Sample records for central oklahoma aquifer

  1. Climate Change Impacts on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in South-Central Oklahoma due to Projected Precipitation Variations

    E-print Network

    Osborne, Cesalea

    2014-11-19

    Precipitation Variations on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in South-Central Oklahoma due to Projected Climate Change Impacts Cesalea N. Osborne Environmental Science Haskell Indian Nations University This project was sponsored by Kiksapa Consulting... through NASA CAN NNX10AU65A The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer spans five counties in south-central Oklahoma: Carter, Coal, Johnston, Murray, and Pontotoc Base Data • Aquifer study area, roads, rural/non-rural communities, state/county boundaries Methodology...

  2. Three-dimensional geologic model of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pantea, Michael P.; Puckette, James O.; Halihan, Todd; Osborn, Noel; Christenson, Scott; Pack, Skip

    2010-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma encompasses more than 850 square kilometers and is the principal water resource for south-central Oklahoma. Rock units comprising the aquifer are characterized by limestone, dolomite, and sandstones assigned to two lower Paleozoic units: the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups. Also considered to be part of the aquifer is the underlying Cambrian-age Timbered Hills Group that contains limestone and sandstone. The highly faulted and fractured nature of the Arbuckle-Simpson units and the variable thickness (600 to 2,750 meters) increases the complexity in determining the subsurface geologic framework of this aquifer. A three-dimensional EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model was constructed to quantify the geometric relationships of the rock units of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Hunton anticline area. This 3-D EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model incorporates 54 faults and four modeled units: basement, Arbuckle-Timbered Hills Group, Simpson Group, and post-Simpson. Primary data used to define the model's 54 faults and four modeled surfaces were obtained from geophysical logs, cores, and cuttings from 126 water and petroleum wells. The 3-D framework model both depicts the volumetric extent of the aquifer and provides the stratigraphic layer thickness and elevation data used to construct a MODFLOW version 2000 regional groundwater-flow model.

  3. Geochemical Investigation of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, South-Central Oklahoma, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L.

    2009-01-01

    A geochemical reconnaissance investigation of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma was initiated in 2004 to characterize the ground-water quality at an aquifer scale, to describe the chemical evolution of ground water as it flows from recharge areas to discharge in wells and springs, and to determine the residence time of ground water in the aquifer. Thirty-six water samples were collected from 32 wells and springs distributed across the aquifer for chemical analysis of major ions, trace elements, isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, dissolved gases, and age-dating tracers. In general, the waters from wells and springs in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer are chemically suitable for all regulated uses, such as public supplies. Dissolved solids concentrations are low, with a median of 347 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Two domestic wells produced water with nitrate concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nitrate maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 mg/L. Samples from two wells in the confined part of the aquifer exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) for chloride of 250 mg/L and the SMCL of 500 mg/L for dissolved solids. Water samples from these two wells are not representative of water samples from the other wells and springs completed in the unconfined part of the aquifer. No other water samples from the Arbuckle-Simpson geochemical reconnaissance exceeded MCLs or SMCLs, although not every chemical constituent for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established a MCL or SMCL was analyzed as part of the Arbuckle-Simpson geochemical investigation. The major ion chemistry of 34 of the 36 samples indicates the water is a calcium bicarbonate or calcium magnesium bicarbonate water type. Calcium bicarbonate water type is found in the western part of the aquifer, which is predominantly limestone. Calcium magnesium bicarbonate water is found in the eastern part of the aquifer, which is predominantly a dolomite. The major ion chemistry for these 34 samples is consistent with a set of water-rock interactions. Rainfall infiltrates the soil zone, where the host rock, limestone or dolomite, dissolves as a result of uptake of carbon dioxide gas. Some continued dissolution of dolomite and precipitation of calcite occur as the water flows through the saturated zone. The major ion chemistry of the two samples from wells completed in the confined part of the aquifer indicates the water is a sodium chloride type. Geochemical inverse modeling determined that mixing of calcite-saturated recharge water with brine and dissolving calcite, dolomite, and gypsum accounts for the water composition of these two samples. One of the two samples, collected at Vendome Well in Chickasaw National Recreation Area, had a mixing fraction of brine of about 1 percent. The brine component of the sample at Vendome Well is likely to account for the relatively large concentrations of many of the trace elements (potassium, fluoride, bromide, iodide, ammonia, arsenic, boron, lithium, selenium, and strontium) measured in the water sample. Carbon-14, helium-3/tritium, and chlorofluorocarbons were used to calculate ground-water ages, recharge temperatures, and mixtures of ground water in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. Thirty four of 36 water samples recharged the aquifer after 1950, indicating that water is moving quickly from recharge areas to discharge at streams and springs. Two exceptions to this classification were noted in samples 6 and 15 (Vendome Well). Ground-water ages determined for these two samples by using carbon-14 are 34,000 years (site 6) and 10,500 years (site 15). Concentrations of dissolved argon, neon, and xenon in water samples were used to determine the temperature of the water when it recharged the aquifer. The mean annual air temperature at Ada, Oklahoma, is 16 degrees Celsius (C) and the median temperature of the 30 reconnaissance water samples was 18.1 C. The av

  4. Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7 do not include long- and short-normal resistivity, spontaneous-potential, or single-point resistivity. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7A include only caliper and natural-gamma logs.

  5. Vertical gradients in water chemistry in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas and Oklahoma panhandle, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    The central High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses in parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Water-level declines of more than 100 feet in some areas of the aquifer have increased the demand for water deeper in the aquifer. The maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer ranged from 500 to 600 feet in 1999. As the demand for deeper water increases, it becomes increasingly important for resource managers to understand how the quality of water in the aquifer changes with depth. In 1998?99, 18 monitoring wells at nine sites in southwestern Kansas and the Oklahoma Panhandle were completed at various depths in the central High Plains aquifer, and one monitoring well was completed in sediments of Permian age underlying the aquifer. Water samples were collected once from each well in 1999 to measure vertical gradients in water chemistry in the aquifer. Tritium concentrations measured in ground water indicate that water samples collected in the upper 30 feet of the aquifer were generally recharged within the last 50 years, whereas all of the water samples collected at depths more than 30 feet below the water table were recharged more than 50 years ago. Dissolved oxygen was present throughout the aquifer, with concentrations ranging from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/L. Water in the central High Plains aquifer was predominantly a calcium-bicarbonate type that exhibited little variability in concentrations of dissolved solids with depth (290 to 642 mg/L). Exceptions occurred in some areas where there had been upward movement of mineralized water from underlying sediments of Permian age and areas where there had been downward movement of mineralized Arkansas River water to the aquifer. Calcium-sulfate and sodium-chloride waters dominated and concentrations of dissolved solids were elevated (862 to 4,030 mg/L) near the base of the aquifer in the areas of upward leakage. Dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite and halite in sediments of Permian age by ground water was the likely source of calcium, sulfate, sodium, and chloride in those waters. Calcium-sodium-sulfate waters dominated, and concentrations of dissolved solids were as large as 4,916 mg/L near the water table in the area of downward leakage. Dissolution of minerals in sedimentary deposits of marine origin in upstream areas of the Arkansas River drainage were the likely sources of calcium, sodium, and sulfate in those waters. Nitrate was detected throughout the aquifer and the background concentration was estimated to be 2.45 mg/L as N. The largest nitrate concentrations (8.28, 22, and 54.4 mg/L as N) occurred in recently recharged water collected adjacent to irrigated fields. Three pesticides (atrazine, metolachlor, simazine) and five pesticide degradation products (alachlor ethanesulfonic acid, alachlor oxanilic acid, deethylatrazine, metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, metolachlor oxanilic acid) were detected in recently recharged water from six water-table wells. Five of the six wells were adjacent to irrigated fields. These data indicate that concentrations of nitrate and pesticides increased over time in some areas of the aquifer as a result of agricultural activities. Results from this study indicate that vertical gradients in water chemistry existed in the central High Plains aquifer. The chemical gradients resulted from chemical inputs to the aquifer from underlying sediments of Permian age, from the Arkansas River, and from agricultural activities. In areas where those chemical inputs occurred, water quality in the aquifer was impaired and may not have been suitable for some intended uses.

  6. Comparison of ground-water quality in samples from selected shallow and deep wells in the central Oklahoma aquifer, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The aquifer units of the Central Oklahoma aquifer underlie about 2,890 square miles of central Oklahoma and are used extensively to supply water for municipal, domestic, industrial, and agricultural needs. The Central Oklahoma aquifer also is commonly referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer because the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation yield the greatest quantities of usable water for domestic and high-capacity wells. The major water-quality concerns for the Central Oklahoma aquifer described by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program (1987 to 1992) were elevated concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in shallow water and the occurrence of arsenic, chromium, and selenium in parts of the aquifer. The quality of water from deep public-water supply wells in the Central Oklahoma aquifer is monitored by the State of Oklahoma. The chemical quality of water from shallow domestic wells is not monitored, and, therefore, there is a concern that well owners may be unknowingly ingesting water with nitrate nitrogen, arsenic, chromium, selenium, and other chemical constituents at concentrations that are considered harmful. As a result of this concern, the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborated on a study to sample water during June 2003 through August 2005 from 23 shallow wells (less than 200 feet in depth) and 28 deep wells (200 feet or greater in depth) completed in the bedrock aquifer units of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. The objectives of the study were to describe the chemical quality of water from shallow and deep wells and to determine if the differences in constituent concentrations are statistically significant. Water from shallow wells had significantly higher concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, and nitrate nitrogen than water from deep wells. There were no significant differences between concentrations of dissolved solids, sodium, and fluoride in water from shallow and deep wells. Water from 9 shallow wells had nitrate nitrogen concentrations greater than 2 milligrams per liter, suggesting nitrogen sources at land surface have had an effect on water from these wells. Water from three shallow wells (13 percent) exceeded the nitrate nitrogen maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in drinking water. Water from shallow wells had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic, chromium, iron, and selenium than water from deep wells, whereas, concentrations of barium, copper, manganese, and zinc were similar. Water-quality data indicate that arsenic frequently occurs in shallow ground water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer, but at low concentrations (<10 micrograms per liter). The occurrence of chromium and selenium in water from shallow wells was infrequent and at low concentrations in this study. It does not appear that the quality of water from a shallow well can be predicted based on the quality of water from a nearby deep well. The results show that in general terms, shallow ground water has significantly higher concentrations of most major ions and significantly lower concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and selenium than water from deep wells.

  7. SUBSURFACE WELL-LOG CORRELATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fluvial Garber Sandstone and the underlying Wellington Formation are important sources of drinking water in central Oklahoma. These formations, which make up much of the COA, consist of amalgamated sandstones with some interbedded mudstones, siltstones, and local mudstone- a...

  8. Water-level changes in the Ogallala aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Ogallala aquifer, that part of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma, is part of a regional aquifer system that underlies parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. In 1978 the US Geological Survey began a 5- year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop a capability for predicting aquifer response to various ground-water-management alternatives (Weeks, 1978). -from Author

  9. Groundwater quality and water-well characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 1948--2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties in central Oklahoma to support the development of a comprehensive water-management plan for the Tribe’s jurisdictional area. In this study, water-quality data from 155 water wells, collected from 1948 to 2011, were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database; these data include measurements of pH, specific conductance, and hardness and concentrations of the major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides that have Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in public drinking-water supplies. Information about well characteristics includes ranges of well yield and well depth of private water wells in the study area and was compiled from the Oklahoma Water Resources Board Multi-Purpose Well Completion Report database. This report also shows depth to water from land surface by using shaded 30-foot contours that were created by using a geographic information system and spatial layers of a 2009 potentiometric surface (groundwater elevation) and land-surface elevation. Wells in the study area produce water from the North Canadian River alluvial and terrace aquifers, the underlying Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that compose the Garber–Wellington aquifer, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. Water quality varies substantially between the alluvial and terrace aquifers and bedrock aquifers in the study area. Water from the alluvial aquifer has relatively high concentrations of dissolved solids and generally is used for livestock only, whereas water from the terrace aquifer has low concentrations of dissolved solids and is used extensively by households in the study area. Water from the bedrock aquifer also is used extensively by households but may have high concentrations of trace elements, including uranium, in some areas where groundwater pH is above 8.0. Well yields vary and are dependent on aquifer characteristics and well-completion practices. Well yields in the unconsolidated alluvial and terrace aquifers generally are higher than yields from bedrock aquifers but are limited by the thickness and extent of these river deposits. Well yields in the alluvium and terrace aquifers commonly range from 50 to 150 gallons per minute and may exceed 300 gallons per minute, whereas well yields in the bedrock aquifers commonly range from 25 to 50 gallons per minute in the western one-third of study area (Oklahoma County) and generally less than 25 gallons per minute in the eastern two-thirds of the study area (Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties).

  10. Analysis of regional aquifers in the central Midwest of the United States in Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming :summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Helgesen, J.O.; Signor, D.C.; Leonard, R.B.; Imes, J.L.; Christenson, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Large quantities of ground water are available for use from three regional aquifer systems in the central Midwest of the United States. Parts of the lowermost aquifer contain nearly immobile brine and may be hydrologically suitable for material storage or waste disposal. Results of numerical modeling and geochemical analyses confirm general concepts of ground-water flow in the regional aquifer systems.

  11. Geohydrology and water quality of the Roubidoux Aquifer, northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.; Fairchild, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer is an important source of freshwater for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts in northeastern Oklahoma. Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer in 1981 were estimated to be 4.8 million gallons per day, of which about 90 percent was withdrawn in Ottawa County. Wells drilled at the beginning of the 20th century originally flowed at the land surface, but in 1981 water levels ranged from 22 to 471 feet below land surface. A large cone of depression has formed as a result of ground water withdrawals near Miami. Wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer have yields that range from about 100 to more than 1,000 gallons per minute. An aquifer test and a digital ground-water flow model were used to estimate aquifer and confining-layer hydraulic characteristics. Using these methods, the transmissivity of the aquifer was estimated to be within a range of 400 to 700 square feet per day. The leakance of the confining layer was determined to be within a range from 0 to 0.13 per day, with a best estimate value in a range from 4.3 x 10-8 to 7.7 x 10-8 per day. Analyses of water samples collected as part of this study and of water-quality data from earlier work indicate that a large areal change in major-ion chemistry occurs in ground water in the Roubidoux aquifer in northeastern Oklahoma. The ground water in the easternmost part of the study unit has relatively small dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 milligrams per liter) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. Ground water in the westernmost part of the study unit has relatively large dissolved-solids concentrations (greater than 800 milligrams per liter) with sodium and chloride as the major ions. A transition zone of intermediate sodium, chloride, and dissolved-solids concentrations exists between the easternmost and westernmost parts of the study unit. Three water-quality problems are apparent in the Roubidoux aquifer in northeast Oklahoma: (1) Contamination by mine water, (2) large concentrations of sodium and chloride, and (3) large radium-226 concentrations. Many wells in the mining area have been affected by mine-water contamination. At present (1990), all instances of ground-water contamination by mine water can be explained by faulty seals or leaky casings in wells that pass through the zone of mine workings and down to the Roubidoux aquifer. None of the data available to date demonstrate that mine water has migrated from the Boone Formation through the pores and fractures of the intervening geologic units to the Roubidoux aquifer. Ground water with large concentrations of sodium and chloride occurs at some depth throughout the study unit. In the eastern part of the study unit, chloride concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter are found at depths greater than approximately 1,200 to 1,500 feet. Data are too few to determine the depth to ground water with large concentrations of sodium and chloride in the southern and southwestern parts of the study unit. Large concentrations of gross-alpha radioactivity in ground water occur near the western edge of the transition zone. Generally, ground water with large concentrations of gross-alpha radioactivity was found to exceed the maximum contaminant level for radium-226. (available as photostat copy only)

  12. Helminth fauna of waterfowl in central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Shaw, M G; Kocan, A A

    1980-01-01

    Free-ranging waterfowl wintering in and migrating through central Oklahoma were collected and examined for intestinal helminths. Seventy-one ducks, including mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), American widgeons (Anas americana), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were examined; 64 (90.1%) harbored one or more species of metazoa. Six cestodes, 6 trematodes, 6 nematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan were identified, An experimental, non-flying population of ducks was established and monitored to determine the extent of helminth transmission in central Oklahoma. Seven species of helminths were acquired by the sentinel birds during the study. The significance of the parasites recovered and variations in prevalence and species composition of the infections are discussed as they relate to the life cycles of the parasites and the ecology of the hosts. PMID:7373725

  13. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control...Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air...

  14. Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, J.R.; Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

  15. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square miles in eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set represents a compilation of information from digital and paper sources and personal communication. This boundary is an update to the boundary published in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, and this report supersedes Open-File Report 99-267. The purpose of this data set is to refine and update the extent of the High Plains aquifer based on currently available information. This data set represents a compilation of arcs from a variety of sources and scales that represent the 174,000 square-mile extent of the High Plains aquifer within the eight states. Where updated information was not available, the original boundary extent defined by OFR 99-267 was retained. The citations for the sources in each State are listed in the 00README.txt file. The boundary also contains internal polygons, or 'islands', that represent the areas within the aquifer boundary where the aquifer is not present due to erosion or non-deposition. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

  16. Altitude and configuration of the 1980 water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties (sheet 1), and for the Panhandle area, consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties (sheet 2). Water levels were measured in January, February, and March 1980 by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board.

  17. HYDROGEOLOGY AND RECHARGE OF A GYPSUM - DOLOMITE KARST AQUIFER IN SOUTHWESTERN OKLAHOMA, U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth S. Johnson

    Gypsum and dolomite beds of the Permian Blaine Formation make up a major karst aquifer that is being naturally and artifically recharged to provide irrigation water in 2,500 sq. km making up the Hollis Basin of southwestern Oklahoma, U.S.A. The Blaine aquifer typically is 50 to 65 m thick, and it consists of a sequence of laterally persistent gypsum, dolomite,

  18. Effects of municipal ground-water withdrawals on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, M.E.; Bergman, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma consists of a thick sequence of folded and faulted carbonate and clastic rocks of Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age. Fractures and karst features locally increase the aquifer's capacity to transmit and store ground water. The aquifer is a principal source of water for municipal and rural users. A hydrologic study was conducted to evaluate the effects of municipal ground-water withdrawal from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer on local ground-water levels and discharge from nearby springs and streams in south-central Pontotoc County. A municipal well was pumped for 63 hours at an average rate of 1,170 gallons per minute. A maximum observed drawdown of 0.3 feet was recorded half a mile from the pumping well. Drawdown was observed as far as 1.2 miles from the pumping well. No measurable response was observed at any of the surface-water-discharge measurement sites; however, recharge from precipitation may have masked any decreases in discharge caused by the pumping. Simultaneous pumping of two municipal wells for 241 hours at average rates of 1,170 and 2,730 gallons per minute resulted in a maximum observed drawdown of 1.3 feet recorded at an average distance of 0.80 miles from the pumping wells. The most distant drawdown observed was at an average distance 1.1 miles from the pumped wells. Less that 2 days after pumping stopped, increases in springflow were recorded at two springs; it is unknown whether these discharge responses reflect the effects of recharge from precipitation, or the combined effects of precipitation and the cessation of ground-water withdrawal. The effects of the stress tests on the hydrologic system were offset by recharge from concurrent precipitation. The maximum observed drawdown represents about 6 percent of the median natural water-level fluctuation during the study period. The effect of drawdown could become critical during extended periods of low precipitation, if water levels are already near the bottom of domestic wells in the area. However, a comparison of maximum observed drawdown (1.3 ft) with the minimum saturated thickness of fresh ground water (1,500 ft) suggests that municipal pumping had little effect on the amount of ground water stored in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the study area. This evaluation is based on the limited pumping rates and times of the stress tests.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF SUBSURFACE BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH TWO SHALLOW AQUIFERS IN OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial microflora of two shallow aquifers in Oklahoma was characterized by direct observation with light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM), by plating, and by examination of colony morphology and distribution. Total cell counts varied only slightly from sample to sample, w...

  20. Oklahoma BEEF Incorporated (OBI) Bull Delivery Sheet Central bull testing at Oklahoma BEEF, Incorporated, is managed and supervised with the emphasis on the performance, health, and safety of the bulls; however, Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    for Oklahoma Cattle *Out of state cattle must comply with Oklahoma Animal Health requirements Date TestedOklahoma BEEF Incorporated (OBI) Bull Delivery Sheet Central bull testing at Oklahoma BEEF, injury, sickness, death, or any other cause while the bulls are at the central test station. Delivery

  1. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Hunton anticline, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Blome, Charles D.; Hill, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This report is a digital data release for multiple geophysical surveys conducted in the Hunton anticline area of south-central Oklahoma. The helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys were flown on March 16–17, 2007, in four areas of the Hunton anticline in south-central Oklahoma. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The electromagnetic sensor for the helicopter electromagnetic survey consisted of six different transmitter-receiver orientations that measured the earth's electrical response at six distinct frequencies from approximately 500 Hertz to approximately 115,000 Hertz. The electromagnetic measurements were converted to electrical resistivity values, which were gridded and plotted on georeferenced maps. The map from each frequency represents a different depth of investigation for each area. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow groundwater. The four areas selected for the helicopter electromagnetic study, blocks A–D, have different geologic and hydrologic settings. Geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by modelers and resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer.

  2. Simulating the impacts of groundwater pumping on stream aquifer dynamics in semiarid northwestern Oklahoma, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zume, Joseph; Tarhule, Aondover

    2008-06-01

    Visual MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater flow model, was used to evaluate the impacts of groundwater exploitation on streamflow depletion in the Alluvium and Terrace aquifer of the Beaver-North Canadian River (BNCR) in northwestern Oklahoma, USA. Water demand in semi-arid northwestern Oklahoma is projected to increase by 53% during the next five decades, driven primarily by irrigation, public water supply, and agricultural demand. Using MODFLOW’s streamflow routing package, pumping-induced changes in baseflow and stream leakage were analyzed to estimate streamflow depletion in the BNCR system. Simulation results indicate groundwater pumping has reduced baseflow to streams by approximately 29% and has also increased stream leakage into the aquifer by 18% for a net streamflow loss of 47%. The magnitude and intensity of streamflow depletion, however, varies for different stream segments, ranging from 0 to 20,804 m3/d. The method provides a framework for isolating and quantifying impacts of aquifer pumping on stream function in semiarid alluvial environments.

  3. Characterization ofSubsurface Bacteria Associated withTwo Shallow Aquifers inOklahoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID L. BALKWILL; WILLIAM C. GHIORSE

    1985-01-01

    Thebacterial microflora oftwoshallow aquifers (saturated subsurface zones) inOklahoma was character- izedbydirect observation withlight andelectron microscopy, byplating, andbyexamination ofcolony morphology anddistribution. Isolated bacterial strains were alsoexamined. Totalcell countsvaried only slightly (2.9 x 106to9.8x 106g(drywtf-') fromsample tosample, whereas colony counts varied widely (6.3 X 102to6.5x 106CFU g (drywtf-'). Colony counts on nutritionally richmediawere lowerthanon low-nutrient media, especially insamples fromthesaturated zone.Thevariety ofcolony types

  4. Altitude and configuration of the predevelopment water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area (sheet 1) and for the Panhandle area (sheet 2). In the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, water levels measured from the 1950's to the 1970's represent predevelopment conditions and were obtained from published and unpublished data in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the Panhandle, predevelopment contours were based on measurements made from 1937 to 1940. Some water levels in Beaver County were measured as late as 1959 in areas where significant development had not occurred previously.

  5. Variable seismic response to fluid injection in central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, K. M.; Hogan, C.; Savage, H. M.; Abers, G. A.; van der Elst, N.

    2013-12-01

    Seismicity in Oklahoma since 2009 has been concentrated in the central portion of the state, in the areas of Jones, Prague, and Luther. These three regions account for ~75% of earthquakes in the 2009-2013 Oklahoma Geological Survey catalog. A swarm in the Jones region began in late 2008, with a maximum magnitude of 4.0, and activity continuing to the present. After relocation, the initially diffuse earthquakes in the Jones swarm delineate multiple subparallel faults. The Wilzetta fault zone ruptured in the Prague region in 2010 and again in 2011, with magnitudes up to Mw5.7, and the Luther region experienced two earthquakes of M4.4 and M4.2, with related aftershocks, in 2013. The earthquakes near Prague have previously been linked to wastewater disposal; here we show that the earthquakes near Jones and Luther may also be induced by deep disposal based on the upsurge in seismicity in central Oklahoma coupled with local relationships to pumping and reservoir structure. The timing of each sequence with respect to injection and the distribution of seismic activity differs, highlighting the variability in seismic response to fluid injection related to local permeability structure.

  6. Aquifer characteristics, water availability, and water quality of the Quaternary aquifer, Osage County, northeastern Oklahoma, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Cope, Caleb C.; Abbott, Marvin M.

    2003-01-01

    Additional sources of water are needed on the Osage Reservation for future growth and development. The Quaternary aquifer along the Arkansas River in the Osage Reservation may represent a substantial water resource, but limited amounts of hydrogeologic data were available for the aquifer. The study area is about 116 square miles of the Quaternary aquifer in the Arkansas River valley and the nearby upland areas along the Osage Reservation. The study area included the Arkansas River reach downstream from Kaw Lake near Ponca City, Oklahoma to upstream from Keystone Lake near Cleveland, Oklahoma. Electrical conductivity logs were produced for 103 test holes. Water levels were determined for 49 test holes, and 105 water samples were collected for water-quality field analyses at 46 test holes. Water-quality data included field measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen). Sediment cores were extracted from 20 of the 103 test holes. The Quaternary aquifer consists of alluvial and terrace deposits of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The measured thickness of the alluvium ranged from 13.7 to 49.8 feet. The measured thickness of the terrace sediments ranged from 7 to 93.8 feet. The saturated thickness of all sediments ranged from 0 to 38.2 feet with a median of 24.8 feet. The weighted-mean grain size for cores from the alluvium ranged from 3.69 to 0.64 f, (0.08- 0.64 millimeter), and ranged from 4.02 to 2.01 f (0.06-0.25 millimeter) for the cores from terrace deposits. The mean of the weighted-mean grain sizes for cores from the alluvium was 1.67 f (0.31 millimeter), and the terrace deposits was 2.73 f (0.15 millimeter). The hydraulic conductivity calculated from grain size of the alluvium ranged from 2.9 to 6,000 feet per day and of the terrace deposits ranged from 2.9 to 430 feet per day. The calculated transmissivity of the alluvium ranged from 2,000 to 26,000 feet squared per day with a median of 5,100 feet squared per day. Water in storage in the alluvium was estimated to be approximately 200,000 acre-feet. The amount of water annually recharging the aquifer was estimated to be approximately 4,800 acre-feet. Specific conductance for all water samples ranged from 161 to 6,650 microsiemens per centimeter. Median specific conductance for the alluvium was 683 microsiemens per centimeter and for the terrace deposits was 263 microsiemens per centimeter. Dissolved-solids concentrations, estimated from specific conductance, for water samples from the aquifer ranged from 88 to 3,658 milligrams per liter. Estimated median dissolved- solids concentration for the alluvium was 376 milligrams per liter and for the terrace deposits was 145 milligrams per liter. More than half of the samples from the Quaternary aquifer were estimated to contain less than 500 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Field-screened nitrate concentrations for the sampling in December 2001-August 2002 ranged from 0 to 15 milligrams per liter. The field-screened nitrate concentrations for the second sampling in September 2002 were less than corresponding laboratory reported values.

  7. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

  8. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

  9. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

  10. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

  11. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

  12. Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A report on the research activities at the USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Laboratory in Stillwater, Oklahoma, were compiled for WERA-066 Meeting that was held in Ft. Collins, Colorado, February 13, 2008. Research presentations included barley breeding research, sorghum breeding research, wheat br...

  13. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North...

  14. Gravity investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Daniel S.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford

    2006-01-01

    The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian wells in and around the park. A confining layer of well-cemented conglomerate lies immediately below the surface of the recreation area, and groundwater migrates from an area of meteoric recharge where rocks of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer crop out as close as two kilometers to the east of the park. Prominent, Pennsylvanian-aged faults are exposed in the aquifer outcrop, and two of the fault traces project beneath the conglomerate cover toward two groups of springs within the northern section of the park. We conducted gravity fieldwork and analysis to investigate the subsurface extensions of these major faults beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area. By defining gravity signatures of the faults where they are exposed, we infer that the Sulphur and Mill Creek Faults bend to the south-west where they are buried. The South Sulphur Fault may project westward linearly if it juxtaposes rocks that have a density contrast opposite that of that fault's density configuration in the Sulphur Syncline area. The Sulphur Syncline, whose eastern extent is exposed in the outcrop area of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, does not appear to extend beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area nor the adjacent City of Sulphur. The South Sulphur Fault dips steeply northward, and its normal sense of offset suggests that the Sulphur Syncline is part of a graben. The Mill Creek Fault dips vertically, and the Reagan Fault dips southward, consistent with its being mapped as a thrust fault. The Sulphur and Mill Creek Synclines may have formed as pull-apart basins in a left-lateral, left-stepping strike-slip environment. The character of the gravity field of Chickasaw National Recreation Area is different from the lineated gravity field in the area of Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer outcrop. This change in character is not due to the presence of the overlying conglomerate layer, which is quite thin (<100 m) in the area of the park with the springs. The presence of relatively high-density Precambrian basement rocks in a broader region suggests that significant gravity anomalies may arise from variations in basement topography. Understanding of the geological configuration of Chickasaw National Recreation Area can be improved by expanding the study area and by investigating complementary geophysical and borehole constraints of the subsurface.

  15. STUDY OF THE ARBUCKLE-SIMPSON AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study directed by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation will investigate the hydrogeology of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in south-central Oklahoma. The five year study will involve field investigations including the installation of ne...

  16. Risk across disciplines: An interdisciplinary examination of water and drought risk in South-Central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.; Towler, E.; McPherson, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a challenge faced by communities across the United States, exacerbated by growing demands on water resources and climate variability and change. The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer (ASA) in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only free-flowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To examine this question, we are conducting an investigation of drought risk from multiple disciplines. Anthropological data comes from stakeholder interviews that were designed to investigate conflict over water management by understanding how people perceive risk differently based on different opinions about the structure of the resource, varying levels of trust in authorities, and unequal access to resources. . The Cultural Theory of Risk is used to explain how people view risks as part of their worldviews and why people who hold different worldviews disagree about risks associated with water availability. Meteorological analyses of longitudinal data indicate periods of drought that are noted in stakeholder interviews. Analysis of stream gauge data investigates the influence of climate variability on local hydrologic impacts, such as changing groundwater levels and streamflows, that are relevant to planning and management decisions in the ASA. Quantitative assessment of future drought risk and associated uncertainty and their effect on type and scale of future economic and social impacts are achieved by combining elements of statistical and dynamical downscaling to improve predictions of local impacts using Hybrid Statistical-Dynamical Downscaling Technique.

  17. Prevalence and species of ticks on horses in central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Duell, Jason R; Carmichael, Robert; Herrin, Brian H; Holbrook, Todd C; Talley, Justin; Little, Susan E

    2013-11-01

    Ticks are common on horses, but there is a dearth of contemporary data on infestation prevalence, predominant species, and tick-borne disease agents important in this host. To determine the species of ticks most common on horses and the prevalence of equine exposure to and infection with tick-borne disease agents, ticks and blood samples were collected from 73 horses during May, June, and July of 2010. Adult ticks were identified to species, and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi were identified using indirect fluorescence antibody assay, a commercial point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or both. In total, 1,721 ticks were recovered at the majority (85%) of equid examinations. Amblyomma americanum (L.) was the most common tick collected (1,598 out of 1,721; 92.9%) followed by Dermacentor variabilis (Say, 1821) (85 out of 1,721; 4.9%) and Amblyomma maculatum Koch, 1844 (36 out of 1,721; 2.1%); single specimens of Ixodes scapularis Say, 1821 and Dermacentor albipictus (Packard, 1869) were also identified. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were found in 18 out of 73 (24.7%) of horses tested, and were more commonly identified in horses with moderate or high tick infestations than those with low tick infestations (P < 0.001). These data support A. americanum as the most common tick species infesting horses in central Oklahoma from May through July and suggest horses are also commonly exposed to an Ehrlichia sp. PMID:24843940

  18. LITTLE BLUESTEM [SCHIZACHYRIUM SCOPARIUM (MICHX.) NASH]: USEFUL FORAGE FOR GRAZING ANIMALS IN CENTRAL OKLAHOMA?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium, SCSC) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii, ANGE) are among the dominant species of tallgrass prairie in central Oklahoma. Little bluestem is considered less valuable for grazing due to its tussock growth form and perceived lower forage quality. Productiv...

  19. Multi-year precipitation variations and water resources in west-central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistent, multi-year departures in annual precipitation from mean have been observed in central Oklahoma. Precipitation departures caused by a sequence of predominantly wet or dry years and lasting 5 or more years are called wet or dry periods, respectively. Impacts of wet and dry periods on water...

  20. A Systematic Approach to Process Evaluation in the Central Oklahoma Turning Point (COTP) Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Cheney, Marshall K.; Chrislip, David D.; Blankenship, Derek; Troup, Pam; Hann, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Formation is an important stage of partnership development. Purpose: To describe the systematic approach to process evaluation of a Turning Point initiative in central Oklahoma during the formation stage. The nine-month collaborative effort aimed to develop an action plan to promote health. Methods: A sound planning framework was used in the…

  1. Watershed sediment yield reduction through soil conservation in a west-central Oklahoma watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil conservation practices on the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in West-Central Oklahoma were few before the 1950s. In the second half of the 20th century, extensive soil conservation measures were implemented to protect agriculturally fertile but erosion-prone soils. Fortuitously, the U.S. Geolo...

  2. Aphids and parasitoids in wheat and nearby canola fields in central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In central Oklahoma, winter canola has recently become the primary rotational winter crop with wheat. Annual aphid pest outbreaks in canola have resulted in widespread insecticide applications. Insect parasitoids, which frequently suppress aphids in nearby wheat, may move to canola due to the larg...

  3. Methanogens in Central Texas aquifers: a microbiological and molecular study

    E-print Network

    MacRae, Martha Jean Davies

    1992-01-01

    aquifers in Central Texas. Cells were recovered from this concentrate by filtration (0. 2 pm filters, Gelman and Millipore) and genomic DNA was extracted. Kingdom specific oligonucleotide probes labeled with chemiluminescent alkaline phosphatase were... used for dot blot hybridizations with the extracted DNA. The aichaebacterial probe was used to target methanogens, Methanogens were the major amhaebacterial gmup expected to be present due to low temlxnatures, near neutral pH and low salt...

  4. Plan of study for the High Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The Ogallala Formation and associated Tertiary and Quarternary deposits from the principal aquifers supporting irrigation in the High Plains of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The volume of water in storage within the aquifers is declining in most of the High Plains because water is being withdrawn in excess of the rate of replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains aquifer system to develop the geohydrologic data base and computer models of the ground-water flow system needed to evaluate the response of the aquifer system to ground-water management alternatives. This report describes the objectives, plan, and organization of the study and outlines the work to be accomplished in each State in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. 36Cl in shallow, perched aquifers from central Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, S.; Elmore, D.; Fritz, S. J.

    1994-06-01

    36Cl/Cl ratios and chloride concentrations were measured in several shallow, perched aquifers situated within glacial till in west-central Indiana (USA). Most of these aquifers show 36Cl/Cl ratios which have to be attributed to admixed 36Cl from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. Two wells from Purdue's Horticultural Farm tap perched aquifers uninfluenced by anthropogenic sources of chloride, and their 36Cl/Cl ratios are comparable with ratios measured in modern, local precipitation. As such, the chloride contents of these wells (1 to 3 ppm) reflect evaporative concentration of the precipitation's chloride contents (averaging 0.17 ppm) in the vadose zone. Since one of these two wells (HA-2a) does not contain any detectable tritium, we conclude that recent pre-bomb 36Cl/Cl ratios and 36Cl deposition in precipitation are quite similar to those in modern precipitation. We attribute the slight 36Cl excess of about 20% in both of these wells largely to 36Cl deposition associated with dry fall-out. As much as 2 × 10 4 at. 36Cl/cm 2 might reach the surface via dry fall-out annually.

  6. Digital-model projection of saturated thickness and recoverable water in the Ogallala Aquifer, Texas County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital model was used to provide a quantitative description of the Ogallala aquifer in Texas County, Oklahoma, and to predict saturated thickness and water in storage from the aquifer at specified future times. The Ogallala aquifer, which consists of unconsolidated sand, gravel, and clay, is the principal source of ground water in Texas County. Saturated thickness ranged from 0 feet to over 600 feet. The estimated value used for specific yield in most of the areas was 0.15 but 0.05 was used in some places. Hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0 to more than 200 feet per day, and recharge from 0.2 to 2.2 inches per year. Irrigation pumpage was estimated using crop acreage and estimate of irrigation requirements. For projection simulations with large stress, a reasonable maximum stress using a minimum of 4 wells per square mile and 1972 pumping rate per well, if saturated thickness was more than 38 feet, was used. Four types of boundaries were used in the model. They are (1) a zero-flux (impermeable) boundary on the perimeter of the modeled area,(2) a constant-head boundary for a reach of the Cimarron River, (3) a boundary which is a constant-head boundary initially but converts to an impermeable boundary (depending on the potentiometric gradient at the boundary) for a reach of Beaver River, Palo Duro Creek, and south of Palo Duro Creek, and (4) a boundary which is a partially penetrating stream with leaky-stream bed for parts of Beaver River and Coldwater Creek. The base period for calibration was 1966. The model was calibrated by a simulation from 1966 to 1968 in which pumpage was modified until the 1968 calculated heads matched closely the 1968 observed heads. The model was verified by a simulation from 1966 to 1972, using the 1966 to 1972 pumpage stress, in order to determine the degree of conformity between 1972 calculated heads and 1972 observed heads. The agreement was acceptable.

  7. Thickness variation of Simpson group in south-central Oklahoma and its tectonic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Q.T.; Crump, J. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Middle Ordovician Simpson Group in the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen is composed of interbedded sandstone, limestone, and shale. Several pulses of subsidence controlled the deposition of these sediments. Simpson Group thickness variations, based on an isopach map and corresponding regional cross sections, define the presence of two distinct depositional basins flanked on their northern sides by a stable cratonic shelf. The anomalous thickness of Simpson sediments within these basins is related to syndepositional subsidence along zones of weakness initiated during the rifting stage of aulacogen development. The larger basin covers the western part of south-central Oklahoma. The northern flank of this basin illustrates a zone of rapid thickening of sediments. The updip portion of the northern flank is the northernmost limit of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. The depocenter of the larger basin is positioned in the Ardmore basin. Paleostress studies using calcite twin lamellae along the southeastern portion of the Sulfur fault within the smaller basin reveal an east-west compression followed by north-south compression. Surface folds formed by the east-west compression are highly faulted and overturned, whereas the folds formed by the north-south compression are open, slightly asymmetric, with rounded hinges and limbs. Similar east-west-trending structures in the subsurface could be a favorable target for hydrocarbon exploration. In general, these basins are genetically related but are separated by a large Precambrian basement block (Tishomingo Granite).

  8. Geochemistry of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L.; Osborn, Noel I.

    2009-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma provides water for public supply, farms, mining, wildlife conservation, recreation, and the scenic beauty of springs, streams, and waterfalls. A new understanding of the aquifer flow system was developed as part of the Arbuckle-Simpson Hydrology Study, done in 2003 through 2008 as a collaborative research project between the State of Oklahoma and the Federal government. The U.S. Geological Survey collected 36 water samples from 32 wells and springs in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in 2004 through 2006 for geochemical analyses of major ions, trace elements, isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, dissolved gases, and dating tracers. The geochemical analyses were used to characterize the water quality in the aquifer, to describe the origin and movement of ground water from recharge areas to discharge at wells and springs, and to determine the age of water in the aquifer.

  9. Groundwater modeling of the Calera Aquifer region in Central Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Calera Aquifer is the main source of water for irrigated agriculture, industrial, and drinking water purposes in the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 80% of the total groundwater extracted from the Calera Aquifer. In recent years, ...

  10. Ground-water flow in the Gulf Coast aquifer systems, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, A.K.; Grubb, H.F.

    2001-01-01

    The Gulf Coast regional aquifer systems constitute one of the largest, most complicated, and most interdependent aquifer systems in the United States. Ground-water flow in a 230,000-square-mile area of the south-central United States was modeled for the effect of withdrawing freshwater at the rate of nearly 10 billion gallons per day in 1985 from regional aquifers in the Mississippi Embayment, the Texas coastal uplands, and the coastal lowlands aquifer systems. The 1985 rate of pumping was three times the average rate of recharge to the aquifers before development. The report also estimates the effects of even greater withdrawal rates in the aquifer systems. About two-thirds of the water in the aquifers is saline to brine, which complicates the modeling. Land subsidence due to water withdrawal also was modeled.

  11. Aquifers in Cretaceous rocks of the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D., Jr.; Lyke, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Aquifers in rocks of Cretaceous age are the major source of groundwater for public supplies in the central Coastal Plain. These aquifers consist of sand, gravel, and limestone beds of the Peedee, Black Creek, and the upper and lower Cape Fear aquifers, each separated by a confining unit composed of clay and silt beds. The aquifers and confining units (1) rest upon crystalline basement rocks; (2) dip and thicken to the east-southeast; and (3) are overlain by younger aquifers and confining units in deposits of Quaternary and Tertiary age. The top of the uppermost aquifer, the Peedee, ranges from 122 ft above to 595 ft below sea level. The maximum thickness of all aquifers and confining units in Cretaceous rocks is more than 1,600 ft. Aquifers and confining units were defined and correlated for this report using 125 geophysical logs and accompanying drillers ' logs, water level data, and water quality information regarding chloride concentrations in water. This analysis allowed the construction of seven hydrogeologic cross sections that depict the continuity of all the aquifers and confining units. These cross sections also show water levels and chloride concentrations in water from various test intervals and describe where chloride concentration in water exceeds 250 mg/L within each aquifer. Detailed maps of each Cretaceous aquifer show altitude of its top, thickness, areas of selected sand percentages, transition zones from fresh to saltwater, and the thickness of the confining unit.

  12. Modeling saltwater upconing in a freshwater aquifer in south-central Kansas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tain Shing Ma; Marios Sophocleous; Yun-Sheng Yu; R. W. Buddemeier

    1997-01-01

    The Great Bend Prairie freshwater alluvial aquifer in south-central Kansas overlies a bedrock brine aquifer of Permian age. The continuous extraction of freshwater mainly for irrigation in this area has accelerated the upward movement of the saltwater, resulting in the deterioration of water quality. Predicting saltwater upconing is critical for maintaining a long-term supply of water of good quality to

  13. Modeling saltwater upconing in a freshwater aquifer in south-central Kansas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tain Shing; Ma a'b; Marios Sophocleous; Yun-Sheng Yu; R. W. Buddemeierb

    The Great Bend Prairie freshwater alluvial aquifer in south-central Kansas overlies a bedrock brine aquifer of Permian age. The continuous extraction of freshwater mainly for irrigation in this area has accelerated the upward movement of the saltwater, resulting in the deterioration of water quality. Predicting saltwater upconing is critical for maintaining a long-term supply of water of good quality to

  14. Calibrated models as management tools for stream-aquifer systems: the case of central Kansas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marios Sophocleous; Samuel P. Perkins

    1993-01-01

    We address the problem of declining streamflows in interconnected stream-aquifer systems and explore possible management options to address the problem for two areas of central Kansas: the Arkansas River valley from Kinsley to Great Bend and the lower Rattlesnake Creek Quivira National Wildlife Refuge area. The approach we followed implements, calibrates, and partially validates for the study areas a stream-aquifer

  15. Arsenic and fluoride in a loess aquifer in the central area of Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Gomez; M. T. Blarasin; D. E. Martínez

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the geochemical conditions associated with the presence of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in the phreatic aquifer of Coronel Moldes, in the central sector of the Argentine Chacopampean plain. The studied aquifer is composed of silty sand sediments of aeolian origin, typically loess-like sediments. The geochemical composition of water varies from sodium

  16. Investigating groundwater flow between Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Wong, C I; Kromann, J S; Hunt, B B; Smith, B A; Banner, J L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of communication between aquifers can be challenging when using traditional physical and geochemical groundwater sampling approaches. This study uses two multiport wells completed within Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas to determine the degree of groundwater inter-flow between adjacent aquifers. Potentiometric surfaces, hydraulic conductivities, and groundwater major ion concentrations and Sr isotope values were measured from multiple zones within three hydrostratigraphic units (Edwards and Upper and Middle Trinity aquifers). Physical and geochemical data from the multiport wells were combined with historical measurements of groundwater levels and geochemical compositions from the region to characterize groundwater flow and identify controls on the geochemical compositions of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. Our results suggest that vertical groundwater flow between Edwards and Middle Trinity aquifers is likely limited by low permeability, evaporite-rich units within the Upper and Middle Trinity. Potentiometric surface levels in both aquifers vary with changes in wet vs. dry conditions, indicating that recharge to both aquifers occurs through distinct recharge areas. Geochemical compositions in the Edwards, Upper, and Middle Trinity aquifers are distinct and likely reflect groundwater interaction with different lithologies (e.g., carbonates, evaporites, and siliceous sediments) as opposed to mixing of groundwater between the aquifers. These results have implications for the management of these aquifers as they indicate that, under current conditions, pumping of either aquifer will likely not induce vertical cross-formational flow between the aquifers. Inter-flow between the Trinity and the Edwards aquifers, however, should be reevaluated as pumping patterns and hydrogeologic conditions change. PMID:24033308

  17. Hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Spechler, Rick M.; McGurk, Brian E.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the relation of the Lower Floridan aquifer to the framework of the Floridan aquifer system were evaluated during a 6-year (1995-2001) study. The study area, a 7,500 square-mile area of east-central Florida, is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a carbonate-rock aquifer system composed of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer, is the major source of water supply to east-central Florida. The Upper Floridan aquifer provides much of the water required to meet the current (2002) demand; however, the Lower Floridan aquifer is being used increasingly as a source of freshwater, particularly for municipal needs. For this reason, a better understanding of the aquifer is needed. The Lower Floridan aquifer is present throughout east-central Florida. The aquifer is composed of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite, and is characterized by abundant fractured dolomite zones and solution cavities. The altitude of the top of the Lower Floridan aquifer ranges from less than 600 feet below sea level in the northern part of the study area to more than 1,600 feet below sea level in the southwestern part. Thickness of the unit ranges from about 910 to 1,180 feet. The top of the Lower Floridan aquifer generally is marked by an increase in formation resistivity and by an increase in the occurrence of fractures and solution cavities within the carbonates. Also, a noticeable increase in borehole flow often marks the top of the unit. The bottom of the Lower Floridan aquifer is based on the first occurrence of evaporites. Ground-water in the Lower Floridan aquifer generally moves in a southwest-to-northeast direction across the study area. In September 1998, the altitude of the potentiometric surface of the Lower Floridan aquifer ranged from about 16 to 113 feet above sea level, and altitudes in May 1999 were about 2 to 7 feet lower than those measured in September 1998. The potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer system is constantly fluctuating, mainly in response to seasonal variations in rainfall and ground-water withdrawals. Seasonal fluctuations in the Lower Floridan aquifer typically range from about 2 to 10 feet. Water samples from 50 Lower Floridan aquifer wells were collected during this study. Most samples were analyzed in the field for temperature, pH, and specific conductance, and in the laboratory for major cations and anions. Specific conductance ranged from 147 to 6,710 microsiemens per centimeter. Chloride concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 2,188 milligrams per liter; sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 750 milli-grams per liter; and hardness ranged from 69 to 940 milligrams per liter. Water was least mineralized in the recharge areas of the Lower Floridan aquifer in the western part of the study area. The most mineralized water in the Lower Floridan aquifer occurred along parts of the Wekiva and St. Johns Rivers and in much of the eastern and southern parts of the study area. The altitude of the base of freshwater in the Floridan aquifer system (where chloride concentrations are equal to 250 milligrams per liter) is variable throughout the study area. The estimated position of the 250 milligram per liter isochlor surface is less than 200 feet below sea level in much of the eastern part of the study area, including the areas along the St. Johns River in Lake, Seminole, and Volusia Counties and near the Wekiva River in western Seminole County. The altitude of the 250 milligram per liter isochlor exceeds 3,000 feet below sea level in the extreme southwestern part of the study area.

  18. Hydrologic Properties of Aquifers in the Central Savannah River Area

    SciTech Connect

    Snipes, D.S.; Benson, S.M.; Price Jr., Van; Temples, T.J.

    1996-01-02

    The hydrologic properties of selected aquifer systems underlying the Milhaven and Girard sites in Georgia were determined through a series of aquifer performance tests performed from October, 1994 to January, 1995. At the Milhaven site, the systems under investigation consisted of the upper, middle and lower components of the Upper Floridan, the lower Dublin, and the lower Midville aquifers. At the Dublin site, only the lower Dublin and lower Midville aquifers were tested. In addition, the hydrologic properties of the lower Midville aquifer underlying the P, B and D Areas at the Savannah River Site were determined by a series of aquifer tests conducted in 1993 and 1994. The tests generally consisted of collecting water level and atmospheric data for 24 hours followed by a 72 hour pump test and a subsequent 72 hour recovery period. These tests were designed to determine the aquifer properties over a large area, to determine whether any hydrologic boundaries existed in the area, and to find out if leakance could be induced through the confining units which separated the aquifer units.

  19. Geohydrology and simulation of steady-state flow conditions in regional aquifer systems in Cretaceous and older rocks underlying Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signor, D.C.; Helgesen, J.O.; Jorgensen, D.G.; Leonard, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three regional aquifers systems are the basis for describing the geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the central United States. The Great Plains aquifer system, composed of Lower Cretaceous sandstone, generally contains brackish water (1,000 to 10,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids); the Western Interior Plains aquifer system of lower Paleozoic rocks contains saline water and is laterally adjacent to the freshwater-bearing Ozark Plateaus aquifer system composed of rocks of the same age.

  20. Earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms in central Oklahoma reveal a complex system of reactivated subsurface strike-slip faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.; Bergman, Eric A.; Earle, Paul S.; Holland, Austin F.; Baldwin, Randy W.; Gassner, A.

    2015-01-01

    The sharp increase in seismicity over a broad region of central Oklahoma has raised concern regarding the source of the activity and its potential hazard to local communities and energy industry infrastructure. Since early 2010, numerous organizations have deployed temporary portable seismic stations in central Oklahoma in order to record the evolving seismicity. In this study, we apply a multiple-event relocation method to produce a catalog of 3,639 central Oklahoma earthquakes from late 2009 through 2014. RMT source parameters were determined for 195 of the largest and best-recorded earthquakes. Combining RMT results with relocated seismicity enabled us to determine the length, depth and style-of-faulting occurring on reactivated subsurface fault systems. Results show that the majority of earthquakes occur on near vertical, optimally oriented (NE-SW and NW-SE), strike-slip faults in the shallow crystalline basement. These are necessary first order observations required to assess the potential hazards of individual faults in Oklahoma.

  1. Geologic history and hydrogeologic setting of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.A.; Bush, P.W.; Baker, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system is in Lower Cretaceous rocks that underlie about 42,000 square miles of west-central Texas. From predominately terrigenous clastic sediments in the east and fluvial-deltaic (terrestrial) deposits in the west, the rocks of early Trinitian age grade upward into supratidal evaporitic and dolomitic strata, intertidal limestone and dolomite rock, and shallow- marine, open-shelf, and reefal strata of late Trinitian, Fredericksburgian, and Washitan age. The aquifers are the Edwards aquifer of the Balcones fault zone, the Trinity aquifer of the Balcones fault zone and Hill Country, and the Edwards- Trinity aquifer of the Edwards Plateau and Trans- Pecos. The Navarro-Del Rio confining unit overlies the subcrop of the Edwards aquifer; the Hammett con- fining unit is within the updip, basal part of the Trinity aquifer and a small southeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer. Transmissivity values average less than 10,000 feet squared per day over more than 90 percent of the study area because of widespread cementation, recrystallization, and mineral replacement. However, fractured and leached rocks in the Balcones fault zone cause transmissivity values to average about 750,000 feet squared per day in the Edwards aquifer, which occupies less than 10 percent of the study area.

  2. Geohydrology and numerical simulation of the alluvium and terrace aquifer along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the Panhandle to Canton Lake, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Robert E.; Christenson, Scott C.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative description of the hydrologic system in alluvium and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River in northwestern Oklahoma is needed as a aid for planning and management of the aquifer. A two-dimensional finite-difference model was used to describe the aquifer and to predict the effects of future ground-water withdrawals. The aquifer principally consists of three geologic units: Alluvium with an average thickness of 30 feet, low terrace deposits with an average thickness of 50 feet, and high terrace deposits with an average thickness of 70 feet. A thin cover of dune sand overlies much of the area and provides an excellent catchment for recharge, but is generally unsaturated. Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer ranges from 0 to 160 feet per day and average 59 feet per day. Specific yield is estimated to be 0.29. Recharge to the aquifer is approximately 1 inch annually. Under present conditions (1978), most discharge is the result of ground-water flow to the Beaver-North Canadian River at a rate of 36 cubic feet per second and to pumpage for public-supply, industrial, and irrigation use at a rate of 28 cubic feet per second. In 1978, the aquifer had an average saturated thickness of 31 feet and contained 4.07 million acre-feet of water. The model was used to predict future head response in the aquifer to various pumping stresses. For any one area, the pumping stress was applied until the saturated thickness for that area was less than 5 feet, at which time the pumping ceased. The results of the modeled projections show that if the aquifer is stressed from 1978 to 1993 at the 1977 pumpage rates and well distribution, the average saturated thickness will decrease 1.0 foot and the volume of water in storage will be 3.94 million acre-feet, or 97 percent of the 1978 volume. If the aquifer is stressed at this same rate until 2020, the average saturated thickness will decrease an additional 0.7 foot and the volume of water in storage will be 3.84 million acre-feet, or 94 percent of the 1978 volume. If all areas of the aquifer having a 1978 saturated thickness of 5 feet or more are stressed from 1978 to 1993 at a rate of approximately 1.4 acre-feet per acre per year, the average saturated thickness will decrease by 20.9 feet and the volume of water in storage will be 1.28 million acre-feet, or 31 percent of the 1978 volume. If the aquifer is stressed at this same rate until 2020, the average saturated thickness will decrease an additional 2.2 feet and the volume of water in storage will be 980,000 acre-feet, or 24 percent of the 1978 volume. The water in the aquifer is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type and is suitable for most uses. Most of the 30 water samples analyzed contained less than 500 milligrams of dissolved solids per liter.

  3. Growth of Cities and Loss of Streams: Land Cover Change Impacts on Stream Channel Loss in Central Oklahoma from 1874 to 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Oklahoma has undergone substantial land cover changes since the 1800’s. Accordingly, regional watersheds have been covered by impervious surfaces, peripheral agricultural areas have been subdivided or intensified, and large reservoirs have been constructed. Here, we...

  4. Arsenic and fluoride in a loess aquifer in the central area of Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Gomez; M. T. Blarasin; D. E. Martínez

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the geochemical conditions associated with the presence of arsenic (As) and fluoride\\u000a (F) in the phreatic aquifer of Coronel Moldes, in the central sector of the Argentine Chacopampean plain. The studied aquifer\\u000a is composed of silty sand sediments of aeolian origin, typically loess-like sediments. The geochemical composition of water\\u000a varies from sodium

  5. Occurrence of nitrous oxide in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Bruch, B.W.; Becker, M.F.; Pope, L.M.; Dennehy, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-enriched groundwater has been proposed as an important anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), yet few measurements of N2O in large aquifer systems have been made. Concentrations of N2O in water samples collected from the 124 000 km2 central High Plains aquifer in 1999 ranged from < 1 to 940 nM, with a median concentration of 29 nM (n = 123). Eighty percent of the N20 concentrations exceeded the aqueous concentration expected from equilibration with atmospheric N2O. Measurements of N2O, NO3-, and 3H in unsaturated-zone sediments, recently recharged groundwater, and older groundwater indicate that concentrations of N2O in groundwater increased over time and will likely continue to increase in the future as N-enriched water recharges the aquifer. Large concentrations of O2 and NO3- and small concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic carbon in the aquifer indicate that N2O in the central High Plains aquifer was produced primarily by nitrification. Calculations indicate that the flux of N2O from the central High Plains aquifer to the atmosphere from well pumping and groundwater discharge to streams was not a significant source of atmospheric N2O.Nitrogen-enriched groundwater has been proposed as an important anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), yet few measurements of N2O in large aquifer systems have been made. Concentrations of N2O in water samples collected from the 124000 km2 central High Plains aquifer in 1999 ranged from < 1 to 940 nM, with a median concentration of 29 nM (n = 123). Eighty percent of the N2O concentrations exceeded the aqueous concentration expected from equilibration with atmospheric N2O. Measurements of N2O, NO3-, and 3H in unsaturated-zone sediments, recently recharged groundwater, and older groundwater indicate that concentrations of N2O in groundwater increased over time and will likely continue to increase in the future as N-enriched water recharges the aquifer. Large concentrations of O2 and NO3- and small concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic carbon in the aquifer indicate that N2O in the central High Plains aquifer was produced primarily by nitrification. Calculations indicate that the flux of N2O from the central High Plains aquifer to the atmosphere from well pumping and groundwater discharge to streams was not a significant source of atmospheric N2O.Water samples were collected from 92 domestic wells, 16 monitoring wells and 15 public-supply wells in the High Plains Aquifer in 1999, and concentrations of nitrous oxide were measured. The groundwater concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 940 nM. Concentrations expressed as a percent of saturation in water ranged from less than 10 to 9690%. A significant decrease was noted in N2O concentrations with increasing depth of the well screen below the water table, and a significant positive correlation was found between the concentrations of N2O and nitrate. The small area-averaged N2O emission rate for the aquifer indicated that it was not an important component of the atmospheric N2O budget, but the importance could increase as groundwater N2O concentrations increase.

  6. Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer of central Israel, its development and possible use as a storage reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1964-01-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian formations constitute a highly permeable dolomite and limestone aquifer in central Israel. The aquifer is on the west limb of an anticlinorium that trends north-northeast. In places it may be as much as 800 meters thick, but in the report area, largely the foothills of the Judean-Ephraim Mountains where the water development is most intensive, its thickness is generally considerably less. In some places the aquifer occurs at or near the land surface, or it is covered by sandy and gravelly coastal-plain deposits. However, in a large part of the area, it is overlain by as much as 400 meters of relatively impermeable strata, and it is probably underlain by less permeable Lower Cretaceous strata. In general the aquifer water is under artesian pressure. The porosity of the aquifer is characterized mainly by solution channels and cavities produced by jointing and faulting. In addition to the generally high permeability of the aquifer, some regions, which probably coincide with ancient drainage patterns and (or) fault zones, have exceptionally high permeabilities. The source of most of the water in the aquifer is believed to be rain that falls on the foothills area. The westward movement of ground water from the mountainous outcrop areas appears to be impeded by a zone of low permeability which is related to structural and stratigraphic conditions along the western side of the mountains. Gradients of the piezometric surface are small, and the net direction of water movement is westward and northwestward under natural conditions. Locally, however, the flow pattern may be in other directions owing to spatial variations in permeability in the aquifer, the location of natural discharge outlets, and the relation of the aquifer to adjacent geologic formations. There probably is also a large vertical component of flow. Pumping has modified the flow pattern by producing several irregularly shaped shallow depressions in the piezometric surface although, to date, no unwatering of the aquifer has occurred. In the central part of the area, pumping has induced some infiltration from overlying coastal-plain formations. Injecting and storing surplus water seasonally in the aquifer should be feasible at almost any place. However, the movement and recovery of the injected water probably could be controlled most easily if the water were injected where depressions have been formed in the piezometric surface.

  7. Artificial recharge to the Floridan aquifer system, Orlando Area, Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, E.R.; Bradner, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 400 drainage wells exist in Orange County, central Florida. The rate of recharge through drainage wells is limited by the rate of surface flow to the wells; the hydraulic properties of weirs, overflow pipes, and well casings; or the water level above the top of the casing. The rate commonly is not limited by the hydraulic properties of the very transmissive aquifer system.

  8. Statistical analysis of stream water-quality data and sampling network design near Oklahoma City, central Oklahoma, 1977-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, Mark E.; Payne, Gregory A.; Andrews, William J.; Abbott, Marvin M.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality data collected from 1993-99 at five sites on Bluff, Deer, and Chisholm Creeks and from 1988-99 at five sites in the North Canadian River indicated that there were significant differences in constituent values among sites for water properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, turbidity, pesticides, and bacteria. Concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate generally decreased as streams flowed through the Oklahoma City urban area. Concentrations of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, lindane, and 2,4-D, and frequencies of detection of pesticides increased in the North Canadian River as it flowed through the urban area. Volatile organic compounds were not detected in samples collected quarterly from 1988-90 at sites on the North Canadian River. Concentrations of some compounds, including dissolved oxygen, sulfate, chloride, ammonia, manganese, diazinon, dieldrin, and fecal coliform bacteria periodically exceeded Federal or state water-quality standards at some sites. Regression analyses were used to identify trends in constituent concentrations related to streamflow, season, and time. Trends for some constituents were indicated at all sites, but most trends were site-specific. Seasonal trends were evident for several constituents: suspended solids, organic nitrogen, and biochemical oxygen demand were greatest during summer. Dissolved oxygen, ammonia, and nitrite plus nitrate-nitrogen were greatest during winter. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, fluoride, sulfate, total suspended solids, iron, and manganese generally increased with time. Concentrations of chloride, nitrite plus nitrate-nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate, biochemical oxygen demand, dieldrin, and lindane decreased with time. There was relatively little change in land use from the late 1970s to the mid-1990s due to relatively modest rates of population growth in the study area during that period. Most changes in water quality in these streams and rivers may be due to changes in chemical use and wastewater treatment practices. The sampling network was evaluated with respect to areal coverage, sampling frequency, and analytical schedules. Areal coverage could be expanded to include one additional watershed that is not part of the current network. A new sampling site on the North Canadian River might be useful because of expanding urbanization west of the city, but sampling at some other sites could be discontinued or reduced based on comparisons of data between the sites. Additional real-time or periodic monitoring for dissolved oxygen may be useful to prevent anoxic conditions in pools behind new low-water dams. The sampling schedules, both monthly and quarterly, are adequate to evaluate trends, but additional sampling during flow extremes may be needed to quantify loads and evaluate water quality during flow extremes. Emerging water-quality issues may require sampling for volatile organic compounds, sulfide, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, Escherichia coli, and enterococci, as well as use of more sensitive laboratory analytical methods for determination of cadmium, mercury, lead, and silver.

  9. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in North-Central Oklahoma: 1992-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Schwartz, S.; Denn, F.; Flynn, C.; Hodges, G.; Kiedron, P.; Koontz, A.; Schlemmer, J., and Schwartz, S. E

    2010-04-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloud-screening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun's elevation is greater than 9.25{sup o}. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

  10. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in north?central Oklahoma: 1992–2008

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, Joseph J.; Denn, Frederick; Flynn, Connor J.; Hodges, G. B.; Kiedron, Piotr; Koontz, Annette S.; Schlemmer, James; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2010-04-13

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow?band, interference?filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloudscreening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun’s elevation is greater than 9.25°. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month?by?month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

  11. Appraisal of the Pelican River sand-plain aquifer, west-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    The Pelican River sand-plain area includes approximately 200 squares miles of outwash deposits in parts of Becker, Otter Trail, and Clay Counties in west-central Minnesota. Saturated thickness of the outwash is as much as 140 feet and yields and properly constructed wells locally may exceed 1,200 gallons per minute. Recharge to the outwash from snowmelt and rain ranged from 3.2 to 6.1 inches in 1979-80. Discharge from the aquifer, as base flow of the Pelican River averaged 2.0 inches for 1979-80. Evapotranspiration is 22.4 inches per year. The chemical quality of ground-water is suitable for irrigation as measured by sodium-adsorption ratios, but locally high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate may cause clogging of well screens. Mathematical models of parts of the ground-water-flow system indicate that lake levels and streamflow may decline due to pumping wells. The exact water-level decline is dependent on the total number of wells, pumping rates, location of pumping wells with respect to one another and surface-water bodies, duration of pumping, and the amount of ground-water recharge. Sensitivity analyses of the models indicates that additional data on hydraulic conductivity, evapotranspiration, and recharge may increase the reliability of model results. Buried aquifers are known to be present in the area. Aquifer-test results showed that pumping from a buried aquifer had no effect on water levels in the unconfined aquifer. (USGS)

  12. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 147 micrograms per liter. Both samples had alkaline pH values, 8.0 and 8.4, respectively. Uranium concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 383 micrograms per liter with 5 of 20 samples exceeding the Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter; the five wells with uranium concentrations exceeding 30 micrograms per liter had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and gross alpha-particle activity showed a positive relation to pH, with the highest concentrations and activity in samples having pH values of 8.0 or above. The groundwater samples contained dissolved oxygen and high concentrations of bicarbonate; these characteristics are also factors in increasing uranium solubility. Concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 (combined) ranged from 0.03 to 1.7 picocuries per liter, with a median concentration of 0.45 picocuries per liter for all samples. Radon-222 concentrations ranged from 95 to 3,600 picocuries per liter with a median concentration of 261 picocuries per liter. Eight samples having pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.7 exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picocuries per liter for radon-222. Eight samples exceeded the 15 picocuries per liter Maximum Contaminant Level for gross alpha-particle activity at 72 hours (after sample collection) and at 30 days (after the initial count); those samples had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Gross beta-particle activity increased in 15 of 21 samples during the interval from 72 hours to 30 days. The increase in gross beta-particle activity over time probably was caused by the ingrowth and decay of uranium daughter products that emit beta particles. Water-quality data collected for this study indicate that pH values above 8.0 are associated with potentially high concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and high gross alpha-particle activity in the study area. High pH values also are associated with potentially high concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and selenium in groundwater when these elements oc

  13. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model area is the High Plains aquifer; the principal aquifer in the remaining part of the Elkhorn-Loup model area is an unnamed alluvial aquifer. The upper surface of the geologic units that directly underlie the aquifer is called the 'base of aquifer' in this report. The geologic unit that forms the base of aquifer in the Elkhorn-Loup model area varies by location. The Tertiary-age Brule Formation generally is the base of aquifer in the west; the Cretaceous-age Pierre Shale generally is the base of aquifer in the east. The purpose of this report is to update the altitude and configuration of the base of the principal aquifer in the Elkhorn-Loup model area and a 2-mile buffer area around the Elkhorn-Loup model area, using base-of-aquifer data from test holes, registered water wells, and oil and gas wells within the Elkhorn-Loup model area and a 20-mile buffer area around the Elkhorn-Loup model area that have become available since the publication of earlier maps of the base of aquifer for this area. The base-of-aquifer map is important for the Elkhorn-Loup ground-water flow model because it defines the model's lower boundary. The accuracy of the Elkhorn-Loup ground-water flow model and the accuracy of the model's predictions about the effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow are directly related to the accuracy of the model's lower boundary.

  14. Basin-scale geohydrologic drought flow features of riparian aquifers in the southern Great Plains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfried Brutsaert; James P. Lopez

    1998-01-01

    Low-streamflow hydrographs from 22 subbasins in the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) Washita River Experimental Watershed complex in central Oklahoma were subjected to recession slope analysis; this method, after that of Brutsaert and Nieber [1977], was derived from a Dupuit-Boussinesq formulation for the groundwater outflows from the adjoining phreatic aquifers. The long-time aquifer response characteristics were generally found

  15. Potential for downward leakage to the Floridan Aquifer, Green Swamp area, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative evaluation of the potential for downward leakage from the surficial sand aquifer to the underlying Floridan aquifer was made for the Green Swamp area (about 870 sq mi) in central Florida. Downward leakage, or recharge, is limited under natural conditions owing to the nearness to land surface of the potentiometric surface of both the sand aquifer and the underlying Floridan aquifer. Continuous cores of the unconsolidated section were obtained at 74 sites in the study area and were evaluated for downward leakage potential based on grain-size distribution. Sand percentage was estimated for each interval or bed from microscopic examination of the core samples. The four maps prepared from this data show sand thickness, clay thickness, relative vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds and the relative potential for downward leakage. About 20 percent (178 sq mi) of the area classified has a relatively good potential for downward leakage; almost 50 percent of the area has a relatively poor potential. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma. Ground water in 830 square miles of the Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace aquifer is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer consists of poorly sorted, fine to coarse, unconsolidated quartz sand with minor amounts of clay, silt, and basal gravel. The hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits unconformably overlie the Tertiary-age Ogallala Formation and Permian-age formations. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary and recharge data sets and some of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity data set were extracted from a published digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of 1:250,000. The ground-water elevation contours and some of the lines for the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were digitized from a ground-water modeling report about the aquifer published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values and recharge rates also are from the ground-water modeling report. The data sets are provided in both nonproprietary and ARC/INFO export file formats. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  17. A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 49 synthetic organic compounds. Ten pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the upstream site and seven pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the downstream site. Pesticides detected at both sites were atrazine, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and trans-nonachlor. Additionally at the upstream site, heptachlor, pentachlorophenol, and prometon were detected. The pesticide metabolites p,p'-DDE, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane also were detected at both sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds aroclor-1016/1242, aroclor-1254, and aroclor-1260 were detected at both sites. The upstream site had 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon detections and the downstream site had 8 detections. Because of chromatographic interference during analysis, a positive identification of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could not be made. Consequently, there may have been a greater number of these compounds detected at both sites. A total of 36 synthetic organic compounds were detected at the two sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The upstream site had 21 synthetic organic compound detections: three detergent metabolites, two fecal indicators, three flame retardants, seven industrial compounds, five compounds related to personal care products, and beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol. Fifteen synthetic organic compounds were detected at the downstream site and included: one fecal indicator, three flame retardants, six industrial compounds, and five compounds related to personal care products.

  18. A study of the relationship between certain moisture parameters and severe convective storms in central Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Scott, Carven Allen

    1977-01-01

    for 1800 CST ?6 April 1970. 29 11. LPW chart (from 1934-2000 CST) 26 April 1970. . . 12. UPW chart (from 1934-2000 CST) 26 April 1970. . . 13. Plot for 0' tilt angle for 1815 CST 26 April 1970. . . 30 31 33 14. Plot of PVIL centers for the storm... storm events associated with the storm system on this evening, but the one of interest occurred, according to Storm Data, at Lawton, Oklahoma, 61 nm southwest of the NSSL radar site at 1815 CST. Gusty winds estimated at 70 kts turned over...

  19. Ground-Water Data for the Alluvial, Buried Channel, Basel Pleistocene and Dakota Aquifer in West-Central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Pamela K.B.; Runkle, Donna L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the availability, quantity and quality of groundwater from three principal aquifers in West-Central Iowa, the alluvial, buried channel, Basal Pleistocene and the Dakota aquifers. Specific objectives were to: (1) determine the location, extent and the nature of these aquifers; (2) evaluate the occurrence and movement of groundwater, including the sources of recharge and discharge; (3) estimate the quantities of water stored in the aquifers; (4) estimate the potential yields of wells tapping the aquifers; (5) estimate the water use; and (6) describe the chemical quality of the groundwater. This report is the compilation of the data collected during the investigation and has the purpose of providing a reference for an interpretive report describing groundwater resources and a bedrock topography map of the study area.

  20. Data for ground-water test hole near Butte City, Central Valley aquifer project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides preliminary data for the third of seven test holes drilled as part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 1 W., Glenn County, California, about one-half mile south of the town of Butte City. Drilled to a depth of 1,432 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 82 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 592 feet, 968 feet, and 1,330 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer , and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Nine cores and 49 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, and chemical quality of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  1. Data for ground-water test hole near Nicolaus, Central Valley aquifer project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary data are provided for the third of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 2, T.12N., R.3E., Sutter County, California, about 1 1/2 miles northwest of the town of Nicolaus. Drilled to a depth of 1,150 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 100 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 311, 711, and 1,071 feet. A 5-foot well screen is set in sand at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer, and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Thirty-one cores and 34 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for minerology, consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis of the three tapped zones and measured for water level. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  2. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  3. Aquifer mineralogy and natural radionuclides in groundwater-the lower Paleozoic of central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.; Tieh, T.T. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ledger, E.B. [Stephen F. Austin Univ., Nacogdoches, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Water-mineral interactions in an aquifer may give rise to high levels of Ra and Rn in groundwater. An understanding of aquifer mineralogy is therefore essential to determine the sources of natural radionuclides and design possible means for improving water quality. Anomalous Ra and Rn concentrations have been detected in groundwater produced from the Cambrian Hickory and Cap Mountain aquifers in the Llano Uplift area of central Texas. This study examines cored aquifer rock samples, focusing on the abundance, distribution, and nature of occurrence of minerals containing U and Th, parent nuclides of Ra Rn. The Hickory, 136 m thick, consists of a coarse grained lower, a calcareous middle, and a fossiliferous and hematitic upper unit, with thin shale laminae thoughout. The Cap Mountain, 44 m thick, is a sandy limestone. Detrital materials are composed of 77% quartz, 19% feldspars, and 4% lithic fragments. Accessory minerals average less than 1%. Authigenic minerals, primarily carbonate, clay, and Fe-oxide minerals, make up 18% of the bulk rock. Porosity is of secondary origin. Analysis of U in 123 samples by delayed neutron counting shows an average concentration of 3.6 ppm. Shaly samples generally contain significantly higher U. Gamma ray spectrometric analysis of Th in 20 samples yields an average of 13.9 ppm. Fission-track imaging shows that U occurs predominantly in: (1) phosphatic fossil fragments and intraclasts, especially in the Cap Mountain; (2) thin shaly laminae which are more abundant in the Hickory; (3) authigenic minerals including hematite and clay minerals, also common in the Hickory; and (4) detrital accessory minerals. Mobilization of U and its decay products by groundwater can account for the Ra and Rn in the produced water, particularly from intervals where there are high concentrations of shaly laminae, phosphatic materials, or hematitic cement.

  4. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater in the central part of the Dakota (Great Plains) aquifer, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosselin, D.C.; Harvey, F.E.; Frost, C.; Stotler, R.; Macfarlane, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota aquifer of the central and eastern Great Plains of the United States is an important source of water for municipal supplies, irrigation and industrial use. Although the regional flow system can be characterized generally as east to northeasterly from the Rocky Mountains towards the Missouri River, locally the flow systems are hydrologically complex. This study uses Sr isotopic data from groundwater and leached aquifer samples to document the complex subsystems within the Dakota aquifer in Nebraska and Kansas. The interaction of groundwater with the geologic material through which it flows has created spatial patterns in the isotopic measurements that are related to: long-term water-rock interaction, during which varying degrees of isotopic equilibrium between water and rock has been achieved; and the alteration of NaCl fluids by water-rock interaction. Specifically, Sr isotopic data distinguish brines from Kansas and western Nebraska from those in eastern Nebraska: the former are interpreted to reflect interaction with Permian rocks, whereas the latter record interaction with Pennsylvanian rocks. The Sr isotopic composition of groundwater from other parts of Nebraska and Kansas are a function of the dynamic interaction between groundwater and unlithified sediments (e.g., glacial till and loess), followed by interaction with oxidized and unoxidized sediments within the Dakota Formation. This study illustrates the power of combining Sr chemistry with more conventional geochemical data to obtain a more complete understanding of groundwater flow systems within regional aquifer systems where extensive monitoring networks do not exist. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrochemistry of aquifer systems and relation to regional flow patterns in Cretaceous and older rocks underlying Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Claud H., Jr.; Leonard, Robert B.

    1995-01-01

    Aquifer systems in Cretaceous and older rocks of the Central Midwest are divided on the basis of hydrochemistry and ground-water flow patterns in the Plains subregion, the Western Interior Plains aquifer system contains sodium chloride type water with large concentrations of dissolved solids. Ion ratios suggest that the water was derived from seawater by concentration and by depletion of calcium and sulfate ions. In the overlying Western Interior Plains confining system, concentrations of depositional sea water and dissolution of extensive evaporite deposits have resulted in sodium chloride type water with large concentrations of dissolved solids and sodium. Overlying this confining system in the northwest part of the study area, the Great Plains aquifer system yields water that generally is less mineralized and more variable in water type than the underlying systems. Recharge of meteoric water, concentration of brackish water in which the rocks were deposited, and dissolution of underlying evaporite deposits have contributed to the observed water chemistry. The Great Plains confining system restricts the exchange of water between the underlying Great Plains aquifer system and the overlying unconfined aquifers. In the Ozark subregion, geological units equivalent to the Western Interior Plains aquifer system comprise the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. Units of this aquifer system are exposed at the land surface, and fresh meteoric water moves rapidly through fractures and solution openings. Water chemistry in this system reflects primarily the dissolution of the predominately carbonate rocks.

  6. Hydrologic maps of Ogallala Aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1979-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spinazola, Joseph M.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical technique, called kriging, was programmed for a computer to interpolate hydrologic data based on a network of measured values in west-central Kansas. The computer program generated estimated values at the center of each 1-mile section in the Western Kansas Groundwater Management District No. 1 and facilitated contouring of selected hydrologic data that are needed in the effective management of ground water for irrigation. The kriging technique produced various maps that illustrated hydrologic conditions in the Ogallala aquifer, the principal source of water in west-central Kansas. Maps of the aquifer, which use a 3-year average, included the 1979-81 water-table altitudes, which ranged from about 2,580 to 3,720 feet; the 1979-81 saturated thicknesses, which ranged from about 0 to 250 feet; and the percentage changes in saturated thickness from 1950 to 1979-81, which ranged from about a 40-percent increase to a 100-percent decrease. A map showing errors of estimate also was provided as a measure of reliability for the 1979-81 water-table altitudes. Errors of estimate ranged from 2 to 24 feet. (USGS)

  7. Arsenic and fluoride in a loess aquifer in the central area of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, M. L.; Blarasin, M. T.; Martínez, D. E.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the geochemical conditions associated with the presence of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in the phreatic aquifer of Coronel Moldes, in the central sector of the Argentine Chacopampean plain. The studied aquifer is composed of silty sand sediments of aeolian origin, typically loess-like sediments. The geochemical composition of water varies from sodium bicarbonate to sodium sulfate-chloride water. As contents range from low concentrations, below detection level, to 250 ?g/l. High values of F (up to 12 mg/l) were recorded. A high As-F correlation was found ( R 2 = 0.84). The pH varied from 7.31 to 8.85 and the nitrates reached concentrations up to 200 mg/l, indicating an oxidant environment. The highest values of As and F agreed with sodium bicarbonate waters as well as with the highest values of pH recorded. There was a high correlation between As and F- as well as between As and the Na/Ca ratio. The composition and texture of loess, low permeability and hydraulic gradients together with the geochemical features of sodium bicarbonate waters are proper conditions for the mobilization of As and F in groundwater in the central area of Argentina.

  8. Microbial Abundance and Activity in a Low-Conductivity Aquifer System in East-Central Texas

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    H and high sulfate contents argue for oxidation of pyrite in or near the shallow aquifer. This pyrite oxidation supplies sulfate to deeper aquifers. Pyrite from the deep aquifer sediments, with the greatest and sulfur in the aquifer, but probably without substantial remineraliza- tion of pyrite in the formation

  9. Inter-seasonal variability in baseflow recession rates: The role of aquifer antecedent storage in central California watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, Ryan; Hope, Allen

    2014-11-01

    Baseflow recession rates vary inter-seasonally in many watersheds. This variability is generally associated with changes in evapotranspiration; however, an additional and less studied control over inter-seasonal baseflow recession rates is the effect of aquifer antecedent storage. Understanding the role of aquifer antecedent storage on baseflow recession rates is crucial for Mediterranean-climate regions, where seasonal asynchronicity of precipitation and energy levels produces large inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the relation between aquifer antecedent storage and baseflow recession rates in four central California watersheds using antecedent streamflow as a surrogate for watershed storage. In addition, a parsimonious storage-discharge model consisting of two nonlinear stores in parallel was developed as a heuristic tool for interpreting the empirical results and providing insight into how inter-seasonal changes in aquifer antecedent storage may affect baseflow recession rates. Antecedent streamflow cumulated from the beginning of the wateryear was found to be the strongest predictor of baseflow recession rates, indicating that inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage are a key control on baseflow recession rates in California watersheds. Baseflow recession rates and antecedent streamflow exhibited a negative power-law relation, with baseflow recession rates decreasing by up to two orders of magnitude as antecedent streamflow levels increased. Inference based on the storage-discharge model indicated that the dominant source of recession flow shifted from small, rapid response aquifers at the beginning of the wet season to large, seasonal aquifers as the wet season progressed. Aquifer antecedent storage in California watersheds should be accounted for along with evapotranspiration when characterizing baseflow recession rates.

  10. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and metamorphosed to some degree, thus rock types and their relationships vary over distance. Quaternary-age sediment and basalt compose the primary source of groundwater in the Wood River Valley aquifer system. These Quaternary deposits can be divided into three units: a coarse-grained sand and gravel unit, a fine-grained silt and clay unit, and a single basalt unit. The fine- and coarse-grained units were primarily deposited as alluvium derived from glaciation in the surrounding mountains and upper reaches of tributary canyons. The basalt unit is found in the southeastern Bellevue fan area and is composed of two flows of different ages. Most of the groundwater produced from the Wood River Valley aquifer system is from the coarse-grained deposits. The altitude of the pre-Quaternary bedrock surface in the Wood River Valley was compiled from about 1,000 well-driller reports for boreholes drilled to bedrock and about 70 Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) ambient-noise measurements. The bedrock surface generally mimics the land surface by decreasing down tributary canyons and the main valley from north to south; it ranges from more than 6,700 feet in Baker Creek to less than 4,600 feet in the central Bellevue fan. Most of the south-central portion of the Bellevue fan is underlain by an apparent topographically closed area on the bedrock surface that appears to drain to the southwest towards Stanton Crossing. Quaternary sediment thickness ranges from less than a foot on main and tributary valley margins to about 350 feet in the central Bellevue fan. Hydraulic conductivity for 81 wells in the study area was estimated from well-performance tests reported on well-driller reports. Estimated hydraulic conductivity for 79 wells completed in alluvium ranges from 1,900 feet per day (ft/d) along Warm Springs Creek to less than 1 ft/d in upper Croy Canyon. A well completed in bedrock had an estimated hydraulic conductivity value of 10 ft/d, one well completed in basalt had a value of 50 ft/d, and three wells completed in the confined system had values ranging from 32 to 52 ft/

  11. Geomorphic effects of rural-to-urban land use conversion on three streams in the Central Redbed Plains of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ranbir S.; Marston, Richard A.

    2006-09-01

    This research evaluates the impact of rural-to-urban land use conversion on channel morphology and riparian vegetation for three streams in the Central Redbed Plains geomorphic province (central Great Plains ecoregion) of Oklahoma. The Deep Fork Creek watershed is largely urbanized; the Skeleton Creek watershed is largely rural; and the Stillwater Creek watershed is experiencing a rapid transition from rural to urban land cover. Each channel was divided into reaches based on tributary junctions, sinuosity, and slope. Field surveys were conducted at transects in a total of 90 reaches, including measurements of channel units, channel cross-section at bankfull stage, and riparian vegetation. Historical aerial photographs were available for only Stillwater Creek watershed, which were used to document land cover in this watershed, especially changes in the extent of urban areas (impervious cover). The three streams have very low gradients (< 0.001), width-to-depth ratios < 10, and cohesive channel banks, but have incised into red Permian shales and sandstone. The riparian vegetation is dominated by cottonwoods, ash, and elm trees that provide a dense root mat on stream banks where the riparian vegetation is intact. Channels increased in width and depth in the downstream direction as is normally expected, but the substrate materials and channel units remained unchanged. Statistical analyses demonstrated that urbanization did not explain spatial patterns of changes in any variables. These three channels in the central Redbed Plains are responding as flumes during peak flows, funneling runoff and the wash-load sediment downstream in major runoff events without any effect on channel dimensions. Therefore, local geological conditions (similar bedrock, cohesive substrates and similar riparian vegetation) are mitigating the effects of urbanization.

  12. Estimation of heterogeneous aquifer parameters using centralized and decentralized fusion of hydraulic tomography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzraiee, A. H.; Baú, D.; Elhaddad, A.

    2014-08-01

    Characterization of spatial variability of hydraulic properties of groundwater systems at high resolution is essential to simulate flow and transport phenomena. This paper investigates two schemes to invert transient hydraulic head data resulting from multiple pumping tests for the purpose of estimating the spatial distributions of the hydraulic conductivity, K, and the specific storage, Ss, of an aquifer. The two methods are centralized fusion and decentralized fusion. The centralized fusion of transient data is achieved when data from all pumping tests are processed concurrently using a central inversion processor, whereas the decentralized fusion inverts data from each pumping test separately to obtain optimal local estimates of hydraulic parameters, which are consequently fused using the generalized Millman formula, an algorithm for merging multiple correlated or uncorrelated local estimates. For both data fusion schemes, the basic inversion processor employed is the ensemble Kalman filter, which is employed to assimilate the temporal moments of impulse response functions obtained from the transient hydraulic head measurements resulting from multiple pumping tests. Assimilating the temporal moments instead of the hydraulic head transient data themselves is shown to provide a significant improvement in computational efficiency. Additionally, different assimilation strategies to improve the estimation of Ss are investigated. Results show that estimation of the K and Ss distributions using temporal moment analysis is fairly good, and the centralized inversion scheme consistently outperforms the decentralized inversion scheme.

  13. Data for ground-water test hole near Zamora, Central Valley Aquifer Project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, J.J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented for the first of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 34, T. 12 N. , R. 1 E., Yolo County, California, about 3 miles northeast of the town of Zamora. Drilled to a depth of 2,500 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 190 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 947, 1,401, and 2,125 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Eighteen cores and 68 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, diatom identification, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  14. Effects of cereal production on nutrient dynamics of shallow, unconfined aquifers in central Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, S. A.; Sigler, W.; Weissmann, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of land management on groundwater chemistry are often poorly understood due to uncertainties in the connection between soil-vadose transport and groundwater recharge. In the Judith River Watershed of central Montana, decades of elevated and increasing groundwater nitrate may reflect both grassland soil organic matter mineralization upon cultivation and increasing N fertilizer use over time. Landform development and age are key to this connection because they determine aquifer character: Alluvial fans and strath terraces formed over the last two million years host shallow unconfined aquifers that are vulnerable to leaching in our study area, and are cultivated primarily for cereals, without irrigation. Solute and isotopic data from soils, well waters and emergent streams on characteristic landforms suggest that landform type and age, and the associated soil and vadose stratigraphy, are key determinants of hydrologic connection between soils and groundwater. We combine these data with conceptual models for nitrate leaching and groundwater flow to argue that solutes enter groundwater by dispersed recharge, as a function of seasonally rising water tables or increased infiltration that transports accumulated solutes from the soil-vadose zone. In leaching hot spots where fine textured soils are shallow to gravel, land management interacts with groundwater most intimately. Based on point measurements, we interpret larger scale effects of leaching using aerial imagery and satellite data.

  15. Hydrogeology of and potential mining impacts on strippable lignite areas in the Denver Aquifer, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, N.E.; Williams, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study describes the hydrogeology of and potential impacts of mining on strippable lignite areas in the Denver aquifer in the east-central Colorado plains. Strippable lignitic coal seams , 20 to 60 ft thick, are present in the Denver Formation. The Denver aquifer, the saturated part of the Denver Formation, is likely to be affected locally by surface mining of lignite. Transmissivity of the aquifer in the study area ranges from 145 to 1,000 mg/L to the northeast in the study area as, hydraulic head decreases from 6,600 to 5,400 ft. Distance-drawdown curves show the extent of water level drawdown near a dewatered surface mine. After reclamation of the lignite mine pit, flow through the lignite spoil pile may increase the dissolved solids concentrations in the Denver aquifer. This increase could occur, because, as water from rain and overland flow percolates through the newly-exposed rock surfaces in the spoil material, minerals from the overburden can be dissolved in the water, which then joins with water from the aquifer. This increase could locally change streams, springs, and alluvial and bedrock aquifers. (USGS)

  16. Ground-water flow analysis of the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, South-Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, J.K.; Taylor, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Mississippi Embayment aquifer system is composed of six regional aquifers covering about 160,000 square miles in parts of Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. The flow analysis presented in this report as part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study pertains to five aquifers in sediments of the Wilcox and Claiborne groups of Tertiary age. In descending order, the aquifers are (1) the upper Claiborne, (2) the middle Claiborne, (3) the lower Claiborne-upper Wilcox, (4) the middle Wilcox, and (5) the lower Wilcox. The flow analysis of the sixth aquifer in the aquifer system, the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer in sediments of Holocene and Pleistocene age, is presented in chapter D of this Professional Paper.

  17. Dissolved solids and sodium in water from the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krothe, Noel C.; Oliver, Joseph W.; Weeks, John B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer to provide: (1) Hydrologic information needed to evaluate the effects of continued ground-water development; and (2) computer models to predict aquifer response to changes in ground-water development. The plan of study for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis was described by Weeks (1978). A description of the High Plains aquifer and a map of the 1978 water table were presented by Gutentag and Weeks (1980). Maps of the bedrock geology, altitude of aquifer base, and saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer were published by Weeks and Gutentag (1981). Water-level and saturated-thickness changes, from predevelopment to 1980, were mapped by Luckey, Gutentag, and Weeks (1981). This report describes the areal distribution of dissolved solids and sodium in the water of the High Plains aquifer. Data used in this study were provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in each of the eight States in the High Plains. Their contribution is an integral part of this investigation.

  18. Rescuing degrading aquifers in the Central Coastal Plain of North Carolina (USA): Just process, effective groundwater management policy, and sustainable aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Alex K.; Klein, Wendy A.

    2014-07-01

    Strategic management of degrading coastal aquifers in eastern North Carolina (USA) became imperative after a severe imbalance occurred between withdrawal and recharge rates. To ameliorate this growing problem, an aggressive water policy was developed through public input by creating the Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA) to maintain beneficial use of groundwater resources. Insights from social psychology, and socio-legal studies are used to evaluate how procedural justice and public participation played major roles to resolving groundwater resource management problems. A mixed methods approach uses archival data and interviews with various rule-making participants to assess the process of stakeholder involvement that led to creation of the policy. In addition, data analysis techniques are utilized to evaluate the effects of the policy on aquifer health (through water levels) over a ˜10 year period. Results suggest that not only did a stakeholder group participate in a process that was deemed fair, understandable, and relatively easy to administer for users and regulators, but public participation resulted in an effective plan that ensures the long-term sustainable use of groundwater. Declining groundwater withdrawals and recovering water levels suggest that the rule is achieving its intended goal of protecting the aquifers from depletion and degradation. This paper touches on global themes that are essential to water demand and consumption, water management techniques, and water resources protection.

  19. Machine-readable files developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Machine-readable files were developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project are stored on two magnetic tapes available from the U.S. Geological Survey. The first tape contains computer programs that were used to prepare, store, retrieve, organize, and preserve the areal interpretive data collected by the project staff. The second tape contains 134 data files that can be divided into five general classes: (1) Aquifer geometry data, (2) aquifer and water characteristics , (3) water levels, (4) climatological data, and (5) land use and water use data. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Effects of paved surfaces on recharge to the Floridan aquifer in east-central Florida : a conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbals, C.H.

    1978-01-01

    The proportionate amount of surface area that can be paved in Floridan aquifer recharge areas in east-central Florida without reducing the net recharge to the Floridan aquifer is a function of many variables that include rainfall, depth to water table, depth to potentiometric surface of the Floridan, evaporation from paved areas, evapotranspiration from unpaved areas, runoff, pattern of paving, and leakance coefficient of the confining beds. Equations that incorporate those variables, except pattern of paving, are developed and coupled to produce a conceptual model that estimates relative amounts of water available for recharge and percentage of unpaved area below which Floridan aquifer recharge rates must increase. The model is not intended to be used as a basis for engineering design. Rather, its purpose is to show approximate mathematical interrelations of rainfall, runoff, evapotranspiration, percentage of paving, and Floridan aquifer recharge, and to make quantitative estimates of amounts of water available for Floridan aquifer recharge before and after paving. The allowable percentage of paving calculated in four examples ranges from 86.8 percent to 3.6 percent. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Oklahoma Today

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Published since the 1950s, Oklahoma Today is a production of several state agencies, and it is designed to showcase various cultural, historical, and social aspects of Oklahoma. Over the past several years, Oklahoma State University has digitized back issues of the magazine, and visitors can now read all the way back to the first issue from 1956. Visitors can browse back issues by decade, and they can also perform key-word searches. First-time visitors should start by reading through the spring 1960 issue, which contains pieces on rattlesnakes, Oklahoma wildflowers, and the Washington Irving Trail. While the name Washington Irving may not be commonly associated with Oklahoma, the author spent part of 1832 wandering through the state with a Native American guide. More recent issues feature profiles of singer Vince Gill and Route 66.

  2. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains (fig. 1A). Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers (fig. 2) knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone (fig. 3). However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer (figs. 1A and 1B). The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in the Ogallala Formation is separated from overlying land-use practices by as much as 400 feet of unsaturated sediments. Consequently, one may hypothesize that recently recharged water is not present in the formation. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a reconnaissance study in 1999 to establish (a) if recently recharged water was present in the Ogallala Formation underlying irrigated cropland and (b) if agricultural land-use practices affect water quality. Results from the reconnaissance study will be used to determine whether a full-scale land-use study is warranted.

  3. Percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1950 to average 1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dague, Barbara J.

    1985-01-01

    Continuing studies are being made in west-central Kansas to provide up-to-date information to aid in the management of groundwater for irrigation. This report presents the fifth in a series of studies that uses a statistical technique, called kriging, to produce hydrologic maps that are used as management tools. Kriging is a statistical technique that was used to interpolate water level altitudes at the center of each 1 sq mi section in the study area based on measured water levels at 165 observation wells. These interpolation altitudes (1,859 in all), along with bedrock surface and base year water table altitudes, were used to prepare a geohydrologic map illustrating percentage change in saturated thickness. Saturated thickness, as used in this report, is the thickness of the High Plains aquifer between the groundwater surface indicated by water table altitudes and the bedrock surface. Because irrigation development in west-central Kansas was minimal prior to 1950, the saturated thickness during 1950 represented a nearly static condition in the aquifer. Apparent increases in saturated thickness generally occurred in areas of sparse data or thin saturated thickness, and large errors were possible; therefore, zero and negative-change areas were not contoured. A decrease in saturated thickness of 100% may indicate that: (1) the aquifer has been dewatered, or (2) no saturated thickness occurred in that area during 1950. In general, percentage change in saturated thickness indicates the degree of stress on the aquifer in most areas due to irrigation pumpage. (Lantz-PTT)

  4. Percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1950 to average 1985-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dague, Barbara J.

    1987-01-01

    Continuing studies are being made in west-central Kansas to provide up-to-date information that will aid in the management of groundwater for irrigation. This report presents the results of the seventh in a series of studies that uses a statistical technique, called kriging, to produce hydrologic maps. The kriging technique interpolates water-level altitudes at the center of each 1-square-mile section in the study area on the basis of water-level measurements from 164 observation wells. These interpolated altitudes (1859 in all), along with bedrock-surface and base-year water-level altitudes were used to prepare a hydrologic map that illustrates percentage change in saturated thickness. Saturated thickness, as used in this report , is the thickness of the High Plains Aquifer between the groundwater surface, as indicated by water-level altitudes, and the bedrock surface. Because irrigation development in west-central Kansas was minimal prior to 1950, the saturated thickness during 1950 represented a nearly static condition in the aquifer. Thus, the decrease in saturated thickness of the aquifer since 1950 is related to the effects of irrigation withdrawals on the volume of water in storage. In general, percentage change in saturated thickness indicates the degree of stress on the aquifer in most areas resulting from irrigation pumpage. (Shidler-PTT)

  5. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in stratified-drift and arkosic bedrock aquifers in north central Connecticut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Rogers

    1987-01-01

    Groundwaters in both stratified-drift and arkosic bedrock aquifers are dilute (dissolved solid concentration less than 300 mg\\/L), of similar chemical composition, and evolve along similar reaction paths. Calcite, potassium feldspar, sodic plagioclase, accessory silicates, and probably pyrite and barite are reactants in both aquifer types. Water in the stratified-drift aquifers is in chemical equilibrium with kaolinite and generally has reached

  6. OUTCROP-BASED LITHOFACIES AND DEPOSITIONAL SETTING OF ARSENIC-BEARING PERMIAN RED BEDS IN THE CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In January 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency established safe drinking water standards for arsenic at a maximum concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (USGS), however, document the occurrence of arsenic concentrations in drin...

  7. Percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains Aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1950 to average 1980-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical technique, called kriging, was programmed for a computer to interpolate hydrologic data based on a network of 296 measured values in west-central Kansas and eastern Colorado. The computer program generated estimated values of selected hydrologic data at the center of each 1-mile section in the Western Kansas Groundwater Management District No. 1. This program facilitated contouring of the data that are needed to aid in the management of ground water for irrigation. The kriging technique produced a map that illustrates the percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer from 1950 to average 1980-82 in west-central Kansas. Estimated changes in saturated thickness of the aquifer, as shown on the map, range from about a 50% increase to a 100% decrease. (USGS)

  8. Source and migration of dissolved manganese in the Central Nile Delta Aquifer, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, P. C.; El Shishtawy, A. M.; Sharp, J. M.; Atwia, M. G.

    2014-08-01

    Dissolved metals in waters in shallow deltaic sediments are one of the world's major health problems, and a prime example is arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The Central Nile Delta Aquifer, a drinking water source for more than 6 million people, can have high concentrations of dissolved manganese (Mn). Standard hydrochemical analyses coupled with sequential chemical extraction is used to identify the source of the Mn and to identify the probable cause of the contamination. Fifty-nine municipal supply wells were sampled and the results compared with published data for groundwaters and surface waters. Drill cuttings from 4 wells were collected and analyzed by sequential chemical extraction to test the hypothesized Mn-generating processes. The data from this research show that the Mn source is not deep saline water, microbial reduction of Mn oxides at the production depth, or leakage from irrigation drainage ditches. Instead, Mn associated with carbonate minerals in the surficial confining layer and transported down along the disturbed well annulus of the municipal supply wells is the likely source. This analysis provides a basis for future hydrogeological and contaminant transport modeling as well as remediation-modification of well completion practices and pumping schedules to mitigate the problem.

  9. Analysis of Fault Permeability Using Mapping and Flow Modeling, Hickory Sandstone Aquifer, Central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto Camargo, Jorge E., E-mail: jorge.nietocamargo@aramco.com; Jensen, Jerry L., E-mail: jjensen@ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    Reservoir compartments, typical targets for infill well locations, are commonly created by faults that may reduce permeability. A narrow fault may consist of a complex assemblage of deformation elements that result in spatially variable and anisotropic permeabilities. We report on the permeability structure of a km-scale fault sampled through drilling a faulted siliciclastic aquifer in central Texas. Probe and whole-core permeabilities, serial CAT scans, and textural and structural data from the selected core samples are used to understand permeability structure of fault zones and develop predictive models of fault zone permeability. Using numerical flow simulation, it is possible to predict permeability anisotropy associated with faults and evaluate the effect of individual deformation elements in the overall permeability tensor. We found relationships between the permeability of the host rock and those of the highly deformed (HD) fault-elements according to the fault throw. The lateral continuity and predictable permeability of the HD fault elements enhance capability for estimating the effects of subseismic faulting on fluid flow in low-shale reservoirs.

  10. An assessment of the potential and impacts of winter water banking in the Sokh aquifer, Central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inna Gracheva; Akmal Karimov; Hugh Turral; F. Miryusupov

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of artificial recharge of winter surface flows coupled with increased summer groundwater use for irrigation in\\u000a the Sokh aquifer (Central Asia) have been investigated. Water release patterns from the giant Toktogul reservoir have changed,\\u000a as priority is now given to hydropower generation in winter in Kyrgyzstan. Winter flows have increased and summer releases\\u000a have declined, but the Syr

  11. Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas --- Field testing and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIOS SOPHOCLEOUS; M. A. TOWNSEND; L. D. VOGLER; T. J. McCLAIN; E. T. MARKS; G. R. COBLE

    1988-01-01

    Sophocleous, M., Townsend, M.A., Vogler, L.D., McClain, T.J., Marks, E.T. and Coble, G.R., 1988. Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas -- Field testing and analysis. J. Hydrol., 98: 249-273. During the last several years, streamflows of a number of Kansas streams have been reduced as a result of groundwater declines. In order to better

  12. Water Quality in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; McMahon, Peter B.; Dennehy, Kevin; Qi, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2004 assessment of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings for principal and other aquifers and major river basins across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, regional, State, and national issues. Conditions in the aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as drinking-water quality, the effects of agricultural practices on water quality, source-water protection, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the region and the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer summarized in this report are discussed in greater detail in other reports that can be accessed in Appendix 1 of http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa). This report accompanies the detailed and technical report of water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer 'Water-quality assessment of the High Plains aquifer, 1999-2004' (http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/)

  13. Chemical evolution and estimated flow velocity of water in the Trinity Aquifer, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Sonya A.; Lee, Roger W.; Busby, John F.

    1997-01-01

    Three permeable zones with varying lithology and water chemistry compose the Trinity aquifer, a principal source of water in the 5,500-square-mile study area in south-central Texas. The upper permeable zone locally yields small quantities of water to wells and was not included in this study. The middle permeable zone primarily is composed of limestone with minor amounts of dolostone. Terrigenous sand and marine limestone, with minor amounts of dolostone, are the principal lithologic units in the lower permeable zone. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 329 to 1,820 milligrams per liter in water samples from the middle permeable zone and from 518 to 3,030 milligrams per liter in water samples from the lower permeable zone. Principal hydrochemical facies in the middle permeable zone are calcium magnesium bicarbonate and calcium magnesium sulfate. Hydrochemical facies in ground-water samples from the lower permeable zone vary. Tritium concentrations as large as 5.3 tritium units in the southeastern part of the study area are indicative of relatively recent recharge. Results of a geochemical mass balance simulation along a flowpath in the middle permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 4.25 millimoles per liter of dolomite dissolved, 5.74 millimoles per liter of gypsum dissolved, 0.46 millimole per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 8.07 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 0.67 millimole per liter of calcium-for-sodium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. These results support dedolomitization as a principal chemical process in the middle permeable zone of the Trinity aquifer. Results of a simulation along a flowpath in the lower permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 0.41 millimole per liter of dolomite dissolved, 0.001 millimole per liter of gypsum dissolved, 9.58 millimoles per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 1.09 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 1.11 millimoles per liter of sodium-for-calcium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. Lower permeable zone processes indicate sodium chloride dissolution, dedolomitization, and cation exchange. Ground-water-flow velocities determined from adjusted carbon-14 ages, calculated using NETPATH, for selected flowpaths in the middle and lower permeable zones were about 1.7 feet per year and less than about 4.4 feet per year, respectively.

  14. Aquifer tests at the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine, Pueblo of Laguna, west-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.; Davis, P.A.; Baldwin, J.A.; McaAda, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    The transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation, west-central New Mexico, was determined to be 24 sq ft/day at well M2 and 47 sq ft/day at well M3 from constant-discharge aquifer tests conducted at the Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine. The storage coefficient of the Jackpile sandstone bed was estimated to be 0.00018 at well M2 and 0.00029 at well M3 from the same tests. An aquifer test conducted at well M21 indicated the transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed was 2.0 sq ft/day and the storage coefficient was 0.00002. The transmissivity of an unnamed sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation was estimated from ' slug-test ' results to be about 20 sq ft/day. Water levels in this sandstone probably did not change due to pumping from the overlying Jackpile sandstone bed for 88 hours at an average discharge of 15.3 gallons/min. A constant discharge aquifer test at well M4C indicated that the transmissivity of the alluvium at this location was about 430 sq ft/day. Water levels in the underlying Jackpile sandstone bed began declining within 15 minutes after withdrawals of groundwater from the alluvial aquifer began. (USGS)

  15. Hydrogeology of the Buffalo aquifer, Clay and Wilkin Counties, West-Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Buffalo aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supplies in the Moorhead, Minnesota area. The aquifer is an elongate deposit of sand and gravel, which locally contains water under confined conditions. Although the Buffalo aquifer contains about 270 billion gallons of water in storage, only 120 billion gallons could be withdrawn. Largest well yields occur along the deep trough in the center of the aquifer. Induced streambed infiltration may be possible in certain areas where the stream overlies the aquifer and where the intervening lake sediments are thin or absent. A numerical model constructed for aquifer evaluation has shown that a considerable amount of ground water is discharged through the confining bed to the stream or leaves the area as underflow to the west. Water from the Buffalo aquifer generally is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The average discharge of the Buffalo River for the base period 1946-78 ranges from 0.229 cubic foot per second per square mile near Hawley to 0.108 cubic foot per second per square mile at Sabin. Surface water in the Buffalo River drainage system is dominantly a calcium bicarbonate type similar to ground water of the area, especially at low flow in the upper reaches of the tributaries. (USGS)

  16. Percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains Aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1950 to average 1984-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dague, Barbara J.

    1986-01-01

    Continuing studies are being made in west-central Kansas to provide up-to-date information that will aid in the management of groundwater for irrigation. The results are presented of the sixth in a series of studies that used a statistical technique called kriging, to produce hydrologic maps. The kriging technique interpolates water level altitudes at the center of each 1 sq mi section in the study area on the basis of water level measurements from 169 observation wells. For this study, measurements made at each site during the winter months of 1984, 1985, and 1986 were averaged. These interpolated altitudes (1 ,859 in all), along with bedrock-surface and base yr water level altitudes, were used to prepare a hydrologic map that illustrates percentage change in saturated thickness. Saturated thickness is the thickness of the High Plains aquifer between the groundwater surface, as indicated by water level altitudes, and the bedrock surface. Because irrigation development in west-central Kansas was minimal prior to 1950, the saturated thickness during 1950 represented a nearly static condition in the aquifer. Thus, the decrease in saturated thickness of the aquifer since 1950 is related to the effects of irrigation withdrawals on the volume of water in storage. (Lantz-PTT)

  17. Ground-water quality beneath irrigated agriculture in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, Breton W.; Becker, Mark F.; Pope, Larry M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, 30 water-quality monitoring wells were installed in the central High Plains aquifer to evaluate the quality of recently recharged ground water in areas of irrigated agriculture and to identify the factors affecting ground-water quality. Wells were installed adjacent to irrigated agricultural fields with 10- or 20-foot screened intervals placed near the water table. Each well was sampled once for about 100 waterquality constituents associated with agricultural practices. Water samples from 70 percent of the wells (21 of 30 sites) contained nitrate concentrations larger than expected background concentrations (about 3 mg/L as N) and detectable pesticides. Atrazine or its metabolite, deethylatrazine, were detected with greater frequency than other pesticides and were present in all 21 samples where pesticides were detected. The 21 samples with detectable pesticides also contained tritium concentrations large enough to indicate that at least some part of the water sample had been recharged within about the last 50 years. These 21 ground-water samples are considered to show water-quality effects related to irrigated agriculture. The remaining 9 groundwater samples contained no pesticides, small tritium concentrations, and nitrate concentrations less than 3.45 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. These samples are considered unaffected by the irrigated agricultural land-use setting. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate that commercial fertilizer was the dominant source of nitrate in 13 of the 21 samples affected by irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen isotope ratios for 4 of these 21 samples were indicative of an animal waste source. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in samples affected by irrigated agriculture, with large sulfate concentrations having strong correlation with large dissolved solids concentrations in these samples. A strong statistical correlation is shown between samples affected by irrigated agriculture and sites with large rates of pesticide and nitrogen applications and shallow depths to ground water.

  18. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2014-05-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the 150,000 local residents of the Gio Linh district and the city of Dong Ha. The coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The area has a tropical monsoon climate which is characterized by an average precipitation of 1500 to 2700 mm in nearly 180 days from August to April. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. These geological formations have a highly heterogeneous lithology. A 3D groundwater model is built to study possible seawater intrusion under the changing conditions. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and some data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Geophysical measurements have been carried out recently and in the past and are used to support the model.

  19. Generalized thickness and configuration of the top of the intermediate aquifer, West-Central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, M.A. Jr.; Wolansky, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The water-bearing units of the intermediate aquifer consist of discontinuous sand, gravel, shell, and limestone and dolomite beds in the Tamiami Formation of late Miocene age and the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age. Within parts of Polk, Manatee, Hardee, De Soto, Sarasota, and Charlotte Counties, sand and clay beds within the Tampa Limestone that are hydraulically connected to the Hawthorn Formation are also included in the intermediate aquifer. 15 refs.

  20. Estimating the uncertainty of the impact of climate change on alluvial aquifers. Case study in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Emanuele; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Pica, Federico; Preziosi, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence that the precipitation pattern in Europe is trending towards more humid conditions in the northern region and drier conditions in the southern and central-eastern regions. However, a great deal of uncertainty concerns how the changes in precipitations will have an impact on water resources, particularly on groundwater, and this uncertainty should be evaluated on the basis of that coming from 1) future climate scenarios of Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and 2) modeling chains including the downscaling technique, the infiltration model and the calibration/validation procedure used to develop the groundwater flow model. With the aim of quantifying the uncertainty of these components, the Valle Umbra porous aquifer (Central Italy) has been considered as a case study. This aquifer, that is exploited for human consumption and irrigation, is mainly fed by the effective infiltration from the ground surface and partly by the inflow from the carbonate aquifers bordering the valley. A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed through the finite difference MODFLOW2005 code and it has been calibrated and validated considering the recharge regime computed through a Thornthwaite-Mather infiltration model under the climate conditions observed in the period 1956-2012. Future scenarios (2010-2070) of temperature and precipitation have been obtained from three different GMCs: ECHAM-5 (Max Planck Institute, Germany), PCM (National Centre Atmospheric Research) and CCSM3 (National Centre Atmospheric Research). Each scenario has been downscaled (DSC) to the data of temperature and precipitation collected in the baseline period 1960-1990 at the stations located in the study area through two different statistical techniques (linear rescaling and quantile mapping). Then, stochastic rainfall and temperature time series are generated through the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model (NSRP) for precipitation and the Fractionally Differenced ARIMA model (FARIMA) for temperature. Such a procedure has allowed to estimate, through the Thornthwaite-Mather model, the uncertainty related to the future scenarios of recharge to the aquifer. Finally, all the scenarios of recharge have been used as input to the groundwater flow model and the results have been evaluated in terms of the uncertainty on the computed aquifer heads and total budget. The main results have indicated that most of the uncertainty on the impact to the aquifer arise from the uncertainty on the first part of the processing chain GCM-DSC.

  1. Geophysical approach to delineate arsenic hot spots in the alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district, Bihar (India) in the central Gangetic plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Chander Kumar; Tripathi, Parijat; Senthil Kumar, G.; Ramanathan, A. L.

    2014-06-01

    A combined study of the geophysical survey and hydro-geochemistry in the Quaternary alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district from Bihar state in central Gangetic plain of India was carried out with the objective of identifying the geochemical processes and their relation with lithological profile. Results of resistivity survey validated with borehole lithology gave us a clear picture of the geological signature of the aquifers, which support the reducing nature of the aquifer where concentration of arsenic was high. Reducing nature of the aquifer environment was shown by water samples having relatively negative Eh value. From XRD study of the soil samples, it was found that goethite, dolomite, calcite, quartz and feldspar are the major minerals for most of the samples. Output of this work concludes that resistivity survey is an economically feasible tool which can be successfully used to target arsenic-safe aquifers on wide scale.

  2. Denitrification in a Shallow Aquifer Underlying a Dairy Farm in the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Beller, H. R.; Carle, S. F.; Hudson, G. B.; Kane, S. R.; McNab, W. W.; Moran, J. E.; Tompson, A. F.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrate loading to shallow aquifers from dairy farm operations presents a serious threat to critical groundwater resources in California. Less well known is the extent to which saturated zone denitrification may mitigate the problem by converting nitrate to the benign end-product nitrogen, before nitrate is transported to deeper aquifers used for drinking water. We are carrying out a multi-disciplinary study of saturated zone denitrification, in a dense network of monitoring points at a 1500-cow dairy in Kings County, California. Detailed vertical profiles of anion and cation concentrations, along with dissolved excess nitrogen were obtained at five-foot intervals using temporary direct-push wells. Results show nitrate concentrations in excess of 100 mg/L over the top few meters of the water column, abruptly falling to less than 5 mg/L below a depth of approximately 10m. Over the same interval, dissolved excess nitrogen concentrations sharply increase, indicating that denitrification is responsible for a significant fraction of the nitrate decrease. This pattern is in effect across the entire dairy site. A key aspect of the project is a concurrent focus on understanding the hydrogeology of the site. Regionally, overdraft over the past several decades has resulted in the development of separate shallow (10 m) and deeper (? 40 m) aquifer systems. Recharge to the shallow aquifer is derived from low TDS, isotopically depleted Kings River water from a nearby unlined irrigation canal. Local agricultural pumping from the shallow aquifer and infiltration from irrigation water are significant factors in the shallow system. The deeper aquifer is characterized by intensive regional pumping, rapidly decreasing water levels, and the apparent disposition of the shallow aquifer as a perched system for a 1-km2 or more area surrounding the farm. The air gap separating the aquifers is low in oxygen and undergoes pressure changes as water levels fluctuate below. Age dating and negligible nitrate levels in the lower aquifer suggest a long horizontal recharge pathway from the perimeter of the perched area, while sustainability of the shallow system is dependent upon continuing recharge through the irrigation canal. This work was conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  3. An assessment of the potential and impacts of winter water banking in the Sokh aquifer, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracheva, Inna; Karimov, Akmal; Turral, Hugh; Miryusupov, F.

    2009-09-01

    The dynamics of artificial recharge of winter surface flows coupled with increased summer groundwater use for irrigation in the Sokh aquifer (Central Asia) have been investigated. Water release patterns from the giant Toktogul reservoir have changed, as priority is now given to hydropower generation in winter in Kyrgyzstan. Winter flows have increased and summer releases have declined, but the Syr Darya River cannot pass these larger winter flows and the excess is diverted to a natural depression, creating a 40 × 109m3 lake. A water balance study of all 18 aquifers feeding the Fergana Valley indicated the feasibility of winter groundwater recharge in storage created by summer abstraction. This modeling study examines the dynamics of the process in one aquifer over a 5-year period, with four scenarios: the current situation; increased groundwater abstraction of around 625 million (M) m3/year; groundwater abstraction with an artificial recharge of 144 Mm3/year, equivalent to the volume available in low flow years in the Sokh River; and with a larger artificial recharge of 268 Mm3/year, corresponding to high flow availability. Summer surface irrigation diversions can be reduced by up to 350 Mm3 and water table levels can be lowered.

  4. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The East-Central Florida Transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into ET, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5,000 milligrams per liter in the Floridan aquifer system. Potential flow across the interface represented by this chloride concentration is simulated by the General Head Boundary Package. During 1995 through 2006, there were no major groundwater withdrawals near the freshwater and saline-water interface, making the general head boundary a suitable feature to estimate flow through the interface. The east-central Florida transient model was calibrated using the inverse parameter estimation code, PEST. Steady-state models for 1999 and 2003 were developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity (K) using average annual heads and spring flows as observations. The spatial variation of K was represented using zones of constant values in some layers, and pilot points in other layers. Estimated K values were within one order of magnitude of aquifer performance test data. A simulation of the final two years (2005-2006) of the 12-year model, with the K estimates from the steady-state calibration, was used to guide the estimation of specific yield and specific storage values. The final model yielded head and spring-flow residuals that met the calibration criteria for the 12-year transient simulation. The overall mean residual for heads, defining residual as simulated minus measured value, was -0.04 foot. The overall root-mean square residual for heads was less than 3.6 feet for each year in the 1995 to 2006 simulation period. The overall mean residual for spring flows was -0.3 cubic foot per second. The spatial distribution of head residuals was generally random, with some minor indications of bias. Simulated average ET over the 1995 to 2006 period was 34.47 inches per year, compared to the calculated average ET rate of 36.39 inches per year from the model-independent water-budget analysis. Simulated average net recharge to the surficial aquifer system was 3.58 inches per year, compared with the calculated average of 3.39 inches per year from the model-independent water-budget analysis. Groundwater withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system averaged about 920 million gallons per day, which i

  5. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffery B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The east-central Florida transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration, runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into evapotranspiration, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5,000 milligrams per liter in the Floridan aquifer system. Potential flow across the interface represented by this chloride concentration is simulated by the General Head Boundary Package. During 1995 through 2006, there were no major groundwater withdrawals near the freshwater and saline-water interface, making the general head boundary a suitable feature to estimate flow through the interface. The east-central Florida transient model was calibrated using the inverse parameter estimation code, PEST. Steady-state models for 1999 and 2003 were developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity (K) using average annual heads and spring flows as observations. The spatial variation of K was represented using zones of constant values in some layers, and pilot points in other layers. Estimated K values were within one order of magnitude of aquifer performance test data. A simulation of the final two years (2005-2006) of the 12-year model, with the K estimates from the steady-state calibration, was used to guide the estimation of specific yield and specific storage values. The final model yielded head and spring-flow residuals that met the calibration criteria for the 12-year transient simulation. The overall mean residual for heads, defining residual as simulated minus measured value, was -0.04 foot. The overall root-mean square residual for heads was less than 3.6 feet for each year in the 1995 to 2006 simulation period. The overall mean residual for spring flows was -0.3 cubic foot per second. The spatial distribution of head residuals was generally random, with some minor indications of bias. Simulated average evapotranspiration (ET) over the 1995 to 2006 period was 34.5 inches per year, compared to the calculated average ET rate of 36.6 inches per year from the model-independent water-budget analysis. Simulated average net recharge to the surficial aquifer system was 3.6 inches per year, compared with the calculated average of 3.2 inches per year from the model-independent waterbudget analysis. Groundwater withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system averaged about 800 milli

  6. Effects of increased pumpage on a fractured-bedrock aquifer system in central Orange County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garber, Murray

    1985-01-01

    The bedrock in central Orange County consists of highly indurated siltstone, shale, and conglomerate containing two major fault systems and extensive fracturing; it is overlain by 50 to 100 feet of till. The fracturing permits unusually high well yields. Wells tapping the bedrock yield 75 to 200 gallons per minute; those tapping bedrock in adjacent areas yield only a few tens of gallons per minute. The bedrock aquifer is recharged mainly by percolation of water from precipitation through the till. In 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey studied the hydrologic effects of increased pumpage on the fractured bedrock aquifer system near the Village of Kiryas Joel, in the Town of Monroe. Water levels were measured in several wells in the village 's two well fields from February to October 1983, and pumpage data from the same period were tabulated. Water levels responded to variations in both pumpage and precipitation. Pumping tests and water levels in the southeastern well field in 1983 had no effect on the northwestern well field. An observation well between the two fields shows about 20 feet of seasonal fluctuation from recharge and the effects of pumping at the northwestern well field. Aquifer-test data indicate a transmissivity of 900 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0001. (USGS)

  7. Chlorine stable isotope evidence for salinization processes of confined groundwater in southwestern Nobi Plain aquifer system, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Masaru; Bottrell, Simon H.; Wu, Jiahong; Kumagai, Yoshihiro; Mori, Kazuki; Satake, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    A confined aquifer system, isolated from modern seawater, is developed in argillaceous marine and freshwater sediments of Pliocene-Holocene age in southwestern Nobi Plain (SWNP), central Japan. A tongue of brackish confined groundwater (Cl- >1000 mg/L), which extends from the shoreline of Ise Bay inland, mostly has negative ?37Cl values with -0.90‰ to 0.21‰. The Cl isotopic compositions are negatively correlated with paleo seawater Cl- concentrations discriminated by a Rayleigh distillation model with ?34S values, while they are not correlated with either total Cl- concentrations or ?34S values. Furthermore, Cl- concentrations from modern seawater are positively correlated with ?37Cl values. In addition to these observations, diffusion model calculations suggest that paleo seawater Cl- has diffused out from argillaceous marine sediments whereas modern seawater Cl- has not been affected by preferential diffusion of Cl isotopes because it has migrated by advection via both an unconfined aquifer and non-pumping wells. Moreover, the brackish groundwater is characterized by an excess of Na/Cl ratio and deficits of Mg/Cl and Ca/Cl ratios compared to those predicted from simple mixing of freshwater with seawater. This would be caused by cation exchange reactions in the confined aquifer system in which groundwater is freshening after salinization by both paleo seawater and/or modern seawater.

  8. Aquifer compaction and ground-water levels in south-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Daniel W.; Pool, Donald R.

    2000-01-01

    As of 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey is monitoring water-level fluctuationa dn aquifer compaction at 19 wells that are fitted with borehole extensometers in the Eloy Basin, Stanfield Basin, Avra Valley, and Upper Santa Cruz Basin. Decreased ground-water pumping has resulted in water-level recoveries of more than 100 feet at a well near Eloy and almost 200 feet at a well in Avra Valley. Aquifer compaction has continued in both areas despite the large water-level recoveries in Eloy and the stable water levels in Avra Valley. Extensometer sites in the Upper Santa Cruz Basin have recorded as much as 50 feet of water-level decline and 0.2 feet of aquifer compaction during 1980 to 1996. Rates of compaction vary throughout the extensometer network, with the greater rates of compaction being associated with the more compressible sediments of Eloy and Stanfield Basins.

  9. Hydrostratigraphic subdivisions and fault barriers of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclay, R. W.; Small, T. A.

    1983-02-01

    The karstic Edwards Limestone within the Balcones Fault Zone of south-central Texas forms a productive confined aquifer that consists predominately of dense carbonate rocks and contains several layers of highly permeable and porous honeycombed rocks that have been produced by the leaching of evaporitic, tidal flat or reefal deposits. Fractures have hydraulically interconnected these layers at some places. Faults, however, commonly place rocks of very high-permeability opposite rocks of very low permeability, thus creating a lateral discontinuity and a flow barrier. At places, fault barriers probably cause partial to almost complete blockage of groundwater flow normal to the fault.

  10. ADAPTATIONS OF INDIGENOUS BACTERIA TO FUEL CONTAMINATION IN KARST AQUIFERS IN SOUTH-CENTRAL KENTUCKY

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byl, Thomas D.; Metge, David W.; Daniel T. Agymang; Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The karst aquifer systems in southern Kentucky can be dynamic and quick to change. Microorganisms that live in these unpredictable aquifers are constantly faced with environmental changes. Their survival depends upon adaptations to changes in water chemistry, taking advantage of positive stimuli and avoiding negative environmental conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2001 to determine the capability of bacteria to adapt in two distinct regions of water quality in a karst aquifer, an area of clean, oxygenated groundwater and an area where the groundwater was oxygen depleted and contaminated by jet fuel. Water samples containing bacteria were collected from one clean well and two jet fuel contaminated wells in a conduit-dominated karst aquifer. Bacterial concentrations, enumerated through direct count, ranged from 500,000 to 2.7 million bacteria per mL in the clean portion of the aquifer, and 200,000 to 3.2 million bacteria per mL in the contaminated portion of the aquifer over a twelve month period. Bacteria from the clean well ranged in size from 0.2 to 2.5 mm, whereas bacteria from one fuel-contaminated well were generally larger, ranging in size from 0.2 to 3.9 mm. Also, bacteria collected from the clean well had a higher density and, consequently, were more inclined to sink than bacteria collected from contaminated wells. Bacteria collected from the clean portion of the karst aquifer were predominantly (,95%) Gram-negative and more likely to have flagella present than bacteria collected from the contaminated wells, which included a substantial fraction (,30%) of Gram-positive varieties. The ability of the bacteria from the clean portion of the karst aquifer to biodegrade benzene and toluene was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in laboratory microcosms. The rate of fuel biodegradation in laboratory studies was approximately 50 times faster under aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic, sulfur-reducing conditions. The optimum pH for fuel biodegradation ranged from 6 to 7. These findings suggest that bacteria have adapted to water-saturated karst systems with a variety of active and passive transport mechanisms.

  11. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF A SHALLOW UNCONFINED GROUND WATER AQUIFER POLLUTED BY MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microflora of a shallow anoxic aquifer underlying a municipal landfill In Oklahoma was characterized by direct light microscopy, most probable number of determinations of sulfate reducers and methanogens, and measurements of methanogenesis in aquifer samples containing either...

  12. Quantification of aquifer properties with surface nuclear magnetic resonance in the Platte River valley, central Nebraska, using a novel inversion method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irons, Trevor P.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Steele, Gregory V.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Woodward, Duane D.

    2012-01-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance, a noninvasive geophysical method, measures a signal directly related to the amount of water in the subsurface. This allows for low-cost quantitative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In practice, however, additional factors influence the signal, complicating interpretation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District, evaluated whether hydraulic parameters derived from surface nuclear magnetic resonance data could provide valuable input into groundwater models used for evaluating water-management practices. Two calibration sites in Dawson County, Nebraska, were chosen based on previous detailed hydrogeologic and geophysical investigations. At both sites, surface nuclear magnetic resonance data were collected, and derived parameters were compared with results from four constant-discharge aquifer tests previously conducted at those same sites. Additionally, borehole electromagnetic-induction flowmeter data were analyzed as a less-expensive surrogate for traditional aquifer tests. Building on recent work, a novel surface nuclear magnetic resonance modeling and inversion method was developed that incorporates electrical conductivity and effects due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities, both of which can have a substantial impact on the data. After comparing surface nuclear magnetic resonance inversions at the two calibration sites, the nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived parameters were compared with previously performed aquifer tests in the Central Platte Natural Resources District. This comparison served as a blind test for the developed method. The nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived aquifer parameters were in agreement with results of aquifer tests where the environmental noise allowed data collection and the aquifer test zones overlapped with the surface nuclear magnetic resonance testing. In some cases, the previously performed aquifer tests were not designed fully to characterize the aquifer, and the surface nuclear magnetic resonance was able to provide missing data. In favorable locations, surface nuclear magnetic resonance is able to provide valuable noninvasive information about aquifer parameters and should be a useful tool for groundwater managers in Nebraska.

  13. Assessing Groundwater Availability in the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.; Christenson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Resources Program is conducting an assessment of groundwater availability to gain a clearer understanding of the status of the Nation's groundwater resources and the natural and human factors that can affect those resources. The goals of this national effort are to define the current status and improve understanding of the Nation's groundwater resources, to better estimate availability and suitability of those resources for use in the future, and to provide tools to estimate the future availability of ground-water for its various uses. Assessments will be completed for regional aquifer systems across the Nation to help characterize how much water we have, where groundwater resources are most stressed, how groundwater availability is changing, and where groundwater resources are most available for future use.

  14. THE OKLAHOMA MESONET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Oklahoma Mesonet, operated and maintained by the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, is Oklahoma's premier climatological data collection system. For the area covered, which includes the entire state, no other system within the United States or internationally has the degree of ...

  15. Water Quality in the Equus Beds Aquifer and the Little Arkansas River Before Implementation of Large-Scale Artificial Recharge, South-Central Kansas, 1995-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegler, Andrew C.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Finn, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer using runoff from the Little Arkansas River in south-central Kansas was first proposed in 1956 and was one of many options considered by the city of Wichita to preserve its water supply. Declining aquifer water levels of as much as 50 feet exacerbated concerns about future water availability and enhanced migration of saltwater into the aquifer from past oil and gas activities near Burrton and from the Arkansas River. Because Wichita changed water-management strategies and decreased pumping from the Equus Beds aquifer in 1992, water storage in the aquifer recovered by about 50 percent. This recovery is the result of increased reliance on Cheney Reservoir for Wichita water supply, decreased aquifer pumping, and larger than normal precipitation. Accompanying the water-level recovery, the average water-level gradient in the aquifer decreased from about 12 feet per mile in 1992 to about 8 feet per mile in January 2006. An important component of artificial recharge is the water quality of the receiving aquifer and the water being recharged (source water). Water quality within the Little Arkansas River was defined using data from two real-time surface-water-quality sites and discrete samples. Water quality in the Equus Beds aquifer was defined using sample analyses collected at 38 index sites, each with a well completed in the shallow and deep parts of the Equus Beds aquifer. In addition, data were collected at diversion well sites, recharge sites, background wells, and prototype wells for the aquifer storage and recovery project. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, radionuclides, organic compounds, and bacterial and viral indicators. Water-quality constituents of concern for artificial recharge are those constituents that frequently (more than 5 percent of samples) may exceed Federal [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)] and State drinking-water criteria in water samples from the receiving aquifer or in samples from the source water. Constituents of concern include major ions (sulfate and chloride), nutrients (nitrite plus nitrate), trace elements (arsenic, iron, and manganese), organic compounds (atrazine), and fecal bacterial indicators. This report describes the water quality in the Equus Beds aquifer and the Little Arkansas River from 1995 through 2005 before implementation of large-scale recharge activities. Sulfate concentrations in water samples from the Little Arkansas River rarely exceeded Federal secondary drinking water regulation (SDWR) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Sulfate concentrations in groundwater were exceeded in about 18 percent of the wells in the shallow (less than or equal to 80 feet deep) parts of the aquifer and in about 13 percent of the wells in the deep parts the aquifer. Larger sulfate concentrations were associated with parts of the aquifer with the largest water-level declines. Water-quality changes in the Equus Beds aquifer likely were caused by dewatering and oxidation of aquifer material that subsequently resulted in increased sulfate concentrations as water levels recovered. The primary sources of chloride to the Equus Beds aquifer are from past oil and gas activities near Burrton and from the Arkansas River. Computed chloride concentrations in the Little Arkansas River near Halstead exceeded the Federal SDWR of 250 mg/L about 27 percent of the time (primarily during low-flow conditions). Chloride concentrations in groundwater exceeded 250 mg/L in about 8 percent or less of the study area, primarily near Burrton and along the Arkansas River. Chloride in groundwater near Burrton has migrated downgradient about 3 miles during the past 40 to 45 years. The downward and horizontal migration of the chloride is controlled by the hydraulic gradient in the aquifer, dispersion of chloride, and discontinuous clay layers that can inhibit further downward migration. Chloride in the shallow parts of the Equus Beds

  16. Hydrochemistry of the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, East-Central Illinois: indicators of recharge and ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, K.C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, C.-L.

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual model of the ground-water flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA), east-central Illinois, was developed using major ion chemistry and isotope geochemistry. The MVA is a 'basal' fill in the east-west trending buried bedrock valley composed of clean, permeable sand and gravel to thicknesses of up to 61 m. It is covered by a thick sequence of glacial till containing thinner bodies of interbedded sand and gravel. Ground water from the MVA was found to be characterized by clearly defined geochemical regions with three distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west. Ground water in the Onarga Valley, a northeastern tributary of the MVA, is of two types, a mixed cation-SO42- type and a mixed cation-HCO3- type. The ground water is enriched in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- which appears to be the result of an upward hydraulic gradient and interaction of deeper ground water with oxidized pyritic coals and shale. We suggest that recharge to the Onarga Valley and overlying aquifers is 100% from bedrock (leakage) and lateral flow from the MVA to the south. The central MVA (south of the Onarga Valley) is composed of relatively dilute ground water of a mixed cation-HCO3- type, with low total dissolved solids, and very low concentrations of Cl- and SO42-. Stratigraphic relationships of overlying aquifers and ground-water chemistry of these and the MVA suggest recharge to this region of the MVA (predominantly in Champaign County) is relatively rapid and primarily from the surface. Midway along the westerly flow path of the MVA (western MVA), ground water is a mixed cation-HCO3- type with relatively high Cl-, where Cl- increases abruptly by one to ??? two orders of magnitude. Data suggest that the increase in Cl- is the result of leakage of saline ground water from bedrock into the MVA. Mass-balance calculations indicate that approximately 9.5% of recharge in this area is from bedrock. Concentrations of Na+, HCO3-, As, and TDS also increase in the western MVA. Ground water in the MAK is of a Ca2+-HCO3- type. Mass-balance calculations, using Cl- as a natural, conservative tracer, indicate that approximately 17% of the ground water flowing from the confluence area is derived from the MVA.

  17. Summary of hydrology of the regional aquifer systems, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    There is potential for further development of ground-water supplies in the Gulf Coastal Plain because of the abundance of water in streams, lakes, and swamps and the generally good hydraulic connection between the water table and underlying water-yielding units. The most favorable conditions for further development of ground-water supplies are generally in the upper permeable zones and aquifers, and the potential for development typically increases from west to east.

  18. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamsudduha, M; Uddin, A; Saunders, J A; Lee, M-K

    2008-07-29

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 microg/L to 191 microg/L with a mean concentration of 33 microg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO(3) type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO(4). The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 microg/L. Deeper aquifer (>100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 microg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions. PMID:18502538

  19. Insights on surface-water/groundwater exchange in the upper Floridan aquifer, north-central Florida (USA), from streamflow data and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, James E.; Screaton, Elizabeth J.; Martin, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-01

    Surface-water/groundwater exchange impacts water quality and budgets. In karst aquifers, these exchanges also play an important role in dissolution. Five years of river discharge data were analyzed and a transient groundwater flow model was developed to evaluate large-scale temporal and spatial variations of exchange between an 80-km stretch of the Suwannee River in north-central Florida (USA) and the karstic upper Floridan aquifer. The one-layer transient groundwater flow model was calibrated using groundwater levels from 59 monitoring wells, and fluxes were compared to the exchange calculated from discharge data. Both the numerical modeling and the discharge analysis suggest that the Suwannee River loses water under both low- and high-stage conditions. River losses appear greatest at the inside of a large meander, and the former river water may continue across the meander within the aquifer rather than return to the river. In addition, the numerical model calibration reveals that aquifer transmissivity is elevated within this large meander, which is consistent with enhanced dissolution due to river losses. The results show the importance of temporal and spatial variations in head gradients to exchange between streams and karst aquifers and dissolution of the aquifers.

  20. The Nubian Sandstone aquifer in the central and northern Negev, Israel: delineation of the hydrogeological model under conditions of scarce data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, E.; Weinberger, G.; Berkowitz, B.; Flexer, A.; Kronfeld, J.

    1992-03-01

    The Cl - content of ground water in the central and northern Negev ranges between 250 mg 1 -1 in the Beer Sheva area and 1600 mg 1 -1 near the Egyptian border, where the water is also thermal with high concentrations of sulphates and iron. During the last few years, groundwater resources in the heavily populated Beer Sheva area have become endangered by a continuing process of salinization. In the course of the present work, it was found that, in the study area, ground water flows through a multiple aquifer system including the Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Kurnub Group and the Upper Cretaceous Judea Group aquifers. Because of the absence of impermeable beds at the boundary between the two groups, brackish ground water flows from the Kurnub Group into the overlying Judea Group aquifer. Moreover, numerous faults discovered in the subsurface facilitate lateral inflow of Kurnub ground water into the Judea aquifer. By interpreting new lithostratigraphic data from the Kurnub Group and seismic surveys made in the study area, it is shown that the Kurnub aquifer extends far beyond the hitherto known boundaries and contains an additional estimated volume of 51 × 10 9 m 3 of paleowater. The limiting factors of its exploitability are groundwater depth and salinity. The rational exploitation of the Kurnub paleowater may prevent salinization of the overlying Judea Group aquifer.

  1. Fens, seasonal wetlands, and the unconfined pumice aquifer east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, M. L.; Large, A.; Mowbray, A.; Weatherford, J.; Webb, B.

    2013-12-01

    Fens and seasonal wetlands in the headwaters of the Klamath and Deschutes river basins in south-central Oregon are present in an area blanketed by 2 to 3 m of pumice during the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama. The lower pumice unit, moderately sorted coarse pumice lapilli to blocks (0.3 to 0.7 cm), phenocrysts, and lithics is 1.5 to 2 m thick; the upper pumice unit, poorly sorted lapilli to blocks (0.2 to 6 cm), minor phenocrysts, and lithics is 1 m thick. Pumice is a perched, unconfined aquifer over low permeability bedrock or pre-eruption fine-grained sediment. Early landscape response included partial erosion of pumice from pre-eruption valleys followed by partial filling by alluvium: phenocryst- and lithic-rich sand grading upward to glassy silt with rounded pumice pebbles. Groundwater-fed wetlands, fens, associated with the unconfined pumice aquifer occur as areas of diffuse groundwater discharge through gently sloping, convex surfaces underlain by up to 1.4 m of peat. Locally, focused discharge through the confining peat layer feeds low discharge streams. Carnivorous plants (sundews and pitcher plants) may be present. The sharp contact between peat and underlying pumice is an erosion surface that cuts progressively deeper into the upper and lower pumice units downslope. At the base of the slope peat with fen discharge feeding surface flow, alluvium with no surface flow, or a subtle berm separating the slope underlain by peat from the valley bottom underlain by alluvium may be present. Distinct vegetation changes take place at this transition. The erosion surface that underlies the peat layer in the fen is at the surface on the opposing valley wall and progressively rises up through the lower and upper pumice units: iron staining and cementation of pumice is locally prominent. Up to 1.5 m difference in water table occurs between the fen and opposing valley wall. Water table in piezometers screened in peat is at the surface. Locally, water table screened in pumice below the peat confining layer is up to 24 cm above the surface. Electrical conductivity in groundwater from the unconfined pumice aquifer ranged between 20 and 45 ?S/cm. Rarely, electrical conductivity greater than 250 ?S/cm is measured. Hydrochemistry indicates these waters are distinctly different (Ca-bicarbonate, [Fe] up to 22 mg/l) from water commonly encountered in the unconfined pumice aquifer (Na-bicarbonate, [Fe] less than 0.07 mg/l). Seasonally elevated water tables are present where pre-eruption topography allows snowmelt to accumulate in the unconfined pumice aquifer in valley bottoms and upland surfaces. Differential hardness of volcanic bedrock units control distribution in valley bottoms; emplacement processes and weathering of flow tops control distribution in upland settings. In both settings the lower pumice unit is saturated, but the upper pumice unit may be absent or thin. Alluvium commonly overlies pumice in valley bottoms. The water table may fluctuate up to 1.5 m from the spring snowmelt to late summer. Electrical conductivity in the pumice aquifer ranges between 19 and 250 ?S/cm and commonly increases at single sites as the dry season progresses.

  2. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Luza; J. E. Jr. Lawson

    1989-01-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb)

  3. Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources promotes sustainable land use and embraces the landOklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma agriculture affects each of us every day, young and old, whether we live in largely rural regions or the state

  4. Percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains Aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1950 to average 1982-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.

    1984-01-01

    Water-level altitudes at the center of each 1-square-mile section (1,859 values) in Western Kansas Groundwater Management District No. 1 were interpolated from 292 measured water levels using a statistical technique referred to as kriging. The kriging technique involves the use of a series of computer programs that convert selected geohydrologic data into map form. A map that illustrates the percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer from 1950 to average 1982-84 in west-central Kansas was constructed by comparing kriged water-table altitudes (based on average 1982-84 data) with estimated 1950 water-table altitudes and bedrock-surface altitudes. (USGS)

  5. Water movement through thick unsaturated zones overlying the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.; Dennehy, K.F.; Michel, R.L.; Sophocleous, M.A.; Ellett, K.M.; Hurlbut, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    The role of irrigation as a driving force for water and chemical movement to the central High Plains aquifer is uncertain because of the thick unsaturated zone overlying the aquifer. Water potentials and profiles of tritium, chloride, nitrate, and pesticide concentrations were used to evaluate water movement through thick unsaturated zones overlying the central High Plains aquifer at three sites in southwestern Kansas. One site was located in rangeland and two sites were located in areas dominated by irrigated agriculture. In 2000?2001, the depth to water at the rangeland site was 50 meters and the depth to water at the irrigated sites was about 45.4 meters. Irrigation at the study sites began in 1955?56. Measurements of matric potential and volumetric water content indicate wetter conditions existed in the deep unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites than at the rangeland site. Total water potentials in the unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites systematically decreased with depth to the water table, indicating a potential existed for downward water movement from the unsaturated zone to the water table at those sites. At the rangeland site, total water potentials in the deep unsaturated zone indicate small or no potential existed for downward water movement to the water table. Postbomb tritium was not detected below a depth of 1.9 meters in the unsaturated zone or in ground water at the rangeland site. In contrast, postbomb tritium was detected throughout most of the unsaturated zone and in ground water at both irrigated sites. These results indicate post-1953 water moved deeper in the unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites than at the rangeland site. The depth of the interface between prebomb and postbomb tritium and a tritium mass-balance method were used to estimate water fluxes in the unsaturated zone at each site. The average water fluxes at the rangeland site were 5.4 and 4.4 millimeters per year for the two methods, which are similar to the average water flux (5.1 millimeters per year) estimated using a chloride mass-balance method. Tritium profiles in the unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites were complicated by the presence of tritium-depleted intervals separating upper and lower zones containing postbomb tritium. If the interface between prebomb and postbomb tritium was at the top of the tritium-depleted interval and postbomb tritium detected beneath that interval was from the declining water table in the area, then the average water flux at the irrigated sites was estimated to be 21 to 54 millimeters per year. If postbomb tritium detected beneath the tritium-depleted interval was from bypass or preferential water movement through the local unsaturated zone instead of the declining water table, then the minimum water flux at the irrigated sites was estimated to be 106 to 116 millimeters per year. In either case, water fluxes at the irrigated sites were at least 4 to 12 times larger than the flux at the rangeland site, indicating irrigation was an important driving force for water movement through the unsaturated zone. The presence of postbomb tritium and large nitrate and total pesticide concentrations (24 milligrams per liter as nitrogen and 0.923 microgram per liter, respectively) in ground water at the irrigated sites indicates irrigation water also was an important driving force for chemical movement to the water table. The persistence of a downward hydraulic gradient from the deep unsaturated zone to the water table at the irrigated sites, in addition to large nitrate and atrazine concentrations in deep soil water (34 milligrams per liter as nitrogen and 0.79 microgram per liter, respectively), indicate that the deep unsaturated zone will be a source of nitrate and atrazine to the aquifer in the future.

  6. Geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water of the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems, Hickman and Maury counties, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hileman, G.E.; Lee, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems in Hickman and Maury Counties, Tennessee, was conducted in 1989. Water in both aquifer systems typically is of the calcium or calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, but concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate are greater in water of the Central Basin system; differences in the concentrations are statistically significant. Dissolution of calcite, magnesium-calcite, dolomite, and gypsum are the primary geochemical processes controlling ground-water chemistry in both aquifer systems. Saturation-state calculations using the computer code WATEQF indicated that ground water from the Central Basin system is more saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, and gypsum than water from the Highland Rim system. Geochemical environments within each aquifer system are somewhat different with respect to dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals. Water samples from the Highland Rim system had a fairly constant calcium to magnesium molar ratio, implying congruent dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals, whereas water samples from the Central Basin system had highly variable ratios, implying either incongruent dissolution or heterogeneity in soluble constituents of the aquifer matrix. Concentrations of radionuclides in water were low and not greatly different between aquifer systems. Median gross alpha activities were 0.54 picocuries per liter in water from each system; median gross beta activities were 1.1 and 2.3 picocuries per liter in water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin systems, respectively. Radon-222 concentrations were 559 and 422 picocuries per liter, respectively. Concentrations of gross alpha and radium in all samples were substantially less than Tennessee?s maximum permissible levels for community water-supply systems. The data indicated no relations between concentrations of dissolved radionuclides (uranium, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, gross alpha, and gross beta) and any key indicators of water chemistry, except in water from the Highland Rim system, in which radon-222 was moderately related to pH and weakly related to dissolved magnesium. The only relation among radiochemical constituents indicated by the data was between radium-226 and gross alpha activity; this relation was indicated for water from both aquifer systems.

  7. Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Rupert, M.G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for NO3 contamination in agricultural areas.

  8. Assessment of nonpoint-source contamination of the High Plains Aquifer in south-central Kansas, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgesen, John O.; Stullken, Lloyd E.; Rutledge, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water quality was assessed in a 5,000-square-mile area of the High Plains aquifer in south-central Kansas that is susceptible to nonpoint-source contamination from agricultural and petroleum-production activities. Of particular interest was the presence of agricultural chemicals and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons that might have been associated with brines that formerly were disposed into unlined ponds. Random sampling of ground water was done within a framework of discrete land-use areas (irrigated cropland, petroleum-production land containing former brine-disposal ponds, and undeveloped rangeland) of 3-10 square miles. Although true baseline water-quality conditions probably are rare, in this region they are represented most closely by ground water in areas of undeveloped rangeland. The sampling design enabled statistical hypothesis testing, using nonparametric procedures, of the effects of land use, unsaturated-zone lithology, and type of well sampled. Results indicate that regional ground-water quality has been affected by prevailing land-use activities, as shown by increased concentrations of several inorganic constituents. Ground water beneath irrigated cropland was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, potassium, fluofide, and nitrite plus nitrate than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Few nondegraded pesticides were detected in the aquifer, probably because of degradation and sorption. Atrazine was the most common, but only in small concentrations. round water beneath petroleum-production land was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Nonpoint-source contamination by oil-derived hydrocarbons was not discernible. The occurrences of trace organic compounds were similar between petroleum-production land and undeveloped rangeland, which indicates a natural origin for these compounds. The unsaturated zone in the study area is lithologically heterogeneous and contains substantial amounts of clay that inhibit the downward movement of water and solutes. Within the aquifer, the rate of lateral regional flow and solute transport is slow enough so that the ground-water quality reflects overlying land use in discrete areas of several square miles, but it is still sufficiently rapid so that the type of well sampled is not important in regional characterizations of water quality beneath irrigated cropland; the seasonal pumping of irrigation wells does not appear to divert regional flow enough to cause substantial local anomalies of more mineralized ground water.

  9. Hydrogeology of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Ronald L.; Cates, Steven W.

    1994-01-01

    The Travertine District (Park) of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, operated and maintained by the National Park Service, is near the City of Sulphur in south-central Oklahoma. The Park was established in 1902 because of its unique hydrologic setting, which includes Rock Creek, Travertine Creek, numerous mineralized and freshwater springs, and a dense cover of riparian vegetation. Since the turn of the century several flowing artesian wells have been drilled within and adjacent to the Park. Discharge from many of these springs and the numbers of flowing wells have declined substantially during the past 86 years. To determine the cause of these declines, a better understanding of the hydrologic system must be obtained. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, has appraised hydrologic information obtained for the Park from several studies conducted during 1902-87. The principal geologic units referred to in this report are the Arbuckle Group and the overlying Simpson Group. These rocks are of Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and are composed of dolomitic limestone, with some sandstones and shales in the Simpson Group. Surface geologic maps give a general understanding of the regional subsurface geology, but information about the subsurface geology within the Park is poor. The Simpson and Arbuckle aquifers are the principal aquifers in the study area. The two aquifers are not differentiated readily in some parts of the study area because of the similarity of the Simpson and Arbuckle rocks; thus, both water-bearing units are referred to frequently as the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The aquifers are confined under the Park, but are unconfined east and south of the Park. Precipitation on the outcrop area of the Arbuckle aquifer northeast and east of the Park recharges the freshwater springs (Antelope and Buffalo Springs) near the east boundary of the Park. The source of water from mineralized springs located in the central part of the Park, and flowing wells within and north of the Park, is believed to be a mix of waters from rocks of the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups. The source of water from two highly mineralized springs, Bromide and Medicine, that ceased to flow in the early 1970?s is believed to be from the Simpson Group. Water-quality characteristics reflect the sources of ground water in the study area. The highly mineralized springs near the western end of the Park are a sodium chloride type with dissolved solids greater than 4,500 mg/L. The freshwater springs near the eastern end of the Park are a calcium bicarbonate type with total dissolved solids of less than 400 mg/L. Flow from the artesian wells has declined substantially during the past 86 years and the wells are estimated to currently discharge only about 10 percent of the total flow reported in 1939. The depletion is believed to be caused by a gradual lowering of the hydraulic head within the aquifer. The influence on the hydrologic system of local municipal and industrial pumping from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer is difficult to discern because the system is much more sensitive to precipitation than to pumpage. Ground-water levels and spring flows in this region respond rapidly to precipitation. The effects of withdrawals from the City of Sulphur and Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company power-plant water-well fields are not discernible at wells and springs. The hydrologic system may be influenced by pumping, particularly during extended dry periods of several years, but the impact of pumping on the system cannot be determined without further investigation.

  10. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W; Nielsen, Martha G; Schalk, Charles W; Johnson, Carole D; Marvinney, Robert G; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 ?g/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45 ?m). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000 mg/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The ?D and ?(18)O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater. PMID:24842411

  11. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Schalk, Charles W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 ?g/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45 ?m). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000 g/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The ?D and ?18O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater.

  12. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1960

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1986-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is part of a regional aquifer system that extends into Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part of the State. The aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits. In western Kansas, the High Plains aquifer consists principally of the Ogallala Formation of the late Tertiary age and the overlying deposits of Quaternary age. In south-central Kansas, the aquifer consists of unconsolidated deposits principally of Quaternary age. Valley alluvium of Quaternary age also is included in the deposits in both areas. The High Plains aquifer is delimited on the east by outcrops of Permian or Cretaceous rocks and by unsaturated deposits of Quaternary age. The altitude and configuration of the water table during 1960 are shown for the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. The water table sloped generally from west to east at an average rate of 10 feet per mile. The altitude of the water table ranged from about 3,900 feet in the southwest corner of Sherman County, northwestern Kansas, to about 1,350 feet in northern Sedgwick County, southcentral Kansas. Groundwater moves perpendicular to the water table contours from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the east. Contours that cross stream valleys without flexure may indicate that the water table was below the streambed. Upstream flexure of water table contours along streams indicates that groundwater flowed toward, and discharged into, streams. This is most evident along the South Fork Republican River in Cheyenne County, Northwestern Kansas, and the South Fork Ninnescah River in Pratt and Kingman Counties, south-central Kansas. (USGS)

  13. Linking groundwater use and stress to specific crops using the groundwater footprint in the Central Valley and High Plains aquifer systems, U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esnault, Laurent; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Heinke, Jens; Gerten, Dieter; Flanary, Elizabeth; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.

    2014-06-01

    A number of aquifers worldwide are being depleted, mainly by agricultural activities, yet groundwater stress has not been explicitly linked to specific agricultural crops. Using the newly developed concept of the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services), we develop a methodology to derive crop-specific groundwater footprints. We illustrate this method by calculating high-resolution groundwater footprint estimates of crops in two heavily used aquifer systems: the Central Valley and High Plains, U.S. In both aquifer systems, hay and haylage, corn, and cotton have the largest groundwater footprints, which highlights that most of the groundwater stress is induced by crops meant for cattle feed. Our results are coherent with other studies in the High Plains but suggest lower groundwater stress in the Central Valley, likely due to artificial recharge from surface water diversions which were not taken into account in previous estimates. Uncertainties of recharge and irrigation application efficiency contribute the most to the total relative uncertainty of the groundwater footprint to aquifer area ratios. Our results and methodology will be useful for hydrologists, water resource managers, and policy makers concerned with which crops are causing the well-documented groundwater stress in semiarid to arid agricultural regions around the world.

  14. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium radioisotopes in 9 of the 12 samples (75 percent). The concentration of radium-224 exceeded that of radium-226 in five of the six (83 percent) samples when both were quantifiable. The radium concentration distribution differed by aquifer, with the highest Ra-228 concentrations present in the Englishtown aquifer system and the highest Ra-226 concentrations present in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer. Radium-224 generally contributed a considerable amount of gross alpha-particle activity to water produced from all the sampled aquifers, but was not the dominant radionuclide as it is in water from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, nor were concentrations greater than 1 pCi/L of radium-224 widespread. Gross alpha-particle activity was found to exceed the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 15 pCi/L in one sample (16 pCi/L) from the Vincentown aquifer. A greater part of the gross alpha-particle activity in water from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer resulted from the decay of Ra-226 than did the gross alpha-particle activity in the other sampled aquifers; this relation is consistent with the concentration distribution of the Ra-226 itself. Concentrations of radium-224 correlate strongly with those of both radium-226 and radium-228 (Spearman correlation coefficients, r, +0.86 and +0.66, respectively). The greatest concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were present in the most acidic ground water. All radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 concentrations greater than 2.5 pCi/L were present in ground-water samples with a pH less than 5.0. The presence of combined radium-226 and radium-228 concentrations greater than 5 pCi/L in samples from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Englishtown aquifer system was not nearly as common as in samples from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, likely because of the slightly higher pH of water from these aquifers relative to that of Kirkwood-Cohansey aqu

  15. Water Decisions for Sustainability of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazrus, H.; Mcpherson, R. A.; Morss, R. E.; PaiMazumder, D.; Silvis, V.; Towler, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only freeflowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To address these issues, this interdisciplinary project takes an integrated approach to understanding risk perceptions and water decisions for sustainability of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer. Our interdisciplinary research asks: How do stakeholders in the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer perceive drought risks across weather and climate scales, and how do these perceptions guide water management decisions given (i) diverse cultural beliefs, (ii) valued hydrologic services, (iii) past drought experience, and (iv) uncertainties in future projection of precipitation and drought? We will use ethnographic methods to diagnose how cultural values and beliefs inform risk perceptions, and how this in turn guides decision making or ignites conflict across different sectors and stakeholder groups. Further, the characterization of drought risk will be examined in the context of historic meteorological and hydrologic events, as well as climate variability and change. This will identify which risks are prioritized, and under what conditions, in regional decision making or water-related conflicts.

  16. Geohydrologic characteristics and simulated response to pumping stresses in the Sparta aquifer in East-Central Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Daniel J.; Kilpatrick, John M.; McWreath, Harry

    1990-01-01

    A finite difference digital model of the Sparta aquifer system in Arkansas was developed to aid in assessing the geohydrologic characteristics of the aquifer as well as the impact of withdrawals on water-level declines in the aquifer. The model consists of two layers. The Cockfield aquifer, represented by layer 1, was modeled as a constant head surface. The Sparta aquifer is represented by layer 2. The base of the Sparta aquifer was modeled as a no-flow boundary. The model boundaries to the north, south, and east in Mississippi were represented by specified heads, while boundaries to the west in Louisiana were represented as no flow. The model period of 1989 to 1985 was divided into 25 stress periods. Appropriate aquifer withdrawals were assigned to each stress period. Calibrated hydraulic conductivities of the Sparta aquifer, ranged from 1 to 35 ft/day. Calibrated hydraulic vertical conductivities of the Cook Mountain confining unit ranged from 0.0003 to 0.000009 ft/day. The calibrated storage coefficient of the aquifer was 0.0001. More than 80% of the recharge to the aquifer came from vertical leakage and from direct recharge on the outcrop. Greater than 90 % of outflow from the aquifer was from pumpage or leakage to rivers. Theoretical pumping schemes to the year 2005 indicated that virtually no change to the potentiometric surface occurred when 1985 pumping rates were extended to 2005. Doubling of pumpage over the entire study area resulted in additional water-level declines of up to 130 ft. (USGS)

  17. Conjunctive-use optimization model and sustainable-yield estimation for the Sparta aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.; Czarnecki, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Conjunctive-use optimization modeling was done to assist water managers and planners by estimating the maximum amount of ground water that hypothetically could be withdrawn from wells within the Sparta aquifer indefinitely without violating hydraulic-head or stream-discharge constraints. The Sparta aquifer is largely a confined aquifer of regional importance that comprises a sequence of unconsolidated sand units that are contained within the Sparta Sand. In 2000, more than 35.4 million cubic feet per day (Mft3/d) of water were withdrawn from the aquifer by more than 900 wells, primarily for industry, municipal supply, and crop irrigation in Arkansas. Continued, heavy withdrawals from the aquifer have caused several large cones of depression, lowering hydraulic heads below the top of the Sparta Sand in parts of Union and Columbia Counties and several areas in north-central Louisiana. Problems related to overdraft in the Sparta aquifer can result in increased drilling and pumping costs, reduced well yields, and degraded water quality in areas of large drawdown. A finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed for the Sparta aquifer using MODFLOW, primarily in eastern and southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Observed aquifer conditions in 1997 supported by numerical simulations of ground-water flow show that continued pumping at withdrawal rates representative of 1990 - 1997 rates cannot be sustained indefinitely without causing hydraulic heads to drop substantially below the top of the Sparta Sand in southern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Areas of ground-water levels below the top of the Sparta Sand have been designated as Critical Ground-Water Areas by the State of Arkansas. A steady-state conjunctive-use optimization model was developed to simulate optimized surface-water and ground-water withdrawals while maintaining hydraulic-head and streamflow constraints, thus determining the 'sustainable yield' for the aquifer. Initial attempts to estimate sustainable yield using simulated 1997 hydraulic heads as initial heads in Scenario 1 and 100 percent of the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rate as the lower specified limit in Scenario 2 led to infeasible results. Sustainable yield was estimated successfully for scenario 3 with three variations on the upper limit of withdrawal rates. Additionally, ground-water withdrawals in Union County were fixed at 35.6 percent of the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rate in Scenario 3. These fixed withdrawals are recognized by the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission to be sustainable as determined in a previous study. The optimized solutions maintained hydraulic heads at or above the top of the Sparta Sand (except in the outcrop areas where unconfined conditions occur) and streamflow within the outcrop areas was maintained at or above minimum levels. Scenario 3 used limits of 100, 150, and 200 percent of baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rates for the upper specified limit on 1,119 withdrawal decision variables (managed wells) resulting in estimated sustainable yields ranging from 11.6 to 13.2 Mft3/d in Arkansas and 0.3 to 0.5 Mft3/d in Louisiana. Assuming the total 2 Conjunctive-Use Optimization Model and Sustainable-Yield Estimation for the Sparta Aquifer of Southeastern Arkansas and North-Central Louisiana water demand is equal to the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rates, the sustainable yields estimated from the three scenarios only provide 52 to 59 percent of the total ground-water demand for Arkansas; the remainder is defined as unmet demand that could be obtained from large, sustainable surface-water withdrawals.

  18. Texas-Oklahoma

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Texas-Oklahoma Border     View ... SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Oklahoma and north Texas were acquired on March 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 1243. The three images ... The south bank of the Red River marks the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. Traversing brush-covered and grassy plains, rolling hills, ...

  19. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  20. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  1. Reactions and reaction rates in the regional aquifer beneath the Pajarito Plateau, north-central New Mexico, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne G. Hereford; Elizabeth H. Keating; George D. Guthrie; Chen Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Reactions and reaction rates within aquifers are fundamental components of critical hydrological processes. However, reactions simulated in laboratory experiments typically demonstrate rates that are much faster than those observed in the field. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more reaction rate analyses in natural settings. This study of geochemical reactions in the regional aquifer in the Pajarito Plateau near Los

  2. Assessment of recharge and flowpaths in a limestone thermomineral aquifer system using environmental isotope tracers (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Marques, Jose M; Eggenkamp, Hans G M; Graca, Henrique; Carreira, Paula M; Jose Matias, Maria; Mayer, Bernhard; Nunes, Dina

    2010-06-01

    We conducted chemical and isotopic analyses to develop and test a hydrogeological model of thermomineral water circulation in a limestone aquifer system at Caldas da Rainha (Central Portugal), contributing to future borehole-drilling and development strategies, with the aim of extracting waters with the best possible flow and/or temperature. The thermomineral waters (T approximately 33 degrees C) discharge from springs and boreholes located close to a locally N-S-oriented oblique fault (60 degrees E) that places loamy and detritic Upper Jurassic rocks and Hettangian-Rhaetian marls (and evaporitic deposits) in contact. (14)C determinations indicate a pmC content between 29.33+/-0.14 and 44.39+/-0.20 pmC. The presence of HCO[image omitted] , Ca(2+) (and Mg(2+)) are ascribed to water-limestone interactions, while Na(+), Cl(-) and SO[image omitted] concentrations are mainly associated with the dissolution of halite and gypsum lenses found along the regional syncline structure. The delta(18)O values of Caldas da Rainha thermomineral water were slightly lower than those of shallow groundwater from the Upper Jurassic rocks, suggesting the existence of two distinct aquifer systems. The different isotopic composition of water also indicates that the main recharge of the thermomineral waters likely occurs in the Middle and Lower Jurassic limestone formations of the Candeeiros Mountains. The presence of (3)H (from 1.1 to 2.8 TU) in some thermomineral borehole waters (showing rather similar geochemical signatures) suggests mixing of small amounts of shallow groundwater with thermomineral waters, as a result of leaking borehole casing construction or a recharge when the (3)H content in the atmosphere was higher than that at present. Caldas da Rainha thermomineral waters having delta(34)S(sulphate) and delta(18)O(sulphate) values between+14.9 and+19.1 per thousand and+11.1 and+16.2 per thousand, respectively, indicate that the sulphate is the result of water-rock interaction with evaporitic formations. The obtained chemical and isotopic data have informed the further development of a hydrogeological model that will be used by decision-makers, in order to contribute to the socio-economic development of the spa region. PMID:20582785

  3. Comparison of aquifer characteristics of Paleozoic Permosilesian and Mesozoic Buntsandstein clastic rocks in the Thuringian Basin, Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aehnelt, M.; Hilse, U.; Beyer, D.; Kunkel, C.; Deicke, Ch.; Voigt, Th.; Pudlo, D.; Gaupp, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Thuringian Basin in Central Germany is a structural trough with Buntsandstein and Zechstein outcropping at the margins and Keuper sedimentary fill in the center. Major aquifer units are Permosilesian, Lower and Middle Buntsandstein and Keuper clastics. In this study we compare aquifer characteristics of the Permosilesian and Buntsandstein sediments. Petrophysical, facial/textural, compositional/diagenetic and chemical properties were studied in order to investigate fluid flow properties in the present and past. The analyzed Buntsandstein sediments occur in present depths between approx. 400-900 m. Paleoburial depths were in the order of 2800 m. The succession is dominated by sandstones and mudstones. Deposition took place in lacustrine to fluvial (Lower Buntsandstein) and fluvial to eolian settings (Middle Buntsandstein). In order to compare sediments of almost identical origin, only the fluvial-alluvial sandstones were considered in this contribution. The sandstones are poorly to well sorted arkoses to subarkoses consisting of quartz, major amounts of feldspar and only negligible amounts of lithoclasts (volcanic, sedimentary rocks). Diagenetic features are early ferrous clay coatings, authigenic quartz overgrowth, feldspar alteration (including leaching, illitisation), blocky sulfate and carbonate cementation and late cement dissolution, formation of illite (early tangential illites, radial illite rims, late meshwork illites) and locally kaolinite. The analyzed Permosilesian sediments occur in present depths of about 1500-2500 m. They comprise conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones of fluvial-alluvial origin. Sandstones are moderately sorted sublitharenites and litharenites consisting of quartz, minor amounts of feldspar and a significant content of metamorphic and subordinately volcanic rock fragments. Major diagenetic features are early ferrous clay coatings and matrix, some authigenic quartz cement, feldspar and lithoclast alteration (including leaching, illitisation), minor blocky carbonate cements and intense illite formation (tangential illites, meshwork illites). Bulk geochemical analyzes (methods: ICP-MS/OES, XRF) reveal no significant differences in major element contents. However, compared to Buntsandstein sandstones the Permosilesian sediments are enriched in all transition metals caused by higher amounts of volcanic and metamorphic lithoclasts, and clay matrix respectively. Comparison of petrophysical characteristics reveals low porosity and permeabilities in the Permosilesian sediments (? = up to 10 %, K = 0,01 - 1 mD), and higher ones in the Buntsandstein samples (? = up to 24 %, K =0,01 - >100 mD). These differences are attributed to (1) facial differences (texture, matrix content), (2) compositional differences (alteration and dissolution of detrital grains), (3) differences in the diagenetic history (e.g. fabric stabilization by early blocky cements, cement dissolution, intense clay mineral formation in primary and secondary pore space), and (4) differences in burial depth (degree of mechanical compaction). We intent to characterize described influences on aquifer properties and the resulting fluid flow properties in order to understand fluid migration in sedimentary basins in the present and past.

  4. Oklahoma Forestry Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Oklahoma Forestry Services (OFS) is "to conserve, enhance and protect the forest resources of Oklahoma for present and future generations." As part of this mission the OFS website contains information about fire reports, tree and forest health, and water quality. First-time visitors should start their journey through the site by clicking on the "Oklahoma's Forests" section. Here they will find information about Oklahoma's major forest types, the ecoregions of Oklahoma, and several Trees of Oklahoma fact sheets. Back on the homepage, visitors can learn about upcoming workshops and events, read a list of forestry bulletins, and find out about the Forest Heritage Center Museum. Residents of Oklahoma may also wish to look through the "Home and Community Trees" area to learn more about planning their own trees and Arbor Day related activities.

  5. Anderson Productions Cruisin' Oklahoma US 66 video archive Transcripts

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    :38:00 ­ 14:39:26 from Hi8#9. See ¾" #O. BC-metal 60ml. 26 TC 14:39:26 ­ 15:27:17 from Hi8#9, Phillips ¾". See'd. 26 Oct 1993. 7 Central Oklahoma Christian Home geriatric park. c/a's Will Rogers. 8 Oklahoma

  6. IMPLICATIONS OF NEW ARSENIC STANDARDS ON OKLAHOMA WATER RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new national standard for arsenic in drinking water supplies, slated to take effect in 2006, is having an unexpected impact on a number of Oklahoma communities. Currently, several municipalities in north central Oklahoma are in compliance with existing arsenic standards (50 ...

  7. Prokaryotic community structure in deep bedrock aquifers of the Austrian Central Alps.

    PubMed

    Larentis, Michael; Psenner, Roland; Alfreider, Albin

    2015-03-01

    The bacterial and archaeal diversity of deep groundwater systems was investigated based on 16S rRNA-SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) fingerprints. The study site included five boreholes along the projected Brenner Base Tunnel in the central Alps of Tyrol, Austria. To obtain representative samples, packer-sealed fractures were sampled at specific depths between 105 and 780 m below surface. Sequence analysis of SSCP bands obtained from 13 samples showed that between 29 and 62 % of the phylotypes belonged to a variety of Proteobacteria including representatives of typical freshwater bacteria of the genera Acidovorax, Aquabacterium, and Sphingomonas. Bacteroidetes (especially Flavobacterium), Firmicutes (Acetobacterium), and candidate division OP3-related sequences were observed in the majority of the analysed groundwaters. On average, 14 % of the detected prokaryotic phylotypes were affiliated with Archaea, comprising the phyla Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Most of the archaeal sequences showed low similarities to known cultivated species, with exception of two sequences having 98 % similarity to Methanosaeta sp. A considerable number of thaumarchaeal sequences belonged to two groups related to Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus phylotypes. An environmental clustering of the groundwater samples, based on the bacterial and archaeal phylogeny, revealed a clear distribution pattern of the samples (sites and depths) reflecting the hydrochemical characteristics and underlying geologies. PMID:25536902

  8. Agriculture-related trends in groundwater quality of the glacial deposits aquifer, central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring and understanding trends in groundwater quality is necessary for determining whether changes in land-management practices have an effect on groundwater quality. This paper describes an approach that was used to measure and understand trends using data from two groundwater studies conducted in central Wisconsin as part of the USGS NAWQA program. One of the key components of this approach, determining the age of sampled groundwater, gave a temporal component to the snapshots of water quality that were obtained through synoptic-sampling efforts. This approach can be used at other locations where groundwater quality data are collected, groundwater age can be determined, and associated temporal data are available. Results of these studies indicate measured concentrations of nitrate and atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to historical patterns of fertilizer and atrazine use. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater have increased over time; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine increased and then decreased. Concentrations of nitrate also were correlated to screen depth below the water level and concentrations of dissolved O2; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to dissolved O2 and annual precipitation. To measure trends in concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine, the data, collected over a near-decadal period, were adjusted to account for changes in laboratory-reporting levels and analytical recoveries. Only after accounting for these changes was it apparent that the median concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine decreased over the near-decadal interval between sampling efforts. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. History of ground-water pumpage and water-level decline in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers of the central coastal plain of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Lyke, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Historical ground-water withdrawals and a general water-level decline in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers of the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina are documented. Total municipal and industrial pumpage from these aquifers has increased from approximately 120,000 gal/day (gpd) in 1910 to >21 million gpd in 1980. Major pumpage, > 10,000 gpd, began around 1900. Since that time, per capita water use in the central Coastal Plain area has ranged from 17 to 172 gpd/person. The higher values partially represent the increasing availability and use of modern conveniences since the World War II era. The range of per capita water use can be subdivided according to general water-use and population characteristics for both urban and rural areas. The pumpage of ground water from the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers has created water-level declines from 0.5 to 4.9 ft/year since 1900. Approximately a third of the study area has experienced a decline > 50 ft up to the period 1979-1981, with 148 ft being the maximum.

  10. Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for contamination of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Silver Springs ground-water basin, central Marion County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer, composed of a thick sequence of very porous limestone and dolomite, is the principal source of water supply in the Silver Springs ground-water basin of central Marion County, Florida. The karstic nature of the local geology makes the aquifer susceptible to contaminants from the land surface. Contaminants can enter the aquifer by seepage through surficial deposits and through sinkholes and drainage wells. Potential contaminants include agricultural chemicals, landfill leachates and petroleum products from leaking storage tanks and accidental spills. More than 560 sites of potential contamination sources were identified in the basin in 1990. Detailed investigation of four sites were used to define hydrologic conditions at representative sites. Ground-water flow velocities determined from dye trace studies ranged from about 1 foot per hour under natural flow conditions to about 10 feet per hour under pumping conditions, which is considerably higher than velocities estimated using Darcy's equation for steady-state flow in a porous medium. Water entering the aquifer through drainage wells contained bacteria, elevated concentrations of nutrients, manganese and zinc, and in places, low concentrations of organic compounds. On the basis of results from the sampling of 34 wells in 1989 and 1990, and from the sampling of water entering the Upper Floridan aquifer through drainage wells, there has been no widespread degradation of water quality in the study area. In an area of karst, particularly one in which fracture flow is significant, evaluating the effects from contaminants is difficult and special care is required when interpolating hydrogeologic data from regional studies to a specific. (USGS)

  11. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  12. Reactions and reaction rates in the regional aquifer beneath the Pajarito Plateau, north-central New Mexico, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne G. Hereford; Elizabeth H. Keating; George D. Guthrie; Chen Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Reactions and reaction rates within aquifers are fundamental components of critical hydrological processes. However, reactions\\u000a simulated in laboratory experiments typically demonstrate rates that are much faster than those observed in the field. Therefore,\\u000a it is necessary to conduct more reaction rate analyses in natural settings. This study of geochemical reactions in the regional\\u000a aquifer in the Pajarito Plateau near Los

  13. Use of Naturally Occurring Noble Gas Tracers to Evaluate the Freshwater/Saline Water Interface of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, A. G.; Lambert, R. B.; Landis, G. P.; Waugh, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    The Edwards Aquifer currently is the primary source of water in south central Texas for agriculture, municipal, industrial, and ecological needs, supplying over 1.5 million people and supporting unique habitats for endangered species. The aquifer consists of limestone with some dolostone members of the Edwards Group that dip in a southeasterly direction. The up-dip freshwater zone of the aquifer is recharged with fresh water along the northern area of the outcropping Edwards Group. Adjacent to the freshwater zone is the saline-water zone that forms an interface at the down-dip limit of the fresh water. Though the freshwater/saline-water interface is spatially defined within the aquifer, little is known about the nature of groundwater flow between and along its surface. Structural, lithologic and hydrologic features may influence the possible up-dip migration of the saline water into the freshwater zone and may adversely affect current freshwater supplies. Freshwater/saline-water monitoring well transects were sampled for dissolved gas using both conventional and un-conventional methods to establish vertical profiles across the aquifer. Data revealed two highly distinct gas compositions between the zones. The upper freshwater zone is characterized by normal, atmospherically saturated water gas concentrations with slight enrichments due to excess air (4He ~ 60 ?cc/kg). The lower saline zone displayed a very different gas composition, highlighted by extremely high concentrations of radiogenic 4He (>20,000 ?cc/kg) and minor amounts of excess 40Ar contained in a gas composition rich in CO2, H2S and other hydrocarbons. Vertical profiles of dissolved gas compositions across the interface show active flowing water along the interface, and sluggish, stagnant flow within the saline zone. These sharply contrasting zones are strongly influenced by the faulting in the aquifer and by the hydrostatic head within the freshwater zone. Both the faulting and the hydrostatic head in the freshwater zone of the aquifer appear to exert a major influence on the regional groundwater flow patterns.

  14. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned CCDD sites; site assessments and remedial feasibility studies are ongoing in each State. Remediation alternatives addressed physical hazards and potential for groundwater transport of dissolved salt and petroleum hydrocarbons that might be leached from wastes. Remediation options included excavation of wastes and contaminated adjacent soils followed by removal to permitted disposal facilities or land farming if sufficient on-site area were available.

  15. Effects of aquifer heterogeneity on ground-water flow and chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer near and within an active pumping well field, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tihansky, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations have been increasing over time in water from wells within and near the Eldridge-Wilde well field, near the coast in west-central Florida. Variable increases in chloride concentrations from well to well over time are the combined result of aquifer heterogeneity and ground-water pumping within the Upper Floridan aquifer. Deep mineralized water and saline water associated with the saltwater interface appear to move preferentially along flow zones of high transmissivity in response to ground-water withdrawals. The calcium-bicarbonate-type freshwater of the Upper Floridan aquifer within the study area is variably enriched with ions by mixing with introduced deep and saline ground water. The amount and variability of increases in chloride and sulfate concentrations at each well are related to well location, depth interval, and permeable intervals intercepted by the borehole. Zones of high transmissivity characterize the multilayered carbonate rocks of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Well-developed secondary porosity within the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones and the Avon Park Formation has created producing zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer. The highly transmissive sections of the Avon Park Formation generally are several orders of magnitude more permeable than the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, but both are associated with increased ground-water flow. The Ocala Limestone is less permeable and is dominated by primary, intergranular porosity. Acoustic televiewer logging, caliper logs, and borehole flow logs (both electromagnetic and heat pulse) indicate that the Tampa/Suwannee Limestone units are dominated by porosity owing to dissolution between 200 and 300 feet below land surface, whereas the porosity of the Avon Park Formation is dominated by fractures that occur primarily from 600 to 750 feet below land surface and range in angle from horizontal to near vertical. Although the Ocala Limestone can act as a semiconfining unit between the Avon Park Formation and the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, seismic-reflection data and photolinear analyses indicate that fractures and discontinuities in the Ocala Limestone are present within the southwestern part of the well field. It is possible that some fracture zones extend upward from the Avon Park Formation through the Ocala, Suwannee, and Tampa Limestones to land surface. These fractures may provide a more direct hydrologic connection between transmissive zones that are vertically separated by less permeable stratigraphic units. Ground water moves along permeable zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer in response to changes in head gradients as a result of pumping. Borehole geophysical measurements, including flow logs, specific conductance logs, and continuous monitoring of specific conductance at selected fixed depths, indicate that borehole specific conductance varies substantially with time and in response to pumping stresses. Ground-water mixing between hydrogeologic units likely occurs along highly transmissive zones and within boreholes of active production wells. Ground-water movement and water-quality changes were greatest along the most transmissive zones. Variable mixing of three water-type end members (freshwater, deepwater, and saltwater) occurs throughout the study area. Both deepwater and saltwater are likely sources for elevated chloride and sulfate concentrations in ground water. Mass-balance calculations of mixtures of the three end members indicate that deepwater is found throughout the aquifer units. Samples from wells within the southwestern part of the well field indicate that deepwater migrates into the shallow permeable units in the southwestern part of the well field. Deepwater contributes to elevated sulfate and chloride concentrations, which increase with depth and are elevated in wells less than 400 feet deep. The greatest increases in chloride concentrations over time are found in water from wells closest to the saltwater interface. Gro

  16. Reactions and reaction rates in the regional aquifer beneath the Pajarito Plateau, north-central New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hereford, Anne G.; Keating, Elizabeth H.; Guthrie, George D.; Zhu, Chen

    2007-05-01

    Reactions and reaction rates within aquifers are fundamental components of critical hydrological processes. However, reactions simulated in laboratory experiments typically demonstrate rates that are much faster than those observed in the field. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more reaction rate analyses in natural settings. This study of geochemical reactions in the regional aquifer in the Pajarito Plateau near Los Alamos, New Mexico combines modeling with petrographic assessment to further knowledge and understanding of complex natural hydrologic systems. Groundwater geochemistry shows marked evolution along assumed flow paths. The flow path chosen for this study was evaluated using inverse mass balance modeling to calculate the mass transfer. X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy were used to identify possible reactants and products. Considering the mineralogy of the aquifer and saturation indices for the regional water refined initial interpretations. Calculations yielded dissolution rates for plagioclase on the order of 10-15 mol s-1 m-2 and for K-feldspar on the order of 10-17 mol s-1 m-2, orders of magnitude slower than laboratory rates. While these rates agree with other aquifer studies, they must be considered in the light of the uncertainty associated with geometric surface area estimates, 14C ages, and aquifer properties.

  17. Regional ground-water-flow models of surficial sand and gravel aquifers along the Mississippi River between Brainerd and St. Cloud, central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.; Cowdery, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents regional ground-waterflow models constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to satisfy the requirements of their Source Water Protection Plan (SWPP). Steady-state single-layer ground-water-flow models were constructed with the computer program MODFLOW to simulate flow in surficial sand and gravel aquifers along the Mississippi River between Brainerd and St. Cloud in central Minnesota. The hydrogeologic data that were used to construct the models were compiled from available sources. Calibrated values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and areal recharge for the aquifer in a northern model area were 70 m/d and 3.0x10-4 m/d, respectively. This model was sensitive to net areal recharge, vertical hydraulic conductivity of perennial streambed sediments, and horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The major source of net inflow to the model was from edge boundary cells. The major source of net outflow was ground-water discharge to perennial and ephemeral streams. Calibrated values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and areal recharge for the aquifer in a southern model area were 70 m/d and 6.0x10-4 m/d, respectively. This model was sensitive mostly to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Net areal recharge and ground-water discharge to perennial streams were the major sources of net inflow and outflow, respectively.

  18. Effects of recharge from drainage wells on quality of water in the Floridan Aquifer in the Orlando area, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiner, G.R.; German, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    Approximately 400 drainage wells in the Orlando area inject, by gravity, large quantities of stormwater runoff that may or may not be suitable for most purposes without treatment into the same freshwater zones of the Floridan aquifer tapped for public supply. The wells are used mostly to control lake levels and dispose of urban storm runoff. Recharge from drainage wells compensates for heavy withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer and helps maintain aquifer pressures that retard upward saltwater encroachment. Sixty-five supply wells and 21 drainage wells within a 16-mile radius of Orlando were sampled from September 1977 to June 1979. Most constituent concentrations were slightly higher in water from drainage wells than in water from supply wells. The most notable differences were in bacteria colony count and total nitrogen concentrations. With the exception of bacteria, water from drainage wells would generally meet the maximum contaminant levels established by the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. (USGS)

  19. Stable and radio-isotope analysis to determine recharge timing and paleoclimate of sandstone aquifers in central and southeast Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Faitouri, Mohamed; Sanford, William E.

    2015-02-01

    Stable isotopes of water and 14C activities (percent modern carbon, pmc) were used to estimate the timing of recharge and paleoclimatic conditions during recharge for three sandstone aquifers in Libya. These aquifers are part of the Nubian Aquifer System, with current and planned groundwater development designed to produce 106 m3/day of water. 14C activities from water samples collected at three wellfields (Sarir, Tazerbo and Al Kufra) indicate recharge during late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Stable isotope compositions from all three locations are significantly depleted relative to modern water, indicating that the climate was more humid than today. These results are in line with previous regional groundwater studies. This was the first study of its kind for the aquifers at Tazerbo and Sarir wellfield. The Tazerbo wellfield, which produces from the deepest aquifer, had the oldest estimated recharge ages (late Pleistocene). For Sarir, 14C activities ranged from 6.30 to 41.42 pmc; the Sarir aquifer is leaky confined and this range is likely due to mixing of shallow younger water with older deeper water. At Al Kufra, the 14C activity (5.27 pmc) of a well which is part of an agriculture project, is greater than the activity of wells sampled in 1973 (0.5-2.0 pmc). The greater activity is likely due to the lowering of the regional potentiometric surface causing younger water to be captured after four decades of wellfield operation. It is recommended that periodic monitoring be done in large wellfields to identify changes in isotope compositions as production continues.

  20. Potentiometric surface of the lower Cape Fear Aquifer in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, December 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D., Jr.; Lyke, William L.; Brockman, Allen R.

    1989-01-01

    Water level measurements were made in four wells open to the lower Cape Fear aquifer at the end of 1986 to determine the configuration of its potentiometric surface over an area of approximately 4,100 sq mi. Because of the scarcity of data, five earlier measurements were also used to help estimate the position of the potentiometric contours. These were one-time measurements in temporary observation wells. A broad cone of depression has formed in the area between Kinston and New Bern where the potentiometric surface is below sea level and seems likely related to large groundwater withdrawals from the aquifers overlying the lower Cape Fear in that area.

  1. House Damage from 2011 Oklahoma Earthquake

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    House damage in central Oklahoma from the magnitude 5.6 earthquake on Nov. 6, 2011. Research conducted by USGS geophysicist Elizabeth Cochran and her university-based colleagues suggests that this earthquake was induced by injection into deep disposal wells in the Wilzetta North field....

  2. Experimental Evidence for Microbially Mediated Carbonate Dissolution from the Saline Water Zone of the Edwards Aquifer, Central Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Summers Engel; Kelli Willson Randall

    2011-01-01

    Microbially induced carbonate dissolution was evaluated from sulfidic wells in the Edwards Aquifer, Texas. Filamentous biomass covers rock surfaces, with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria dominating the attached community, but novel Alphaproteobacteria dominating the planktonic community. Despite fluids being saturated with respect to calcite, experimental calcite from in situ microcosms had significantly greater mass loss when colonized. Moreover, neoformed gypsum crystals were

  3. MIXED HERONRIES OF OKLAHOMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. William Sallee

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of this 3-year study were to locate mixed heronries in Oklahoma, census breeding pairs of each species, and indentify site characteristics that may be important to heron ecology. During the study, 17 mixed heronries, containing a total of six ardeid species, were found in Oklahoma. The majority of heronries (82%) were located within the oak-woodland fauna region. Other

  4. Oklahoma Tribes: A History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, Kevin

    1977-01-01

    Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…

  5. Pride in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gordon; Blackburn, Bob L.

    This booklet is intended to be used as background material by social studies and history classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Oklahoma's heritage. It includes background information on the land and people of Oklahoma (geology, climate, topography, vegetation, animals, prehistoric peoples, French explorers,…

  6. Oklahoma City, Canadian River, OK, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of Oklahoma City, OK (35.5N, 97.5W) surrounded by the grasslands of the central plains, is detailed enough to use as a map of the major highways and throughfares within the city and surrounding area. Tinker Air Force Base and Will Rogers International Airport as well as Lakes Hefner, Stanley Draper and nearby recreation areas. The smaller community of Norman, on the banks of the Canadian River to the south, is home to the University of Oklahoma.

  7. Aquifer Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, produced by the United States Geological Survey, is all about aquifers. Many different types of aquifers are addressed, these include: sand and gravel, sandstone, sandstone and carbonate, carbonate-rock, and igneous and metamorphic. Links to other sites, such as aquifers on the US National Atlas, are also featured on the site.

  8. Ground-water flow in the Gulf Coast aquifer systems, south central United States; a preliminary analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, A.K.; Grubb, H.F.; Weiss, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is to use digital models of regional groundwater flow systems to develop better understanding and to improve management of the resource. Modeling is used to synthesize information about the aquifer systems and to test hypotheses about the relative importance of the components of the systems. The 290,000-sq mile study area in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain includes the Mississippi embayment, Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas, and the Continental Shelf that are underlain by deposits of Tertiary and younger age, which contain fresh and saline water. A 10-layer, finite-difference, variable density model, with blocks 10 miles on a side, was used to simulate groundwater flow before development and in 1980, assuming steady- state conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the major factors controlling predevelopment regional flow are the topography, land-surface outcrop pattern, and geometry of aquifers and confining units. Geologic structure and the distribution of precipitation were less significant factors. The density of saline water in the deeper parts of the aquifer system probably has a substantial effect on regional groundwater flow that extends into the freshwater part of the system. Variable water density may be a significant driving force that transports salt great distances in many directions, including updip. The distribution and rates of regional recharge and discharge have been substantially changed by development. Groundwater pumpage in 1980 was about five times the value of predevelopment regional recharge. About 80% of the pumpage was supplied from increased regional recharge. Also resistance to vertical flow caused by many fine-grained beds within the permeable zones can be as important as resistance caused by regional confining units. (USGS)

  9. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  10. State summaries: Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, Oklahoma mines produced both industrial minerals and coal. No metals were mined in the state. Based on value, leading industrial minerals include crushed stone followed by cement, construction sand and gravel, industrial sand and gravel, iodine and gypsum. The Oklahoma Department of Mines (ODOM) reported that more than 343 mine operators produced nonfuel minerals from 405 mines in the state. However, 530 mining permitted sites were on file. The Oklahoma Miner Training Institute (OMTI) held 239 classes for 33,768 classroom hours of instruction, in which 84 coal miners and 4,587 metal/nonmetal miners were trained.

  11. Solute chemistry and arsenic fate in aquifers between the Himalayan foothills and Indian craton (including central Gangetic plain): Influence of geology and geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Fryar, Alan E.; Saha, Dipankar; Ghosh, Ashok; Chowdhuri, Sunil; Mishra, Ranjan

    2012-08-01

    Information on groundwater chemistry in the central Ganges basin can provide insights into recharge, provenance, and fate of solutes in arsenic (As)-affected areas upstream of the more intensively studied Bengal basin. The geological and geomorphological units of the region are much more discernible than the Bengal basin aquifers. Moreover, the region is less affected by groundwater abstraction, which complicates interpretation of As distributions in the Bengal basin. The study area extends from the northern edge of the Indian craton outcrops to the foothills of the Himalayas. Geologic units in the area can be broadly classified as pre-Cenozoic metamorphics and volcanics (PC), older alluvial deposits of the Ganges and its tributaries (OA), younger or active alluvial deposits of the Ganges and its tributaries in the basin (YA), and sediments of the Himalayan foothills (piedmont, PD). Stable-isotopic analyses indicate groundwater in these units has been recharged by meteoric or surface water that has generally undergone some evaporation. The hydrochemical facies is generally a Ca-HCO3 type. While most of the solutes in the YA groundwater are derived from carbonate dissolution, many of the PD, PC and OA groundwater samples are influenced by silicate weathering, suggesting that leaching of metamorphics and volcanics acts as a major source of solutes. Redox conditions are highly spatially variable (oxic to methanic, dominated by metal reduction), with no systematic depth variation within sampled aquifers. More than 75% of YA and PD groundwater samples have As ? 0.01 mg/L, but As was detected in only one OA sample and no PC samples. Arsenic is probably mobilized by reductive dissolution of Fe-Mn (oxyhydr)oxides in the alluvium, with possibility of competitive anionic mobilization. Hence, relative to the Bengal basin, in addition to lower groundwater abstraction influence, groundwater chemistry in the study area reflects a greater variety of differences in the geological and geomorphological settings of the aquifers.

  12. Reconnaissance of the hydrology of sandstone and limestone aquifers along the northwest flank of the Little Rocky Mountains, Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, north-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slagle, S.E.; Christensen, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    The geohydrology of aquifers was studied the south- western part of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in north-central Montana. The geologic units of interest are the Lodgepole Limestone, principally composed of thin-bedded limestone; the Mission Canyon Limestone, a massive limestone containing numerous solution cavities; the lower part of the Kootenai Formation, composed of sandstone; a sands- stone unit at the base of the Colorado Group; and the Virgelle Sandstone Member at the base of the Eagle Sandstone. These units were formed during Early Mississippian through Late Cretaceous time and have been subjected to uplift, folding, and the intrusion of the igneous core of Little Rocky Mountains. Dips of these units range from nearly vertical to about 10 degrees. Thirty-one test holes were drilled and 25 of the holes were completed as monitoring wells. Water-level fluctuations in most aquifers followed a seasonal pattern with the lowest levels occurring in the fall and winter and highest levels in the spring and summer. Seasonal fluctuations ranged from about 0.6 to 21 feet. Specific capacity of wells tested ranged from 0.02 gallon per minute per foot for a well completed in the Eagle Sandstone to 4.6 gallons per minute per foot for a well completed in the Mission Canyon Limestone. Eight aquifer tests indicated transmissivity values of 15 to 1,000 feet squared per day. Dissolved-solids concentration in water collected from 22 wells ranged from 263 to 1,930 milligrams per liter. The least mineralized water was obtained from the Mission Canyon Limestone and the most mineralized from the Eagle Sandstone.

  13. Integrated characterization of groundwater contamination in an alluvial system. Case study of Allier alluvial aquifer (Massif Central, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Nabaz; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Batisson, Isabelle; Bardot, Corinne; Colombet, Jonathan; Huneau, Frédéric; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Clauzet, Marie-Laure; Lavastre, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeology is an intrinsically multi-disciplinary field because of the critical role water plays in both human health and natural ecosystems. The NAA (Nappe Alluviale de l'Allier) project proposes an integrated research (hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry and biology) on the shallow aquifer of the Allier River (one of the main tributaries of the Loire River). This aquifer plays an important role in the regional water supply for it represents more than 60% of the total water abstraction. As an example, the sampling site, located near the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France) constitutes the major source of drinking water supply for more than 100 000 inhabitants and then plays a major role on the local socio-economy. A biweekly following sampling, that concerns hydrodynamical parameters, major ions and isotopes (oxygen-18, deuterium and carbon-13), has been achieved during two years on 2 rivers, 1 pond, 2 springs and 17 boreholes with the aim of defining the functioning of the aquifer in terms of quality and quantity of the water resources and then on the main processes that governs hydrodynamic and hydrochemistry. Preliminary results allowed discriminating different origins of groundwater with a part due to surface waters/groundwater interactions and a secondary origin that implies water circulating from the surrounding hills. A monthly following sampling of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and traces ions provides information on contaminants sources. In parallel, the dynamics of the microbial communities (bacteria, pico-cyanobacteria and pico-eukaryotes) was followed by flow cytometer. The bacterial diversity has been measured through PCR-DGGE analysis in order to evaluate the impact of the occurrence of contaminants.

  14. Estimated Withdrawals from Principal Aquifers in

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    1279, 46 p. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Maupin, Molly A. Estimated withdrawals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Central Valley Aquifer System

  15. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

  16. Effects of land use on water quality of the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chafin, Daniel T.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer in 1988 and 1989 as part of the Toxic-Waste Ground-Water Contamination Program. These data indicate that dissolved solids, most major ions, fluoride, ammonium, boron, lithium, selenium, and strontium were more concentrated in the agricultural land-use area than in the upgradient urban land-use area. Nitrate and phosphate had significantly larger concentrations, and volatile organic compounds had significantly greater detection frequencies in the urban land-use area.

  17. Statistical analysis of water-level, springflow, and streamflow data for the Edwards Aquifer in south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puente, Celso

    1976-01-01

    Water-level, springflow, and streamflow data were used to develop simple and multiple linear-regression equations for use in estimating water levels in wells and the flow of three major springs in the Edwards aquifer in the eastern San Antonio area. The equations provide daily, monthly, and annual estimates that compare very favorably with observed data. Analyses of geologic and hydrologic data indicate that the water discharged by the major springs is supplied primarily by regional underflow from the west and southwest and by local recharge in the infiltration area in northern Bexar, Comal, and Hays Counties.

  18. The past is the key to the future: how the groundwater recharge to carbonate aquifer in central Italy has changed in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Di Salvo, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Carbonate aquifers are important resources especially in mountainous regions because they are able to store huge quantities of groundwater in the humid periods and gradually release them during dry periods. Water quality is often excellent, hence they are regarded as strategic both for human consumption as well as for environmental uses. In many parts of the world this resources are largely exploited to supply large urban areas and possible negative effects of climate changes to their discharge is a great concern. The present study aims to analyze how the regimen of recharge to groundwater is affected by eventual non stationarity in temperature and precipitation during past decades. The case study (235 km2 ) is located in central Italy and feed the Nera river with an average discharge of about 3.3 m3/s. Daily data from 16 (7) stations monitoring precipitation (temperature) covering the area of interest over the period 1951-2013 were spatially homogenized by means of kriging at a 1 km2 resolution. The resulting daily maps were used to force a simple spatial distributed soil water budget model considering the local hydrogeological structure. The reconstructed daily recharge to the aquifer was then compared to the discharge of the groundwater system observed in the period 1991-1993 and 1996-2012 (discontinues measurements). Results show that minimum and maximum temperatures present a significant (95%) positive trend after the 1980, in acceleration after 1990 (+0.055 (+0.07 )°C/yr for the maximum T; +0.03 ( +0.06) °C/yr for the minimum T, for the periods 1980-2013 (1990-2013)); precipitation and recharge to the aquifer present a non-significant (95%) negative linear trend over the period 1951-2013 (-1.5 mm/yr and -3 Ls-1yr-1 respectively) without obvious changings points, indicating in first approximation a marginal impact of temperature non stationarity on the recharge. The decrease in the recharge to the aquifer, although not statistically significant, represents a reduction of 5.5% of the groundwater system discharge over the past 60 years.

  19. Estimated 2008 groundwater potentiometric surface and predevelopment to 2008 water-level change in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque area, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falk, Sarah E.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico have historically been met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Previous studies have indicated that the large quantity of groundwater withdrawal relative to recharge has resulted in water-level declines in the aquifer system throughout the metropolitan area. Analysis of the magnitude and pattern of water-level change can help improve understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies' efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, presents the estimated groundwater potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of the 2008 water year and the estimated changes in water levels between predevelopment and water year 2008 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque and surrounding metropolitan and military areas. Hydrographs from selected wells are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were measured in small-diameter observation wells screened over short intervals and were considered to best represent the potentiometric head in the production zone-the interval of the aquifer, about 300 feet below land surface to 1,100 feet or more below land surface, in which production wells generally are screened. Water-level measurements were collected by various local and Federal agencies. The 2008 water year potentiometric surface map was created in a geographic information system, and the change in water-level elevation from predevelopment to water year 2008 was calculated. The 2008 water-level contours indicate that the general direction of groundwater flow is from the Rio Grande towards clusters of production wells in the east, north, and west. Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2008 are variable across the area. Hydrographs from piezometers on the east side of the river generally indicate a trend of decline in the annual highest water level through most of the period of record. Hydrographs from piezometers in the valley near the river and on the west side of the river indicate spatial variability in water-level trends.

  20. InSAR analysis of aquifer-system response to 20 years of mine-dewatering in the Carlin gold trend, north-central Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. W.; Katzenstein, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Carlin trend in north-central Nevada has the second largest gold resources in the world, most of it produced from large open-pit mines. Heavy groundwater dewatering is required at the mines to lower water levels below the depth of mining which can exceed 400-500 m. The resulting water level declines have produced surface deformation (subsidence) that can be detected and modeled with InSAR to characterize the aquifer-system response and to estimate hydraulic parameters in order to test and refine groundwater models. In a series of studies we examined the effects of dewatering at mines operated by Newmont Mining Corporation and Barrick Gold of North America near Battle Mountain and Carlin, Nevada. The Lone Tree mine operated a large-scale dewatering program between 1992-2006 using deep bedrock wells that pumped between 64-92 hm3/yr (52,000-75,000 acre-ft/yr) and lowered bedrock water levels more than 120 m. InSAR analysis of ERS and Envisat data for the 1992-2000 and 2004-2010 periods showed that as much as 50 cm of aquifer-system compaction occurred in bedrock and in alluvial basin deposits with subsidence rates ranging between 3-6 cm/yr. Since dewatering ended in late 2006 and water levels began rising, only 7 cm of aquifer-system recovery (uplift) has occurred as of 2010 suggesting that most of the aquifer-system compaction was likely inelastic, apparently in the pumped fractured bedrock. The InSAR subsidence data differ significantly from the pre-pumping groundwater model which predicted 2.5 m of subsidence for the 1992-2000 period. The results yield bulk storage coefficients in the range of 7 x 10-3 to 5.6 x 10-5 with a most frequent value of 1.0 x 10-3 (Baffoe-Twum, 2007), InSAR-derived hydraulic values that can provide better constraints on specific storage estimates in future groundwater models. The Betze-Post mine has been dewatering continually since late 1989 with maximum pumping rates of greater than 140 hm3/yr (110,000 acre-ft/yr) in the early and late 1990s. This resulted in the lowering of groundwater levels by as much as 500 m in some areas. Analysis of InSAR data covering the 1992-2000 and 2004-2010 time periods suggests a cumulative measured subsidence magnitude of approximately 50 cm. In this case, all of the aquifer-system compaction is occurring in bedrock. Estimates of bulk storage coefficients at Betze-Post are also on the order of approximately 1.0 x 10-3 suggesting that subsidence at both sites is occurring in materials of similar character. Subsidence rates have decreased to near zero since groundwater production was reduced in the early 2000s. Since the early 2000s, subsidence rates resulting from dewatering at the neighboring Leeville mine have been greater than those at Betze-Post. Dewatering at the Turquoise Ridge-Twin Creeks and Gold Quarry mines, adjacent to these two larger mines, has also produced measureable aquifer-system compaction but with lower rates of subsidence. However, detailed hydrologic analyses have not been undertaken at these mines.

  1. Land Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction in the Tucson Active Management Area, South-Central Arizona, 1987-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carruth, Robert L.; Flynn, Pool; Donald, R.; Anderson, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey monitors land subsidence and aquifer-system compaction caused by ground-water depletion in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley - two of the three alluvial basins within the Tucson Active Management Area. In spring 1987, the Global Positioning System was used to measure horizontal and vertical positions for bench marks at 43 sites to establish a network for monitoring land subsidence in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley. Between 1987 and 2005, the original number of subsidence monitoring stations was gradually increased to more than 100 stations to meet the need for information in the growing metropolitan area. Data from approximately 60 stations common to the Global Positioning System surveys done after an initial survey in 1987 are used to document land subsidence. For the periods of comparison, average land-surface deformation generally is less than the maximum subsidence at an individual station and takes into account land-surface recovery from elastic aquifer-system compaction. Between 1987 and 1998, as much as 3.2 inches of subsidence occurred in Tucson Basin and as much as 4 inches of subsidence occurred in Avra Valley. For the 31 stations that are common to both the 1987 and 1998 Global Positioning System surveys, the average subsidence during the 11-year period was about 0.5 inch in Tucson Basin and about 1.2 inches in Avra Valley. For the approximately 60 stations that are common to both the 1998 and 2002 Global Positioning System surveys, the data indicate that as much as 3.5 inches of subsidence occurred in Tucson Basin and as much as 1.1 inches of subsidence occurred in Avra Valley. The average subsidence for the 4-year period is about 0.4 inch in Tucson Basin and 0.6 inch in Avra Valley. Between the 2002 and the 2005 Global Positioning System surveys, the data indicate that as much as 0.2 inch of subsidence occurred in Tucson Basin and as much as 2.2 inches of subsidence occurred in Avra Valley. The average subsidence for the 3-year period is about 0.7 inch in Avra Valley. Between 1987 and 2004-05, land subsidence was greater in Avra Valley than in Tucson Basin on the basis of the average cumulative subsidence for the stations that were common to the original Global Positioning System survey in 1987. The average total subsidence during the 17- to 18-year period was about 1.3 inches in Tucson Basin and about 2.8 inches in Avra Valley. Three stations in Tucson Basin showed subsidence greater than 4 inches for the period - 5 inches at stations C45 and X419 and 4.1 inches at station PA4. In Avra Valley, two stations showed subsidence for the 17- to 18-year period greater than 4 inches - 4.3 inches at station AV25 and 4.8 inches at station SA105. In 1983, fourteen wells were fitted with borehole extensometers to monitor water-level fluctuations and aquifer-system compaction. Continuous records of water level and aquifer-system compaction indicate that as much as 45 feet of water-level decline and 4 inches of aquifer-system compaction occurred in Tucson Basin from January 1989 through December, 2005. In Avra Valley, extensometer data indicate that as much as 55 feet of water-level decline and 1.7 inches of aquifer-system compaction occurred during the same time period. Rates of compaction vary throughout the extensometer network, with the greater rates of compaction being associated with areas of greater water-level decline and more compressible sediments. In Avra Valley, data from the Global Positioning System surveys indicate that more than half of the total subsidence of the land surface may be the result of aquifer-system compaction below the portion of the aquifer instrumented with the vertical extensometers. For the area in the northern part of Tucson Basin between the Rillito and Santa Cruz rivers, an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar interferogram indicates that about 1.65 inches of subsidence occurred between 2003 and 2006. Between 2002 and 2004, the Global Positioning System

  2. Correlation between groundwater flow and deformation in the fractured carbonate Gran Sasso aquifer (INFN underground laboratories, central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoruso, A.; Crescentini, L.; Martino, S.; Petitta, M.; Tallini, M.

    2014-06-01

    The Gran Sasso massif is a carbonate fractured aquifer with a spring discharge of more than 18 m3 s-1. The water table has been partially drained by two motorway tunnels and an underground laboratory (UL), located into the core aquifer. Karst features have limited role below the water table, where groundwater flow is mainly regulated by the fracture network. Two paired laser extensometers (BA and BC) recorded ground deformation in the UL. Changes in deformation correlate with the seasonal recharge/discharge cycle of groundwater flow and its long-term changes. Hydrostatic conditions prevail during the recharge phases because of the low permeability of local fractures, favoring compression, and hydraulic gradient increase above the UL. Fast groundwater flow through the high-permeability fault outcropping in the UL can enhance local dilatation for short periods. Spring discharge during exhaustion periods is fed by the low-permeability fracture network, fostering hydrodynamic conditions by hydraulic gradient decrease, diminishing compression and consequently favoring dilatation. Independent support to this conceptual model comes from local tests and a numerical model which highlights the hydromechanical strain effects induced by the hydrological cycle on the jointed rock mass along BA and the role of the hydraulic gradient on the rock mass deformation.

  3. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. C.; Webb, R. E.; Phillips, J. M.; Viljoen, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    OKLAHCJ1A INDUSTRIAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM* Wayne C. Turner Richard E. Webb James M. Phillips Trevor A. Viljoen School of Industrial Engineering and Management Oklahoma Department of Energy Oklahoma State University Stillwater...

  4. Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Ground Water, Norman, Oklahoma, 2004, and Remediation Options for Produced Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Christenson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reviewed the arsenic drinking water standard for public water supplies. Considering the available research and statistics on the health effects of arsenic ingestion, the EPA reduced the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for public drinking water from 50 micrograms per liter (?g/L) to 10 ?g/L (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001a). As a result of the more stringent standard, the EPA estimates that about 3,000 public water providers across the United States must take action to meet the new standard before it becomes effective on January 23, 2006 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001b). The City of Norman (City) is one of several Oklahoma municipalities affected by the new arsenic standard. About 20 percent of Norman?s water is supplied by wells completed in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer; the rest is supplied by Lake Thunderbird (fig. 1) or purchased from Oklahoma City. The Norman well field is composed of 24 active wells, and water produced from about half of the wells will not be in compliance with the new MCL (figs. 2 and 3). Chemical treatment of water with elevated arsenic is possible, but it is generally cost prohibitive. Another costly solution is simply to abandon the high-arsenic wells and replace them with new wells in low-arsenic areas. In the next phase of well construction beginning in 2005, the City plans to construct as many as 30 new wells in northeast Norman (Bryan Mitchell, City of Norman, oral commun., 2005). The new wells will replace production lost to the new arsenic standard and add new production to keep pace with rapidly growing consumer demand. Well modification to exclude arsenic-bearing water from existing wells is a more cost-effective solution, but it requires a great deal of knowledge about local aquifer properties and individual well dynamics to decide which wells are good candidates for modification. With the goal of determining if well modification can be used to bring some of Norman?s high-arsenic wells into compliance with the new arsenic standard, the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated a three-year research project in 2003 with participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oklahoma State University, and the City of Norman. The primary objectives of the project are to: (1) determine where naturally occurring arsenic is entering wells by collecting water samples at different depths, (2) investigate the utility of new methods for collecting water-quality data in a pumping well, (3) better understand the stratigraphy and composition of aquifer rocks, (4) assess 10 wells for the possibility of arsenic remediation by well modification, and (5) evaluate the effectiveness of well modification in bringing marginal wells into compliance with the new arsenic MCL. The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence of arsenic in ground water near Norman, Oklahoma, and available options for reducing arsenic concentrations in produced ground water.

  5. Potentiometric surface of the upper Cape Fear Aquifer in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, December 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D., Jr.; Lyke, William L.; Brockman, Allen R.

    1989-01-01

    Water-level measurements were made in 84 wells open to the upper Cape Fear aquifer at the end of 1986 to determine the configuration of its potentiometric surface over an area of approximately 5,500 sq mi. The major feature of the potentiometric surface is the development of a large, almost circular cone of depression as a result of the merging of a number of smaller cones. The center of the large cone lies along an axis between Greenville and Kinston. The potentiometric surface in the upper Cape Fear is nearly 100 ft below sea level at Greenville; it is more than 100 ft above sea level south of the Neuse River near Colorado.

  6. State Documents Collection in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomberlin, Irma R.

    A questionnaire was distributed to a selected group of Oklahoma academic, public, and special libraries to survey their patterns of acquisition, organization, and reference use of Oklahoma state documents collections. Findings revealed serious deficiencies in the provision of current, comprehensive, and well organized collections of Oklahoma

  7. Estimated 2012 groundwater potentiometric surface and drawdown from predevelopment to 2012 in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Rachel I.; McKean, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico were met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. In response to water-level declines, the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began diverting water from the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project in December 2008 to reduce the use of groundwater to meet municipal demand. Modifications in the demand for water and the source of the supply of water for the Albuquerque metropolitan area have resulted in a variable response in the potentiometric surface of the production zone (the interval of the aquifer, from within about 200 feet below the water table to 900 feet or more, in which supply wells generally are screened) of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Analysis of the magnitude and spatial distribution of water-level change can help improve the understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies’ efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the ABCWUA, has developed an estimate of the 2012 potentiometric surface of the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. This potentiometric surface is the latest in a series of reports depicting the potentiometric surface of the area. This report presents the estimated potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of water year 2012 and the estimated changes in potentiometric surface between predevelopment (pre-1961) and water year 2012 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. Hydrographs from selected piezometers are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were collected in small-diameter observation wells screened over short intervals near the middle of the production zone and were considered to best represent the potentiometric head in the production zone. The water-level measurements were collected by various local and Federal agencies. The water year 2012 potentiometric surface map was created in a geographic information system, and the change in water-level altitude from predevelopment to water year 2012 was calculated. The 2012 potentiometric surface indicates that the general direction of groundwater flow is from the Rio Grande towards clusters of supply wells in the east, north, and west. Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2012 were variable across the Albuquerque metropolitan area. Estimated drawdown from 2008 was spatially variable across the Albuquerque metropolitan area. Hydrographs from piezometers on the east side of the river indicate an increase in the annual highest water-level measurement from 2008 to 2012. Hydrographs from piezometers in the northwest part of the study area indicate either steady decline of the water-level altitude over the period of record or recently variable trends in which water-level altitudes increased for a number of years but have declined since water year 2012.

  8. Buried aquifers in the Brooten-Belgrade and Lake Emily areas, west-central Minnesota--Factors related to developing water for irrigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Irrigation has given a substantial boost to the economy in the Brooten-Belgrade and Lake Emily areas of Minnesota. The surficial outwash aquifer is capable of yielding sufficient quantities of water for irrigation over half of its area; the remaining part may be supplied by deep aquifers. Buried glacial outwash and Cretaceous sand aquifers, as thick as 50 feet occur to depths of 300 feet. In places, the buried aquifers are sufficiently thick and permeable to yield large quantities of water to wells. The buried aquifers are probably narrow, elongate, truncated bodies enclosed by clay till. The Precambrian surface, ranging from 190 to 350 feet below the land surface, is the lower limit of the buried aquifers. Water in the buried-drift aquifers is a very hard calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, suitable for irrigation needs. Water in Cretaceous aquifers, although untested, is expected to be higher in dissolved solids. Potenial water problems include slow rate of recharge to buried aquifers, and head loss caused by screening of the surficial and buried aquifers in the same well, and by allowing well to flow unabated. Another potential problem is possible pollution of the buried aquifers through the boreholes of multiaquifer wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. MAINE AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

  10. Configuration of the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and hydrogeology of the underlying pre-Cretaceous rocks, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

    1992-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system is underlain by an extensive complex of rocks, ranging from Late Cambrian through Late Triassic in age, that are typically about 10 to perhaps 1,000 times less permeable than those composing the aquifer system. The Cretaceous rocks of the aquifer system are separated from the pre-Cretaceous rocks by an unconformity that spans about 60 million years of erosion during the Jurassic Period. The upper surface of the pre-Cretaceous rock complex forms the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system. The configuration of the base reflects the original topography of the eroded pre-Cretaceous land surface plus the effects of subsequent deformation. The most permeable pre-Cretaceous rocks are in the eastern half of the study area where they compose the Hickory aquifer (in Upper Cambrian rocks), Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer (Upper Cambrian- Lower Ordovician), and Marble Falls aquifer (Lower Pennsylvanian). These aquifers are hydraulically connected to the northeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, as their up-turned margins crop out around the flanks of the breached Llano uplift. The Rustler aquifer in rocks of Late Permian age underlies parts of the Trans-Pecos region, where it yields small amounts of greatly mineralized water for industrial and agricultural purposes. The Dockum aquifer in rocks of Late Triassic age directly underlies the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in western parts of the study area, and locally increases the saturated thickness of the ground-water-flow system by an average of about 200 feet. Despite these notable exceptions, the collective effect of the pre-Cretaceous rocks is that 01 a barrier to ground-water flow, which limits the exchange of water across the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system.

  11. Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than in more urbanized areas. Much of the water in the area is of good quality, though some parts of this area have water quality impaired by very hard surface water and groundwater; large chloride concentrations in some smaller streams; relatively large concentrations of nutrients and counts of fecal-indicator bacteria in the North Canadian River; and chloride, iron, manganese, and uranium concentrations that exceed primary or secondary drinking-water standards in water samples collected from small numbers of wells. Substantial amounts of hydrologic and water-quality data have been collected in much of this area, but there are gaps in those data caused by relatively few streamflow-gaging stations, uneven distribution of surface-water quality sampling sites, lack of surface-water quality sampling at high-flow and low-flow conditions, and lack of a regularly measured and sampled groundwater network. This report summarizes existing water-use, climatic, geographic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and describes several means of filling gaps in hydrologic data for this area.

  12. Strengthening Oklahoma Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Citizens' Commission on Education, Oklahoma City.

    Established by the state legislature in 1980, the Oklahoma Citizens' Commission on Education (OCCE) aimed to evaluate the state's schools and prescribe goals for its future educational system. This report presents OCCE's recommendations and background materials. The first section comprises OCCE's 42 recommendations and statements, with supporting…

  13. Geologic provinces of Oklahoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Northcutt; J. A. Campbell

    1995-01-01

    The geologic provinces of Oklahoma are mainly the product of tectonics and attendant sedimentation of Pennsylvanian age. Most boundaries are structural; thus, the provinces map is a generalized tectonic map. Permian and post-Paleozoic strata tend to mask those structures, but most of those strata have been removed by erosion, except in the Anadarko Basin and the Wichita Uplift provinces. The

  14. Economic and Hydrologic Implications of Proposed Edwards Aquifer Management Plans

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Carl R.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Williams, R. Lynn; Jordan, Wayne R.; McCarl, Bruce A.

    The Edwards Aquifer underlies a large region in south central Texas extending from west of Uvalde to Austin. The karstic aquifer supports irrigated agriculture in the western part of the region, provides the sole source of water supply for San...

  15. Oklahoma NASA EPSCoR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Victoria Duca

    2002-01-01

    The mission of Oklahoma EPSCoR is to make Oklahoma researchers more successful in competing for research funding. Specific goals, objectives, and strategies were developed for each federal EPSCoR program, based on federal and state needs. A theme of stimulating collaboration among campuses and building on common research strengths is a strong component of the Oklahoma EPSCoR strategic plan. It extends also to our relationships with the federal agencies, and wherever possible, Oklahoma EPSCoR projects are developed collaboratively with federal research laboratories and program offices. Overall, Oklahoma EPSCoR seeks to capitalize on unique research capabilities and opportunities. The NASA EPSCoR Program in Oklahoma was developed through this grant as a joint effort between Oklahoma EPSCoR and the NASA Oklahoma Space Grant Consortium (OSGC). The major goal of the Oklahoma NASA EPSCoR Plan established in 1996 is to develop an academic research enterprise directed towards a long-term, self-sustaining, nationally competitive capability in areas of mutual self-interest to NASA and Oklahoma. Our final technical summary pie chart demonstrates the strong successes we have achieved during this period as a result of the award.

  16. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  17. Spatial and temporal controls on biogeochemical indicators at the small-scale interface between a contaminated aquifer and wetland surface water

    E-print Network

    Baez-Cazull, Susan Enid

    2009-05-15

    This high-resolution biogeochemical study investigated spatial and temporal variability in the mixing interface zones within a wetland-aquifer system near a municipal landfill in the city of Norman, Oklahoma. Steep biogeochemical gradients...

  18. Characterizing the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer through electrical methods Kumar Ramachandran*, Bryan Tapp, Tayler Rigsby and Erin Lewallen

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Kumar

    Characterizing the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer through electrical methods Kumar Ramachandran*, Bryan Tapp, Tayler Rigsby and Erin Lewallen The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma Summary The Arbuckle-Simpson in the future. As part of an ongoing study to map and characterize the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, an electrical

  19. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

  20. Linkage between fluid-rock-interactions and facial, petrographical, and geochemical properties of Buntsandstein aquifer sandstones of the Thuringian Basin, Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilse, U.; Beyer, D.; Kunkel, C.; Aehnelt, M.; Pudlo, D.; Voigt, T.; Gaupp, R.

    2012-04-01

    This study is part of a collaborative research project examining the basin wide movement of fluids in the subsurface (INFLUINS - integrated fluid dynamics in sediment basins). The Lower Triassic Buntsandstein is a major aquifer in Thuringia and adjacent areas in central Germany. The sediments exhibit an overall trend of base level and associated environmental changes. In the Lower Buntsandstein, deposition started with sediments indicating a playa-like setting. The Middle Buntsandstein consists of sediments of wide floodplains with very shallow rivers and eolian reworking in the lower part, and of deeper, long-ranged braided to meandering river systems in the upper part. Outcrop samples and core material were used for investigations and following discussion. For understanding fluid-rock-interactions in these sediments it is important to investigate the linkage between facies, rock composition, and mineral surfaces exposed to the pore space, as well as bulk rock and mineral chemistry. Compared to the clay rich lacustrine sediments of the Lower Buntsandstein the more porous fluvial and eolian sandstones of the Middle Buntsandstein represent better pathways for fluid migration in the present and past. The lacustrine and fluvial sandstones are mostly arkoses and subarkoses, whereas the eolian sandstones are often characterized by quartzarenitic composition. Facies variations and associated compositional differences are reflected in the geochemical composition of the rocks determined by ICP-MS/OES and XRF measurements. Sandstones of the Lower Buntsandstein are characterized by high contents of e.g. Al, Na, K, Fe, and Li, caused by the enrichment of clays and feldspars in the lacustrine sediments. Due to their higher compositional maturity, the fluvial (and eolian) sediments of the Middle Buntsandstein exhibit an increase of stable minerals towards the top, which is also reflected in geochemical data (increasing Si by decreasing Al, Na, K). By scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence four generations of carbonate cements can be distinguish. Depending on fluctuating composition of fluids and varying Eh- and pH-conditions during carbonate precipitation different zones within carbonate cements were formed reflected in distinct manganese and iron content. During uplift descending meteoric waters induce hydration of anhydrite cements to gypsum. Late diagenetic feldspar corrosion due to meteoric influence delivers Al and Si for precipitation of kaolinite minerals (replacement of feldspars). These minerals are found in former feldspars or are transported into underlying sediments precipitating in pore space. Under surface conditions also dissolution of gypsum cements and oxidation of iron took place. Ongoing studies will further verify the effects of fluids on the sediments, which are most likely strongly depending on sedimentary facies and associated petrographical and geochemical features thus determining aquifer characteristics.

  1. Estimated effects of projected ground-water withdrawals on movement of the saltwater front in the Floridan aquifer, 1976-2000, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, William Edward

    1982-01-01

    Maps of observed 1976 and simulated 2000 potentiometric surfaces were used to estimate rates of saltwater encroachment and theoretical predevelopment equilibrium positions of the saltwater-freshwater interface in west-central Florida. The observed saltwater front, defined by the 19,000 milligrams-per-liter line of equal chloride concentration in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer, corresponds closely to a theoretical predevelopment equilibrium position of a saltwater-freshwater interface. The interface position was computed by the Ghyben-Herzberg method, using heads from a map of the predevelopment potentiometric surface. In maps of both the observed May 1976 and simulated May 2000 potentiometric surface, the saltwater front was within a large seasonal cone of depression in parts of Hillsborough, Manatee, and Sarasota Counties. Average landward flow rate of the front was computed to be 0.30 foot per day in May 1976 and 0.36 foot per day in May 2000. Seaward potentiometric-surface gradient under simulated October 2000 conditions averaged 8.8 x 10-5 foot per foot less than under observed September 1976 conditions. Regional observation wells are desirable for monitoring potentiometric-level changes in western Hardee County and eastern Manatee County and for monitoring water-quality changes along the saltwater front, on its landward side, from mid-Sarasota County northward to Hillsborough County. Net landward movement of the saltwater front in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer is probably occurring under existing conditions. Pumping during 1976-2000 would probably increase slightly the rate of movement. However, rates are so slow that on a regional basis saltwater encroachment under existing and projected conditions is not presently a threat to the existing freshwater resources. The maximum projected regional landward movement, under 'worst case' conditions, of the saltwater front between 1976 and 2000 is estimated to be about one-half mile. Significant local encroachment could result from (1) ground-water development in the zone of transition and (2) deviations of local hydrogeologic conditions from average regional conditions.

  2. Oklahoma seismic network. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States)]|[Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Energy Center

    1993-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent.

  3. Projected ground-water development, ground-water levels, and stream-aquifer leakage in the South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas, 1979-2020

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kume, Jack; Lindgren, R.J.; Stullken, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite difference computer model was used to project changes in the potentiometric surface, saturated thickness, and stream aquifer leakage in an alluvial aquifer resulting from four instances of projected groundwater development. The alluvial aquifer occurs in the South Fork Solomon River valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake in north-central Kansas. In the first two projections, pumpage for irrigation was held constant at 1978 rates throughout the projection period (1979-2020). In the second two projections, the 1978 pumpage was progressively increased each yr through 2020. In the second and fourth projections, surface water diversions in the Osborne Irrigation Canal were decreased by 50 %. For the third and fourth projections, each grid-block in the modeled area was classified initially as one of six types according to whether it represented irrigable or nonirrigable land, to its saturated thickness, to its location inside or outside the canal-river area, and to its pumping rate. The projected base-flow rates (leakage from the aquifer to the river) were lower during the irrigation season (June, July, and August) than during the other months of the yr because of the decline in hydraulic head produced by groundwater pumpage. Stream depletion, calculated as a decrease below the average (1970-78) estimated winter base-flow rate of 16.5 cu ft/sec, varied inversely with base flow. For the first two projections, a constant annual cycle of well pumpage and recharge was used throughout the projection period. Aquifer leakage to the river was nearly constant by the mid-to-late 1990's, implying that flow conditions had attained a stabilized annual cycle. The third and fourth projections never attained an annual stabilized cycle because the irrigation pumpage rate was increased each year. By the early 1980's, the hydraulic head had fallen below river stage, reversing the hydraulic gradient at the stream-aquifer interface and resulting in net leakage from the river to the aquifer during the summer months. By the early 1990 's, the projected potentiometric surface of the aquifer was lower than the river stage even during the winter and spring months. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Oklahoma Digital Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A team of talented librarians at the Oklahoma State University Library have created this collection of 3,600 maps, a true find for those with an interest in Sooner history, geography, culture, and more. The cartographic resources are divided into four collections, including the WPA Collection and the USGS Collection. This first collection consists of almost 2,400 detailed county maps produced in the 1930s by the Works Progress Administration and the Oklahoma Tax Commission to determine real estate values. Moving on, the USGS Collection is made up of 300 detailed maps generated from 1892 to the 1950s documenting topographical conditions throughout the state. Interested parties can view all of the maps here via a nice digital image tool and are also welcome to search across the entire collection by keyword.

  5. Oklahoma Healthy Homes Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fahad

    2011-01-01

    Compelling scientific evidence suggests that a strong association exists between housing-related hazards and the health and safety of their residents. Health, safety, and environmental hazards (such as asthma and allergy triggers), unintentional injury hazards, lead-based paint hazards, and poor indoor air quality are interrelated with substandard housing conditions. This article describes a Healthy Homes initiative to address these hazards in a coordinated fashion in the home, rather than taking a categorical approach, even in the presence of multiple hazards. It also provides an overview of Oklahoma's Healthy Homes initiative and its pilot project, the Tulsa Safe and Healthy Housing Project, which is currently administered in Tulsa in collaboration with Children First, Oklahoma's Nurse-Family Partnership program. This pilot project seeks to open new areas of research that can lead to a greater understanding of environmental health issues related to substandard housing in the United States, which will eventually make homes safer and healthier. PMID:21563709

  6. OklahomaState

    Cancer.gov

    DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY, OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY is inviting applications for two full-time, Assistant Professor, tenure track positions in Quantitative Psychology and Clinical Health Psychology or Behavior Medicine beginning August, 2015. Candidates are expected to have a strong background in and dedication to scholarly activity, and to interact well with colleagues and students. They must also demonstrate the capacity to maintain a high quality research program leading to scholarly productivity in the form of professional publications, presentations, and grantsmanship.

  7. Hydrogeology, water quality, and water-resources development potential of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the Valdosta area, south-central Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, J.B.; Hacke, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Valdosta, Georgia area is adversely affected by direct recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Water enters the aquifer along a short reach of the river where sinkholes have formed in the stream bed. The water receives little filtration as it recharges the Upper Floridan aquifer through these sinkholes. Naturally occurring organic material in the river provides a readily available source of energy for the growth of microbiota in the aquifer. Microbiological processes and chemical reactions in the aquifer produce methane and hydrogen sulfide as the water from the river mixes with ground water and moves downgradient in the aquifer. Humic substances associated with the organic material in the ground water in this area can form trihalomethanes when the water is chlorinated for public supply. To assess areas most suitable for ground-water supply development, areal distributions of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane in the Upper Floridan aquifer were mapped and used to evaluate areas affected by recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Areas where concentrations of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane were less than or equal to 2.0 milligrams per liter, 0.5 milligrams per liter, and 100 micrograms per liter, respectively, were considered to be relatively unaffected by recharge from the river and to have the greatest potential for water- resources development.

  8. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  9. Quality of Shallow Groundwater and Drinking Water in the Mississippi Embayment-Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System and the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, South-Central United States, 1994-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Tollett, Roland W.; Seanor, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system is an important source of drinking water, providing about 724 million gallons per day to about 8.9 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Alabama. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer ranks third in the Nation for total withdrawals of which more than 98 percent is used for irrigation. From 1994 through 2004, water-quality samples were collected from 169 domestic, monitoring, irrigation, and public-supply wells in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in various land-use settings and of varying well capacities as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical properties and about 200 water-quality constituents, including total dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, pesticide degradates, and volatile organic compounds. The occurrence of nutrients and pesticides differed among four groups of the 114 shallow wells (less than or equal to 200 feet deep) in the study area. Tritium concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium, Pleistocene valley trains, and shallow Tertiary wells indicated a smaller component of recent groundwater than samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits. Although the amount of agricultural land overlying the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was considerably greater than areas overlying parts of the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells, nitrate was rarely detected and the number of pesticides detected was lower than other shallow wells. Nearly all samples from the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains were anoxic, and the reducing conditions in these aquifers likely result in denitrification of nitrate. In contrast, most samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits in Memphis, Tennessee, were oxic, and the maximum nitrate concentration measured was 6.2 milligrams per liter. Additionally, soils overlying the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains, generally in areas near the wells, had lower infiltration rates and higher percentages of clay than soils overlying the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells. Differences in these soil properties were associated with differences in the occurrence of pesticides. Pesticides were most commonly detected in samples from wells in the Pleistocene terrace deposits, which generally had the highest infiltration rates and lowest clay content. Median dissolved phosphorus concentrations were 0.07, 0.11, and 0.65 milligram per liter in samples from the shallow Tertiary, Pleistocene valley trains, and Holocene alluvium, respectively. The widespread occurrence of dissolved phosphorus at concentrations greater than 0.02 milligram per liter suggests either a natural source in the soils or aquifer sediments, or nonpoint sources such as fertilizer and animal waste or a combination of natural and human sources. Although phosphorus concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium were weakly correlated to concentrations of several inorganic constituents, elevated concentrations of phosphorus could not be attributed to a specific source. Phosphorus concentrations generally were highest where samples indicated anoxic and reducing conditions in the aquifers. Elevated dissolved phosphorus concentrations in base-flow samples from two streams in the study area suggest that transport of phosphorus with groundwater is a potential source contributing to high yields of phosphorus in the lower Mississippi River basin. Water from 55 deep wells (greater than 200 feet deep) completed in regional aquifers of Tertiary age represent a sample of the principal aquifers used for drinking-water supply in the study area. The wells were screened in both confined and

  10. 78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ...Statement for Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln, Creek...Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) Rail Division intend to prepare an EIS pursuant...for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City...

  11. Hydrogeology and simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system in Lake County and in the Ocala National Forest and vicinity, north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Leel, Jr.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Adamski, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogeology of Lake County and the Ocala National Forest in north-central Florida was evaluated (1995-2000), and a ground-water flow model was developed and calibrated to simulate the effects of both present day and future ground-water withdrawals in these areas and the surrounding vicinity. A predictive model simulation was performed to determine the effects of projected 2020 ground-water withdrawals on the water levels and flows in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems. The principal water-bearing units in Lake County and the Ocala National Forest are the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems. The two aquifer systems generally are separated by the intermediate confining unit, which contains beds of lower permeability sediments that confine the water in the Florida aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system has two major water-bearing zones (the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Lower Floridan aquifer), which generally are separated by one or two less-permeable confining units. The Floridan aquifer system is the major source of ground water in the study area. In 1998, ground-water withdrawals totaled about 115 million gallons per day in Lake County and 5.7 million gallons per day in the Ocala National Forest. Of the total ground water pumped in Lake County in 1998, nearly 50 percent was used for agricultural purposes, more than 40 percent for municipal, domestic, and recreation supplies, and less than 10 percent for commercial and industrial purposes. Fluctuations of lake stages, surficial and Floridan aquifer system water levels, and Upper Floridan aquifer springflows in the study area are highly related to cycles and distribution of rainfall. Long-term hydrographs for 9 lakes, 8 surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and 23 Upper Floridan aquifer springs show the most significant increases in water levels and springflows following consecutive years with above-average rainfall, and significant decreases following consecutive years with below-average rainfall. Long-term (1940-2000) hydrographs of lake and ground-water levels and springflow show a slight downward trend; however, after the early 1960's, this downward trend generally is more pronounced, which corresponds with accumulating rainfall deficits and increased development. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional ground-water flow model MODFLOW-2000 was used to simulate ground-water flow in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in Lake County, the Ocala National Forest, and adjacent areas. A steady-state calibration to average 1998 conditions was facilitated by using the inverse modeling capabilities of MODFLOW-2000. Values of hydrologic properties from the calibrated model were in reasonably close agreement with independently estimated values and results from previous modeling studies. The calibrated model generally produced simulated water levels and flows in reasonably close agreement with measured values and was used to simulate the hydrologic effects of projected 2020 conditions. Ground-water withdrawals in the model area have been projected to increase from 470 million gallons per day in 1998 to 704 million gallons per day in 2020. Significant drawdowns were simulated in Lake County from average 1998 to projected 2020 conditions: the average and maximum drawdowns, respectively, were 0.5 and 5.7 feet in the surficial aquifer system, 1.1 and 7.6 feet in the Upper Floridan aquifer, and 1.4 and 4.3 feet in the Lower Floridan aquifer. The largest drawdowns in Lake County were simulated in the southeastern corner of the County and in the vicinities of Clermont and Mount Dora. Closed-basin lakes and wetlands are more likely to be affected by future pumping in these large drawdown areas, as opposed to other areas of Lake County. However, within the Ocala National Forest, drawdowns were relatively small: the average and maximum drawdowns, respectively, were 0.1 and 1.0 feet in the surficial aquifer system, 0.2 and

  12. Oklahoma Native Plant Record Volume 11, December 2011

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Michael W.

    OF REMOVAL OF JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA L. TREES AND LITTER FROM A CENTRAL OKLAHOMA GRASSLAND Jerad S. Linneman1 1, ordination ABSTRACT We studied species composition after Juniperus virginiana tree and litter removal dynamics (Facelli and Pickett 1991b). Within the tallgrass prairie region, eastern redcedar (Juniperus

  13. Fluorine in the rocks and sediments of volcanic areas in central Italy: total content, enrichment and leaching processes and a hypothesis on the vulnerability of the related aquifers.

    PubMed

    De Rita, Donatella; Cremisini, Carlo; Cinnirella, Alessandro; Spaziani, Fabio

    2012-09-01

    Rock, sediment and water samples from areas characterised by hydrothermal alterations in the Sabatini and Vico Volcanic Districts, near Rome and the large city of Viterbo, respectively, were collected and analysed to determine the total fluorine (F) content and to understand the F geochemical background level in the volcanic districts of central Italy. Leaching and alteration processes controlling the high concentration of F in water were also investigated. Fluorine concentrations were directly determined (potentiometrically) by an F selective electrode in water samples, while the procedure for rock samples included preliminary F dissolution through alkaline fusion. F concentrations higher than 800 mg kg(-1) were commonly found in the analysed rocks and sediments; the concentration depended on the lithology and on the distance from the alteration areas. A specific successive sampling campaign was conducted in three areas where the F content in sediments was particularly high; in the same areas, measurements of CO(2) flux were also performed to investigate the possible deep origin of F. To verify the relationships among the high F contents in rocks and sediments, the leaching processes involved and the presence of F in the aquifer, we also collected water samples in the western sector of the Sabatini Volcanic District, where hydrothermal manifestations and mineral springs are common. The data were processed using a GIS system in which the F distribution was combined with morphological and geological observations. The main results of our study are that (1) F concentrations are higher in volcanic and recently formed travertine (especially in hydrothermally altered sediments) than in sedimentary rocks and decrease with distance from hydrothermal alteration areas, (2) F is more easily leached from hydrothermally altered rocks and from travertine and (3) sediments enriched with F may indicate the presence of deep regional fractures that represent direct pathways of hydrothermal fluids from the crust to the surface. PMID:21968879

  14. Groundwater Quality, Age, and Probability of Contamination, Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    The Eagle River watershed is located near the destination resort town of Vail, Colorado. The area has a fastgrowing permanent population, and the resort industry is rapidly expanding. A large percentage of the land undergoing development to support that growth overlies the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA), which likely has a high predisposition to groundwater contamination. As development continues, local organizations need tools to evaluate potential land-development effects on ground- and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. To help develop these tools, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, conducted a study in 2006-2007 of the groundwater quality, age, and probability of contamination in the ERWVFA, north-central Colorado. Ground- and surface-water quality samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, tritium, dissolved gases, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined with very low-level laboratory methods. The major-ion data indicate that groundwaters in the ERWVFA can be classified into two major groups: groundwater that was recharged by infiltration of surface water, and groundwater that had less immediate recharge from surface water and had elevated sulfate concentrations. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the USEPA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (250 milligrams per liter) in many wells near Eagle, Gypsum, and Dotsero. The predominant source of sulfate to groundwater in the Eagle River watershed is the Eagle Valley Evaporite, which is a gypsum deposit of Pennsylvanian age located predominantly in the western one-half of Eagle County.

  15. Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1986-01-01

    The major Paleozoic artesian aquifers, the aquifers most favorable for continued development, in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming are the Tensleep Sandstone, the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite (Madison-Bighorn aquifer), and the Flathead Sandstone. The minor aquifers include the Goose Egg and Park City Formations (considered in the Ten Sleep area to be the lateral equivalent of the Phosphoria Formation) and the Amsden Formation. Most wells completed in the major and minor aquifers flow at the land surface. Wellhead pressures generally are less than 50 pounds per square inch for the Tensleep Sandstone, 150-250 pounds per square inch for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, and more than 400 pounds per square inch for the Flathead Sandstone. Flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and the Flathead Sandstone yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. The initial test of one well completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer indicated a flow rate of 14,000 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 500 to 1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and from about 90 to 325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Significant secondary permeability from fracturing in the Paleozoic aquifers allows local upward interformational movement of water, and this affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Water moves upward from the Tensleep and other formations, through the Goose Egg Formation, to discharge at the land surface as springs. Much of the spring flow is diverted for irrigation or is used for rearing fish. Decreases from original well pressures were not apparent in wells completed in the Tensleep Sandstone or in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer in the study area except for a few wells in or near the town of Ten Sleep. Most wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone, which also are open to the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, show a decrease of pressure from the time of completion to 1978. The decrease of pressure is partly the result of water moving from the Flathead Sandstone into the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, which has a lower potentiometric surface than does the Flathead Sandstone, even during the time the wells are not in operation. Pressure in some small-capacity wells completed in the Goose Egg Formation also has decreased near Ten Sleep. Most of the wells, particularly the irrigation wells, show a progressive decrease in pressure during the irrigation season but recover during periods of nonuse. Measurements of the pressure were made principally in 1953, 1962, 1970, and 1975-78. Well water from the Paleozoic aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but excessive hardness. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water are less than 300 milligrams per liter in the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, less than 200 milligrams per liter in the Flathead Sandstone, and as much as 450 milligrams per liter in the Goose Egg Formation. Bicarbonate is the major constituent, followed by calcium and magnesium. Relatively large concentrations of sulfate, as much as 490 milligrams per liter, were found, mainly in water from the Goose Egg Formation. The water has low sodium (alkali) and medium salinity; therefore, the water is satisfactory for irrigation and most other uses, if excessive hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 ? to 27.5 ? Celsius (51 ? to 81.5 ? Fahrenheit) within a range in depth of approximately 250 to 4,000 feet. This gives a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 ? Celsius per 100 feet (0.79 ? Fahrenheit per 100 feet).

  16. UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ming

    ON NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF SUPERCELLS AND TORNADOES OF THE 3 MAY 1999 OKLAHOMA TORNADO OUTBREAK A DISSERTATION ON NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF SUPERCELLS AND TORNADOES OF THE 3 MAY 1999 OKLAHOMA TORNADO OUTBREAK A DISSERTATION. Alan Shapiro provided many helpful comments on various aspects of my work, and we've had many

  17. UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ming

    UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE 3DVAR AND CLOUD ANALYSIS WITH WSR-88D Level-II DATA of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy By Ming Hu Norman, Oklahoma 2005 #12;2 3DVAR AND CLOUD, but not least, I could not have fulfilled my dream here without the support and sacrifice of my family. My

  18. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  19. Hydrogeochemistry of regional aquifer systems from Tuscany (central Italy): the state of the art before the definition of a geochemical baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisi, Barbara; Battaglini, Raffaele; Raco, Brunella

    2013-04-01

    European Community Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its derivative regulations have recognized the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water bodies by individual pollutants that may significantly affect the quality of water itself. Italian regulation takes into account the EU Directives, and charges the regional authorities to create monitoring networks and produce assessment reports on the contamination of groundwater. The knowledge of "natural baseline" for various dissolved elements in groundwaters on a regional scale becomes of primary importance to distinguish natural sources and anthropogenic inputs. The studied area includes the whole Tuscan regional district (central Italy) and covers an area of about 23,000 km2. From a geolithological point of view, Tuscan territory consists of several complexes outcropping regionally, the most typical features being the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate and evaporitic formations, overlain by flysch sequences, as well as granite intrusions and volcanic rocks. Moreover, two geothermal areas (Larderello and Mt. Amiata), a large number of thermal springs and CO2-rich gas vents are mostly present in the central-southern part of Tuscany. Finally in southern Tuscany (e.g. Campiglia M.Ma, Mt. Amiata, Elba Island), mining districts, predominantly characterized by polimetallic sulphides ore deposits, were exploited since the Etruscan time. In this work statistical distribution models are used to develop summary statistics and estimate probabilities of exceeding water-quality standards according to the National Legislative Decree 152/06. Descriptive statistics on solute concentrations are based on geochemical data from the main Tuscan aquifers and investigated by the CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, Italy) and Department of Earth Sciences (University of Florence, Italy). The data processing was carried out on 4,767 water samples collected from 1997 to 2009. According to the National Legislative, the chemical constituents were selected according to a priority interest: As, B, Cd, Cr (VI), F, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, sulphate and chloride. For each species probability plots in logarithmic scale were computed and the statistical parameters were evaluated for the individual populations as resulting by the procedure of partitioning. Most of the solutes have concentrations that span within 2-3 orders of magnitude, although Ni, SO4 and Cl concentrations show a larger variability (up to 4 orders of magnitude). All the considered variables are mainly characterized by polymodal distributions and composed by more than one population. High concentration populations, exceeding water-quality standards, are generally recognized for SO4, As, B, Cd, Cr(VI), F, Hg, Ni, Pb and Se.

  20. Water quality of the Ogallala Formation, central High Plains aquifer within the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District, Texas Panhandle, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Haynie, Monti M.; Beussink, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    In cooperation with the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD), the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water-quality samples at 30 groundwater monitor wells in the NPGCD in the Texas Panhandle. All of the wells were completed in the Ogallala Formation of the central High Plains aquifer. Samples from each well were collected during February–March 2012 and in March 2013. Depth to groundwater in feet below land surface was measured at each well before sampling to determine the water-quality sampling depths. Water-quality samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace metals, and 6 of the 30 samples were analyzed for pesticides. There was a strong relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids as evidenced by a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.98. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from five wells exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Water from 3 of these 5 wells was near the north central part of the NPGCD. Nitrate values exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in 2 of the 30 wells. A sodium-adsorption ratio of 23.4 was measured in the sample collected from well Da-3589 in Dallam County, with the next largest sodium-adsorption ratio measured in the sample collected from well Da-3588 (12.5), also in Dallum County. The sodium-adsorption ratios measured in all other samples were less than 10. The groundwater was generally a mixed cation-bicarbonate plus carbonate type. Twenty-three trace elements were analyzed, and no concentrations exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water supplies. In 2012, 6 of the 30 wells were sampled for commonly used pesticides. Atrazine and its degradate 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine were detected in two samples. Tebuthiuron was detected in one sample at a detection level below the reporting level but above the long-term method detection level. There were no detections of the glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), or glufosinate.

  1. Naturally occurring hepatozoonosis in coyotes from Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Kocan, A A; Breshears, M; Cummings, C; Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A; Barker, R W

    1999-01-01

    Nine of 16 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Oklahoma (USA) had naturally acquired infections of Hepatozoon americanum. Infections were confirmed by recognition of tissue stages closely resembling H. americanum in skeletal and cardiac muscle. At the time coyotes were collected they were infested with a variety of ticks, including adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum). We propose that the high prevalence of H. americanum in this small sample of free-ranging coyotes and the ability of these same animals to harbor adult populations of A. maculatum is an important component of the epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in North America. PMID:10073352

  2. Status of water levels and selected water-quality conditions in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers in eastern and south-central Arkansas, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    During the spring of 1999, water levels were measured in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers in 321 wells in eastern and south-central Arkansas. Water samples were collected during the spring and summer of 1999 from wells completed in these aquifers. The specific conductance of the ground water was measured from 147 samples and dissolved chloride was measured from 98 samples. Maps of areal distribution of potentiometric surface and specific conductance generated from these data reveal spatial trends across the study area. The altitude of the potentiometric surface ranged from 214 feet below sea level in Union County to 332 feet above sea level in Grant County. The regional direction of ground-water flow in Arkansas is from the north and west to the south and east, away from the recharge zone in the outcrop and subcrop area, except near areas affected by intense ground-water withdrawals; such areas are characterized by large cones of depression centered in Columbia, Jefferson, and Union Counties. Heavy pumpage locally has altered or reversed the natural direction of flow in some areas. Flow in these areas is toward the cones of depression at the center of pumping. Comparison of potentiometric surface maps through time shows that the cones of depression in Columbia and Union Counties are coalescing at or near the Columbia and Union County line. Long-term hydrographs of 20 wells indicate trends of water-level decline over a 31-year period. During the period 1969-1999, average water-level declines generally were less than 0.7 foot per year in Craighead, Drew, Lee, Ouachita, and Phillips Counties, and between 0.7 and 1.1 feet per year in Bradley, Cleveland, Cross, Dallas, Poinsett, and Prairie Counties. Analysis of water-level data from Calhoun, Desha, Jefferson, Lonoke, Lincoln, and Union Counties indicates water levels declined between 1.1 and 2.0 feet per year since 1969. Water levels in Arkansas and Columbia Counties have declined more than 2.0 feet per year for the past 31 years. Water-level data from counties with cones of depressions indicate that water levels continued to decline in three cones of depression from 1995 to 1999; however, water levels increased in one cone of depression. Water levels declined an average of 2.5 feet per year in Union County, 1.4 feet per year in Jefferson County, and 1.7 feet per year in Cross County since 1995. One relatively new cone of depression has formed in Arkansas County. Water levels declined 4.0 feet per year in Arkansas County since 1995. However, water levels appear to be increasing in Columbia County where the same 11 wells were monitored in 1995 and 1999, and the water levels increased at a rate of 0.6 foot per year. Specific conductance measurements made on water samples collected during the study ranged from 44 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at a well in Ouachita County to 1,510 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at a well in Lee County. Dissolved chloride concentrations ranged from 1.1 milligram per liter at a well in Lincoln County to 220 milligrams per liter at a well in Union County.

  3. In Brief: Assessing carbonate aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    An assessment of water quality in 12 carbonate aquifers, mostly in the eastern and central United States, found that while water quality in the aquifers was highly variable, most of the samples met drinking water standards. The study, “Factors affecting water quality in selected carbonate aquifers in the United States, 1993-2005,” was released by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on 26 June. According to the study, carbonate aquifers provide about 20% of the groundwater used as drinking water in the United States. The study, which included sample results for 151 chemical constituents or physical properties in 1042 wells and springs across 20 states, found that contaminants “were most often detected at concentrations less than human-health benchmarks except for nitrate.” The study also indicated that “the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants was related to contaminant sources but also was affected by degree of aquifer confinement, ground-water age, and redox status. Areas with higher amounts of agricultural or urban land in unconfined aquifers were the most likely to have elevated concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants.”

  4. Were the 2011 Prague, Oklahoma Earthquakes Natural, Induced, or Something in Between?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the Prague, Oklahoma earthquake sequence, which is under debate. I offer a third explanation, whereby this sequence was triggered by approximately 12 million cubic m of wastewater injected into the epicentral zone, from five high-volume injection wells. This sequence included three earthquakes of M5 or greater: a M5 foreshock, the M5.7 main shock, and a M5 aftershock (Keranen et al., Geology, 2013). The main shock, which caused substantial damage, is of exceptional importance in the central and eastern United States because it is the second largest earthquake that has been recorded in this vast region. Because of its importance in assessing seismic hazard, especially in central Oklahoma, there is an urgent need to understand its origin. The first hypothesis argues that the Prague earthquakes are of natural origin (Keller and Holland, OGS website, 2013). As shown by Ellsworth et al. (abstract, SSA Meeting, 2012,), the seismicity in central Oklahoma has increased dramatically starting in 2009. This increase is inconsistent with natural processes that are likely to occur in this geologically stable area. Instead, it seems more likely that the increase in seismicity is related to the increase of fluid injection activities related to expanding oil and gas operations. Even so, the Prague earthquakes themselves could be a natural sequence. The second hypothesis argues that the M5 foreshock was triggered by pore pressure increase due to wastewater injected from two wells near the northeast end of the epicentral zone. This M5 event, in turn, increased the Coulomb stress on a pre-existing fault triggering the M5.7 mainshock and its numerous aftershocks (Keranen, et al., 2013). This hypothesis focuses on two nearly co-located disposal wells, Stasta 1 and 2, that together injected nearly 100,000 cubic m of wastewater into the basal aquifer during the years leading up to the Prague earthquakes. There are, however, five much higher-volume disposal wells in the zone of epicenters, each of which injected more than 1 million cubic m into the same aquifer. Indeed, the highest volume well, Wilzetta 1, which injected nearly 4 million cubic m starting in 1999, is also at the northeast end of the zone of epicenters, close to the two Stasta wells. Accordingly, the third hypothesis, favored here, is based on a relationship developed by McGarr (2013, manuscript submitted for publication) that gives the maximum seismic moment as less than or equal to the product of the total volume of injected fluid and the modulus of rigidity. This upper bound is consistent with observations of seismic moments and corresponding injected volumes from numerous case histories during the past 50 years including the Prague sequence for which a total injected volume of 12 million cubic m resulted in a maximum seismic moment of about 3.9e17 Nm.

  5. Estimating Groundwater Concentrations from Mass Releases to the Aquifer at Integrated Disposal Facility and Tank Farm Locations Within the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.

    2005-06-09

    This report summarizes groundwater-related numerical calculations that will support groundwater flow and transport analyses associated with the scheduled 2005 performance assessment of the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site. The report also provides potential supporting information to other ongoing Hanford Site risk analyses associated with the closure of single-shell tank farms and related actions. The IDF 2005 performance assessment analysis is using well intercept factors (WIFs), as outlined in the 2001 performance assessment of the IDF. The flow and transport analyses applied to these calculations use both a site-wide regional-scale model and a local-scale model of the area near the IDF. The regional-scale model is used to evaluate flow conditions, groundwater transport, and impacts from the IDF in the central part of the Hanford Site, at the core zone boundary around the 200 East and 200 West Areas, and along the Columbia River. The local-scale model is used to evaluate impacts from transport of contaminants to a hypothetical well 100 m downgradient from the IDF boundaries. Analyses similar to the regional-scale analysis of IDF releases are also provided at individual tank farm areas as additional information. To gain insight on how the WIF approach compares with other approaches for estimating groundwater concentrations from mass releases to the unconfined aquifer, groundwater concentrations were estimated with the WIF approach for two hypothetical release scenarios and compared with similar results using a calculational approach (the convolution approach). One release scenario evaluated with both approaches (WIF and convolution) involved a long-term source release from immobilized low-activity waste glass containing 25,550 Ci of technetium-99 near the IDF; another involved a hypothetical shorter-term release of {approx}0.7 Ci of technetium over 600 years from the S-SX tank farm area. In addition, direct simulation results for both release scenarios were provided to compare with the results of the WIF and convolution approaches.

  6. Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Major Paleozoic artesian aquifers in the southeastern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming area, in descending order, the Tensleep Sandstone; the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite, which together form the Madison-Bighorn aquifer; and the Flathead Sandstone. Operating yields commonly are more than 1,000 gallons per minute from flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. The initial test of one well indicated a flow of 14,000 gallons per minute. Wellhead pressures range from less than 50 to more than 400 pounds per square inch. Transmissivities are 500-1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and 90-325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Despite extensive development for irrigation there have been few decreases in pressure. Some decreases in pressure have occurred in wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone. Fractures along linear structural features result in significant secondary permeability and allow upward interformational movement of water that affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces in the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Upward-moving water from the Tensleep and other formations discharges at the land surface as springs along or near these lineations. Water from the aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but has excessive hardness. The water is satisfactory for irrigation and other purposes when hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 degrees to 27.5 degrees C, giving a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 degrees C per 100 feet. (USGS)

  7. Digital-simulation and projection of water-level declines in basalt aquifers of the Odessa-Lind area, east-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luzier, J.E.; Skrivan, James A.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer program using finite-difference techniques simulates an intensively pumped, multilayered basalt-aquifer system near Odessa. The aquifers now developed are in the upper 1,000 feet of a regionally extensive series of southwesterly dipping basalt flows of the Columbia River Group. Most of the aquifers are confined. Those in the depth range of about 500 to 1,000 feet are the chief source of ground water pumped from irrigation wells. Transmissivity of these aquifers ranges from less than 2,700 feet squared per day to more than 40,000 feet squared per day, and storage coefficients range from 0.0015 to 0.006. Shallower aquifers are generally much less permeable, but they are a source of recharge to deeper aquifers with lower artesian heads; vertical leakage occurs along joints in the basalt and down uncased wells, which short circuit the aquifer system. For model analysis, the deeper, pumped aquifers were grouped and treated as a single layer with drawdown-dependent leakage from an overlying confining layer. Verification of the model was achieved primarily by closely matching observed pumpage-related head declines ranging from about 10 feet to more than 40 feet over the 4-year period from March 1967 to March 1971. Projected average annual rates of decline in the Odessa-Lind area during the 14-year period from March 1967 to March 1981 are: from 1 to 9 feet per year if pumpage is maintained at the 1970 rate of 117,000 acre-feet per year; or, from 3 to 33 feet per year if 1970 pumpage is increased to 233,000 acre-feet per year, which includes 116,000 acre-feet per year covered by water-right applications held in abeyance. In each case, projected drawdown on the northeast side of a major ground-water barrier is about double that on the southwest side because of differences in transmissivity and storage coefficient and in sources of recharge.

  8. Aquifer - Basin and range

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aquifer basics outlining the makeup of the basin and range aquifers. Description and maps of unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers. This site consists of information for the Southwestern portion of the United States, consisted of Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah.

  9. Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    1994-03-01

    Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

  10. Oklahoma and American Indian Imagery

    E-print Network

    Anderson, William Brett

    2011-12-31

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s marketing firms conducted an in-depth examination of the general public's image of Oklahoma as part of their efforts to make the state a profitable tourist destination. This study found ...

  11. Analyses of Water-Level Differentials and Variations in Recharge between the Surficial and Upper Floridan Aquifers in East-Central and Northeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Louis C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Continuous (daily) water-level data collected at 29 monitoring-well cluster sites were analyzed to document variations in recharge between the surficial (SAS) and Floridan (FAS) aquifer systems in east-central and northeast Florida. According to Darcy's law, changes in the water-level differentials (differentials) between these systems are proportional to changes in the vertical flux of water between them. Variations in FAS recharge rates are of interest to water-resource managers because changes in these rates affect sensitive water resources subject to minimum flow and water-level restrictions, such as the amount of water discharged from springs and changes in lake and wetland water levels. Mean daily differentials between 2000-2004 ranged from less than 1 foot at a site in east-central Florida to more than 114 feet at a site in northeast Florida. Sites with greater mean differentials exhibited lower percentage-based ranges in fluctuations than did sites with lower mean differentials. When averaged for all sites, differentials (and thus Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) recharge rates) decreased by about 18 percent per site between 2000-2004. This pattern can be associated with reductions in ground-water withdrawals from the UFA that occurred after 2000 as the peninsula emerged from a 3-year drought. Monthly differentials exhibited a well-defined seasonal pattern in which UFA recharge rates were greatest during the dry spring months (8 percent above the 5-year daily mean in May) and least during the wetter summer/early fall months (4 percent below the 5-year daily mean in October). In contrast, differentials exceeded the 5-year daily mean in all but 2 months of 2000, indicative of relatively high ground-water withdrawals throughout the year. On average, the UFA received about 6 percent more recharge at the project sites in 2000 than between 2000-2004. No statistically significant correlations were detected between monthly differentials and precipitation at 27 of the 29 sites between 2000-2004. For longer periods of record, double-mass plots of differentials and precipitation indicate the UFA recharge rate increased by about 34 percent at a site in west Orange County between the periods of 1974-1983 and 1983-2004. Given the absence of a trend in rainfall, the increase can likely be attributed to ground-water development. At a site in south Lake County, double-mass plots indicate that dredging of the Palatlakaha River and other nearby drainage improvements may have reduced recharge rates to the UFA by about 30 percent from the period between 1960-1965 to 1965-1970. Water-level differentials were positively correlated with land-surface altitude. The correlation was particularly strong for the 11 sites located in physiographically-defined ridge areas (coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.89). Weaker yet statistically significant negative correlations were detected between differentials and the model-calibrated leakance and thickness of the intermediate confining unit (ICU). Recharge to the UFA decreased by about 14 percent at the Charlotte Street monitoring-well site in Seminole County between 2000-2004. The decrease can be attributed to a reduction in nearby pumpage, from 57 to 49 million gallons per day over the 5-year period, with a subsequent recovery in UFA water levels that exceeded those in the SAS. Differentials at Charlotte were influenced by system memory of both precipitation and pumpage. While not statistically correlated with monthly precipitation, monthly differentials were well correlated with the 9-month moving average of precipitation. Similarly, differentials were best correlated with the 2-month moving average of pumpage. The polynomial function that quantifies the correlation between differentials and the 2-month moving average of pumpage indicates that, in terms of UFA recharge rates, the system was closer to a steady-state condition in 2000 when pumpage rates were high, than from 2001-2004 when p

  12. Geothermal resource assessment in Oklahoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Prater; P. K. Cheung; K. V. Luza; W. E. Harrison

    1981-01-01

    In September 1980, the Oklahoma Geological Survey began a program to assess the geothermal potential of the state. The program, thus far, consists of: the preparation of a detailed geothermal-gradient map of Oklahoma at a scale of 1:500,000; and site-specific investigations of gradient and subsurface conditions in areas that appear to have geothermal potential. Two areas where recent mapping showed

  13. Gulf Coast regional aquifer-system analysis; a Mississippi perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers in sediments of mostly Cenozoic age in an area of about 230,000 sq mi in the Central Plain of Alabama, Arkansas , Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas, and an additional 60,000 sq mi offshore. Three aquifer systems have been identified: the Mississippi embayment aquifer system, the Texas coastal uplands aquifer system, and the coastal lowlands aquifer system. These aquifer systems thicken from < 100 ft near their updip limit to thousands of ft gulfward toward their downdip limits. The Mississippi embayment aquifer system exceeds 5,000 ft in thickness in central Louisiana and in southwestern Mississippi. The thickest area in southwestern Mississippi underlies most of the six Mississippi counties, centered around Jefferson County. The greatest thickness of the coastal lowlands aquifer system in Mississippi occurs in southern Hancock County where the system is composed of several individual aquifers and confining units. There are seven aquifers and three confining units in the Mississippi embayment aquifer system, five aquifers and two confining units in the Texas coastal uplands aquifer system, and five aquifers and two confining units in the coastal lowlands aquifer system. Most of the thicker parts of each aquifer system contain moderately saline to very saline water. Water in the Mississippi embayment aquifer system is moderately saline to very saline in most of a seven county area in southwestern Mississippi. About 9,600 million gal/day (gpd) of ground water was pumped from the aquifers in the study area during 1980. About 15% of that pumpage (or about 1,400 million gpd was in Mississippi, mostly from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. About 10% of the Mississippi pumpage, or 140 million gpd, was from the coastal lowlands aquifer system. Preliminary results from simulation of groundwater flow indicates that parts of Mississippi are major regional recharge areas for both the Mississippi embayment aquifer system and the coastal lowlands aquifer system. (Peters-PTT)

  14. Environmental isotopes and noble gases in the deep aquifer system of Kazan Trona Ore Field, Ankara, central Turkey and links to paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Sebnem; Yazicigil, Hasan; Stute, Martin; Schlosser, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Environmental isotopes and noble gases in groundwater samples from the Kazan Trona Ore Field are studied to establish the temperature change between the Holocene and the late Pleistocene. Noble gas temperatures (NGTs) presented in this study add an important facet to the global paleotemperature map in the region between Europe and North Africa. The groundwater system under investigation consists of three different aquifers named shallow, middle and deep in which ?18O and ?2H vary from - 8.10‰ to - 12.80‰ and from - 60.89‰ to - 92.60‰ VSMOW, respectively. The average isotopic depletion between unconfined and confined parts of the system is - 2.5‰ in ?18O and - 20‰ in ?2H. It is not possible to explain this depletion solely with the elevation effect. Recharge temperatures derived from dissolved atmospheric noble gases reflect the current average yearly ground temperatures (13°C) for samples collected near the recharge area but are 3 to 8°C lower than today's temperatures in the deep aquifer system. Low 14C activities and high He excesses in the confined parts of the aquifer system suggest that the water in the deep aquifer was recharged during the last Pleistocene under considerably cooler climatic conditions.

  15. Use of Numerical Models to Simulate Transport of Sewage-Derived Nitrate in a Coastal Aquifer, Central and Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    The unconsolidated glacial sediments underlying Cape Cod, Massachusetts compose a regional aquifer system that is used both as a source of drinking water and as a disposal site for wastewater; in addition, the discharge of clean ground water from the aquifer system is needed for the maintenance of freshwater and marine ecosystems throughout the region. Because these uses of the aquifer conflict with one another in many areas of the Cape, local and regional planners have begun to develop sustainable wastewater plans that will facilitate the disposal of wastewater while protecting water supplies and improving the health of aquatic ecosystems. To assist local and regional planners in these efforts, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year investigation to (1) assist local and regional planners in the evaluation of potential wastewater scenarios, (2) use results and interpretation from these analyses to develop hydrologic concepts transferable throughout the region, and (3) establish and test methods that would be of use in future evaluations. Wastewater-disposal scenarios need to be evaluated in the context of the regional ground-water-flow system. For a given rate of disposal, wastewater from sites at or near a regional ground-water divide is transported in a wider arc of flow directions, flows deeper in the system, and contaminates a larger part of the aquifer than does wastewater discharged from sites farther from the divide. Also, traveltimes of wastewater from sites near a ground-water divide to receptors are longer (as much as several hundred years) than traveltimes from sites farther from the divide. Thus, wastewater disposal at or near a divide will affect a larger part of the aquifer and likely contribute wastewater to more receptors than wastewater disposal farther from a divide; however, longer traveltimes could allow for more attenuation of wastewater-derived nitrate from those sites. Ground-water-flow models and particle tracking can be used to identify advective-transport patterns downgradient from wastewater-disposal sites and estimate traveltimes; however, these tools cannot predict the distribution of mass or concentrations of wastewater constituents, such as nitrate, in the aquifer. Flow-based particle-tracking analyses can be used to estimate mass-loading rates and time-varying concentrations at wells and ecological receptors by the accounting of mass-weighted particles discharging into the receptor of interest. This method requires no additional development beyond the flow model; however, post-modeling analyses are required. In addition, the method is based on the assumption that no mass is lost during transport, an assumption that likely is not valid in many systems. Solute-transport models simulate the subsurface transport of nitrate through the aquifer and predict the distribution of the mass of a solute in the aquifer at different transport times. This method does require additional model development beyond the flow model, but can predict timevarying concentrations at receptors. Estimates of mass-loading rates require minimal post-modeling analyses. Time-varying concentrations and mass-loading rates calculated for wells in eastern Barnstable by the two methods generally were in reasonable agreement. Inherent in the flow-based particle-tracking method is the assumption that mass is conserved along a given flow line and that there is no spreading of mass in the aquifer. Although the solute-transport models also incorporate a system-wide conservation of mass, these models allow for a spreading of mass in the aquifer, and mass is not conserved along a given flow line. As a result, estimates of concentrations and mass loading rates generally were higher in particle-tracking analyses than in solute-transport simulations. Results from the two types of simulations agreed best for wells that receive large amounts of wastewater with short traveltimes (less than 10 years) because insufficient transport

  16. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  17. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University NREM-9017 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.edu Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Tommy Puffinbarger Extension Educator, Alfalfa County Oklahoma State

  18. Biological assessment of environmental flows for Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, William L.; Seilheimer, Titus S.; Taylor, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale patterns in fish assemblage structure and functional groups are influenced by alterations in streamflow regime. In this study, we defined an objective threshold for alteration for Oklahoma streams using a combination of the expected range of 27 flow indices and a discriminant analysis to predict flow regime group. We found that fish functional groups in reference flow conditions had species that were more intolerant to flow alterations and preferences for stream habitat and faster flowing water. In contrast, altered sites had more tolerant species that preferred lentic habitat and slower water velocity. Ordination graphs of the presence and functional groups of species revealed an underlying geographical pattern roughly conforming to ecoregions, although there was separation between reference and altered sites within the larger geographical framework. Additionally, we found that reservoir construction and operation significantly altered fish assemblages in two different systems, Bird Creek in central Oklahoma and the Kiamichi River in southeastern Oklahoma. The Bird Creek flow regime shifted from a historically intermittent stream to one with stable perennial flows, and changes in fish assemblage structure covaried with changes in all five components of the flow regime. In contrast, the Kiamichi River flow regime did not change significantly for most flow components despite shifts in fish assemblage structure; however, most of the species associated with shifts in assemblage structure in the Kiamichi River system were characteristic of lentic environments and were likely related more to proximity of reservoirs in the drainage system than changes in flow. The spatial patterns in fish assemblage response to flow alteration, combined with different temporal responses of hydrology and fish assemblage structure at sites downstream of reservoirs, indicate that interactions between flow regime and aquatic biota vary depending on ecological setting. This supports the notion that regional variation in natural flow regimes could affect the development of flow recommendations.

  19. Water-level changes, 1980 TO 1997, and saturated thickness, 1996-97, in the High Plains Aquifer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Service provides this report detailing water level changes in the High Plains aquifer. Underlying one of the major agricultural regions in the world, the High Plains Aquifer includes parts of eight States -- Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The report describes "(1) water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from 1980 to 1997 and from 1996 to 1997, (2) the precipitation pattern in the High Plains region during 1996, and (3) estimated saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer in 1996-97."

  20. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in Southwestern USA: Comparison between texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012.The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characteriza...

  1. 40 CFR 81.337 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Oklahoma—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective... Oklahoma—1997 8-Hour Ozone NAAQS (Primary and...

  2. 40 CFR 81.337 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Oklahoma—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...otherwise noted. Oklahoma—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

  3. Simulation of the effects of management alternatives on the stream-aquifer system, South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, R.D.; Reed, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    With extensive irrigation use of both surface water and groundwater in the South Fork Solomon River valley shortages of these water supplies have been created. A two-dimensional digital model of transient groundwater flow was applied to investigate the potential effects on the stream aquifer system of seven management alternatives. These alternatives included proposals to conserve surface water supplies by lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay, replacing the lateral canals with pipe, removing phreatophytes, decreasing surface water use by 75%, 50%, or 25% and replacing it with groundwater sources, and continuing 1978 groundwater use and 1970-78 average surface water use until the end of the 20th century. Results were assessed by comparison of drawdowns of hydraulic head in the alluvial aquifer and base flow for each simulation. As listed in order of the smallest to the greatest potential effects on the system relative to drawdown and base flow the alternatives are: (1) removal of one-half of the phreatophytes; (2) continuation of 1978 groundwater withdrawals and average 1970-78 surface water supply; (3) replacement of the lateral canals with pipe; (4) lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay; (5) decrease of surface water use by 25% and replacement of it with groundwater; (6) decrease of surface water use by 50% and replacement of it with groundwater; and (7) decrease of surface water use by 75% and replacement of it with groundwater. The removal of one-half of the phreatophytes would result in a decrease in average drawdown in the alluvial aquifer to about 1.74 ft and an increase in base flow of the Solomon River to about 12.3 cu ft/sec. The decrease of surface water supply by 75 % and a corresponding increase in groundwater withdrawal would result in an increase in drawdown in the aquifer to about 2.5 ft and a decrease in base flow to about 6.8 cu ft/sec. (Lantz-PTT)

  4. Denitrification in a hypersaline lake-aquifer system (Pétrola Basin, Central Spain): the role of recent organic matter and Cretaceous organic rich sediments.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Alday, J J; Carrey, R; Valiente, N; Otero, N; Soler, A; Ayora, C; Sanz, D; Muñoz-Martín, A; Castaño, S; Recio, C; Carnicero, A; Cortijo, A

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural regions in semi-arid to arid climates with associated saline wetlands are one of the most vulnerable environments to nitrate pollution. The Pétrola Basin was declared vulnerable to NO3(-) pollution by the Regional Government in 1998, and the hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified body of water. The study assessed groundwater NO3(-) through the use of multi-isotopic tracers (?(15)N, ?(34)S, ?(13)C, ?(18)O) coupled to hydrochemistry in the aquifer connected to the eutrophic lake. Hydrogeologically, the basin shows two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas (Zone 1) to the lake (Zone 2), and a density-driven flow from surface water to the underlying aquifer (Zone 3). In Zones 1 and 2, ?(15)NNO3 and ?(18)ONO3 suggest that NO3(-) from slightly volatilized ammonium synthetic fertilizers is only partially denitrified. The natural attenuation of NO3(-) can occur by heterotrophic reactions. However, autotrophic reactions cannot be ruled out. In Zone 3, the freshwater-saltwater interface (down to 12-16 m below the ground surface) is a reactive zone for NO3(-) attenuation. Tritium data suggest that the absence of NO3(-) in the deepest zones of the aquifer under the lake can be attributed to a regional groundwater flow with long residence time. In hypersaline lakes the geometry of the density-driven flow can play an important role in the transport of chemical species that can be related to denitrification processes. PMID:25169874

  5. Chickasaw Plum for Wildlife in Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University #12;Chickasaw Plum for Wildlife in Oklahoma Authors from the Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University in at least 27 states, ranging from Nebraska to New Jersey on the north and from New Mexico to Florida

  6. the university of oklahoma Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    the university of oklahoma ADVENTURE A Year Of Annual Report July 2005 ­ June 2006 #12;Board S S I O N Statement The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History at the University of Oklahoma Conducting and disseminating research to increase knowledge Teaching university students to develop critical

  7. Oklahoma Higher Education: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denhart, Matthew; Matgouranis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A major headline in recent years has been that cash-strapped state governments are cutting back support for many services, including public higher education. Oklahoma is no different. Indeed, in the most recent state budget crafted by Oklahoma policymakers, Oklahoma's public colleges and universities received a 5.8 percent cut in state…

  8. Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

  9. Corrosive ground water in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the vicinity of Ocean County, east-central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kish, George R.; Barringer, Julia L.; Ulery, Randy L.

    1989-01-01

    Corrosive groundwater, which has been linked to trace-metal leaching from plumbing materials in Europe and the United States , has been identified in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The corrosiveness of groundwater in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in New Jersey has been estimated by calculating values for the Aggressive Index, using groundwater chemistry data. A contour map of Aggressive-Index values shows that groundwater is very corrosive in the vicinity of Ocean County, New Jersey. Areas with the least corrosive water are generally along the coast, whereas areas with the most corrosive water are farther inland. (USGS)

  10. STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES CODE -1 THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    of the University of Oklahoma is charged in the Constitution of the State of Oklahoma with governing the University of the United States and the State of Oklahoma and the University of Oklahoma Student Association. Those. Student Rights Students of the University of Oklahoma are guaranteed certain rights by the Constitutions

  11. Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water (transition zone). As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current freshwater supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey, San Antonio Water System, and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone.

  12. Combined use of tracer approach and numerical simulation to estimate groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system: A case study of Nasunogahara area, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaping; Yamanaka, Tsutomu; Zhou, Xun; Tian, Fuqiang; Ma, Wenchao

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system in the Nasunogahara area of Japan. Natural stable isotopes (18O, D) were considered as additional calibration targets in a numerical model. The reliability of the model outputs was further validated by comparing the results from the numerical simulation and an independent tracer approach. The results indicated that the calibrated model can effectively simulate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the contribution ratios of recharge sources to groundwater in the Nasunogahara area. However, the tracer approach (i.e., end member mixing analysis) provided more reliable results at point scale, particularly for the estimated contribution ratios of paddy field water. The precipitation in the Nasunogahara area is the major recharge source; its mean contribution ratio is 58% for a one-year period over the entire alluvial fan. River seepage is significant in the upstream area of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of river waters along the river channels in the upstream area increases during the wet season. Paddy field water is a highly important recharge source in the midstream and downstream areas of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of paddy field water obviously increases from dry season to wet season because of irrigation. This study demonstrates that combined use of the tracer approach and numerical simulation with stable isotopes as additional calibration targets can eliminate their respective limitations and can assist in better understanding the groundwater recharge mechanism in alluvial aquifer systems.

  13. Drinking-water quality and variations in water levels in the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer, west-central Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Dennis C.; Johnson, Carl J.

    1979-01-01

    In parts of Jefferson County, CO, water for domestic use from the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer contained excessive concentrations of major ions, coliform bacteria, trace elements, or radiochemicals. Based on results of analyses from 26 wells, water from 21 of the wells contained excessive concentrations of one or more constituents. Drinking water standards were exceeded for fluoride in water from 2 wells, nitrate plus nitrite in 2 wells, dissolved solids in 1 well, iron in 6 wells, manganese in 8 wells, zinc in 2 wells, coliform bacteria in 4 wells, gross alpha radiation in 11 wells and possibly 4 more, and gross beta radiation possibly in 1 well. Local variations in concentrations of 15 chemical constituents, specific conductance, and water temperature were statistically significant. Specific conductance increased significantly during 1973-75 only in the vicinity of Indian Hills. Annual range in depths to water in 11 observation wells varied from 1 to 15 feet. The shallowest water levels were recorded in late winter, usually in February. The deepest water levels occurred during summer or fall, depending on the well and the year. Three-year trends in water level changes in 6 of the 11 wells indicated decreasing water storage in the aquifer. (USGS).

  14. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school…

  15. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  16. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Inst. for Child Advocacy, Inc., Oklahoma City. Oklahoma Kids Count.

    This Kids Count report details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school dropouts; and (8)…

  17. University of Oklahoma Norman Campus

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    University of Oklahoma Norman Campus TORNADO Safety Information GENERAL INFORMATION OU is very concerned about the safety and well-being of everyone associated with the Norman Campus. During tornado season, we work to provide timely severe weather safety information that we hope will be carefully

  18. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    E-1014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University E-1014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural.S. Department of Agriculture, the Director of Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma State University

  19. Flow pattern in regional aquifers and flow relations between the lower Colorado River valley and regional aquifers in six counties of southeastern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    The 318-river-mile reach of the Lower Colorado River from Mansfield Dam near Austin, Texas, to the Gulf of Mexico is underlain directly or indirectly by six regional aquifers--the Trinity, Edwards, Carrizo-Wilcox, Queen City, Sparta, and Gulf Coast. The Trinity aquifer is further subdivided into the lower Trinity, middle Trinity, and upper Trinity aquifers. Generalized potentiometric-surface maps of each regional aquifer show the groundwater flow pattern near the river valley. Each regional aquifer discharges water to the lower Colorado River valley, particularly in the outcrop area of each aquifer. Only the Gulf Coast aquifer in central Wharton County appears to be recharged by water in the river valley. A summary map shows those subreaches of the lower Colorado River that gain water from the aquifers and the subreaches that lose water to the aquifers. (USGS)

  20. Tharsis Basin Aquifer System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Arizona

    This is a QuickTime movie animating an enormous ancient drainage basin and aquifer system in the Tharsis region of Mars. The movie shows the geological stages of the aquifer system, as reported in a University of Arizona study.

  1. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    /Wildlife and Fisheries Consultant Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation Shannon I. Ferrell Extension Agricultural Economics Specialist Department of Agricultural Economics Oklahoma State University Dwayne Elmore Extension Wildlife net income is often greater than traditional agricultural uses alone. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension

  2. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    county OCES agricultural educator or Joe Armstrong, OSU Extension Weeds Specialist, at (405) 744Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University PSS-2779 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http

  3. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  4. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University PSS-2161 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.edu Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Jason Warren Soil Conservation Extension Specialist Kevin Meeks

  5. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Jones, Carol

    Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University BAE-1109 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.edu Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Carol Jones Stored Products Engineering Specialist Edmond Bonjour

  6. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University NREM-9016 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.edu Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Dwayne Elmore Extension Wildlife Specialist, OSU Terry Bidwell

  7. 9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma from the Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair! We are pleasedK ­ 12th) · Song in Native American Language (PreK ­ 12th) NEW for 2011

  8. University of Oklahoma [INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY POLICY] The University of Oklahoma |IP Policy 1

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    University of Oklahoma [INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY POLICY] The University of Oklahoma |IP Policy 1 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY POLICY 3.27.1 PREAMBLE (A) The people of the State of Oklahoma may reasonably expect and Nation. Such new industry creates greater employment opportunities for citizens of the State

  9. The Active Bacterial Community in a Pristine Confined Aquifer

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of the active bacteria residing in a pristine confined aquifer provides unexpected insights into the ecology of iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the subsurface. At 18 wells in east-central Illinois, we trapped the microbes that attached to aquifer sedimen...

  10. Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    Imaging, Digital Mapping and Immersion Visualization of Evaporite Karst in Western Oklahoma investigates a novel and innovative procedure that combines electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), digital mapping

  11. Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    Tomographic Imaging, Digital Mapping and Immersion Visualization of Evaporite Karst in Western Oklahoma mapping and immersion visualization hardware and software to provide a digital image of subsurface conduit

  12. A Karst Aquifer Map for the United States—Is it possible?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel H; David J. Weary; Jack B. Epstein; Randall C. Orndorff

    Is it possible to classify karst aquifers? This question is central to any attempt to construct a map of karst aquifers for the United States. To make such a map, one must assign spatial boundaries to karst aquifers that are defined by an encompassing set of classifying criteria. The classification paradigm used to make such a map should permit comparison

  13. Ames Hole Oklahoma: Impact-formed petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mchone, J.F. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Ames Hole is a 16 km wide circular subsurface structure centered at 361{degrees}5{prime}north, 098{degrees}12{prime}west in Major County, northern Oklahoma. An impact origin is confirmed by the presence of shock metamorphosed mineral grains and impact melt rocks recovered from drill cores and by a negative Bouger gravity anomaly over its center. Buried about three km deep, the structure is composed of shattered, central zone of uplifted Precambrian granite and Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle dolomite surrounded by two concentric rims of fractured and brecciated Arbuckle dolomite. The crater is filled with, and covered by, marine sediments of the middle Ordovician Oil Creek shale. The crater was formed during Ordovician time in a shallow sea on the northern shelf of the Anadarko Basin. Restricted water circulation and anoxic conditions within the deep crater promoted precipitation of plankton-rich sediments. This Oil Creek shale became both the source and the sealing rocks for hydrocarbons which migrated into underlying porous target rocks fractured during the impact event. About one hundred wells within the area underlain by the Ames Hole astroblem presently produce nearly half of Oklahoma`s oil and gas.

  14. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  15. ECONOMIC INJURY LEVEL FOR THE GREENBUG, SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM, IN OKLAHOMA WINTER WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), feeding on the yield of winter wheat cultivars was studied during four years in central Oklahoma. Each year, a 0.4-ha planting of 'Karl' (1993), 'Karl-92' (1995, 1996, and 1997), or '2163 (1997) winter wheat was made between October 1 and 15. ...

  16. Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History Department of Native American Languages

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History Department of Native American Languages Restrictions archives for language materials, especially for Native Americans. A. The Department of Native American collections in the Department of Native American Languages archives: · central location for Tribal access

  17. Report on the projected future climate of the Fort Cobb Watershed, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report provides technical information on projected climate change and associated monotonic trends of precipitation and air temperature at the ARS Fort Cobb Experimental Watershed in west-central Oklahoma. The report is an attachment to the full report of the multi-location project MLP 464: “Est...

  18. First report of seedling blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on wheat in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important crop in Oklahoma and throughout the Central Plains of the United States. The soilborne fungus, Sclerotium rolfsii, is a major pathogen on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) but is not known to cause major damage on wheat. During September of 1998, damping-off...

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  20. PDC Bits Find Applications in Oklahoma Drilling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Offenbacher; J. D. McDermaid; C. R. Patterson

    1983-01-01

    Drilling in Oklahoma is difficult by any standards. Polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) bits, with proven success drilling soft, homogenous formations common in the North Sea and U.S. Gulf Coast regions, have found some significant ''spot'' applications in Oklahoma. Applications qualified by bit design and application development over the past two (2) years include slim hole drilling in the deep Anadarko

  1. Onion transplant production system for Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions are a valuable specialty crop. Unfortunately, commercially available transplants in Oklahoma are often produced in a different area of the country and shipped into Oklahoma, resulting in a limited cultivar selection, non-adapted cultivars, poor crop stands, high bolting incidence, and low pro...

  2. 75 FR 18048 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...Oklahoma Department of Mines (ODM, Oklahoma, or...other changes to permit design or plans, but such revision...necessary approval of designs or plans but such permit...regulation under the Mine Safety and Health Act...12866--Regulatory Planning and Review This...

  3. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    E-print Network

    OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Assistant Professor The School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Oklahoma State University is pleased to invite applications for six areas of mechanical and aerospace engineering are encouraged to apply. Applicants with a research

  4. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  5. 76 FR 59766 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00056

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 09/21/2011. Incident: Oklahoma County Wildfire. Incident Period: 08/30/2011 through 09/01/2011. Effective Date: 09/21/2011. Physical Loan Application...

  6. Adult Education in the State of Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Arthur Reading

    The development of adult education in Oklahoma has followed the general American pattern. After World War II, several Oklahoma public schools began adult education programs and later took advantage of Federally supported vocational and literacy programs. However, differing attitudes toward educational purpose and financing between eastern and…

  7. Did Divorces Decline after the Oklahoma City Bombing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reddick, Rebecca; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2004-01-01

    The Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995 was an act of terrorism that had many potential influences on the city and state, including influences on families. We analyzed divorce data from 1985 to 2000 for all 77 counties in Oklahoma to assess the divorce response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Our prediction was that divorce rates in Oklahoma would…

  8. Restoration of One-Room School Facilities in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Kenneth H.

    Within the last 4 years, four one-room school houses have been restored for use as educational museum facilities. These include the Pleasant Valley School in Stillwater, Oklahoma; the Rose Hill School at Perry, Oklahoma; the old school located on the grounds of the Harn Homestead Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the Old Roll School, located…

  9. Percentage of Probability of Nonpoint-Source Nitrate Contamination of Recently Recharged Ground Water in the High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This raster data set represents the percentage of probability of nonpoint-source nitrate contamination (greater than the proposed background concentration of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as N) of recently (defined as less than 50 years) recharged ground water in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer covers approximately 175,000 square miles in eight States; Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Elevated nitrate concentrations above the background concentration have been detected in recently recharged (less than 50 years) ground water in the High Plains aquifer. This data set is derived from empirical models developed using multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the vulnerability of the High Plains aquifer to nitrate contamination from nonpoint sources. This data set was generated in a geographic information system from these models and represents the spatial extent of vulnerability of nitrate contamination greater than 4 mg/L across the aquifer.

  10. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, East-Central New Mexico-Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer in Curry and Roosevelt Counties, N. Mex., and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. This report provides a summary of the current (2007) water-level status of the Southern High Plains aquifer in New Mexico, including a basis for estimating future trends by comparison with historical conditions. This report includes estimates of the extent of ground-water level declines in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey-Lingo Ground-water Management Area parts of the High Plains Aquifer in eastern New Mexico since predevelopment. Maps representing 2007 water levels, water-level declines, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. The results of this mapping show the water level declined as much as 175 feet in the study area at rates as high as 1.76 feet per year.

  11. Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and surrounding the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water, the transition zone. As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), San Antonio Water System (SAWS), and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone. During 2010 and 2011, the USGS, in cooperation with SAWS, conducted a study to further assess the potential for movement of the transition zone in part of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Equivalent freshwater heads were computed to investigate the transition from saline to freshwater zones in the San Antonio segment and evaluate the potential for lateral flow at the freshwater/saline-water interface. Data were collected within and surrounding the transition zone from 13 wells in four transects (East Uvalde, Tri-County, Fish Hatchery, and Kyle). Hydraulic head and geophysical log data were used to calculate equivalent freshwater heads and then analyzed to identify possible horizontal gradients across the transition zone and thus flow. Unlike previous studies that used indirect methods to calculate fluid conductivity from fluid resistivity, in this study geophysical tools that directly measured fluid conductivity were used. Electromagnetic (EM) flowmeter logs were collected under both ambient and stressed (pumping) conditions and were processed to identify vertical flow zones within the borehole. The San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer (the study area) is about 175 miles long and extends from the western groundwater divide near Brackettville in Kinney County to the eastern groundwater divide near Kyle in Hays County. The four transects consist of two to five wells per transect and were configured approximately perpendicular to and across the expected trace of the freshwater/saline-water interface. The deep flow zone indicated by the EM flowmeter data for East Uvalde transect well EU2 corresponds directly with a large, negative deflection of the fluid logs, indicating an inflow of fresher water from the Devils River Limestone. To the southwest, towards the freshwater/saline-water interface, this same flow zone was observed in well EU1, but with a reduction of flow, and displayed no apparent fluid curve deflections. The highest observed transmissivity of the study area was observed in the saline zone of the Tri-County transect, at well TC3, which had a total transmissivity of 24,900 square feet per day. Zones of high transmissivity throughout the study site were observed to not be continuous and are likely caused by localized secondary porosity such as intersecting faults or karst features. Although analyses of daily mean equivalent freshwater heads for the East Uvalde transect indicated that the gradient across the freshwater/saline-water interface varied between into and out of the freshwater zone, the data indicate that there was a slightly longer period during which the gradient was out of the freshwater zone. Analyses of all daily mean equivalent freshwater heads for the Tri-County transect indicated that the lateral-head gradients across the freshwater/saline-water interface were typically mixed (not indicative of flow into or out of freshwater zone). Assessment of the daily mean equivalent freshwater heads indicated that, although the lateral-head gradient at the Kyle transect varied between into and out of the freshwater zone, the lateral-head gradient was typically from the transition zone into the freshwater zone.

  12. REGISTRATION PACKET 9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    REGISTRATION PACKET 9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair, Lists, and Entry Forms to: Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair For questions about the ONAYLF, forms

  13. Factors Affecting Public-Supply Well Vulnerability in Two Karst Aquifers

    PubMed Central

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501

  14. Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501

  15. Hydrochemical characteristics and seasonal variations in groundwater quality of an alluvial aquifer in parts of Central Ganga Plain, Western Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Rashid; Ahmed, Izrar; Alam, Fakhre; Khan, Mohammad Muqtada

    2009-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess major ion chemistry of groundwater in parts of the Central Ganga Plain and observe seasonal variations in its chemical quality. Systematic sampling was carried out during November 2005 and June 2006. The major ion chemistry of groundwater shows large variations, so much so that at times the meteoric signature seems to be completely obliterated. In many samples the concentrations of SO4, NO3 and F are above the permissible limit for human consumption. The graphical treatment of major ion chemistry helps in identifying four types of groundwater. All possible ionic species such as NaCl, KCl, NaHCO3, NaSO4, KNO3, NaNO3, CaHCO3, MgHCO3, MgSO4 are likely to occur in groundwater system. The observed chemical variations may be attributed to sediment water interaction, ion exchange, dissolution mechanisms and anthropogenic influences such as application of fertilizers and effluents from sugar factories and paper mills. A general increase in TDS is observed in samples during June 2006. The increase in salinity is attributed to evaporation from water table, irrigation return flows, anthropogenic activities and below average rainfall in 2005 and 2006.

  16. 77 FR 26598 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00059

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes and Hail. DATES: Effective April 26, 2012. Incident Period: April 13, 2012 through April 15, 2012. Physical Loan...

  17. PDC bits find applications in Oklahoma drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Offenbacher, L.A.; McDermaid, J.D.; Patterson, C.R.

    1983-02-01

    Drilling in Oklahoma is difficult by any standards. Polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) bits, with proven success drilling soft, homogenous formations common in the North Sea and U.S. Gulf Coast regions, have found some significant ''spot'' applications in Oklahoma. Applications qualified by bit design and application development over the past two (2) years include slim hole drilling in the deep Anadarko Basin, deviation control in Southern Oklahoma, drilling on mud motors, drilling in oil base mud, drilling cement, sidetracking, coring and some rotary drilling in larger hole sizes. PDC bits are formation sensitive, and care must be taken in selecting where to run them in Oklahoma. Most of the successful runs have been in water base mud drilling hard shales and soft, unconsolidated sands and lime, although bit life is often extended in oil-base muds.

  18. 76 FR 23522 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...limitations affecting post-mine contours; adding a subsidence...Oklahoma Department of Mines, 2915 N. Classen...minimum criteria and design certification. Their...relation to the underground mine workings. The full...12866--Regulatory Planning and Review This...

  19. 76 FR 77578 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00057

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 12/07/2011. Incident: Earthquakes. Incident Period: 11/05/2011 and continuing. Effective Date: 12/07/2011. Physical Loan Application...

  20. 77 FR 61651 - Oklahoma Disaster # OK-00067

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ...notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of OKLAHOMA dated 10/01/2012. Incident: Multiple Wildfires. Incident Period: 07/30/2012 Through 08/12/2012. Effective Date: 10/01/2012. Physical Loan...

  1. Build Your Own Aquifer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity illustrates how water is stored in an aquifer, how groundwater can become contaminated, and how this contamination ends up in the drinking water well. They will also realize that many communities obtain their drinking water from underground sources called aquifers and that water suppliers or utility officials drill wells through soil and rock into aquifers to supply the public with drinking water. In addition, they will learn that homeowners who cannot obtain drinking water from a public water supply have private wells that tap the groundwater supply and that groundwater can become contaminated by improper use or disposal of harmful chemicals such as lawn care products and household cleaners.

  2. Digital geologic map of Beaver County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This data set consists of digital data and accompanying documentation for the surficial geology of Beaver County, Oklahoma. The original data are from the Hydrogeologic Map, sheet 1 of 3, included in the U.S. Geological Survey publication, Reconnaissance of the Water Resources of Beaver County, Oklahoma, Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-450, Morton and Goemaat, 1973. The geology was compiled by S.L. Schoff, 1953.

  3. Aquifer-characteristics data for West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Mathes, Melvin V.

    2001-01-01

    Specific-capacity, storage-coefficient, and specific-yield data for wells in West Virginia were compiled to provide a data set from which transmissivity could be estimated. This data can be used for analytical and mathematical groundwater flow modeling. Analysis of available storage-coefficient and (or) specific-yield data indicates the Ohio River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.20, which is characteristic of an unconfined aquifer. The Kanawha River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.003, which is characteristic of a semi-confined aquifer. The median storage coefficient of fractured-bedrock aquifers is only 0.007, which is characteristic of confined aquifers. The highest median transmissivity of a specific aquifer in West Virginia occurs in Ohio River alluvium (4,800 ft2/d); the second highest occurs in Kanawha River alluvium (1,600 ft2/d). The lowest median transmissivity (23 ft2/d) is for the McKenzie-Rose Hill-Tuscarora aquifer. Rocks of Cambrian age within the Waynesboro-Tomstown-Harpers-Weverton-Loudon aquifer had a low median transmissivity of only 67 ft2/d. Other aquifers with low transmissivities include the Hampshire Formation, Brallier-Harrell Formations, Mahantango Formations, Oriskany Sandstone, and the Conococheague Formation with median transmissivities of 74, 72, 92, 82, and 92 ft2/d, respectively. All other aquifers within the State had intermediate values of transmissivity (130-920 ft2/d). The highest median transmissivities among bedrock aquifers were those for aquifers within the Pennsylvanian age Pocahontas Formation (1,200 ft2/d) and Pottsville Group (1,300 ft2/d), and the Mississippian age Mauch Chunk Group (1,300 ft2/d). These rocks crop out primarily in the southern part of the State and to a lesser extent within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. The highest mean annual ground-water recharge rates within West Virginia (24.6 in.) occur within a band that extends through the central part of the State within the eastern part of the Kanawha River Basin. This area of relatively high relief has peaks higher than 4,000 ft and precipitation greater than 50 in./yr. The band of high recharge rates extends northward towards Pennsylvania and includes the Monongahela River Basin, which has a mean annual recharge of 21.4 inches. To the west of this central band lies a region of lower relief with much lower mean annual precipitation rates. Mean annual recharge for the Tug Fork, Twelvepole Creek, and Guyandotte River Basins is only 12.6 inches. For the western part of the Kanawha River Basin, mean recharge is 11.9 inches. The lowest mean annual recharge rates (8.4 in.) within the State occur in the Little Kanawha River Basin and the tributary streams in the region that discharge directly to the Ohio River. West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle is an area characterized by long linear northeast to southwest trending ridges and valleys. The mean annual ground-water recharge rate for this region, which is drained almost entirely by the Potomac River and its tributaries, is 9.4 inches. This area, which is located within a rain shadow resulting from orographic lifting in the higher altitude area to the west, receives less precipitation (approximately 30 in.) than the region to the west.

  4. Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to increase the awareness of students of space sciences and commerce through experimentation. This objective was carried out through the award and administration, by OSIDA, the Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority, of eleven smaller grants to fund thirteen projects at schools determined by competitive application. Applications were graded on potential outreach, experimentation objectives and impact on students' awareness of space sciences. We chose projects from elementary, middle and high schools as well as colleges that would encourage students through research and experimentation to consider education and careers in related disciplines. Each organization did not receive an equal share of the grant; instead, OSIDA distributed the money to each project based on the organization's need. A copy of the dispersement record is enclosed with this final grant report. The projects covered topics such as: space colonization, space stations, constellations, model rocketry, and space commerce.

  5. High School to College-Going Rates for Oklahoma High School Graduates to Oklahoma Colleges: Linear College-Going Rate, Combined College-Going Rate. Oklahoma High School Educational Indicators Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    Four tables report on college-going rates for high school graduates in Oklahoma from 1989 to 1993. The report cites the Oklahoma State Department of Education and the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education as data sources. The tables report on "Linear College-Going Rates" of those who go directly from Oklahoma high schools to Oklahoma

  6. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University NREM-2874 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http and Management Terrence G. Bidwell Professor and Extension Specialist Rangeland Ecology and Management Case R

  7. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University HLA-6435 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.edu Landscaping and Gardening for Birds David Hillock Assistant Extension Specialist, Consumer Horticulturist Mike

  8. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University EPP-7461 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.edu Brad Kard Extension Pesticide Coordinator Kevin Shelton Extension Coordinator Charles Luper Extension

  9. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University HLA-6430 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.edu Stephanie A. Smith Entomology and Wildlife Extension Program Assistant Ron Masters Extension Wildlife

  10. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University NREM-9201 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http,theproductionofaquaticanimalsandplants under controlled conditions, is the fastest growing form of alternative agriculture in the United States

  11. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University EPP-7602 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.edu Eric Rebek Associate Professor/State Extension Specialist Horticultural Entomology Jennifer Olson

  12. Rare Earth Element Concentrations, Speciation, and Fractionation along Groundwater Flow Paths: The Carrizo Sand (Texas) and Upper Floridan Aquifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianwu Tang; Karen H. Johannesson

    Groundwater samples were collected in two different types of aquifers (i.e., Carrizo sand aquifer, Texas and Upper Floridan\\u000a carbonate aquifer, west-central Florida) to study the concentration, speciation, and fractionation of rare earth elements\\u000a (REE) along the groundwater flow path in each system. Major solutes and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were also measured\\u000a in these groundwaters. In the Carrizo aquifer, groundwaters

  13. Service Assessment Mother's Day Weekend Tornado in Oklahoma and

    E-print Network

    impact was in northeast Oklahoma and southwest Missouri. A tornado, rated EF4 on the Enhanced Fujita scale, moved southeast from the town of Picher, Oklahoma, into southwest Missouri. The tornado caused 21

  14. The early planning and development of Oklahoma City

    E-print Network

    Humphreys, Blair D. (Blair David)

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the planning, development, and implementation of Oklahoma City's Grand Boulevard. In the early days of 1909, a plan emerged to build an expansive parks and boulevard system to encircle Oklahoma City. Such ...

  15. Sulfate and chloride concentrations in Texas aquifers.

    PubMed

    Hudak, P F

    2000-08-01

    Median sulfate and chloride concentrations in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 8236 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). Concentration clusters for both solutes were highest in north-central, west, and south Texas. Thirty-four counties had median sulfate levels above the secondary standard of 250 mg/L, and 31 counties registered median chloride concentrations above 250 mg/L. County median concentrations ranged from < 1.5 to 1,953 mg/L for sulfate, and from 6 to 1,275 mg/L for chloride. Various factors contribute to high sulfate and chloride levels in Texas aquifers, including mineral constitutents of aquifers, seepage of saline water from nearby formations, coastal saltwater intrusion, irrigation return flow, and oil/gas production. Ten counties in central and northeast Texas lack data and warrant additional monitoring. PMID:11345739

  16. Sources of Groundwater Based on Helium Analyses in and near the Freshwater/Saline-Water Transition Zone of the San Antonio Segment of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Fahlquist, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This report evaluates dissolved noble gas data, specifically helium-3 and helium-4, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, during 2002-03. Helium analyses are used to provide insight into the sources of groundwater in the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Sixty-nine dissolved gas samples were collected from 19 monitoring wells (categorized as fresh, transitional, or saline on the basis of dissolved solids concentration in samples from the wells or from fluid-profile logging of the boreholes) arranged in five transects, with one exception, across the freshwater/saline-water interface (the 1,000-milligrams-per-liter dissolved solids concentration threshold) of the Edwards aquifer. The concentration of helium-4 (the dominant isotope in atmospheric and terrigenic helium) in samples ranged from 63 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature (20 degrees Celsius) and pressure (1 atmosphere) in a well in the East Uvalde transect to 160,587 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature and pressure in a well in the Kyle transect. Helium-4 concentrations in the 10 saline wells generally increase from the western transects to the eastern transects. Increasing helium-4 concentrations from southwest to northeast in the transition zone, indicating increasing residence time of groundwater from southwest to northeast, is consistent with the longstanding conceptualization of the Edwards aquifer in which water recharges in the southwest, flows generally northeasterly (including in the transition zone, although more slowly than in the fresh-water zone), and discharges at major springs in the northeast. Excess helium-4 was greater than 1,000 percent for 60 of the 69 samples, indicating that terrigenic helium is largely present and that most of the excess helium-4 comes from sources other than the atmosphere. The helium data of this report cannot be used to identify sources of groundwater in and near the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer in terms of specific geologic (stratigraphic) units or hydrogeologic units (aquifers or confining units). However, the data indicate that the source or sources of the helium, and thus the water in which the helium is dissolved, in the transition zone are mostly terrigenic in origin rather than atmospheric. Whether most helium in and near the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer originated either in rocks outside the transition zone and at depth or in the adjacent Trinity aquifer is uncertain; but most of the helium in the transition zone had to enter the transition zone from the Trinity aquifer because the Trinity aquifer is the hydrogeologic unit immediately beneath and laterally adjacent to the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer. Thus the helium data support a hypothesis of sufficient hydraulic connection between the Trinity and Edwards aquifers to allow movement of water from the Trinity aquifer to the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer.

  17. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169...RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act...otherwise determined by the Secretary, railroad rights-of-way in Oklahoma...

  18. Social and Economic Consequences of Indian Gaming in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kenneth W., II; Spilde, Katherine A.; Taylor, Jonathan B.

    2004-01-01

    The balancing framework of Indian gaming as it operates in Oklahoma constrains Oklahoma Indian nations from operating facilities according to the dictates of the marketplace on a large-scale Class III basis. Indian gaming actually brings substantial net economic benefits to the state, contrary to claims that Oklahoma Indian gaming benefits come at…

  19. Why Norman?: Meteorology Comes to University of Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    Why Norman?: Meteorology Comes to University of Oklahoma by John M. Lewis A presentation at the 50th Anniversary University of Oklahoma's School of Meteorology October 8, 2010 #12;2 Extended Abstract A review of the University of Oklahoma's (OU's) meteorology program/department over its first 15 years

  20. Drought and grazing effects on Oklahoma phlox (Polemoniaceae, Phlox oklahomensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oklahoma phlox (Phlox oklahomensis Wherry) is endemic to Butler, Chautauqua, Comanche, Cowley, and Elk Counties of Kansas and Woods and Woodward Counties of Oklahoma. The species comprises populations of a few scattered individuals to several hundred in mixed-grass prairie sites in Oklahoma where co...

  1. STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES CODE -1 THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    of the University of Oklahoma is charged in the Constitution of the State of Oklahoma with governing the University of the United States and the State of Oklahomaand the University of Oklahoma StudentAssociation. Those documents Rights Students of the University of Oklahomaare guaranteed certain rights by the Constitutions

  2. 77 FR 74689 - Land Acquisitions; Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs...acres of land in trust for the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma on December 6, 2012. FOR...acres of land into trust for the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma under the authority of...

  3. Impact of the 2005-2006 drought on soil water content under a tall grass prairie at Fort Reno, Oklahoma.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined changes in the seasonal pattern of soil water content under a tall grass prairie in central Oklahoma as a result of the 2005-2006 drought. The seasonal pattern of soil water content in the top 50 cm of the soil profile was minimally impacted by the drought, as this portion of the...

  4. Impact of CASA Radar and Oklahoma Mesonet Data Assimilation on the Analysis and Prediction of Tornadic Mesovortices in an MCS

    E-print Network

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    -linear convective systems such as bow echoes and squall lines. That tornadoes some- times occur in association several tornadoes in central Oklahoma on 8­9 May 2007, while the ARPS three-dimensional variational data accurate pre- diction of mesovortex development. 1. Introduction Because most tornadoes are spawned

  5. Analyzing aquifers associated with gas reservoirs using aquifer influence functions

    E-print Network

    Targac, Gary Wayne

    1988-01-01

    ANALYZING AQUIFERS ASSOCIATED WITH GAS RESERVOIRS USING AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE TARGAC Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE V z May 1988 z V z z I- Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering ANALYZING AQUIFERS ASSOCIATED WITH GAS RESERVOIRS USING AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE TARGAC Approved as to style and content by: (Chair of Committ R...

  6. Aquifer Testing in Fractured Rock: Conceptual Similarities in Aquifer Heterogeneity From Varied Geologic Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. M.; Hsieh, P. A.

    2001-12-01

    A survey of time-drawdown records from aquifer tests conducted in bedded sedimentary rocks, such as dolomite, sandstone and shale, and in glaciated and unglaciated igneous and metamorphic rocks has shown unexpected similarities. The tests were conducted with a single highly permeable fracture or fracture zone isolated in the pumped borehole, and monitored intervals in observation boreholes had either one or no highly permeable fractures or fracture zones. This was accomplished using boreholes with open intervals at selected elevations or with packers isolating discrete intervals in the pumped and observation boreholes. The results of these aquifer tests showed that multiple monitored intervals in different observation boreholes had essentially the same time-drawdown history regardless of their distance to the pumped interval. This type of aquifer test response is anticipated in bedded sedimentary rocks, where bedding plane partings act as highly permeable zones that are connected hydraulically by fractures in the massive rock between bedding planes. Observation intervals intersecting a given bedding plane during aquifer testing respond similarly because of the high permeability of the bedding plane. Aquifer tests conducted in the Silurian dolomite in New York and Illinois, and in the sandstone and shale beds of formations in the Newark Basin serve as examples. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, in both glaciated and unglaciated terrain, fracturing tends to be considerably more complex than in sedimentary rocks, however, the aquifer test response also showed groups of monitored intervals in observation boreholes with nearly identical drawdown responses. Aquifer tests conducted in the igneous and metamorphic rock in New Hampshire and Georgia, and igneous rock in Sweden serve as examples. A detailed investigation at a bedrock site in central New Hampshire suggest that highly permeable fractures of various orientations form subhorizontal zones that are embedded within a network of less-permeable fractures. The similarity of drawdown responses in monitored intervals of observation boreholes regardless of distance to the pumped borehole suggests a model of aquifer heterogeneity where areally extensive, highly permeable zones are hydraulically connected by rock with less-permeable fractures. Interpretation of these aquifer tests can be conducted by hypothesizing zones of high permeability embedded in less-permeable aquifer material, the hydraulic properties of which can be estimated by methods of parameter estimation used in conjunction with standard ground-water flow models.

  7. Estimating transmissivity in the Edwards Aquifer using upscaling, geostatistics, and Bayesian updating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Painter; Y. Jiang; A. D. Woodbury

    2002-01-01

    The Edwards Aquifer, a highly heterogeneous karst aquifer located in south central Texas, is the sole source of drinking water for more than one million people. Hydraulic conductivity (K) measurements in the Edwards Aquifer are sparse, highly variable (log-K variance of 6.4), and are mostly from single-well drawdown tests that are appropriate for the spatial scale of a few meters.

  8. Ground-water records for the area surrounding the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goemaat, Robert L.; Willard, Cass C.

    1983-01-01

    This report is a compilation of ground-water records, water levels, and water-quality field determinations, for wells in a 132 square-mile (342 square kilometer) area surrounding the Chickasaw National Recreational Area in south-central Oklahoma. This information was collected in cooperation with the National Park Service. The location of the study area is shown on figure 1; the well locations are shown on figure 2. Data from 101 wells are summarized in this report.

  9. Generalized potentiometric surfaces of the upper and lower Jasper and equivalent aquifers in Louisiana, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Angel, Jr.; Whiteman, C.D., Jr.; Becnel, Miles J.

    1988-01-01

    Maps of the Jasper and equivalent aquifers are the final maps in a series showing water levels in aquifers of Miocene age and younger in central and southern Louisiana, that were prepared as part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study. These maps show generalized contours of the altitude of water levels in wells completed in the Jasper aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana and in aquifers in stratigraphically equivalent deposits of southeastern Louisiana for 1984. Separate maps were prepared for the upper and lower units of the Jasper and equivalent aquifers to provide a better representation of water levels. Although these maps provide a regional picture of water levels in the Jasper aquifer, they do not show the local differences in water levels between individual sand beds that occur near pumping centers. Generally, water levels shown at pumping centers are for the most heavily pumped sand beds at those centers. Most water level measurements used in compiling these maps were made in 1984. Where measurements from 1984 were unavailable, earlier and later measurements were used in areas where evidence indicated little change had occurred and in areas where definite regional trends of water level change could be established. In the areas where trends were established, water levels were adjusted to 1984 values by applying corrections based on the trends. Other maps in the series show water levels in aquifers of Pleistocene age, the Evangeline and equivalent aquifers, and the Catahoula aquifer. (Lantz-PTT)

  10. Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Nath, Bibhash; Alexanderson, Helena; Kundu, Amit K; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2014-07-01

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (~70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <9.51 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 ?g/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84×10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65×10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 ?g/L and 1mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8×10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines. PMID:24704952

  11. AQUIFER MICROBIOLOGY: PERFECTING THE VIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collection and examination of field samples are required to understand existing aquifer microbiology and predict the consequences of aquifer manipulations. Groundwater samples have been, and still are, the sources of a great deal of information regarding aquifer microorganisms. Samples of the geo...

  12. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    to be found in canola grown in Oklahoma are the army cutworm and the diamondback moth. Army cutworm (Euxoa auxiliaris) Description and Life History: Army cutworm moths (Figure 1) have a wingspan of 1 to 1½ inches

  13. 77 FR 43586 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ...Commission [Docket No. CP12-479-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent...involving abandonment of facilities by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Logan and Oklahoma Counties,...

  14. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2. Regions 7 through 12

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: Unglaciated Central Region; Glaciated Appalachians, Unglaciated Appalachians; Coastal Plain; Hawaii; and Alaska. (LCL)

  15. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1. Regions 1 through 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: the Western Mountains; Alluvial Basins; Columbia LAVA Plateau; Colorado Plateau; High Plains; and Glaciated Central Region. (LCL)

  16. IDAHO AQUIFER TYPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five aquifer types are presented: Unconsolidated alluvium, Snake River Plain alluvium, Snake River Plain basalt, Columbia River basalt, Sedimentary / volcanic rock. Should only be used for page-sized maps of state, due to the very generalized source materials & digitizing proce...

  17. Aquifers In Nirgal Vallis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Reiss; R. Jaumann

    2002-01-01

    The topographic information provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter has been used in combination with the Mars Observer Camera imagery to estimate the topo- graphic position of sapping pits and gully heads on the rim of Nirgal Vallis. Hence Nirgal Vallis is understood to be formed by groundwater sapping (1, 2, 3, 4) an aquifer is proposed as water

  18. Inquiry and Aquifers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuenberger, Ted; Shepardson, Daniel; Harbor, Jon; Bell, Cheryl; Meyer, Jason; Klagges, Hope; Burgess, Willie

    2001-01-01

    Presents inquiry-oriented activities that acquaint students with groundwater sources, movement of water through aquifers, and contamination of groundwater by pollution. In one activity, students use well log data from web-based resources to explore groundwater systems. Provides sample well log data for those not having access to local information.…

  19. Modelling the response of an alluvial aquifer to anthropogenic and recharge stresses in the United States Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zume, Joseph T.; Tarhule, Aondover A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper uses Visual MODFLOW to simulate potential impacts of anthropogenic pumping and recharge variability on an alluvial aquifer in semi-arid northwestern Oklahoma. Groundwater withdrawal from the aquifer is projected to increase by more than 50% (relative to 1990) by the year 2050. In contrast, climate projections indicate declining regional precipitation over the next several decades, creating a potential problem of demand and supply. The following scenarios were simulated: (1) projected groundwater withdrawal, (2) a severe drought, (3) a prolonged wet period, and (4) a human adjustment scenario, which assumes future improvements in water conservation measures. Results indicate that the combined impacts of anthropogenic pumping and droughts would create drawdown of greater than 12 m in the aquifer. Spatially, however, areas of severe drawdown will be localized around large-capacity well clusters. The worst impacts of both pumping and droughts will be on stream-aquifer interaction. For example, the projected aquifer pumpage would lead to a total streamflow loss of 40%, creating losing stream system regionally. Similarly, a severe drought would lead to a total streamflow loss of >80%. A post-audit of the model was also carried out to evaluate model performance. By simulating various stress scenarios on the alluvial aquifer, this study provides important information for evaluating management options for alluvial aquifers.

  20. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  1. Use of Bromide: Chloride Ratios to Differentiate Potential Sources of Chloride in a Shallow, Unconfined Aquifer Affected by Brackish-Water Intrusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Andreasen; William B. Fleck

    1997-01-01

    Brackish water from Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries has entered the Aquia aquifer in east-central Anne Arundel County, Maryland, USA. This determination was made based on chloride analyses of water samples collected in wells screened in the Aquia aquifer between October 1988 and May 1989. The Aquia aquifer, which is composed of fine- to medium-grained sand, is a shallow, unconfined

  2. Eliminating Barriers to Dual Enrollment in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Rick; Gamez Vargas, Juanita; David, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Policy, financial, and transportation barriers have limited participation in dual enrollment for marginalized (low-socioeconomic, first-generation, and ethnic minority) students in Oklahoma. This chapter presents a collaborative effort by education and community leaders that has successfully eliminated these barriers and increased the number of…

  3. Oklahoma Curriculum Guide for Teaching Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Curriculum Improvement Commission, Oklahoma City.

    Developed by classroom teachers, university professors, and personnel from the Oklahoma State Department of Education, this guide is an effort to assist teachers in locating and utilizing safety materials as well as to assist them in developing well-balanced safety programs for the children and young people in the state. The preschool and…

  4. REGENTS' POLICY MANUAL THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    .7.6 College of Law Library 2.8 Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History Collections Management Policy 2.4.2 Advertising and Promotion 3.4.3 Endorsement Prohibited 3.4.4 Purchasing Advertising 3.4.5 University Name

  5. SIMULATION OF PEANUT GROWTH IN OKLAHOMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosz, Gerald D.; Elliott, Ronald L.; Young, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Two peanut growth models of varying complexity were calibrated for Oklahoma varieties and growing conditions. Both models predicted pod growth quite well. The models were then used to simulate the effects of various soil moisture levels on peanut growth. The more complex model has potential as a management tool.

  6. The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    to give the Certification of Birth/Care of a Newborn form to your health care provider for completionThe University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center HUMAN RESOURCES Dear On we were notified that you (FMLA). The purpose of this letter is to provide you with the form your health care provider needs

  7. The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center HUMAN RESOURCES Dear On we were notified that you). The purpose of this letter is to provide you with the form your health care provider to complete and return. Your leave is not approved as FMLA until we have received the Certification of Birth/Care of a Newborn

  8. Public Library Service to Children in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentroth, Mary Ann

    Because of the low density of its population and subsequent low property tax support, library service in Oklahoma is based on the multicounty library operating as a single unit. With the help of federal funds, such units now cover one-third of the state and 60 percent of its population utilizing branch libraries and bookmobile service. Service to…

  9. University of Oklahoma School of Meteorology

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    University of Oklahoma School of Meteorology Rapid-response Graduate Degree Application Form This application form is used by the School of Meteorology to provide a rapid, no-cost response to the applicant on prospects to be admitted to the School of Meteorology for pursuit of a graduate degree. The applicant should

  10. Electromagnetic Radiation from Severe Storms in Oklahoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM L. TAYLOR

    1973-01-01

    The results of observing the radiation from lightning discharge processes indicated that major radio frequency electrical activity was associated with the tornado-producing severe storms that struck Oklahoma City during this period. Rates of occurrence of atmospherics at frequencies from 10 kHz to above 3 MHz were observed by using short time constant circuits to preserve the burst nature of the

  11. Women of Oklahoma, 1890-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Linda Williams

    This book examines the lives of representative White, Black, and American Indian women on the Oklahoma frontier after the abrupt opening of Indian Territory to non-Indian settlement in 1889. Drawing on primary sources, particularly diaries and letters, it focuses on the intersection of race, gender, class, and culture in the relationships among…

  12. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slosburg, Tucker

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Oklahoma. The state uses a State Aid Formula to determine the appropriation of funds to various districts. Along with the aid formula, the state collects revenue from the following sources: compensatory programs, special education, vocational programs, transportation…

  13. 77 FR 53247 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00063

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-4078-DR), dated 08/22/2012. Incident: Freedom Wildfire. Incident Period: 08/03/2012 through 08/14/2012. Effective Date: 08/22/2012. Physical Loan Application...

  14. 76 FR 60959 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00055

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ...notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 09/21/2011. Incident: Pawnee County Wildfire. Incident Period: 08/07/2011 through 08/14/2011. Effective Date: 09/21/2011. Physical Loan Application...

  15. 77 FR 61652 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00066

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ...a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of OKLAHOMA dated 10/01/2012. Incident: Luther Wildfire. Incident Period: 08/03/2012 Through 08/10/2012. Effective Date: 10/01/2012. Physical Loan Application...

  16. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Oklahoma edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality…

  17. Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    . The vast number of landfill sites and ubiquitous nature of alluvial deposits make the results of this study stability of the Canadian River adjacent to the Norman, Oklahoma landfill. The USGS provided access to the extensive data already collected at the site as well as assistance with obtaining cores for the project

  18. Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2000-01-01

    The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of HydroSOLVE, Inc. These best fit theoretical response curves are based on a transmissivity of 24,000 ft2/d or a hydraulic conductivity of about 600 ft/d, a storage coefficient of 0.05, a specific yield of 0.42, and vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The theoretical type curves match the observed data fairly closely at Wells A and B until about 2,500 minutes and 1,000 minutes, respectively, after pumping began. The increasing rate of drawdown after these breaks is an indication that a no-flow boundary (an area with much lower hydraulic conductivity) likely was encountered and that Wells A and B may be completed in a part of the Elm aquifer with limited hydraulic connection to the rest of the aquifer. Additional analysis indicates that if different assumptions regarding the screened interval for Well B and aquifer anisotropy are used, type curves can be calculated that fit the observed data using a lower specific yield that is within the commonly accepted range. When the screened interval for Well B was reduced to 5 ft near the top of the aquifer and horizontal hydraulic conductivity was set to 20 times vertical hydraulic conductivity, the type curves calculated using a specific yield of 0.1 and a transmissivity of 30,200 ft2/d also matched the observed data from Wells A and B fairly well. A version of the Theim equilibrium equation was used to calculate the theoretical drawdown in an idealized unconfined aquifer when a perfectly efficient well is being pumped at a constant rate. These calculations were performed for a range of pumping rates, drawdowns at the wells, and distances between wells that might be found in a production well field in the Elm aquifer. Although the aquifer test indicates that hydraulic conductivity near the well may be adequate to support a production well, the comparison of drawdown and recovery curves indicates the possibility that heterogeneities may limit the productive capacity of specific loca

  19. Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14.0 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Civil War Cave ranged from 0.13 to 2.5 square miles using the water-balance equation to 3.80 square miles using a normalized base-flow method. Tracer tests indicated a portion of the water within Civil War Cave was from across a major topographic divide located to the southwest. January-Stansbury Cave is located in Delaware County in northeastern Oklahoma, and provides habitat for the Oklahoma cave crayfish and the Ozark cavefish. January-Stansbury Cave is developed in the St. Joe Limestone member of the Boone Formation. The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 1.0 cubic foot per second and ranged from 0.35 to 8.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for January-Stansbury Cave was 14.3 degrees. The calculated recharge area for January-Stansbury Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from approximately 0.04 to 0.83 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed water discharging from January-Stansbury Cave during high flow originates from within the topographic drainage area and from an area outside the topographic drainage area to the southwest. Nesbitt Spring Cave is located near the city of Mountain View in north-central Arkansas and provides habitat for the Hell Creek cave crayfish. Nesbitt Spring Cave is developed in the Plattin Limestone (Ozark aquifer) and is recharged through the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The mean daily discharge for the period of study was 4.5 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.39 to 70.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Nesbitt Spring Cave was 14.2 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Nesbitt Spring Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from 0.49 square mile to 4.0 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed a portion of water discharging from Nesbitt Spring during high flow originates from outside the topographic drainage area. Wasson's Mud Cave is located near the city of Springtown

  20. Geohydrology and susceptibility of major aquifers to surface contamination in Alabama; area 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeJarnette, S.S.; Crownover, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This report delineates and describes the geohyrology and susceptibility of the major aquifers to contamination in Area 6, Greene, Marengo, Pickens, Sumter, and Tuscaloosa Counties in west-central Alabama. The major aquifers in the study area are the Nanafalia, Eutaw, Gordo, and Coker aquifers of Tertiary and Cretaceous age. The recharge areas for one or more of these aquifers are in each of the five counties. East aquifer is a source of public water supply in one or more of the five counties. All recharge areas for the major aquifers are susceptible to contamination from the surface. However, large parts of the recharge areas are in rural settings that are used for timberlands, farms, and pastures, and are several miles from pumping centers; therefore, these areas are not highly susceptible to contamination. (USGS)

  1. Seismic and gravity study of the lithospheric structure of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen and surrounding region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tave, M.; Gurrola, H.; Mickus, K. L.; Thomas, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen (SOA) is easily recognizable in gravity and magnetic maps as perhaps the second largest gravity anomaly in North America (second to the Mid-continental rift). The SOA lies in the Granite Rhyolite province of Oklahoma. It is characterized by large magnitude basement faults that were active during Cambrian rifting and were reactivated as thrust faults during the late Paleozoic (313-285 Ma) during the Ouachita Orogeny. The SOA was originally considered to be a failed rift of a triple junction associated with Cambrian-aged opening of the Iapetan Ocean. This model is supported by the three-armed pattern of gravity highs at the junction of the SOA with Ouachita orogen, the age of the bimodal series of gabbroic and rhyolitic rock (that are clearly mantle derived), and the interpretation of a thick sequence of clastic metasedimentary rock as rift-fill. These metasedimentary rock, however, have been found to be much older than the SOA faulting and volcanism. More recent investigations favor models that describe the SOA as a system of leaky transform faults that are roughly parallel to the Alabama-Oklahoma transform fault, which partially frames part of the Iapetan margin of Southern Laurentia. This study will try to use seismic and gravity modeling to resolve the nature of the SOA and to determine the depth (into the mantle) to which features related to the formation of the SOA are preserved. The EarthScope transportable array (TA) has completed data acquisition in Oklahoma and Texas. We have made receiver functions (RF) from the TA along the SOA and found that the there is an abrupt change in crustal structure across the SOA. RF analysis shows that a mid-crustal boundary occurs at about 15 km south of the SOA that dips toward the SOA. North of the SOA, this midcrustal boundary appears to be 5 km shallower and flat. The Moho appears to be 45 km deep to the south of the SOA but appears to be at a depth of about 38 km to the north. Additional processing is underway to map out variation in the Vp/Vs ratio throughout the region and into the mantle. Several uncharacteristically large earthquakes occurred in west Texas and Oklahoma during the period that the TA was in the region (including a 5.6 in east-central Oklahoma, a 5.3 in southeastern Colorado, a 4.8 near the Gulf Coast, and a 4.2 in central Texas; all of which had many aftershocks between 3.5 and 4). We will use these events to perform Pn tomography throughout the area.

  2. Potential leakage between aquifers in a deeply anthropized coastal sedimentary basin (Recife, Brazil): Strontium isotope constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Bertrand, Guillaume; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Helene; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Due to an increasing demographic pressure, the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) went through remarkable changes of water and land uses over the last decades. These evolutions gave rise to numerous environmental consequences, such as a dramatic decline of the piezometric levels, groundwater salinization and contamination. This degradation of natural resources is linked to the increase of water demand, punctually amplified by drought periods which induced the construction of thousands of private wells. Recife was built on the estuarine area of the Capibaribe River and other small rivers. The Recife coastal plain is located in the geographic limits of the sedimentary basins of Cabo and Pernambuco-Paraíba which consist out of fluvial and marine geologic formations. It is composed of three main aquifers: the two semi-confined Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, both underlining the superficial Boa Viagem unconfined aquifer, which is the most directly exposed to contamination, since it is connected to mangroves, rivers, estuaries and highly urbanized areas. The Boa Viagem aquifer is made of marine terraces of sand, silt and clay has an average thickness of 40 m. The Cabo aquifer occurs in the south of Recife and comprises sandstones, siltstones and mudstones, with an average thickness of 90 m. The Beberibe aquifer occurs in the north and central area of Recife with an average thickness of 100 m of sandstones with intercalations of mudstone; it is the most important one, with the highest amount of good quality water. Both the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers contain large clay levels. The hydraulic connections between the three aquifers are not well known but isotopic studies have shown that the recharge processes are similar, suggesting that exchanges may occur and may be modified or amplified by overexploitation especially between the Cabo and Boa Viagem aquifers. Two other aquifers can be found west of the city: the Barreiras aquifer, characterized by alternating well stratified layers, is coated at its edges by the Boa Viagem aquifer. Mostly underlying the Beberibe and Barreiras aquifers with some outcrops, the Fissural aquifer is composed of basement rocks (granites/migmatites) with low storage capacity. The preliminary results of 62 groundwater samples from the five main aquifers are reported. This part of the study focuses on the major elements together with Sr isotopes to (1) characterize the signature of the different aquifer compartments of the 5 main aquifers, and (2)assess the potential connections between aquifers, e.g. vertical exchanges between the aquifers that can be modified or amplified by overexploitation or triggered through failed or improperly constructed wells.

  3. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma...improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along an 850-mile corridor...Level EIS, the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study (Study) also includes...

  4. Water-Level Changes in Aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Predevelopment to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Rice, Donald E.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    2008-01-01

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, which underlies a large part of the east coast of the United States, is an important source of water for more than 20 million people. As the population of the region increases, further demand is being placed on those ground-water resources. To define areas of past and current declines in ground-water levels, as well as to document changes in those levels, historical water-level data from more than 4,000 wells completed in 13 regional aquifers in the Atlantic Coastal Plain were examined. From predevelopment to 1980, substantial water-level declines occurred in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Regional variability in water-level change in the confined aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain resulted from regional differences in aquifer properties and patterns of ground-water withdrawals. Within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, declines of more than 100 ft were observed in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Regional declines in water levels were most widespread in the deeper aquifers that were most effectively confined?the Upper, Middle, and Lower Potomac aquifers. Within these aquifers, water levels had declined up to 200 ft in southern Virginia and to more than 100 ft in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and North Carolina. Substantial water-level declines were also evident in the regional Lower Chesapeake aquifer in southeastern New Jersey; in the Castle Hayne-Piney Point aquifer in Delaware, Maryland, southern Virginia and east-central North Carolina; in the Peedee-Severn aquifer in east-central New Jersey and southeastern North Carolina; and in the Black Creek-Matawan aquifer in east-central New Jersey and east-central North Carolina. Conversely, declines were least severe in the regional Upper Chesapeake aquifer during this period. In the Southeastern Coastal Plain, declines of more than 100 ft in the Chattahoochee River aquifer occurred in eastern South Carolina and in southwestern Georgia, where water levels had declined approximately 140 and 200 ft from prepumping conditions, respectively. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, decline was most pronounced in the coastal areas of Georgia and northern Florida where ground-water withdrawals were at their highest. These areas included Savannah, Jesup, and Brunswick, Ga., as well as the St. Marys, Ga. and Fernandina Beach, Fla., area. Regional water levels had declined by 80 ft near Brunswick and Fernandina Beach to as much as 160 ft near Savannah. Since 1980, water levels in many areas have continued to fall; however, in some places the rate at which levels declined has slowed. Conservation measures have served to limit withdrawals in affected areas, moderating or stabilizing water-level decline, and in some cases, resulting in substantial recovery. In other cases, increases in ground-water pumpage have resulted in continued rapid decline in water levels. From 1980 to 2000, water levels across the regional Upper, Middle, and Lower Potomac aquifers continued to decline across large parts of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina, and water levels had stabilized or recovered throughout much of Long Island and New Jersey. Substantial water-level recovery had also occurred in east-central New Jersey in the Peedee-Severn and Black Creek-Matawan aquifers and in east-central North Carolina in the Castle Hayne-Piney Point aquifer. Substantial declines from about 1980 to about 2000 occurred in the Peedee-Severn aquifer in southern New Jersey, the Beaufort-Aquia aquifer in southern Maryland, and the Black Creek-Matawan and Upper Potomac aquifers in central and southern parts of the coastal plain in North Carolina. From 1980 to about 2000, water levels within the regional Upper Floridan aquifer had generally stabilized in response to shifting withdrawal patterns and reductions in pumpage at many places within the coastal region. Ground-water levels had stabilized and recovered at the ma

  5. INFILTRATION OF ATRAZINE AND METABOLOTES FROM A STREAM TO AN ALLUVIAL AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The infiltration of atrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine from Walnut Creek, a tributary stream, to the alluvial valley aquifer along the South Skunk River in central Iowa occurred where the stream transects the river's flood plain. A preliminary estimate indicated t...

  6. Geophysical Fault Mapping Using the Magnetic Method at Hickory Sandstone Aquifer, Llano Uplift, Texas

    E-print Network

    Pereira, Antonio Do Nascimento

    2013-04-05

    A magnetic study over a 95 m x 150 m area of the Hickory sandstone aquifer in central Texas was carried out as part of multitechnique geophysical investigation that included ground penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetic (EM), seismic...

  7. Ground-water ages in confined and unconfined aquifers beneath the High Plains, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, A.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Ages of confined and unconfined ground waters beneath the High Plains must be better known to evaluate water resources, explain differences in delta D and delta O-18 between the unconfined and confined aquifers, and help interpret Pleistocene and Holocene hydrologic history of the continental interior. Eighteen water samples were collected from a confined aquifer in Dockum Group (Triassic) sandstones beneath the southern High Plains in TX and NM from a confined aquifer in Dakota Formation (Cretaceous) sandstones beneath the central High Plains in southwestern KS, and from a sequence of confined aquifers in Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary rocks beneath the northern Great Plains in eastern WY and western NE. Seven samples were collected from the unconfined High Plains aquifer in the Ogallala Formation (Neogene) beneath the central and northern High Plains. Preliminary calculated ages suggest that waters in the High Plains aquifer are very young, probably less than 1,000 yr, and locally as young as 25 yr. Age of ground water in the deep confined aquifers appears to be 20,000 to 32,000 yr in the different study areas. Age of confined ground water appears to increase with predominant direction of ground-water flow beneath the central and northern High Plains but not beneath the southern High Plains, possibly reflecting greater downward leakage from the unconfined aquifer in the latter area.

  8. Hydrologic Drought of Water Year 2006 Compared with Four Major Drought Periods of the 20th Century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Water Year 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006) was a year of extreme hydrologic drought and the driest year in the recent 2002-2006 drought in Oklahoma. The severity of this recent drought can be evaluated by comparing it with four previous major hydrologic droughts, water years 1929-41, 1952-56, 1961-72, and 1976-81. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, completed an investigation to summarize the Water Year 2006 hydrologic drought and compare it to the four previous major hydrologic droughts in the 20th century. The period of water years 1925-2006 was selected as the period of record because before 1925 few continuous record streamflow-gaging sites existed and gaps existed where no streamflow-gaging sites were operated. Statewide annual precipitation in Water Year 2006 was second driest and statewide annual runoff in Water Year 2006 was sixth driest in the 82 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service Climate Divisions from Water Year 2006 are compared to those during four previous major hydrologic droughts to show how rainfall deficits in Oklahoma varied by region. Only two of the nine climate divisions, Climate Division 1 Panhandle and Climate Division 4 West Central, had minor rainfall deficits, while the rest of the climate divisions had severe rainfall deficits in Water Year 2006 ranging from only 65 to 73 percent of normal annual precipitation. Regional streamflow patterns for Water Year 2006 indicate that Oklahoma was part of the regionwide below-normal streamflow conditions for Arkansas-White-Red River Basin, the sixth driest since 1930. The percentage of long-term stations in Oklahoma (with at least 30 years of record) having below-normal streamflow reached 80 to 85 percent for some days in August and November 2006. Twelve long-term streamflow-gaging sites with periods of record ranging from 62 to 78 years were selected to show how streamflow deficits varied by region. The hydrologic drought worsened going from north to south in Oklahoma, ranging from 45 percent in the north, to just 14 percent in east-central Oklahoma, and 20 percent of normal annual streamflow in the southwest. The low streamflows resulted in only 86.3 percent of the statewide conservation storage available at the end of the water year in major reservoirs, and 7 to 47 percent of hydroelectric power generation at sites in Oklahoma in Calendar Year 2005.

  9. Lithologic and physicochemical properties and hydraulics of flow in and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, based on water-level and borehole geophysical log data, 1999-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Nyman, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas (hereinafter, the Edwards aquifer) is bounded to the south and southeast by a zone of transition from freshwater to saline water (hereinafter, the transition zone). The boundary between the two zones is the freshwater/saline-water interface (hereinafter, the interface), defined as the 1,000-milligrams per liter dissolved solids concentration threshold. This report presents the findings of a study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, to obtain lithologic properties (rock properties associated with known stratigraphic units) and physicochemical properties (fluid conductivity and temperature) and to analyze the hydraulics of flow in and near the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer on the basis of water-level and borehole geophysical log data collected from 15 monitoring wells in four transects during 1999-2007. No identifiable relation between conductivity values from geophysical logs in monitoring wells in all transects and equivalent freshwater heads in the wells at the times the logs were run is evident; and no identifiable relation between conductivity values and vertical flow in the boreholes concurrent with the times the logs were run is evident. The direction of the lateral equivalent freshwater head gradient and thus the potential lateral flow at the interface in the vicinity of the East Uvalde transect fluctuates between into and out of the freshwater zone, depending on recharge and withdrawals. Whether the prevailing direction on average is into or out of the freshwater zone is not clearly indicated. Equivalent freshwater head data do not indicate a prevailing direction of the lateral gradient at the interface in the vicinity of the Tri-County transect. The prevailing direction on average of the lateral gradient and thus potential lateral flow at the interface in the vicinity of the Kyle transect likely is from the transition zone into the freshwater zone. The hypothesis regarding the vertical gradient at the East Uvalde transect, and thus the potential for vertical flow near an interface conceptualized as a surface sloping upward in the direction of the dip of the stratigraphic units, is that the potential for vertical flow fluctuates between into and out of the freshwater zone, depending on recharge and withdrawals. At the Tri-County transect, a downward gradient on the fresh-water side of the interface and an upward gradient on the saline-water side are evidence of opposing potentials that appear to have stabilized the position of the interface over the range of hydrologic conditions that occurred at the times the logs were run. At the Fish Hatchery transect, an upward gradient on the saline-water side of the interface, coupled with the assumption of a sloping interface, implies a vertical gradient from the transition zone into the freshwater zone. This potential for vertical movement of the interface apparently was opposed by the potential (head) on the freshwater side of the interface that kept the interface relatively stable over the range of hydrologic conditions during which the logs were run. The five flow logs for Kyle transect freshwater well KY1 all indicate upward flow that originates from the Glen Rose Limestone, the uppermost unit of the Trinity aquifer; and one log for well KY2 shows upward flow entering the borehole from the Trinity aquifer. These flow data constitute evidence of the potential for flow from the Trinity aquifer into the Edwards aquifer in the vicinity of the Kyle transect. Subsurface temperature data indicate that flow on average is more active, or vigorous, on the freshwater side of the interface than on the saline-water side. A hydraulic connection between the transition zone and the freshwater zone is indicated by similar patterns in the hydrographs of the 15 transect monitoring wells in and near the transition zone and three county index wel

  10. Geopressured aquifer simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Byrnes; E. M. Rockar; P. L. Randolph; S. M. Kelkar

    1979-01-01

    Ten natural gas companies have funded the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) development of a laboratory facility for fluid and core analyses at temperatures and pressures characteristic of geopressured aquifers. The facility has been designed and constructed to measure the following parameters at pressures up to 20,000 psi and temperatures to 450°F: solubility of methane in brines from actual geopressured

  11. Geopressured aquifer simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Byrnes; E. M. Rockar; P. L. Randolph; S. M. Kelkar

    1979-01-01

    Because previous devices for testing core samples of geopressured rock have failed to measure key properties under in situ conditions, IGT designed and built a laboratory facility for fluid and core analyses at temperatures and pressures characteristic of geopressured aquifers. The facility measures the following parameters at pressures up to 20,000 psi and temperatures up to 450°F: solubility of methane

  12. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought periods to show how precipitation deficits in Oklahoma varied by region. The nine climate divisions in Oklahoma had precipitation in water year 2011 ranging from 43 to 76 percent of normal annual precipitation, with the Northeast Climate Division having the closest to normal precipitation and the Southwest Climate Division having the greatest percentage of annual deficit. Based on precipitation amounts, water year 2011 ranked as the second driest of the 1925–2011 period, being exceeded only in one year of the 1952 to 1956 drought period. Regional streamflow patterns for water year 2011 indicate that streamflow in the Arkansas-White-Red water resources region, which includes all of Oklahoma, was relatively large, being only the 26th lowest since 1930, primarily because of normal or above-normal streamflow in the northern part of the region. Twelve long-term streamflow-gaging stations with periods of record ranging from 67 to 83 years were selected to show how streamflow deficits varied by region in Oklahoma. Statewide, streamflow in water year 2011 was greater than streamflows measured in years during the drought periods of 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The hydrologic drought worsened going from the northeast toward the southwest in Oklahoma, ranging from 140 percent (above normal streamflow) in the northeast, to 13 percent of normal streamflow in southwestern Oklahoma. The relatively low streamflow in 2011 resulted in 83.3 percent of the statewide conservation storage being available at the end of the water year in major reservoirs, similar to conservation storage in the preceding severe drought year of 2006. The ranking of streamflow as the 16th smallest for the 1925–2011 period, despite precipitation being ranked the 2d smallest, may have been caused, in part, by the relatively large streamflow in northeastern Oklahoma during water year 2011.

  13. Denitrification in a deep basalt aquifer: implications for aquifer storage and recovery.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Dennis; Melady, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) can provide a means of storing water for irrigation in agricultural areas where water availability is limited. A concern, however, is that the injected water may lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. In many agricultural areas, nitrate is a limiting factor. In the Umatilla Basin in north central Oregon, shallow alluvial groundwater with elevated nitrate-nitrogen of <3?mg/L to >9?mg/L is injected into the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), a transmissive confined aquifer(s) with low natural recharge rates. Once recovery of the injected water begins, however, NO3 -N in the recovered water decreases quickly to <3?mg/L (Eaton et al. 2009), suggesting that NO3 -N may not persist within the CRBG during ASR storage. In contrast to NO3 -N, other constituents in the recovered water show little variation, inconsistent with migration or simple mixing as an explanation of the NO3 -N decrease. Nitrogen isotopic ratios (?(15) N) increase markedly, ranging from +3.5 to >?+50, and correlate inversely with NO3 -N concentrations. This variation occurs in <3?weeks and recovery of <10% of the originally injected volume. TOC is low in the basalt aquifer, averaging <1.5?mg/L, but high in the injected source water, averaging >3.0?mg/L. Similar to nitrate concentrations, TOC drops in the recovered water, consistent with this component contributing to the denitrification of nitrate during storage. PMID:23837490

  14. High School to College-Going Rates for Oklahoma High School Graduates to Oklahoma Colleges. Oklahoma High School Indicators Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    The counts from the current annual report and reports of the previous two years have been combined to provide a three-year average Oklahoma college-going rate. This report includes single-year reports that are provided for each of the three years used to construct the average college-going rates: the college-going rate for 1995-96, 1996-97, and…

  15. A digital geologic map database for the state of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heran, William D.; Green, Gregory N.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

    2003-01-01

    This dataset is a composite of part or all of the 12 1:250,000 scale quadrangles that make up Oklahoma. The result looks like a geologic map of the State of Oklahoma. But it is only an Oklahoma shaped map clipped from the 1:250,000 geologic maps. This is not a new geologic map. No new mapping took place. The geologic information from each quadrangle is available within the composite dataset.

  16. Largest Dinosaur Ever Discovered Found in Oklahoma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    Originally discovered in a remote corner of Oklahoma in 1994, the fossil of what may have been the largest creature to ever walk the earth has been excavated by a research team from the University of Oklahoma. Dubbed Sauroposeidon proteles, or "thunder lizard," the dinosaur was almost 100 feet long, with a 39 foot neck and weighing over 50 tons, so big that it would have created minor seismic activity just by walking, according to scientists. The new find is about 110 million years old and consists of neck vertebrae, some almost five feet in length, together with neck ribs nearly twelve feet long. The find is also significant because it may shed light on the last of the North American sauropods, who died out about 100 million years ago. A paper on this new find is scheduled to appear in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. The sites listed provide information and background material about this momentous discovery.

  17. Passive electrical measurements from three Oklahoma tornados

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Silberg

    1965-01-01

    Passive electrical measurement of three tornados in the Oklahoma area have been made and are being reported upon. The measurements made include point discharge current, 18.5-kc\\/s sferics, along with 10-, 50-, 100-, and 175-kc\\/s, and 30-Mc\\/s sferics. The preceding measurements of tornados are compared with a typical local thunderstorm. In this comparison, it is shown that the electrical discharges within

  18. N3280RDCOTTONWOODRD PayneOklahoma 11

    E-print Network

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    51 2 54 11 51 49 4 11 2 11 10 72 51 96 26 47 51 2651 26 76 76 26 4 32 11 26 3 11 26 10 72 51 31 26 51 11 2626 72 11 49 10 11 26 11 26 96 76 26 41 11 76 51 1011 74 31 51 11 SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY Soil Survey Area: Payne County, Oklahoma Spatial Version of Data: 2 Soil Map Compilation Scale: 1

  19. Geohydrology and susceptibility of major aquifers to surface contamination in Alabama, area 7

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooty, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The geohydrology and susceptibility of the seven major aquifers to surface contamination in Area 7 - Bibb, Dallas, Hale, Perry, and Wilcox Counties, are described. Aquifers in the northern part of the study area are in Paleozoic limestones and dolomite formations. Deposits in the central part of the study area are predominately of Cretaceous age and contain the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw aquifers. Although the southern part of the study area has many deposits of Tertiary age, the Ripley Formation of Cretaceous age is the major aquifer. Contamination of any of the major aquifers is improbable because the majority of the recharge area for the primary aquifers is woodland, pasture, or farmland. Downdip from their outcrops, the major aquifers in the study area are protected from land surface contamination by relatively impermeable layers of clay and chalk. The aquifers that are highly susceptible to contamination are the ones in the limestone and dolomite formations in northern Bibb County. Sinkholes exist in the recharge area of these formations and could provide a direct link for contaminates from the land surface to the water table. An area northeast of the Selma well field is also highly susceptible to contamination. The Eutaw Formation in this area is overlain by alluvial deposits that could increase recharge to the aquifer by slowing the runoff rate of surface water. (USGS)

  20. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    SciTech Connect

    S. Nandi; M.J. Strauss; J. Snow; F. Rizatdinova; B. Abbott; K. Babu; P. Gutierrez; C. Kao; A. Khanov; K.A. Milton; H. Neaman; H. Severini, P. Skubic

    2012-02-29

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma�¢����s impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging from the search for new phenomena at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider to theoretical modeling, computer simulation, detector development and testing, and physics analysis. OCHEP faculty members participating on the D0 collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron and on the ATLAS collaboration at the CERN LHC have made major impact on the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson search, top quark studies, B physics studies, and measurements of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) phenomena. The OCHEP Grid computing facility consists of a large computer cluster which is playing a major role in data analysis and Monte Carlo productions for both the D0 and ATLAS experiments. Theoretical efforts are devoted to new ideas in Higgs bosons physics, extra dimensions, neutrino masses and oscillations, Grand Unified Theories, supersymmetric models, dark matter, and nonperturbative quantum field theory. Theory members are making major contributions to the understanding of phenomena being explored at the Tevatron and the LHC. They have proposed new models for Higgs bosons, and have suggested new signals for extra dimensions, and for the search of supersymmetric particles. During the seven year period when OCHEP was partially funded through the DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, OCHEP members published over 500 refereed journal articles and made over 200 invited presentations at major conferences. The Center is also involved in education and outreach activities by offering summer research programs for high school teachers and college students, and organizing summer workshops for high school teachers, sometimes coordinating with the Quarknet programs at OSU and OU. The details of the Center can be found in http://ochep.phy.okstate.edu.

  1. DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT1 PINE CREEK DAM, OKLAHOMA2

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;#12;DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT1 PINE CREEK DAM, OKLAHOMA2 DAM SAFETY MODIFICATION3 &4 Environmental Assessment Pine Creek Dam, Oklahoma Dam Safety Modification & Interim Risk Reduction Measure and risk reduction measures necessary to correct structural and maintenance deficiencies of Pine Creek Dam

  2. FIRST YEAR BIOMASS PRODUCTION FROM CRP ACREAGE IN WESTERN OKLAHOMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective of this research was to determine the biomass/bioenergy yield and economic value of typical CRP land in northwestern Oklahoma. Three CRP locations were identified in cooperation with the NRCS District Conservationist stationed at Buffalo, Oklahoma. Within each location, a sit...

  3. Certification Standards Adopted by the Oklahoma State Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This document presents the standards adopted by the Oklahoma State Board of Education for qualification and certification of persons for instructional, supervisory, and administrative positions and services in Oklahoma public schools. Included are rules and regulations governing the issuance and revocation of certificates for county…

  4. Color Variation Among Northern Flickers Collected in Oklahoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vickie A. Ivey; Jack D. Tyler

    The eastern (yellow-shafted) race of the northern flicker (Colaptes auratus auratus) is resident in Oklahoma. Except at the western end of the panhandle where it breeds, the western (red-shafted) race (C. a. cafer) occupies the state only during migration and winter. The two races interbreed widely. A total of 179 northern flicker (Colaptes auratus) specimens from Oklahoma were examined for

  5. The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…

  6. 75 FR 23280 - Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma Alcohol Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ...Indian Affairs Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma Alcohol Control Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...publishes the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma's Alcohol Control Ordinance, which was adopted...CB-64-2010 enacted on March 13, 2010. The Alcohol Control Ordinance regulates and...

  7. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    in Oklahoma. - Decision Support Model for Evaluating Alternative Water Supply Infrastructure Scenarios (Dr their water supply infrastructure needs and will further assist in planning and locating funding for needed Pricing Protocol for Oklahoma Water Planning: Lake Tennkiller Case Study Project Number: 2007OK78B Start

  8. The University of Oklahoma (Norman Campus) Tuberculosis Testing and Certification

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    The University of Oklahoma (Norman Campus) Tuberculosis Testing and Certification As part of the University of Oklahoma has adopted a Tuberculosis Testing Policy, effective August 16, 2007. All staff and faculty that fit any of the criteria listed below must comply with the Tuberculosis Testing Requirement

  9. Needs Assessment for Oklahoma Academic Librarians: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.

    The Oklahoma Chapter of the Association of College and Research Libraries (OK-ACRL) and the Oklahoma Library Association, College and University Division (OLA-CUD) co-sponsored a survey of professional academic librarians to obtain institutional and background data on their characteristics, their preferences for academic professional association…

  10. Management of Sclerotinia and southern blights in Oklahoma peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although peanut acres in Oklahoma have declined in recent years, the peanut crop remains an important economic crop for those who choose to grow it. A major problem for Oklahoma peanut production is to grow the crop profitably. Yield limiting factors such as diseases, adverse weather conditions, w...

  11. The University of Oklahoma 15-PASSENGER VAN POLICY

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    . Limit the number of passengers, when passenger transport is necessary, to 8 passengers, I. Require allThe University of Oklahoma 15-PASSENGER VAN POLICY I. POLICY STATEMENT AND SCOPE The safe travel, at the University of Oklahoma is the goal of this policy. This policy applies to the discontinuance of 15-passenger

  12. Oklahoma's Indian People: Images of Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Anita, Ed.

    Designed to be combined with the social studies curriculum, this guide promotes awareness of American Indian contributions to Oklahoma's development and cultural heritage. Lessons help students in grades 6 through 9 strengthen powers of critical thinking, practice writing skills, and develop creative expression, while learning about Oklahoma's 34…

  13. 78 FR 36556 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...amounts as you find necessary for Federal disaster assistance and administrative expenses...Individual Assistance and assistance for debris removal and emergency protective measures...Coordinating Officer for this major disaster. The following areas of the State...as adversely affected by this major disaster: Cleveland, Lincoln, McClain, Oklahoma...Oklahoma, and......

  14. ELECTION AGREEMENT FOR Oklahoma Teachers' Retirement System (OTRS)

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    By completing this form you are choosing to participate in the Oklahoma Teachers' Retirement System (OTRSELECTION AGREEMENT FOR Oklahoma Teachers' Retirement System (OTRS) For Hourly­Paid Employee information to help you make an informed decision. The University may not advise you as to whether

  15. Biology and epidemiology of peanut soilborne pathogens in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pressure from soil borne diseases limits yields and increases production costs to Oklahoma peanut growers. Sclerotinia blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia minor, and southern blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii, are the most economically damaging peanut diseases in Oklahoma. The c...

  16. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    concluded the fourth year of our 4.5-year project to update the Oklahoma Comprehensive Water Plan. We worked for inclusion in the revised Water Plan. · OWRRI director, Dr. Will Focht, served as Past into the efficacy of ADCP for measuring sediment load in Oklahoma streams under both low and high discharge

  17. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2007-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.4 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States-Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the major agricultural regions in the world. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of extensive ground-water irrigation. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level change in the aquifer. A report by the USGS, 'Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005 and 2003 to 2005' (McGuire, 2007), shows the areas of substantial water-level changes in the aquifer from the time prior to substantial ground-water irrigation development (predevelopment or about 1950) to 2005 (fig. 1). In parts of the area, farmers began using ground water for irrigation extensively in the 1930s and 1940s. Estimated irrigated acreage in the area overlying the High Plains aquifer increased rapidly from 1940 to 1980 and changed slightly from 1980 to 2002: 1949-2.1 million acres, 1980-13.7 million acres, 1997-13.9 million acres, 2002-12.7 million acres. Irrigated acres in 2002 were 12 percent of the aquifer area, not including the areas with little or no saturated thickness (McGuire, 2007). Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation and other uses are compiled and reported by the USGS and agencies in each State about every 5 years. Ground-water withdrawals from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation increased from 4 to 19 million acre-feet from 1949 to 1974. Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995 were from 4 to 18 percent less than withdrawals for irrigation in 1974. Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer for irrigation in 2000 were 21 million acre-feet (McGuire, 2007). Water-level changes in the aquifer result from an imbalance between discharge and recharge. Discharge is primarily ground-water withdrawals for irrigation. Discharge also includes evapotranspiration, where the water table is near the land surface, and seepage to streams and springs, where the water table intersects with the land surface. Recharge is primarily from precipitation. Other sources of recharge are irrigation return flow and seepage from streams, canals, and reservoirs. Water-level declines may result in increased costs for ground-water withdrawals because of increased pumping lift and decreased well yields (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Water-level declines also can affect ground-water availability, surface-water flow, and near-stream (riparian) habitat areas (Alley and others, 1999).

  18. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    soils tend to collapse and prairie dogs avoid The black-tailed prairie dog is a keystone species species of prairie dogs and the only species that occurs in Oklahoma. They are highly social burrowing by grasses, while the center is made up of forbs and dwarf shrubs. Many wildlife species utilize these areas

  19. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    increased disposable income to be spent in the community. What the Entrepreneur Must Do With the economic a 1994 survey found that 125,000 Oklahoma home-based businesses generated over $3 billion in income. What successful business. The owner, through the sale of products and services, generates income from which

  20. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    on all grasses, except during very cold winters. The fungus overwinters as dormant thread-like fungal of true spores does not occur. Therefore, spread of this fungus can are mild and prolonged periods of high humidity exist. In Oklahoma, infection of susceptible grasses begins

  1. Oklahoma Aerospace Intellectual Capital/Educational Recommendations: An Inquiry of Oklahoma Aerospace Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Erin M.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to conduct detailed personal interviews with aerospace industry executives/managers from both the private and military sectors from across Oklahoma to determine their perceptions of intellectual capital needs of the industry. Interviews with industry executives regarding…

  2. DISABILITIES IN OKLAHOMA--ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS, REPORT OF THE OKLAHOMA SURVEY OF DISABILITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOHLEBER, MICHAEL E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO PROVIDE REASONABLY ACCURATE ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBER AND TYPES OF DISABLED PERSONS AND THEIR NEEDS AS A BASIS FOR BOTH PRESENT AND FUTURE PLANNING. PERSONAL INTERVIEWS WERE CONDUCTED WITH ADULT RESPONDENTS IN 3,000 HOUSEHOLDS IN OKLAHOMA, A RANDOM SAMPLE STATIFIED ON THE RURAL-URBAN DIMENSION. DATA FROM 2,058…

  3. Protistan communities in aquifers: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianfranco Novarino; Alan Warren; Helen Butler; Gail Lambourne; Abigail Boxshall; Joseph Bateman; Nancy E. Kinner; Ronald W. Harvey; Rachel A. Mosse; Benjamin Teltsch

    1997-01-01

    Eukaryotic microorganisms (protists) are a very important component of microbial communities inhabiting groundwater aquifers. This is not unexpected when one considers that many protists feed heterotrophically, by means of either phagotrophy (bacterivory) or osmotrophy. Protistan numbers are usually low (<102 per g dw of aquifer material) in pristine, uncontaminated aquifers but may increase by several orders of magnitude in aquifers

  4. Protistan communities in aquifers: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianfranco Novarino; Alan Warren; Helen Butler; Gail Lambourne; Abigail Boxshall; Joseph Bateman; Nancy E. Kinner; Ronald W. Harvey; Rachel A. Mosse; Benjamin Teltsch

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic microorganisms (protists) are a very important component of microbial communities inhabiting groundwater aquifers, This is not unexpected when one considers that many protists feed heterotrophically, by means of either phagotrophy (bacterivory) or osmotrophy, Protistan numbers are usually low «100 per gdw of aquifer material) in pristine, uncontaminated aquifers but may increase by several orders of magnitude in aquifers subject

  5. Depositional environment of Red Fork sandstones, deep Anadarko Basin, western Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Whiting, Philip Howard

    1982-01-01

    with thick marine shales. On the broad Anadarko shelf, north and east of the study area, the Red Fork sandstones have been interpreted as fluvio-deltaic deposits (Zeliff, 1975; Hill and Clark, 1980). However, the basinal section may not be a deltaic... Moore (1979) and Evans (1979) Page Regional structure on top of the Red Fork Formation in the deep Anadarko basin of west-central Oklahoma showing locations of cored wells and fields. Typical gamma-ray log character of the two main Red Fork...

  6. Using Excel for Aquifer Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yongli Gao

    This exercise is part of a sequence of exercises to help students understand single and multiple aquifer tests. In class, students will receive data from pumping tests at University of Minnesota's hydrogeology field site. Instead of using commercial software, students will create interactive modeling tools to facilitate curve matching and to collaborate on understanding aquifer tests at different scales using different methods. The approaches used in this exercise can be extended to develop models to compare single and multiple aquifer tests using different approaches.

  7. University of Oklahoma: History of Science Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-21

    The University of Oklahoma Libraries have done a wonderful job with their history of science collections. Visitors to the site will find seven collections here to keep their minds busy. Their number includes "Copernicus's De revolutionibus" and "Scientific Instruments and Historical Artifacts." Of course this first volume is nothing less than a classic, presenting Copernicus's evidence and arguments in support of heliocentric theory. This volume also contains extensive marginalia from a circle of astronomers located in Paris in the decade following the book's publication in 1543. Moving on, the "Scientific Instruments and Historical Artifacts" area contains 16 wonderful items, including an ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablet and videos of historically significant refractometers.

  8. Aquifer behavior with reinjection

    E-print Network

    Bonet, Euclides Jose

    1967-01-01

    TIME, D FIGURE 4. CUMULATIVE FLOW FROM LINEAR CLOSEO AOUIFER 1. 4 1. 2 I. O CO CO UJ R Q M LLI X O 0. 8 0$ 'o=I. O Ol 0. 001 04 0. 000 0. 020 0. 016 0. 004 0. 006 0. 012 DIMENSIONLESS ORDINATE, FIGURE sa. VELOCITY IN LINEAR CLOSED... AQUIFER FOR bo=a=oo2;yoo a-0. 002;xon=a-Ool I. O ID=LO O. I O O ILI Q6 0. Ol ILI Z O M Z ILI O 0. 4 0. 2 ILI O D O 0. 00 I 0. 0 0. 000 0. 004 0. 016 0. 020 0. 008 0. 012 DIMENSIONLESS ORDINATE, y FIGURE 5b. VELOCITY IN LINEAR CLOSED...

  9. Transmissivity estimation for highly heterogeneous aquifers: comparison of three methods applied to the Edwards Aquifer, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Scott L.; Woodbury, Allan D.; Jiang, Yefang

    2007-03-01

    Obtaining reliable hydrological input parameters is a key challenge in groundwater modeling. Although many quantitative characterization techniques exist, experience applying these techniques to highly heterogeneous real-world aquifers is limited. Three geostatistical characterization techniques are applied to the Edwards Aquifer, a limestone aquifer in south-central Texas, USA, for the purposes of quantifying the performance in an 88,000-cell groundwater model. The first method is a simple kriging of existing hydraulic conductivity data developed primarily from single-well tests. The second method involves numerical upscaling to the grid-block scale, followed by cokriging the grid-block conductivity. In the third method, the results of the second method are used to establish the prior distribution for a Bayesian updating calculation. Results of kriging alone are biased towards low values and fail to reproduce hydraulic heads or spring flows. The upscaling/cokriging approach removes most of the systematic bias. The Bayesian update reduced the mean residual by more than a factor of 10, to 6 m, approximately 2.5% of the total head variation in the aquifer. This agreement demonstrates the utility of automatic calibration techniques based on formal statistical approaches and lends further support for using the Bayesian updating approach for highly heterogeneous aquifers.

  10. Oklahoma High School Indicators Project. High School to College-Going Rates for Oklahoma High School Graduates to Oklahoma Colleges: Linear College-Going Rate, Combined College-Going Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    This report provides a single-year rate and a 3-year average of the Oklahoma college-going rate. The average linear college-going rate for Oklahoma colleges in 1993-94 was 43.9 percent of the Oklahoma high school graduates from 1990-91, 1991-92, and 1992-93. Of 1992-93 high school graduates, 44.7 percent went directly to an Oklahoma college the…

  11. Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    to the Biodegradation of Pollutants in the Subsurface: A Study of an Aquifer Contaminated by Landfill Leachate Project been addressed in a variety of ways which include on-site field measurements and observations as well as laboratory experimentation and analyses. The findings are certainly not restricted to the Norman landfill

  12. Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    of Pollutants in the Subsurface: A Study of an Aquifer Contaminated by Landfill Leachate Project Number C-02 #12 in a variety of ways that include on-site field measurements and observations as well as laboratory experimentation and analyses. The findings are certainly not restricted to the Norman landfill. Many of our

  13. Statistical analysis of aquifer-test results for nine regional aquifers in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Angel; Early, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report, prepared as part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project, presents a compilation, summarization, and statistical analysis of aquifer-test results for nine regional aquifers in Louisiana. These are from youngest to oldest: The alluvial, Pleistocene, Evangeline, Jasper, Catahoula, Cockfield, Sparta, Carrizo, and Wilcox aquifers. Approximately 1,500 aquifer tests in U.S. Geological Survey files in Louisiana were examined and 1,001 were input to a computer file. Analysis of the aquifer test results and plots that describe aquifer hydraulic characteristics were made for each regional aquifer. Results indicate that, on the average, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) generally tends to decrease from the youngest aquifers to the oldest. The most permeable aquifers in Louisiana are the alluvial and Pleistocene aquifers; whereas, the least permeable are the Carrizo and Wilcox aquifers. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer hydrologically associated with Barton springs in the Austin area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slagle, Diana L.; Ardis, Ann F.; Slade, Raymond M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer extends in a narrow belt from Bell County in the northeast to Kinney County in the southwest (index map) and provides water for at least nine counties in south-central Texas. Hydrologic boundaries divide the Edwards aquifer in the Austin area for which Barton Springs is the major discharge point. This part of the Edwards aquifer provides the municipal, industrial, domestic, and agricultural water supplies for about 30,000 people in the Austin area (southern Travis and northern Hays counties). Discharge from Barton Springs sustains streamflow at the mouth of Barton Creek and flows into Town Lake. Much of the land use within the outcrop area of the Edwards aquifer near Austin is rapidly changing from natural woodland and grassland to commercial and residential developments. Because urban development can result in a substantial degradation of the quality of water that recharges the aquifer, the extent of the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer was delineated to provide information to the City of Austin for their use in formulating a plan for protecting and managing groundwater quality. The purpose of this report is to define and delineate the areal extent of the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer in southern Travis and northern Hays Counties. The areal boundary of the recharge zone was determined by: (1) geologic mapping of the aquifer area; (2) interpretation of aerial photographs; (3) field verification of existing geologic maps; and (4) streamflow-loss studies. (Lantz-PTT)

  15. Carbonate Chemistry and Isotope Characteristics of Groundwater of Ljubljansko Polje and Ljubljansko Barje Aquifers in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1) Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca2+values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2) northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3) central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4) Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg2+ in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years. PMID:24453928

  16. Microbial diversity and impact on carbonate geochemistry across a changing geochemical gradient in a karst aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Cassie J; Engel, Annette S

    2013-01-01

    Although microbes are known to influence karst (carbonate) aquifer ecosystem-level processes, comparatively little information is available regarding the diversity of microbial activities that could influence water quality and geological modification. To assess microbial diversity in the context of aquifer geochemistry, we coupled 16S rRNA Sanger sequencing and 454 tag pyrosequencing to in situ microcosm experiments from wells that cross the transition from fresh to saline and sulfidic water in the Edwards Aquifer of central Texas, one of the largest karst aquifers in the United States. The distribution of microbial groups across the transition zone correlated with dissolved oxygen and sulfide concentration, and significant variations in community composition were explained by local carbonate geochemistry, specifically calcium concentration and alkalinity. The waters were supersaturated with respect to prevalent aquifer minerals, calcite and dolomite, but in situ microcosm experiments containing these minerals revealed significant mass loss from dissolution when colonized by microbes. Despite differences in cell density on the experimental surfaces, carbonate loss was greater from freshwater wells than saline, sulfidic wells. However, as cell density increased, which was correlated to and controlled by local geochemistry, dissolution rates decreased. Surface colonization by metabolically active cells promotes dissolution by creating local disequilibria between bulk aquifer fluids and mineral surfaces, but this also controls rates of karst aquifer modification. These results expand our understanding of microbial diversity in karst aquifers and emphasize the importance of evaluating active microbial processes that could affect carbonate weathering in the subsurface. PMID:23151637

  17. Hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and pumpage--High Plains aquifer system, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Chen, Hsiu-Hsiung

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic data used to evalute the ground-water potential of the High Plains aquifer system in Nebraska are presented on maps showing the hydraulic conductivity and specific yield of the aquifer system and the volume and distribution of water pumped for irrigation from the aquifer system during 1980. The High Plains aquifer system underlies 177,000 square miles in parts of eight states, including 64,770 square miles in Nebraska. It consists of the Ogallala Formation and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that are saturated and hydraulically connected to the Ogallala. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer system varies from greater than 200 feet per day in parts of the North Platte, Platte, Elkhorn, and Republican River valleys to less than 25 feet per day in the northwestern part of the state. Specific yield of the aquifer system ranges from 10 to 20 percent in most of the state and averages 16 percent. The estimated volume of water recoverable from the aquifer system in Nebraska is 2,237 million acre-feet. Inches of water withdrawn from the aquifer system during 1980 varied from less than 1.5 in the sandhills of north-central Nebraska to more than 12 in the Platte River and Blue River basins. This withdrawal represents about 6,703,000 acre-feet of ground water. (USGS)

  18. Microbial diversity and impact on carbonate geochemistry across a changing geochemical gradient in a karst aquifer.

    PubMed

    Gray, Cassie J; Engel, Annette S

    2013-02-01

    Although microbes are known to influence karst (carbonate) aquifer ecosystem-level processes, comparatively little information is available regarding the diversity of microbial activities that could influence water quality and geological modification. To assess microbial diversity in the context of aquifer geochemistry, we coupled 16S rRNA Sanger sequencing and 454 tag pyrosequencing to in situ microcosm experiments from wells that cross the transition from fresh to saline and sulfidic water in the Edwards Aquifer of central Texas, one of the largest karst aquifers in the United States. The distribution of microbial groups across the transition zone correlated with dissolved oxygen and sulfide concentration, and significant variations in community composition were explained by local carbonate geochemistry, specifically calcium concentration and alkalinity. The waters were supersaturated with respect to prevalent aquifer minerals, calcite and dolomite, but in situ microcosm experiments containing these minerals revealed significant mass loss from dissolution when colonized by microbes. Despite differences in cell density on the experimental surfaces, carbonate loss was greater from freshwater wells than saline, sulfidic wells. However, as cell density increased, which was correlated to and controlled by local geochemistry, dissolution rates decreased. Surface colonization by metabolically active cells promotes dissolution by creating local disequilibria between bulk aquifer fluids and mineral surfaces, but this also controls rates of karst aquifer modification. These results expand our understanding of microbial diversity in karst aquifers and emphasize the importance of evaluating active microbial processes that could affect carbonate weathering in the subsurface. PMID:23151637

  19. Upper Basalt-Confined Aquifer System in the Southern Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, P.

    1999-01-04

    The 1990 DOE Tiger Team Finding GW/CF-202 found that the hydrogeologic regime at the Hanford Site was inadequately characterized. This finding also identified the need for completing a study of the confined aquifer in the central and southern portions of the Hanford Site. The southern portion of the site is of particular interest because hydraulic-head patterns in the upper basalt-confined aquifer system indicate that groundwater from the Hanford central plateau area, where contaminants have been found in the aquifer, flows southeast toward the southern site boundary. This results in a potential for offsite migration of contaminants through the upper basalt-confined aquifer system. Based on the review presented in this report, available hydrogeologic characterization information for the upper basalt-confined aquifer system in this area is considered adequate to close the action item. Recently drilled offsite wells have provided additional information on the structure of the aquifer system in and near the southern part of the Hanford Site. Information on hydraulic properties, hydrochemistry, hydraulic heads and flow directions for the upper basalt-confined aquifer system has been re-examined and compiled in recent reports including Spane and Raymond (1993), Spane and Vermeul ( 1994), and Spane and Webber (1995).

  20. Fluid injection triggering of 2011 earthquake sequence in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, K. M.; Savage, H. M.; Abers, G. A.; Cochran, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Significant earthquakes are increasingly occurring within the United States midcontinent, with nine having moment-magnitude (Mw) ?4.0 and five with Mw?5.0 in 2011 alone. In parallel, wastewater injection into deep sedimentary formations has increased as unconventional oil and gas resources are developed. Injected fluids may lower normal stress on existing fault planes, and the correlation between injection wells and earthquake locations led to speculation that many 2011 earthquakes were triggered by injection. The largest earthquake potentially related to injection (Mw5.7) struck in November 2011 in central Oklahoma. Here we use aftershocks to document the fault patterns responsible for the M5.7 earthquake and a prolific sequence of related events, and use the timing and spatial correlation of the earthquakes with injection wells and subsurface structures to show that the earthquakes were likely triggered by fluid injection. The aftershock sequence details rupture along three distinct fault planes, the first of which reaches within 250 meters of active injection wells and within 1 km of the surface. This earthquake sequence began where fluids are injected at low pressure into a depleted oil reservoir bound by faults that effectively seal fluid flow. Injection into sealed compartments allows reservoir pressure to increase gradually over time, suggesting that reservoir volume, in this case, controls the triggering timescale. This process allows multi-year lags between the commencement of fluid injection and triggered earthquakes.

  1. Overview of water resources in and near Wichita and Affiliated Tribes treaty lands in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; Tortorelli, R.L.; Becker, M.F.; Trombley, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    This report is an overview of water resources in and near the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes treaty lands in western Oklahoma. The tribal treaty lands are about 1,140 square miles and are bordered by the Canadian River on the north, the Washita River on the south, 98? west longitude on the east, and 98? 40' west longitude on the west. Seventy percent of the study area lies within the Washita River drainage basin and 30 percent of the area lies within the Canadian River drainage basin. March through June are months of greatest average streamflow, with 49 to 57 percent of the annual streamflow occurring in these four months. November through February, July, and August have the least average streamflow with only 26 to 36 percent of the annual streamflow occurring in these six months. Two streamflow-gaging stations, Canadian River at Bridgeport and Cobb Creek near Fort Cobb, indicated peak streamflows generally decrease with regulation. Two other streamflow-gaging stations, Washita River at Carnegie and Washita River at Anadarko, indicated a decrease in peak streamflows after regulation at less than the 100-year recurrence and an increase in peak streamflows greater than the 100-year recurrence. Canadian River at Bridgeport and Washita River at Carnegie had estimated annual low flows that generally increased with regulation. Cobb Creek near Fort Cobb had a decrease of estimated annual low flows after regulation. There are greater than 900 ground-water wells in the tribal treaty lands. Eighty percent of the wells are in Caddo County.The major aquifers in the study area are the Rush Springs Aquifer and portions of the Canadian River and Washita River valley alluvial aquifers. The Rush Springs Aquifer is used extensively for irrigation as well as industrial and municipal purposes, especially near population centers.The Canadian River and Washita River valley alluvial aquifers are not used extensively in the study area. Well yields from the Rush Springs Aquifer ranged from 11 to greater than 850 gallons per minute. The Rush Springs Aquifer is recharged by the infiltration of precipitation. The estimated recharge is about 1.80 inches per year evenly distributed over the outcrop of the aquifer in the study area. Principal factors affecting the water quality in the study area include geology, agricultural practices,and oil and gas production. Calcium, magnesium, sulfate, and bicarbonate are the dominant dissolved constituents in water in the study area. Interquartile dissolved-solids concentrations in surface-water samples in the study area generally were greater than interquartile concentrations in ground-water samples. Median dissolved-solids concentrations for ground-water samples from Canadian River, Ionine Creek, Spring Creek,and Washita River Basins, which ranged from 535 to 1,195 milligrams per liter,exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard of 500 milligrams per liter. Interquartile sulfate concentrations in surface-water samples in the study area generally were greater than interquartile concentrations in ground-water samples. Median sulfate concentrations from ground-water samples in the Canadian River, IonineCreek,and Spring Creek Basins, which ranged from 385 to 570 milligrams per liter, exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard of 250 milligrams per liter. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in surface-water samples in the study area generally were less than concentrations in ground-water samples. The median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentration in ground water was 9.8 milligrams per liter, suggesting almost one-half the ground-water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standard (10 milligrams per liter). An estimated 100 million gallons of water per day were withdrawn from surface and ground water for all uses in

  2. Estimation of hydraulic characteristics of the upper glacial and Magothy aquifers at East Meadow, New York, by use of aquifer tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prince, K.R.; Schneider, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    Drawdown and recovery data from two aquifer tests in central Nassau County, NY were used to calculate aquifer characteristics by several methods to aid in predicting the response of the aquifer system to stress. The first test, on May 12, 1978, entailed pumping the Magothy aquifer for 12 hours; the second on July 30-31, 1985, entailed pumping the upper glacial aquifer for 24 hours. Drawdown and recovery data from both tests were analyzed through analytical solutions and curve-matching procedures, and the resulting hydraulic values were used as initial values in a finite-element radial-flow numerical model to simulate the observed drawdowns and recoveries. Storativity values obtained by all methods were consistent with published estimates; but hydraulic conductivity values were higher than published estimates. The simple analytical solutions and curve-matching procedures gave reasonable values of most terms quickly, but the greatest confidence is in the estimates made with the finite-element model. These estimates for the Magothy aquifer were: horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 100 ft/d; ratio of horizontal to vertical conductivity, 5; and specific storage, 0.0001. Estimates for the upper glacial aquifer were: horizontal hydraulic conductivity, 380 ft/d; ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, 2.5; and specific yield, 0.15. (USGS)

  3. Arsenic associations in sediments from the loess aquifer of La Pampa, Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Smedley; D. G. Kinniburgh; D. M. J. Macdonald; H. B. Nicolli; A. J. Barros; J. O. Tullio; J. M. Pearce; M. S. Alonso

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater from the Quaternary loess aquifer of La Pampa, central Argentina, has significant problems with high concentrations of As (up to 5300 ?gL?1) as well as other potentially toxic trace elements such as F, B, Mo, U, Se and V. Total As concentrations in 45 loess samples collected from the aquifer have a range of 3–18 mgkg?1 with a mean

  4. Survey of groundwater isotopic composition (?2H and ?18O) from the southwestern Edwards Aquifer and regionally associated aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. B.; Shallock, J. R.; Cooper, R.

    2009-12-01

    Aquifers are an important source of water for growing human populations, while they also support numerous critical ecosystem functions, including supplying water to springs and rivers necessary for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the sometimes endangered species that are part of them. As human populations increase and the climate changes, demands on aquifer resources will continue to increase. To support these growing populations, urban areas in particular seek to develop additional water resources with, in some cases, not well-understood impacts on interconnected aquifers as well as the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that depend on spring-fed surface water. In addition, large-scale changes to terrestrial systems (e.g., removal of woody vegetation) can be motivated by a desire to enhance aquifer recharge, but an understanding of the effect of those efforts on the regional water cycle is hampered, in part, by a lack of detailed understanding of the interactions of various features below ground. It is critical therefore to understand the relationships between waters found in different formations, as well as among surface and ground waters to improve our understanding of the consequences of increasing human demands and the impacts of climate change. We have conducted a survey of wells in south central Texas that access major and minor aquifers, including the karst-type Edwards (BFZ) aquifer and several regional minor aquifers. The primary objective of this survey was to establish baseline information from which to develop further targeted research using event-based sampling and a range of additional data on precipitation, geology, and other spatially explicit information. We sampled multiple wells in an area west of San Antonio, TX that access the primary major and minor aquifers in the region. The isotopic compositions of water taken from these wells at various locations and depths were similar, suggesting that these aquifers experience significant mixing, and are not strongly isolated from each other. Our results are consistent with recent reports based on elemental composition of waters sampled from wells also in the region. Future work will expand to include connections with surface waters and address precipitation event-based dynamics.

  5. Potential ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats in Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Elisha K; Baum, Kristen A; Pape?, Monica; Cohn, Leah A; Cowell, Annette K; Reichard, Mason V

    2013-02-18

    The ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis, an often-fatal tick-borne apicomplexan that infects domestic cats, has not been evaluated or identified despite its continued emergence. Infection of C. felis is characterized by lethargy, icterus, fever, anorexia, anemia, and death. The natural vertebrate reservoir of C. felis is the bobcat (Lynx rufus). To determine the possible distribution of C. felis in three states where infection is common (Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas), two separate approaches to ecological niche modeling were implemented. First, a model relating several different climatic layers to geographic locations where cases of C. felis infection were confirmed in domestic cats was developed to predict the possible distribution of the parasite. The second model incorporated occurrences of bobcats with environmental layers and land cover suitable for tick vectors to identify areas of overlap where C. felis transmission was likely. Results of both models indicated a high probability of C. felis from central Oklahoma to south-central Missouri. However, other predicted areas of C. felis occurrence varied between the two modeling approaches. Modeling the vertebrate reservoir and the tick vector predicted a broader possible distribution compared to modeling cases of C. felis infection in domestic cats. Our results suggest that C. felis is likely to extend beyond areas predicted by case modeling due to the presence of both the vector and reservoir. PMID:23131576

  6. 75 FR 15450 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ...disaster. The following areas of the State of Oklahoma have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Alfalfa, Caddo, Cleveland, Comanche, Cotton, Delaware, Dewey, Ellis, Grady, Greer, Harmon, Haskell, Hughes,...

  7. AN OKLAHOMA WEATHER MODIFICATION PROGRAM STATUS REPORT AND PROJECT REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy E. Sedlock; Nathan R. Kuhnert; Rebecca L. Resler; Michael E. Mathis; Bruce A. Boe; Brian Vance

    The recent history of the Oklahoma Weather Modification Program (OWMP) is presented, the 2001 field program summarized, and the current status of the statewide rainfall stimulation and hail suppression program reported. Some suggestions for program improvement are also enumerated.

  8. 40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Oklahoma Underground Storage Tank Regulation Act...Chapter 25: Underground Storage Tanks, Subchapter 9: Inspections, Testing, and Monitoring Part 1: Inspections Part 5: Penalties...Chapter 27: Petroleum Storage Tank Release...

  9. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY School of Applied Health and Educational Psychology

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Resources to Support Educational Programs EDUC 5993 Instructional Effectiveness in Higher Education Thesis Development EPSY 5963: Developing Resources to Support Educational Programs Sample Electives for nonOKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY School of Applied Health and Educational Psychology M. S. ~ Educational

  10. OKLAHOMA NATIVE AMERICAN YOUTH LANGUAGE FAIR Spoken Language Performance

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    OKLAHOMA NATIVE AMERICAN YOUTH LANGUAGE FAIR Spoken Language Performance Category Description Students are invited to present spoken language performances in Native American languages. Traditional are welcome. Please remember the point of the ONAYLF is to demonstrate Native American language use

  11. Hydrodynamic and salinity evolution of groundwaters during artificial recharge within semi-arid coastal aquifers: A case study of El Khairat aquifer system in Enfidha (Tunisian Sahel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketata, Mouna; Gueddari, Moncef; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2014-09-01

    In common with most coastal aquifers, the El Khairat aquifer suffers the imbalance between recharge and intense exploitation and the extent of agricultural activity. As it is part of the Tunisian Sahel, the Enfidha region has a semiarid climate with very irregular rainfall which makes the groundwater resources quite fragile. This region has major difficulties in managing its water resources which are in decline, especially since, for the last decades, their renewal by rainwater has no longer been sufficient to re-establish the equilibrium. In such a case, the artificial recharge of aquifers by water from dams is a credible alternative to preserve the water resources against marine intrusion and pronounced fall in the piezometric level. The present investigation, based on available data, is aimed to monitoring the piezometry of the El Khairat aquifer during artificial recharge operations (2002-2005) by water from the dam and to identify the impact of the artificial recharge on groundwater quality. The results of this monitoring have shown that the artificial recharge realized between 2002 and 2005, had for effect an increase of the piezometric level of the phreatic aquifer of +0.4 to +2.63 m, especially in the “Ain Garci” zone. The piezometric level of the deep aquifer has also recorded an important increase reaching +3.82 m. After artificial recharge of the aquifer, the spatial distribution of the salinity shows quite low salinity values (lower than 2 g/l) in the western and north-eastern parts of the aquifer, the zone of artificial recharge, whereas the highest ones are found especially in the coastal zones and at the boundaries of the Sebkha where they exceeded 3 g/l. Moreover, we note a slight salinity reduction toward a central zone of the aquifer. Indeed, the zone characterized by salinity lower than 2 g/l and situated near the recharge site becomes more extensive.

  12. Hydrostratigraphic modeling of a complex, glacial-drift aquifer system for importation into MODFLOW

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, B.L.; Larson, D.R.; Abert, C.C.; Wilson, S.D.; Roadcap, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    Deposition from at least three episodes of glaciation left a complex glacial-drift aquifer system in central Illinois. The deepest and largest of these aquifers, the Sankoty-Mahomet Aquifer, occupies the lower part of a buried bedrock valley and supplies water to communities throughout central Illinois. Thin, discontinuous aquifers are present within glacial drift overlying the Sankoty-Mahomet Aquifer. This study was commissioned by local governments to identify possible areas where a regional water supply could be obtained from the aquifer with minimal adverse impacts on existing users. Geologic information from more than 2200 existing water well logs was supplemented with new data from 28 test borings, water level measurements in 430 wells, and 35 km of surface geophysical profiles. A three-dimensional (3-D) hydrostratigraphic model was developed using a contouring software package, a geographic information system (GIS), and the 3-D geologic modeling package, EarthVision??. The hydrostratigraphy of the glacial-drift sequence was depicted as seven uneven and discontinuous layers, which could be viewed from an infinite number of horizontal and vertical slices and as solid models of any layer. Several iterations were required before the 3-D model presented a reasonable depiction of the aquifer system. Layers from the resultant hydrostratigraphic model were imported into MODFLOW, where they were modified into continuous layers. This approach of developing a 3-D hydrostratigraphic model can be applied to other areas where complex aquifer systems are to be modeled and is also useful in helping lay audiences visualize aquifer systems.

  13. A description of the hydrologic system and the effects of coal mining on water quality in the East Fork Little Chariton River and the alluvial aquifer between Macon and Huntsville, north-central Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The quality of surface and groundwater has been affected by abandoned strip mines and by abandoned underground mines in a 110-sq mi subbasin of the East Fork Little Chariton River. More than 14% of the area was strip mined for coal before 1979. The hydrologic system in the area was investigated and the effects of coal mining on quality of water in the river and alluvial aquifer were analyzed, with major emphasis on defining strip-mining effects. The groundwater gradient was from glacial drift or coal spring to alluvium to the East Fork Little Chariton River, and was greatest in spring and least in fall. Seepage from alluvium to the East Fork Little Chariton River occurs throughout the year, except during drought conditions when the only river flow is water released from Long Branch Lake. In the East Fork Little Chariton River median dissolved-solids concentrations increased from 153 mg/L near Macon to 630 mg/L near Huntsville and median sulfate concentrations increased from 36 mg/L near Macon to 360 mg/L near Huntsville. The median dissolved-solids concentration in water from the alluvium increased from 408 mg/L upstream from the strip mines to 641 mg/L near the mines and median dissolved-sulfate concentration increased from 140 to 350 mg/L. The sulfate-to-chloride ratio, used as the most sensitive indicator of strip-mining effects, increased markedly downstream in the East Fork Little Chariton River and nearby Middle Fork Little Chariton River, which also is affected by strip mining. There were no significant increases in sulfate-to-chloride ratio and dissolved-solids concentrations in comparable nearby subbasins of the Grand, Thompson, and Chariton Rivers where there was no mining. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Gaseous oxidized mercury dry deposition measurements in the southwestern USA: a comparison between Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners area.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Allen, Kara L; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Ketcher, Philip; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m(2)h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m(2)h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area. PMID:24955412

  15. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    PubMed Central

    Sather, Mark E.; Allen, Kara L.; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3?ng/m2h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2?ng/m2h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area. PMID:24955412

  16. Soil moisture determination study. [Guymon, Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Soil moisture data collected in conjunction with aircraft sensor and SEASAT SAR data taken near Guymon, Oklahoma are summarized. In order to minimize the effects of vegetation and roughness three bare and uniformly smooth fields were sampled 6 times at three day intervals on the flight days from August 2 through 17. Two fields remained unirrigated and dry. A similar pair of fields was irrigated at different times during the sample period. In addition, eighteen other fields were sampled on the nonflight days with no field being sampled more than 24 hours from a flight time. The aircraft sensors used included either black and white or color infrared photography, L and C band passive microwave radiometers, the 13.3, 4.75, 1.6 and .4 GHz scatterometers, the 11 channel modular microwave scanner, and the PRT5.

  17. SFC to cease operations at Gore, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    On February 16, Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (SFC) formally notified the Nuclear Regulatory Commission it intends to terminate operations and commence decommissioning at its uranium conversion facility at Gore, Oklahoma. SFC officially requested that its NRC operating license be terminated July 31, 1993. SFC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of General Atomics Corporation (GA), will be responsible for the estimated $21.2-million decommissioning plan. GA has contended that it is not financially liable for the cleanup but stated it would be available to offer financial assistance if needed. Over the proposed 10-year cleanup schedule, GA said SFC can finance the decommissioning by drawing on SFC's estimated $70-million in revenue from a fee-for-contract agreement in its recently formed joint-venture with AlliedSignal Inc., called ConverDyn.

  18. Last Glacial Maximum Development of Parna Dunes in Panhandle Oklahoma, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. C.; Halfen, A. F.; McGowen, S.; Carter, B.; Fine, S.; Bement, L. C.; Simms, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Though dunefields are a ubiquitous feature of the North American Great Plains, those studied to date have consisted primarily of sand grains. In Beaver County of the Oklahoma panhandle, however, upland dune forms consist of sand-sized aggregates of silt and clay. These aptly named parna dunes occur in two swarms, range in height from 10-15 m, and have asymmetrical dome morphologies with approximate north-south dune orientations. Despite their morphological similarities to sand dunes of the region, their origin and evolution is unknown. Documenting parna dune formation in the Oklahoma panhandle will help improve our understanding of prehistoric landscape instability and climate change, particularly in the central Great Plains where such records are limited. Panhandle parna dunes are typified by Blue Mound, our best documented parna dune thus far. Coring has documented a basal paleosol buried at a depth equivalent to the surrounding landscape—14C ages from this soil indicate its formation about 25-21 ka. The paleosol is a hydric Mollisol with a pronounced C3 isotopic signature reflecting hydric plant communities, rather than the regionally dominated C4 prairie vegetation. Hydric soils are associated with many of the playas on the surrounding landscape today, which suggests that they may have been more prevalent during the LGM. The overlying 8-10 m of parna is low in organic C and high in calcite, with indications of up to ten major episodes of sediment flux, which are documented with magnetic, isotope, soil-stratigraphic, particle-size, and color data. Near-surface luminescence (OSL) ages from Blue Mound are similar to the 14C ages from the basal paleosol, indicating rapid dune construction, with little or no Holocene accumulation of sediment. Marine isotope stage (MIS) 3 loess records indicate that upland areas of the region were relatively stable with attendant widespread pedogenesis prior to development of the parna dunes. At the onset of the LGM, however, the landscape destabilized, and aeolian processes dominated. Peoria Loess began accumulating throughout parts of Oklahoma and much of Kansas, Nebraska, and beyond, until landscape stabilization was re-attained about 14-13 ka. Our chronological and geomorphic data suggest that parna dune construction in the Oklahoma panhandle was the result of strong, northerly winds, which precipitated aeolian activity at the beginning of MIS 2. Furthermore, these features appear to be more analogous to the regional loess record than the sand dune activation record, and, with more research, may prove to be a reliable record of late-Quaternary landscape change in the central Great Plains.

  19. MISR Scans the Texas-Oklahoma Border

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR images of Oklahoma and north Texas were acquired on March 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 1243. The three images on the left, from top to bottom, are from the 70-degree forward viewing camera, the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and the 70-degree aftward viewing camera. The higher brightness, bluer tinge, and reduced contrast of the oblique views result primarily from scattering of sunlight in the Earth's atmosphere, though some color and brightness variations are also due to differences in surface reflection at the different angles. The longer slant path through the atmosphere at the oblique angles also accentuates the appearance of thin, high-altitude cirrus clouds.

    On the right, two areas from the nadir camera image are shown in more detail, along with notations highlighting major geographic features. The south bank of the Red River marks the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. Traversing brush-covered and grassy plains, rolling hills, and prairies, the Red River and the Canadian River are important resources for farming, ranching, public drinking water, hydroelectric power, and recreation. Both originate in New Mexico and flow eastward, their waters eventually discharging into the Mississippi River.

    A smoke plume to the north of the Ouachita Mountains and east of Lake Eufaula is visible in the detailed nadir imagery. The plume is also very obvious at the 70-degree forward view angle, to the right of center and about one-fourth of the way down from the top of the image.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  20. Using Geophysics to Define Hydrostratigraphic Units in the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Blome, C. D.; Clark, A. K.; Kress, W.; Smith, D. V.

    2007-05-01

    Airborne and ground geophysical surveys conducted in Uvalde, Medina, and northern Bexar counties, Texas, can be used to define and characterize hydrostratigraphic units of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. Airborne magnetic surveys have defined numerous Cretaceous intrusive stocks and laccoliths, mainly in Uvalde County, that influence local hydrology and perhaps regional ground-water flow paths. Depositional environments in the aquifers can be classified as shallow water platforms (San Marcos Platform, Edwards Group), shoal and reef facies (Devils River Trend, Devils River Formation), and deeper water basins (Maverick Basin, West Nueces, McKnight, and Salmon Peak Formations). Detailed airborne and ground electromagnetic surveys have been conducted over the Edwards aquifer catchment zone (exposed Trinity aquifer rocks), recharge zone (exposed Edwards aquifer rocks), and artesian zone (confined Edwards) in the Seco Creek area (northeast Uvalde and Medina Counties; Devils River Trend). These geophysical survey data have been used to divide the Edwards exposed within the Balcones fault zone into upper and lower hydrostratigraphic units. Although both units are high electrical resistivity, the upper unit has slightly lower resistivity than the lower unit. The Georgetown Formation, at the top of the Edwards Group has a moderate resistivity. The formations that comprise the upper confining units to the Edwards aquifer rocks have varying resistivities. The Eagleford and Del Rio Groups (mainly clays) have very low resistivities and are excellent electrical marker beds in the Seco Creek area. The Buda Limestone is characterized by high resistivities. Moderate resistivities characterize the Austin Group rocks (mainly chalk). The older Trinity aquifer, underlying the Edwards aquifer rocks, is characterized by less limestone (electrically resistive or low conductivity units) and greater quantities of mudstones (electrically conductive or low resistivity units). In the western area (Devils River Trend and Maverick Basin) of the Trinity aquifer system there are well-defined collapse units and features that are marked by moderate resistivities bracketed by resistive limestone and conductive mudstone of the Glen Rose Limestone. In the central part of the aquifer (San Marcos Platform) the Trinity's lithologies are divided into upper and lower units with further subdivisions into hydrostratigraphic units. These hydrostratigraphic units are well mapped by an airborne electromagnetic survey in Bexar County. Electrical properties of the Edwards aquifer also vary across the fresh-saline water interface where ground and borehole electrical surveys have been conducted. The saline- saturated Edwards is predictably more conductive than the fresh-water saturated rocks. Similar fresh-saline water interfaces exist within the upper confining units of the Edwards aquifer (Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer) and the Trinity aquifer rocks.

  1. Recharge rates and aquifer hydraulic characteristics for selected drainage basins in middle and east Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative information concerning aquifer hydrologic and hydraulic characteristics is needed to manage the development of ground-water resources. These characteristics are poorly defined for the bedrock aquifers in Middle and East Tennessee where demand for water is increasing. This report presents estimates of recharge rate, storage coefficient, diffusivity, and transmissivity for representative drainage basins in Middle and East Tennessee, as determined from analyses of stream-aquifer interactions. The drainage basins have been grouped according to the underlying major aquifer, then statistical descriptions applied to each group, in order to define area1 distribution of these characteristics. Aquifer recharge rates are estimated for representative low, average, and high flow years for 63 drainage basins using hydrograph analysis techniques. Net annual recharge during average flow years for all basins ranges from 4.1 to 16.8 in/yr (inches per year), with a mean value of 7.3 in. In general, recharge rates are highest for basins underlain by the Blue Ridge aquifer (mean value11.7 in/yr) and lowest for basins underlain by the Central Basin aquifer (mean value 5.6 in/yr). Mean recharge values for the Cumberland Plateau, Highland Rim, and Valley and Ridge aquifers are 6.5, 7.4, and 6.6 in/yr, respectively. Gravity drainage characterizes ground-water flow in most surficial bedrock aquifer in Tennessee. Accordingly, a gravity yield analysis, which compares concurrent water-level and streamflow hydrographs, was used to estimate aquifer storage coefficient for nine study basins. The basin estimates range from 0.002 to 0.140; however, most estimates are within a narrow range of values, from 0.01 to 0.025. Accordingly, storage coefficient is estimated to be 0.01 for all aquifers in Middle and East Tennessee, with the exception of the aquifer in the inner part of the Central Basin, for which storage coefficient is estimated to be 0.002. Estimates of aquifer hydraulic diffusivity are derived from estimates of the streamflow recession index and drainage density for 75 drainage basins; values range from 3,300 to 130,000 ft^2/d (feet squared per day). Basin-specific and site-specific estimates of transmissivity are computed from estimates of hydraulic diffusivity and specific-capacity test data, respectively. Basin-specific, or areal, estimates of transmissivity range from 22 to 1,300 ft^2/d, with a mean of 240 ft^2/d In general, areal transmissivity is highest for basins underlain by the Cumberland Plateau aquifer (mean value 480 ft^2/d) and lowest for basins underlain by the Central Basin aquifer (mean value 79 ft^2/d). Mean transmissivity values for the Highland Rim, Valley and Ridge, and Blue Ridge aquifer are 320,140, and 120 ft^2/d respectively. Site-specific estimates of transmissivity, computed from specific-capacity data from 118 test wells in Middle and East Tennessee range from 2 to 93,000 ft^2/d with a mean of 2,600 ft^2/d Mean transmissivity values for the Cumberland Plateau, Highland Rim, Central Basin, Valley and Ridge, and Blue Ridge aquifers are 2,800,1,200, 7,800, 390, and 65Oft Id, respectively.

  2. 40 CFR 147.102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Alaska § 147.102 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This...Trading Bay Field. (3) The portions of aquifers on the North Slope described by a 1/4 mile area beyond and lying...

  3. 40 CFR 147.102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Alaska § 147.102 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This...Trading Bay Field. (3) The portions of aquifers on the North Slope described by a 1/4 mile area beyond and lying...

  4. 40 CFR 147.102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Alaska § 147.102 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This...Trading Bay Field. (3) The portions of aquifers on the North Slope described by a 1/4 mile area beyond and lying...

  5. 40 CFR 147.102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Alaska § 147.102 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This...Trading Bay Field. (3) The portions of aquifers on the North Slope described by a 1/4 mile area beyond and lying...

  6. Detection of Aquifers Susceptibility to Land Subsidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. PROKOPOVICH

    Consolidometer testing of aquifer sediments can be used to determine: (1) the confined aquifer systems susceptible to subsidence due to a piezometric decline; and (2) the amount of such subsidence. \\

  7. SIMULATION OF SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is currently under active investigation as one of the most promising alternatives to conventional pump-and-treat remediation for aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase organic liquids. n existing three-dimensional finite difference...

  8. 40 CFR 147.1352 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1352 Aquifer exemptions. Those portions of aquifers within one-quarter mile of existing Class II wells...

  9. ANALYTICAL ELEMENT MODELING OF COASTAL AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of groundwater flow in coastal aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a groundwater model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM; ...

  10. Compilation and analyses of aquifer performance tests in eastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, T.B.; Burnett, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Selected aquifer-test data from 36 counties in eastern Kansas were collected from numerous sources and publications in order to produce a documented compilation of aquifer tests in one report. Data were obtained chiefly from private consulting firms and from government agencies. Hydraulic properties determined included transmissivity, storage coefficient (where observation well was available), and in some cases hydraulic properties of a confining layer. The aquifers tested comprised three main types of rocks--consolidated rock deposits, glacial deposits, and alluvial deposits that include the ' Equus beds, ' an extensive alluvial deposit in south-central Kansas. The Theis recovery equation and the Cooper-Jacob modified nonequilibrium equation were the two principal solution methods used. Other methods used included the Theis nonequilibrium equation, the Hantush-Jacob equation for a leaky confined aquifer, Hantush 's modified leaky equation in which storage from a confining layer was considered, the Boulton 's delayed-yield equation. Additionally, a specific-capacity method of estimating transmissivity was used when only a single drawdown value was available. (USGS)

  11. A New Thermal Method for High-resolution Aquifer Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Knobbe, S.; Butler, J. J.; Reboulet, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial variations in flow and transport properties play an important role in solute movement in aquifer systems. A major challenge has been to develop field methods that allow information about these variations to be obtained at the resolution needed to characterize transport in heterogeneous formations. Recently, we have developed a new thermal method that holds considerable promise for obtaining high-resolution information about aquifer structure and, potentially, groundwater flux in an efficient fashion. This new approach, which is based on Raman scattering distributed temperature sensing along fiber optic cables deployed below the water table, was applied to a field site located in the floodplain of the Kansas River in the central United States. Results indicate that the temperature profiles obtained using this method are remarkably consistent with hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates obtained through other means at the same location and provide new insights into the factors controlling the relatively large K variations observed within the sand and gravel aquifer at this site. The temperature profiles were significantly changed when a nearby pump was turned on, particularly in the vicinity of the vertical interval of the pump intake, demonstrating the convergence of groundwater flow on the pump intake. The high resolution possible with distributed temperature sensing enables this new method to provide a more detailed representation of aquifer dynamics and structure than previous approaches.

  12. Estimating aquifer channel recharge using optical data interpretation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Gary R; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Recharge through intermittent and ephemeral stream channels is believed to be a primary aquifer recharge process in arid and semiarid environments. The intermittent nature of precipitation and flow events in these channels, and their often remote locations, makes direct flow and loss measurements difficult and expensive. Airborne and satellite optical images were interpreted to evaluate aquifer recharge due to stream losses on the Frio River in south-central Texas. Losses in the Frio River are believed to be a major contributor of recharge to the Edwards Aquifer. The results of this work indicate that interpretation of readily available remote sensing optical images can offer important insights into the spatial distribution of aquifer recharge from losing streams. In cases where upstream gauging data are available, simple visual analysis of the length of the flowing reach downstream from the gauging station can be used to estimate channel losses. In the case of the Frio River, the rate of channel loss estimated from the length of the flowing reach at low flows was about half of the loss rate calculated from in-stream gain-loss measurements. Analysis based on water-surface width and channel slope indicated that losses were mainly in a reach downstream of the mapped recharge zone. The analysis based on water-surface width, however, did not indicate that this method could yield accurate estimates of actual flow in pool and riffle streams, such as the Frio River and similar rivers draining the Edwards Plateau. PMID:21434908

  13. A New Assessment of Groundwater Levels Across the High Plains Aquifer: From Predevelopment to Contemporary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacker, E. M.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Aquifer in the central United States has seen over a century of pumping for irrigation. Development of the aquifer has been highly heterogeneous in time and space, leading to difficulties in characterizing the state of the aquifer prior to abstraction. In most contemporary literature, 1950 is considered the end of predevelopment. However, earlier publications make it clear that intensive drawdown did occur in some areas starting as early as the 1930s. Understanding of the predevelopment state of the aquifer is critical to determine how much water has been withdrawn since the initiation of pumping, and therefore anticipate the usable lifespan of the aquifer. This study presents an alternative assessment of water table levels across the High Plains prior to development, taking into account the variability in dates of first development across the aquifer, and compares this with previous estimates and techniques. Changes in saturated thickness of the aquifer through time are described, and the results evaluated for new insights into the sustainability of irrigation on the High Plains.

  14. Greenhouse heating and cooling using aquifer water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Sethi; S. K. Sharma

    2007-01-01

    An aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system (ACCFHES) was designed using underground aquifer water for the heating as well as cooling of a composite climatic greenhouse. The performance of ACCFHES was experimentally evaluated for a full winter and a summer season. The ACCFHES makes use of constant temperature aquifer water (24°C) available at an agricultural field through an irrigation

  15. Hydrogeology and water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium, Concho Reserve, Canadian County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A growing user population within the Concho Reserve in Canadian County, Oklahoma, has increased the need for drinking water. The North Canadian River alluvium is a reliable source of ground water for agriculture, industry, and cities in Canadian County and is the only ground-water source capable of meeting large demands. This study was undertaken to collect and analyze data to describe the hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium within the Concho Reserve. The alluvium forms a band about 2 miles long and 0.5 mile wide along the southern edge of the Concho Reserve. Thickness of the alluvium ranges from 19 to 75 feet thick and averages about 45 feet in the study area. Well cuttings and natural gamma-ray logs indicate the alluvium consists of interfingering lenses of clay, silt, and sand. The increase of coarse-grained sand and the decrease of clay and silt with depth suggests that the water-bearing properties of the aquifer within the study area improve with depth. A clay layer in the upper part of the aquifer may be partially responsible for surface water ponding in low areas after above normal precipitation and may delay the infiltration of potentially contaminated water from land surface. Specific conductance measurements indicate the ground-water quality improves in a northern direction towards the terrace. Water-quality properties, bacteria counts, major ion and nutrient concentrations, trace-element and radionuclide concentrations, and organic compound concentrations were measured in one ground-water sample at the southern edge of the Concho Reserve and comply with the primary drinking-water standards. Measured concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and total dissolved solids exceed the secondary maximum contaminant levels set for drinking water. The ground water is a calcium sulfate bicarbonate type and is considered very hard, with a hardness of 570 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.

  16. Inter-aquifer Dynamics in and Near a Confining Unit Window in Shelby County, Tennessee, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, R. W.; McKay, L. D.; Larsen, D.; Carmichael, J. K.; Solomon, D. K.; Thonnard, N.; Anderson, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    An interdisplinary research team is investigating the interaction between the surficial alluvial aquifer and the deeper confined Memphis aquifer in the Memphis area, Shelby County, Tennessee. Previous research has identified a window in the clay-rich, upper Claiborne confining unit that separates the two aquifers near a closed municipal landfill in east-central Shelby County, an area undergoing rapid urbanization. For this investigation, a combination of environmental tracers (tritium/helium-3), major and trace ion geochemistry, hydraulic response testing, measurement of hydraulic gradients, and groundwater flow modeling is being used to quantify recharge of young water from the alluvial aquifer through the window to the Memphis aquifer. The research will provide results to better understand how windows were formed and how they influence recharge and water quality in otherwise confined parts of the Memphis aquifer downdip of its outcrop/subcrop area. Examination of continuous core samples and geophysical logs from wells installed for the study using Rotasonic drilling methods confirmed the existence of a sand-dominated window that may be as much as 1 km in diameter in the upper Claiborne confining unit. The upper Claiborne confining unit is 15 to 20 m thick in most of the study area and is overlain by a 10 to 12 m thick alluvial aquifer. The window is interpreted to have formed as a result of depositional and incisional processes in an Eocene-age deltaic system. Hydraulic gradients of several feet exist vertically between the alluvial and Memphis aquifers within the window, indicating downward flow. Groundwater age-dates from tritium/helium-3 analyses indicate that groundwater in the window at the depth of the base of the surrounding confining unit (approximately 30 m) has an apparent age of 19.8 years, which confirms the occurrence of downward flow. Young groundwater age dates (less than 32 years) also were obtained from wells in the Memphis aquifer at confined sites downgradient of the window, suggesting that a plume of young water is spreading outwards from the window and mixing with the older Memphis aquifer water. Preliminary inverse modeling of the site using a genetic algorithm coupled with a central finite difference flow model indicates a probable steady-state downward flux of about 12,000 m3/d through the window. Collection and analysis of additional groundwater samples are planned to examine geochemical conditions in the confining unit and in the Memphis aquifer upgradient of the window. These analyses will aid in developing a final conceptual model and in subsequent numerical modeling of mixing of the young recharge water with the older Memphis aquifer water.

  17. 77 FR 34975 - Seminole Nation of Oklahoma-Alcohol Control and Enforcement Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...Affairs Seminole Nation of Oklahoma--Alcohol Control and Enforcement Ordinance AGENCY...publishes the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma--Alcohol Control and Enforcement Ordinance. The...the Seminole Nation Code of Laws and the Alcohol Control and Enforcement Ordinance...

  18. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    E-1025 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Burning in the Growing Season Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences Associate, Natural Resource Ecology and Management Dwayne Elmore Assistant Professor and Extension

  19. AQUIFER CHARACTERIZATION JOHN S. BRIDGE

    E-print Network

    Bioremediation Site in southwestern Michigan, where detailed estimates of aquifer properties were needed to accurately simulate multi-component reactive transport and to design an effective bioremediation strategy-long continuous cores was collected in the vicinity of the bioremediation-system delivery wells. These cores were

  20. Aquifer Model in a Tank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity allows students to better understand aquifers and the issues of climate, spring flow, environmental protection, and water use. The activity centers around a constructed ground-water system and contains vocabulary, materials, procedures for two labs, data sheets and information on analyzing the data.

  1. Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F P; van Beek, Ludovicus P H

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater is a life-sustaining resource that supplies water to billions of people, plays a central part in irrigated agriculture and influences the health of many ecosystems. Most assessments of global water resources have focused on surface water, but unsustainable depletion of groundwater has recently been documented on both regional and global scales. It remains unclear how the rate of global groundwater depletion compares to the rate of natural renewal and the supply needed to support ecosystems. Here we define the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services) and show that humans are overexploiting groundwater in many large aquifers that are critical to agriculture, especially in Asia and North America. We estimate that the size of the global groundwater footprint is currently about 3.5 times the actual area of aquifers and that about 1.7 billion people live in areas where groundwater resources and/or groundwater-dependent ecosystems are under threat. That said, 80 per cent of aquifers have a groundwater footprint that is less than their area, meaning that the net global value is driven by a few heavily overexploited aquifers. The groundwater footprint is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the use, renewal and ecosystem requirements of groundwater at an aquifer scale. It can be combined with the water footprint and virtual water calculations, and be used to assess the potential for increasing agricultural yields with renewable groundwaterref. The method could be modified to evaluate other resources with renewal rates that are slow and spatially heterogeneous, such as fisheries, forestry or soil. PMID:22874965

  2. Learn To Read and the World Opens Wide. Oklahoma Literacy Media Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Libraries, Oklahoma City.

    This packet, which is intended for literacy program leaders throughout Oklahoma, contains the materials developed by the Literacy Office of the Oklahoma Department of Libraries for its 1995 literacy awareness campaign. The first third of the packet is a project guide that includes the following materials: overview of Oklahoma's first statewide…

  3. FEDERAL ORDER Domestic Quarantine of Counties in Oklahoma and Tennessee for

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    FEDERAL ORDER Domestic Quarantine of Counties in Oklahoma and Tennessee for Imported Fire Ant (IFA discussion with the State Plant Regulatory Official of Oklahoma and Tennessee. Effective immediately determinations have been made by the APHIS Administrator in reference to Oklahoma and Tennessee. The 7 CFR 301

  4. OKLAHOMA 4-H ANNUAL REPORT 2008 The Four H's for 99 Years.

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Oklahoma 4-H Youth Development Charles Cox Assistant Director, Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service and 4-H Program Leader 205 4-H Youth Development Bldg. Stillwater, OK 74078 http://oklahoma4h University, in compliance with Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order 11246

  5. Evaluation of groundwater and surface-water interactions in the Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Caddo County, Oklahoma, 2010-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    Streamflows, springs, and wetlands are important natural and cultural resources to the Caddo Nation. Consequently, the Caddo Nation is concerned about the vulnerability of the Rush Springs aquifer to overdrafting and whether the aquifer will continue to be a viable source of water to tribal members and other local residents in the future. Interest in the long-term viability of local water resources has resulted in ongoing development of a comprehensive water plan by the Caddo Nation. As part of a multiyear project with the Caddo Nation to provide information and tools to better manage and protect water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey studied the hydraulic connection between the Rush Springs aquifer and springs and streams overlying the aquifer. The Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area is located in southwestern Oklahoma, primarily in Caddo County. Underlying the Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area is the Permian-age Rush Springs aquifer. Water from the Rush Springs aquifer is used for irrigation, public, livestock and aquaculture, and other supply purposes. Groundwater from the Rush Springs aquifer also is withdrawn by domestic (self-supplied) wells, although domestic use was not included in the water-use summary in this report. Perennial streamflow in many streams and creeks overlying the Rush Springs aquifer, such as Cobb Creek, Lake Creek, and Willow Creek, originates from springs and seeps discharging from the aquifer. This report provides information on the evaluation of groundwater and surface-water resources in the Caddo Nation Jurisdictional Area, and in particular, information that describes the hydraulic connection between the Rush Springs aquifer and springs and streams overlying the aquifer. This report also includes data and analyses of base flow, evidence for groundwater and surface-water interactions, locations of springs and wetland areas, groundwater flows interpreted from potentiometric-surface maps, and hydrographs of water levels monitored in the Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area from 2010 to 2013. Flow in streams overlying the Rush Springs aquifer, on average, were composed of 50 percent base flow in most years. Monthly mean base flow appeared to maintain streamflows throughout each year, but periods of zero flow were documented in daily hydrographs at each measured site, typically in the summer months. A pneumatic slug-test technique was used at 15 sites to determine the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of streambed sediments in streams overlying the Rush Springs aquifer. Converting horizontal hydraulic conductivities (Kh) from the slug-test analyses to vertical hydraulic conductivities (Kv) by using a ratio of Kv/Kh = 0.1 resulted in estimates of vertical streambed hydraulic conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 8.6 feet per day. Data obtained from a hydraulic potentiomanometer in streambed sediments and streams in August 2012 indicate that water flow was from the streambed sediments to the stream (gaining) at 6 of 15 sites, and that water flow was from the stream to the streambed sediments (losing) at 9 of 15 sites. The groundwater and surface-water interaction data collected at the Cobb Creek near Eakly, Okla., streamflow gaging station (07325800), indicate that the bedrock groundwater, alluvial groundwater, and surface-water resources are closely connected. Because of this hydrologic connection, large perennial streams in the study area may change from gaining to losing streams in the summer. The timing and severity of this change from a gaining to a losing condition probably is affected by the local or regional withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation in the summer growing season. Wells placed closer to streams have a greater and more immediate effect on alluvial groundwater levels and stream stages than wells placed farther from streams. Large-capacity irrigation wells, even those completed hundreds of feet below land surface in the bedrock aquifer, can induce surface-water flow from nearby streams by lowering alluvial groundwater levels below the stream altitude. Twenty-five ne

  6. Microhabitat use, home range, and movements of the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedle, J.D.; Shipman, P.A.; Fox, S.F.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the ecology of the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, particularly dentography and behavior. To learn more about the species in Oklahoma, we conducted a telemetry project on 2 small streams at Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge, an 8,417.5-ha refuge located in east-central Oklahoma. Between June 1999 and August 2000, we fitted 19 M. temminckii with ultrasonic telemetry tags and studied turtle movements and microhahitat use. Turtles were checked 2 to 3 times weekly in summer and sporadically in winter. Several microhabitat variables were measured at each turtle location and a random location to help quantify microhabitat use vs. availability. We recorded 147 turtle locations. Turtles were always associated with submerged cover with a high percentage of overhead canopy cover. Turtles used deeper depths in late summer (but not deeper depths than random locations) and deeper depths in mid-winter (and deeper depths than random locations) than in early summer. They used shallower depths than random locations in early summer. This seasonal shift in depth use might be thermoregulatory, although evidence for this is indirect. The mean linear home range for all turtles was 777.8 m. Females had larger home ranges than males, and juveniles had larger home ranges than adults, although the latter was not statistically significant. Macrochelys temminckii used submerged structures as a core site, and stayed at each core site for an average of 12.3 d.

  7. A geographic analysis of the status of mountain lions in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, J.R.; Shaw, J.H.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.; Shaw, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic distribution of sightings and sign of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Oklahoma was investigated. Mail survey questionnaires were sent to natural resource professionals throughout Oklahoma to gather temporal and spatial information on sightings of mountain lions from 1985 to 1995. We used a geographic information system (GIS) to compare locations of sightings and sign in the state with ecoregions, deer harvest, human population densities, locations of licensed owners and breeders of mountain lions, and generalized topography. Sightings and sign of mountain lions occurred significantly more often in the Central Rolling Red Plains than elsewhere in the state. Sightings of mountain lions increased with total deer harvest statewide (R2=0.828, P<0.001). Numbers of sightings of mountain lions were correlated negatively with density of the human population (R2=0.885, P=0.017). Surveys are a valuable method to assess the status of rare wildlife species when other methods are not available and when those receiving the survey are qualified.

  8. The University of Oklahoma New Employee Personal Data Form (0 / /201 ) For initial hires, the PDF form must accompany the PAF. This document is not an application for employment. The University of

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    The University of Oklahoma New Employee Personal Data Form (0 / /201 ) For initial hires, the PDF of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East. Black or African American: A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. Hispanic or Latino: A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central

  9. Development of an Alternative Release Limit for a Former Uranium and Thorium Processing Plant in Cushing Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, A.H. [NEXTEP Consulting Group, Louisville, Kentucky (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation will be to describe how, through dose modeling and analysis, a complex site was able to obtain an Alternative Release Limit (ARL) that adequately protected the environment, met regulatory approval, and saved money in the process. The Kerr-McGee Refinery Site in Cushing, OK supported an experimental facility that processed nuclear fuel materials from 1963 to 1966. Radiological contaminants at the site as a result of operations consist of natural thorium and isotopes of uranium (Th-228, Th-232, U-234, U-235 and U-238). Site contamination existed in both surface and sub-surface soils and within a shallow aquifer. After the soil was remediated to acceptable regulatory limits, however, the potential existed for residual groundwater contamination to result in exposure to individuals following site closure. Traditional exposure pathway analysis for the resident farmer seemed to indicate that this exposure was excessive. A closer look at the exposure pathways present in this rural location showed that groundwater contamination existed in a shallow aquifer insufficient to support significant irrigation activities and was of sufficiently poor water quality that it could not be used for drinking water. Through the determination of aquifer yield pumping tests, agreement from the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo techniques, it was shown that the average member of the critical population was adequately protected in the current site configuration without further remediation. This paper describes the analytical methods and models used to apply the general dose limit of 0.25 mSv yr{sup -1} (25 mrem yr{sup -1}) to the particulars of the Cushing Site, and demonstrates how these methods achieved a much higher ARL for total uranium in groundwater that was accepted by the regulators and achieved significant savings for the Licensee. (authors)

  10. HELMINTH FAUNA OF WATERFOWL IN CENTRAL OKLAHOMAn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL G. SHAW; A. ALAN KOCAN

    1980-01-01

    Free-ranging waterfowl wintering in and migrating through central Oklahoma were collected and examined for intestinal helminths. Seventy-one ducks, including mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), American widgeons (Anas americana), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were examined; 64 (90.1%) harbored one or more species of metazoa. Six cestodes, 6 trematodes,6 nematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan were identified. An experimental, non-flying population

  11. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  12. Thermal conditions in the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, S.A.; Gallardo, J.D.; Carter, L.C.; Blackwell, D.D. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Heat flow, bottom-hole temperature (BHT), and thermal conductivity data are used to evaluate the present thermal conditions in the Anadarko basin. Heat flow values decrease from 54-62 mWm{sup {minus}2} in the northern part of the basin to 39-53 mWm{sup {minus}2} in the southern portion of the basin. The variation in the regional conductive heat flow is controlled by basin geometry and by the distribution of radiogenic elements in the basement. The heat flow, thermal conductivity, and lithologic information were combined to construct a 3-D model of the temperature structure of the Anadarko basin. The highest temperatures sedimentary rocks older than Pennsylvanian are offset 35 km north-northwest of the deepest part of the basin. This offset is related to the regional increase in heat flow to the north and to the presence of high thermal conductivity granite wash adjacent to the Wichita Mountains. A plot of the temperature difference between the equilibrium temperatures estimated from the model and the measured BHTs as a function of depth is remarkably similar to the published correction curve for BHTs for wells in Oklahoma. Vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission-track (FT) data are used to estimate the paleogeothermal conditions in the basin. Published vitrinite reflectance values are consistent with a past geographic temperature distribution comparable to the observed distribution with the maximum values offset from the basin axis. FT analysis of sandstones from wells in the southeastern portion of the basin indicates that subsurface temperatures were at least 30C higher than at present, suggest the possibility of substantial erosion in this area.

  13. Oklahoma blast forces unsettling design questions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The bomb that brought down a government building in Oklahoma City killed hundreds of people after it was detonated near the building`s key supports. The blast has reopened a long-simmering debate on safety by design. Structurally, it`s not practical to designing bomb-proof buildings. But it is possible to engineer a structure to deform rather than go through immediate progressive collapse. Delaying collapse gives occupants extra time to evacuate. And that could mean the difference between life and death. The construction material of choice really {open_quotes}depends on the height of the building and the lateral load resisting system,{close_quotes} says Charles H. Thornton of Thornton-Tomasetti/Engineers, New York City. But whether in steel or reinforced concrete, moment-resisting frames, which are inherently redundant, give horizontal components the ability to take reversals of stress common in explosions, he says. Simple frames do not. {open_quotes}They go down like a house of cards,{close_quotes} says Thornton. In reinforced concrete moment frames, beam reinforcing steel is continuous. In simple reinforced concrete frames, beam rebar only penetrates the column for a determined number of inches based on the length of the span. And it is absent from the mid-span of the beam. In a blast from below, the beam, its top usually in compression and bottom in tension, deflects up, throwing the beam top into tension. With no rebar, it loses structural integrity, and falls apart. With rebar, it has a chance of surviving. If a building is not designed for blasts, a steel frame might be better under a reasonably small bomb because steel has equal capacity in tension and compression, and concrete has capacity only in compression, says Thornton.

  14. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal responsibility. The most frequently identified curriculum need across all aviation disciplines was that of communication skills.

  15. Assessment of groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabelo, Jorge Luiz; Wendland, Edson

    2009-11-01

    The groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil were assessed through a numeric model. The study area (6,748 km2) comprises Jacaré-Guaçú and Jacaré-Pepira River watersheds, tributaries of the Tietê River in the central region of the state. GIS based tools were used in the storage, processing and analysis of data. Main hydrologic phenomena were selected, leading to a groundwater conceptual model, taking into account the significant outcrops occurring in the study area. Six recharge zones were related to the geologic formation and structures of the semi-confined and phreatic aquifer. The model was calibrated against the baseflows and static water levels of the wells. The results emphasize the strong interaction of groundwater flows between watersheds and the groundwater inflow into the rivers. It has been concluded that lateral groundwater exchanges between basins, the deep discharges to the regional system, and well exploitation were not significant aquifer outflows when compared to the aquifer recharge. The results have shown that the inflows from the river into the aquifer are significant and have the utmost importance since the aquifer is potentially more vulnerable in these places.

  16. Aquifer storage capacity and maximum annual yield from long-term aquifer fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2008-03-01

    Long-term time series data of aquifer recharge, groundwater extraction, and discharge are used to estimate aquifer storage capacity and maximum annual yield. Aquifer storage capacity is defined as the maximum volume of water that can be stored in an aquifer. It is estimated using a transient water-balance approach. The maximum annual yield is defined as the maximum combined groundwater extraction plus discharge that can be sustained in an aquifer judged by the historical record of recharge. It is determined according to a graphical mass-curve method. These two quantities are useful in aquifer characterization and groundwater management, the apportionment of groundwater rights and aquifer storage and recovery operations being two frequent applications. Time series data from the Edwards Aquifer, Texas, USA, illustrate the application of the methods presented.

  17. Dryland pasture and crop conditions as seen by HCMM. [Washita Watershed, Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlan, J. C. (principal investigator); Rosenthal, W. D.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques developed from aircraft flights over the Washita watershed in central Oklahoma were applied to HCMM data analysis. Results show that (1) canopy temperatures were accurately measured remotely; (2) pasture surface temperature differences detected relative soil moisture differences; (3) pasture surface temperature differences were related to stress in nearby wheat fields; and (4) no relationship was developed between final yield differences, thermal infrared data, and soil moisture stress at critical growth stages due to a lack of satellite thermal data at critical growth stages. The HCMM thermal data proved to be quite adequate in detecting relative moisture differences; however, with a 16 day day/night overpass frequency, more frequent overpasses are required to analyze more cases within a 7 day period after the storm. Better normalization techniques are also required.

  18. Emergence of Autochthonous Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Texas and Southeastern Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Carmen F.; Bradley, Kristy K.; Wright, James H.; Glowicz, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Autochthonous human cases of leishmaniasis in the United States are uncommon. We report three new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and details of a previously reported case, all outside the known endemic range in Texas. Surveys for enzootic rodent reservoirs and sand fly vectors were conducted around the residences of three of the case-patients during the summer of 2006; female Lutzomyia anthophora sand flies were collected at a north Texas and southeast Oklahoma residence of a case-patient, indicating proximity of a suitable vector. Urban sprawl, climatologic variability, or natural expansion of Leishmania mexicana are possible explanations for the apparent spread to the north and east. Enhanced awareness among healthcare providers in the south central region of the United States is important to ensure clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis, diagnosis, and appropriate patient management. PMID:23185078

  19. Status of Water Levels in Aquifers in the Nacatoch Sand of Southwestern and Northeastern Arkansas and the Tokio Formation of Southwestern Arkansas, February 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    The Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation aquifers in southwestern Arkansas and the Nacatoch Sand aquifer in northeastern Arkansas are sources of water for industrial, public supply, domestic, and agricultural uses. Potentiometric-surface maps were constructed from water-level measurements made in 60 wells completed in the Nacatoch Sand and 50 wells completed in the Tokio Formation during February 2005. Aquifers in the Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation are hereafter referred to as the Nacatoch aquifer and Tokio aquifer, respectively. The direction of ground-water flow in the Nacatoch aquifer in northeastern Arkansas generally is towards the southeast. The potentiometric high is located along the north and northwestern boundaries of the area. The direction of ground-water flow in the Nacatoch aquifer in southwestern Arkansas is towards the south-southeast in Little River, Miller, and Hempstead Counties and to the east-southeast in Nevada and Clark Counties. The potentiometric high is located within the outcrop area in north-central Hempstead County. A cone of depression exists in the Nacatoch aquifer at Hope in southeastern Hempstead County. The direction of ground-water flow in the Tokio aquifer in southwestern Arkansas generally is towards the south or southeast. The potentiometric high is within the outcrop area. An area of artesian flow exists in southeastern Pike, northeastern Hempstead, and northwestern Nevada Counties. One apparent cone of depression might exist northwest of Hope in Hempstead County. In northeastern Arkansas, withdrawals from the Nacatoch aquifer increased by 516 percent from 1965 to 2000. In southwestern Arkansas, withdrawals from Nacatoch aquifer and Tokio aquifer increased by 125 percent and 201 percent, respectively, from 1965 to 1980 and decreased by 93 percent and 80 percent, respectively, from 1980 to 2000. Long-term hydrographs were prepared for 10 wells in the study areas. Changes in water levels in some wells may be associated with changes in withdrawals from the respective aquifers.

  20. A GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF MANURE PRODUCTION AND ANTIBIOTIC USE IN THE OGALLALA AQUIFER REGION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past three decades, animal production in the United States has been moving towards consolidation. This study profiles the animal density, manure production, and antibiotic usage in the Ogallala Aquifer region that covers eight states in the Central United States. The amount of manure was esti...