground water and have led to significant water-level declines in parts of the aquifer. Results of this study, which was undertaken to better define the water-supply potential of the aquifer, indicate that the aquifer consists of interbedded sandstone, siltstone and shale at depths of as much as 3,200 feet. The water-yielding sandstone and siltstone beds have a total thickness of more than 200 feet in some areas. The 1978 potentiometric-surface map indicates that ground water moves from the south-central part of the aquifer toward the margins of the aquifer where most of the water discharges to streams and alluvial aquifers. Some groundwater recharge occurs as downward movement of water from the overlying Arapahoe aquifer. Water-level declines between 1958 and 1978 exceeded 200 feet in an 80-square-mile area near Brighton, while in other parts of the aquifer only moderate changes have occurred. Water in the aquifer is generally of a sodium bicarbonate type with dissolved-solids concentrations commonly ranging from 400 to 1,200 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  13. Generalized potentiometric surface of the Evangeline and equivalent aquifers in Louisiana, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Angel, Jr.; Whiteman, Charles D., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A generalized potentiometric-surface map defines the altitude of water levels for 1980 in wells in the Evangeline aquifer in southwestern Louisiana and stratigraphically equivalent aquifers in southeastern Louisiana. The Evangeline and equivalent aquifers increase in thickness from zero at the northern edge of the outcrop/subcrop belt to more than 2,000 feet along the southern limit of fresh water. The aquifers are recharged by rainfall on the overlying upland terrace deposits of south-central Louisiana, southeastern Louisiana, and southwestern Mississippi. The aquifers are under artesian conditions except locally in the recharge areas. The regional flow direction is primarily southward. Water levels in wells in the Evangeline aquifer are lowered by heavy pumping from the overlying Chicot aquifer in Evangeline and Acadia Parishes. Areally definable cones of depression result from pumpage from the Evangeline and equivalent aquifers in and near Baton Rouge, Eunice, and Ville Platte. Water levels may differ vertically within the aquifer near pumping centers. The map does not account for localized distortion of the regional flow pattern near these centers. (USGS)

  14. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Apart from the hydrogeological conditions, high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. After one year of planning, construction, and the successful drilling of a research well to 495 m b.s.l. the first large scale heat storage test in the Malm aquifer was finished just before Christmas 2014. An enormous technical challenge was the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10-50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. About 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary to achieve the desired water temperatures. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for the analysis of the concentration of the tracers and the cation concentrations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analyzed for major ions and trace elements in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger proved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Energy recovery during the first pulses was above 35 % and rising. As a side effect of the extremely good hydraulic conditions, the research well was flowing freely with 20 L/s which resulted in a significant mixing of the injected water with formation waters during production. The recovery rates for the tracers were above 60 % depending on the type of tracer.

  15. Oklahoma Handbook: Child Nutrition Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Nutrition concepts, school food service guidelines, and related materials (such as nutrition charts, menu planning worksheets, and student survey forms) are provided in this nutrition handbook. Prepared by the Oklahoma State Department of Education's School Lunch Section, the handbook consists of nine sections that are organized in outline format.…

  16. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma

  17. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Oklahoma edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality…

  18. Oklahoma Curriculum Guide for Teaching Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Curriculum Improvement Commission, Oklahoma City.

    Developed by classroom teachers, university professors, and personnel from the Oklahoma State Department of Education, this guide is an effort to assist teachers in locating and utilizing safety materials as well as to assist them in developing well-balanced safety programs for the children and young people in the state. The preschool and…

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN OKLAHOMA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a data report presenting the species and abundance of phytoplankton in the 15 lakes sampled by the National Eutrophication Survey in the State of Oklahoma. Results from the calculation of several water quality indices are also included (Nygaard's Trophic State Index, Palm...

  20. Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators Journal 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Malinda Hendricks, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators 2009 Journal includes the following four peer reviewed articles: (1) The Changing Role of Grandparents (Fred D. Hammond, III, Terry E. Spigner, Charolette Myles-Nixon, and Pauline Holloway); (2) Pedagogical Agent Instructional Design Challenges (Jon Martens); (3) Differences in Relatedness across…

  1. Public Library Service to Children in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentroth, Mary Ann

    Because of the low density of its population and subsequent low property tax support, library service in Oklahoma is based on the multicounty library operating as a single unit. With the help of federal funds, such units now cover one-third of the state and 60 percent of its population utilizing branch libraries and bookmobile service. Service to…

  2. OKLAHOMA STATE Report of Independent Accountants' Application

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    University 107 Whitehurst Hall Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-1015 We have audited the financial statements report thereon dated October 11, 2007. Additionally, we have audited the financial statements report thereon dated October 11, 2007. We have also audited the financial statements comprising

  3. University of Oklahoma School of Meteorology

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    University of Oklahoma School of Meteorology Rapid-response Graduate Degree Application Form This application form is used by the School of Meteorology to provide a rapid, no-cost response to the applicant on prospects to be admitted to the School of Meteorology for pursuit of a graduate degree. The applicant should

  4. OKLAHOMA CITY UNIVERSITY VOLUME 32 SPRING 2007

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Kim

    . United States, 389 U.S. 347,350-51 (1967) (Fourth Amendment). 7. See Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, 153 (1973 inclusion of state constitutions. State courts have repeatedly held that state constitutions significantly.H. 2003). 87 #12;88 Oklahoma City University Law Review [Vol. 32 such as states banning assisted suicide

  5. 1Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA.

    E-print Network

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    protocol suite ! Original TCP performed poorly in satellite networks " errors " long propagation delay. ! Many schemes for enhancing TCP for satellite networks. ! IETF developing Stream Control Transmission ­ multiple IP addresses per host #12;6Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA. Presentation

  6. 75 FR 42173 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 07/13/2010. Incident: Tornadoes, Severe Storms, Straight Line Winds and Flooding. Incident Period: 06/13/2010 through 06/15/2010. DATES:...

  7. Did the Oklahoma City Bombers Succeed?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordan Steiker

    2001-01-01

    The worst case of domestic terrorism in our country's history, the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, led to the enactment of a landmark antiterrorism statute. Not surprisingly, several of the statute's provisions strengthen federal power in extraordinary and unprecedented ways to counter the threat of terrorism. But other provisions radically restrict the ability of

  8. Seismogram offers insight into Oklahoma City bombing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Holzer; Joe B. Fletcher; Gary S. Fuis; Trond Ryberg; Thomas M. Brocher; Christopher M. Dietel

    1996-01-01

    The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, generated seismic waves that were recorded on two permanent seismographs about 7 and 26 km away from the bombing. The seismogram recorded at 26 km shows two low-frequency wave trains, discrete sets of oscillatory signals, that begin about 10 s apart. Public release

  9. Disaster nursing in the Oklahoma City bombing.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R; Keylon, K; Odor, P S; Walker, G; Hunt, L

    1995-10-01

    The Oklahoma City Federal Building disaster quickly changed a routine day of eye surgical procedures into a chaotic trauma center for the victims with not only eye injuries, but multiple deep lacerations and other injuries. The devastating and disruptive effect of the bombing was stressful for the nursing staff who became disaster survivors of the emotional trauma involved. PMID:7594916

  10. Oklahoma: A View of the Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ruthe Blalock; Depriest, Maria; Fowler, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a dialogue on twentieth-century Oklahoma artists and writers given at a conference titled "Working from Community: American Indian Art and Literature in a Historical and Cultural Context" and held in the summer of 2003 at Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. Twenty-five educators converged for six weeks of…

  11. Molecular characterization, ecology, and epidemiology of a novel Tymovirus in Asclepias viridis from Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Min, Byoung-Eun; Feldman, Tracy S; Ali, Akhtar; Wiley, Graham; Muthukumar, Vijay; Roe, Bruce A; Roossinck, Marilyn; Melcher, Ulrich; Palmer, Michael W; Nelson, Richard S

    2012-02-01

    Native virus-plant interactions require more understanding and their study will provide a basis from which to identify potential sources of emerging destructive viruses in crops. A novel tymovirus sequence was detected in Asclepias viridis (green milkweed), a perennial growing in a natural setting in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TGPP) of Oklahoma. It was abundant within and frequent among A. viridis plants and, to varying extents, within other dicotyledonous and one grass (Panicum virgatum) species obtained from the TGPP. Extracts from A. viridis containing the sequence were infectious to a limited number of species. The virus genome was cloned and determined to be closely related to Kennedya yellow mosaic virus. The persistence of the virus within the Oklahoma A. viridis population was monitored for five successive years. Virus was present in a high percentage of plants within representative areas of the TGPP in all years and was spreading to additional plants. Virus was present in regions adjacent to the TGPP but not in plants sampled from central and south-central Oklahoma. Virus was present in the underground caudex of the plant during the winter, suggesting overwintering in this tissue. The RNA sequence encoding the virus coat protein varied considerably between individual plants (?3%), likely due to drift rather than selection. An infectious clone was constructed and the virus was named Asclepias asymptomatic virus (AsAV) due to the absence of obvious symptoms on A. viridis. PMID:22026416

  12. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2007-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.4 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States-Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the major agricultural regions in the world. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of extensive ground-water irrigation. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level change in the aquifer. A report by the USGS, 'Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005 and 2003 to 2005' (McGuire, 2007), shows the areas of substantial water-level changes in the aquifer from the time prior to substantial ground-water irrigation development (predevelopment or about 1950) to 2005 (fig. 1). In parts of the area, farmers began using ground water for irrigation extensively in the 1930s and 1940s. Estimated irrigated acreage in the area overlying the High Plains aquifer increased rapidly from 1940 to 1980 and changed slightly from 1980 to 2002: 1949-2.1 million acres, 1980-13.7 million acres, 1997-13.9 million acres, 2002-12.7 million acres. Irrigated acres in 2002 were 12 percent of the aquifer area, not including the areas with little or no saturated thickness (McGuire, 2007). Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation and other uses are compiled and reported by the USGS and agencies in each State about every 5 years. Ground-water withdrawals from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation increased from 4 to 19 million acre-feet from 1949 to 1974. Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995 were from 4 to 18 percent less than withdrawals for irrigation in 1974. Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer for irrigation in 2000 were 21 million acre-feet (McGuire, 2007). Water-level changes in the aquifer result from an imbalance between discharge and recharge. Discharge is primarily ground-water withdrawals for irrigation. Discharge also includes evapotranspiration, where the water table is near the land surface, and seepage to streams and springs, where the water table intersects with the land surface. Recharge is primarily from precipitation. Other sources of recharge are irrigation return flow and seepage from streams, canals, and reservoirs. Water-level declines may result in increased costs for ground-water withdrawals because of increased pumping lift and decreased well yields (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Water-level declines also can affect ground-water availability, surface-water flow, and near-stream (riparian) habitat areas (Alley and others, 1999).

  13. Hydrogeology and leachate plume delineation at a closed municipal landfill, Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2002-01-01

    The City of Norman operated a solid-waste municipal landfill at two sites on the Canadian River alluvium in Cleveland County, Oklahoma from 1970 to 1985. The sites, referred to as the west and east cells of the landfill, were originally excavations in the unconsolidated alluvial deposits and were not lined. Analysis of ground-water samples indicate that leachate from the west cell is discharging into an adjacent abandoned river channel, referred to as the slough, and is migrating downgradient in ground water toward the Canadian River. The report describes the hydrogeologic features at the landfill, including the topography of the bedrock, water-level changes in the alluvial aquifer, and delineates the leachate plume using specific conductance data. The leading edge of the leachate plume along the 35-80 transect extended over 250 meters downgradient of the west cell. The leading edge of the leachate plume along the 40-SOUTH transect had moved about 60 meters from the west cell in a south-southwesterly direction and had not moved past the slough as of 1997. Specific conductance measurements exceeding 7,000 microsiemens per centimeter at site 40 indicate the most concentrated part of the plume remained in the upper half of the alluvial aquifer adjacent to the west cell. The direction of ground-water flow in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the landfill was generally north-northeast to south-southwest toward the river. However, between the west cell and the slough along the 40-SOUTH transect, head measurements indicate a directional change to the east and southeast toward a channel referred to as the sewage outfall. Near the 35-80 transect, at 0.5 meter below the water table and at the base of the aquifer, the direction of ground-water flow was south-southeast with a gradient of about 30 centimeters per 100 meters. Generally, ground-water levels in the alluvial aquifer were higher during the winter months and lower during summer months, due to a normal decrease in precipitation and increased evapotranspiration in the summer. Hydrographs show temporal water-level changes in ground water and the slough, indicating a hydrologic connection between the alluvial aquifer and the slough.

  14. 40 CFR 147.3003 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 147.3003 Aquifer exemptions. ...exempted. The exempted aquifers are defined by...which necessitates an aquifer exemption shall...of pre-injection water quality for the...

  15. Radium geochemistry of ground waters in paleozoic carbonate aquifers, Midcontinent, U. S. A.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturchio, N. C.; Banner, J. L.; Binz, C. M.; Heraty, L. J.; Musgrove, M.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Texas; Loras Coll.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the processes controlling the distribution and behavior of the longer-lived radium (Ra) isotopes in continuous Paleozoic carbonate aquifers of parts of Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma. Activities of ({sup 228}Ra) and ({sup 226}Ra) were analyzed in fresh and saline ground waters, brines, and rocks. The fluids have a wide salinity range (200-250,000 mg l{sup -1} total dissolved solids). The ({sup 226}Ra) activity ranges from 0.66-7660 dpm kg{sup -1} and correlates with salinity and other alkaline earth element (Ca, Sr, and Ba) concentrations. The range of ({sup 228}Ra:{sup 226}Ra) ratios in the fluids (0.06-1.48) is similar to that in the aquifer rocks (0.21-1.53). The relatively low mean fluid ({sup 228}Ra:{sup 226}Ra) ratio (0.30) reflects the low Th:U ratio of the predominant carbonate aquifer rock. Radium occurs mostly ({>=}77%) as Ra{sup 2+} species in the fluids. Salinity-dependent sorption-desorption processes (with log K values from 10{sup 0}-10{sup 4} and negatively correlated with salinity), involving Th-enriched surface coatings on aquifer flow channels, can explain the rapid solid-fluid transfer of Ra isotopes in the system and the correlation of Ra with salinity.

  16. Preparation of specific-yield logs for clastic bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Specific yield is the principal aquifer characteristic needed to estimate the volume of recoverable ground water in storage in an aquifer. Determination of specific yield can be difficult and costly, particularly in deep, confined aquifers where core drilling and core analyses may be needed to define specific yield. A method has been developed for preparation of specific-yield geophysical logs that could greatly ease the determination of specific yields in such aquifers. Three geophysical logs that were investigated as potential indicators of specific yield were the free fluid index log, the effective-porosity log, and the apparent grain-density log. The free fluid index log did not accurately represent conditions at the test site in central Colorado and may not be suitable for application in other shallow and permeable aquifers. The effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs were each used in least-squares linear regressions to correlate log response to specific yield measured in core samples. The resulting regression equations have coefficients of correlation (R) of 0.84 and 0.90, and were used to successfully prepare specific-yield logs from the effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs.

  17. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital-elevation models, field survey measurements, hydraulic data, and hydrologic data (U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations North Canadian River below Lake Overholser near Oklahoma City, Okla. [07241000], and North Canadian River at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Okla. [07241520]), were used as inputs for the one-dimensional dynamic (unsteady-flow) models using Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) software. The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum flood dam-breach scenario and a sunny-day dam-breach scenario, as well as for maximum flood-inundation elevations and flood-wave arrival times at selected bridge crossings. Points of interest such as community-services offices, recreational areas, water-treatment plants, and wastewater-treatment plants were identified on the flood-inundation maps.

  18. Transmissivity estimation for highly heterogeneous aquifers: comparison of three methods applied to the Edwards Aquifer, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Scott L.; Woodbury, Allan D.; Jiang, Yefang

    2007-03-01

    Obtaining reliable hydrological input parameters is a key challenge in groundwater modeling. Although many quantitative characterization techniques exist, experience applying these techniques to highly heterogeneous real-world aquifers is limited. Three geostatistical characterization techniques are applied to the Edwards Aquifer, a limestone aquifer in south-central Texas, USA, for the purposes of quantifying the performance in an 88,000-cell groundwater model. The first method is a simple kriging of existing hydraulic conductivity data developed primarily from single-well tests. The second method involves numerical upscaling to the grid-block scale, followed by cokriging the grid-block conductivity. In the third method, the results of the second method are used to establish the prior distribution for a Bayesian updating calculation. Results of kriging alone are biased towards low values and fail to reproduce hydraulic heads or spring flows. The upscaling/cokriging approach removes most of the systematic bias. The Bayesian update reduced the mean residual by more than a factor of 10, to 6 m, approximately 2.5% of the total head variation in the aquifer. This agreement demonstrates the utility of automatic calibration techniques based on formal statistical approaches and lends further support for using the Bayesian updating approach for highly heterogeneous aquifers.

  19. A digital geologic map database for the state of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heran, William D.; Green, Gregory N.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

    2003-01-01

    This dataset is a composite of part or all of the 12 1:250,000 scale quadrangles that make up Oklahoma. The result looks like a geologic map of the State of Oklahoma. But it is only an Oklahoma shaped map clipped from the 1:250,000 geologic maps. This is not a new geologic map. No new mapping took place. The geologic information from each quadrangle is available within the composite dataset.

  20. Using Excel for Aquifer Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yongli Gao

    This exercise is part of a sequence of exercises to help students understand single and multiple aquifer tests. In class, students will receive data from pumping tests at University of Minnesota's hydrogeology field site. Instead of using commercial software, students will create interactive modeling tools to facilitate curve matching and to collaborate on understanding aquifer tests at different scales using different methods. The approaches used in this exercise can be extended to develop models to compare single and multiple aquifer tests using different approaches.

  1. Evaluation of a Long-Term Amphibian Monitoring Protocol in Central America

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    PROTOCOL detection of population declines. Although theA. N. 1954. Decline in toad populations in central Oklahoma.declines, or methods to mitigate them, underscores the need for protocols which yield reliable population

  2. Potential use of the deep aquifers in the Negev Desert, Israel — A conceptual model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativ, Ronit; Bachmat, Yehuda; Issar, Arie

    1987-10-01

    The deep aquifers (Jurassic-Paleozoic, 1-5 km deep) underlying the Negev Desert, Israel, contain brackish to saline water (800-120,000 ppm Cl -) and have been penetrated by only 47 wildcat oil drillings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the water potential of these aquifers for irrigation and for industrial consumption as well as their potential for serving as host rocks for hazardous wastes. We developed a special methodology for constructing a conceptual model for the thick sequence of layers in which these aquifers are found. It seems that, although these aquifers have different lithologies, they may be hydraulically connected. Statistics of the distribution of the aquifer system's parameters of state and analysis of their variance are used to aggregate individual formations into a few large hydrologic units. We employed regression analysis to supplement missing data and to evaluate estimation errors. Based on this methodology, a model consisting of three aquifers was defined. The consistency of the conclusions of the model is confirmed by our studies of pressure, permeability, salinity, temperature, and isotopic distribution. Wherever data were scarce, we estimated hydraulic parameters by linear regression. According to our study, the lower aquifer in the northern Negev contains only brines and is hydrologically separated from the two aquifers above it. The lower aquifer could, therefore, be considered as a possible site for toxic waste disposal or, at suitable locations, for hydrocarbon exploration. Hydrological continuity probably exists between the upper and middle aquifers in the eastern and central Negev, where brackish water is found in both aquifers. The methodology used here is suitable for constructing a conceptual model of any complex geohydrologic system in an area with scarce data.

  3. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    in shallow streams, on the water conservation and irrigation habits of Oklahomans, and the development. · Water conservation in Oklahoma urban and suburban watersheds through modification of irrigation

  4. Statistical analysis of aquifer-test results for nine regional aquifers in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Angel; Early, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report, prepared as part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project, presents a compilation, summarization, and statistical analysis of aquifer-test results for nine regional aquifers in Louisiana. These are from youngest to oldest: The alluvial, Pleistocene, Evangeline, Jasper, Catahoula, Cockfield, Sparta, Carrizo, and Wilcox aquifers. Approximately 1,500 aquifer tests in U.S. Geological Survey files in Louisiana were examined and 1,001 were input to a computer file. Analysis of the aquifer test results and plots that describe aquifer hydraulic characteristics were made for each regional aquifer. Results indicate that, on the average, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) generally tends to decrease from the youngest aquifers to the oldest. The most permeable aquifers in Louisiana are the alluvial and Pleistocene aquifers; whereas, the least permeable are the Carrizo and Wilcox aquifers. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Isolation of avian influenza viruses in central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Lai, A C; McPhillips, A M

    1999-12-01

    Aquatic birds are the natural hosts for influenza virus. It is established that avian influenza viruses provide the gene pool for the generation of new strains of human influenza virus, which can cause pandemic infections. The recent outbreak of an avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Hong Kong not only produced high mortality in chickens, but also resulted in six human fatalities. This outbreak indicates that avian influenza virus can be pathogenic for humans. We surveyed local waterfowl habitats by taking water and fecal samples for virus isolation and identification. We isolated avian influenza viruses from ponds and small lakes in Bartlesville, Lawton, Stillwater, and Tulsa. The density of birds in these sites is small. However, our virus isolation rate is comparable to that found in higher density habitats. The risk of human infection remains to be determined. We encourage primary care physicians to submit samples for virus surveillance. PMID:10616258

  6. Carbonate Chemistry and Isotope Characteristics of Groundwater of Ljubljansko Polje and Ljubljansko Barje Aquifers in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1) Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca2+values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2) northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3) central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4) Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg2+ in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years. PMID:24453928

  7. Microbial diversity and impact on carbonate geochemistry across a changing geochemical gradient in a karst aquifer.

    PubMed

    Gray, Cassie J; Engel, Annette S

    2013-02-01

    Although microbes are known to influence karst (carbonate) aquifer ecosystem-level processes, comparatively little information is available regarding the diversity of microbial activities that could influence water quality and geological modification. To assess microbial diversity in the context of aquifer geochemistry, we coupled 16S rRNA Sanger sequencing and 454 tag pyrosequencing to in situ microcosm experiments from wells that cross the transition from fresh to saline and sulfidic water in the Edwards Aquifer of central Texas, one of the largest karst aquifers in the United States. The distribution of microbial groups across the transition zone correlated with dissolved oxygen and sulfide concentration, and significant variations in community composition were explained by local carbonate geochemistry, specifically calcium concentration and alkalinity. The waters were supersaturated with respect to prevalent aquifer minerals, calcite and dolomite, but in situ microcosm experiments containing these minerals revealed significant mass loss from dissolution when colonized by microbes. Despite differences in cell density on the experimental surfaces, carbonate loss was greater from freshwater wells than saline, sulfidic wells. However, as cell density increased, which was correlated to and controlled by local geochemistry, dissolution rates decreased. Surface colonization by metabolically active cells promotes dissolution by creating local disequilibria between bulk aquifer fluids and mineral surfaces, but this also controls rates of karst aquifer modification. These results expand our understanding of microbial diversity in karst aquifers and emphasize the importance of evaluating active microbial processes that could affect carbonate weathering in the subsurface. PMID:23151637

  8. Largest Dinosaur Ever Discovered Found in Oklahoma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    Originally discovered in a remote corner of Oklahoma in 1994, the fossil of what may have been the largest creature to ever walk the earth has been excavated by a research team from the University of Oklahoma. Dubbed Sauroposeidon proteles, or "thunder lizard," the dinosaur was almost 100 feet long, with a 39 foot neck and weighing over 50 tons, so big that it would have created minor seismic activity just by walking, according to scientists. The new find is about 110 million years old and consists of neck vertebrae, some almost five feet in length, together with neck ribs nearly twelve feet long. The find is also significant because it may shed light on the last of the North American sauropods, who died out about 100 million years ago. A paper on this new find is scheduled to appear in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. The sites listed provide information and background material about this momentous discovery.

  9. Characterizing contaminant concentrations with depth by using the USGS well profiler in Oklahoma, 2003-9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Becker, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the USGS well profiler was used to investigate saline water intrusion in a deep public-supply well completed in the Ozark (Roubidoux) aquifer. In northeast Oklahoma, where the Ozark aquifer is known to be susceptible to contamination from mining activities, the well profiler also could be used to investigate sources (depths) of metals contamination and to identify routes of entry of metals to production wells.Water suppliers can consider well rehabilitation as a potential remediation strategy because of the ability to identify changes in contaminant concentrations with depth in individual wells with the USGS well profiler. Well rehabilitation methods, which are relatively inexpensive compared to drilling and completing new wells, involve modifying the construction or operation of a well to enhance the production of water from zones with lesser concentrations of a contaminant or to limit the production of water from zones with greater concentrations of a contaminant. One of the most effective well rehabilitation methods is zonal isolation, in which water from contaminated zones is excluded from production through installation of cement plugs or packers. By using relatively simple and inexpensive well rehabilitation methods, water suppliers may be able to decrease exposure of customers to contaminants and avoid costly installation of additional wells, conveyance infrastructure, and treatment technologies.

  10. SOLE SOURCE AQUIFER BOUNDARY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 7 polygons representing 6 individual sole source aquifer boundaries and one streamflow source area in California, Arizona, and Nevada. Various efforts were combined to create the final product, which represents the Federal Register boundary description. Sole source aqu...

  11. N3280RDCOTTONWOODRD PayneOklahoma 11

    E-print Network

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    51 2 54 11 51 49 4 11 2 11 10 72 51 96 26 47 51 2651 26 76 76 26 4 32 11 26 3 11 26 10 72 51 31 26 51 11 2626 72 11 49 10 11 26 11 26 96 76 26 41 11 76 51 1011 74 31 51 11 SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY Soil Survey Area: Payne County, Oklahoma Spatial Version of Data: 2 Soil Map Compilation Scale: 1

  12. Environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus study unit, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; Petersen, James C.; Freiwald, David A.; Davis, Jerri V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit and the factors that affect water quality are described in this report. The primary natural and cultural features that affect water- quality characteristics and the potential for future water-quality problems are described. These environmental features include climate, physio- graphy, geology, soils, population, land use, water use, and surface- and ground-water flow systems. The study-unit area is approximately 47,600 square miles and includes most of the Ozark Plateaus Province and parts of the adjacent Osage Plains and Mississippi Alluvial Plain in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. The geology is characterized by basement igneous rocks overlain by a thick sequence of dolomites, limestones, sandstones, and shales of Paleozoic age. Land use in the study unit is predominantly pasture and forest in the southeastern part, and pasture and cropland in the northwestern part. All or part of the White, Neosho-lllinois, Osage, Gasconade, Meramec, St. Francis, and Black River Basins are within the study unit. Streams in the Boston Mountains contain the least mineralized water, and those in the Osage Plains contain the most mineralized water. The study unit contains eight hydrogeologic units including three major aquifers--the Springfield Plateau, Ozark, and St. Francois aquifers. Streams and aquifers in the study unit generally contain calcium or calcium-magnesium bicarbonate waters. Ground- and surface-water interactions are greatest in the Salem and Springfield Plateaus and least in the Boston Mountains and Osage Plains. Geology, land use, and population probably are the most important environmental factors that affect water quality.

  13. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    SciTech Connect

    S. Nandi; M.J. Strauss; J. Snow; F. Rizatdinova; B. Abbott; K. Babu; P. Gutierrez; C. Kao; A. Khanov; K.A. Milton; H. Neaman; H. Severini, P. Skubic

    2012-02-29

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma�¢����s impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging from the search for new phenomena at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider to theoretical modeling, computer simulation, detector development and testing, and physics analysis. OCHEP faculty members participating on the D0 collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron and on the ATLAS collaboration at the CERN LHC have made major impact on the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson search, top quark studies, B physics studies, and measurements of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) phenomena. The OCHEP Grid computing facility consists of a large computer cluster which is playing a major role in data analysis and Monte Carlo productions for both the D0 and ATLAS experiments. Theoretical efforts are devoted to new ideas in Higgs bosons physics, extra dimensions, neutrino masses and oscillations, Grand Unified Theories, supersymmetric models, dark matter, and nonperturbative quantum field theory. Theory members are making major contributions to the understanding of phenomena being explored at the Tevatron and the LHC. They have proposed new models for Higgs bosons, and have suggested new signals for extra dimensions, and for the search of supersymmetric particles. During the seven year period when OCHEP was partially funded through the DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, OCHEP members published over 500 refereed journal articles and made over 200 invited presentations at major conferences. The Center is also involved in education and outreach activities by offering summer research programs for high school teachers and college students, and organizing summer workshops for high school teachers, sometimes coordinating with the Quarknet programs at OSU and OU. The details of the Center can be found in http://ochep.phy.okstate.edu.

  14. Denitrification in a Sand and Gravel Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard L.; Duff, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Denitrification was assayed by the acetylene blockage technique in slurried core material obtained from a freshwater sand and gravel aquifer. The aquifer, which has been contaminated with treated sewage for more than 50 years, had a contaminant plume greater than 3.5-km long. Near the contaminant source, groundwater nitrate concentrations were greater than 1 mM, whereas 0.25 km downgradient the central portion of the contaminant plume was anoxic and contained no detectable nitrate. Samples were obtained along the longitudinal axis of the plume (0 to 0.25 km) at several depths from four sites. Denitrification was evident at in situ nitrate concentrations at all sites tested; rates ranged from 2.3 to 260 pmol of N2O produced (g of wet sediment)?1 h?1. Rates were highest nearest the contaminant source and decreased with increasing distance downgradient. Denitrification was the predominant nitrate-reducing activity; no evidence was found for nitrate reduction to ammonium at any site. Denitrifying activity was carbon limited and not nitrate limited, except when the ambient nitrate level was less than the detection limit, in which case, even when amended with high concentrations of glucose and nitrate, the capacity to denitrify on a short-term basis was lacking. These results demonstrate that denitrification can occur in groundwater systems and, thereby, serve as a mechanism for nitrate removal from groundwater. PMID:16347621

  15. Oklahoma 4-H Alumni Association Membership Form Name Maiden Name

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Oklahoma 4-H Alumni Association Membership Form Name Maiden Name Home County County Residing In Address City State Zip Code Email Home Phone Business/Cell Phone: Birthday Years in 4-H: From to 4-H Awards/Trips Your membership in the Oklahoma 4-H Alumni Association is an investment in the future

  16. Twenty-Fifth Annual Report of Indian Education in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Overton

    The Indian Education Program in Oklahoma is financed and operated under the provision of a contract between the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Oklahoma Department of Education and is supervised by the State Department of Education as authorized by the Johnson O'Malley Act (JOM) of 1936. The narrative section of this 1972 annual report…

  17. Twenty Sixth Annual Report of Indian Education in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Overton

    The 26th annual report (1973) of American Indian education programs in Oklahoma is presented. The Oklahoma education program is financed and operated under a contract between the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior, and the State Department of Education. The supervision of the program is carried out entirely by the State…

  18. Twentieth Annual Report of Indian Education in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laney, L. J.

    Financed and operated under the provisions of a contract between the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Education, and the Oklahoma State Department of Education, this document describes the Indian Education Program in Oklahoma, authorized by the Johnson-O'Malley Act and supervised by the State Department of Education. This 1967 annual…

  19. DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT1 PINE CREEK DAM, OKLAHOMA2

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;#12;DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT1 PINE CREEK DAM, OKLAHOMA2 DAM SAFETY MODIFICATION3 &4 Environmental Assessment Pine Creek Dam, Oklahoma Dam Safety Modification & Interim Risk Reduction Measure and risk reduction measures necessary to correct structural and maintenance deficiencies of Pine Creek Dam

  20. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    on the water cycle in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem. 2. We co-hosted the 7th annual Water Research Symposium. Chris Zou was awarded a 104G grant entitled Eastern Redcedar Encroachment and Water Cycle in TallgrassOklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 Oklahoma Water

  1. Fiscal Equity of Teacher Salaries and Compensation in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Jeffrey; Evans, Nancy O.

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the degree to which financial resources supporting teachers was equitably distributed in Oklahoma. Teachers are an important resource and their importance is being increasingly emphasized as educators attempt to increase student achievement. Every student educated in Oklahoma should have an equal right to…

  2. Oklahoma geology, the challenge in a changing environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Miller; B. L. Tillman

    1993-01-01

    A diversity of geology and programs exists in Oklahoma which requires the SCS geologist to use a wide range of experience in order to contribute to the many existing programs. The US Soil Conservation Service geologist work force consists of Bob L. Tillman, Sedimentation Geologist, Chickasha, and Glen B. Miller, Engineering Geologist, Stillwater, Oklahoma. Their poster display illustrates channel erosion

  3. Forensic Seismology and the 1995 Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Holzer

    2002-01-01

    The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995, was recorded on 2 permanent seismographs, 7 and 26 km away. The more distant seismograph recorded 2 low-frequency wave trains separated by about 10 s. Militia groups speculated that the 2 wave trains were caused by separate explosions and hinted at a

  4. Literacy and Education among Adult Indians in Oklahoma. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Paul R.; And Others

    The U.S. Office of Education funded the Adult Indian Education Project (AIEP) for 15 months to identify literacy levels and educational needs of adult American Indians in Oklahoma. Using Native American field interviewers, the AIEP surveyed a 1.8% random sample of adults from 19 tribal groups representing 70% of the Indian population of Oklahoma.…

  5. Sea water in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Hilton Hammond

    1964-01-01

    Investigations in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer, a highly productive aquifer of limestone and sand in the Miami area, Florida, show that the salt-water front is dynamically stable as much as 8 miles seaward of the position computed according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. This discrepancy results, at least in part, from the fact that the salt water in the Biscayne aquifer is not static, as explanations of the dynamic balance commonly assume. Cross sections showing lines of equal fresh-water potential indicate that during periods of heavy recharge, the fresh-water head is high enough to cause the fresh water, the salt water, and the zone of diffusion between them to move seaward. When the fresh-water head is low, salt water in the lower part of the aquifer intrudes inland, but some of the diluted sea water in the zone of diffusion continues to flow seaward. Thus, salt water circulates inland from the floor of the sea through the lower part of the aquifer becoming progressively diluted with fresh water to a line along which there is no horizontal component of flow, after which it moves upward and returns to the sea. This cyclic flow is demonstrated by a flow net which is constructed by the use of horizontal gradients determined from the low-head equipotential diagram. The flow net shows that about seven-eights of the total discharge at the shoreline originates as fresh water in inland parts of the aquifer. The remaining one-eighth represents a return of sea water entering the aquifer through the floor of the sea.

  6. Using Geophysics to Define Hydrostratigraphic Units in the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Blome, C. D.; Clark, A. K.; Kress, W.; Smith, D. V.

    2007-05-01

    Airborne and ground geophysical surveys conducted in Uvalde, Medina, and northern Bexar counties, Texas, can be used to define and characterize hydrostratigraphic units of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. Airborne magnetic surveys have defined numerous Cretaceous intrusive stocks and laccoliths, mainly in Uvalde County, that influence local hydrology and perhaps regional ground-water flow paths. Depositional environments in the aquifers can be classified as shallow water platforms (San Marcos Platform, Edwards Group), shoal and reef facies (Devils River Trend, Devils River Formation), and deeper water basins (Maverick Basin, West Nueces, McKnight, and Salmon Peak Formations). Detailed airborne and ground electromagnetic surveys have been conducted over the Edwards aquifer catchment zone (exposed Trinity aquifer rocks), recharge zone (exposed Edwards aquifer rocks), and artesian zone (confined Edwards) in the Seco Creek area (northeast Uvalde and Medina Counties; Devils River Trend). These geophysical survey data have been used to divide the Edwards exposed within the Balcones fault zone into upper and lower hydrostratigraphic units. Although both units are high electrical resistivity, the upper unit has slightly lower resistivity than the lower unit. The Georgetown Formation, at the top of the Edwards Group has a moderate resistivity. The formations that comprise the upper confining units to the Edwards aquifer rocks have varying resistivities. The Eagleford and Del Rio Groups (mainly clays) have very low resistivities and are excellent electrical marker beds in the Seco Creek area. The Buda Limestone is characterized by high resistivities. Moderate resistivities characterize the Austin Group rocks (mainly chalk). The older Trinity aquifer, underlying the Edwards aquifer rocks, is characterized by less limestone (electrically resistive or low conductivity units) and greater quantities of mudstones (electrically conductive or low resistivity units). In the western area (Devils River Trend and Maverick Basin) of the Trinity aquifer system there are well-defined collapse units and features that are marked by moderate resistivities bracketed by resistive limestone and conductive mudstone of the Glen Rose Limestone. In the central part of the aquifer (San Marcos Platform) the Trinity's lithologies are divided into upper and lower units with further subdivisions into hydrostratigraphic units. These hydrostratigraphic units are well mapped by an airborne electromagnetic survey in Bexar County. Electrical properties of the Edwards aquifer also vary across the fresh-saline water interface where ground and borehole electrical surveys have been conducted. The saline- saturated Edwards is predictably more conductive than the fresh-water saturated rocks. Similar fresh-saline water interfaces exist within the upper confining units of the Edwards aquifer (Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer) and the Trinity aquifer rocks.

  7. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    ://osufacts.okstate.edu Ecology and Management of Sericea Lespedeza D. Chad Cummings Sr. Agriculturist Rangeland Ecology Ecology and Management John R. Weir Research Associate Rangeland Ecology and Management Sericea lespedeza, and biological diversity. Sericea lespedeza has been found growing in all parts of Oklahoma except the Panhandle

  8. Oklahoma Aerospace Intellectual Capital/Educational Recommendations: An Inquiry of Oklahoma Aerospace Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Erin M.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to conduct detailed personal interviews with aerospace industry executives/managers from both the private and military sectors from across Oklahoma to determine their perceptions of intellectual capital needs of the industry. Interviews with industry executives regarding…

  9. Analysis of Data from Pumping Tests in Anisotropic Aquifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAHDI S. HANTUSH

    1966-01-01

    In conventional methods of aquifer tests homogeneous and isotropic aquifers are assumed. In many instances, however, the aquifers tested are anisotropic. Procedures are outlined for determining the principal directions of anisotropy and the hydraulic properties of homogeneous anisotropic aquifers. Data from pumping tests in leaky or nonleaky aquifers are used. The aquifers are uniform in thickness, and the flow therein

  10. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-166-1835, US Post Office Building, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kominsky

    1987-01-01

    In response to a request from the U.S. Department of Justice on behalf of the U.S. Postal Service, a study was made of background concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Post Office Building located in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The purpose of the study was to determine the concentration of PCBs in a building similar in structure to the Page

  11. Solar repowering for electric generation. Northeastern Station Unit 1, Public Service Company of Oklahoma. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-15

    The conceptual design and evaluation of solar repowering and electric generating unit of Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO) are described in detail. The solar addition would permit, at the design point, a 20% reduction of the fossil fuel consumed by PSO's 150 MWe Northeastern Station Unit 1. The proposed system comprises a tower focus power plant with a water/steam central receiver. This volume presents the trade studies, conceptual design, system performance, economic analysis, and development plan as well as a description of a test program to determine the magnitude of impact that environmental factors have on plant design and performance. (WHK)

  12. Processes Affecting Nitrogen Speciation in a Karst Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; Musgrove, M.; Wong, C. I.

    2011-12-01

    Like many karst aquifers, the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer, in central Texas, is in an area undergoing rapid growth in population, and there is concern as to how increased amounts of wastewater might affect groundwater quality. We measured concentrations and estimated loads of nitrogen (N) species in recharge to and discharge from the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer, central Texas, to evaluate processes affecting the transport and fate of N species in groundwater. Water samples were collected during 17 months (November 2008-March 2010) from five streams that contribute about 85% of recharge to the aquifer segment and from Barton Springs, the principal point of discharge from the segment. The sampling period spanned a range of climatic conditions from exceptional drought to above-normal rainfall. Samples were analyzed for N species (organic N + ammonia, ammonia, nitrate + nitrite, nitrite); loads of organic N and nitrate were estimated with LOADEST, a regression-based model that uses a time series of streamflow and measured constituent concentrations to estimate constituent loads. Concentrations of organic nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were higher and concentrations of nitrate were lower in surface water than in spring discharge, consistent with conversion of organic nitrogen to nitrate and associated consumption of dissolved oxygen in the aquifer. During the period of the study, the estimated load of organic N in recharge from streams (average daily load [adl] of 39 kg/d) was about 10 times that in Barton Springs discharge (adl of 9.4 kg/d), whereas the estimated load of nitrate in recharge from streams (adl of 123 kg/d) was slightly less than that in Barton Springs discharge (adl of 148 kg/d). The total average N load in recharge from streams and discharge from Barton Springs was not significantly different (adl of 162 and 157 kg/d, respectively), indicating that surface-water recharge can account for all of the N in Barton Springs discharge. Differences in the timing of recharge and discharge of loads were marked, however: During the drought period, loads of total N in recharge from streams (adl 2.4 kg/d) were much less than those in Barton Springs discharge (adl 70 kg/d), and during the wet period those in recharge from streams exceeded those in Barton Springs discharge (average daily loads of 395 and 282 kg/d, respectively). This indicates that total N entering the aquifer during periods of high recharge likely goes into groundwater storage, then discharges gradually as water-level altitudes in the aquifer decrease.

  13. Modeling earthquake rate changes in Oklahoma and Arkansas: possible signatures of induced seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Llenos, Andrea L.; Michael, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The rate of ML?3 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States increased beginning in 2009, particularly in Oklahoma and central Arkansas, where fluid injection has occurred. We find evidence that suggests these rate increases are man?made by examining the rate changes in a catalog of ML?3 earthquakes in Oklahoma, which had a low background seismicity rate before 2009, as well as rate changes in a catalog of ML?2.2 earthquakes in central Arkansas, which had a history of earthquake swarms prior to the start of injection in 2009. In both cases, stochastic epidemic?type aftershock sequence models and statistical tests demonstrate that the earthquake rate change is statistically significant, and both the background rate of independent earthquakes and the aftershock productivity must increase in 2009 to explain the observed increase in seismicity. This suggests that a significant change in the underlying triggering process occurred. Both parameters vary, even when comparing natural to potentially induced swarms in Arkansas, which suggests that changes in both the background rate and the aftershock productivity may provide a way to distinguish man?made from natural earthquake rate changes. In Arkansas we also compare earthquake and injection well locations, finding that earthquakes within 6 km of an active injection well tend to occur closer together than those that occur before, after, or far from active injection. Thus, like a change in productivity, a change in interevent distance distribution may also be an indicator of induced seismicity.

  14. ANALYTICAL ELEMENT MODELING OF COASTAL AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of groundwater flow in coastal aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a groundwater model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM; ...

  15. Continued support of the natural resources information system (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mankin, C.J. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States); Rizzuti, T.P. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research program is to continue developing, editing, maintaining, utilizing and making publicly available the Oil and Gas Well History file portion of the Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, working with Geological Information Systems at the University of Oklahoma Sarkeys Energy Center, has undertaken to construct this information system in response to the need for a computerized, centrally located library containing accurate, detailed information on the state`s natural resources. The NRIS Well History file contains historical and recent completion records for oil and gas wells reported to the Oklahoma Corporation Commission on Form 1002-A. At the start of this quarter, the Well History file contained 361,101 records, providing geographical coverage for most of Oklahoma (all but Osage County). Data elements on this file include API well number, lease name and well number, location information, elevations, dates of significant activities for the well and formation items (e.g., formation names, completion and test data, depths and perforations). In addition to the standard Well History file processing, special projects are undertaken to add supplemental data to the file from well logs, scout tickets, and core and sample documentation.

  16. A New Thermal Method for High-resolution Aquifer Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Knobbe, S.; Butler, J. J.; Reboulet, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial variations in flow and transport properties play an important role in solute movement in aquifer systems. A major challenge has been to develop field methods that allow information about these variations to be obtained at the resolution needed to characterize transport in heterogeneous formations. Recently, we have developed a new thermal method that holds considerable promise for obtaining high-resolution information about aquifer structure and, potentially, groundwater flux in an efficient fashion. This new approach, which is based on Raman scattering distributed temperature sensing along fiber optic cables deployed below the water table, was applied to a field site located in the floodplain of the Kansas River in the central United States. Results indicate that the temperature profiles obtained using this method are remarkably consistent with hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates obtained through other means at the same location and provide new insights into the factors controlling the relatively large K variations observed within the sand and gravel aquifer at this site. The temperature profiles were significantly changed when a nearby pump was turned on, particularly in the vicinity of the vertical interval of the pump intake, demonstrating the convergence of groundwater flow on the pump intake. The high resolution possible with distributed temperature sensing enables this new method to provide a more detailed representation of aquifer dynamics and structure than previous approaches.

  17. Uncertainty Quantification and Assessment of CO2 Leakage in Groundwater Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, S.; Mansoor, K.; Sun, Y.; Jones, E.

    2011-12-01

    Complexity of subsurface aquifers and the geochemical reactions that control drinking water compositions complicate our ability to estimate the impact of leaking CO2 on groundwater quality. We combined lithologic field data from the High Plains Aquifer, numerical simulations, and uncertainty quantification analysis to assess the role of aquifer heterogeneity and physical transport on the extent of CO2 impacted plume over a 100-year period. The High Plains aquifer is a major aquifer over much of the central United States where CO2 may be sequestered in depleted oil and gas reservoirs or deep saline formations. Input parameters considered included, aquifer heterogeneity, permeability, porosity, regional groundwater flow, CO2 and TDS leakage rates over time, and the number of leakage source points. Sensitivity analysis suggest that variations in sand and clay permeability, correlation lengths, van Genuchten parameters, and CO2 leakage rate have the greatest impact on impacted volume or maximum distance from the leak source. A key finding is that relative sensitivity of the parameters changes over the 100-year period. Reduced order models developed from regression of the numerical simulations show that volume of the CO2-impacted aquifer increases over time with 2 order of magnitude variance.

  18. University of Oklahoma: History of Science Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-21

    The University of Oklahoma Libraries have done a wonderful job with their history of science collections. Visitors to the site will find seven collections here to keep their minds busy. Their number includes "Copernicus's De revolutionibus" and "Scientific Instruments and Historical Artifacts." Of course this first volume is nothing less than a classic, presenting Copernicus's evidence and arguments in support of heliocentric theory. This volume also contains extensive marginalia from a circle of astronomers located in Paris in the decade following the book's publication in 1543. Moving on, the "Scientific Instruments and Historical Artifacts" area contains 16 wonderful items, including an ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablet and videos of historically significant refractometers.

  19. Mobile sediment in an urbanizing karst aquifer: Implications for contaminant transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Lynch, L.; Bennett, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    Here we investigate geochemical characteristics of sediment in different compartments of a karst aquifer and demonstrate that mobile sediments in a karst aquifer can exhibit a wide range of properties affecting their contaminant transport potential. Sediment samples were collected from surface streams, sinkholes, caves, wells, and springs of a karst aquifer (the Barton Springs portion of the Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) Aquifer, Central Texas) and their mineralogy, grain-size distribution, organic carbon content, and specific surface area analyzed. Statistical analysis of the sediments separated the sampling sites into three distinct groups: (1) streambeds, sinkholes, and small springs; (2) wells; and (3) caves. Sediments from the primary discharge spring were a mix of these three groups. High organic carbon content and increased potential to transport contaminants; the volume of these sediments is likely to increase with continued urbanization of the watershed.

  20. Floods in Oklahoma : magnitude and frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westfall, A.O.; Patterson, J.L.

    1964-01-01

    This report presents methods by which the magnitude and frequency of expected floods for most streams in Oklahoma can be determined. Flood data were used to define flood-frequency curves applicable to the State. Composite frequency curves were drawn showing the relation of mean annual floods to floods having recurrence intervals from 1.2 to 50 years. In some areas, it was found that the slope of the composite frequency curve varies with the drainage area. An adjustment curve was defined for use in conjunction with the composite curve for these areas. Other curves express the relation of the mean annual flood to drainage basin characteristics. By combining data from the composite and mean annual flood curves, flood-frequency curves can be drawn for streams in Oklahoma not materially affected by the works of man. Neither of the above two types of curves should be extrapolated beyond the range defined by base data. Frequency curves presented in this report were based on analysis of flood records collected at gaging stations having 5 or more years of record not materially affected by regulation or diversion. (available as photostat copy only)

  1. Ore microscopy of the Paoli silver-copper deposit, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, C.A.; Hagni, R.D.; Berendsen, P.

    1991-01-01

    The Paoli silver-copper deposit is located in south-central Oklahoma, 56 km south-southeast from Norman, Oklahoma. It was mined for high-grade silver-copper near the beginning of this century, and intensive exploratory drilling during the early 1970's delineated unmined portions of the deposit. A collaborative study between the U.S.G.S., the Kansas Geological Survey, and the University of Missouri-Rolla was undertaken to provide new information on the character of red bed copper deposits of the Midcontinent region. The Paoli deposit has been interpreted to occur as a roll-front type of deposit. The silver and copper mineralization occurs within paleochannels in the Permian Wellington Formation. The silver-copper interfaces appear to be controlled by oxidation-reduction interfaces that are marked by grey to red color changes in the host sandstone. Ore microscopic examinations of polished thin sections show that unoxidized ore consists of chalcocite, digenite, chalcopyrite, covellite and pyrite; and oxidized ores are characterized by covellite, bornite, hematite and goethite. In sandstone-hosted ores, chalcocite and digenite replace dolomite and border clastic quartz grains. In siltstone-hosted ores, the copper sulfide grains have varied shapes; most are irregular in shape and 5-25 ??m across, others have euhedral shapes suggestive of pyrite crystal replacements, and some are crudely spherical and are 120-200 ??m across. Chalcopyrite is the predominant copper sulfide at depth. Covellite and malachite replace chalcocite and digenite near the surface. Silver only occurs as native silver; most as irregularly shaped grains 40-80 ??m across, but some as cruciform crystals that are up to 3.5 mm across. The native silver has been deposited after copper sulfides, and locally replaces chalcocite. Surficial nodules of pyrite, malachite and hematite locally are present in outcrops at the oxidation-reduction fronts. Polished sections of the nodules show that malachite forms a cement around quartz sand grains, and brecciated pyrite grains are surrounded by rims of hematite and goethite. Dolomite is the principal sandstone cement. Cathodoluminescence microscopic study of the mineral has shown that it was deposited during seven periods before the copper sulfide mineralization. ?? 1991.

  2. Numerical-simulation and conjunctive-management models of the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt stream-aquifer system, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Dickerman, David C.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the development, application, and evaluation of numerical-simulation and conjunctive-management models of the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt stream-aquifer system in central Rhode Island. Steady-state transient numerical models were developed to improve the understanding of the hydrologic budget of the system, the interaction of ground-water and surface-water components of the system, and the contributing areas and sources of water to supply wells in the system. The numerical models were developed and calibrated on the basis of hydrologic data collected during this and previous investigations. These data include lithologic information for the aquifer; hydraulic properties of aquifer and streambed materials; recharge to the aquifer; water levels measured in wells, ponds, and streambed piezometers; streamflow measurements for various streams within the system; and ground-water withdrawal rates from, and wastewater discharge to, the aquifer.

  3. AQUIFER CHARACTERIZATION JOHN S. BRIDGE

    E-print Network

    Bioremediation Site in southwestern Michigan, where detailed estimates of aquifer properties were needed to accurately simulate multi-component reactive transport and to design an effective bioremediation strategy-long continuous cores was collected in the vicinity of the bioremediation-system delivery wells. These cores were

  4. Application of Meteosat thermal data to map soil infiltrability in the central part of the Lake Chad basin, Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Leblanc; Moumtaz Razack; Dominique Dagorne; Linus Mofor; Chris Jones

    2003-01-01

    In the central part of the Lake Chad Basin, Africa, the superficial Quaternary aquifer (500,000 km2) forms the main water resource. Little is known about the aquifer recharge processes. Large piezometric depressions affect the aquifer and are still unexplained. Meteosat thermal composite data were used to infer qualitative information about time-space variations of soil moisture. Over the aquifer, Meteosat data

  5. Potential ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats in Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Elisha K; Baum, Kristen A; Pape?, Monica; Cohn, Leah A; Cowell, Annette K; Reichard, Mason V

    2013-02-18

    The ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis, an often-fatal tick-borne apicomplexan that infects domestic cats, has not been evaluated or identified despite its continued emergence. Infection of C. felis is characterized by lethargy, icterus, fever, anorexia, anemia, and death. The natural vertebrate reservoir of C. felis is the bobcat (Lynx rufus). To determine the possible distribution of C. felis in three states where infection is common (Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas), two separate approaches to ecological niche modeling were implemented. First, a model relating several different climatic layers to geographic locations where cases of C. felis infection were confirmed in domestic cats was developed to predict the possible distribution of the parasite. The second model incorporated occurrences of bobcats with environmental layers and land cover suitable for tick vectors to identify areas of overlap where C. felis transmission was likely. Results of both models indicated a high probability of C. felis from central Oklahoma to south-central Missouri. However, other predicted areas of C. felis occurrence varied between the two modeling approaches. Modeling the vertebrate reservoir and the tick vector predicted a broader possible distribution compared to modeling cases of C. felis infection in domestic cats. Our results suggest that C. felis is likely to extend beyond areas predicted by case modeling due to the presence of both the vector and reservoir. PMID:23131576

  6. Methods for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2010-01-01

    Flow statistics can be used to provide decision makers with surface-water information needed for activities such as water-supply permitting, flow regulation, and other water rights issues. Flow statistics could be needed at any location along a stream. Most often, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no flow data are available to compute the statistics. Methods are presented in this report for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams in Oklahoma. Flow statistics included the (1) annual (period of record), (2) seasonal (summer-autumn and winter-spring), and (3) 12 monthly duration statistics, including the 20th, 50th, 80th, 90th, and 95th percentile flow exceedances, and the annual mean-flow (mean of daily flows for the period of record). Flow statistics were calculated from daily streamflow information collected from 235 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Oklahoma and areas in adjacent states. A drainage-area ratio method is the preferred method for estimating flow statistics at an ungaged location that is on a stream near a gage. The method generally is reliable only if the drainage-area ratio of the two sites is between 0.5 and 1.5. Regression equations that relate flow statistics to drainage-basin characteristics were developed for the purpose of estimating selected flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics for ungaged streams that are not near gaging stations on the same stream. Regression equations were developed from flow statistics and drainage-basin characteristics for 113 unregulated gaging stations. Separate regression equations were developed by using U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in regions with similar drainage-basin characteristics. These equations can increase the accuracy of regression equations used for estimating flow-duration and annual mean-flow statistics at ungaged stream locations in Oklahoma. Streamflow-gaging stations were grouped by selected drainage-basin characteristics by using a k-means cluster analysis. Three regions were identified for Oklahoma on the basis of the clustering of gaging stations and a manual delineation of distinguishable hydrologic and geologic boundaries: Region 1 (western Oklahoma excluding the Oklahoma and Texas Panhandles), Region 2 (north- and south-central Oklahoma), and Region 3 (eastern and central Oklahoma). A total of 228 regression equations (225 flow-duration regressions and three annual mean-flow regressions) were developed using ordinary least-squares and left-censored (Tobit) multiple-regression techniques. These equations can be used to estimate 75 flow-duration statistics and annual mean-flow for ungaged streams in the three regions. Drainage-basin characteristics that were statistically significant independent variables in the regression analyses were (1) contributing drainage area; (2) station elevation; (3) mean drainage-basin elevation; (4) channel slope; (5) percentage of forested canopy; (6) mean drainage-basin hillslope; (7) soil permeability; and (8) mean annual, seasonal, and monthly precipitation. The accuracy of flow-duration regression equations generally decreased from high-flow exceedance (low-exceedance probability) to low-flow exceedance (high-exceedance probability) . This decrease may have happened because a greater uncertainty exists for low-flow estimates and low-flow is largely affected by localized geology that was not quantified by the drainage-basin characteristics selected. The standard errors of estimate of regression equations for Region 1 (western Oklahoma) were substantially larger than those standard errors for other regions, especially for low-flow exceedances. These errors may be a result of greater variability in low flow because of increased irrigation activities in this region. Regression equations may not be reliable for sites where the drainage-basin characteristics are outside the range of values of independent vari

  7. Tracking River Recharge in the Central Valley of California Using Chemical and Isotopic Tracers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Moran; B. Hudson; D. Evans; T. Horner; R. Leif; G. F. Eaton

    2003-01-01

    Recharge to alluvial aquifers along the major rivers of the Central Valley of California is influenced by human activity in adjacent urban areas and groundwater basins. Intense pumping of Central Valley aquifers may induce recharge, while slurry walls, emplaced for flood control in densely populated areas, are intended to protect levees by preventing shallow recharge. These large rivers carry distinct

  8. Gaseous oxidized mercury dry deposition measurements in the southwestern USA: a comparison between Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners area.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Allen, Kara L; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Ketcher, Philip; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m(2)h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m(2)h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area. PMID:24955412

  9. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    PubMed Central

    Sather, Mark E.; Allen, Kara L.; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3?ng/m2h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2?ng/m2h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area. PMID:24955412

  10. Investigation of Soil Moisture - Vegetation Interactions in Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Ford, Trenton W.

    2013-03-06

    , but not well understood climate factor. This study examines soil moisture-vegetation health interactions using both in situ observations and land surface model simulations. For the observational study, soil moisture is taken from 20 in situ Oklahoma Mesonet...

  11. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS ...1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under...

  12. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS ...1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under...

  13. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS ...1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under...

  14. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS ...1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under...

  15. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS ...1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under...

  16. 76 FR 9040 - Oklahoma; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Internal Agency Docket...Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] Oklahoma; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION:...

  17. 75 FR 6404 - Oklahoma; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Internal Agency Docket...Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] Oklahoma; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION:...

  18. 76 FR 37166 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00050

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA--1989--DR), dated 06/06/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 05/22/2011 through 05/25/2011. EFFECTIVE DATES:...

  19. 76 FR 50535 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1989-DR), dated 06/21/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 05/22/2011 through 05/25/2011. Effective Date:...

  20. Geomorphic evidence for Late Cenozoic deformation, Wichita Moutains, Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Snell, Charles Burton

    1989-01-01

    of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Geology GEOMORPHIC EVIDENCE FOR LATE CENOZOIC DEFORMATION' WICHITA MOUNTAINS, OKLAHOMA A Thesis by CHARLES BURTON SNELL Approved as to style and content by Norman R. Til d (Chair of Com ttee) Christ... her C. Mathewson (Member) Kenneth L. White (Member) Jo . S ng (Head of Department) December 1989 ABSTRACT Geomorphic Evidence for Late Cenozoic Deformation, Wichita Mountains~~ Oklahoma. (December 1989) Charles B. Snell, B. S. , University...

  1. Seasonal to interannual variations of soil moisture measured in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illston, Bradley G.; Basara, Jeffrey B.; Crawford, Kenneth C.

    2004-12-01

    Agriculture is a $2 billion component of the state economy in Oklahoma. As a result, meteorological, climatological, and agricultural communities should benefit from an improved understanding of soil moisture conditions and how those conditions vary spatially and temporally. The Oklahoma Mesonet is an automated observing network that provides real-time hydrometeorological observations at 115 stations across Oklahoma. In 1996, sensors were installed at 60 Mesonet sites to provide near-real-time observations of soil moisture.This study focuses on 6 years of soil moisture data collected between 1997 and 2002 to analyse the annual cycle and temporal characteristics of soil moisture across Oklahoma. The statewide analysis of the annual cycle of soil moisture revealed four distinct soil moisture phases. In addition, the four statewide phases were also observed in each of the nine climate divisions across Oklahoma, although the temporal characteristics of each phase were unique for each division. Further analysis demonstrated that, at shallow soil depths (5 and 25 cm), the spatial variability of soil moisture across Oklahoma was most homogeneous during the winter and spring periods and most heterogeneous during the summer and autumn periods. Conversely, at greater depths (60 and 75 cm), soil moisture was most heterogeneous during the winter period and the most homogeneous during the late spring.

  2. US hydropower resource assessment for Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose, The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Oklahoma.

  3. Oklahoma Climatological Survey: Outreach and Educational Materials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Oklahoma Climatological Survey (OCS) provides outreach programs and educational materials to public safety agencies, agricultural interests, educators, and the general public. These include OK-FIRST, which provides weather data and training to public safety agencies; EarthStorm, a program for educators that integrates learning modules with real-time weather data; and Agweather, a website that provides information to help agricultural producers with weather-related decisions. The site also features a glossary of weather terminology, a set of lesson plans, and reference materials intended for use as refresher information by teachers. Other resources include information on tornado safety, case studies on the use of OCS training materials, and a set of maps and graphs with climatological data and information on severe weather phenomena.

  4. Mass casualties in the Oklahoma City bombing.

    PubMed

    Teague, David C

    2004-05-01

    The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was partially destroyed by a terrorist bomb on April 19, 1995. Injuries were sustained by 759 people, 168 of whom died. Fatalities occurred primarily among victims in the collapse zone of the federal building. Only 83 survivors required hospitalization. Twenty-two surviving victims sustained multiple fractures. Most victims arrived at local emergency departments by private vehicle within 2 hours. More severely injured survivors were transported by ambulance. The closer receiving hospitals used emergency department facilities and minor treatment areas. Few survivors were extricated from the bombing site more than 3 hours after the detonation. Mass casualty plans must provide for improved communications, diversion and retriage from facilities nearest the disaster site, and effective coordination of community and hospital resources. PMID:15187837

  5. Seismogram offers insight into Oklahoma City bombing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Fuis, Gary S.; Ryberg, Trond; Brocher, Thomas M.; Dietel, Christopher M.

    The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, generated seismic waves that were recorded on two permanent seismographs about 7 and 26 km away from the bombing. The seismogram recorded at 26 km shows two low-frequency wave trains, discrete sets of oscillatory signals, that begin about 10 s apart. Public release of this record prompted speculation that each wave train was caused by a different energy source. On May 23, 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the demolition of the bomb-ravaged Federal Building with portable seismographs (Figure 1). Two wave trains were picked up again. The recordings indicate that the wave trains during both the bombing and demolition represent seismic waves traveling at different velocities. We conclude that the two wave trains recorded during the bombing are consistent with a single impulsive energy source.

  6. Hydrogeology and water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium, Concho Reserve, Canadian County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A growing user population within the Concho Reserve in Canadian County, Oklahoma, has increased the need for drinking water. The North Canadian River alluvium is a reliable source of ground water for agriculture, industry, and cities in Canadian County and is the only ground-water source capable of meeting large demands. This study was undertaken to collect and analyze data to describe the hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium within the Concho Reserve. The alluvium forms a band about 2 miles long and 0.5 mile wide along the southern edge of the Concho Reserve. Thickness of the alluvium ranges from 19 to 75 feet thick and averages about 45 feet in the study area. Well cuttings and natural gamma-ray logs indicate the alluvium consists of interfingering lenses of clay, silt, and sand. The increase of coarse-grained sand and the decrease of clay and silt with depth suggests that the water-bearing properties of the aquifer within the study area improve with depth. A clay layer in the upper part of the aquifer may be partially responsible for surface water ponding in low areas after above normal precipitation and may delay the infiltration of potentially contaminated water from land surface. Specific conductance measurements indicate the ground-water quality improves in a northern direction towards the terrace. Water-quality properties, bacteria counts, major ion and nutrient concentrations, trace-element and radionuclide concentrations, and organic compound concentrations were measured in one ground-water sample at the southern edge of the Concho Reserve and comply with the primary drinking-water standards. Measured concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and total dissolved solids exceed the secondary maximum contaminant levels set for drinking water. The ground water is a calcium sulfate bicarbonate type and is considered very hard, with a hardness of 570 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.

  7. Assessment of groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabelo, Jorge Luiz; Wendland, Edson

    2009-11-01

    The groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil were assessed through a numeric model. The study area (6,748 km2) comprises Jacaré-Guaçú and Jacaré-Pepira River watersheds, tributaries of the Tietę River in the central region of the state. GIS based tools were used in the storage, processing and analysis of data. Main hydrologic phenomena were selected, leading to a groundwater conceptual model, taking into account the significant outcrops occurring in the study area. Six recharge zones were related to the geologic formation and structures of the semi-confined and phreatic aquifer. The model was calibrated against the baseflows and static water levels of the wells. The results emphasize the strong interaction of groundwater flows between watersheds and the groundwater inflow into the rivers. It has been concluded that lateral groundwater exchanges between basins, the deep discharges to the regional system, and well exploitation were not significant aquifer outflows when compared to the aquifer recharge. The results have shown that the inflows from the river into the aquifer are significant and have the utmost importance since the aquifer is potentially more vulnerable in these places.

  8. A GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF MANURE PRODUCTION AND ANTIBIOTIC USE IN THE OGALLALA AQUIFER REGION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past three decades, animal production in the United States has been moving towards consolidation. This study profiles the animal density, manure production, and antibiotic usage in the Ogallala Aquifer region that covers eight states in the Central United States. The amount of manure was esti...

  9. Monitoring Cave Recharge in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone for Natural and Simulated Rainfall Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Gregory; G. Veni; B. Shade; B. P. Wilcox; C. L. Munster; M. K. Owens

    2005-01-01

    Across semi-arid regions of the world, woody plant encroachment is widespread with potential implications for groundwater recharge and streamflow. In an effort to better understand the interactions between woody plants and recharge, we are monitoring drip rates in shallow caves in the Edwards Aquifer recharge zone of Central Texas. The surface is covered by a dense stand of ashe juniper

  10. The Edwards Aquifer's Water Resource Conflict: USDA Farm Program Increase Irrigation Water-Use?

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    . Broader actions such as long-term water supply enhancement/conservation programs, dry-year water use Station, Texas. Draft of paper in Water Resources Research, 35(10), 3171-3183, 1999. #12;2 The Edwards's Aquifer (EA) of South-Central Texas. USDA administers agricultural commodity, conservation, and rural

  11. Edwards Aquifer Evaluation: Kinney County, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorzad, Kaveh

    2003-10-01

    The Edwards Aquifer is one of the most studied and most prolific aquifers in the United States. The aquifer is a heavily fractured and faulted carbonate aquifer with transmissivities in excess of 100 ft2/s. The City of San Antonio relies upon the Edwards Aquifer as its sole source for water. Much work has been done on quantifying recharge to the aquifer and discharge from wells and acquiring aquifer characteristics from pumping tests, specific capacity tests, and geophysical logs. Although the aquifer has been well studied in Bexar County, much less is known about the Edwards Aquifer in Kinney County. This is partly due to the lower population within the county (approximately 3,500 people) relative to the eastern counties (Uvalde, Medina, Bexar, Comal, and Hays) and the great distance of Kinney County from high profile discharge areas such as the City of San Antonio and Comal and San Marcos Springs. Three key products resulted from this study: (1) exploratory well drilling and the largest aquifer test in the county that were conducted to evaluate the well yields within a 10,000 acre study area in which a drawdown of 2.5 ft approximately 1.2 miles away was observed while pumping at approximately 4,600 gpm; (2) a recharge estimate for the Edwards Aquifer within Kinney County of approximately 71,382 ac-ft/yr; and (3) locating the Brackettville Groundwater Divide from an evaluation of ground water flow direction and hydrograph analysis. These results help evaluate the complex hydraulics occurring within Kinney County and aid in development of ground water modeling that will be used in managing the Edwards Aquifer.

  12. POSITION AVAILABLE Post-doctoral Research Associate at the University of Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    POSITION AVAILABLE Post-doctoral Research Associate at the University of Oklahoma Overview The Advanced Radar Research Center (ARRC) at the University of Oklahoma (OU) is looking to hire a post-doctoral

  13. Weed Control Research in Guar in Texas and Oklahoma: 1961-72.

    E-print Network

    Smith, D. T.; Wiese, A. F.; Santelmann, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    ................................................. Lubbock, Texas 6 Preemergence Treatments ....................................... 6 Perking, Oklahoma ............................................. 6 Lu hhock, Texa s ................................................. 6 Bro~~mfield, Texas... ............................................. 6 xtemergencc Trert tmen t~ ..................................... 6 P. esults and Discussion ................................................. 7 Preplant Trentmentu ............................................... 7 Perkin\\, Oklahoma...

  14. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  15. 40 CFR 81.125 - Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.125 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.125 Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern...

  16. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  17. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  18. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  19. 40 CFR 81.125 - Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.125 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.125 Southwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern...

  20. 3 CFR - Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma, to Port Arthur, Texas, and Other Domestic Pipeline Infrastructure Projects Presidential...March 22, 2012 Expediting Review of Pipeline Projects From Cushing, Oklahoma,...

  1. An evaluation of aquifer intercommunication between the unconfined and Rattlesnake Ridge aquifers on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.J.

    1987-10-01

    During 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study of a portion of the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer (confined aquifer) that lies beneath the B Pond - Gable Mountain Pond area of the Hanford Site. The purpose was to determine the extent of intercommunication between the unconfined aquifer and the uppermost regionally extensive confined aquifer, referred to as the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer. Hydraulic head data and chemical data were collected from the ground water in the study area during December 1986. The hydraulic head data were used to determine the effects caused by water discharged to the ground from B Pond on both the water table of the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the confined aquifer. The chemical data were collected to determine the extent of chemical constituents migrating from the unconfined aquifer to the confined aquifer. Analysis of chemical constituents in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer demonstrated that communication between the unconfined and confined aquifers had occurred. However, the levels of contaminants found in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer during this study were below the DOE Derived Concentration Guides.

  2. On the solute transport in an aquifer-aquitard system 

    E-print Network

    Bian, Aiguo

    2009-05-15

    categories of methods address the diffusive flux between the aquifer and aquitard: the old method treats the diffusive flux as a volumetric source in the governing equation of the solute transport in the aquifer; the new method treats the aquifer...

  3. 40 CFR 147.3008 - Criteria for aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Criteria for aquifer exemptions. 147.3008 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE... § 147.3008 Criteria for aquifer exemptions. The aquifer exemption criterion in §...

  4. 40 CFR 147.3008 - Criteria for aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Criteria for aquifer exemptions. 147.3008 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE... § 147.3008 Criteria for aquifer exemptions. The aquifer exemption criterion in §...

  5. 40 CFR 147.3008 - Criteria for aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Criteria for aquifer exemptions. 147.3008 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE... § 147.3008 Criteria for aquifer exemptions. The aquifer exemption criterion in §...

  6. 40 CFR 147.3008 - Criteria for aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Criteria for aquifer exemptions. 147.3008 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE... § 147.3008 Criteria for aquifer exemptions. The aquifer exemption criterion in §...

  7. 40 CFR 147.3008 - Criteria for aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Criteria for aquifer exemptions. 147.3008 ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE... § 147.3008 Criteria for aquifer exemptions. The aquifer exemption criterion in §...

  8. 40 CFR 147.302 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Colorado § 147.302 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This...

  9. 40 CFR 147.302 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Colorado § 147.302 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This...

  10. 40 CFR 147.302 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Colorado § 147.302 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This...

  11. 40 CFR 147.302 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Colorado § 147.302 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This...

  12. 40 CFR 147.302 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Colorado § 147.302 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This...

  13. Early Results from the Soil Moisture Active Passive-Marena Oklahoma In Situ Sensor Testbed (SMAP-MOISST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, M. H.; Ochsner, T.; McKee, L.; Dong, G.; Basara, J.; Palecki, M. A.; Evett, S. R.; Hatch, C. E.; Kochendorfer, J.; Small, E. E.; Selker, J. S.; Steele-Dunne, S.; Van De Giesen, N.; Zreda, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the calibration and validation program for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission, an ambitious intercomparison study was initiated to determine how soil moisture sensors vary with respect to measuring a long term in situ time series. The Marena Oklahoma In Situ Sensor Testbed (MOISST) was installed in May of 2010, with other instrumentation added more recently. There are more than 200 sensors installed over an approximately 64 hectare pasture in Central Oklahoma. There are 4 main stations with multiple sensors installed in a profile. Sensors located at the site include a COSMOS system, GPS reflectometers, and a passive DTS system. Additional sensor systems are also installed which represent the Oklahoma Mesonet and the NOAA Climate Reference Network stations. This diverse set of sensors will provide guidance on the aggregation of soil moisture networks worldwide into a single soil moisture data record. In support of the time series, regular sampling of gravimetric soil moisture and vegetation water content were conducted to determine an absolute ground truth. A full year of data is available for study which has yielded several conclusions regarding how different sensors perform in space and time. Early conclusions will be presented, including accuracy, calibration, reliability, and scalability.

  14. The Leedey, Oklahoma, Chondrite: Fall, petrology, chemistry and an unusual Fe,Ni-FeS inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Ehlmann, A. J.; Moore, C. B.

    1997-01-01

    The Leedey, Oklahoma meteorite shower fell on Nov. 25, 1943, following a fireball which was visible across much of southwestern Oklahoma and north-central Texas. The shower produced 24 stones with a total mass of ~51.5 kg. The stones formed a strewnfield ~18 km in length in the same direction as the observed path of the meteor (N50 W). Leedey is classified as an L6(S3) ordinary chondrite. We report bulk major element chemical analyses from four separate laboratories. Leedey contains an unusual 6 by 8 mm composite Fe,Ni-FeS grain, which is composed of a 3 mm kamacite grain adjacent to a 5 mm troilite grain. A 50-100 micron rim of high-Ni (45-55 wt.%) taenite (tetrataenite) occurs at the boundary between kamacite and troilite. A single, zoned pyrophanite grain is observed at the boundary between the inclusion troilite and host silicates. An origin as a foreign particle incorporated after metamorphism or during impact melting appears unlikely. This particle likely formed by a complex set of processes, including melting in the nebula, parent body metamorphism and reheating by later shock, mirroring the history of the host chondrite.

  15. Microhabitat use, home range, and movements of the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedle, J.D.; Shipman, P.A.; Fox, S.F.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the ecology of the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, particularly dentography and behavior. To learn more about the species in Oklahoma, we conducted a telemetry project on 2 small streams at Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge, an 8,417.5-ha refuge located in east-central Oklahoma. Between June 1999 and August 2000, we fitted 19 M. temminckii with ultrasonic telemetry tags and studied turtle movements and microhahitat use. Turtles were checked 2 to 3 times weekly in summer and sporadically in winter. Several microhabitat variables were measured at each turtle location and a random location to help quantify microhabitat use vs. availability. We recorded 147 turtle locations. Turtles were always associated with submerged cover with a high percentage of overhead canopy cover. Turtles used deeper depths in late summer (but not deeper depths than random locations) and deeper depths in mid-winter (and deeper depths than random locations) than in early summer. They used shallower depths than random locations in early summer. This seasonal shift in depth use might be thermoregulatory, although evidence for this is indirect. The mean linear home range for all turtles was 777.8 m. Females had larger home ranges than males, and juveniles had larger home ranges than adults, although the latter was not statistically significant. Macrochelys temminckii used submerged structures as a core site, and stayed at each core site for an average of 12.3 d.

  16. A geographic analysis of the status of mountain lions in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, J.R.; Shaw, J.H.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Shaw, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic distribution of sightings and sign of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Oklahoma was investigated. Mail survey questionnaires were sent to natural resource professionals throughout Oklahoma to gather temporal and spatial information on sightings of mountain lions from 1985 to 1995. We used a geographic information system (GIS) to compare locations of sightings and sign in the state with ecoregions, deer harvest, human population densities, locations of licensed owners and breeders of mountain lions, and generalized topography. Sightings and sign of mountain lions occurred significantly more often in the Central Rolling Red Plains than elsewhere in the state. Sightings of mountain lions increased with total deer harvest statewide (R2=0.828, P<0.001). Numbers of sightings of mountain lions were correlated negatively with density of the human population (R2=0.885, P=0.017). Surveys are a valuable method to assess the status of rare wildlife species when other methods are not available and when those receiving the survey are qualified.

  17. The North West Oklahoma In-Service Cooperative: A Model for Rural Cooperative Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwink, Timothy A.; Hensley, Stephen R.

    The North West Oklahoma In-Service Cooperative (NWOIC), established in 1980, encourages, promotes, and channels faculty development and needs in the rural northwestern quadrant of Oklahoma. Its objectives are: (1) to aid northwestern Oklahoma school districts in the structure and administration of local faculty development plans; (2) to develop…

  18. Oklahoma Library Technology Network (OLTN) Electronic Resources for Elementary Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Carol, Comp.

    This document describes Oklahoma Library Technology Network electronic resources for elementary age children. The first section provides a history of Oklahoma statewide shared databases. Oklahoma statewide information database contacts are listed in the second section. The third section presents information on InfoTrac Kid's Edition Online…

  19. Balloon-borne electric field and microphysics measurements in the 29-30 May 2012 supercell storm in Oklahoma during DC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waugh, S.; Ziegler, C.; MacGorman, D. R.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; DiGangi, E.

    2013-12-01

    During May-June 2012, the National Severe Storms Laboratory in-storm ballooning team flew balloon-borne instruments into thunderstorms in Oklahoma and Texas during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) field campaign. The balloon-borne instruments consisted of a standard Vaisala RS92-SGP radiosonde to measure location and standard thermodynamic variables, an electric field meter (EFM) to measure the vector electric field, and a particle imager to measure the particle size distribution. The purpose of the particle imager was to provide verification data for model microphysics and for hydrometeor classification schemes of polarimetric radars, as well as to provide data needed to improve understanding of storm electrification processes. Additional measurements made in the Oklahoma-Texas venue of DC3 included mobile environmental soundings, mobile mesonets, three mobile radars, and the Oklahoma and West Texas Lightning Mapping Arrays. On 29-30 May 2012, several supercell storms occurred in central Oklahoma and produced extraordinary lightning flash rates. One of these storms was sampled by DC3 aircraft and by the ground-based systems described above. In particular, a balloon carried an EFM and a particle imager up to approximately 375 mb before being struck by lightning. This paper presents the particle size distributions for various types of particles relative to the lightning, electric field, and kinematic structure of the 29 May storm on which DC3 focused.

  20. Aquifer transmissivity and basement structure determination using resistivity sounding at Jos Plateau State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akaolisa, Casmir

    2006-03-01

    A geoelectric investigation involving twenty-six vertical electrical soundings was carried out at Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. The survey was aimed at determining the structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as computing the transmissivity for the aquifer in the area. The basement geometrymapproduced from the results of the survey indicates that the bedrock is undulating lying at depths between 30 m to 6.5 m. There is evidence of faulting and fracturing within the area. Computation of aquifer transmissivity values based on the results obtained made it possible to demarcate regions with good ground water potential in the area. PMID:16570227

  1. The Nubian Aquifer in Southwest Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. A.; Werwer, A.; El-Baz, F.; El-Shazly, M.; Fritch, T.; Kusky, T.

    2007-02-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, and topographic and groundwater data are used to understand heterogeneities of the Nubian Aquifer between 20 24.5°N and 25 32°E in southwest Egypt. New fluvial and structural interpretations emphasize that the desert landscape was produced by fluvial action, including newly mapped alluvial fans. In central locations, braided channels are spatially aligned with a NE structural trend, suggesting preferential water flow paths that are consistent with the local direction of groundwater flow. The alluvial fans and structurally enclosed channels coincide with gentle slopes and optimal recharge conditions (1 5%) derived from the new Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) slope map, indicating that these areas have high groundwater potential. The SAR interpretations are correlated with anomalies observed in groundwater data from 383 wells. Results suggest a relationship between the spatial organization of fluvial and structural features and the occurrence of low-salinity groundwater. Low-salinity water exists adjacent to the alluvial fans and in SW reaches of the structurally enclosed channels. Wells in the vicinity of structures contain low-salinity water, emphasizing that knowledge of structural features is essential to understand groundwater flow paths. The new approach is cost effective and noninvasive and can be applied throughout the eastern Sahara to assist in resource management decisions and support the much needed agricultural expansion.

  2. Fertilizers mobilization in alluvial aquifer: laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrocicco, M.; Colombani, N.; Palpacelli, S.

    2009-02-01

    In alluvial plains, intensive farming with conspicuous use of agrochemicals, can cause land pollution and groundwater contamination. In central Po River plain, paleo-channels are important links between arable lands and the underlaying aquifer, since the latter is often confined by clay sediments that act as a barrier against contaminants migration. Therefore, paleo-channels are recharge zones of particular interest that have to be protected from pollution as they are commonly used for water supply. This paper focuses on fertilizer mobilization next to a sand pit excavated in a paleo-channel near Ferrara (Italy). The problem is approached via batch test leaking and columns elution of alluvial sediments. Results from batch experiments showed fast increase in all major cations and anions, suggesting equilibrium control of dissolution reactions, limited availability of solid phases and geochemical homogeneity of samples. In column experiments, early elution and tailing of all ions breakthrough was recorded due to preferential flow paths. For sediments investigated in this study, dispersion, dilution and chemical reactions can reduce fertilizers at concentration below drinking standards in a reasonable time frame, provided fertilizer loading is halted or, at least, reduced. Thus, the definition of a corridor along paleo-channels is recommended to preserve groundwater quality.

  3. Radium geochemistry of ground waters in Paleozoic carbonate aquifers, midcontinent, USA † † This manuscript has been created by the University of Chicago as Operator of Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. W-31-109ENG38 with the U.S. Department of Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Sturchio; J. L. Banner; C. M. Binz; L. B. Heraty; M. Musgrove

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the processes controlling the distribution and behavior of the longer-lived Ra isotopes in continuous Paleozoic carbonate aquifers of parts of Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma. Activities of (228Ra) and (226Ra) were analyzed in fresh and saline ground waters, brines, and rocks. The fluids have a wide salinity range (200–250,000 mg l?1 total dissolved solids).

  4. Spatial and temporal changes in microbial community structure associated with recharge-influenced chemical gradients in a contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Fogarty, L.R.; West, T.G.; Alm, E.W.; McGuire, J.T.; Long, D.T.; Hyndman, D.W.; Forney, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a contaminated water-table aquifer, we related microbial community structure on aquifer sediments to gradients in 24 geochemical and contaminant variables at five depths, under three recharge conditions. Community amplified ribsosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using universal 16S rDNA primers and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using bacterial 16S rDNA primers indicated: (i) communities in the anoxic, contaminated central zone were similar regardless of recharge; (ii) after recharge, communities at greatest depth were similar to those in uncontaminated zones; and (iii) after extended lack of recharge, communities at upper and lower aquifer margins differed from communities at the same depths on other dates. General aquifer geochemistry was as important as contaminant or terminal electron accepting process (TEAP) chemistry in discriminant analysis of community groups. The Shannon index of diversity (H) and the evenness index (E), based on DGGE operational taxonomic units (OTUs), were statistically different across community groups and aquifer depths. Archaea or sulphate-reducing bacteria 16S rRNA abundance was not clearly correlated with TEAP chemistry indicative of methanogenesis or sulphate reduction. Eukarya rRNA abundance varied by depth and date from 0 to 13% of the microbial community. This contaminated aquifer is a dynamic ecosystem, with complex interactions between physical, chemical and biotic components, which should be considered in the interpretation of aquifer geochemistry and in the development of conceptual or predictive models for natural attenuation or remediation.

  5. OXIDATION-REDUCTION CAPACITIES OF AQUIFER SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of the oxidation (i.e., of aqueous CR2+) and reduction (i.e., of aqueous CR2O72 and H2O2) capacities of aquifer solids and groundwater have been made on samples from a sand-and-gravel aquifer. he groundwater contributed less than 1% of the system oxidation or reducti...

  6. Overview of the Ogallala Aquifer Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation increased markedly on the Southern High Plains during the second half of the 20th century, drawing water primarily from the Ogallala Aquifer. During this time, irrigation sustained regional farm incomes and rural economies. Withdrawals from the aquifer, however, have exceeded recharge, re...

  7. Evaluation of health risks for contaminated aquifers.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Jacobs, T L; Medina, M A

    1997-01-01

    This review focuses on progress in the development of transport models for heterogeneous contaminated aquifers, the use of predicted contaminant concentrations in groundwater for risk assessment for heterogeneous human populations, and the evaluation of aquifer remediation technologies. Major limitations and areas for continuing research for all methods presented in this review are identified. Images Figure 2. PMID:9114282

  8. The Sparta Aquifer: A Sustainable Water Resource?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction The Sparta aquifer is an aquifer of regional importance within the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. It consists of varying amounts of unconsolidated sand, inter-stratified with silt and clay lenses within the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group. It extends from south Texas, north into Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee, and eastward into Mississippi and Alabama (fig. 1). On both the west and east sides of the Mississippi embayment, the Sparta aquifer is exposed at the surface (outcrops) and is locally unconfined; it becomes confined as it dips toward the axis of the embayment, (generally corresponding with the Mississippi River) and southward toward the Gulf of Mexico where it is deeply buried in the subsurface (Hosman, 1968). Generalized ground-water flow in the Sparta aquifer is from the outcrop areas to the axis (center) of the embayment (fig. 2). In Arkansas, the Sparta aquifer outcrops parallel to the Fall Line at the western extreme of the Mississippi embayment (the Fall Line is a line dividing the mountainous highlands of Arkansas from the lowland area); and the formation dips from its outcrop area to the southeast. The Sparta aquifer supplies water for municipalities, industries such as paper production, and to a lesser degree, irrigation of agricultural crops (fig. 3). This report highlights hydrologic conditions of the aquifer in Arkansas County as an example of how water use is affecting water levels.

  9. ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF COASTAL AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of ground-water flow in coastal aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a ground-water model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM...

  10. Effective Modeling of Coastal Aquifer Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Maimone; R. Fitzgerald

    Coastal aquifers are susceptible to a variety of salt water intrusion forms, including lateral intrusion, upconing, and downward infiltration of brackish water. Recent advances in the development of practical integrated groundwater models make it possible to simulate these forms of salt water intrusion in support of coastal water supply planning and coastal aquifer management programs. Three dimensional groundwater flow models,

  11. Karst aquifer evolution in fractured rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Kaufmann; Jean Braun

    1999-01-01

    We study the large-scale evolution and flow in a fractured karst aquifer by means of a newly developed numerical method. A karst aquifer is discretized into a set of irregularly spaced nodal points, which are connected to their set of natural neighbors to simulate a network of interconnected conduits in two dimensions. The conduits are allowed to enlarge by solutional

  12. VULNERABILITY OF KARST AQUIFERS TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water flow in karst aquifers is very different from flow in granular or fractured aquifers. arst ground water flow is often turbulent within discrete conduits that are convergent in the upper reaches and divergent in the lower, simulating discharge to one or more springs. ...

  13. Karst aquifer evolution in fractured, porous rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Kaufmann; Jean Braun

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of flow in a fractured, porous karst aquifer is studied by means of the finite element method on a two-dimensional mesh of irregularly spaced nodal points. Flow within the karst aquifer is driven by surface recharge from the entire region, simulating a precipitation pattern, and is directed toward an entrenched river as a base level. During the early

  14. Economic Valuation of Aquifer Storage Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Reichard; R. S. Raucher; T. Nishikawa

    2004-01-01

    There are economic benefits and costs associated with using aquifers as storage reservoirs for water-supply systems. Direct benefits include utilization of the conveyance and treatment capabilities of groundwater systems, reduction of pumping lifts, and control of subsidence and seawater intrusion. Indirect benefits include the buffer and existence values of storing water within aquifers. These benefits may include the avoided costs

  15. A proposed streamflow data program for Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohn, J.D.; Hoffman, G.L.

    1970-01-01

    An evaluation of the streamflow data available in Oklahoma has been made to provide guidelines for planning future data-collection programs. The basic steps in the evaluation procedure were (1) definition of the long-terms goals of the streamflow-data program in quantitative form, (2) examination and analysis of streamflow data to determine which goals have been met, and (3) consideration of alternate programs and techniques to meet the remaining goals. The study defines the individual relation between certain statistical streamflow characteristics and selected basin parameters. This relation is a multiple regression equation that could be used on a statewide basis to compute a selected natural-flow characteristic at any site on a stream. The study shows that several streamflow characteristics can be estimated within an accuracy equivalent to 10 years of record by use of a regression related to at least three climatic or basin parameters for any basin of 50 square miles or more. The study indicates that significant changes in the scope and character of the data-collection program would enhance the possibility of attaining the remaining goals. A streamflow-data program based on the guidelines developed in this study is proposed for the future.

  16. Geohydrologic characterization for aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.H.; Raymond, J.R.

    1992-08-01

    Successful operation of an aquifer thermal energy storage system depends on three elements: (1) the presence of a suitable aquifer for ground-water supply and energy storage; (2) the availability of a source of free or low-cost thermal energy, such as industrial waste heat or environmental chill; and (3) a temporal mismatch between thermal energy availability and thermal energy use. Using conventional hydrogeologic methods for aquifer characterization, the presence of a suitable aquifer is the most difficult of these three elements to assess quantitatively. By combining conventional methods with drift-and-pumpback and point-dilution single-well tracer tests, however, the rate of ground-water flow, the effective porosity, and the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer can be estimated quickly and economically.

  17. Sustainable-yield estimation for the Sparta Aquifer in Union County, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, Phillip D.

    2000-01-01

    Options for utilizing alternative sources of water to alleviate overdraft from the Sparta aquifer and ensure that the aquifer can continue to provide abundant water of excellent quality for the future are being evaluated by water managers in Union County. Sustainable yield is a critical element in identifying and designing viable water supply alternatives. With sustainable yield defined and a knowledge of total water demand in an area, any unmet demand can be calculated. The ground-water flow model of the Sparta aquifer was used to estimate sustainable yield using an iterative approach. The Sparta aquifer is a confined aquifer of regional importance that comprises a sequence of unconsolidated sand units that are contained within the Sparta Sand. Currently, the rate of withdrawal in some areas greatly exceeds the rate of recharge to the aquifer and considerable water-level declines have occurred. Ground-water flow model results indicate that the aquifer cannot continue to meet growing water-use demands indefinitely and that water levels will drop below the top of the primary producing sand unit in Union County (locally termed the El Dorado sand) by 2008 if current water-use trends continue. Declines of that magnitude will initiate dewatering of the El Dorado sand. The sustainable yield of the aquifer was calculated by targeting a specified minimum acceptable water level within Union County and varying Union County pumpage within the model to achieve the target water level. Selection of the minimum target water level for sustainable-yield estimation was an important criterion for the modeling effort. In keeping with the State Critical Ground-Water Area designation criteria and the desire of water managers in Union County to improve aquifer conditions and bring the area out of the Critical Ground-Water Area designation, the approximate altitude of the top of the Sparta Sand in central Union County was used as the minimum water level target for estimation of sustainable yield in the county. A specific category of sustainable yield? stabilization yield, reflecting the amount of water that the aquifer can provide while maintaining current water levels? also was determined and provides information for short-term management. The top of the primary producing sand unit (the El Dorado sand) was used as the minimum water-level target for estimating stabilization yield in the county because current minimum water levels in central Union County are near the top of the El Dorado sand. Model results show that withdrawals from the Sparta aquifer in Union County must be reduced to 28 percent of 1997 values to achieve sustainable yield and maintain water levels at the top of the Sparta Sand if future pumpage outside of Union County is assumed to increase at the rate observed from 1985-1997. Results of the simulation define a very large current unmet demand and represent a substantial reduction in the county?s current dependence upon the aquifer. If future pumpage outside of Union County is assumed to increase at double the rate observed from 1985-1997, withdrawals from the Sparta aquifer in Union County must be reduced to 25 percent of 1997 values to achieve sustainable yield. Withdrawals from the Sparta aquifer in Union County must be reduced to about 88 to 91 percent (depending on pumpage growth outside of the county) of 1997 values to stabilize water levels at the top of the El Dorado sand. This result shows that 1997 rate of withdrawal in the county is considerably greater than the rate needed to halt the rapid decline in water levels.

  18. Potentiometric surface of the upper Floridan aquifer in Florida and in parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama, May 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Peter W.; Barr, G. Lynn; Clarke, John S.; Johnston, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    A map, constructed as a part of the Floridan Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA), shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for May 1985. It is based on measurements of water level or artesian pressure made in about 2 ,500 wells during the period May 13 to 24, 1985. Only measurements from tightly cased wells open exclusively to the Upper Floridan aquifer were used to make the map. These included 1,425 wells in Florida, 924 in Georgia, 133 in South Carolina, and 21 in Alabama. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer changed little between 1980 and 1985. Significant water level declines were observed only in southwest Georgia and west-central Florida. Low rainfall during early 1985 and associated pumping for irrigation caused the declines in both areas. (Lantz-PTT)

  19. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains aquifer system of Kansas, pre-1950

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stullken, Lloyd E.; Pabst, Marilyn E.

    1985-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends from South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part. The aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps at a scale of 1:500,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas prior to 1950. The water-table maps depict the water-level surface that was present prior to major development of the High Plains aquifer. Ground water moves from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part at an average slope of 10 feet per mile. The upgradient flexure of water-table contours along some of the valleys indicates that ground water is discharged to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  20. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1982-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part. This aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps published at a scale of 1:500,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas during 1965. Groundwater moved from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part at a average rate of 10 ft/mi. The upgradient flexure of water table contours along some of the valleys indicates that groundwater was discharged to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  1. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1985-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends from South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part of the State. This aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps published at a scale of 1:500 ,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas during 1980. Ground water moves from higher altitudes in the western part of the high Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part at an average rate of 10 feet per mile. The up-gradient flexure of water-table contours along some of the valleys indicates that ground water discharges to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  2. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1985-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends from South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part. This aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps published at a scale of 1:500,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas during 1970. Ground water moved from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part under an average gradient of 10 feet per mile. The upgradient flexure of water-table contours along some of the valleys indicates that ground water was discharged to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  3. Hydrogeologic framework and salinity distribution of the Floridan aquifer system of Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about water-level decline and seawater intrusion in the surficial Biscayne aquifer, currently the principal source of water supply to Broward County, prompted a study to refine the hydrogeologic framework of the underlying Floridan aquifer system to evaluate its potential as an alternative source of supply. This report presents cross sections that illustrate the stratigraphy and hydrogeology in eastern Broward County; maps of the upper surfaces and thicknesses of several geologic formations or units within the Floridan aquifer system; and maps of two of the potentially productive water-bearing zones within the system, the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Avon Park permeable zone. An analysis of data on rock depositional textures, associated pore networks, and flow zones in the Floridan aquifer system shows that groundwater moves through the system in two ways. These data support a conceptual, dual-porosity model of the system wherein groundwater moves either as concentrated flow in discrete, thin bedding-plane vugs or zones of vuggy megaporosity, or as diffuse flow through rocks with primarily interparticle and moldic-particle porosity. Because considerable exchange of groundwater may occur between the zones of vuggy and matrix-dominated porosity, understanding the distribution of that porosity and flow zone types is important to evaluating the suitability of the several units within the Floridan aquifer system for managing the water through practices such as aquifer storage and recovery (ASR). The salinity of the water in the Floridan aquifer system is highest in the central part of the study area, and lower toward the north and south. Although salinity generally increases with depth, in the western part of the study area a zone of relatively high saline water is perched above water of lower salinity in the underlying Avon Park permeable zone. Overall, the areas of highest salinity in the aquifer system coincide with those with the lowest estimated transmissivity, so that the occurrence of perched saline water in the system may be the consequence of incompletely flushed connate water or intruded seawater. A seismic reflection profile along the Hillsboro Canal, at the northern edge of the study area, shows seven seismic-sag structures that are interpreted as downward deformation of overlying strata into collapsed deep cave systems. These structures may compromise the integrity of the confinement created by the underlying strata by allowing upconing of saline water from depth, which has implications for successful application of ASR and use of the Floridan aquifer system as an alternative water supply.

  4. Availability and quality of water from the Dakota aquifer, northwest Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Dakota aquifer in northwest Iowa consists of sandstones in the Dakota Formation. It underlies most of the study area and is the most extensive source of ground water in the area. Individual sandstone beds are from less than 10 to more than 150 feet thick. The cumulative thickness of sandstone is more than 200 feet throughout much of the area. The aquifer is confined by overlying Cretaceous limestone and shale, Quaternary glacial deposits and loess. The underlying confining material is shale of the Dakota Formation, undifferentiated Paleozoic age rocks, or Precambrian crystalline rock. Water flows through the aquifer from the north-central part of the study area to the east, south and southwest. Recharge is dominantly by infiltration from the land surface through the confining materials. Discharge is to underlying Paleozoic aquifers and to the alluvium and glacial outwash deposits along the Missouri and Big Sioux Rivers in the southwest part of the area. Flow components toward bedrock valleys may reflect discharge to Quaternary sand and gravel deposits in these valleys. Pumping tests conducted in the study area indicate a narrow range of hydraulic conductivities of the Dakota aquifer, from 37 to 50 feet per day. Consequently, an average hydraulic conductivity of 40 feet per day was used to estimate the potential yield to wells completed in the aquifer. Yields of more than 250 gallons per minute can be expected throughout much of the study area and more than 1,000 gallons per minute could be produced in some areas. The quality of water from the Dakota is a calcium, magnesium, sulfate type. It is generally suitable for irrigation purposes, based on comparisons of sodium adsorption ratios and electrical conductivities. In some areas the aquifer has water with high salinity hazard that may restrict its use to irrigation of only well-drained types of soil. The concentration of radium-226 and other radionuclides exceeds recommended limits at several sites. The quality of water pumped from the aquifer may be altered by induced leakage from the underlying aquifers in Paleozoic age rocks if withdrawals reverse the pattern of natural flow from the Dakota into the Paleozoic aquifers. Evidence for such a reversal exists in the area around the city of LeMars.

  5. Alternative Export - Wheat Distribution Systems for the Texas - Oklahoma Panhandle.

    E-print Network

    Fuller, Stephen W.; Shanmugham C.V.

    1980-01-01

    in the would annually generate marketing-systemsavings Texas-Oklahoma Panhandle and Texas Gulf ports. of $2.49 million or 12.2 cents per bushel. The 50-, 80- Costs of the current system are estimated and then car system was the second-most efficient system... the development of several system components. Conse- - Unit bai&rarraportation economicdgrain hansporta- quent'r , this would be the most difficult alternative tionlgnin exports. to imp ement. 2 Alternative Export-Wheat Distribution Systems for the Texas-Oklahoma...

  6. Dryland pasture and crop conditions as seen by HCMM. [Washita Watershed, Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlan, J. C. (principal investigator); Rosenthal, W. D.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques developed from aircraft flights over the Washita watershed in central Oklahoma were applied to HCMM data analysis. Results show that (1) canopy temperatures were accurately measured remotely; (2) pasture surface temperature differences detected relative soil moisture differences; (3) pasture surface temperature differences were related to stress in nearby wheat fields; and (4) no relationship was developed between final yield differences, thermal infrared data, and soil moisture stress at critical growth stages due to a lack of satellite thermal data at critical growth stages. The HCMM thermal data proved to be quite adequate in detecting relative moisture differences; however, with a 16 day day/night overpass frequency, more frequent overpasses are required to analyze more cases within a 7 day period after the storm. Better normalization techniques are also required.

  7. Use of electric logs to estimate water quality of pre-tertiary aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindner-Lunsford, J. B.; Bruce, Breton W.

    1995-01-01

    Electric logs provide a means of estimating ground-water quality in areas where water analyses are not available. Most of the methods for interpreting these logs have been developed for the petroleum industry and are most reliable in saline aquifers (concentration of dissolved solids as sodium chloride greater than about 500,000 mg/l). The resistivity-porosity and spontaneous-potential methods were evaluated to determine if they could be applied to identify zones of fresh water (concentration of dissolved solids as sodium chloride less than 1,000 mg/l) in three potential aquifers in central Wyoming. The potential aquifers have different lithologies - sandstone, clayey sandstone, and carbonate. The two methods generally were reliable predictors of water quality in the sandstone and carbonate potential aquifers. In the clayey sandstone potential aquifer, predictions of the dissolved-solids concentration using the two methods differed by more than an order of magnitude in several cases. When the resistivity values are corrected for the presence of clay and shale as identified on a natural gamma log, the agreement between the results of the two methods improved by an average of 58 percent.

  8. The Edwards Aquifer Water Resource Conflict: USDA Farm Program resource-use incentives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, Glenn D.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1999-10-01

    This paper summarizes economic and hydrological analyses of the impacts of the 1990 and 1996 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) farm programs on irrigation water withdrawals from the Edwards Aquifer in south central Texas and on aquifer-dependent spring flows that support threatened and endangered species. Economic modeling, a regional producer behavioral survey, as well as institutional and farm characteristic analyses are used to examine likely irrigation water-use impacts. Hydrologie modeling is used to examine spring flow effects. Study results show that 1990 USDA commodity programs caused producers to require less irrigation water, in turn increasing rather than decreasing aquifer spring flows. Market economic factors are the dominant criteria influencing producer irrigation decisions. Farm-tenure arrangements and aquifer management responsibilities of the Edwards Aquifer Authority indicate that the 1996 Farm Act's PFC payment program will not cause an increase in irrigation withdrawals. Broader actions such as long-term water supply enhancement/conservation programs, dry-year water-use reduction incentives and water markets all provide tools for Edwards water-use conflict resolution. USDA farm programs do not apparently play a material part in the total debate.

  9. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-08-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant oil, but contrary to early reports, the area does not contain the huge volumes of heavy oil that, along with the development of steam and in situ combustion as oil production technologies, sparked the area`s oil boom of the 1960s. Recovery of this heavy oil has proven economically unfeasible for most operators due to the geology of the formations rather than the technology applied to recover the oil. The geology of the southern Midcontinent, as well as results of field projects using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) methods to produce the heavy oil, was examined based on analysis of data from secondary sources. Analysis of the performance of these projects showed that the technology recovered additional heavy oil above what was produced from primary production from the consolidated, compartmentalized, fluvial dominated deltaic sandstone formations in the Cherokee and Forest City basins. The only projects producing significant economic and environmentally acceptable heavy oil in the Midcontinent are in higher permeability, unconsolidated or friable, thick sands such as those found in south-central Oklahoma. There are domestic heavy oil reservoirs in other sedimentary basins that are in younger formations, are less consolidated, have higher permeability and can be economically produced with current TEOR technology. Heavy oil production from the carbonates of central and wester Kansas has not been adequately tested, but oil production is anticipated to remain low. Significant expansion of Midcontinent heavy oil production is not anticipated because the economics of oil production and processing are not favorable.

  10. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal responsibility. The most frequently identified curriculum need across all aviation disciplines was that of communication skills.

  11. Oklahoma blast forces unsettling design questions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The bomb that brought down a government building in Oklahoma City killed hundreds of people after it was detonated near the building`s key supports. The blast has reopened a long-simmering debate on safety by design. Structurally, it`s not practical to designing bomb-proof buildings. But it is possible to engineer a structure to deform rather than go through immediate progressive collapse. Delaying collapse gives occupants extra time to evacuate. And that could mean the difference between life and death. The construction material of choice really {open_quotes}depends on the height of the building and the lateral load resisting system,{close_quotes} says Charles H. Thornton of Thornton-Tomasetti/Engineers, New York City. But whether in steel or reinforced concrete, moment-resisting frames, which are inherently redundant, give horizontal components the ability to take reversals of stress common in explosions, he says. Simple frames do not. {open_quotes}They go down like a house of cards,{close_quotes} says Thornton. In reinforced concrete moment frames, beam reinforcing steel is continuous. In simple reinforced concrete frames, beam rebar only penetrates the column for a determined number of inches based on the length of the span. And it is absent from the mid-span of the beam. In a blast from below, the beam, its top usually in compression and bottom in tension, deflects up, throwing the beam top into tension. With no rebar, it loses structural integrity, and falls apart. With rebar, it has a chance of surviving. If a building is not designed for blasts, a steel frame might be better under a reasonably small bomb because steel has equal capacity in tension and compression, and concrete has capacity only in compression, says Thornton.

  12. Oklahoma Library Technology Network Plan for Information Sharing and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Libraries, Oklahoma City.

    This plan sets forth approaches for state-level assistance for Oklahoma libraries to exchange information and to share or acquire machine-readable information from public and private sources through telecommunications, as well as for access to these libraries for existing and future state informational databases. Objectives and requirements are…

  13. Fungicides for organic cantaloupe production in Oklahoma: An initial assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides that are potentially useful in organic production were evaluated for foliar disease control in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulates ’Israeli’) during 2009 at Lane, Oklahoma. Milstop (85% potassium bicarbonate), Neem oil, Bonide liquid copper (10% copper octanoate), Serenade (QST ...

  14. Program Assessment: University Without Walls, "Flaming Rainbow," Tahlequah, Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitka, Gene

    An educational program assessment of the University Without Walls (UWW), located in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, and known as "Flaming Rainbow," was presented in this document. The evaluation was conducted during March 27-30, 1973. The 6 American Indian participants, who are financially supported by the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) Higher Education…

  15. Investigaciones en la producción orgánica de vegetales en Oklahoma, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nationally recognized standards for certified organic farming were established in 2002 in the United States. This action stimulated increased scientific research on production methods that can be used in certified organic growing. In 2003, a multi-disciplinary scientific team in Oklahoma that cons...

  16. Evaluation of Reflex (fomesafen) herbicide for watermelon in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective preemergence herbicides are needed for weed control in watermelon grown from transplants. Reflex (fomesafen) was found to be effective and to exhibit crop safety in southeast USA. Trials were conducted during 2011 and 2012 in southeast Oklahoma to determine if this product would be useful...

  17. Twenty-Seventh Annual Report of Indian Education in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Overton

    The Oklahoma Indian education program is financed and operated under a contract between the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior, and the State Department of Education. Supervision of the program is the responsibility of the State Department of Education as authorized by the Johnson O'Malley (JOM) Act of 1936. To qualify for JOM…

  18. Hydrogen manufacture by Lurgi gasification of Oklahoma coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of using the Lurgi gasification process to produce hydrogen from Oklahoma coal are listed. Special attention was given to the production of heat for the process; heat is generated by burning part of pretreated coal in the steam generator. Overall performance of the Lurgi process is summarized in tabular form.

  19. Research Training at the University of Oklahoma: An Opinion Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotsky, Ivan

    The extent to which research training is needed by Master of Public Administration (MPA) graduates at the University of Oklahoma, Advanced Programs, was investigated through the administration of a questionnaire to 38 August 1977 MPA degree recipients. The questionnaire contained 13 questions concerning where the student took most of his courses;…

  20. Emergency Department Impact of the Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E Hogan; Joseph F Waeckerle; Daniel J Dire; Scott R Lillibridge

    1999-01-01

    Study objective: To collect descriptive epidemiologic injury data on patients who suffered acute injuries after the April 19, 1995, Oklahoma City bombing and to describe the effect on metropolitan emergency departments. Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of victims seen for injury or illness related to the bombing at 1 of the 13 study hospitals from 9:02 AM

  1. Oklahoma School Grows from 85 to 473 Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gust, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of a Catholic K-8 school in Oklahoma. Reports that the school opened in 1990 and more than quintupled in size by 2001, making it the largest Catholic school in the state. Identifies the school's number one priority as its commitment to Catholicism. (NB)

  2. Improving Print Management at at the University of Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colaw, Lee M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how business students at the University of Oklahoma improved the school's print management by initiating an alternative charging system, networking the printers, and choosing the right hardware and software. Reasons why the UnipriNT Print Management system was chosen to manage the computer lab's printing services are discussed. (GR)

  3. Estimating bioenergy feedstock potential of red cedar in western Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is an invasive species that seriously degrades tallgrass prairie and adjacent landscapes in the southern plains region of the US with an estimated 8 million acres impacted in the state of Oklahoma alone. This study is part of a larger project to improve grassland...

  4. Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallonee, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

  5. The northwest extension of the Meers Fault in southwestern Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Cetin, Hasan

    1991-01-01

    ). General Geologic History and Stratigraphy There are three stages in the geologic history of Southern Oklahoma (Ham et al. , 1964). During the first stage, an aulocogen is thought to have formed in the region as is evidenced by intrusion of diabase...

  6. Oklahoma State University Master of Science in Aviation and Space

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Oklahoma State University Master of Science in Aviation and Space The Master of Science in Aviation and Space emphasizes management, leadership, legal, and regulatory issues, finance, current participating in this program come from a variety of backgrounds including aviation, military, and government

  7. Infant Toddler Services through Community Collaboration: Oklahoma's Early Childhood Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Carla B.; Horm, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive, integrated services for infants, toddlers, and families are essential for optimal child development, and collaboration across systems is increasingly important to maximize limited resources. The authors describe three successful initiatives in Oklahoma that use a collaborative systems approach to providing direct services to young…

  8. Alternative Export - Wheat Distribution Systems for the Texas - Oklahoma Panhandle. 

    E-print Network

    Fuller, Stephen W.; Shanmugham C.V.

    1980-01-01

    -78 From Catoosa, Oklahoma Cents Per to bushel (Q/bu.) Mississippi River Ports1 16.92 Houston, Galveston, Beaumont, Port Arthur 26.82 Corpus Christi 37.26 p p p p p p 'Includes Anu, Baton Rouge, Destrehan, Myrtle Grove, New Orleans, Reserve...

  9. Annotated bibliography of the Anadarko basin area; Kansas - Oklahoma - Texas

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains 118 additional records related to the geology of the Anadarko basin area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: petroleum, and natural gas deposits; mineralogy; lithology; petrology; tectonics; and geochemistry. The subject index provides listings of records related to each county and the geologic ages covered by this area.

  10. University of Oklahoma: Chemical, Biological, and Materials Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Oklahoma offers information on research in the areas of bioengineering, polymers science and engineering, environmental engineering, and energy studies. Examples include the Engineering Virtual Library and the Chemical Engineering Virtual Library, related government research labs, discipline-specific groupings of Chemical Engineering online resources, and selected corporate Web pages.

  11. Personal Touches Warm up Oklahoma City U.'s Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Oklahoma City University prides itself on treating its faculty and staff members like family. It is the kind of place where new employees are welcomed in the president's house, staff members kick in to raise money when a colleague faces hard times, and promising young workers are offered flexible work schedules and free tuition to help them…

  12. 78 FR 36632 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00071

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-4117-DR), dated 05/20/ 2013. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes and Flooding. Incident Period: 05/18/2013 through 06/02/2013. Effective Date: 06/11/2013. Physical Loan...

  13. Da-Jiang (David) Zheng Oklahoma State University

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    ) Female alternative mating tactics, reproductive success and the social decision-making network Ophir, AG decisions to mate and reproductive success within alternative mating tactics. Society for Social ochrogaster. Honors and Awards: 2012 Outstanding Master's student, Oklahoma State University 2011 Grant-in-Aid

  14. ACT Profile Report: State. Graduating Class 2012. Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report provides information about the performance of Oklahoma's 2012 graduating seniors who took the ACT as sophomores, juniors, or seniors; and self-reported at the time of testing that they were scheduled to graduate in 2012 and tested under standard time conditions. This report focuses on: (1) Performance: student test performance in the…

  15. UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA CAMPUS ACTIVITIES COUNCIL SPEAKER BUREAU

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    "; to perform at the date, time, and place specified below: If no, are you and your employees legally authorized information Any person who has been an employee of the State of Oklahoma within the past 12 months at the above address immediately following the engagement. FEDERAL LAWS prohibit payment to be given

  16. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    Sensing of Water Quality and Harmful Algae in Oklahoma's Lakes (Dr. David Hambright, OU) will use algae blooms. This is a proof-of-concept project. - Developing the Groundwater Monitoring Potential satellite imagery and handheld devices to test the efficacy of remote sensing to detect potential harmful

  17. How a School Coped with the Oklahoma City Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, David N.; Aspy, Cheryl B.

    1996-01-01

    Following the Oklahoma City bombing, fifth graders at a nearby elementary school coped with ensuing uncertainty, pain, and loss. They wrote appreciative letters to fire and rescue workers; shared personal stories with classmates; compiled an anthology of poems, prayers, and stories; attended an assembly to honor parents participating in rescue…

  18. STUDENT ALCOHOL POLICY -1 The University of Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    STUDENT ALCOHOL POLICY - 1 The University of Oklahoma STUDENT ALCOHOL POLICY Revised and Responsibilities Code, and the Student Alcohol Policy. (1) All fraternities, sororities, and residence halls shall be dry. Alcoholic beverages will not be allowed inside fraternity houses, sorority houses and OU

  19. Estrogen in a karstic aquifer.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Carol; Kelley, Cheryl; Peterson, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Adverse impacts on the health of some fish populations, such as skewed sex distributions, have been noted in surface waters and in laboratory experiments with relatively low concentrations (above 25 ng/L) of natural estrogen (17 beta-estradiol--E2). Sources of E2 to surface and ground waters can include avian, human, and mammalian waste products. The Ozark Plateau Aquifer (OPA) is a karstic basin that receives a significant portion of its water through losing reaches of rivers. Thus, there is a direct connection between surface water and ground water. The OPA was targeted for an E2 study to assess the potential for adverse health effects to aquatic organisms living in the system. Eight springs, which drain the aquifer, were sampled quarterly. The concentrations of E2 in the OPA ranged from 13 to 80 ng/L. For any one sampling event, the concentrations of E2 at the spring waters were statistically similar; however, the concentrations of E2 at all springs varied throughout the year. At Maramec Spring, one of the larger springs, the E2 concentration, was correlated with discharge. Based on the correlation between discharge and E2 concentration, aquatic organisms living in the plateau or in its discharged waters, including the threatened southern cavefish T. subterraneus, are exposed to concentration of E2 above 25 ng/L approximately 60% of the time. This implies that organisms living in karst basins throughout the OPA are likely exposed to E2 concentrations that may adversely impact their reproductive success for a significant portion of each year. PMID:15161155

  20. Modeling velocity dispersion In Gypsy site, Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Alsaadan, Sami Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies in interval velocities estimated from vertical well measurements made with different source central frequencies at Gypsy site could be primarily explained in terms of intrinsic attenuation. Four intervals ...