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1

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer in central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Cleveland, Lincoln, Logan, Oklahoma, Payne, and Pottawatomie Counties. The Central Oklahoma aquifer includes the alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. The Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Permian-age Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations consist of sandstone with interbedded siltstone and mudstone. The Permian-age Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups consist of sandstone, shale, and thin limestone. The Central Oklahoma aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma where the aquifer is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. Most of the usable ground water within the aquifer is from the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations. Substantial quantities of usable ground water also are present in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and in alluvial and terrace deposits associated with the major streams. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity and recharge values, and ground-water level elevation contours are from previously published reports.

Runkle, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

2

Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer, Oklahoma, 1987 to 2009, and simulation of available water in storage, 2010-2059  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma. The study area for this investigation was the extent of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer is used for public, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supply. With the exception of Oklahoma City, all of the major communities in central Oklahoma rely either solely or partly on groundwater from this aquifer. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, incorporating parts of Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties, has a population of approximately 1.2 million people. As areas are developed for groundwater supply, increased groundwater withdrawals may result in decreases in long-term aquifer storage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, investigated the hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow in the aquifer using a numerical groundwater-flow model. The purpose of this report is to describe an investigation of the Central Oklahoma aquifer that included analyses of the hydrogeology, hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer, and construction of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate groundwater levels and for water-budget analysis. A calibrated transient model was used to evaluate changes in groundwater storage associated with increased future water demands.

Mashburn, Shana L.; Ryter, Derek; Neel, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Magers, Jessica S.

2014-01-01

3

Climate Change Impacts on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in South-Central Oklahoma due to Projected Precipitation Variations  

E-print Network

Precipitation Variations on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in South-Central Oklahoma due to Projected Climate Change Impacts Cesalea N. Osborne Environmental Science Haskell Indian Nations University This project was sponsored by Kiksapa Consulting... through NASA CAN NNX10AU65A The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer spans five counties in south-central Oklahoma: Carter, Coal, Johnston, Murray, and Pontotoc Base Data • Aquifer study area, roads, rural/non-rural communities, state/county boundaries Methodology...

Osborne, Cesalea

2014-11-19

4

Three-dimensional geologic model of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma encompasses more than 850 square kilometers and is the principal water resource for south-central Oklahoma. Rock units comprising the aquifer are characterized by limestone, dolomite, and sandstones assigned to two lower Paleozoic units: the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups. Also considered to be part of the aquifer is the underlying Cambrian-age Timbered Hills Group that contains limestone and sandstone. The highly faulted and fractured nature of the Arbuckle-Simpson units and the variable thickness (600 to 2,750 meters) increases the complexity in determining the subsurface geologic framework of this aquifer. A three-dimensional EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model was constructed to quantify the geometric relationships of the rock units of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Hunton anticline area. This 3-D EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model incorporates 54 faults and four modeled units: basement, Arbuckle-Timbered Hills Group, Simpson Group, and post-Simpson. Primary data used to define the model's 54 faults and four modeled surfaces were obtained from geophysical logs, cores, and cuttings from 126 water and petroleum wells. The 3-D framework model both depicts the volumetric extent of the aquifer and provides the stratigraphic layer thickness and elevation data used to construct a MODFLOW version 2000 regional groundwater-flow model.

Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pantea, Michael P.; Puckette, James O.; Halihan, Todd; Osborn, Noel; Christenson, Scott; Pack, Skip

2010-01-01

5

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important source of water that underlies about 2,320-square miles of parts of Osage, Pawnee, Payne, Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, and Seminole Counties. Approximately 75 percent of the water withdrawn from the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is for municipal use. Rural domestic use and water for stock animals account for most of the remaining water withdrawn. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is defined in a ground-water report as consisting principally of the rocks of the Late Pennsylvanian-age Vamoosa Formation and overlying Ada Group. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer consists of a complex sequence of fine- to very fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and conglomerate interbedded with very thin limestones. The water-yielding capabilities of the aquifer are generally controlled by lateral and vertical distribution of the sandstone beds and their physical characteristics. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is unconfined where it outcrops in about an 1,700-square-mile area. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were extracted from published digital surficial geology data sets based on a scale of 1:250,000, and represent geologic contacts. Some of lines in the data sets were interpolated in areas where the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits near streams and rivers. These data sets include only the outcrop area of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer and where the aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits. The hydraulic conductivity value and recharge rate are from a ground-water report about the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer. The water-level elevation contours were digitized from a mylar map, at a scale of 1:250,000, used to publish a plate in a ground-water report about the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer. The water-level elevation contours in this data set extend west of the aquifer outcrop area to areas where Vanoss Group rocks overlie the Ada Group. The data set also includes a water-level elevation contour for a terrace deposit east of the aquifer outcrop near the North Canadian River.

Abbott, Marvin M.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

6

Relation of Shallow Water Quality in the Central Oklahoma Aquifer to Geology, Soils, and Land Use  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to identify, describe, and explain relations between natural and land-use factors and ground-water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer NAWQA study unit. Natural factors compared to water quality included the geologic unit in which the sampled wells were completed and the properties of soils in the areas surrounding the wells. Land-use factors included types of land use and population densities surrounding sampled wells. Ground-water quality was characterized by concentrations of inorganic constituents, and by frequencies of detection of volatile organic compounds and pesticides. Water-quality data were from samples collected from wells 91 meters (300 feet) or less in depth as part of Permian and Quaternary geologic unit survey networks and from an urban survey network. Concentrations of many inorganic constituents were significantly related to geology. In addition, concentrations of many inorganic constituents were greater in water from wells from the Oklahoma City urban sampling network than in water from wells from low-density survey networks designed to evaluate ambient water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer study unit. However, sampling bias may have been induced by differences in hydrogeologic factors between sampling networks, limiting the ability to determine land-use effects on concentrations of inorganic constituents. Frequencies of detection of pesticide and volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground-water samples were related to land use and population density, with these compounds being more frequently detected in densely-populated areas. Geology and soil properties were not significantly correlated to pesticide or VOC occurrence in ground water. Lesser frequencies of detection of pesticides in water from wells in rural areas may be due to low to moderate use of those compounds on agricultural lands in the study unit, with livestock production being the primary agricultural activity. There are many possible sources of pesticides and VOC's in the urban areas of Central Oklahoma. Because only existing water-supply wells were sampled, it is not clear from the data collected whether pesticides and VOC's: (1) occur in low concentrations throughout upper portions of the aquifer in urban areas, or (2) are present in ground water only in the immediate vicinity of the wells due to back-flow of those chemicals into the wells or to inflow around cement seals and through gravel packs surrounding well casings of surface runoff containing those compounds.

Rea, Alan H.; Christenson, Scott C.; Andrews, William J.

2001-01-01

7

Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7 do not include long- and short-normal resistivity, spontaneous-potential, or single-point resistivity. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7A include only caliper and natural-gamma logs.

Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

1991-01-01

8

Planning report for the Edwards-Trinity Regional Aquifer-System analysis in central Texas, Southeast Oklahoma, and Southwest Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Edwards-Trinity regional aquifer system supplies more than 0.78 million acre-ft/yr (700 million gal/day) of water for central Texas and small adjacent parts of southeast Oklahoma and southwest Arkansas. Current (1986) and future concerns about the aquifer system involve the ever-increasing demand for water, most of which is associated with rapid population increases. Decreases in, or elimination of, spring discharges and encroachment of water from downdip saline water zones into updip freshwater zones are of primary concern in the area underlain by the Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer. Water level declines of several hundred ft in the Trinity aquifer are a serious concern in some metropolitan areas. The Edwards-Trinity regional aquifer-system analysis project, begun in October 1985 and scheduled to be completed by October 1991, is one of a series of similar projects being conducted nationwide. The project is intended to define the geohydrologic framework, and to describe the geochemistry and groundwater flow of the aquifer system in order to provide a better understanding of the system 's long-term water yielding potential. A multidisciplinary approach will be used in which computer-based digital simulation of flow in the system will be the principal method of geohydrologic investigation. (Author 's abstract)

Bush, P.W.

1986-01-01

9

Comparison of ground-water quality in samples from selected shallow and deep wells in the central Oklahoma aquifer, 2003-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquifer units of the Central Oklahoma aquifer underlie about 2,890 square miles of central Oklahoma and are used extensively to supply water for municipal, domestic, industrial, and agricultural needs. The Central Oklahoma aquifer also is commonly referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer because the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation yield the greatest quantities of usable water for domestic and high-capacity wells. The major water-quality concerns for the Central Oklahoma aquifer described by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program (1987 to 1992) were elevated concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in shallow water and the occurrence of arsenic, chromium, and selenium in parts of the aquifer. The quality of water from deep public-water supply wells in the Central Oklahoma aquifer is monitored by the State of Oklahoma. The chemical quality of water from shallow domestic wells is not monitored, and, therefore, there is a concern that well owners may be unknowingly ingesting water with nitrate nitrogen, arsenic, chromium, selenium, and other chemical constituents at concentrations that are considered harmful. As a result of this concern, the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborated on a study to sample water during June 2003 through August 2005 from 23 shallow wells (less than 200 feet in depth) and 28 deep wells (200 feet or greater in depth) completed in the bedrock aquifer units of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. The objectives of the study were to describe the chemical quality of water from shallow and deep wells and to determine if the differences in constituent concentrations are statistically significant. Water from shallow wells had significantly higher concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, and nitrate nitrogen than water from deep wells. There were no significant differences between concentrations of dissolved solids, sodium, and fluoride in water from shallow and deep wells. Water from 9 shallow wells had nitrate nitrogen concentrations greater than 2 milligrams per liter, suggesting nitrogen sources at land surface have had an effect on water from these wells. Water from three shallow wells (13 percent) exceeded the nitrate nitrogen maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in drinking water. Water from shallow wells had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic, chromium, iron, and selenium than water from deep wells, whereas, concentrations of barium, copper, manganese, and zinc were similar. Water-quality data indicate that arsenic frequently occurs in shallow ground water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer, but at low concentrations (<10 micrograms per liter). The occurrence of chromium and selenium in water from shallow wells was infrequent and at low concentrations in this study. It does not appear that the quality of water from a shallow well can be predicted based on the quality of water from a nearby deep well. The results show that in general terms, shallow ground water has significantly higher concentrations of most major ions and significantly lower concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and selenium than water from deep wells.

Becker, Carol J.

2006-01-01

10

SUBSURFACE WELL-LOG CORRELATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

The fluvial Garber Sandstone and the underlying Wellington Formation are important sources of drinking water in central Oklahoma. These formations, which make up much of the COA, consist of amalgamated sandstones with some interbedded mudstones, siltstones, and local mudstone- a...

11

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma. Ground water in 710 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer, composed of alluvial and terrace deposits, consists of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The aquifer is underlain and in hydraulic connection with the upper zone of the Permian-age Garber-Wellington aquifer and the Pennsylvanian-age Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. Most of the lines in the four digital data sets were digitized from a published ground-water modeling report but portions of the aquifer boundary data set was extracted from published digital geologic data sets. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G.P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Becker, C.J.

1997-01-01

12

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser in Central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser in central Oklahoma. Ground water in approximately 400 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace aquifer is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer consists of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. Sand-sized sediments dominate the poorly sorted, fine to coarse, unconsolidated quartz grains in the aquifer. The hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits unconformably overlie Permian-age formations. The aquifer is overlain by a layer of wind-blown sand in parts of the area. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were extracted from published digital surficial geology data sets based on a scale of 1:250,000. The ground-water elevation contours and some of the lines for the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were digitized from a ground-water modeling report about the aquifer published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values and recharge rates also are from the ground-water modeling report. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G.P.; Rea, Alan; Runkle, D.L.

1997-01-01

13

OUTCROP-BASED HIGH RESOLUTION GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA). CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

The COA supplies drinking water to a number of municipalities in central Oklahoma. Two major stratigraphic units in the COA, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, contain naturally occurring arsenic that exceeds government mandated drinking-water standards (EPA, 2001). ...

14

Analysis of regional aquifers in the central Midwest of the United States in Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming :summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large quantities of ground water are available for use from three regional aquifer systems in the central Midwest of the United States. Parts of the lowermost aquifer contain nearly immobile brine and may be hydrologically suitable for material storage or waste disposal. Results of numerical modeling and geochemical analyses confirm general concepts of ground-water flow in the regional aquifer systems.

Jorgensen, Donald G.; Helgesen, J.O.; Signor, D.C.; Leonard, R.B.; Imes, J.L.; Christenson, S.C.

1996-01-01

15

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace aquifer covers approximately 82 square miles and supplies water for irrigation, domestic, municipal, and industrial use for the City of Enid and western Garfield County. The Quaternary-age Enid isolated terrace aquifer is composed of terrace deposits that consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer is unconfined and is bounded by the underlying Permian-age Hennessey Group on the east and the Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation of the Permian-age El Reno Group on the west. The Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation fills a channel beneath the thickest section of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in the midwestern part of the aquifer. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:62,500. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

16

A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, ``One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation``. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the ``Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites``.

Brown, R.M.

1991-06-01

17

A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation''. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites''.

Brown, R.M.

1991-06-01

18

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City Aquifer in western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000 acres and supplies ground water for irrigation, domestic, and industrial purposes in Beckham, Custer, Roger Mills, and Washita Counties along the divide between the Washita and Red River basins. The Elk City aquifer consists of the Elk City Sandstone and overlying terrace deposits, made up of clay, silt, sand and gravel, and dune sands in the eastern part and sand and gravel of the Ogallala Formation (or High Plains aquifer) in the western part of the aquifer. The Elk City aquifer is unconfined and composed of very friable sandstone, lightly cemented with clay, calcite, gypsum, or iron oxide. Most of the grains are fine-sized quartz but the grain size ranges from clay to cobble in the aquifer. The Doxey Shale underlies the Elk City aquifer and acts as a confining unit, restricting the downward movement of ground water. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Elk City aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:63,360. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

19

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains Aquifer in western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver, and the western counties of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills. The High Plains aquifer underlies approximately 7,000 square miles of Oklahoma and is used extensively for irrigation. The High Plains aquifer is a water-table aquifer and consists predominately of the Tertiary-age Ogallala Formation and overlying Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits. In some areas the aquifer is absent and the underlying Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous-age rocks are exposed at the surface. These rocks are hydraulically connected with the aquifer in some areas. The High Plains aquifer is composed of interbedded sand, siltstone, clay, gravel, thin limestones, and caliche. The proportion of various lithological materials changes rapidly from place to place, but poorly sorted sand and gravel predominate. The rocks are poorly to moderately well cemented by calcium carbonate. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were created by extracting geologic contact lines from published digital surficial geology maps based on a scale of 1:125,000 for the panhandle counties and 1:250,000 for the western counties. The water-level elevation contours and some boundary lines were digitized from maps in a published water-level elevation map for 1980 based on a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity and recharge values in this report were used as input to the ground-water flow model on the High Plains aquifer. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

20

Digital data set that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format file This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers Sandstone is an important source of water in an area that underlies about 4,400-square miles of all or part of Atoka, Bryan, Carter, Choctaw, Johnston, Love, Marshall, McCurtain, and Pushmataha Counties. The Antlers aquifer consists of sand, clay, conglomerate, and limestone in the outcrop area. The upper part of the Antlers aquifer consists of beds of sand, poorly cemented sandstone, sandy shale, silt, and clay. The Antlers aquifer is unconfined where it outcrops in about an 1,800-square-mile area. The recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and aquifer boundaries data sets include the outcrop area of the Antlers Sandstone in Oklahoma and areas where the Antlers is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits and a few small thin outcrops of the Goodland Limestone. Most of the lines in these data sets were extracted from published digital geology data sets. Some of the lines were interpolated in areas where the Antlers aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits near streams and rivers. The interpolated lines are very similar to the aquifer boundaries published in a ground-water modeling report for the Antlers aquifer. The maps from which this data set was derived were scanned or digitized from maps published at a scale of 1:250,000. The water-level elevation contours were digitized from a map at a scale of 1:250,000 that was used to prepare the final map published in a ground-water flow model report. Hydraulic conductivity and recharge values also are published in the ground-water model report for the Antlers aquifer. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Abbott, Marvin M.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

21

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Rush Springs Aquifer in western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Rush Spring aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Blaine, Caddo, Canadian, Comanche, Custer, Dewey, Grady, Stephens, and Washita Counties. These digital data sets were developed by Mark F. Becker to use as input into a computer model that simulated ground-water flow in the Rush Springs aquifer (Mark F. Becker, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1997). For the purposes of modeling the ground-water flow in the Rush Springs aquifer, Mark F. Becker (written commun., 1997) defined the Rush Springs aquifer to include the Rush Springs Formation, alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, and parts of the Marlow Formations, particularly in the eastern part of the aquifer boundary area. The Permian-age Rush Springs Formation consists of highly cross-bedded sandstone with some interbedded dolomite and gypsum. The Rush Springs Formation is overlain by Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits that consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Rush Springs Formation is underlain by the Permian-age Marlow Formation that consists of interbedded sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, gypsum-anhydrite, and dolomite beds (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). The parts of the Marlow Formation that have high permeability and porosity are where the Marlow Formation is included as part of the Rush Springs aquifer. The Rush Springs aquifer underlies about 2,400 square miles of western Oklahoma and is an important source of water for irrigation, livestock, industrial, municipal, and domestic use. Irrigation wells are reported to have well yields greater than 1,000 gallons per minute (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). Mark F. Becker created some of the aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets by digitizing parts of previously published surficial geology maps. The hydraulic conductivity and recharge values are the input data to the ground-water flow model (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). The water-level elevation data set was prepared at a scale of 1:250,000 by Mark F. Becker (written commun., 1997) from water levels measured in wells prior to the year 1950. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Runkle, D.L.; Becker, M.F.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

22

Helminth fauna of waterfowl in central Oklahoma.  

PubMed

Free-ranging waterfowl wintering in and migrating through central Oklahoma were collected and examined for intestinal helminths. Seventy-one ducks, including mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), American widgeons (Anas americana), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were examined; 64 (90.1%) harbored one or more species of metazoa. Six cestodes, 6 trematodes, 6 nematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan were identified, An experimental, non-flying population of ducks was established and monitored to determine the extent of helminth transmission in central Oklahoma. Seven species of helminths were acquired by the sentinel birds during the study. The significance of the parasites recovered and variations in prevalence and species composition of the infections are discussed as they relate to the life cycles of the parasites and the ecology of the hosts. PMID:7373725

Shaw, M G; Kocan, A A

1980-01-01

23

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

24

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

25

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

26

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2014-07-01

27

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2011-07-01

28

Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

Cederstrand, J.R.; Becker, M.F.

1998-01-01

29

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2012-07-01

30

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

31

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2014-07-01

32

Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square miles in eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set represents a compilation of information from digital and paper sources and personal communication. This boundary is an update to the boundary published in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, and this report supersedes Open-File Report 99-267. The purpose of this data set is to refine and update the extent of the High Plains aquifer based on currently available information. This data set represents a compilation of arcs from a variety of sources and scales that represent the 174,000 square-mile extent of the High Plains aquifer within the eight states. Where updated information was not available, the original boundary extent defined by OFR 99-267 was retained. The citations for the sources in each State are listed in the 00README.txt file. The boundary also contains internal polygons, or 'islands', that represent the areas within the aquifer boundary where the aquifer is not present due to erosion or non-deposition. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

Qi, Sharon

2010-01-01

33

A preliminary appraisal of the Garber-Wellington Aquifer, southern Logan and northern Oklahoma counties, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Garber-Wellington aquifer, which dips westward at 30 to 40 feet per mile, consists of about 900 feet of interbedded sandstone, shale, and siltstone. Sandstone comprises 35 to 75 percent of the aquifer and averages about 50 percent. Water-table conditions generally exist in the upper 200 feet in the outcrop area of the aquifer; semi-artesian or artesian conditions exist below a depth of 200 feet and beneath rocks of the Hennessey Group (predominantly shale) where the aquifer is fully saturated. Water containing more than 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids occurs at various depths through the area. The altitude of the base of fresh water ranges from 250 feet above sea level in the south-central part of the area to 950 feet in the northwestern part. The thickness of the fresh-water zone ranges from less than 150 feet in the northern part of the area to about 850 feet in the southern part. The total amount of water stored in the fresh-water zone is estimated to be 21 million acre-feet based on specific yield of 0.20. Minimum recharge to the aquifer in 1975 is estimated to be 190 acre-feet per square mile or about 10 percent of the annual precipitation. Total minimum recharge to the aquifer in the study area in 1975 is estimated to be 129,000 acre-feet. Streams in the area are the principal means of ground-water discharge; the amount of discharge is essentially the same as recharge. The amount of groundwater used for municipal and rural water supply in 1975 is estimated to have been 5,000 acre-feet; a similar amount may have been used for industrial purposes. As a result of pumping, the potentiometric surface in 1975 had been lowered about 200 feet in the vicinity of Edmond and about 100 feet in the vicinity of Nichols Hills. Chemical analyses of water from the aquifer indicates that hardness is greater in the upper part of the aquifer than in the lower part, and that sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids increase with depth. Reported yields of wells more than 250 feet deep range from 70 to 475 gallons per minute and average 240 gallons per minute. Potential well yields range from 225 gallons per minute when the fresh-water zone is 350 feet thick to about 550 gallons per minute where the fresh water zone is 850 feet thick. These estimates of potential yield are based on an available drawdown of half the thickness of the fresh-water zone and a specific capacity of 1.3 gallons per minute per foot. Intrusion of saline water into the fresh-water zone is a potential threat to water quality in the aquifer if the pressure head in the fresh-water zone is reduced sufficiently to allow upconing of saline water. One way to avoid the problem of upconing is by steady pumping at low rates from widely spaced wells; however, information required to determine pumping rates and well spacing is not available. For proper aquifer management the distribution of wells and rates of withdrawals should be designed to capture maximum recharge to the ground-water system. This may be accomplished by developing regional ground-water gradients that are sufficiently large to move water to pumpage centers but not so steep as to cause upconing of saline water or excessive water-level declines.

Carr, Jerry E.; Marcher, Melvin V.

1977-01-01

34

Altitude and configuration of the 1980 water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties (sheet 1), and for the Panhandle area, consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties (sheet 2). Water levels were measured in January, February, and March 1980 by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board.

Havens, John S.

1982-01-01

35

Aquifer Tests and Characterization of Transmissivity, Ada-Vamoosa Aquifer on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of northeastern Oklahoma is a sedimentary bedrock aquifer of Pennsylvanian age that crops out over 800 square miles of the Osage Reservation. The Osage Nation needed additional information regarding the production potential of the aquifer to aid them in future development planning. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Osage Nation, conducted a study of aquifer properties in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. This report presents the results of the aquifer tests from 20 wells in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer and one well in a minor aquifer east of the Ada-Vamoosa outcrop on the Osage Reservation. Well information for 17 of the 21 wells in this report was obtained from the Indian Health Service. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during this investigation are pumping well data from four domestic wells collected during the summer of 2006. Transmissivity values were calculated from well pumping data or were estimated from specific capacity values depending on the reliability of the data. The estimated transmissivity values are 1.1 to 4.3 times greater than the calculated transmissivity values. The calculated and estimated transmissivity values range from 5 to 1,000 feet squared per day.

Abbott, Marvin M.; DeHay, Kelli

2008-01-01

36

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace aquifer encompasses the unconsolidated terrace deposits and alluvium associated with the North Fork of the Red River and the Red River in the western half of Tillman County. These sediments consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer extends over an area of 285 square miles and is used for irrigation and domestic purposes. Granite and the Hennessey Formation outcrop in northern parts of the aquifer where alluvial deposits are absent. These outcrops were included as part of the aquifer in a thesis that modeled the ground-water flow in the aquifer. Most of the aquifer boundaries and some of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity and recharge data sets were extracted from a published digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of 1:250,000. Most of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and 1969 water-level elevation contour data sets, and one line in the aquifer boundary data set were digitized from a paper map published at a scale of 1:249,695 in a thesis in which the ground-water flow in the aquifer was modeled. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

37

Hydrogeologic data for the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a compilation of hydrogeologic data collected for an areal ground-water investigation of the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas. The study area includes parts of Greer, Harmon, and Jackson counties in Oklahoma and parts of Childress, Collingsworth, Hall, Hardeman, and Wilbarger counties in Texas. The Blaine aquifer consists of cavernous gypsum and dolomite beds. Water from the Blaine aquifer supports a local agriculture based mainly on irrigated cotton and wheat. The purpose of the study was to determine the availability, quantity, and quality of ground water from the Blaine aquifer and associated units. This report provides a reference for some of the data that was used as input into a computer ground-water flow model that simulates ground-water flow in the Blaine aquifer. The data in this report consists of: (1) Monthly or periodic water-level measurements in 134 wells; (2) daily mean water-level measurements for 11 wells equipped with water-level recorders; (3) daily total precipitation measurements from five precipitation gages; (4) low-flow stream-discharge measurements for 89 stream sites; (5) miscellaneous stream-discharge measurements at seven stream sites; (6) chemical analyses of surface water from 78 stream sites during low-flow periods; (7) chemical analyses of ground water from 41 wells; and (8) chemical analyses of runoff water collected at five sites.

Runkle, D.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Fabian, R.S.

1997-01-01

38

Winter Precipitation Microphysics Characterized by Polarimetric Radar and Video Disdrometer Observations in Central Oklahoma  

E-print Network

Observations in Central Oklahoma GUIFU ZHANG AND SEAN LUCHS School of Meteorology, and Atmospheric Radar Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma ALEXANDER RYZHKOV Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, Norman, Oklahoma MING XUE School of Meteorology, and Center for Analysis

Xue, Ming

39

Oklahoma BEEF Incorporated (OBI) Bull Delivery Sheet Central bull testing at Oklahoma BEEF, Incorporated, is managed and supervised with the emphasis on the performance, health, and safety of the bulls; however, Oklahoma  

E-print Network

Oklahoma BEEF Incorporated (OBI) Bull Delivery Sheet Central bull testing at Oklahoma BEEF; however, Oklahoma BEEF, Incorporated, its board of directors, employees, advisors and office secretary for Oklahoma Cattle *Out of state cattle must comply with Oklahoma Animal Health requirements Date Tested

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

40

Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Hunton anticline, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a digital data release for multiple geophysical surveys conducted in the Hunton anticline area of south-central Oklahoma. The helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys were flown on March 16–17, 2007, in four areas of the Hunton anticline in south-central Oklahoma. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The electromagnetic sensor for the helicopter electromagnetic survey consisted of six different transmitter-receiver orientations that measured the earth's electrical response at six distinct frequencies from approximately 500 Hertz to approximately 115,000 Hertz. The electromagnetic measurements were converted to electrical resistivity values, which were gridded and plotted on georeferenced maps. The map from each frequency represents a different depth of investigation for each area. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow groundwater. The four areas selected for the helicopter electromagnetic study, blocks A–D, have different geologic and hydrologic settings. Geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by modelers and resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer.

Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Blome, Charles D.; Hill, Patricia

2011-01-01

41

Altitude and configuration of the predevelopment water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area (sheet 1) and for the Panhandle area (sheet 2). In the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, water levels measured from the 1950's to the 1970's represent predevelopment conditions and were obtained from published and unpublished data in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the Panhandle, predevelopment contours were based on measurements made from 1937 to 1940. Some water levels in Beaver County were measured as late as 1959 in areas where significant development had not occurred previously.

Havens, John S.

1982-01-01

42

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

2010-07-01

43

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

2011-07-01

44

Gravity investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian wells in and around the park. A confining layer of well-cemented conglomerate lies immediately below the surface of the recreation area, and groundwater migrates from an area of meteoric recharge where rocks of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer crop out as close as two kilometers to the east of the park. Prominent, Pennsylvanian-aged faults are exposed in the aquifer outcrop, and two of the fault traces project beneath the conglomerate cover toward two groups of springs within the northern section of the park. We conducted gravity fieldwork and analysis to investigate the subsurface extensions of these major faults beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area. By defining gravity signatures of the faults where they are exposed, we infer that the Sulphur and Mill Creek Faults bend to the south-west where they are buried. The South Sulphur Fault may project westward linearly if it juxtaposes rocks that have a density contrast opposite that of that fault's density configuration in the Sulphur Syncline area. The Sulphur Syncline, whose eastern extent is exposed in the outcrop area of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, does not appear to extend beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area nor the adjacent City of Sulphur. The South Sulphur Fault dips steeply northward, and its normal sense of offset suggests that the Sulphur Syncline is part of a graben. The Mill Creek Fault dips vertically, and the Reagan Fault dips southward, consistent with its being mapped as a thrust fault. The Sulphur and Mill Creek Synclines may have formed as pull-apart basins in a left-lateral, left-stepping strike-slip environment. The character of the gravity field of Chickasaw National Recreation Area is different from the lineated gravity field in the area of Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer outcrop. This change in character is not due to the presence of the overlying conglomerate layer, which is quite thin (<100 m) in the area of the park with the springs. The presence of relatively high-density Precambrian basement rocks in a broader region suggests that significant gravity anomalies may arise from variations in basement topography. Understanding of the geological configuration of Chickasaw National Recreation Area can be improved by expanding the study area and by investigating complementary geophysical and borehole constraints of the subsurface.

Scheirer, Daniel S.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford

2006-01-01

45

Risk across disciplines: An interdisciplinary examination of water and drought risk in South-Central Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is a challenge faced by communities across the United States, exacerbated by growing demands on water resources and climate variability and change. The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer (ASA) in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only free-flowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To examine this question, we are conducting an investigation of drought risk from multiple disciplines. Anthropological data comes from stakeholder interviews that were designed to investigate conflict over water management by understanding how people perceive risk differently based on different opinions about the structure of the resource, varying levels of trust in authorities, and unequal access to resources. . The Cultural Theory of Risk is used to explain how people view risks as part of their worldviews and why people who hold different worldviews disagree about risks associated with water availability. Meteorological analyses of longitudinal data indicate periods of drought that are noted in stakeholder interviews. Analysis of stream gauge data investigates the influence of climate variability on local hydrologic impacts, such as changing groundwater levels and streamflows, that are relevant to planning and management decisions in the ASA. Quantitative assessment of future drought risk and associated uncertainty and their effect on type and scale of future economic and social impacts are achieved by combining elements of statistical and dynamical downscaling to improve predictions of local impacts using Hybrid Statistical-Dynamical Downscaling Technique.

Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.; Towler, E.; McPherson, R. A.

2013-12-01

46

Distribution and variability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the alluvial, High Plains, Rush Springs, and Blaine aquifers in western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquifers are the primary source of water for drinking and agricultural purposes in western Oklahoma. Health concerns about consuming nitrogen and an increased reliance on ground water for drinking necessitate a better understanding of the cause and effect of contamination from nutrients. The purpose of this project was to compile nutrients data from the National Water Information System data base for the alluvial aquifers west of longitude 98 degrees W. and from three bedrock aquifers, High Plains, Rush Springs, and Blaine, and provide this information in a report for future projects and for the facilitation of nutrient source management. The scope of the work consisted of (1) compiling ground-water quality data concerning nitrogen and phosphorus ions, (2) constructing boxplots illustrating data variability, (3) maps for each aquifer showing locations of wells when nitrogen and phosphorus ions were measured in ground water and where concentrations of nitrate and nitrite, reported as nitrogen, exceed the maximum contaminant level, and (4) calculating summary statistics. Nutrient data were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey data base called the National Water Information System. Data were restricted to ground-water samples, but no restrictions were placed on well and water use or date and time of sampling. Compiled nutrient data consist of dissolved and total concentrations of the common nitrogen and phosphorus ions measured in ground water. For nitrogen these ions include nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and nitrite plus nitrate. All concentrations are reported in milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Phosphorus in ground water is measured as the orthophosphate ion, and is reported in milligrams per liter as phosphorus. Nutrient variability is illustrated by a standard boxplot. The data are presented by aquifer or hydrologic subregion for alluvial aquifers, with one boxplot constructed for each nutrient compound if more than four analyses are present. Maps for each aquifer show where nitrogen and phosphorus have been measured in ground water and where the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite exceed the maximum contaminant level. A statistical summary for each aquifer and subregion show if censored data were present, number of samples in each data set, largest minimum reporting level for each nutrient compound, percentiles used to construct boxplots, and minimum and maximum values. Also given are the number of wells sampled in each aquifer and the number of wells exceeding the maximum contaminant level.

Becker, C.J.

1994-01-01

47

Contamination of wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer by abandoned zinc and lead mines, Ottawa County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Roubidoux aquifer in Ottawa County Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. Water in the Roubidoux aquifer in eastern Ottawa County has relatively low dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 mg/L) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. The Boone Formation is stratigraphically above the Roubidoux aquifer and is the host rock for zinc and lead sulfide ores, with the richest deposits located in the vicinity of the City of Picher. Mining in what became known as the Picher mining district began in the early 1900's and continued until about 1970. The water in the abandoned zinc and lead mines contains high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Water from the abandoned mines is a potential source of contamination to the Roubidoux aquifer and to wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer. Water samples were collected from wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer in the Picher mining district and from wells outside the mining district to determine if 10 public supply wells in the mining district are contaminated. The chemical analyses indicate that at least 7 of the 10 public supply wells in the Picher mining district are contaminated by mine water. Application of the Mann-Whitney test indicated that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination are different in water samples from wells in the mining area as compared to wells outside the mining area. Application of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination were higher in current (1992-93) data than in historic (1981-83) data, except for pH, which was lower in current than in historic data. pH and sulfate, alkalinity, bicarbonate, magnesium, iron, and tritium concentrations consistently indicate that the Cardin, Commerce 1, Commerce 3, Picher 2, Picher 3, Picher 4, and Quapaw 2 wells are contaminated.

Christenson, Scott C.

1995-01-01

48

Effects of climate variations and soil conservation on sedimentation of a west-central Oklahoma reservoir  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the second half of the 20th century, extensive soil conservation practices were implemented on the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in West-Central Oklahoma. Sediment and flow observations were made on major tributaries in 1943-1950 (pre-conservation time period), and again in 2004-2008 (post-co...

49

Impact of climate change on soil erosion, runoff, and wheat productivity in central Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for global climate changes to increase the risk of soil erosion is clear, but the actual damage is not. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion, surface runoff, and wheat productivity in central Oklahoma. Monthly projections were used from the Hadley Centre's general circulation model, HadCM3, using scenarios

X. C. Zhang; M. A. Nearing

2005-01-01

50

Aphids and parasitoids in wheat and nearby canola fields in central Oklahoma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In central Oklahoma, winter canola has recently become the primary rotational winter crop with wheat. Annual aphid pest outbreaks in canola have resulted in widespread insecticide applications. Insect parasitoids, which frequently suppress aphids in nearby wheat, may move to canola due to the larg...

51

Equivalent dose distribution analysis of Holocene eolian and fluvial quartz sands from Central Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holocene quartz sands were collected from fluvial terrace deposits and eolian dune deposits adjacent to the North Canadian and Cimarron Rivers and their tributaries in Central Oklahoma. Single aliquot regenerative dose optically stimulated luminescence techniques were employed to generate equivalent dose (ED) distribution histograms for each sample. We hypothesize that the ED distributions are convolutions of the distribution arising from

Kenneth Lepper; Niels Agersnap Larsen; Stephen W. S McKeever

2000-01-01

52

Multi-year precipitation variations and water resources in west-central Oklahoma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Persistent, multi-year departures in annual precipitation from mean have been observed in central Oklahoma. Precipitation departures caused by a sequence of predominantly wet or dry years and lasting 5 or more years are called wet or dry periods, respectively. Impacts of wet and dry periods on water...

53

LITTLE BLUESTEM [SCHIZACHYRIUM SCOPARIUM (MICHX.) NASH]: USEFUL FORAGE FOR GRAZING ANIMALS IN CENTRAL OKLAHOMA?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium, SCSC) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii, ANGE) are among the dominant species of tallgrass prairie in central Oklahoma. Little bluestem is considered less valuable for grazing due to its tussock growth form and perceived lower forage quality. Productiv...

54

Analysis and modeling of spatial correlation structure in small-scale rainfall in Central Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial correlation structure in small-scale rainfall is analyzed based on a dense cluster of raingauges in Central Oklahoma. This cluster, called the EVAC PicoNet, consists of 53 gauges installed in 25 measurement stations covering an area of about 3km by 3km. Two raingauges are placed in 24 stations and five in the central station. Three aspects of the estimated spatial

Grzegorz J. Ciach; Witold F. Krajewski

2006-01-01

55

Plan of study for the High Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ogallala Formation and associated Tertiary and Quarternary deposits from the principal aquifers supporting irrigation in the High Plains of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The volume of water in storage within the aquifers is declining in most of the High Plains because water is being withdrawn in excess of the rate of replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains aquifer system to develop the geohydrologic data base and computer models of the ground-water flow system needed to evaluate the response of the aquifer system to ground-water management alternatives. This report describes the objectives, plan, and organization of the study and outlines the work to be accomplished in each State in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

Weeks, John B.

1978-01-01

56

Enhanced recharge and karst, Edwards aquifer, south central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced recharge is a water management strategy which can add significant quantities of ground water to the available water resources of the San Antonio region by utilizing the immense storage capacity of the unconfined zone of the Edwards aquifer. The Edwards aquifer presently is the sole source of water for a population of over 1,200,000, meeting public supply, industrial, and irrigation demands over a wide area of south central Texas. Valdina Farms Sinkhole is located adjacent to Seco Creek in Medina County and is in the recharge zone of the aquifer. Initial studies indicated that the sinkholes was capable of taking flood flows from Seco Creek and functioning as a recharge structure. Stream channels in the cavern system associated with Valdina Farms Sinkhole were incised into cave deposits and flood debris was present in the caverns at some distance from the sinkhole. Chemical analyses of samples of water from the cave and from nearby wells showed nitrate concentrations that decreased with distance from the cavern. Gradient of the potentiometric surface in the vicinity of the cave was very low, indicating high values of hydraulic conductivity for the aquifer. Based on evidence from these field studies a dam was constructed in 1982 on Seco Creek and a flood diversion channel was excavated to the sinkhole. Reservoir capacity is 2 acre-feet and design recharge rate is 3.8-6.7 m[sup 3]/sec. Annual recharge at the sinkhole has varied from 0 during periods of low runoff to 12,915 acre-feet.

Hammond, W.W. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Water Research)

1993-02-01

57

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries, maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma. Ground water in 1,305 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. Alluvial and terrace deposits are composed of interfingering lenses of clay, sandy clay, and cross-bedded poorly sorted sand and gravel. The aquifer is composed of hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits that unconformably overlie the Permian-age Formations. The aquifer boundaries are from a ground-water modeling report on the alluvial and terrace aquifer along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma and published digital surficial geology data sets. The aquifer boundary data set was created from digital geologic data sets from maps published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values, recharge rates, and ground-water level elevation contours are from the ground-water modeling report. Water-level elevation contours were digitized from a map at a scale of 1:250,000. The maps were published at a scale of 1:900,000. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G.P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, J.R.

1997-01-01

58

Groundwater modeling of the Calera Aquifer region in Central Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Calera Aquifer is the main source of water for irrigated agriculture, industrial, and drinking water purposes in the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 80% of the total groundwater extracted from the Calera Aquifer. In recent years, ...

59

Ground-water flow in the Gulf Coast aquifer systems, south-central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Gulf Coast regional aquifer systems constitute one of the largest, most complicated, and most interdependent aquifer systems in the United States. Ground-water flow in a 230,000-square-mile area of the south-central United States was modeled for the effect of withdrawing freshwater at the rate of nearly 10 billion gallons per day in 1985 from regional aquifers in the Mississippi Embayment, the Texas coastal uplands, and the coastal lowlands aquifer systems. The 1985 rate of pumping was three times the average rate of recharge to the aquifers before development. The report also estimates the effects of even greater withdrawal rates in the aquifer systems. About two-thirds of the water in the aquifers is saline to brine, which complicates the modeling. Land subsidence due to water withdrawal also was modeled.

Williamson, A.K.; Grubb, H.F.

2001-01-01

60

Geochemistry of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma provides water for public supply, farms, mining, wildlife conservation, recreation, and the scenic beauty of springs, streams, and waterfalls. A new understanding of the aquifer flow system was developed as part of the Arbuckle-Simpson Hydrology Study, done in 2003 through 2008 as a collaborative research project between the State of Oklahoma and the Federal government. The U.S. Geological Survey collected 36 water samples from 32 wells and springs in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in 2004 through 2006 for geochemical analyses of major ions, trace elements, isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, dissolved gases, and dating tracers. The geochemical analyses were used to characterize the water quality in the aquifer, to describe the origin and movement of ground water from recharge areas to discharge at wells and springs, and to determine the age of water in the aquifer.

Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L.; Osborn, Noel I.

2009-01-01

61

Behavior of North-Central Texas Paleozoic Aquifers: Geological Controls vs. Surface Water Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleozoic formations and small associated aquifers (Paleozoic aquifers) of North-Central Texas could become a target as Barnett Shale gas play development progresses westward. Paleozoic aquifers lie west of the productive Trinity aquifer, but well yields from Paleozoic aquifers are much lower. Although many recharge features such as streams and lakes exist in the region, lower salinity groundwater (<5,000 ppm) in Paleozoic aquifers is found mostly in outcrop areas, and salinity increases rapidly downdip. The limited availability of fresh water in Paleozoic aquifers could be attributed to the low permeability of the geological formations, whose regional trends show transition westward to muddier facies downdip. On the other hand, high water flux through geological formations by surface water driven circulation could generate active shallow systems having limited interaction with downdip confined sections. Whether such active shallow systems exist in the Paleozoic aquifers is unknown but important in understanding the behavior of Paleozoic aquifers. With the ultimate goal of quantifying Paleozoic aquifer capacity and yield, the study addresses the following related questions: (1) Are there active shallow systems associated with Paleozoic aquifers? (2) How does the groundwater interact with surface water in this environment? and (3) Does groundwater production in this system capture appreciable surface water? Hydraulic properties of geological formations, groundwater flow, and surface water fluxes (precipitation, recharge, evapotranspiration, streamflow, etc.) are analyzed to evaluate the main processes driving the regional hydrology. Hydrology of the Trinity and Paleozoic aquifers is compared to explain the difference in behavior between the two neighboring aquifers. Expected findings include a quantification of groundwater availability of Paleozoic aquifers and an understanding of how surface water influences groundwater availability. The study will (1) quantify groundwater and surface water fluxes, (2) enhance our understanding of groundwater surface water interaction in the footprint of the Paleozoic aquifers, and (3) provide a basis for evaluating groundwater production potential.

Huang, Y.; Wolaver, B. D.; Nicot, J.; Mercier, J.; Hingst, M.; Breton, C.

2011-12-01

62

Investigating groundwater flow between Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas.  

PubMed

Understanding the nature of communication between aquifers can be challenging when using traditional physical and geochemical groundwater sampling approaches. This study uses two multiport wells completed within Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas to determine the degree of groundwater inter-flow between adjacent aquifers. Potentiometric surfaces, hydraulic conductivities, and groundwater major ion concentrations and Sr isotope values were measured from multiple zones within three hydrostratigraphic units (Edwards and Upper and Middle Trinity aquifers). Physical and geochemical data from the multiport wells were combined with historical measurements of groundwater levels and geochemical compositions from the region to characterize groundwater flow and identify controls on the geochemical compositions of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. Our results suggest that vertical groundwater flow between Edwards and Middle Trinity aquifers is likely limited by low permeability, evaporite-rich units within the Upper and Middle Trinity. Potentiometric surface levels in both aquifers vary with changes in wet vs. dry conditions, indicating that recharge to both aquifers occurs through distinct recharge areas. Geochemical compositions in the Edwards, Upper, and Middle Trinity aquifers are distinct and likely reflect groundwater interaction with different lithologies (e.g., carbonates, evaporites, and siliceous sediments) as opposed to mixing of groundwater between the aquifers. These results have implications for the management of these aquifers as they indicate that, under current conditions, pumping of either aquifer will likely not induce vertical cross-formational flow between the aquifers. Inter-flow between the Trinity and the Edwards aquifers, however, should be reevaluated as pumping patterns and hydrogeologic conditions change. PMID:24033308

Wong, C I; Kromann, J S; Hunt, B B; Smith, B A; Banner, J L

2014-01-01

63

Hydrogeological framework of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system underlies about 42,000 square miles of west-central Texas, where mostly gently dipping Lower Cretaceous strata comprise three regional aquifers and two regional confining units. The aquifers are the Edwards Aquifer of the Balcones fault zone, the Trinity Aquifer of the Balcones fault zone and Hill County, and the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer of the Edwards Plateau and Trans-Pecos. The Navarro-Del Rio confining unit confines the downdip part of the Edwards Aquifer, and the Hammett confining unit confines the updip, basal part of the Trinity Aquifer and a small southeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer. Transmissivity averages less than 10,000 feet squared per day throughout more than 90 percent of the study area as the result of widespread cementation and secondary mineral growth. However, in fractured and leached rocks in the Balcones fault zone, transmissivity averages about 750,000 feet squared per day in the Edwards aquifer, which occupies less than 10 percent of the area.

Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

1996-01-01

64

Geohydrology and simulation of steady-state flow conditions in regional aquifer systems in Cretaceous and older rocks underlying Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three regional aquifers systems are the basis for describing the geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the central United States. The Great Plains aquifer system, composed of Lower Cretaceous sandstone, generally contains brackish water (1,000 to 10,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids); the Western Interior Plains aquifer system of lower Paleozoic rocks contains saline water and is laterally adjacent to the freshwater-bearing Ozark Plateaus aquifer system composed of rocks of the same age.

Signor, D.C.; Helgesen, J.O.; Jorgensen, D.G.; Leonard, R.B.

1997-01-01

65

Geologic history and hydrogeologic setting of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system is in Lower Cretaceous rocks that underlie about 42,000 square miles of west-central Texas. From predominately terrigenous clastic sediments in the east and fluvial-deltaic (terrestrial) deposits in the west, the rocks of early Trinitian age grade upward into supratidal evaporitic and dolomitic strata, intertidal limestone and dolomite rock, and shallow- marine, open-shelf, and reefal strata of late Trinitian, Fredericksburgian, and Washitan age. The aquifers are the Edwards aquifer of the Balcones fault zone, the Trinity aquifer of the Balcones fault zone and Hill Country, and the Edwards- Trinity aquifer of the Edwards Plateau and Trans- Pecos. The Navarro-Del Rio confining unit overlies the subcrop of the Edwards aquifer; the Hammett con- fining unit is within the updip, basal part of the Trinity aquifer and a small southeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer. Transmissivity values average less than 10,000 feet squared per day over more than 90 percent of the study area because of widespread cementation, recrystallization, and mineral replacement. However, fractured and leached rocks in the Balcones fault zone cause transmissivity values to average about 750,000 feet squared per day in the Edwards aquifer, which occupies less than 10 percent of the study area.

Barker, R.A.; Bush, P.W.; Baker, E.T.

1994-01-01

66

Preliminary digital model of the Arikaree aquifer in the Sweetwater River basin, central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In central Wyoming, Potentially large supplies of ground water are available in the Sweetwater River basin from the Arikaree aquifer, which consists of the upper part of the White River, the Arikaree, and the Ogallala Formations. A preliminary digital model was developed for the Arikaree aquifer using a small amount of poorly distributed data, an estimated distribution of recharge, and a conceptual model of the Arikaree aquifer flow system. Calibration of the model was based on reproduction of the potentiometric surface and the base flow of the Sweetwater River in November 1975. Calculated steady-state hydraulic heads were within 50 feet of the observed heads in about 98 percent of the nodes. The calculated leakage from the Arikaree aquifer to he Sweetwater River in the western area was within about 12 percent of the leadage determined by gain and loss studies. In order to develop a comprehensive digital model that would respond to hydraulic stress in nearly the same manner as the actual aquifer flow system, measured responses of the aquifer to stress are needed. Also needed are additional data on aquifer characteristics, recharge to the aquifer, and stream-aquifer relationships. (Woodard-USGS)

Borchert, W.B.

1977-01-01

67

Ecological Assessment of Several Central Oklahoma Streams Through Evaluation of Fish Communities and Habitat in a Drought Year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of stream ecological health by monitoring chemical water quality alone fails to include important physical habitat and biological integrity parameters that may be critical to a valid assessment of human impact. As part of a larger monitoring effort, we performed rapid ecological assessments, including both habitat and biological community evaluations, for 10 streams in three central Oklahoma counties during

Angie M. Spence; Melissa L. Smith; Robert W. Nairn

1999-01-01

68

Digital map of changes in water levels from predevelopment to 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours of predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation changes for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation change from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

69

Carbonate aquifer of the Central Roswell Basin: recharge estimation by numerical modeling  

SciTech Connect

The flow of ground water in the Roswell, New Mexico, Artesian Basin, has been studied since the early 1900s and varied ideas have been proposed to explain different aspects of the ground water flow system. The purpose of the present study was to delineate the spatial distribution and source, or sources, of recharge to the carbonate aquifer of the central Roswell Basin. A computer model was used to simulate ground water flow in the carbonate aquifer, beneath and west of Roswell and in the Glorieta Sandstone and Yeso Formation west of the carbonate aquifer.

Rehfeldt, K.R.; Gross, G.W.

1982-02-01

70

Occurrence of nitrous oxide in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrogen-enriched groundwater has been proposed as an important anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), yet few measurements of N2O in large aquifer systems have been made. Concentrations of N2O in water samples collected from the 124 000 km2 central High Plains aquifer in 1999 ranged from < 1 to 940 nM, with a median concentration of 29 nM (n = 123). Eighty percent of the N20 concentrations exceeded the aqueous concentration expected from equilibration with atmospheric N2O. Measurements of N2O, NO3-, and 3H in unsaturated-zone sediments, recently recharged groundwater, and older groundwater indicate that concentrations of N2O in groundwater increased over time and will likely continue to increase in the future as N-enriched water recharges the aquifer. Large concentrations of O2 and NO3- and small concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic carbon in the aquifer indicate that N2O in the central High Plains aquifer was produced primarily by nitrification. Calculations indicate that the flux of N2O from the central High Plains aquifer to the atmosphere from well pumping and groundwater discharge to streams was not a significant source of atmospheric N2O.Nitrogen-enriched groundwater has been proposed as an important anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), yet few measurements of N2O in large aquifer systems have been made. Concentrations of N2O in water samples collected from the 124000 km2 central High Plains aquifer in 1999 ranged from < 1 to 940 nM, with a median concentration of 29 nM (n = 123). Eighty percent of the N2O concentrations exceeded the aqueous concentration expected from equilibration with atmospheric N2O. Measurements of N2O, NO3-, and 3H in unsaturated-zone sediments, recently recharged groundwater, and older groundwater indicate that concentrations of N2O in groundwater increased over time and will likely continue to increase in the future as N-enriched water recharges the aquifer. Large concentrations of O2 and NO3- and small concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic carbon in the aquifer indicate that N2O in the central High Plains aquifer was produced primarily by nitrification. Calculations indicate that the flux of N2O from the central High Plains aquifer to the atmosphere from well pumping and groundwater discharge to streams was not a significant source of atmospheric N2O.Water samples were collected from 92 domestic wells, 16 monitoring wells and 15 public-supply wells in the High Plains Aquifer in 1999, and concentrations of nitrous oxide were measured. The groundwater concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 940 nM. Concentrations expressed as a percent of saturation in water ranged from less than 10 to 9690%. A significant decrease was noted in N2O concentrations with increasing depth of the well screen below the water table, and a significant positive correlation was found between the concentrations of N2O and nitrate. The small area-averaged N2O emission rate for the aquifer indicated that it was not an important component of the atmospheric N2O budget, but the importance could increase as groundwater N2O concentrations increase.

McMahon, P.B.; Bruch, B.W.; Becker, M.F.; Pope, L.M.; Dennehy, K.F.

2000-01-01

71

Growth of Cities and Loss of Streams: Land Cover Change Impacts on Stream Channel Loss in Central Oklahoma from 1874 to 2010  

EPA Science Inventory

Central Oklahoma has undergone substantial land cover changes since the 1800’s. Accordingly, regional watersheds have been covered by impervious surfaces, peripheral agricultural areas have been subdivided or intensified, and large reservoirs have been constructed. Here, we...

72

Historical saturated thickness of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and selected contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The saturated thickness of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system exceeds 1,000 feet in the southern part of the aquifer system and thins to less than 100 feet near the northern limits. The Edwards- Trinity aquifer system of west-central Texas is composed primarily of Cretaceous limestone and dolomite. The three aquifers comprising the aquifer system are the Edwards aquifer of the Balcones fault zone, the Trinity aquifer of the Balcones fault zone and Hill Country, and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer of the Edwards Plateau and Trans-Pecos. The two confining units within the aquifer system are the Hammett and the Navarro-Del Rio confining units, neither of which is laterally extensive throughout the entire aquifer system. The saturated thickness was determined by subtracting the altitude of the base of the aquifer system from the altitude of the historical potentiometric surface. Variations in saturated thickness result from variations in the altitude of the base of the aquifer and the altitude of the historical potentiometric surface. Troughs and ridges on the pre-Cretaceous surface upon which the aquifer system rests affect the thickness of saturation. The potentiometric surface is depressed in areas of stream dissection, resulting in less saturated thickness in these areas.

Ardis, Ann F.; Barker, Rene A.

1993-01-01

73

Quality Characteristics of Ground Water in the Ozark Aquifer of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of water quantity and quality concerns within the Ozark aquifer, the State of Kansas in 2004 issued a moratorium on most new appropriations from the aquifer until results were made available from a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kansas Water Office. The purposes of the study were to develop a regional ground-water flow model and a water-quality assessment of the Ozark aquifer in northwestern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma (study area). In 2006 and 2007, water-quality samples were collected from 40 water-supply wells completed in the Ozark aquifer and spatially distributed throughout the study area. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and selected isotopes. This report presents the results of the water-quality assessment part of the cooperative study. Water-quality characteristics were evaluated relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. Secondary Drinking-Water Regulations were exceeded for dissolved solids (11 wells), sulfate and chloride (2 wells each), fluoride (3 wells), iron (4 wells), and manganese (2 wells). Maximum Contaminant Levels were exceeded for turbidity (3 wells) and fluoride (1 well). The Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for lead (0 milligrams per liter) was exceeded in water from 12 wells. Analyses of isotopes in water from wells along two 60-mile long ground-water flow paths indicated that water in the Ozark aquifer was at least 60 years old but the upper age limit is uncertain. The source of recharge water for the wells along the flow paths appeared to be of meteoric origin because of isotopic similarity to the established Global Meteoric Water Line and a global precipitation relation. Additionally, analysis of hydrogen-3 (3H) and carbon-14 (14C) indicated that there was possible leakage of younger ground water into the lower part of the Ozark aquifer. This may be caused by cracks or fissures in the confining unit that separates the upper and lower parts of the aquifer, poorly constructed or abandoned wells, or historic mining activities. Analyses of major ions in water from wells along the flow paths indicated a transition from freshwater in the east to saline water in the west. Generally, ground water along flow paths evolved from a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type to a sodium calcium bicarbonate or a sodium calcium chloride bicarbonate type as water moved from recharge areas in Missouri into Kansas. Much of this evolution occurred within the last 20 to 25 miles of the flow paths along a water-quality transition zone near the Kansas-Missouri State line and west. The water quality of the Kansas part of the Ozark aquifer is degraded compared to the Missouri part. Geophysical and well-bore flow information and depth-dependent water-quality samples were collected from a large-capacity (1,900-2,300 gallons per minute) municipal-supply well to evaluate vertical ground-water flow accretion and variability in water-quality characteristics at different levels. Although the 1,050-foot deep supply well had 500 feet of borehole open to the Ozark aquifer, 77 percent of ground-water flow entering the borehole came from two 20-foot thick rock layers above the 1,000-foot level. For the most part, water-quality characteristics changed little from the deepest sample to the well-head sample, and upwelling of saline water from deeper geologic formations below the well was not evident. However, more saline water may be present below the bottom of the well.

Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.; Coiner, R.L.

2009-01-01

74

Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer of central Israel, its development and possible use as a storage reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cenomanian-Turonian formations constitute a highly permeable dolomite and limestone aquifer in central Israel. The aquifer is on the west limb of an anticlinorium that trends north-northeast. In places it may be as much as 800 meters thick, but in the report area, largely the foothills of the Judean-Ephraim Mountains where the water development is most intensive, its thickness is generally considerably less. In some places the aquifer occurs at or near the land surface, or it is covered by sandy and gravelly coastal-plain deposits. However, in a large part of the area, it is overlain by as much as 400 meters of relatively impermeable strata, and it is probably underlain by less permeable Lower Cretaceous strata. In general the aquifer water is under artesian pressure. The porosity of the aquifer is characterized mainly by solution channels and cavities produced by jointing and faulting. In addition to the generally high permeability of the aquifer, some regions, which probably coincide with ancient drainage patterns and (or) fault zones, have exceptionally high permeabilities. The source of most of the water in the aquifer is believed to be rain that falls on the foothills area. The westward movement of ground water from the mountainous outcrop areas appears to be impeded by a zone of low permeability which is related to structural and stratigraphic conditions along the western side of the mountains. Gradients of the piezometric surface are small, and the net direction of water movement is westward and northwestward under natural conditions. Locally, however, the flow pattern may be in other directions owing to spatial variations in permeability in the aquifer, the location of natural discharge outlets, and the relation of the aquifer to adjacent geologic formations. There probably is also a large vertical component of flow. Pumping has modified the flow pattern by producing several irregularly shaped shallow depressions in the piezometric surface although, to date, no unwatering of the aquifer has occurred. In the central part of the area, pumping has induced some infiltration from overlying coastal-plain formations. Injecting and storing surplus water seasonally in the aquifer should be feasible at almost any place. However, the movement and recovery of the injected water probably could be controlled most easily if the water were injected where depressions have been formed in the piezometric surface.

Schneider, Robert

1964-01-01

75

The effects of climate changes on river baseflow and aquifer storage in Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of climate changes on river baseflow and aquifer storage have been investigated using hydrological and rainfall data bases of the Central African Republic from 1902 to 1994. A decrease in runoff, observed every­ where, coincides with a decrease in rainfall with a time lag of 3 years. Com­ pared with previous droughts, these recent periods of low rainfall

D. ORANGE

76

Artificial recharge to the Floridan aquifer system, Orlando Area, Central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Approximately 400 drainage wells exist in Orange County, central Florida. The rate of recharge through drainage wells is limited by the rate of surface flow to the wells; the hydraulic properties of weirs, overflow pipes, and well casings; or the water level above the top of the casing. The rate commonly is not limited by the hydraulic properties of the very transmissive aquifer system.

German, E.R.; Bradner, L.A.

1989-01-01

77

The Mahomet aquifer: A transboundary resource in east-central Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emerging intrastate transboundary issues focus on use of the Mahomet aquifer, which underlies about fifteen counties and many other political entities in east-central Illinois. This sand and gravel aquifer in the lower part of the buried Mahomet Bedrock Valley ranges between four and fourteen miles wide and from about 50 to 200 feet thick. Much of the region's rural population, several large communities, and many small towns obtain water from the Mahomet aquifer, as do industrial, agricultural, and commercial users. Increased development of the Mahomet aquifer to meet growing demands for water has caused conflicts over real or perceived adverse effects. One result has been the creation of fifteen resource protection zones and twelve water authorities. For groundwater supplies, resource protection zones help municipalities protect water-supply wells from potential adverse impacts. Many resource protection zones overlap one another, however, so this situation could lead to disputes over use of the resource. The reason that several of the twelve water authorities were organized was to meet a challenge perceived from a demand to be placed on the aquifer, in other words, a potential for conflict of use. Complicating the situation is that some of the water authorities overlap the resource protection zones. This could lead to disputes not only about water use, but also over which jurisdiction has the authority to settle a dispute. The Mahomet Aquifer Consortium was recently organized by concerned people representing diverse groundwater interests at the local level, including the private sector, professional organizations, and various governmental units. The consortium brings together representatives of some groups that typically did not communicate with each other in the past. The consortium may provide a forum through which emerging transboundary issues pertaining to use of the Mahomet aquifer can be addressed. Because the consortium is a voluntary organization that relies on Consensus building, the success it may achieve in resolving future conflicts over groundwater use from the Mahomet aquifer remains to be seen.

Larson, D.R.; Mehnert, E.; Herzog, B.L.

2003-01-01

78

Configuration of the limestone aquifers in the central part of Egypt using electrical measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Desert of Egypt is an area of natural expansion for agricultural, industrial, and civil activities. This expansion has led to a great demand for groundwater. In the central part of Egypt, on the western limestone plateau, vertical electrical sounding and borehole geophysical logging were conducted to delineate aquifer boundaries. The measurements were interpreted using the lithological information from the drilled wells as a constraining factor. Fractured chalky limestone sediments represent the main aquifer, which is covered by sand and gravel deposits and which rests directly on partially saturated and highly resistive massive limestone. Discontinuous clay layers, which overlie the aquifer unit, were detected in the southern part of the study area as well as a relatively thin marly limestone layer in the northern part. The integrated analyses carried out represent a significant and cost-effective method for delineating the main aquifer in this area. In turn, future well locations can be placed with more confidence than before, in accordance with the evaluation of the potentiality of the groundwater aquifers in the area. Although the groundwater is normally brackish, it can serve the acute demands for water, especially for agricultural purposes.

Abou Heleika, M. M.; Niesner, E.

2009-03-01

79

Statistical analysis of stream water-quality data and sampling network design near Oklahoma City, central Oklahoma, 1977-1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality data collected from 1993-99 at five sites on Bluff, Deer, and Chisholm Creeks and from 1988-99 at five sites in the North Canadian River indicated that there were significant differences in constituent values among sites for water properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, turbidity, pesticides, and bacteria. Concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate generally decreased as streams flowed through the Oklahoma City urban area. Concentrations of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, lindane, and 2,4-D, and frequencies of detection of pesticides increased in the North Canadian River as it flowed through the urban area. Volatile organic compounds were not detected in samples collected quarterly from 1988-90 at sites on the North Canadian River. Concentrations of some compounds, including dissolved oxygen, sulfate, chloride, ammonia, manganese, diazinon, dieldrin, and fecal coliform bacteria periodically exceeded Federal or state water-quality standards at some sites. Regression analyses were used to identify trends in constituent concentrations related to streamflow, season, and time. Trends for some constituents were indicated at all sites, but most trends were site-specific. Seasonal trends were evident for several constituents: suspended solids, organic nitrogen, and biochemical oxygen demand were greatest during summer. Dissolved oxygen, ammonia, and nitrite plus nitrate-nitrogen were greatest during winter. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, fluoride, sulfate, total suspended solids, iron, and manganese generally increased with time. Concentrations of chloride, nitrite plus nitrate-nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate, biochemical oxygen demand, dieldrin, and lindane decreased with time. There was relatively little change in land use from the late 1970s to the mid-1990s due to relatively modest rates of population growth in the study area during that period. Most changes in water quality in these streams and rivers may be due to changes in chemical use and wastewater treatment practices. The sampling network was evaluated with respect to areal coverage, sampling frequency, and analytical schedules. Areal coverage could be expanded to include one additional watershed that is not part of the current network. A new sampling site on the North Canadian River might be useful because of expanding urbanization west of the city, but sampling at some other sites could be discontinued or reduced based on comparisons of data between the sites. Additional real-time or periodic monitoring for dissolved oxygen may be useful to prevent anoxic conditions in pools behind new low-water dams. The sampling schedules, both monthly and quarterly, are adequate to evaluate trends, but additional sampling during flow extremes may be needed to quantify loads and evaluate water quality during flow extremes. Emerging water-quality issues may require sampling for volatile organic compounds, sulfide, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, Escherichia coli, and enterococci, as well as use of more sensitive laboratory analytical methods for determination of cadmium, mercury, lead, and silver.

Brigham, Mark E.; Payne, Gregory A.; Andrews, William J.; Abbott, Marvin M.

2002-01-01

80

Digital model of predevelopment flow in the Tertiary limestone (Floridan) aquifer system in West-Central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A computer model was calibrated to approximate predevelopment flow conditions in a multilayered aquifer system in 10,600 square miles in west-central Floria. The lowermost aquifer, called the Floridan aquifer, is confined in most of the study area and consists of carbonate rocks ranging up to 1,300 feet thick. The Floridan aquifer is the chief source for large withdrawals and natural springflow in the study area. Daily springflows within the study area have averaged about 2.4 billion gallons. The secondary artesian and the surficial aquifers are much less permeable than the Floridan aquifer. Where they are present and have heads higher than those in the Floridan aquifer, they provide recharge to the Floridan. Initial estimates of recharge to the Floridan aquifer were from water-balance calculations for surface-water basins; initial estimates of transmissivity were from aquifer tests and flow-net analyses. The model was calibrated for the predevelopment era, wherein steady-state flow conditions were assumed. Calibrated transmissivities for the Floridan aquifer range from less than 15,000 to several million feet squared per day. Recharge to the system was about 3,700 cubic feet per second. About 90% was discharged as springflow, and 10% was upward leakage. (USGS)

Ryder, Paul D.

1982-01-01

81

Geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks of the Biscayne aquifer in central Miami-Dade County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluations of the lithostratigraphy, lithofacies, paleontology, ichnology, depositional environments, and cyclostratigraphy from 11 test coreholes were linked to geophysical interpretations, and to results of hydraulic slug tests of six test coreholes at the Snapper Creek Well Field (SCWF), to construct geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks for the study area in central Miami-Dade County, Florida. The resulting geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks are consistent with those recently described for the Biscayne aquifer in the nearby Lake Belt area in Miami-Dade County and link the Lake Belt area frameworks with those developed for the SCWF study area. The hydrogeologic framework is characterized by a triple-porosity pore system of (1) matrix porosity (mainly mesoporous interparticle porosity, moldic porosity, and mesoporous to megaporous separate vugs), which under dynamic conditions, produces limited flow; (2) megaporous, touching-vug porosity that commonly forms stratiform groundwater passageways; and (3) conduit porosity, including bedding-plane vugs, decimeter-scale diameter vertical solution pipes, and meter-scale cavernous vugs. The various pore types and associated permeabilities generally have a predictable vertical spatial distribution related to the cyclostratigraphy. The Biscayne aquifer within the study area can be described as two major flow units separated by a single middle semiconfining unit. The upper Biscayne aquifer flow unit is present mainly within the Miami Limestone at the top of the aquifer and has the greatest hydraulic conductivity values, with a mean of 8,200 feet per day. The middle semiconfining unit, mainly within the upper Fort Thompson Formation, comprises continuous to discontinuous zones with (1) matrix porosity; (2) leaky, low permeability layers that may have up to centimeter-scale vuggy porosity with higher vertical permeability than horizontal permeability; and (3) stratiform flow zones composed of fossil moldic porosity, burrow related vugs, or irregular vugs. Flow zones with a mean hydraulic conductivity of 2,600 feet per day are present within the middle semiconfining unit, but none of the flow zones are continuous across the study area. The lower Biscayne aquifer flow unit comprises a group of flow zones in the lower part of the aquifer. These flow zones are present in the lower part of the Fort Thompson Formation and in some cases within the limestone or sandstone or both in the uppermost part of the Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation. The mean hydraulic conductivity of major flow zones within the lower Biscayne aquifer flow unit is 5,900 feet per day, and the mean value for minor flow zones is 2,900 feet per day. A semiconfining unit is present beneath the Biscayne aquifer. The boundary between the two hydrologic units is at the top or near the top of the Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation. The lower semiconfining unit has a hydraulic conductivity of less than 350 feet per day. The most productive zones of groundwater flow within the two Biscayne aquifer flow units have a characteristic pore system dominated by stratiform megaporosity related to selective dissolution of an Ophiomorpha-dominated ichnofabric. In the upper flow unit, decimeter-scale vertical solution pipes that are common in some areas of the SCWF study area contribute to high vertical permeability compared to that in areas without the pipes. Cross-hole flowmeter data collected from the SCWF test coreholes show that the distribution of vuggy porosity, matrix porosity, and permeability within the Biscayne aquifer of the SCWF is highly heterogeneous and anisotropic. Groundwater withdrawals from production well fields in southeastern Florida may be inducing recharge of the Biscayne aquifer from canals near the well fields that are used for water-management functions, such as flood control and well-field pumping. The SCWF was chosen as a location within Miami-Dade County to study the potential for such recharge to the Biscayne aquifer from the C–2 (Snapper Creek) canal that roughly divides the

Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.; Williams, John H.

2014-01-01

82

Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 147 micrograms per liter. Both samples had alkaline pH values, 8.0 and 8.4, respectively. Uranium concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 383 micrograms per liter with 5 of 20 samples exceeding the Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter; the five wells with uranium concentrations exceeding 30 micrograms per liter had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and gross alpha-particle activity showed a positive relation to pH, with the highest concentrations and activity in samples having pH values of 8.0 or above. The groundwater samples contained dissolved oxygen and high concentrations of bicarbonate; these characteristics are also factors in increasing uranium solubility. Concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 (combined) ranged from 0.03 to 1.7 picocuries per liter, with a median concentration of 0.45 picocuries per liter for all samples. Radon-222 concentrations ranged from 95 to 3,600 picocuries per liter with a median concentration of 261 picocuries per liter. Eight samples having pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.7 exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picocuries per liter for radon-222. Eight samples exceeded the 15 picocuries per liter Maximum Contaminant Level for gross alpha-particle activity at 72 hours (after sample collection) and at 30 days (after the initial count); those samples had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Gross beta-particle activity increased in 15 of 21 samples during the interval from 72 hours to 30 days. The increase in gross beta-particle activity over time probably was caused by the ingrowth and decay of uranium daughter products that emit beta particles. Water-quality data collected for this study indicate that pH values above 8.0 are associated with potentially high concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and high gross alpha-particle activity in the study area. High pH values also are associated with potentially high concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and selenium in groundwater when these elements oc

Becker, Carol J.

2013-01-01

83

Modeling saltwater upconing in a freshwater aquifer in south-central Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Bend Prairie freshwater alluvial aquifer in south-central Kansas overlies a bedrock brine aquifer of Permian age. The continuous extraction of freshwater mainly for irrigation in this area has accelerated the upward movement of the saltwater, resulting in the deterioration of water quality. Predicting saltwater upconing is critical for maintaining a long-term supply of water of good quality to the Groundwater Management District No. 5. This paper uses a numerical model to predict the effect of saltwater upconing on the salinity of pumped water. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for estimating the effects of uncertainties in model parameters on the numerical results. The most important factors affecting the salinity of discharged water are found to be the location and nature of clay layers in the aquifer, the pumping rate, the location of the well screen, and the hydraulic conductivities of the medium. The effect of uncertainties in aquifer porosity and dispersivity on salinity is appreciable but not substantial, whereas that of recharge from precipitation in the study area is relatively insignificant. In addition, a numerical model based on the field conditions observed at the Siefkes site was constructed and calibrated to reproduce and project the variation of measured water levels and discharged groundwater concentration. Finally, a number of practical management recommendations based on this study are presented.

Ma, T.-S.; Sophocleous, M.; Yu, Y.-S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1997-01-01

84

Predicting carbon mass of central Oklahoma soils with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in carbon (C) storage within agricultural soils of Oklahoma as an aid in reducing atmospheric greenhouse gasses, and cash flow land managers might access, has increased recently. Description of C mass requires measurement of both bulk density and C concentration, but the techniques used ar...

85

Distribution of soil bulk density and organic matter along an elevation gradient in central Oklahoma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The distribution of total soil carbon (TSC) within Oklahoma paddocks may affect sampling requirements to accurately monitor carbon (C) sequestration. This study examined how TSC was distributed in 3-1.6 ha paddocks [under different forms of long-term (1978-2004) management] situated across a common ...

86

Succession in grasslands: Thirty-two years of change in a central Oklahoma tallgrass prairie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Old field succession in Oklahoma has been reported to involve four stages of development: pioncer weeds, annual grass, bunch grass, and mature prairie. This sequence has been the basis for a number of analyses of grassland structure and function, but has never been documented on a single site. We used multivariate techniques to study succession on three permanent plots with

S. L. Collins; D. E. Adams

1983-01-01

87

Investigating Vertical Mixing Between Two Carbonate Aquifers Using a Multiport Well, Central Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the occurrence and extent of mixing between vertically-adjacent aquifers is critical to dual-aquifer management. This can be challenging due to variable well depths and uncertainty as to hydrostratigraphic sources of groundwater. This study uses a multiport monitor well to investigate the degree of aquifer mixing between the overlying Edwards aquifer and underlying Trinity aquifer in central Texas. The results will inform dual-aquifer management as the Trinity aquifer is being developed as an alternative water source to the Edwards aquifer due to pumping limits and projections of increasing water demand. Water levels from isolated hydrostratigraphic units (n = 19) were measured monthly in the well as climate conditions transitioned from wet to dry (Sept 2010 to May 2011). Groundwater was sampled over a two-week interval in May to June 2011. At the start of the monitoring interval, water levels were high in the Edwards and the uppermost units of the Trinity relative to the rest of the Trinity units. Water levels decreased to lower elevations, from about 635 to 585 ft-msl, under dry conditions. Water levels in the lowermost Trinity declined less, from about 630 to 620 ft-msl, under dry conditions. Two zones separating the Edwards and lowermost Trinity showed almost no head change during this period. The water-level variations between the two aquifers suggest that: i) vertical flow potential from the Edwards to the Trinity occurs during dry conditions, ii) the uppermost stratigraphic units of the Trinity and Edwards are mixing, and iii) portions of the Trinity behave as an aquitard, providing hydrologic separation between the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units. Groundwater samples indicate the presence of three distinct hydrochemical facies: Ca-HCO3 (Edwards), Ca-HCO3-SO4 (lowermost Trinity), and Ca-SO4 (Trinity-Glen Rose Fm), suggesting little vertical flow and mixing. Covariation between groundwater 87Sr/86Sr values and SO4 concentrations from units of the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units can be accounted for by a two-end-member fluid mixing model, which uses a unit from the Edwards and lowermost Trinity as end members. This may indicate that 87Sr/86Sr values and SO4 concentrations are controlled by varying extents of mixing between the two units. Groundwater from units in the Glen Rose Formation (between the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units) cannot be accounted for by this mixing process due to elevated SO4 concentrations likely associated with dissolution of evaporites. 87Sr/86Sr values of evaporites recovered from the well are consistent with 87Sr/86Sr values of groundwater from these Glen Rose units. Although the geochemical model results suggest possible mixing between the Edwards and Trinity aquifers, water-level variations and the presence of distinct hydrochemical facies indicate that vertical flow between the Edwards and Trinity is limited to the uppermost units of the Trinity. This study suggests that the Edwards aquifer and lowermost Trinity units are not likely in hydrologic communication and independent management may be possible.

Kromann, J.; Wong, C. I.; Hunt, B.; Smith, B.; Banner, J. L.

2011-12-01

88

Geologic framework of the Edwards Aquifer and upper confining unit, and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Edwards Aquifer, south-central Uvalde County, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stratigraphic units of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County generally are porous and permeable. The stratigraphic units that compose the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County are the Devils River Formation in the Devils River trend; and the West Nueces, McKnight, and Salmon Peak Formations in the Maverick Basin. The Balcones fault zone is the principal structural feature in Uvalde County; however, the displacement along the fault zone is less in Uvalde County than in adjacent Medina and Bexar Counties to the east. The Uvalde Salient is a structural high in south-central Uvalde County, and consists of several closely connected crustal uplifts that bring Edwards aquifer strata to the surface generally forming prominent hills. The crustal uplifts forming this structural high are the remnants of intrusive and extrusive magnatic activity. Six primary faults?Cooks, Black Mountain, Blue Mountain, Uvalde, Agape, and Connor?cross the length of the study area from the southwest to the northeast juxtaposing the Lower Cretaceous Salmon Peak Formation at the surface in the northwestern part of the study area against Upper Cretaceous formations in the central part of the study area. In the study area, the porosity of the rocks in the Edwards aquifer is related to depositional or diagenetic elements along specific stratigraphic horizons (fabric selective) and to dissolution and structural elements that can occur in any lithostratigraphic horizon (not fabric selective). Permeability depends on the physical properties of the rock such as size, shape, distribution of pores, and fissuring and dissolution. The middle 185 feet of the lower part of the Devils River Formation, the upper part of the Devils River Formation, and the upper unit of the Salmon Peak Formation probably are the most porous and permeable stratigraphic zones of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County.

Clark, Allan K.; Small, Ted A.

1997-01-01

89

Basin-scale geohydrologic drought flow features of riparian aquifers in the southern Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-streamflow hydrographs from 22 subbasins in the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) Washita River Experimental Watershed complex in central Oklahoma were subjected to recession slope analysis; this method, after that of Brutsaert and Nieber [1977], was derived from a Dupuit-Boussinesq formulation for the groundwater outflows from the adjoining phreatic aquifers. The long-time aquifer response characteristics were generally found

Wilfried Brutsaert; James P. Lopez

1998-01-01

90

First Two Years of Observations NASA ACTS Propagation Experiment Central Oklahoma Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous observations from December 1, 1993 through November 30, 1995 were made at the ACTS Propagation Terminal on the roof of the Sarkeys Energy Center at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma. Beacon and radiometer observations were combined to calibrate the beacon system for the estimation of total attenuation (attenuation relative to free space) and attenuation relative to clear sky (gaseous absorption component removed). Empirical cumulative distributions (edf's) were compiled for each month of observation and for each year. The annual edf's are displayed in the figures, the monthly and annual edf's are listed in the tables. The tables are organized by blocks and pages within a block. The blocks correspond to the headings in the edf files generated by the ACTS Preprocessing (actspp) software and contained in the fourth disk in the set of ACTS Propagation Experiment CD-ROMs generated by the University of Texas.

Crane, Robert K.

1996-01-01

91

Comparing flowmeter, aquifer test, and surface nuclear magnetic resonance data in Central Nebraska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally the only means of estimating the hydraulic properties of aquifers has involved drilling boreholes. The logistical and economic requirements of aquifer tests has limited the ability of hydrologists to construct the detailed groundwater models needed for resource management. As such, water policy decisions are often based on sparse aquifer tests combined with geologic interpretation and extrapolation. When dealing with complicated groundwater systems these extrapolations are often not accurate at the scale required to characterize the groundwater system, and additional information is needed to make better informed resource decisions. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) is a geophysical technique which allows for non-invasive estimates of hydraulic permeability and transmissivity. Protons in a volume of liquid water form a weak bulk magnetic moment as they align and precess about the earth's magnetic field. This moment is too small to be measured directly but may be observed by tipping it away from equilibrium using radio-frequency pulses oscillating at the same frequency as its precession (the Larmor frequency). After a short tipping pulse, the moment continues to precess around the static field, although at a tipped angle, slowly returning to its equilibrium state. The decay of these spinning magnetic moments can be observed inductively using loops of wire on the surface of the earth. In the simplest experiment a time series is recorded after a single tipping pulse. By varying the strength of the tipping pulse, different regions of the subsurface can be probed. The amplitude of the signal is directly proportional to the amount of water in the investigated volume. The decay rate of the signal is related to pore geometry and interconnectivity and can be used to estimate hydraulic conductivity. However, this relationship cannot be universally defined as it is affected by additional factors including the mineralogy of the host rock and homogeneity of the earth's magnetic field. This necessitates locally calibrating the SNMR data against aquifer tests in order to derive a relation of the SNMR data to the local aquifers. After calibration, additional SNMR data can be used at sites with the same aquifer units to produce estimates of hydraulic properties. To test this methodology, SNMR, aquifer tests and flowmeter measurements were conducted at two sites within the High Plains Aquifer in Central Nebraska. A novel compressive inversion scheme was developed that simultaneously processes the entire SNMR dataset and accounts for electrical conductivity. The inverted porosity and decay times were then regressed against the aquifer and flowmeter tests to derive local calibration coefficients. Using this calibration, the SNMR derived hydraulic conductivity estimates were in good agreement with the aquifer test-derived estimates. Since the same calibration was appropriate at both sites, SNMR data can now be collected at additional sites in the area and used to estimate hydraulic properties.

Irons, T.; Abraham, J. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Steele, G.; Hobza, C. M.; Li, Y.; McKenna, J. R.

2011-12-01

92

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma. Ground water in 830 square miles of the Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace aquifer is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer consists of poorly sorted, fine to coarse, unconsolidated quartz sand with minor amounts of clay, silt, and basal gravel. The hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits unconformably overlie the Tertiary-age Ogallala Formation and Permian-age formations. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary and recharge data sets and some of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity data set were extracted from a published digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of 1:250,000. The ground-water elevation contours and some of the lines for the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were digitized from a ground-water modeling report about the aquifer published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values and recharge rates also are from the ground-water modeling report. The data sets are provided in both nonproprietary and ARC/INFO export file formats. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G.P.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

93

Characterizing a complex aquifer system using geophysics, hydrodynamics and geochemistry: A new distribution of Miocene aquifers in the Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks (east-central Tunisia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks are located in the Sahel region in east-central Tunisia. Active tectonics have divided the region into numerous sub-units, as result of multiple phases of distension and compression. The Miocene fluvio-deltaic sediment sandy layers have aquiferous capacities but their hydraulic properties are still unknown, due to the lack of investigation wells. This study proposes a new description of the regional hydrogeology of Miocene deposits. Seismic-reflection and wireline logging of petroleum and water wells were used to understand the structure and the geometry of the Miocene reservoirs. The groundwater flow and its relationship to the sedimentary and tectonic context were then identified by studying piezometry and hydrochemistry. Two Miocene deep aquifer systems were identified: (1) Zéramdine-Béni Hassen to the north and (2) Jébéniana-Ksour Essef to the south. These aquifers are separated by the Mahdia graben. Other major tectonic structures, such as the Zéramdine fault corridor, the Moknine graben, and the El-Jem half-graben represent lateral boundaries for these aquifers. Other deeper sandy and clayey-sandy reservoirs were also identified in the area. Their repartition, thickness and depth vary from one block to other. Hydrodynamics of the deep aquifers seems to be controlled by geological structures. Two independent compartments were identified: in the northern block groundwater flows from West to East and from Northwest to Southeast, while in the southern block it flows from Northwest to Southeast. Geochemical facies are of two types: Na-Ca-Cl-SO 4 for the Zéramdine-Béni Hassen deep aquifer and Na-Cl for the Jébéniana-Ksour Essef deep aquifer. The hydrodynamic and geochemical results confirm the sharing of the Miocene sediments into two aquifers.

Lachaal, Fethi; Bédir, Mourad; Tarhouni, Jamila; Gacha, Ayadi Ben; Leduc, Christian

2011-06-01

94

Calibrated models as management tools for stream-aquifer systems: the case of central Kansas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We address the problem of declining streamflows in interconnected stream-aquifer systems and explore possible management options to address the problem for two areas of central Kansas: the Arkansas River valley from Kinsley to Great Bend and the lower Rattlesnake Creek-Quivira National Wildlife Refuge area. The approach we followed implements, calibrates, and partially validates for the study areas a stream-aquifer numerical model combined with a parameter estimation package and sensitivity analysis. Hydrologic budgets for both predevelopment and developed conditions indicate significant differences in the hydrologic components of the study areas resulting from development. The predevelopment water budgets give an estimate of natural ground-water recharge, whereas the budgets for developed conditions give an estimate of induced recharge, indicating that major ground-water development changes the recharge-discharge regime of the model areas with time. Such stream-aquifer models serve to link proposed actions to hydrologic effects, as is clearly demonstrated by the effects of various management alternatives on the streamflows of the Arkansas River and Rattlesnake Creek. Thus we show that a possible means of restoring specified streamflows in the area is to implement protective stream corridors with restricted ground-water extraction. ?? 1993.

Sophocleous, M.; Perkins, S.P.

1993-01-01

95

Data for ground-water test hole near Nicolaus, Central Valley aquifer project, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Preliminary data are provided for the third of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 2, T.12N., R.3E., Sutter County, California, about 1 1/2 miles northwest of the town of Nicolaus. Drilled to a depth of 1,150 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 100 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 311, 711, and 1,071 feet. A 5-foot well screen is set in sand at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer, and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Thirty-one cores and 34 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for minerology, consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis of the three tapped zones and measured for water level. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

1983-01-01

96

Data for ground-water test hole near Butte City, Central Valley aquifer project, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides preliminary data for the third of seven test holes drilled as part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 1 W., Glenn County, California, about one-half mile south of the town of Butte City. Drilled to a depth of 1,432 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 82 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 592 feet, 968 feet, and 1,330 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer , and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Nine cores and 49 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, and chemical quality of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

1983-01-01

97

Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater in the central part of the Dakota (Great Plains) aquifer, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dakota aquifer of the central and eastern Great Plains of the United States is an important source of water for municipal supplies, irrigation and industrial use. Although the regional flow system can be characterized generally as east to northeasterly from the Rocky Mountains towards the Missouri River, locally the flow systems are hydrologically complex. This study uses Sr isotopic data from groundwater and leached aquifer samples to document the complex subsystems within the Dakota aquifer in Nebraska and Kansas. The interaction of groundwater with the geologic material through which it flows has created spatial patterns in the isotopic measurements that are related to: long-term water-rock interaction, during which varying degrees of isotopic equilibrium between water and rock has been achieved; and the alteration of NaCl fluids by water-rock interaction. Specifically, Sr isotopic data distinguish brines from Kansas and western Nebraska from those in eastern Nebraska: the former are interpreted to reflect interaction with Permian rocks, whereas the latter record interaction with Pennsylvanian rocks. The Sr isotopic composition of groundwater from other parts of Nebraska and Kansas are a function of the dynamic interaction between groundwater and unlithified sediments (e.g., glacial till and loess), followed by interaction with oxidized and unoxidized sediments within the Dakota Formation. This study illustrates the power of combining Sr chemistry with more conventional geochemical data to obtain a more complete understanding of groundwater flow systems within regional aquifer systems where extensive monitoring networks do not exist. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gosselin, D.C.; Harvey, F.E.; Frost, C.; Stotler, R.; Macfarlane, P.A.

2004-01-01

98

The occurrence and hydrochemistry of fluoride and boron in carbonate aquifer system, central and western Estonia.  

PubMed

Silurian-Ordovician (S-O) aquifer system is an important drinking water source of central and western Estonia. The fluoride and boron contents of groundwater in aquifer system vary considerably. The fluoride concentration in 60 collected groundwater samples ranged from 0.1 to 6.1 mg/l with a mean of 1.95 mg/l in the study area. Boron content in groundwater varied from 0.05 mg/l to 2.1 mg/l with a mean value of 0.66 mg/l. Considering the requirements of EU Directive 98/83/EC and the Estonian requirements for drinking water quality, the limit value for fluoride (1.5 mg/l) and for boron (1.0 mg/l) is exceeded in 47 and 28 % of wells, respectively. Groundwater with high fluoride and boron concentrations is found mainly in western Estonia and deeper portion of aquifer system, where groundwater chemical type is HCO3-Cl-Na-Mg-Ca, water is alkaline, and its Ca(2+) content is low. Groundwater of the study area is undersaturated with respect to fluorite and near to equilibrium phase with respect to calcite. The comparison of TDS versus Na/(Na + Ca) and Cl/(Cl + HCO3) points to the dominance of rock weathering as the main process, which promotes the availability of fluoride and boron in the groundwater. The geological sources of B in S-O aquifer system have not been studied so far, but the dissolution of fluorides from carbonate rocks (F = 100-400 mg/kg) and K-bentonites (F = 2,800-4,500 mg/kg) contributes to the formation of F-rich groundwater. PMID:22903335

Karro, Enn; Uppin, Marge

2013-05-01

99

A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 49 synthetic organic compounds. Ten pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the upstream site and seven pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the downstream site. Pesticides detected at both sites were atrazine, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and trans-nonachlor. Additionally at the upstream site, heptachlor, pentachlorophenol, and prometon were detected. The pesticide metabolites p,p'-DDE, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane also were detected at both sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds aroclor-1016/1242, aroclor-1254, and aroclor-1260 were detected at both sites. The upstream site had 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon detections and the downstream site had 8 detections. Because of chromatographic interference during analysis, a positive identification of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could not be made. Consequently, there may have been a greater number of these compounds detected at both sites. A total of 36 synthetic organic compounds were detected at the two sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The upstream site had 21 synthetic organic compound detections: three detergent metabolites, two fecal indicators, three flame retardants, seven industrial compounds, five compounds related to personal care products, and beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol. Fifteen synthetic organic compounds were detected at the downstream site and included: one fecal indicator, three flame retardants, six industrial compounds, and five compounds related to personal care products.

Becker, Carol J.

2010-01-01

100

Geologic Map of the Edwards Aquifer In Northern Medina and Northeastern Uvalde Counties, South-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The southern segment of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas is one of the most productive subsurface reservoirs of potable water in the world, providing water of excellent quality to more than a million people in the San Antonio region, where the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared it to be a sole-source aquifer (van der Leeden and others, 1990). Depending on the depositional province within which the associated carbonate rocks originated (Maclay and Small, 1984), the Edwards aquifer is composed of several geologic formations (primarily limestone and dolostone) of Early Cretaceous age. Most water pumped from the Edwards aquifer comes form the Person and Kainer Formations, which were deposited over the San Marcos Platform. The principal source of ground water in study area is the Devils River Formation, which was deposited in the Devils River trend. The Devils River Formation provides large quantities of irrigation water to fertile bottomland areas of Medina and Uvalde Counties, where the success of farming and ranching activities has long depended upon water from the Edwards aquifer. The study area includes all of the Edwards aquifer recharge zone between the Sabinal River (on the west) and the Medina River (on the east) plus an updip fringe of the confined zone in east-central Uvalde and central Medina Counties. Over about ninety percent of the study area--within the Devils River trend--the Edwards aquifer is composed of the Georgetown Formation plus the underlying Devils River Formation. Over the remaining area--over the southwestern margin of the San Marcos platform--the Edwards aquifer consists of the Georgetown Formation plus the underlying Edwards Group (Rose, 1972), which comprises the Kainer and Person Formations.

Clark, Allan K.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pedraza, Diana E.

2006-01-01

101

Hydrochemistry of aquifer systems and relation to regional flow patterns in Cretaceous and older rocks underlying Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquifer systems in Cretaceous and older rocks of the Central Midwest are divided on the basis of hydrochemistry and ground-water flow patterns in the Plains subregion, the Western Interior Plains aquifer system contains sodium chloride type water with large concentrations of dissolved solids. Ion ratios suggest that the water was derived from seawater by concentration and by depletion of calcium and sulfate ions. In the overlying Western Interior Plains confining system, concentrations of depositional sea water and dissolution of extensive evaporite deposits have resulted in sodium chloride type water with large concentrations of dissolved solids and sodium. Overlying this confining system in the northwest part of the study area, the Great Plains aquifer system yields water that generally is less mineralized and more variable in water type than the underlying systems. Recharge of meteoric water, concentration of brackish water in which the rocks were deposited, and dissolution of underlying evaporite deposits have contributed to the observed water chemistry. The Great Plains confining system restricts the exchange of water between the underlying Great Plains aquifer system and the overlying unconfined aquifers. In the Ozark subregion, geological units equivalent to the Western Interior Plains aquifer system comprise the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. Units of this aquifer system are exposed at the land surface, and fresh meteoric water moves rapidly through fractures and solution openings. Water chemistry in this system reflects primarily the dissolution of the predominately carbonate rocks.

Baker, Claud H., Jr.; Leonard, Robert B.

1995-01-01

102

Microbial Abundance and Activity in a Low-Conductivity Aquifer System in East-Central Texas  

E-print Network

H and high sulfate contents argue for oxidation of pyrite in or near the shallow aquifer. This pyrite oxidation supplies sulfate to deeper aquifers. Pyrite from the deep aquifer sediments, with the greatest and sulfur in the aquifer, but probably without substantial remineraliza- tion of pyrite in the formation

Grossman, Ethan L.

103

Impact of groundwater withdrawals on the interaction of multi-layered aquifers in the Viterbo geothermal area (central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of groundwater withdrawals on the interaction between multi-layered aquifers with different water qualities in the Viterbo geothermal area (central Italy) was studied. In this area, deep thermal waters are used to supply thermal spas and public pools. A shallow overlying aquifer carries cold and fresh water, used for irrigation and the local drinking-water supply. Starting with a conceptual hydrogeological model, two simplified numerical models were implemented: a steady-state flow model of the entire groundwater system, and a steady-state flow and heat transport model of a representative area, which included complex interactions between the aquifers. The impact of increased withdrawals associated with potential future development of the thermal aquifer must be considered in terms of the water temperature of the existing thermal sources. However, withdrawals from the shallow aquifer might also influence the discharge of thermal sources and quality of the water withdrawn from the shallow wells. The exploitation of the two aquifers is dependent on the hydraulic conductivity and thickness of the intervening aquitard, which maintains the delicate hydrogeological equilibrium. Effective methods to control this equilibrium include monitoring the vertical gradient between the two aquifers and the residual discharge of natural thermal springs.

Baiocchi, Antonella; Lotti, Francesca; Piscopo, Vincenzo

2013-09-01

104

Effects of brine on the chemical quality of water in parts of Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, Payne, Pottawatomie, and Seminole Counties, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of water-quality degradation due to brine contamination was made in an area of ~1,700 mi2 in east-central Oklahoma. The study area coincides in part with the outcrop of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer of Pennsylvanian age.

Morton, Robert B.

1986-01-01

105

Estimation of heterogeneous aquifer parameters using centralized and decentralized fusion of hydraulic tomography data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of spatial variability of hydraulic properties of groundwater systems at high resolution is essential to simulate flow and transport phenomena. This paper investigates two schemes to invert transient hydraulic head data resulting from multiple pumping tests for the purpose of estimating the spatial distributions of the hydraulic conductivity, K, and the specific storage, Ss, of an aquifer. The two methods are centralized fusion and decentralized fusion. The centralized fusion of transient data is achieved when data from all pumping tests are processed concurrently using a central inversion processor, whereas the decentralized fusion inverts data from each pumping test separately to obtain optimal local estimates of hydraulic parameters, which are consequently fused using the generalized Millman formula, an algorithm for merging multiple correlated or uncorrelated local estimates. For both data fusion schemes, the basic inversion processor employed is the ensemble Kalman filter, which is employed to assimilate the temporal moments of impulse response functions obtained from the transient hydraulic head measurements resulting from multiple pumping tests. Assimilating the temporal moments instead of the hydraulic head transient data themselves is shown to provide a significant improvement in computational efficiency. Additionally, different assimilation strategies to improve the estimation of Ss are investigated. Results show that estimation of the K and Ss distributions using temporal moment analysis is fairly good, and the centralized inversion scheme consistently outperforms the decentralized inversion scheme.

Alzraiee, A. H.; Baú, D.; Elhaddad, A.

2014-08-01

106

Data for ground-water test hole near Zamora, Central Valley Aquifer Project, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Preliminary data are presented for the first of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 34, T. 12 N. , R. 1 E., Yolo County, California, about 3 miles northeast of the town of Zamora. Drilled to a depth of 2,500 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 190 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 947, 1,401, and 2,125 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Eighteen cores and 68 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, diatom identification, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

French, J.J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

1982-01-01

107

Potentiometric surface of the Sparta aquifer in eastern and south-central Arkansas and north-central Louisiana, and the Memphis Aquifer in east-central Arkansas, October 1996-July 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 1997 water year, the water level in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers was measured in about 274 wells in Arkansas, and the water level in the Sparta aquifer was measured in about 55 wells in Louisiana. The potentiometric surface data reveal spatial trends across the study area. In Arkansas, the altitude of the potentiometric surfaced ranged from 199 feet below sea level in Union County to 307 feet above sea level in Saline County. In Louisiana, the altitude of the potentiometric surface ranged from 224 feet below sea level in Ouachita Parish to 230 feet above sea level in Bienville Parish. The general direction of ground-water flow in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers is from the west to the Southeast. The regional direction of ground-water flow in Arkansas is from the north and west to the south and east, away from the recharge zone in the outcrop and subcrop area, except near areas affected by intense ground-water withdrawals; such areas are manifested by large cones of depression centered in Columbia, Jefferson, and Union Counties. The regional ground-water flow in the Sparta aquifer in north-central Louisiana generally is downdip in an easterly direction from the recharge zone in the outcrop and subcrop area in the west toward the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The potentiometric surface of the Sparta aquifer in Arkansas and Louisiana exhibits cones of depression descending below sea level. Comparison of potentiometric surface maps through time shows that the cones of depression in Columbia and Union Counties are coalescing at or near the Columbia and Union County line. However, the general direction of ground-water movement indicates that heavy pumpage locally has altered or reversed the natural direction of flow in some areas. Flow in these areas is toward the cones of depression at the center of pumping. Hydrographs from wells in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers reveals that water levels have declined more than 2.0 feet per year in some wells. Long-term hydrographs of eight wells in Arkansas, during the period 1972-1997, reveal water-level declines ranging from less than 0.8 foot per year in Phillips County to more than 2.0 feet per year in Union County. Long-term hydrographs of two wells in Louisiana, during the period 1972-1997, reveal water-level declines were more than 2.0 feet per year in Lincoln and Ouachita Parishes.

Joseph, Robert L.

1998-01-01

108

Ground-water flow analysis of the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, South-Central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi Embayment aquifer system is composed of six regional aquifers covering about 160,000 square miles in parts of Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. The flow analysis presented in this report as part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study pertains to five aquifers in sediments of the Wilcox and Claiborne groups of Tertiary age. In descending order, the aquifers are (1) the upper Claiborne, (2) the middle Claiborne, (3) the lower Claiborne-upper Wilcox, (4) the middle Wilcox, and (5) the lower Wilcox. The flow analysis of the sixth aquifer in the aquifer system, the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer in sediments of Holocene and Pleistocene age, is presented in chapter D of this Professional Paper.

Arthur, J.K.; Taylor, R.E.

1998-01-01

109

Carbonate aquifers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

2012-01-01

110

Rescuing degrading aquifers in the Central Coastal Plain of North Carolina (USA): Just process, effective groundwater management policy, and sustainable aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

management of degrading coastal aquifers in eastern North Carolina (USA) became imperative after a severe imbalance occurred between withdrawal and recharge rates. To ameliorate this growing problem, an aggressive water policy was developed through public input by creating the Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA) to maintain beneficial use of groundwater resources. Insights from social psychology, and socio-legal studies are used to evaluate how procedural justice and public participation played major roles to resolving groundwater resource management problems. A mixed methods approach uses archival data and interviews with various rule-making participants to assess the process of stakeholder involvement that led to creation of the policy. In addition, data analysis techniques are utilized to evaluate the effects of the policy on aquifer health (through water levels) over a ˜10 year period. Results suggest that not only did a stakeholder group participate in a process that was deemed fair, understandable, and relatively easy to administer for users and regulators, but public participation resulted in an effective plan that ensures the long-term sustainable use of groundwater. Declining groundwater withdrawals and recovering water levels suggest that the rule is achieving its intended goal of protecting the aquifers from depletion and degradation. This paper touches on global themes that are essential to water demand and consumption, water management techniques, and water resources protection.

Manda, Alex K.; Klein, Wendy A.

2014-07-01

111

Geohydrologic Framework of the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, South-Central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This five-year USGS project, funded by the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program, is using multidisciplinary approaches to reveal the surface and subsurface geologic architecture of two important Texas aquifers: (1) the Edwards aquifer that extends from south of Austin to west of San Antonio and (2) the southern part of the Trinity aquifer in the Texas Hill Country west and south of Austin. The project's principal areas of research include: Geologic Mapping, Geophysical Surveys, Geochronology, Three-dimensional Modeling, and Noble Gas Geochemistry. The Edwards aquifer is one of the most productive carbonate aquifers in the United States. It also has been designated a sole source aquifer by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and is the primary source of water for San Antonio, America's eighth largest city. The Trinity aquifer forms the catchment area for the Edwards aquifer and it intercepts some surface flow above the Edwards recharge zone. The Trinity may also contribute to the Edwards water budget by subsurface flow across formation boundaries at considerable depths. Dissolution, karst development, and faulting and fracturing in both aquifers directly control aquifer geometry by compartmentalizing the aquifer and creating unique ground-water flow paths.

Blome, Charles D.; Faith, Jason R.; Ozuna, George B.

2007-01-01

112

Dissolved solids and sodium in water from the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer to provide: (1) Hydrologic information needed to evaluate the effects of continued ground-water development; and (2) computer models to predict aquifer response to changes in ground-water development. The plan of study for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis was described by Weeks (1978). A description of the High Plains aquifer and a map of the 1978 water table were presented by Gutentag and Weeks (1980). Maps of the bedrock geology, altitude of aquifer base, and saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer were published by Weeks and Gutentag (1981). Water-level and saturated-thickness changes, from predevelopment to 1980, were mapped by Luckey, Gutentag, and Weeks (1981). This report describes the areal distribution of dissolved solids and sodium in the water of the High Plains aquifer. Data used in this study were provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in each of the eight States in the High Plains. Their contribution is an integral part of this investigation.

Krothe, Noel C.; Oliver, Joseph W.; Weeks, John B.

1982-01-01

113

Machine-readable files developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Machine-readable files were developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project are stored on two magnetic tapes available from the U.S. Geological Survey. The first tape contains computer programs that were used to prepare, store, retrieve, organize, and preserve the areal interpretive data collected by the project staff. The second tape contains 134 data files that can be divided into five general classes: (1) Aquifer geometry data, (2) aquifer and water characteristics , (3) water levels, (4) climatological data, and (5) land use and water use data. (Author 's abstract)

Ferrigno, C.F.

1986-01-01

114

A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains (fig. 1A). Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers (fig. 2) knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone (fig. 3). However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer (figs. 1A and 1B). The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in the Ogallala Formation is separated from overlying land-use practices by as much as 400 feet of unsaturated sediments. Consequently, one may hypothesize that recently recharged water is not present in the formation. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a reconnaissance study in 1999 to establish (a) if recently recharged water was present in the Ogallala Formation underlying irrigated cropland and (b) if agricultural land-use practices affect water quality. Results from the reconnaissance study will be used to determine whether a full-scale land-use study is warranted.

McMahon, Peter B.

2000-01-01

115

A plan to study the aquifer system of the Central Valley of California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvial deposits comprise a large complex aquifer system in the Central Valley of California. Millions of acre-feet of water is pumped from the system annually to support a large and expanding agribusiness industry. Since the 1950's, water levels have been steadily declining in many areas of the valley and concern has been expressed about the ability of the entire ground-water system to support agribusiness at current levels, not to mention its ability to function at projected expansion levels. At current levels of ground-water use, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet is withdrawn from storage each year; that is, 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet of water is pumped annually in excess of annual replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 4-year study to develop geologic, hydrologic, and hydraulic information and to establish a valleywide ground-water data base that will be used to build computer models of the ground-water flow system. Subsequently, these models may be used to evaluate the system response to various ground-water management alternatives. This report describes current problems, objectives of the study, and outlines the general work to be accomplished in the study area. A bibliography of about 600 references is included. (Kosco-USGS)

Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

1979-01-01

116

Analysis of Fault Permeability Using Mapping and Flow Modeling, Hickory Sandstone Aquifer, Central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir compartments, typical targets for infill well locations, are commonly created by faults that may reduce permeability. A narrow fault may consist of a complex assemblage of deformation elements that result in spatially variable and anisotropic permeabilities. We report on the permeability structure of a km-scale fault sampled through drilling a faulted siliciclastic aquifer in central Texas. Probe and whole-core permeabilities, serial CAT scans, and textural and structural data from the selected core samples are used to understand permeability structure of fault zones and develop predictive models of fault zone permeability. Using numerical flow simulation, it is possible to predict permeability anisotropy associated with faults and evaluate the effect of individual deformation elements in the overall permeability tensor. We found relationships between the permeability of the host rock and those of the highly deformed (HD) fault-elements according to the fault throw. The lateral continuity and predictable permeability of the HD fault elements enhance capability for estimating the effects of subseismic faulting on fluid flow in low-shale reservoirs.

Nieto Camargo, Jorge E., E-mail: jorge.nietocamargo@aramco.com; Jensen, Jerry L., E-mail: jjensen@ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Canada)

2012-09-15

117

Source and migration of dissolved manganese in the Central Nile Delta Aquifer, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved metals in waters in shallow deltaic sediments are one of the world's major health problems, and a prime example is arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The Central Nile Delta Aquifer, a drinking water source for more than 6 million people, can have high concentrations of dissolved manganese (Mn). Standard hydrochemical analyses coupled with sequential chemical extraction is used to identify the source of the Mn and to identify the probable cause of the contamination. Fifty-nine municipal supply wells were sampled and the results compared with published data for groundwaters and surface waters. Drill cuttings from 4 wells were collected and analyzed by sequential chemical extraction to test the hypothesized Mn-generating processes. The data from this research show that the Mn source is not deep saline water, microbial reduction of Mn oxides at the production depth, or leakage from irrigation drainage ditches. Instead, Mn associated with carbonate minerals in the surficial confining layer and transported down along the disturbed well annulus of the municipal supply wells is the likely source. This analysis provides a basis for future hydrogeological and contaminant transport modeling as well as remediation-modification of well completion practices and pumping schedules to mitigate the problem.

Bennett, P. C.; El Shishtawy, A. M.; Sharp, J. M.; Atwia, M. G.

2014-08-01

118

Geochemical and geophysical analysis of shallow aquifer materials in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata in east-central Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cores holes were drilled through sandstone, shale, and coal deposits of the Pennsylvanian-age Allegheny Group to provide samples for geochemical and geophysical evaluation of shallow aquifer materials in east-central Ohio. The samples were analyzed for forms of sulfur and carbon, and for more than 40 major and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma scans. Temperature, electrical, caliper, and gamma-ray

R. J. Haefner; G. L. Jr. Rowe

1992-01-01

119

An assessment of the potential and impacts of winter water banking in the Sokh aquifer, Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of artificial recharge of winter surface flows coupled with increased summer groundwater use for irrigation in\\u000a the Sokh aquifer (Central Asia) have been investigated. Water release patterns from the giant Toktogul reservoir have changed,\\u000a as priority is now given to hydropower generation in winter in Kyrgyzstan. Winter flows have increased and summer releases\\u000a have declined, but the Syr

Inna Gracheva; Akmal Karimov; Hugh Turral; F. Miryusupov

2009-01-01

120

Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas --- Field testing and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophocleous, M., Townsend, M.A., Vogler, L.D., McClain, T.J., Marks, E.T. and Coble, G.R., 1988. Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas -- Field testing and analysis. J. Hydrol., 98: 249-273. During the last several years, streamflows of a number of Kansas streams have been reduced as a result of groundwater declines. In order to better

MARIOS SOPHOCLEOUS; M. A. TOWNSEND; L. D. VOGLER; T. J. McCLAIN; E. T. MARKS; G. R. COBLE

1988-01-01

121

Chemical evolution and estimated flow velocity of water in the Trinity Aquifer, south-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three permeable zones with varying lithology and water chemistry compose the Trinity aquifer, a principal source of water in the 5,500-square-mile study area in south-central Texas. The upper permeable zone locally yields small quantities of water to wells and was not included in this study. The middle permeable zone primarily is composed of limestone with minor amounts of dolostone. Terrigenous sand and marine limestone, with minor amounts of dolostone, are the principal lithologic units in the lower permeable zone. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 329 to 1,820 milligrams per liter in water samples from the middle permeable zone and from 518 to 3,030 milligrams per liter in water samples from the lower permeable zone. Principal hydrochemical facies in the middle permeable zone are calcium magnesium bicarbonate and calcium magnesium sulfate. Hydrochemical facies in ground-water samples from the lower permeable zone vary. Tritium concentrations as large as 5.3 tritium units in the southeastern part of the study area are indicative of relatively recent recharge. Results of a geochemical mass balance simulation along a flowpath in the middle permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 4.25 millimoles per liter of dolomite dissolved, 5.74 millimoles per liter of gypsum dissolved, 0.46 millimole per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 8.07 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 0.67 millimole per liter of calcium-for-sodium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. These results support dedolomitization as a principal chemical process in the middle permeable zone of the Trinity aquifer. Results of a simulation along a flowpath in the lower permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 0.41 millimole per liter of dolomite dissolved, 0.001 millimole per liter of gypsum dissolved, 9.58 millimoles per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 1.09 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 1.11 millimoles per liter of sodium-for-calcium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. Lower permeable zone processes indicate sodium chloride dissolution, dedolomitization, and cation exchange. Ground-water-flow velocities determined from adjusted carbon-14 ages, calculated using NETPATH, for selected flowpaths in the middle and lower permeable zones were about 1.7 feet per year and less than about 4.4 feet per year, respectively.

Jones, Sonya A.; Lee, Roger W.; Busby, John F.

1997-01-01

122

OUTCROP-BASED LITHOFACIES AND DEPOSITIONAL SETTING OF ARSENIC-BEARING PERMIAN RED BEDS IN THE CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

In January 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency established safe drinking water standards for arsenic at a maximum concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (USGS), however, document the occurrence of arsenic concentrations in drin...

123

Aquifer tests at the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine, Pueblo of Laguna, west-central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation, west-central New Mexico, was determined to be 24 sq ft/day at well M2 and 47 sq ft/day at well M3 from constant-discharge aquifer tests conducted at the Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine. The storage coefficient of the Jackpile sandstone bed was estimated to be 0.00018 at well M2 and 0.00029 at well M3 from the same tests. An aquifer test conducted at well M21 indicated the transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed was 2.0 sq ft/day and the storage coefficient was 0.00002. The transmissivity of an unnamed sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation was estimated from ' slug-test ' results to be about 20 sq ft/day. Water levels in this sandstone probably did not change due to pumping from the overlying Jackpile sandstone bed for 88 hours at an average discharge of 15.3 gallons/min. A constant discharge aquifer test at well M4C indicated that the transmissivity of the alluvium at this location was about 430 sq ft/day. Water levels in the underlying Jackpile sandstone bed began declining within 15 minutes after withdrawals of groundwater from the alluvial aquifer began. (USGS)

Risser, D.W.; Davis, P.A.; Baldwin, J.A.; McaAda, D.P.

1984-01-01

124

Water Quality in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1999-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2004 assessment of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings for principal and other aquifers and major river basins across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, regional, State, and national issues. Conditions in the aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as drinking-water quality, the effects of agricultural practices on water quality, source-water protection, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the region and the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer summarized in this report are discussed in greater detail in other reports that can be accessed in Appendix 1 of http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa). This report accompanies the detailed and technical report of water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer 'Water-quality assessment of the High Plains aquifer, 1999-2004' (http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/)

Gurdak, Jason J.; McMahon, Peter B.; Dennehy, Kevin; Qi, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

125

Hydrogeology of the Buffalo aquifer, Clay and Wilkin Counties, West-Central Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Buffalo aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supplies in the Moorhead, Minnesota area. The aquifer is an elongate deposit of sand and gravel, which locally contains water under confined conditions. Although the Buffalo aquifer contains about 270 billion gallons of water in storage, only 120 billion gallons could be withdrawn. Largest well yields occur along the deep trough in the center of the aquifer. Induced streambed infiltration may be possible in certain areas where the stream overlies the aquifer and where the intervening lake sediments are thin or absent. A numerical model constructed for aquifer evaluation has shown that a considerable amount of ground water is discharged through the confining bed to the stream or leaves the area as underflow to the west. Water from the Buffalo aquifer generally is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The average discharge of the Buffalo River for the base period 1946-78 ranges from 0.229 cubic foot per second per square mile near Hawley to 0.108 cubic foot per second per square mile at Sabin. Surface water in the Buffalo River drainage system is dominantly a calcium bicarbonate type similar to ground water of the area, especially at low flow in the upper reaches of the tributaries. (USGS)

Wolf, R.J.

1981-01-01

126

Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoirs to Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleozoic-age Ozark Plateau Aquifer System (OPAS) in southern Kansas consists of a thick (>450 m) and deeply buried (>1 km) succession of Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group strata (dolomite) overlain by Lower Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous-age carbonate, chert, and shale. The Arbuckle Group is a thick widespread saline aquifer in southern Kansas. A 500 meter core of the OPAS interval and immediate overlying Pennsylvanian shale caprock were cored in early 2011 in the BEREXCO Wellington KGS #1-32 well in Wellington Field, a nearly depleted oil field in Sumner County, in south-central Kansas. An exhaustive set of modern logs were run in the KGS #1-32 well including chemical, microresistivity imaging, dipole sonic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and standard porosity and resistivity wireline logs. In addition, routine and special core analyses provide vital means to calibrate these logs. Core also provide vital chemical analyses and rock samples to run flow experiments, including in situ conditions, to establish reaction kinetics of rock and connate brines with CO2. Core and logs also provide the means to calibrate a 26 km2 multicomponent 3D seismic survey that was acquired in Wellington Field in 2010. Studies of four oil fields, also part of this project, are underway in southwestern Kansas to provide additional calibration points for the western part of the regional study that covers 65,000 km2 where CO2 sequestration capacity will be measured. Several hundred deep wells have been identified to serve as type wells in the regional study area. Well logs and sample descriptions are being digitized, correlated, and mapped to define distribution of aquifers, oil reservoirs, and caprocks. Drill stem test data have been analyzed for deep wells to establish that the Arbuckle is an open aquifer connected to surface exposures 100s of km to east in central Missouri. Over 500 km2 of 3D seismic have been donated by industrial partners to aid in understanding fault and fracture systems. Regional gravity and magnetics data have been analyzed to infer the potential presence of faults using the tilt angle processing of this information to aid in defining discontinuities and estimates of the depth of the anomalies. Results are being uploaded and integrated as part of an interactive web-based project mapper to permit comparison and interrogation of the data. Integrated views based on this comprehensive examination of the northern shelfward extension of the Anadarko Basin is providing new perspectives and insights into basin development and associated structures. Deep-seated basement faults are extensively developed, expressed in the Phanerozoic strata as drape or faults or no evidence for movement. Selection of CO2 sequestration sites will consider aquifer distribution, caprock integrity, and, once established, the extent of fracture and faults to evaluate risk for potential leakage of CO2. The project is funded by DOE/NETL under grant DE-FE0002056 and cost-sharing partners.

Watney, W. L.; Rush, J.

2011-12-01

127

Comparative evolution of Pennsylvanian platform margins in Oklahoma and north-central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Pennsylvanian evolution of the Midland basin's eastern shelf and the northern shelves of the Anadarko and Arkoma basins demonstrates a strongly contrasting pattern with regard to the facies composition and stability of the shelf margin. For the Midland basin a carbonate ramp system developed adjacent to the Eastern shelf during the early Desmoinesian but received no coarse-grained clastic sediment until after the central Fort Worth basin was completely filled by Ouachita orogenic debris in the late Desmoinesian. At that time, a distinct north-south hingeline formed between the shelf and incipient Midland basin that allowed for subsequent vertical accretion of a Missourian-age double bank system. Due to the absence of active deltaic depocenters across the southern two-thirds of the shelf, the Missourian shelf margin did not prograde basinward nor did a submarine fan system develop adjacent to this reciprocal bank complex. Later, during the Virgilian, a single shelf-edge bank and submarine fan complex prograded the shelf edge westward. The shelf edges for the Anadarko and Arkoma basins demonstrate a significantly different pattern. Only during the late Desmoinesian (Marmaton Group) did a shelf-edge bank develop in association with shelf-slope reciprocal sedimentation. For the Anadarko basin, widespread submarine fans, fed from a northeasterly cratonic source, are first seen with Red Fork deposition. Post-Tonkawa cyclic sedimentation prograded the shelf edge southward and gave rise to a more carbonate-dominated shelf sequence. In virtually all instances the regressive submarine fan units indicate eustatic lowstands of sea level.

Cleaves, A.W.; Puckette, J.O. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

1991-08-01

128

Oklahoma Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published since the 1950s, Oklahoma Today is a production of several state agencies, and it is designed to showcase various cultural, historical, and social aspects of Oklahoma. Over the past several years, Oklahoma State University has digitized back issues of the magazine, and visitors can now read all the way back to the first issue from 1956. Visitors can browse back issues by decade, and they can also perform key-word searches. First-time visitors should start by reading through the spring 1960 issue, which contains pieces on rattlesnakes, Oklahoma wildflowers, and the Washington Irving Trail. While the name Washington Irving may not be commonly associated with Oklahoma, the author spent part of 1832 wandering through the state with a Native American guide. More recent issues feature profiles of singer Vince Gill and Route 66.

129

Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the 150,000 local residents of the Gio Linh district and the city of Dong Ha. The coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The area has a tropical monsoon climate which is characterized by an average precipitation of 1500 to 2700 mm in nearly 180 days from August to April. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. These geological formations have a highly heterogeneous lithology. A 3D groundwater model is built to study possible seawater intrusion under the changing conditions. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and some data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Geophysical measurements have been carried out recently and in the past and are used to support the model.

Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

2014-05-01

130

Key subsurface data help to refine Trinity aquifer hydrostratigraphic units, south-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic framework and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers are important components for studying the nation’s subsurface heterogeneity and predicting its hydraulic budgets. Detailed study of an aquifer’s subsurface hydrostratigraphy is needed to understand both its geologic and hydrologic frameworks. Surface hydrostratigraphic mapping can also help characterize the spatial distribution and hydraulic connectivity of an aquifer’s permeable zones. Advances in three-dimensional (3-D) mapping and modeling have also enabled geoscientists to visualize the spatial relations between the saturated and unsaturated lithologies. This detailed study of two borehole cores, collected in 2001 on the Camp Stanley Storage Activity (CSSA) area, provided the foundation for revising a number of hydrostratigraphic units representing the middle zone of the Trinity aquifer. The CSSA area is a restricted military facility that encompasses approximately 4,000 acres and is located in Boerne, Texas, northwest of the city of San Antonio. Studying both the surface and subsurface geology of the CSSA area are integral parts of a U.S. Geological Survey project funded through the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. This modification of hydrostratigraphic units is being applied to all subsurface data used to construct a proposed 3-D EarthVision model of the CSSA area and areas to the south and west.

Blome, Charles D.; Clark, Allan K.

2014-01-01

131

Computer simulation of the steady-state flow system of the Tertiary limestone (Floridan) aquifer system in east-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The predevelopment steady-state ground-water flow system for 13 ,700 square miles of the Tertiary limestone aquifer system (known as the Florida aquifer in Florida) in east-central Florida is simulated by means of a digital computer model. The model results indicate that about 1,900 cubic feet per second recharges the aquifer as downward leakage from the surficial aquifer. The average recharge rate where recharge actually occurs (approximately 6,550 square miles) is about 4 inches per year. The maximum recharge rate is about 14 inches per year. An additional 21 cubic feet per second is recharged to the modeled area of the aquifer by means of lateral boundary inflow along the northeast boundary. The Floridan aquifer system, as simulated, discharges 1,300 cubic feet per second as springflow, 540 cubic feet per second as diffuse upward leakage to the surficial aquifer in an area of approximately 7,150 square miles and 81 cubic feet per second as lateral boundary outflow to the southwest and to the east. The average transmissivity of the upper unit of the aquifer, as simulated, is about 120,000 square feet per day while that for the lower unit is about 60,000 square feet per day. (USGS)

Tibbals, C.H.

1981-01-01

132

An assessment of the potential and impacts of winter water banking in the Sokh aquifer, Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of artificial recharge of winter surface flows coupled with increased summer groundwater use for irrigation in the Sokh aquifer (Central Asia) have been investigated. Water release patterns from the giant Toktogul reservoir have changed, as priority is now given to hydropower generation in winter in Kyrgyzstan. Winter flows have increased and summer releases have declined, but the Syr Darya River cannot pass these larger winter flows and the excess is diverted to a natural depression, creating a 40 × 109m3 lake. A water balance study of all 18 aquifers feeding the Fergana Valley indicated the feasibility of winter groundwater recharge in storage created by summer abstraction. This modeling study examines the dynamics of the process in one aquifer over a 5-year period, with four scenarios: the current situation; increased groundwater abstraction of around 625 million (M) m3/year; groundwater abstraction with an artificial recharge of 144 Mm3/year, equivalent to the volume available in low flow years in the Sokh River; and with a larger artificial recharge of 268 Mm3/year, corresponding to high flow availability. Summer surface irrigation diversions can be reduced by up to 350 Mm3 and water table levels can be lowered.

Gracheva, Inna; Karimov, Akmal; Turral, Hugh; Miryusupov, F.

2009-09-01

133

Bacterial production of methane and its influence on ground-water chemistry in east-central Texas aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical and isotopic data for methane and ground water indicate that gaseous hydrocarbons in Eocene aquifers in east-central Texas form by bacterial processes. The ?13C values of methane from five wells in the clay-rich Yegua and Cook Mountain Formations range from -71‰ to -62‰. Methane from ten wells in the cleaner sands of the Sparta and Queen City Formations have ?13C values between -57‰ and -53‰. The carbon isotopic difference between methanes from the Yegua and Sparta aquifers is comparable to the isotopic difference in sedimentary organic matter from outcrops of the units, suggesting substrate control on the ?13C of bacterial methane. Hydrogen isotopic compositions of methane from the aquifers are similar, averaging -181‰. This high value suggests methane production predominantly by CO2 reduction. The ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in high bicarbonate waters increases from about -20‰ to 0‰ with increasing DIC. Mass-balance calculations indicate that the DIC added to the ground water has ?;13C values as high as 10‰. This 13C-enriched carbon is predominantly derived from CO2 production by fermentation and anaerobic oxidation reactions combined with CO2 consumption by CO2 reduction. This process is responsible for high bicarbonate contents in these and probably other Gulf Coast ground waters.

Grossman, Ethan L.; Coffman, B. Keith; Fritz, Steven J.; Wada, Hideki

1989-06-01

134

ADAPTATIONS OF INDIGENOUS BACTERIA TO FUEL CONTAMINATION IN KARST AQUIFERS IN SOUTH-CENTRAL KENTUCKY  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The karst aquifer systems in southern Kentucky can be dynamic and quick to change. Microorganisms that live in these unpredictable aquifers are constantly faced with environmental changes. Their survival depends upon adaptations to changes in water chemistry, taking advantage of positive stimuli and avoiding negative environmental conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2001 to determine the capability of bacteria to adapt in two distinct regions of water quality in a karst aquifer, an area of clean, oxygenated groundwater and an area where the groundwater was oxygen depleted and contaminated by jet fuel. Water samples containing bacteria were collected from one clean well and two jet fuel contaminated wells in a conduit-dominated karst aquifer. Bacterial concentrations, enumerated through direct count, ranged from 500,000 to 2.7 million bacteria per mL in the clean portion of the aquifer, and 200,000 to 3.2 million bacteria per mL in the contaminated portion of the aquifer over a twelve month period. Bacteria from the clean well ranged in size from 0.2 to 2.5 mm, whereas bacteria from one fuel-contaminated well were generally larger, ranging in size from 0.2 to 3.9 mm. Also, bacteria collected from the clean well had a higher density and, consequently, were more inclined to sink than bacteria collected from contaminated wells. Bacteria collected from the clean portion of the karst aquifer were predominantly (,95%) Gram-negative and more likely to have flagella present than bacteria collected from the contaminated wells, which included a substantial fraction (,30%) of Gram-positive varieties. The ability of the bacteria from the clean portion of the karst aquifer to biodegrade benzene and toluene was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in laboratory microcosms. The rate of fuel biodegradation in laboratory studies was approximately 50 times faster under aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic, sulfur-reducing conditions. The optimum pH for fuel biodegradation ranged from 6 to 7. These findings suggest that bacteria have adapted to water-saturated karst systems with a variety of active and passive transport mechanisms.

Byl, Thomas D.; Metge, David W.; Daniel T. Agymang; Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg; Harvey, Ronald W.

2014-01-01

135

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma well-being of our communities and the counties in which they are located. Oklahoma State University Resources Oklahoma State University #12;Farm Operations · 86,600 farms; 4th in the nation · Average age

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

136

Quantification of aquifer properties with surface nuclear magnetic resonance in the Platte River valley, central Nebraska, using a novel inversion method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface nuclear magnetic resonance, a noninvasive geophysical method, measures a signal directly related to the amount of water in the subsurface. This allows for low-cost quantitative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In practice, however, additional factors influence the signal, complicating interpretation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District, evaluated whether hydraulic parameters derived from surface nuclear magnetic resonance data could provide valuable input into groundwater models used for evaluating water-management practices. Two calibration sites in Dawson County, Nebraska, were chosen based on previous detailed hydrogeologic and geophysical investigations. At both sites, surface nuclear magnetic resonance data were collected, and derived parameters were compared with results from four constant-discharge aquifer tests previously conducted at those same sites. Additionally, borehole electromagnetic-induction flowmeter data were analyzed as a less-expensive surrogate for traditional aquifer tests. Building on recent work, a novel surface nuclear magnetic resonance modeling and inversion method was developed that incorporates electrical conductivity and effects due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities, both of which can have a substantial impact on the data. After comparing surface nuclear magnetic resonance inversions at the two calibration sites, the nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived parameters were compared with previously performed aquifer tests in the Central Platte Natural Resources District. This comparison served as a blind test for the developed method. The nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived aquifer parameters were in agreement with results of aquifer tests where the environmental noise allowed data collection and the aquifer test zones overlapped with the surface nuclear magnetic resonance testing. In some cases, the previously performed aquifer tests were not designed fully to characterize the aquifer, and the surface nuclear magnetic resonance was able to provide missing data. In favorable locations, surface nuclear magnetic resonance is able to provide valuable noninvasive information about aquifer parameters and should be a useful tool for groundwater managers in Nebraska.

Irons, Trevor P.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Steele, Gregory V.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Woodward, Duane D.

2012-01-01

137

Water Quality in the Equus Beds Aquifer and the Little Arkansas River Before Implementation of Large-Scale Artificial Recharge, South-Central Kansas, 1995-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer using runoff from the Little Arkansas River in south-central Kansas was first proposed in 1956 and was one of many options considered by the city of Wichita to preserve its water supply. Declining aquifer water levels of as much as 50 feet exacerbated concerns about future water availability and enhanced migration of saltwater into the aquifer from past oil and gas activities near Burrton and from the Arkansas River. Because Wichita changed water-management strategies and decreased pumping from the Equus Beds aquifer in 1992, water storage in the aquifer recovered by about 50 percent. This recovery is the result of increased reliance on Cheney Reservoir for Wichita water supply, decreased aquifer pumping, and larger than normal precipitation. Accompanying the water-level recovery, the average water-level gradient in the aquifer decreased from about 12 feet per mile in 1992 to about 8 feet per mile in January 2006. An important component of artificial recharge is the water quality of the receiving aquifer and the water being recharged (source water). Water quality within the Little Arkansas River was defined using data from two real-time surface-water-quality sites and discrete samples. Water quality in the Equus Beds aquifer was defined using sample analyses collected at 38 index sites, each with a well completed in the shallow and deep parts of the Equus Beds aquifer. In addition, data were collected at diversion well sites, recharge sites, background wells, and prototype wells for the aquifer storage and recovery project. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, radionuclides, organic compounds, and bacterial and viral indicators. Water-quality constituents of concern for artificial recharge are those constituents that frequently (more than 5 percent of samples) may exceed Federal [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)] and State drinking-water criteria in water samples from the receiving aquifer or in samples from the source water. Constituents of concern include major ions (sulfate and chloride), nutrients (nitrite plus nitrate), trace elements (arsenic, iron, and manganese), organic compounds (atrazine), and fecal bacterial indicators. This report describes the water quality in the Equus Beds aquifer and the Little Arkansas River from 1995 through 2005 before implementation of large-scale recharge activities. Sulfate concentrations in water samples from the Little Arkansas River rarely exceeded Federal secondary drinking water regulation (SDWR) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Sulfate concentrations in groundwater were exceeded in about 18 percent of the wells in the shallow (less than or equal to 80 feet deep) parts of the aquifer and in about 13 percent of the wells in the deep parts the aquifer. Larger sulfate concentrations were associated with parts of the aquifer with the largest water-level declines. Water-quality changes in the Equus Beds aquifer likely were caused by dewatering and oxidation of aquifer material that subsequently resulted in increased sulfate concentrations as water levels recovered. The primary sources of chloride to the Equus Beds aquifer are from past oil and gas activities near Burrton and from the Arkansas River. Computed chloride concentrations in the Little Arkansas River near Halstead exceeded the Federal SDWR of 250 mg/L about 27 percent of the time (primarily during low-flow conditions). Chloride concentrations in groundwater exceeded 250 mg/L in about 8 percent or less of the study area, primarily near Burrton and along the Arkansas River. Chloride in groundwater near Burrton has migrated downgradient about 3 miles during the past 40 to 45 years. The downward and horizontal migration of the chloride is controlled by the hydraulic gradient in the aquifer, dispersion of chloride, and discontinuous clay layers that can inhibit further downward migration. Chloride in the shallow parts of the Equus Beds

Ziegler, Andrew C.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Finn, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

138

Hydrochemistry of the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, East-Central Illinois: indicators of recharge and ground-water flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A conceptual model of the ground-water flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA), east-central Illinois, was developed using major ion chemistry and isotope geochemistry. The MVA is a 'basal' fill in the east-west trending buried bedrock valley composed of clean, permeable sand and gravel to thicknesses of up to 61 m. It is covered by a thick sequence of glacial till containing thinner bodies of interbedded sand and gravel. Ground water from the MVA was found to be characterized by clearly defined geochemical regions with three distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west. Ground water in the Onarga Valley, a northeastern tributary of the MVA, is of two types, a mixed cation-SO42- type and a mixed cation-HCO3- type. The ground water is enriched in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- which appears to be the result of an upward hydraulic gradient and interaction of deeper ground water with oxidized pyritic coals and shale. We suggest that recharge to the Onarga Valley and overlying aquifers is 100% from bedrock (leakage) and lateral flow from the MVA to the south. The central MVA (south of the Onarga Valley) is composed of relatively dilute ground water of a mixed cation-HCO3- type, with low total dissolved solids, and very low concentrations of Cl- and SO42-. Stratigraphic relationships of overlying aquifers and ground-water chemistry of these and the MVA suggest recharge to this region of the MVA (predominantly in Champaign County) is relatively rapid and primarily from the surface. Midway along the westerly flow path of the MVA (western MVA), ground water is a mixed cation-HCO3- type with relatively high Cl-, where Cl- increases abruptly by one to ??? two orders of magnitude. Data suggest that the increase in Cl- is the result of leakage of saline ground water from bedrock into the MVA. Mass-balance calculations indicate that approximately 9.5% of recharge in this area is from bedrock. Concentrations of Na+, HCO3-, As, and TDS also increase in the western MVA. Ground water in the MAK is of a Ca2+-HCO3- type. Mass-balance calculations, using Cl- as a natural, conservative tracer, indicate that approximately 17% of the ground water flowing from the confluence area is derived from the MVA.

Panno, S.V.; Hackley, K.C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, C.-L.

1994-01-01

139

MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF A SHALLOW UNCONFINED GROUND WATER AQUIFER POLLUTED BY MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The microflora of a shallow anoxic aquifer underlying a municipal landfill In Oklahoma was characterized by direct light microscopy, most probable number of determinations of sulfate reducers and methanogens, and measurements of methanogenesis in aquifer samples containing either...

140

Soil Remediation Requirements Related to Abandoned Centralized and Commercial Drilling-Fluid Disposal Sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas  

SciTech Connect

This study was a compilation and summary of information on active and inactive centralized or commercial drilling-fluid disposal sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The objective of the analysis of these sites wass to gain insight into the probable behavior of contaminants at poorly documented abandoned drilling fluid disposal sites. Available information being reported in this study includes number and acreage of pits, delivered waste volumes, and levels of selected constituents in the solid waste, in the water overlying the solids, and groundwater monitored at on-site wells. For many sites, dated constituent analyses for specific monitor wells are available for time-series mapping and graphing of variable concentrations.

Dutton, Alan R.

2002-03-20

141

Oklahoma Native Plant Record Volume 11, December 2011  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Native Plant Record Volume 11, December 2011 Linneman, J. S., et al. 43 THE EFFECTS OF REMOVAL OF JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA L. TREES AND LITTER FROM A CENTRAL OKLAHOMA GRASSLAND Jerad S. Linneman1 1 153, 5D-06G mike.palmer@okstate.edu Riverdale, MD 20737-1228 2 Oklahoma State University Department

Palmer, Michael W.

142

Synthesis of the Hydrogeologic Framework of the Floridan Aquifer System and Delineation of a Major Avon Park Permeable Zone in Central and Southern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The carbonate Floridan aquifer system of central and southern Florida (south of a latitude of about 29 degrees north) is an invaluable resource with a complex framework that has previously been mapped and managed primarily in a subregional context according to geopolitical boundaries. As interest and use of the Floridan aquifer system in this area increase, a consistent regional hydrogeologic framework is needed for effective management across these boundaries. This study synthesizes previous studies on the Floridan aquifer system and introduces a new regional hydrogeologic conceptual framework, linking physical relations between central and southern Florida and between the west and east coastal areas. The differences in hydrogeologic nomenclature and interpretation across the study area from previous studies were identified and resolved. The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, middle confining unit, and Lower Floridan aquifer. This study introduces and delineates a new major, regional productive zone or subaquifer, referred to as the Avon Park permeable zone. This zone is contained within the middle confining unit and synthesizes an extensive zone that has been referred to differently in different parts of the study area in previous studies. The name of this zone derives from the description of this zone as the ?Avon Park highly permeable zone? in west-central Florida in a previous study. Additionally, this zone has been identified previously in southeastern Florida as the ?middle Floridan aquifer.? An approximately correlative or approximate time-stratigraphic framework was developed and was used to provide guidance in the identification and determination of aquifers, subaquifers, and confining units within the Floridan aquifer system and to determine their structural relations. Two stratigraphic marker horizons within the Floridan aquifer system and a marker unit near the top of the aquifer system were delineated or mapped. The marker horizons are correlative points in the stratigraphic section rather than a unit with upper and lower boundaries. The two marker horizons and the marker unit originated from previous studies, wherein they were based on lithology and correlation of geophysical log signatures observed in boreholes. The depths of these marker horizons and the marker unit were extended throughout the study area by correlation of natural gamma-ray logs between wells. The Floridan aquifer system includes, in ascending order, the upper part of the Cedar Keys Formation, Oldsmar Formation, Avon Park Formation, Ocala Limestone, Suwannee Limestone, and in some areas the lower part of the Hawthorn Group. The first marker horizon is in the lower part of the aquifer system near the top of the Oldsmar Formation and is associated with the top of distinctive glauconitic limestone beds that are present in some regions; the second marker horizon is near the middle of the aquifer system in the middle part of the Avon Park Formation. The marker unit lies at the top of a basal unit in the Hawthorn Group and provides a stratigraphic constraint for the top of the Floridan aquifer system. The marker horizons do not have distinguishing lithologic characteristics or a characteristic gamma-ray log pattern in all areas but are still thought to be valid because of correlation of the entire section and correlation of all sufficiently deep wells with gamma-ray logs. The Avon Park permeable zone is contained entirely within the Avon Park Formation; its position within the section is either near the middle Avon Park marker horizon or within a thick part of the section that extends several hundred feet above the marker horizon. This subaquifer is present over most of the study area and characteristically consists of thick units of dolostone and interbedded limestone, and limestone in its upper part. Permeability is primarily associated with fracturing. This subaquifer is well developed in west-cen

Reese, Ronald S.; Richardson, Emily

2008-01-01

143

Fens, seasonal wetlands, and the unconfined pumice aquifer east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fens and seasonal wetlands in the headwaters of the Klamath and Deschutes river basins in south-central Oregon are present in an area blanketed by 2 to 3 m of pumice during the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama. The lower pumice unit, moderately sorted coarse pumice lapilli to blocks (0.3 to 0.7 cm), phenocrysts, and lithics is 1.5 to 2 m thick; the upper pumice unit, poorly sorted lapilli to blocks (0.2 to 6 cm), minor phenocrysts, and lithics is 1 m thick. Pumice is a perched, unconfined aquifer over low permeability bedrock or pre-eruption fine-grained sediment. Early landscape response included partial erosion of pumice from pre-eruption valleys followed by partial filling by alluvium: phenocryst- and lithic-rich sand grading upward to glassy silt with rounded pumice pebbles. Groundwater-fed wetlands, fens, associated with the unconfined pumice aquifer occur as areas of diffuse groundwater discharge through gently sloping, convex surfaces underlain by up to 1.4 m of peat. Locally, focused discharge through the confining peat layer feeds low discharge streams. Carnivorous plants (sundews and pitcher plants) may be present. The sharp contact between peat and underlying pumice is an erosion surface that cuts progressively deeper into the upper and lower pumice units downslope. At the base of the slope peat with fen discharge feeding surface flow, alluvium with no surface flow, or a subtle berm separating the slope underlain by peat from the valley bottom underlain by alluvium may be present. Distinct vegetation changes take place at this transition. The erosion surface that underlies the peat layer in the fen is at the surface on the opposing valley wall and progressively rises up through the lower and upper pumice units: iron staining and cementation of pumice is locally prominent. Up to 1.5 m difference in water table occurs between the fen and opposing valley wall. Water table in piezometers screened in peat is at the surface. Locally, water table screened in pumice below the peat confining layer is up to 24 cm above the surface. Electrical conductivity in groundwater from the unconfined pumice aquifer ranged between 20 and 45 ?S/cm. Rarely, electrical conductivity greater than 250 ?S/cm is measured. Hydrochemistry indicates these waters are distinctly different (Ca-bicarbonate, [Fe] up to 22 mg/l) from water commonly encountered in the unconfined pumice aquifer (Na-bicarbonate, [Fe] less than 0.07 mg/l). Seasonally elevated water tables are present where pre-eruption topography allows snowmelt to accumulate in the unconfined pumice aquifer in valley bottoms and upland surfaces. Differential hardness of volcanic bedrock units control distribution in valley bottoms; emplacement processes and weathering of flow tops control distribution in upland settings. In both settings the lower pumice unit is saturated, but the upper pumice unit may be absent or thin. Alluvium commonly overlies pumice in valley bottoms. The water table may fluctuate up to 1.5 m from the spring snowmelt to late summer. Electrical conductivity in the pumice aquifer ranges between 19 and 250 ?S/cm and commonly increases at single sites as the dry season progresses.

Cummings, M. L.; Large, A.; Mowbray, A.; Weatherford, J.; Webb, B.

2013-12-01

144

Stable isotope ( 2H, 18O and 87Sr\\/ 86Sr) and hydrochemistry monitoring for groundwater hydrodynamics analysis in a karst aquifer (Gran Sasso, Central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with chemical and isotope analyses of 21 springs, which were monitored 3 times in the course of 2001; the monitoring program was focused on the groundwater of the Gran Sasso carbonate karst aquifer (Central Italy), typical of the mountainous Mediterranean area.Based on the hydrogeological setting of the study area, 6 groups of springs with different groundwater circulation

Maurizio Barbieri; Tiziano Boschetti; Marco Petitta; Marco Tallini

2005-01-01

145

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY MEDICAL AUTHORITY  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY MEDICAL AUTHORITY June 30, 2009 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY MEDICAL Authority Members Oklahoma State University Medical Authority Tulsa, Oklahoma We have audited the accompanying statements of financial position of the Oklahoma State University Medical Authority (the

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

146

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY MEDICAL AUTHORITY  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY MEDICAL AUTHORITY June 30, 2010 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY MEDICAL Authority Members Oklahoma State University Medical Authority Tulsa, Oklahoma We have audited the accompanying statements of financial position of the Oklahoma State University Medical Authority (the

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

147

THE OKLAHOMA MESONET  

EPA Science Inventory

The Oklahoma Mesonet, operated and maintained by the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, is Oklahoma's premier climatological data collection system. For the area covered, which includes the entire state, no other system within the United States or internationally has the degree of ...

148

Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region Despite India's tremendous progress on all fronts after independence in 1947, the fact remains that it is one of the poorest nation in the world in terms of per capita income and energy consumption which is considered to be the gauge of the economic situation of any country. In case of India, it is nearly one tenth of the developed nations. If economic condition of its people is to be raised, then country has to boost its agriculture production which is largely monsoon dependent and to exploit its conventional and unconventional energy sources at a very rapid growth rate. Although, worldwide, 70% of the water that is withdrawn for human use is used for agriculture, 22% for industry and 8% is used for domestic services. But in India which is a low income country, 82% is used for agriculture, 10% for industry and 8% for domestic services. Therefore, India needs new sources of water to reduce the risk of dependency on the monsoon for the Sustainable Development of the country. It is in this connection that the Ambikapur Basin in the Central India has been studied for sustainable water withdrawal. At present, the crops in the Ambikapur region are totally monsoon dependent. However, with the initiatives of the State Government, 25 boreholes in an area of about 25 square kilometers have been drilled up to a depth of 500m and completed in the Gondwana sandstone. The water quality and the discharge rates have been established to sustain the crops of the area which is the only livelihood of the local people , in case the monsoon fails. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer like Transmissivity (T) and the Coefficient of Storage (S) were determined following the graphic method of Jacob and Theis. The rate of discharge (Q) of the pumped well was estimated at 4.05 x 10 to the power 3 cubic meters per second and the values of other parameters like T at the well being 2.5 x 10 to the power 3 square meters per second and, T and S at the piezometric head being 1.56 x 10 to the power 2 square meters per second and 5.8 % respectively. The Interference Tests show that the reservoir is communicable. The measurements of bottom hole pressure indicate that it was always greater than the hydrostatic pressure, therefore, the wells will have a self flow. The residency period of the water in the reservoir comes out to be nearly 30 to 40 years. The reservoir characteristics indicate that the Ambikapur aquifer offers vast water resource worth exploiting the judicious management of which can reduce the dependency of crops on the monsoon and can help a fast sustainable development of the region. Key words : Gondwana sandstone, Aquifer, Transmissivity, Piezometric head, Interference test,

Sharma, S. K.

2009-04-01

149

Water movement through thick unsaturated zones overlying the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas, 2000-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The role of irrigation as a driving force for water and chemical movement to the central High Plains aquifer is uncertain because of the thick unsaturated zone overlying the aquifer. Water potentials and profiles of tritium, chloride, nitrate, and pesticide concentrations were used to evaluate water movement through thick unsaturated zones overlying the central High Plains aquifer at three sites in southwestern Kansas. One site was located in rangeland and two sites were located in areas dominated by irrigated agriculture. In 2000?2001, the depth to water at the rangeland site was 50 meters and the depth to water at the irrigated sites was about 45.4 meters. Irrigation at the study sites began in 1955?56. Measurements of matric potential and volumetric water content indicate wetter conditions existed in the deep unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites than at the rangeland site. Total water potentials in the unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites systematically decreased with depth to the water table, indicating a potential existed for downward water movement from the unsaturated zone to the water table at those sites. At the rangeland site, total water potentials in the deep unsaturated zone indicate small or no potential existed for downward water movement to the water table. Postbomb tritium was not detected below a depth of 1.9 meters in the unsaturated zone or in ground water at the rangeland site. In contrast, postbomb tritium was detected throughout most of the unsaturated zone and in ground water at both irrigated sites. These results indicate post-1953 water moved deeper in the unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites than at the rangeland site. The depth of the interface between prebomb and postbomb tritium and a tritium mass-balance method were used to estimate water fluxes in the unsaturated zone at each site. The average water fluxes at the rangeland site were 5.4 and 4.4 millimeters per year for the two methods, which are similar to the average water flux (5.1 millimeters per year) estimated using a chloride mass-balance method. Tritium profiles in the unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites were complicated by the presence of tritium-depleted intervals separating upper and lower zones containing postbomb tritium. If the interface between prebomb and postbomb tritium was at the top of the tritium-depleted interval and postbomb tritium detected beneath that interval was from the declining water table in the area, then the average water flux at the irrigated sites was estimated to be 21 to 54 millimeters per year. If postbomb tritium detected beneath the tritium-depleted interval was from bypass or preferential water movement through the local unsaturated zone instead of the declining water table, then the minimum water flux at the irrigated sites was estimated to be 106 to 116 millimeters per year. In either case, water fluxes at the irrigated sites were at least 4 to 12 times larger than the flux at the rangeland site, indicating irrigation was an important driving force for water movement through the unsaturated zone. The presence of postbomb tritium and large nitrate and total pesticide concentrations (24 milligrams per liter as nitrogen and 0.923 microgram per liter, respectively) in ground water at the irrigated sites indicates irrigation water also was an important driving force for chemical movement to the water table. The persistence of a downward hydraulic gradient from the deep unsaturated zone to the water table at the irrigated sites, in addition to large nitrate and atrazine concentrations in deep soil water (34 milligrams per liter as nitrogen and 0.79 microgram per liter, respectively), indicate that the deep unsaturated zone will be a source of nitrate and atrazine to the aquifer in the future.

McMahon, Peter B.; Dennehy, K.F.; Michel, R.L.; Sophocleous, M.A.; Ellett, K.M.; Hurlbut, D.B.

2003-01-01

150

Geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water of the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems, Hickman and Maury counties, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance of the geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems in Hickman and Maury Counties, Tennessee, was conducted in 1989. Water in both aquifer systems typically is of the calcium or calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, but concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate are greater in water of the Central Basin system; differences in the concentrations are statistically significant. Dissolution of calcite, magnesium-calcite, dolomite, and gypsum are the primary geochemical processes controlling ground-water chemistry in both aquifer systems. Saturation-state calculations using the computer code WATEQF indicated that ground water from the Central Basin system is more saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, and gypsum than water from the Highland Rim system. Geochemical environments within each aquifer system are somewhat different with respect to dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals. Water samples from the Highland Rim system had a fairly constant calcium to magnesium molar ratio, implying congruent dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals, whereas water samples from the Central Basin system had highly variable ratios, implying either incongruent dissolution or heterogeneity in soluble constituents of the aquifer matrix. Concentrations of radionuclides in water were low and not greatly different between aquifer systems. Median gross alpha activities were 0.54 picocuries per liter in water from each system; median gross beta activities were 1.1 and 2.3 picocuries per liter in water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin systems, respectively. Radon-222 concentrations were 559 and 422 picocuries per liter, respectively. Concentrations of gross alpha and radium in all samples were substantially less than Tennessee?s maximum permissible levels for community water-supply systems. The data indicated no relations between concentrations of dissolved radionuclides (uranium, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, gross alpha, and gross beta) and any key indicators of water chemistry, except in water from the Highland Rim system, in which radon-222 was moderately related to pH and weakly related to dissolved magnesium. The only relation among radiochemical constituents indicated by the data was between radium-226 and gross alpha activity; this relation was indicated for water from both aquifer systems.

Hileman, G.E.; Lee, R.W.

1993-01-01

151

Assessment of nonpoint-source contamination of the High Plains Aquifer in south-central Kansas, 1987  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water quality was assessed in a 5,000-square-mile area of the High Plains aquifer in south-central Kansas that is susceptible to nonpoint-source contamination from agricultural and petroleum-production activities. Of particular interest was the presence of agricultural chemicals and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons that might have been associated with brines that formerly were disposed into unlined ponds. Random sampling of ground water was done within a framework of discrete land-use areas (irrigated cropland, petroleum-production land containing former brine-disposal ponds, and undeveloped rangeland) of 3-10 square miles. Although true baseline water-quality conditions probably are rare, in this region they are represented most closely by ground water in areas of undeveloped rangeland. The sampling design enabled statistical hypothesis testing, using nonparametric procedures, of the effects of land use, unsaturated-zone lithology, and type of well sampled. Results indicate that regional ground-water quality has been affected by prevailing land-use activities, as shown by increased concentrations of several inorganic constituents. Ground water beneath irrigated cropland was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, potassium, fluofide, and nitrite plus nitrate than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Few nondegraded pesticides were detected in the aquifer, probably because of degradation and sorption. Atrazine was the most common, but only in small concentrations. round water beneath petroleum-production land was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Nonpoint-source contamination by oil-derived hydrocarbons was not discernible. The occurrences of trace organic compounds were similar between petroleum-production land and undeveloped rangeland, which indicates a natural origin for these compounds. The unsaturated zone in the study area is lithologically heterogeneous and contains substantial amounts of clay that inhibit the downward movement of water and solutes. Within the aquifer, the rate of lateral regional flow and solute transport is slow enough so that the ground-water quality reflects overlying land use in discrete areas of several square miles, but it is still sufficiently rapid so that the type of well sampled is not important in regional characterizations of water quality beneath irrigated cropland; the seasonal pumping of irrigation wells does not appear to divert regional flow enough to cause substantial local anomalies of more mineralized ground water.

Helgesen, John O.; Stullken, Lloyd E.; Rutledge, A.T.

1994-01-01

152

Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for NO3 contamination in agricultural areas.

Plummer, L.N.; Rupert, M.G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

2000-01-01

153

Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 ?g/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45 ?m). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000 g/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The ?D and ?18O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater.

Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Schalk, Charles W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

2014-01-01

154

Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA.  

PubMed

To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478?g/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45?m). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000mg/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The ?D and ?(18)O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater. PMID:24842411

Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W; Nielsen, Martha G; Schalk, Charles W; Johnson, Carole D; Marvinney, Robert G; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

2015-02-01

155

Nonlinear-regression flow model of the Gulf Coast aquifer systems in the south-central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A multiple-regression methodology was used to help answer questions concerning model reliability, and to calibrate a time-dependent variable-density ground-water flow model of the gulf coast aquifer systems in the south-central United States. More than 40 regression models with 2 to 31 regressions parameters are used and detailed results are presented for 12 of the models. More than 3,000 values for grid-element volume-averaged head and hydraulic conductivity are used for the regression model observations. Calculated prediction interval half widths, though perhaps inaccurate due to a lack of normality of the residuals, are the smallest for models with only four regression parameters. In addition, the root-mean weighted residual decreases very little with an increase in the number of regression parameters. The various models showed considerable overlap between the prediction inter- vals for shallow head and hydraulic conductivity. Approximate 95-percent prediction interval half widths for volume-averaged freshwater head exceed 108 feet; for volume-averaged base 10 logarithm hydraulic conductivity, they exceed 0.89. All of the models are unreliable for the prediction of head and ground-water flow in the deeper parts of the aquifer systems, including the amount of flow coming from the underlying geopressured zone. Truncating the domain of solution of one model to exclude that part of the system having a ground-water density greater than 1.005 grams per cubic centimeter or to exclude that part of the systems below a depth of 3,000 feet, and setting the density to that of freshwater does not appreciably change the results for head and ground-water flow, except for locations close to the truncation surface.

Kuiper, L.K.

1994-01-01

156

The Edwards Aquifer Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Edwards Aquifer is one of the most prolific artesian aquifers in the world, serving the diverse needs of almost two million users in south central Texas. Users can access materials that cover all aspects of the aquifer, including hydrogeology, technical, legal, and economic issues, images, endangered species, laws and regulations, and groundwater modeling. News articles, a glossary, bibliography, and links to other related sites are also included.

2002-01-01

157

Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline pH values (6.9-7.4) were detected in samples from one well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer, three production wells in the Rush Springs aquifer, and one well in an undefined Permian-aged aquifer. All well-head samples were oxic and arsenate was the only species of arsenic in water from 10 of the 12 production wells sampled. Arsenite was measured above the laboratory reporting level in water from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer and was the only arsenic species measured in water from the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer. Fluoride and uranium were the only trace elements, other than arsenic, that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water in well-head samples collected for the study. Uranium concentrations in four production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer ranged from 30.2 to 99 micrograms per liter exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 30 micrograms per liter for drinking water. Water from these four wells also had the largest arsenic concentrations measured in the study ranging from 30 to 124 micrograms

Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

2010-01-01

158

Hydrology of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south- central United States; a preliminary assessment of the regional flow system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data describing the aquifer framework and steady-state regional flow were assembled for the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer north of Vicksburg, Mississippi. The aquifer is part of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. The 60 to 140 ft thick alluvial aquifer grades from gravel at the bottom to fine sand near the top. It is overlain by the Mississippi River Valley confining unit, which consists of 10 to 50 ft of silts, clays, and fine-grained sands. Underlying units consist of alternating sands and clays corresponding to regional hydrogeologic units of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. The three-layer finite difference model was used to simulate two-dimensional confined or unconfined steady-state flow for predevelopment and 1972. Preliminary analysis of predevelopment flow indicates that recharge to the alluvial aquifer was from underlying aquifers and the confining unit. Rivers accounted for almost all discharge. Pumpage from the alluvial aquifer for irrigation substantially changed regional flow direction toward depressions in the potentiometric surface. Recharge from rivers and the confining unit increased and recharge from underlying aquifers decreased. Discharge to underlying aquifers increased and discharge to rivers decreased. Recharge from the confining unit reached a maximum of 1.3 inch/year for large parts of the aquifer. Nearly all drawdown exceeding 20 ft was at two locations in Arkansas--the Grande Prairie region, and west of Crowleys Ridge. Model results indicate the importance of leakage from rivers and the confining unite to providing recharge to sustain large amounts of pumpage from the alluvial aquifer. (USGS)

Ackerman, D.J.

1989-01-01

159

Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1960  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is part of a regional aquifer system that extends into Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part of the State. The aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits. In western Kansas, the High Plains aquifer consists principally of the Ogallala Formation of the late Tertiary age and the overlying deposits of Quaternary age. In south-central Kansas, the aquifer consists of unconsolidated deposits principally of Quaternary age. Valley alluvium of Quaternary age also is included in the deposits in both areas. The High Plains aquifer is delimited on the east by outcrops of Permian or Cretaceous rocks and by unsaturated deposits of Quaternary age. The altitude and configuration of the water table during 1960 are shown for the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. The water table sloped generally from west to east at an average rate of 10 feet per mile. The altitude of the water table ranged from about 3,900 feet in the southwest corner of Sherman County, northwestern Kansas, to about 1,350 feet in northern Sedgwick County, southcentral Kansas. Groundwater moves perpendicular to the water table contours from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the east. Contours that cross stream valleys without flexure may indicate that the water table was below the streambed. Upstream flexure of water table contours along streams indicates that groundwater flowed toward, and discharged into, streams. This is most evident along the South Fork Republican River in Cheyenne County, Northwestern Kansas, and the South Fork Ninnescah River in Pratt and Kingman Counties, south-central Kansas. (USGS)

Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

1986-01-01

160

Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium radioisotopes in 9 of the 12 samples (75 percent). The concentration of radium-224 exceeded that of radium-226 in five of the six (83 percent) samples when both were quantifiable. The radium concentration distribution differed by aquifer, with the highest Ra-228 concentrations present in the Englishtown aquifer system and the highest Ra-226 concentrations present in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer. Radium-224 generally contributed a considerable amount of gross alpha-particle activity to water produced from all the sampled aquifers, but was not the dominant radionuclide as it is in water from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, nor were concentrations greater than 1 pCi/L of radium-224 widespread. Gross alpha-particle activity was found to exceed the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 15 pCi/L in one sample (16 pCi/L) from the Vincentown aquifer. A greater part of the gross alpha-particle activity in water from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer resulted from the decay of Ra-226 than did the gross alpha-particle activity in the other sampled aquifers; this relation is consistent with the concentration distribution of the Ra-226 itself. Concentrations of radium-224 correlate strongly with those of both radium-226 and radium-228 (Spearman correlation coefficients, r, +0.86 and +0.66, respectively). The greatest concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were present in the most acidic ground water. All radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 concentrations greater than 2.5 pCi/L were present in ground-water samples with a pH less than 5.0. The presence of combined radium-226 and radium-228 concentrations greater than 5 pCi/L in samples from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Englishtown aquifer system was not nearly as common as in samples from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, likely because of the slightly higher pH of water from these aquifers relative to that of Kirkwood-Cohansey aqu

dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

2007-01-01

161

Geohydrologic characteristics and simulated response to pumping stresses in the Sparta aquifer in East-Central Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A finite difference digital model of the Sparta aquifer system in Arkansas was developed to aid in assessing the geohydrologic characteristics of the aquifer as well as the impact of withdrawals on water-level declines in the aquifer. The model consists of two layers. The Cockfield aquifer, represented by layer 1, was modeled as a constant head surface. The Sparta aquifer is represented by layer 2. The base of the Sparta aquifer was modeled as a no-flow boundary. The model boundaries to the north, south, and east in Mississippi were represented by specified heads, while boundaries to the west in Louisiana were represented as no flow. The model period of 1989 to 1985 was divided into 25 stress periods. Appropriate aquifer withdrawals were assigned to each stress period. Calibrated hydraulic conductivities of the Sparta aquifer, ranged from 1 to 35 ft/day. Calibrated hydraulic vertical conductivities of the Cook Mountain confining unit ranged from 0.0003 to 0.000009 ft/day. The calibrated storage coefficient of the aquifer was 0.0001. More than 80% of the recharge to the aquifer came from vertical leakage and from direct recharge on the outcrop. Greater than 90 % of outflow from the aquifer was from pumpage or leakage to rivers. Theoretical pumping schemes to the year 2005 indicated that virtually no change to the potentiometric surface occurred when 1985 pumping rates were extended to 2005. Doubling of pumpage over the entire study area resulted in additional water-level declines of up to 130 ft. (USGS)

Fitzpatrick, Daniel J.; Kilpatrick, John M.; McWreath, Harry

1990-01-01

162

Conjunctive-use optimization model and sustainable-yield estimation for the Sparta aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conjunctive-use optimization modeling was done to assist water managers and planners by estimating the maximum amount of ground water that hypothetically could be withdrawn from wells within the Sparta aquifer indefinitely without violating hydraulic-head or stream-discharge constraints. The Sparta aquifer is largely a confined aquifer of regional importance that comprises a sequence of unconsolidated sand units that are contained within the Sparta Sand. In 2000, more than 35.4 million cubic feet per day (Mft3/d) of water were withdrawn from the aquifer by more than 900 wells, primarily for industry, municipal supply, and crop irrigation in Arkansas. Continued, heavy withdrawals from the aquifer have caused several large cones of depression, lowering hydraulic heads below the top of the Sparta Sand in parts of Union and Columbia Counties and several areas in north-central Louisiana. Problems related to overdraft in the Sparta aquifer can result in increased drilling and pumping costs, reduced well yields, and degraded water quality in areas of large drawdown. A finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed for the Sparta aquifer using MODFLOW, primarily in eastern and southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Observed aquifer conditions in 1997 supported by numerical simulations of ground-water flow show that continued pumping at withdrawal rates representative of 1990 - 1997 rates cannot be sustained indefinitely without causing hydraulic heads to drop substantially below the top of the Sparta Sand in southern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Areas of ground-water levels below the top of the Sparta Sand have been designated as Critical Ground-Water Areas by the State of Arkansas. A steady-state conjunctive-use optimization model was developed to simulate optimized surface-water and ground-water withdrawals while maintaining hydraulic-head and streamflow constraints, thus determining the 'sustainable yield' for the aquifer. Initial attempts to estimate sustainable yield using simulated 1997 hydraulic heads as initial heads in Scenario 1 and 100 percent of the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rate as the lower specified limit in Scenario 2 led to infeasible results. Sustainable yield was estimated successfully for scenario 3 with three variations on the upper limit of withdrawal rates. Additionally, ground-water withdrawals in Union County were fixed at 35.6 percent of the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rate in Scenario 3. These fixed withdrawals are recognized by the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission to be sustainable as determined in a previous study. The optimized solutions maintained hydraulic heads at or above the top of the Sparta Sand (except in the outcrop areas where unconfined conditions occur) and streamflow within the outcrop areas was maintained at or above minimum levels. Scenario 3 used limits of 100, 150, and 200 percent of baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rates for the upper specified limit on 1,119 withdrawal decision variables (managed wells) resulting in estimated sustainable yields ranging from 11.6 to 13.2 Mft3/d in Arkansas and 0.3 to 0.5 Mft3/d in Louisiana. Assuming the total 2 Conjunctive-Use Optimization Model and Sustainable-Yield Estimation for the Sparta Aquifer of Southeastern Arkansas and North-Central Louisiana water demand is equal to the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rates, the sustainable yields estimated from the three scenarios only provide 52 to 59 percent of the total ground-water demand for Arkansas; the remainder is defined as unmet demand that could be obtained from large, sustainable surface-water withdrawals.

McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.; Czarnecki, John B.

2004-01-01

163

Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

2015-01-01

164

Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage. Evaluation of systems concepts based on heat storage in aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work undertaken by the aquifer seasonal thermal energy storage team from the USA and Canada is documented. The analytic effort was divided between heat pump systems and systems without heat pumps. The aquifer based system configurations that were analyzed are defined, and the approach and methodology employed in this analysis are outlined. Principal results are presented in terms of

V. G. Chant; D. S. Breger

1984-01-01

165

Value of Irrigation Water with Alternative Input Prices, Product Prices and Yield Levels: Texas Coastal Bend, Cross Timbers, Deep East, Edwards Aquifer, El Paso, Gulf Coast, Lower South Central, Rolling Plains, Trans Pecos and Winter Garden Regions  

E-print Network

TR- 59 1975 Value of Irrigation Water with Alternative Input Prices, Product Prices and Yield Levels: Texas Coastal Bend, Cross Timbers, Deep East, Edwards Aquifer, El Paso, Gulf Coast, Lower South Central, Rolling Plains, Trans Pecos...

Sprott, J. M.; Lacewell, R. D.; Beattie, B. R.

166

Water Decisions for Sustainability of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only freeflowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To address these issues, this interdisciplinary project takes an integrated approach to understanding risk perceptions and water decisions for sustainability of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer. Our interdisciplinary research asks: How do stakeholders in the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer perceive drought risks across weather and climate scales, and how do these perceptions guide water management decisions given (i) diverse cultural beliefs, (ii) valued hydrologic services, (iii) past drought experience, and (iv) uncertainties in future projection of precipitation and drought? We will use ethnographic methods to diagnose how cultural values and beliefs inform risk perceptions, and how this in turn guides decision making or ignites conflict across different sectors and stakeholder groups. Further, the characterization of drought risk will be examined in the context of historic meteorological and hydrologic events, as well as climate variability and change. This will identify which risks are prioritized, and under what conditions, in regional decision making or water-related conflicts.

Lazrus, H.; Mcpherson, R. A.; Morss, R. E.; PaiMazumder, D.; Silvis, V.; Towler, E.

2012-12-01

167

Estimation of heterogeneous aquifer parameters using centralized and decentralized fusion of hydraulic tomography data from multiple pumping tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of spatial variability of hydraulic properties of groundwater systems at high resolution is essential to simulate flow and transport phenomena. This paper investigates two schemes to invert transient hydraulic head data resulting from multiple pumping tests for the purpose of estimating the spatial distributions of the hydraulic conductivity, K, and the specific storage, Ss, of an aquifer. The two methods are centralized fusion and decentralized fusion. The centralized fusion of transient data is achieved when data from all pumping tests are processed concurrently using a central inversion processor, whereas the decentralized fusion inverts data from each pumping test separately to obtain optimal local estimates of hydraulic parameter, which are consequently fused using the Generalized Millman Formula, an algorithm for merging multiple correlated or uncorrelated local estimates. For both data fusion schemes, the basic inversion processor employed is the Ensemble Kalman Filter, which is employed to assimilate the temporal moments of the transient hydraulic head measurements resulting from multiple pumping tests. Assimilating the temporal moments instead of the hydraulic head transient data themselves is shown to provide a significant improvement in computational efficiency. Additionally, different assimilation strategies to improve the estimation of Ss are investigated. Results show that estimation of the K and Ss distributions using temporal moment analysis is fairly good; however, the centralized inversion scheme consistently outperforms the decentralized inversion scheme. Investigations on the sensitivity of the inversion estimates to errors in geostatistical parameters of the random fields of K and Ss reveal that the estimates are not sensitive to errors in the correlation length and the variance of hydraulic properties, but are noticeably sensitive to errors in the stationary mean. The proposed inversion schemes are expanded to estimate the geostatistical parameters of the K and Ss fields. The results show that the estimation of the true stationary mean of the K field and, to a lesser degree, the stationary mean of the Ss field can be successfully achieved, while the estimation of correlation length and standard deviation for both the K and Ss fields are not as effective.

Alzraiee, A. H.; Baú, D.; Elhaddad, A.

2014-04-01

168

Assessment of recharge and flowpaths in a limestone thermomineral aquifer system using environmental isotope tracers (Central Portugal).  

PubMed

We conducted chemical and isotopic analyses to develop and test a hydrogeological model of thermomineral water circulation in a limestone aquifer system at Caldas da Rainha (Central Portugal), contributing to future borehole-drilling and development strategies, with the aim of extracting waters with the best possible flow and/or temperature. The thermomineral waters (T approximately 33 degrees C) discharge from springs and boreholes located close to a locally N-S-oriented oblique fault (60 degrees E) that places loamy and detritic Upper Jurassic rocks and Hettangian-Rhaetian marls (and evaporitic deposits) in contact. (14)C determinations indicate a pmC content between 29.33+/-0.14 and 44.39+/-0.20 pmC. The presence of HCO[image omitted] , Ca(2+) (and Mg(2+)) are ascribed to water-limestone interactions, while Na(+), Cl(-) and SO[image omitted] concentrations are mainly associated with the dissolution of halite and gypsum lenses found along the regional syncline structure. The delta(18)O values of Caldas da Rainha thermomineral water were slightly lower than those of shallow groundwater from the Upper Jurassic rocks, suggesting the existence of two distinct aquifer systems. The different isotopic composition of water also indicates that the main recharge of the thermomineral waters likely occurs in the Middle and Lower Jurassic limestone formations of the Candeeiros Mountains. The presence of (3)H (from 1.1 to 2.8 TU) in some thermomineral borehole waters (showing rather similar geochemical signatures) suggests mixing of small amounts of shallow groundwater with thermomineral waters, as a result of leaking borehole casing construction or a recharge when the (3)H content in the atmosphere was higher than that at present. Caldas da Rainha thermomineral waters having delta(34)S(sulphate) and delta(18)O(sulphate) values between+14.9 and+19.1 per thousand and+11.1 and+16.2 per thousand, respectively, indicate that the sulphate is the result of water-rock interaction with evaporitic formations. The obtained chemical and isotopic data have informed the further development of a hydrogeological model that will be used by decision-makers, in order to contribute to the socio-economic development of the spa region. PMID:20582785

Marques, Jose M; Eggenkamp, Hans G M; Graca, Henrique; Carreira, Paula M; Jose Matias, Maria; Mayer, Bernhard; Nunes, Dina

2010-06-01

169

OKLAHOMA STATE June 30, 2011  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY June 30, 2011 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY June 30, 2011 AUDITED.................................................................................................59 Discretely Presented Component Units Oklahoma State University Foundation..............................................................................................76 OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY DETAILED SCHEDULE OF EXPENDITURES OF FEDERAL AWARDS General University

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

170

OKLAHOMA STATE June 30, 2009  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY June 30, 2009 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY June 30, 2009 AUDITED ..........................................................................................................56 Discretely Presented Component Units Oklahoma State University Foundation..............................................................................................71 OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY DETAILED SCHEDULE OF EXPENDITURES OF FEDERAL AWARDS General University

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

171

Oklahoma State University Purchasing Card  

E-print Network

Oklahoma State University Purchasing Card Guidelines Oklahoma State University Fiscal and Administrative Compliance 306 Whitehurst Stillwater, OK 74078 http://faac.okstate.edu August 2011 Oklahoma State University Purchasing Card Guidelines Fiscal and Administrative Compliance Oklahoma State University #12;Page

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

172

Simulated response to pumping stress in the Sparta aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana, 1998-2027  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sparta aquifer in southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana is a major water resource for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses. In recent years, the demand for water in some areas has resulted in withdrawals from the Sparta that significantly exceed recharge to the aquifer. Considerable drawdown has occurred in the potentiometric surface, and water users and managers alike have begun to question the ability of the aquifer to supply water for the long term. Large cones of depression are centered beneath the Grand Prairie area and the cities of Pine Bluff and El Dorado in Arkansas, and Monroe in Louisiana. Water levels in the aquifer have declined at rates greater than 1 foot per year for more than a decade in much of southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana and are now below the top of the formation in parts of Union and Columbia Counties, Arkansas, and in several areas of Louisiana. Problems related to over draft in the Sparta could result in increased drilling and pumping costs, loss of yield, salt-water intrusion, and decrease in water quality in areas of large drawdown. The effects of current ground-water withdrawals and potential future withdrawals on water availability are major concerns of water managers and users as well as the general public in the two States. The Sparta model-a regional scale, digital ground-water flow model-was first calibrated in the mid-1980's. The model was updated and reverified using 1995-97 data. Visual inspection of the observed (1996-97) and simulated potentiometric surfaces, statistical analysis of the error for the original calibration and current reverification, and comparison of observed versus simulated hydro graphs indicates that the model is simulating conditions in the aquifer within acceptable error, and the quality of current (1998) model results is similar to the original model calibration results. When stressed with current withdrawal volumes and distributions, the model is able to simulate currently observed heads effectively as heads were simulated in the original calibration period. Five pumping scenarios were simulated over a 30-year period based on (1) current pumping rates, (2) current rates of change in pumping, (3) decreased pumping in selected areas, (4) increased pumping in selected areas, and (5) redistribution and increase of pumping in selected areas. Model results show that although continued pumping at current rates will result in relatively minor declines in water levels (scenario 1 above), continued pumping at currently observed rates of change will result in drastic declines across large areas of focused withdrawals (scenario 2). Under the first scenario-in which current pumping rates are input to the model for the 30-year simulation period-water levels in the middle of the cones of depression centered on El Dorado and Monroe decrease less than 10 feet. In the second scenario-in which the current rate of change in pumpage is applied to the model-substantial declines occur in the proximity of most major pumpage centers. During the 1998-2027 model period, predicted water levels decline from 307 feet below sea level to 438 feet below sea level near El Dorado, from 58 feet below sea level to 277 feet below sea level near Pine Bluff, but only by about 25 feet-from 202 feet below sea level to 225 feet below sea level near Monroe. In the third scenario-in which minimum predicted water use figures supplied by selected facilities in Arkansas and decreased pumping estimates for Louisiana are applied to the model-simulated water levels are substantially higher at cones of depression around the major pumping centers of Monroe and El Dorado as compared to initial (1997) values. During the 1998-2027 model period, predicted water levels near Monroe increase from 202 feet below sea level to 133 feet below sea level; water levels near El Dorado increase from 307 feet below sea level to 123 feet below sea level. For the fourth scenario-in which maxi mum pr

Hays, Phillip D.; Lovelace, John K.; Reed, Thomas B.

1998-01-01

173

Dissolved-solids concentrations and hydrochemical facies in water of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Much of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system contains freshwater, but sizable parts contain marginally fresh or slightly saline water. The predominant water type in the aquifer system is calcium bicarbonate; however, one of seven other hydrochemical facies characterizes the water in places. The median dissolved-solids concentration of water samples from the Edwards aquifer in the Balcones fault zone is 297 mg/L (milligrams per liter); the interquartile range is 93 mg/L. In the freshwater zone of the Edwards aquifer updip of a freshwater/saline-water transition zone, the water is almost exclusively calcium bicarbonate. The median dissolved-solids concentration of water samples from the Trinity aquifer in the Hill Country is 537 mg/L and the interquartile range is 573 mg/L. Four bicarbonate and sulfate facies, spread vertically throughout the saturated section, characterize most of the Hill Country analyses; calcium bicarbonate predominates. The median concentration of dissolved solids in water samples from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Edwards Plateau is 379 mg/L and the interquartile range is 547 mg/L. Freshwater is nearly everywhere in the southern and northeastern parts of the aquifer, and mostly slightly saline water is in the northwestern part. The distribution of hydrochemical facies shows a similar pattern to dissolved-solids concentration, with bicarbonate water nearly everywhere in the southern and northeastern parts of the aquifer. Sulfate and chloride facies characterize the northwestern part of the Edwards Plateau. The median concentration of dissolved solids among water samples from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Trans-Pecos is 929 mg/L and the interquartile range is 1,626 mg/L. Fresh, calcium bicarbonate water predominates in the southern part, and more saline mixed and sulfate waters are the most common in the northwestern part.

Bush, P.W.; Ulery, R.L.; Rittmaster, R.L.

1994-01-01

174

Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma  

E-print Network

E-927 Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University in cooperation with USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Oklahoma

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

175

Agriculture-related trends in groundwater quality of the glacial deposits aquifer, central Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measuring and understanding trends in groundwater quality is necessary for determining whether changes in land-management practices have an effect on groundwater quality. This paper describes an approach that was used to measure and understand trends using data from two groundwater studies conducted in central Wisconsin as part of the USGS NAWQA program. One of the key components of this approach, determining the age of sampled groundwater, gave a temporal component to the snapshots of water quality that were obtained through synoptic-sampling efforts. This approach can be used at other locations where groundwater quality data are collected, groundwater age can be determined, and associated temporal data are available. Results of these studies indicate measured concentrations of nitrate and atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to historical patterns of fertilizer and atrazine use. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater have increased over time; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine increased and then decreased. Concentrations of nitrate also were correlated to screen depth below the water level and concentrations of dissolved O2; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to dissolved O2 and annual precipitation. To measure trends in concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine, the data, collected over a near-decadal period, were adjusted to account for changes in laboratory-reporting levels and analytical recoveries. Only after accounting for these changes was it apparent that the median concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine decreased over the near-decadal interval between sampling efforts. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Saad, D.A.

2008-01-01

176

Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for contamination of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Silver Springs ground-water basin, central Marion County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Upper Floridan aquifer, composed of a thick sequence of very porous limestone and dolomite, is the principal source of water supply in the Silver Springs ground-water basin of central Marion County, Florida. The karstic nature of the local geology makes the aquifer susceptible to contaminants from the land surface. Contaminants can enter the aquifer by seepage through surficial deposits and through sinkholes and drainage wells. Potential contaminants include agricultural chemicals, landfill leachates and petroleum products from leaking storage tanks and accidental spills. More than 560 sites of potential contamination sources were identified in the basin in 1990. Detailed investigation of four sites were used to define hydrologic conditions at representative sites. Ground-water flow velocities determined from dye trace studies ranged from about 1 foot per hour under natural flow conditions to about 10 feet per hour under pumping conditions, which is considerably higher than velocities estimated using Darcy's equation for steady-state flow in a porous medium. Water entering the aquifer through drainage wells contained bacteria, elevated concentrations of nutrients, manganese and zinc, and in places, low concentrations of organic compounds. On the basis of results from the sampling of 34 wells in 1989 and 1990, and from the sampling of water entering the Upper Floridan aquifer through drainage wells, there has been no widespread degradation of water quality in the study area. In an area of karst, particularly one in which fracture flow is significant, evaluating the effects from contaminants is difficult and special care is required when interpolating hydrogeologic data from regional studies to a specific. (USGS)

Phelps, G.G.

1994-01-01

177

Demonstration optimization analyses of pumping from selected Arapahoe aquifer municipal wells in the west-central Denver Basin, Colorado, 2010–2109  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Declining water levels caused by withdrawals of water from wells in the west-central part of the Denver Basin bedrock-aquifer system have raised concerns with respect to the ability of the aquifer system to sustain production. The Arapahoe aquifer in particular is heavily used in this area. Two optimization analyses were conducted to demonstrate approaches that could be used to evaluate possible future pumping scenarios intended to prolong the productivity of the aquifer and to delay excessive loss of saturated thickness. These analyses were designed as demonstrations only, and were not intended as a comprehensive optimization study. Optimization analyses were based on a groundwater-flow model of the Denver Basin developed as part of a recently published U.S. Geological Survey groundwater-availability study. For each analysis an optimization problem was set up to maximize total withdrawal rate, subject to withdrawal-rate and hydraulic-head constraints, for 119 selected municipal water-supply wells located in 96 model cells. The optimization analyses were based on 50- and 100-year simulations of groundwater withdrawals. The optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells for a 50-year simulation time was about 58.8 cubic feet per second. For an analysis in which the simulation time and head-constraint time were extended to 100 years, the optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells was about 53.0 cubic feet per second, demonstrating that a reduction in withdrawal rate of about 10 percent may extend the time before the hydraulic-head constraints are violated by 50 years, provided that pumping rates are optimally distributed. Analysis of simulation results showed that initially, the pumping produces water primarily by release of water from storage in the Arapahoe aquifer. However, because confining layers between the Denver and Arapahoe aquifers are thin, in less than 5 years, most of the water removed by managed-flows pumping likely would be supplied by depleting overlying hydrogeologic units, substantially increasing the rate of decline of hydraulic heads in parts of the overlying Denver aquifer.

Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.

2012-01-01

178

InSAR detection of aquifer recovery: Case studies of Koehn Lake (central California) and Lone Tree Gold Mine (Basin and Range)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic intervention in groundwater flow and aquifer storage often results in vertical movements of Earth's surface, which are well detected by InSAR observations. Most anthropogenic intervention occurs due to groundwater extraction for both agriculture and human consumption and results in land subsidence. However in some cases, ending anthropogenic intervention can lead to aquifer recovery and, consequently, surface uplift. In this study we present two such cases of aquifer recovery. The first case is the aquifer beneath Koehn Lake in Central California, which was overused to meet agricultural demands until the 1990's. The second case is the Lone Tree Gold Mine in Nevada that during active mining in the 1991-2006 groundwater pumping disrupted the aquifer and cause subsidence. But after mining ceased, groundwater flow was recovered and resulted in uplift. In both cases we studied the surface uplift using InSAR time series observations. We conduct an ERS and Envisat InSAR survey over Koehn Lake in California and Lone Tree Gold Mine in Nevada between 1992 and 2010. We followed the SBAS algorithm to generate a time-series of ground displacements and average velocities of pixels, which remain coherent through time in the SAR dataset. A total of 100 and 80 combined ERS and Envisat SAR dates are inverted for Koehn Lake and Lone Tree Gold Mine respectively. Results for the Koehn Lake area indicate a rapid uplift of about 3.5 mm/yr between 1992-2000 and a slower uplift rate of 1.6 mm/yr between 2000-2004, suggesting a decrease in the recovery process. The observed uplift correlates well with groundwater level increase in the Koehn Lake area. Results for the Lone Tree Gold Mine show a constant subsidence (~ 1 cm/yr) due to groundwater extraction between 1992-2006, but uplift of ~1 cm/yr since the beginning of 2007. In both case studies, InSAR observations reveal that the aquifer recovery is accompanied by surface uplift. We plan to use the InSAR observations and the groundwater level records to model and better understand aquifer recovery processes.

Wdowinski, S.; Greene, F.; Amelung, F.

2013-12-01

179

Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas - Field testing and analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last several years, streamflows of a number of Kansas streams have been reduced as a result of groundwater declines. In order to better understand and quantify stream-aquifer interrelationships, an eight-day comprehensive stream-aquifer pumping test, followed by recovery monitoring, was conducted along the Arkansas River near Great Bend, Kansas. In addition to water level monitoring in numerous observation wells, streamflow data, streambed hydraulic gradients, neutron probe-based water content of dewatered sediments, water chemistry and other data were collected. The alluvial aquifer is shown to be highly transmissive (T = 1803 m2d-1) with the pumping stress (9538 m3d-1) having a radius of influence larger than 1.77 km, impacting both the aquifer levels and the streamflow in the nearby Arkansas River. Drawdown and recharge boundary effects were observed in all observation wells, including those on the opposite side of the river. The alluvial aquifer did not exhibit a water table behavior and responded as a leaky confined aquifer. A semiconfining clay layer less than 3 m thick and an additional recharge source from a nearby stream-alluvial system were the probable causes of the observed phenomena. Actual streamflow depletion is shown to be appreciably less than the computed depletion based on analytical solutions. ?? 1988.

Sophocleous, M.; Townsend, M.A.; Vogler, L.D.; McClain, T.J.; Marks, E.T.; Coble, G.R.

1988-01-01

180

Map Showing Geology and Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer Catchment Area, Northern Bexar County, South-Central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rock units forming the Edwards and Trinity aquifers in northern Bexar County, Texas, are exposed within all or parts of seven 7.5-minute quadrangles: Bulverde, Camp Bullis, Castle Hills, Helotes, Jack Mountain, San Geronimo, and Van Raub. The Edwards aquifer is the most prolific ground-water source in Bexar County, whereas the Trinity aquifer supplies water for residential, commercial, and industrial uses for areas north of the San Antonio. The geologic map of northern Bexar County shows the distribution of informal hydrostratigraphic members of the Edwards Group and the underlying upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone. Exposures of the Glen Rose Limestone, which forms the Trinity aquifer alone, cover approximately 467 km2 in the county. This study also describes and names five informal hydrostratigraphic members that constitute the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone; these include, in descending order, the Caverness, Camp Bullis, Upper evaporite, Fossiliferous, and Lower evaporite members. This study improves our understanding of the hydrogeologic connection between the two aquifers as it describes the geology that controls the infiltration of surface water and subsurface flow of ground water from the catchment area (outcropping Trinity aquifer rocks) to the Edwards water-bearing exposures.

Clark, Amy R.; Blome, Charles D.; Faith, Jason R.

2009-01-01

181

Preliminary Gravity and Ground Magnetic Data in the Arbuckle Uplift near Sulphur, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Improving knowledge of the geology and geophysics of the Arbuckle Uplift in south-central Oklahoma is a goal of the Framework Geology of Mid-Continent Carbonate Aquifers project sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP). In May 2007, we collected ground magnetic and gravity observations in the Hunton Anticline region of the Arbuckle Uplift, near Sulphur, Oklahoma. These observations complement prior gravity data collected for a project sponsored by the National Park Service and helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) and aeromagnetic data collected in March 2007 for the NCGMP project. This report describes the instrumentation and processing that was utilized in the May 2007 geophysical fieldwork, and it presents preliminary results as gravity anomaly maps and magnetic anomaly profiles. Digital tables of gravity and magnetic observations are provided as a supplement to this report. Future work will generate interpretive models of these anomalies and will involve joint analysis of these ground geophysical measurements with airborne and other geophysical and geological observations, with the goal of understanding the geological structures influencing the hydrologic properties of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer.

Scheirer, Daniel S.; Aboud, Essam

2008-01-01

182

Effects of aquifer heterogeneity on ground-water flow and chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer near and within an active pumping well field, west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chloride concentrations have been increasing over time in water from wells within and near the Eldridge-Wilde well field, near the coast in west-central Florida. Variable increases in chloride concentrations from well to well over time are the combined result of aquifer heterogeneity and ground-water pumping within the Upper Floridan aquifer. Deep mineralized water and saline water associated with the saltwater interface appear to move preferentially along flow zones of high transmissivity in response to ground-water withdrawals. The calcium-bicarbonate-type freshwater of the Upper Floridan aquifer within the study area is variably enriched with ions by mixing with introduced deep and saline ground water. The amount and variability of increases in chloride and sulfate concentrations at each well are related to well location, depth interval, and permeable intervals intercepted by the borehole. Zones of high transmissivity characterize the multilayered carbonate rocks of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Well-developed secondary porosity within the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones and the Avon Park Formation has created producing zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer. The highly transmissive sections of the Avon Park Formation generally are several orders of magnitude more permeable than the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, but both are associated with increased ground-water flow. The Ocala Limestone is less permeable and is dominated by primary, intergranular porosity. Acoustic televiewer logging, caliper logs, and borehole flow logs (both electromagnetic and heat pulse) indicate that the Tampa/Suwannee Limestone units are dominated by porosity owing to dissolution between 200 and 300 feet below land surface, whereas the porosity of the Avon Park Formation is dominated by fractures that occur primarily from 600 to 750 feet below land surface and range in angle from horizontal to near vertical. Although the Ocala Limestone can act as a semiconfining unit between the Avon Park Formation and the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, seismic-reflection data and photolinear analyses indicate that fractures and discontinuities in the Ocala Limestone are present within the southwestern part of the well field. It is possible that some fracture zones extend upward from the Avon Park Formation through the Ocala, Suwannee, and Tampa Limestones to land surface. These fractures may provide a more direct hydrologic connection between transmissive zones that are vertically separated by less permeable stratigraphic units. Ground water moves along permeable zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer in response to changes in head gradients as a result of pumping. Borehole geophysical measurements, including flow logs, specific conductance logs, and continuous monitoring of specific conductance at selected fixed depths, indicate that borehole specific conductance varies substantially with time and in response to pumping stresses. Ground-water mixing between hydrogeologic units likely occurs along highly transmissive zones and within boreholes of active production wells. Ground-water movement and water-quality changes were greatest along the most transmissive zones. Variable mixing of three water-type end members (freshwater, deepwater, and saltwater) occurs throughout the study area. Both deepwater and saltwater are likely sources for elevated chloride and sulfate concentrations in ground water. Mass-balance calculations of mixtures of the three end members indicate that deepwater is found throughout the aquifer units. Samples from wells within the southwestern part of the well field indicate that deepwater migrates into the shallow permeable units in the southwestern part of the well field. Deepwater contributes to elevated sulfate and chloride concentrations, which increase with depth and are elevated in wells less than 400 feet deep. The greatest increases in chloride concentrations over time are found in water from wells closest to the saltwater interface. Gro

Tihansky, A.B.

2005-01-01

183

Effects of recharge from drainage wells on quality of water in the Floridan Aquifer in the Orlando area, central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Approximately 400 drainage wells in the Orlando area inject, by gravity, large quantities of stormwater runoff that may or may not be suitable for most purposes without treatment into the same freshwater zones of the Floridan aquifer tapped for public supply. The wells are used mostly to control lake levels and dispose of urban storm runoff. Recharge from drainage wells compensates for heavy withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer and helps maintain aquifer pressures that retard upward saltwater encroachment. Sixty-five supply wells and 21 drainage wells within a 16-mile radius of Orlando were sampled from September 1977 to June 1979. Most constituent concentrations were slightly higher in water from drainage wells than in water from supply wells. The most notable differences were in bacteria colony count and total nitrogen concentrations. With the exception of bacteria, water from drainage wells would generally meet the maximum contaminant levels established by the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. (USGS)

Schiner, G.R.; German, E.R.

1983-01-01

184

Application of the resistivity/gravity joint inversion technique for Nubian sandstone aquifer assessment on the area located at the central part of Sinai, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven deep vertical electrical soundings of AB/2 spacing ranging from 5 to 3000 m were carried out to investigate the upper part of the Nubian groundwater aquifer at the central part of Sinai, Egypt. These soundings have been jointly inverted using the SA algorithm with 160 gravity stations measured in the study area, assuming that density and resistivity contrast are represented by coincident interfaces. One hundred and sixty magnetic stations were executed at the same locations as gravity measurements to estimate the depth of basement rocks. The results of the joint interpretation indicated that the depth of the groundwater aquifer ranges from 500 to 800 m with resistivity values ranging from 6 to 562 ? m, suggesting that the fresh water is of good quality towards the northern part of the area. The top of the basement, which is mainly defined by gravity and magnetic data, lies at a depth ranging from 830 to 2788 m. The results also show that the aquifer configuration is controlled by different regional faults in the NNW-SSE direction.

Sultan, S. A.; Monteiro Santos, F. A.; Abd Alla, M. A.; Mekhemer, H. M.

2010-03-01

185

Oklahoma Forestry Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Oklahoma Forestry Services (OFS) is "to conserve, enhance and protect the forest resources of Oklahoma for present and future generations." As part of this mission the OFS website contains information about fire reports, tree and forest health, and water quality. First-time visitors should start their journey through the site by clicking on the "Oklahoma's Forests" section. Here they will find information about Oklahoma's major forest types, the ecoregions of Oklahoma, and several Trees of Oklahoma fact sheets. Back on the homepage, visitors can learn about upcoming workshops and events, read a list of forestry bulletins, and find out about the Forest Heritage Center Museum. Residents of Oklahoma may also wish to look through the "Home and Community Trees" area to learn more about planning their own trees and Arbor Day related activities.

186

Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage. Evaluation of systems concepts based on heat storage in aquifers  

SciTech Connect

The work undertaken by the aquifer seasonal thermal energy storage team from the USA and Canada is documented. The analytic effort was divided between heat pump systems and systems without heat pumps. The aquifer-based system configurations that have been analyzed are defined, and the approach and methodology employed in this analysis are outlined. Principal results are presented in terms of optimum designs for reference cases, and sensitivity results around the reference cases for selected variables. Characteristics of system designs are given for a wide range of key design parameters. Finally, a detailed list of system parameter values and more detailed results of the analysis are presented. (LEW)

Chant, V.G.; Breger, D.S.

1984-10-01

187

CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned CCDD sites; site assessments and remedial feasibility studies are ongoing in each State. Remediation alternatives addressed physical hazards and potential for groundwater transport of dissolved salt and petroleum hydrocarbons that might be leached from wastes. Remediation options included excavation of wastes and contaminated adjacent soils followed by removal to permitted disposal facilities or land farming if sufficient on-site area were available.

Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

2003-06-01

188

MODELING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE DWARF PALMETTO (SABAL MINOR; ARECACEAE) IN MCCURTAIN COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

E-print Network

, OKLAHOMA CHRISTOPHER J. BUTLER,* JENNIFER L. CURTIS, KIMBERLY MCBRIDE, DAVID ARBOUR, AND BERLIN HECK Department of Biology, University of Central Oklahoma, 100 North University Drive, Edmond, OK 73034 (CJB, JC, KM) Oklahoma Ranger District, Ouachita National Forest, Route 4, Box 2900, Broken Bow, OK 74728 (DA

Butler, Christopher J.

189

Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union  

E-print Network

Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association Pave the Way in the Oklahoma Memorial Union Courtyard. Now you can. The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association 900 Asp Ave of Oklahoma is an equal opportunity institution. This brochure was printed at no cost to the taxpayers

Oklahoma, University of

190

IMPLICATIONS OF NEW ARSENIC STANDARDS ON OKLAHOMA WATER RESOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The new national standard for arsenic in drinking water supplies, slated to take effect in 2006, is having an unexpected impact on a number of Oklahoma communities. Currently, several municipalities in north central Oklahoma are in compliance with existing arsenic standards (50 ...

191

Chronicles of Oklahoma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed through a partnership between the Oklahoma Historical Society and the Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center, this site makes 20 volumes of the Chronicles of Oklahoma available for researchers and the general public. Originally published by the Oklahoma State Historical Society, the available volumes range in date from 1921 to 1942. Users may search the volumes indices provided online, or search by keyword. The volumes contain a number of compelling articles on Oklahoma history, such as "Oklahoma as a Part of the Spanish Dominion, 1763-1803" and "My Experience with the Cheyenne Indians." The table of contents for each volume is a helpful way to browse through the different volumes. Along with the volumes currently available online, more volumes will be added in the future, time and money permitting.

192

Aquifer Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, produced by the United States Geological Survey, is all about aquifers. Many different types of aquifers are addressed, these include: sand and gravel, sandstone, sandstone and carbonate, carbonate-rock, and igneous and metamorphic. Links to other sites, such as aquifers on the US National Atlas, are also featured on the site.

2008-09-30

193

Evaluation of Four Climate Changes Scenarios on Groundwater Resources of the Escusa (Castelo de Vide) Aquifer, Central Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In countries with advanced environmental management systems, nume­rical models are often used in the planning and management\\u000a of sustainable groundwater resources. Toward that end, we evaluated the influence of climate change on karstic groundwater\\u000a resources of the Escusa (Castelo de Vide) aquifer using a finite-element discrete continuum flow model, allowing the use of\\u000a 1-D, 2-D and 3-D finite elements in

José Paulo Monteiro; António Chambel

194

Ground-water flow in the Gulf Coast aquifer systems, south central United States; a preliminary analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A major objective of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is to use digital models of regional groundwater flow systems to develop better understanding and to improve management of the resource. Modeling is used to synthesize information about the aquifer systems and to test hypotheses about the relative importance of the components of the systems. The 290,000-sq mile study area in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain includes the Mississippi embayment, Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas, and the Continental Shelf that are underlain by deposits of Tertiary and younger age, which contain fresh and saline water. A 10-layer, finite-difference, variable density model, with blocks 10 miles on a side, was used to simulate groundwater flow before development and in 1980, assuming steady- state conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the major factors controlling predevelopment regional flow are the topography, land-surface outcrop pattern, and geometry of aquifers and confining units. Geologic structure and the distribution of precipitation were less significant factors. The density of saline water in the deeper parts of the aquifer system probably has a substantial effect on regional groundwater flow that extends into the freshwater part of the system. Variable water density may be a significant driving force that transports salt great distances in many directions, including updip. The distribution and rates of regional recharge and discharge have been substantially changed by development. Groundwater pumpage in 1980 was about five times the value of predevelopment regional recharge. About 80% of the pumpage was supplied from increased regional recharge. Also resistance to vertical flow caused by many fine-grained beds within the permeable zones can be as important as resistance caused by regional confining units. (USGS)

Williamson, A.K.; Grubb, H.F.; Weiss, J.S.

1990-01-01

195

Chemical and isotopic composition and potential for contamination of water in the upper Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida, 1986-89  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major ions, unstable field constitutents, and the environmental isotopes tritium, deuterium, and oxygen-18 were measured in water from 112 wells that are open to the uppermost producing zones of the upper Floridan Aquifer. Tritium analyses indicate that the unconfined aquifer in northern areas contains relatively young water that has entered the aquifer since 1953, whereas the confined aquifer in southern areas contains older water. The potential for contamination of the upper Floridan Aquifer generally is greatest in those areas where the aquifer is unconfined and recharge has been shown to be high.

Swancar, Amy; Hutchinson, C.B.

1995-01-01

196

Long-term spatio-temporal hydrochemical and 222Rn tracing to investigate groundwater flow and water-rock interaction in the Gran Sasso (central Italy) carbonate aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Gran Sasso fissured carbonate aquifer (central Italy), a long-term (2001-2007) spatio-temporal hydrochemical and 222Rn tracing survey was performed with the goal to investigate groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. Analyses of the physico-chemical parameters, and comparisons of multichemical and characteristic ratios in space and time, and subsequent statistical analyses, permitted a characterisation of the hydrogeology. At the regional scale, groundwater flows from recharge areas to the springs located at the aquifer boundaries, with a gradual increase of mineralisation and temperature along its flowpaths. However, the parameters of each group of springs may significantly deviate from the regional trend owing to fast flows and to the geological setting of the discharge spring areas, as corroborated by statistical data. Along regional flowpaths, the effects of seasonal recharge and lowering of the water table clearly cause changes in ion concentrations over time. This conceptual model was validated by an analysis of the 222Rn content in groundwater. 222Rn content, for which temporal variability depends on seasonal fluctuations of the water table, local lithology and the fracture network at the spring discharge areas, was considered as a tracer of the final stages of groundwater flowpaths.

Tallini, Marco; Parisse, Barbara; Petitta, Marco; Spizzico, Michele

2013-11-01

197

Indians of Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma's present-day Indian culture and civilization, it is noted, are very much pronounced, with more than 68 tribes still proudly embracing their identities. Oklahoma is shown to be the melting pot of Indian America on a map indicating the original homelands of some of the many tribes that settled in the State. The historical development and…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

198

MIXED HERONRIES OF OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this 3-year study were to locate mixed heronries in Oklahoma, census breeding pairs of each species, and indentify site characteristics that may be important to heron ecology. During the study, 17 mixed heronries, containing a total of six ardeid species, were found in Oklahoma. The majority of heronries (82%) were located within the oak-woodland fauna region. Other

G. William Sallee

1982-01-01

199

Pride in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to be used as background material by social studies and history classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Oklahoma's heritage. It includes background information on the land and people of Oklahoma (geology, climate, topography, vegetation, animals, prehistoric peoples, French explorers,…

Moore, Gordon; Blackburn, Bob L.

200

Integrated characterization of groundwater contamination in an alluvial system. Case study of Allier alluvial aquifer (Massif Central, France).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogeology is an intrinsically multi-disciplinary field because of the critical role water plays in both human health and natural ecosystems. The NAA (Nappe Alluviale de l'Allier) project proposes an integrated research (hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry and biology) on the shallow aquifer of the Allier River (one of the main tributaries of the Loire River). This aquifer plays an important role in the regional water supply for it represents more than 60% of the total water abstraction. As an example, the sampling site, located near the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France) constitutes the major source of drinking water supply for more than 100 000 inhabitants and then plays a major role on the local socio-economy. A biweekly following sampling, that concerns hydrodynamical parameters, major ions and isotopes (oxygen-18, deuterium and carbon-13), has been achieved during two years on 2 rivers, 1 pond, 2 springs and 17 boreholes with the aim of defining the functioning of the aquifer in terms of quality and quantity of the water resources and then on the main processes that governs hydrodynamic and hydrochemistry. Preliminary results allowed discriminating different origins of groundwater with a part due to surface waters/groundwater interactions and a secondary origin that implies water circulating from the surrounding hills. A monthly following sampling of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and traces ions provides information on contaminants sources. In parallel, the dynamics of the microbial communities (bacteria, pico-cyanobacteria and pico-eukaryotes) was followed by flow cytometer. The bacterial diversity has been measured through PCR-DGGE analysis in order to evaluate the impact of the occurrence of contaminants.

Mohammed, Nabaz; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Batisson, Isabelle; Bardot, Corinne; Colombet, Jonathan; Huneau, Frédéric; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Clauzet, Marie-Laure; Lavastre, Véronique

2013-04-01

201

House Damage from 2011 Oklahoma Earthquake  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

House damage in central Oklahoma from the magnitude 5.6 earthquake on Nov. 6, 2011. Research conducted by USGS geophysicist Elizabeth Cochran and her university-based colleagues suggests that this earthquake was induced by injection into deep disposal wells in the Wilzetta North field....

202

Estimated 2008 groundwater potentiometric surface and predevelopment to 2008 water-level change in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque area, central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico have historically been met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Previous studies have indicated that the large quantity of groundwater withdrawal relative to recharge has resulted in water-level declines in the aquifer system throughout the metropolitan area. Analysis of the magnitude and pattern of water-level change can help improve understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies' efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, presents the estimated groundwater potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of the 2008 water year and the estimated changes in water levels between predevelopment and water year 2008 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque and surrounding metropolitan and military areas. Hydrographs from selected wells are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were measured in small-diameter observation wells screened over short intervals and were considered to best represent the potentiometric head in the production zone-the interval of the aquifer, about 300 feet below land surface to 1,100 feet or more below land surface, in which production wells generally are screened. Water-level measurements were collected by various local and Federal agencies. The 2008 water year potentiometric surface map was created in a geographic information system, and the change in water-level elevation from predevelopment to water year 2008 was calculated. The 2008 water-level contours indicate that the general direction of groundwater flow is from the Rio Grande towards clusters of production wells in the east, north, and west. Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2008 are variable across the area. Hydrographs from piezometers on the east side of the river generally indicate a trend of decline in the annual highest water level through most of the period of record. Hydrographs from piezometers in the valley near the river and on the west side of the river indicate spatial variability in water-level trends.

Falk, Sarah E.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

2011-01-01

203

Oklahoma Historical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Oklahoma Historical Society is "to preserve and perpetuate the history of Oklahoma and its people by collecting, interpreting and disseminating knowledge of Oklahoma and the Southwest." The Society maintains over 20 museums and historic sites, and they are also responsible for maintaining this website. On the homepage, visitors can learn about the sites they maintain, including the Pawnee Bill Ranch and the Pioneer Woman Museum. In the "Publications" area, visitors can read back issues of "The Chronicles of Oklahoma" dating from 1921 to 1962, and they can also find the "Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture". The Society's "Found in Collections" blog is a great way to learn about their current archival work, and visitors can read about textile preservation techniques and the Civil War. Also, the site includes podcasts created to profile various aspects of the state's history. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive email updates on new additions, programs, and exhibits.

204

University of Oklahoma Norman Campus  

E-print Network

University of Oklahoma Norman Campus Parking and Traffic Regulations 2010/2011 Academic Year Visit of the University of Oklahoma has determined that it is in the best interest of the University of Oklahoma stated herein have been adopted by the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma effective beginning

Oklahoma, University of

205

University of Oklahoma Norman Campus  

E-print Network

University of Oklahoma Norman Campus Parking and Traffic Regulations 2011/2012 Academic Year Visit of the University of Oklahoma has determined that it is in the best interest of the University of Oklahoma stated herein have been adopted by the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma effective beginning

Oklahoma, University of

206

University of Oklahoma Norman Campus  

E-print Network

University of Oklahoma Norman Campus Parking and Traffic Regulations 2012/2013 Academic Year Visit of the University of Oklahoma has determined that it is in the best interest of the University of Oklahoma stated herein have been adopted by the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma effective beginning

Oklahoma, University of

207

Oklahoma GSHP Initiative Jim Bullington  

E-print Network

10/1/2012 1 Oklahoma GSHP Initiative Jim Bullington Trade & Industrial Education Oklahoma the Oklahoma CareerTech GSHP Initiative Model · Provide my contact information for you to share with your and Technical Education · Encourage you to contact them to get an initiative rolling Who is Oklahoma Career

208

Correlation between groundwater flow and deformation in the fractured carbonate Gran Sasso aquifer (INFN underground laboratories, central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gran Sasso massif is a carbonate fractured aquifer with a spring discharge of more than 18 m3 s-1. The water table has been partially drained by two motorway tunnels and an underground laboratory (UL), located into the core aquifer. Karst features have limited role below the water table, where groundwater flow is mainly regulated by the fracture network. Two paired laser extensometers (BA and BC) recorded ground deformation in the UL. Changes in deformation correlate with the seasonal recharge/discharge cycle of groundwater flow and its long-term changes. Hydrostatic conditions prevail during the recharge phases because of the low permeability of local fractures, favoring compression, and hydraulic gradient increase above the UL. Fast groundwater flow through the high-permeability fault outcropping in the UL can enhance local dilatation for short periods. Spring discharge during exhaustion periods is fed by the low-permeability fracture network, fostering hydrodynamic conditions by hydraulic gradient decrease, diminishing compression and consequently favoring dilatation. Independent support to this conceptual model comes from local tests and a numerical model which highlights the hydromechanical strain effects induced by the hydrological cycle on the jointed rock mass along BA and the role of the hydraulic gradient on the rock mass deformation.

Amoruso, A.; Crescentini, L.; Martino, S.; Petitta, M.; Tallini, M.

2014-06-01

209

Estimated Withdrawals from Stream-Valley Aquifers and Refined Estimated Withdrawals from Selected Aquifers in the United States, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Information Program compiles estimates of fresh ground-water withdrawals in the United States on a 5-year interval. In the year-2000 compilation, withdrawals were reported from principal aquifers and aquifer systems including two general aquifers - Alluvial and Other aquifers. Withdrawals from a widespread aquifer group - stream-valley aquifers - were not specifically identified in the year-2000 compilation, but they are important sources of ground water. Stream-valley aquifers are alluvial aquifers located in the valley of major streams and rivers. Stream-valley aquifers are long but narrow aquifers that are in direct hydraulic connection with associated streams and limited in extent compared to most principal aquifers. Based in large part on information published in U.S. Geological Survey reports, preliminary analysis of withdrawal data and hydrogeologic and surface-water information indicated areas in the United States where possible stream-valley aquifers were located. Further assessment focused on 24 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Withdrawals reported from Alluvial aquifers in 16 states and withdrawals reported from Other aquifers in 6 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico were investigated. Two additional States - Arkansas and New Jersey - were investigated because withdrawals reported from other principal aquifers in these two States may be from stream-valley aquifers. Withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers were identified in 20 States and were about 1,560 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), a rate comparable to withdrawals from the 10 most productive principal aquifers in the United States. Of the 1,560 Mgal/d of withdrawals attributed to stream-valley aquifers, 1,240 Mgal/d were disaggregated from Alluvial aquifers, 150 Mgal/d from glacial sand and gravel aquifers, 116 Mgal/d from Other aquifers, 28.1 Mgal/d from Pennsylvanian aquifers, and 24.9 Mgal/d from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Five States, including Colorado (552 Mgal/d), Kansas (384 Mgal/d), Oklahoma (126 Mgal/d), Kentucky (102 Mgal/d), and Ohio (100 Mgal/d), accounted for 81 percent of estimated stream-valley aquifer withdrawals identified in this report. Of the total withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers, about 63 percent (984 Mgal/d) were used for irrigation, 26 percent (400 Mgal/d) for public-supply, and 11 percent (177 Mgal/d) for self-supplied industrial uses. The largest estimated water withdrawals were from stream-valley aquifers associated with the South Platte (404 Mgal/d), Arkansas (395 Mgal/d), and Ohio (221 Mgal/d) Rivers.

Sargent, B. Pierre; Maupin, Molly A.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

2008-01-01

210

HOW DO THE STRUCTURES OF THE LATE PALEOZOIC OUACHITA THRUST BELT RELATE TO THE STRUCTURES OF THE SOUTHERN OKLAHOMA AULACOGEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin-skinned structures of the late Paleozoic Ouachita thrust belt intersect the basement structures of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen beneath the Mesozoic strata of the Gulf Coastal Plain in southeastern Oklahoma. The Ouachita thrust belt forms a large northwest-directed salient which extends primarily in the subsurface from central Mississippi northwestward to Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma, and from there, southwestward toward

Steven John Jusczuk

2002-01-01

211

Estimated 2012 groundwater potentiometric surface and drawdown from predevelopment to 2012 in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area, central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, the water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico were met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. In response to water-level declines, the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began diverting water from the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project in December 2008 to reduce the use of groundwater to meet municipal demand. Modifications in the demand for water and the source of the supply of water for the Albuquerque metropolitan area have resulted in a variable response in the potentiometric surface of the production zone (the interval of the aquifer, from within about 200 feet below the water table to 900 feet or more, in which supply wells generally are screened) of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Analysis of the magnitude and spatial distribution of water-level change can help improve the understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies’ efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the ABCWUA, has developed an estimate of the 2012 potentiometric surface of the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. This potentiometric surface is the latest in a series of reports depicting the potentiometric surface of the area. This report presents the estimated potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of water year 2012 and the estimated changes in potentiometric surface between predevelopment (pre-1961) and water year 2012 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. Hydrographs from selected piezometers are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were collected in small-diameter observation wells screened over short intervals near the middle of the production zone and were considered to best represent the potentiometric head in the production zone. The water-level measurements were collected by various local and Federal agencies. The water year 2012 potentiometric surface map was created in a geographic information system, and the change in water-level altitude from predevelopment to water year 2012 was calculated. The 2012 potentiometric surface indicates that the general direction of groundwater flow is from the Rio Grande towards clusters of supply wells in the east, north, and west. Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2012 were variable across the Albuquerque metropolitan area. Estimated drawdown from 2008 was spatially variable across the Albuquerque metropolitan area. Hydrographs from piezometers on the east side of the river indicate an increase in the annual highest water-level measurement from 2008 to 2012. Hydrographs from piezometers in the northwest part of the study area indicate either steady decline of the water-level altitude over the period of record or recently variable trends in which water-level altitudes increased for a number of years but have declined since water year 2012.

Powell, Rachel I.; McKean, Sarah E.

2014-01-01

212

Buried aquifers in the Brooten-Belgrade and Lake Emily areas, west-central Minnesota--Factors related to developing water for irrigation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Irrigation has given a substantial boost to the economy in the Brooten-Belgrade and Lake Emily areas of Minnesota. The surficial outwash aquifer is capable of yielding sufficient quantities of water for irrigation over half of its area; the remaining part may be supplied by deep aquifers. Buried glacial outwash and Cretaceous sand aquifers, as thick as 50 feet occur to depths of 300 feet. In places, the buried aquifers are sufficiently thick and permeable to yield large quantities of water to wells. The buried aquifers are probably narrow, elongate, truncated bodies enclosed by clay till. The Precambrian surface, ranging from 190 to 350 feet below the land surface, is the lower limit of the buried aquifers. Water in the buried-drift aquifers is a very hard calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, suitable for irrigation needs. Water in Cretaceous aquifers, although untested, is expected to be higher in dissolved solids. Potenial water problems include slow rate of recharge to buried aquifers, and head loss caused by screening of the surficial and buried aquifers in the same well, and by allowing well to flow unabated. Another potential problem is possible pollution of the buried aquifers through the boreholes of multiaquifer wells. (Woodard-USGS)

Wolf, R.J.

1976-01-01

213

77 FR 61652 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00066  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 13328 and 13329] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00066 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of OKLAHOMA dated 10/01/2012. Incident: Luther...by the disaster: Primary Counties: Oklahoma. Contiguous Counties: Oklahoma:...

2012-10-10

214

75 FR 47650 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00042  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 12260 and 1226] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00042 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of OKLAHOMA dated 08/03/2010. Incident: Tornadoes...by the disaster: Primary Counties: Oklahoma. Contiguous Counties: Oklahoma:...

2010-08-06

215

Oklahoma Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oklahoma Geological Survey is a state agency dedicated to geological research and public service. This site contains information on earthquakes, geographic names, general Oklahoma geology, and the mountains and water resources of the state. There are educational materials available to order, many of which are free. Geologic maps indicate rock types and ages, as well as the geologic provinces of the state. Links are provided for more resources.

216

Earthquake activity in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman (USA))

1989-08-01

217

Configuration of the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and hydrogeology of the underlying pre-Cretaceous rocks, west-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system is underlain by an extensive complex of rocks, ranging from Late Cambrian through Late Triassic in age, that are typically about 10 to perhaps 1,000 times less permeable than those composing the aquifer system. The Cretaceous rocks of the aquifer system are separated from the pre-Cretaceous rocks by an unconformity that spans about 60 million years of erosion during the Jurassic Period. The upper surface of the pre-Cretaceous rock complex forms the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system. The configuration of the base reflects the original topography of the eroded pre-Cretaceous land surface plus the effects of subsequent deformation. The most permeable pre-Cretaceous rocks are in the eastern half of the study area where they compose the Hickory aquifer (in Upper Cambrian rocks), Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer (Upper Cambrian- Lower Ordovician), and Marble Falls aquifer (Lower Pennsylvanian). These aquifers are hydraulically connected to the northeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, as their up-turned margins crop out around the flanks of the breached Llano uplift. The Rustler aquifer in rocks of Late Permian age underlies parts of the Trans-Pecos region, where it yields small amounts of greatly mineralized water for industrial and agricultural purposes. The Dockum aquifer in rocks of Late Triassic age directly underlies the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in western parts of the study area, and locally increases the saturated thickness of the ground-water-flow system by an average of about 200 feet. Despite these notable exceptions, the collective effect of the pre-Cretaceous rocks is that 01 a barrier to ground-water flow, which limits the exchange of water across the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system.

Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

1992-01-01

218

Historical potentiometric surface of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The historical potentiometric-surface map of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units is based on 1,789 water-level (or pressure-head) measurements made in wells between December 1915 and November 1969. The mapped data reflect a wide range of rainfall conditions. On the basis of interpretations of historical climatologic data by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, near- normal rainfall conditions preceded 55 percent of the measurements. Moderately dry conditions preceded 20 percent of the measurements; moderately wet conditions preceded 22 percent of the measurements; very dry conditions preceded less than 1 percent; and very wet conditions preceded 3 percent. The historical potentiometric-surface map represents general predevelopment conditions because negligible ground-water withdrawals existed in most areas when the water-level measurements used to construct the map were made. However, in Bexar, Reeves, Pecos, Reagan, and Upton Counties, early withdrawals caused declines in water levels that are reflected in water-level features shown on the map. Topographic relief and stream or spring drainage are two major factors affecting the configuration of the historical potentiometric surface. The strong influence of stream or spring drainage on the potentiometric surface shows that the regional direction of ground-water movement is largely dictated by the locations of major discharge feature. a

Bush, Peter W.; Ardis, Ann F.; Wynn, Kirby H.

1993-01-01

219

Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences  

E-print Network

E-1010 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Prescribed Burning Handbook Oklahoma Prescribed Burning Research Associate, Natural Resource Ecology and Management Oklahoma Prescribed Burning Handbook Oklahoma

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

220

AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

221

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE NON­LOCAL THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM SPECTRUM SYNTHESIS of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY By PETER E. NUGENT Norman, Oklahoma 1997 #12; NON

Nugent, Peter

222

University of Oklahoma Norman Campus  

E-print Network

University of Oklahoma Norman Campus Parking and Traffic Regulations 2013/2014 Academic Year Visit The Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma has determined that it is in the best interest of the University of Oklahoma that rules and regulations be promulgated and adopted governing the keeping and use

Oklahoma, University of

223

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY BURSAR'S OFFICE  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY BURSAR'S OFFICE RESTRICTED TITLE IV FUND PAYMENT Valid through July 31st, return form to: Oklahoma State University Office of the Bursar 113 Student Union Building Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 Your authorization may be rescinded at any time by sending a written cancellation request

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

224

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA RETIREMENT POLICY  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA RETIREMENT POLICY (Amended and Restated Effective: July 1, 2002) (Execution of all benefits under the University of Oklahoma Retirement Policy. Any conflict between the terms, modify or terminate the Policy at any time. #12;UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA RETIREMENT POLICY (Formerly

Oklahoma, University of

225

University of Oklahoma Scholarship Guide  

E-print Network

2015-2016 University of Oklahoma Scholarship Guide Updated on November 14, 2014 #12;2 WELCOME LETTER Dear Students: The University of Oklahoma is committed to making available to current of student scholarships. The University of Oklahoma has pledged to make available as many financial resources

Oklahoma, University of

226

University of Oklahoma Norman Campus  

E-print Network

University of Oklahoma Norman Campus Parking and Traffic Regulations 2014/2015 Academic Year Visit The Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma has determined that it is in the best interest of the University of Oklahoma that rules and regulations be promulgated and adopted governing the keeping and use

Oklahoma, University of

227

University of Oklahoma Scholarship Guide  

E-print Network

2015-2016 University of Oklahoma Scholarship Guide Updated on September 29, 2014 #12;2 WELCOME LETTER Dear Students: The University of Oklahoma is committed to making available to current of student scholarships. The University of Oklahoma has pledged to make available as many financial resources

Oklahoma, University of

228

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY BURSAR'S OFFICE  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY BURSAR'S OFFICE RESTRICTED PLUS LOAN PAYMENT Valid through July 31st, return form to: Oklahoma State University Office of the Bursar 113 Student Union Building Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 Your authorization may be rescinded at any time by sending a written cancellation request

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

229

The interaction of two major old water bodies and its implication for the exploitation of groundwater in the multiple aquifer system of the central and northern Negev, Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Beer Sheva region of the Negev desert, the only significant fresh groundwater is contained within the Judea Group carbonate aquifer. It is found that this aquifer holds two distinctly different old water bodies. One such groundwater body has evolved in equilibrium with the carbonate aquifer rocks after being recharged during the Holocene in the Hebron Mountains north of the study area. At present, modern recharge, as denoted by the tritium and radiocarbon contents, is very minor. A subtle 'piston effect' generated by contemporary replenishment is discussed in representative hydrographs in Beer Sheva wells. Another groundwater body identified in the Judea Group aquifer derives from the underlying Kurnub Group aquifer. The regional artesian Kurnub Group aquifer (Nubian Sandstone) contains an older and brackish groundwater body which has been recharged in Sinai during Pleistocene pluvials. Faulting in the Beer Sheva region facilitated hydrologic contact between the two aquifers. Exploitation of the Judea Group has released confining pressures and resulted in the intrusion of Kurnub Group water into the overlying Judea Group carbonate aquifer. This process is most significant in those wells drilled close to major faults where salinity increases with pumping. The intruding water originating from the Kurnub Group sandstone aquifer has not yet equilibrated chemically with the carbonate host. The low pH and high temperatures that have been encountered indicate continuing and very recent intrusion. In the Beer Sheva area, in the absence of direct significant modern recharge (as determined from tritium and 14C values), all waters should be considered as paleowaters that are being mined. A complete revision of the hydrologic concept by which the multiple aquifer system can be exploited is required, to take into account the fact that the fresh Judea Group groundwater is actually an old (Holocene) water body intruded by brackish and older (Pleistocene) water along fault zones.

Kronfeld, J.; Rosenthal, E.; Weinberger, G.; Flexer, A.; Berkowitz, B.

1993-03-01

230

Oklahoma Biological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Associated with the state of Oklahoma and the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Oklahoma, this Web site provides a wealth of information on the flora, fauna, and ecological communities found throughout the state. The site offers a variety of databases and literature collections on a variety of subjects including rare species, woody plants, breeding birds, and much more. The site is easy to navigate, and most searches can be executed simply. Some general information on biodiversity and tips on information sources for the non-specialist make this site valuable to a broader audience.

1969-12-31

231

Oklahoma Climate Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, the Oklahoma Climate Data Web site offers information on various weather topics for the state that include normals and extremes, a rainfall update, monthly summaries, climate event summaries, and a weather timeline. The data is presented in tables, charts, illustrations, or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) files (e.g., the timeline that goes back to 1900). A very interesting collection of facts, this site is a great example of a public agency offering quality information of their work to the public.

232

Development and calibration of a ground-water flow model for the Sparta Aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana and simulated response to withdrawals, 1998-2027  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sparta aquifer, which consists of the Sparta Sand, in southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana is a major water resource and provides water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses. In recent years, the demand in some areas has resulted in withdrawals from the Sparta aquifer that substantially exceed replenishment of the aquifer. Considerable drawdown has occurred in the potentiometric surface forming regional cones of depression as water is removed from storage by withdrawals. These cones of depression are centered beneath the Grand Prairie area and the cities of Pine Bluff and El Dorado in Arkansas, and Monroe in Louisiana. The rate of decline for hydraulic heads in the aquifer has been greater than 1 foot per year for more than a decade in much of southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana where hydraulic heads are now below the top of the Sparta Sand. Continued hydraulic-head declines have caused water users and managers alike to question the ability of the aquifer to supply water for the long term. Concern over protecting the Sparta aquifer as a sustainable resource has resulted in a continued, cooperative effort by the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey to develop, maintain, and utilize numerical ground-water flow models to manage and further analyze the ground-water system. The work presented in this report describes the development and calibration of a ground-water flow model representing the Sparta aquifer to simulate observed hydraulic heads, documents major differences in the current Sparta model compared to the previous Sparta model calibrated in the mid-1980's, and presents the results of three hypothetical future withdrawal scenarios. The current Sparta model-a regional scale, three-dimensional numerical ground-water flow model-was constructed and calibrated using available hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and water-use data from 1898 to 1997. Significant changes from the previous model include grid rediscretization of the aquifer, extension of the active model area northward beyond the Cane River Formation facies change, and representation of model boundaries. The current model was calibrated with the aid of parameter estimation, a nonlinear regression technique, combined with trial and error parameter adjustment using a total of 795 observations from 316 wells over 4 different years-1970, 1985, 1990, and 1997. The calibration data set provides broad spatial and temporal coverage of aquifer conditions. Analysis of the residual statistics, spatial distribution of residuals, simulated compared to observed hydrographs, and simulated compared to observed potentiometric surfaces were used to analyze the ability of the calibrated model to simulate aquifer conditions within acceptable error. The calibrated model has a root mean square error of 18 feet for all observations, an improvement of more than 12 feet from the previous model. The current Sparta model was used to predict the effects of three hypothetical withdrawal scenarios on hydraulic heads over the period 1998-2027 with one of those extended indefinitely until equilibrium conditions were attained, or steady state. In scenario 1a, withdrawals representing the time period from 1990 to 1997 was held constant for 30 years from 1998 to 2027. Hydraulic heads in the middle of the cone of depression centered on El Dorado decreased by 10 feet from the 1997 simulation to 222 feet below NGVD of 1929 in 2027. Hydraulic heads in the Pine Bluff cone of depression showed a greater decline from 61 feet below NGVD of 1929 to 78 feet below NGVD of 1929 in the center of the cone. With these same withdrawals extended to steady state (scenario 1b), hydraulic heads in the Pine Bluff cone of depression center declined an 2 Development and Calibration of a Ground-Water Flow Model for the Sparta Aquifer of Southeastern Arkansas and North-Central Louisiana and Simulated Response to Withdrawa

McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.

2003-01-01

233

Projected ground-water development, ground-water levels, and stream-aquifer leakage in the South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas, 1979-2020  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A two-dimensional finite difference computer model was used to project changes in the potentiometric surface, saturated thickness, and stream aquifer leakage in an alluvial aquifer resulting from four instances of projected groundwater development. The alluvial aquifer occurs in the South Fork Solomon River valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake in north-central Kansas. In the first two projections, pumpage for irrigation was held constant at 1978 rates throughout the projection period (1979-2020). In the second two projections, the 1978 pumpage was progressively increased each yr through 2020. In the second and fourth projections, surface water diversions in the Osborne Irrigation Canal were decreased by 50 %. For the third and fourth projections, each grid-block in the modeled area was classified initially as one of six types according to whether it represented irrigable or nonirrigable land, to its saturated thickness, to its location inside or outside the canal-river area, and to its pumping rate. The projected base-flow rates (leakage from the aquifer to the river) were lower during the irrigation season (June, July, and August) than during the other months of the yr because of the decline in hydraulic head produced by groundwater pumpage. Stream depletion, calculated as a decrease below the average (1970-78) estimated winter base-flow rate of 16.5 cu ft/sec, varied inversely with base flow. For the first two projections, a constant annual cycle of well pumpage and recharge was used throughout the projection period. Aquifer leakage to the river was nearly constant by the mid-to-late 1990's, implying that flow conditions had attained a stabilized annual cycle. The third and fourth projections never attained an annual stabilized cycle because the irrigation pumpage rate was increased each year. By the early 1980's, the hydraulic head had fallen below river stage, reversing the hydraulic gradient at the stream-aquifer interface and resulting in net leakage from the river to the aquifer during the summer months. By the early 1990 's, the projected potentiometric surface of the aquifer was lower than the river stage even during the winter and spring months. (Author 's abstract)

Kume, Jack; Lindgren, R.J.; Stullken, L.E.

1985-01-01

234

Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than in more urbanized areas. Much of the water in the area is of good quality, though some parts of this area have water quality impaired by very hard surface water and groundwater; large chloride concentrations in some smaller streams; relatively large concentrations of nutrients and counts of fecal-indicator bacteria in the North Canadian River; and chloride, iron, manganese, and uranium concentrations that exceed primary or secondary drinking-water standards in water samples collected from small numbers of wells. Substantial amounts of hydrologic and water-quality data have been collected in much of this area, but there are gaps in those data caused by relatively few streamflow-gaging stations, uneven distribution of surface-water quality sampling sites, lack of surface-water quality sampling at high-flow and low-flow conditions, and lack of a regularly measured and sampled groundwater network. This report summarizes existing water-use, climatic, geographic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and describes several means of filling gaps in hydrologic data for this area.

Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

2013-01-01

235

Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry -Forestry Service Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service  

E-print Network

E-988 Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry - Forestry Service Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service United States Department of Agriculture - Forestry Service Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation Natural Resources Conservation Service Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

236

9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History  

E-print Network

9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History University of Oklahoma Elder Voices, Youth Choices from the Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair! We are pleased

Oklahoma, University of

237

Hydrogeology, water quality, and water-resources development potential of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the Valdosta area, south-central Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Valdosta, Georgia area is adversely affected by direct recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Water enters the aquifer along a short reach of the river where sinkholes have formed in the stream bed. The water receives little filtration as it recharges the Upper Floridan aquifer through these sinkholes. Naturally occurring organic material in the river provides a readily available source of energy for the growth of microbiota in the aquifer. Microbiological processes and chemical reactions in the aquifer produce methane and hydrogen sulfide as the water from the river mixes with ground water and moves downgradient in the aquifer. Humic substances associated with the organic material in the ground water in this area can form trihalomethanes when the water is chlorinated for public supply. To assess areas most suitable for ground-water supply development, areal distributions of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane in the Upper Floridan aquifer were mapped and used to evaluate areas affected by recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Areas where concentrations of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane were less than or equal to 2.0 milligrams per liter, 0.5 milligrams per liter, and 100 micrograms per liter, respectively, were considered to be relatively unaffected by recharge from the river and to have the greatest potential for water- resources development.

McConnell, J.B.; Hacke, C.M.

1993-01-01

238

Quality of Shallow Groundwater and Drinking Water in the Mississippi Embayment-Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System and the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, South-Central United States, 1994-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system is an important source of drinking water, providing about 724 million gallons per day to about 8.9 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Alabama. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer ranks third in the Nation for total withdrawals of which more than 98 percent is used for irrigation. From 1994 through 2004, water-quality samples were collected from 169 domestic, monitoring, irrigation, and public-supply wells in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in various land-use settings and of varying well capacities as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical properties and about 200 water-quality constituents, including total dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, pesticide degradates, and volatile organic compounds. The occurrence of nutrients and pesticides differed among four groups of the 114 shallow wells (less than or equal to 200 feet deep) in the study area. Tritium concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium, Pleistocene valley trains, and shallow Tertiary wells indicated a smaller component of recent groundwater than samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits. Although the amount of agricultural land overlying the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was considerably greater than areas overlying parts of the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells, nitrate was rarely detected and the number of pesticides detected was lower than other shallow wells. Nearly all samples from the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains were anoxic, and the reducing conditions in these aquifers likely result in denitrification of nitrate. In contrast, most samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits in Memphis, Tennessee, were oxic, and the maximum nitrate concentration measured was 6.2 milligrams per liter. Additionally, soils overlying the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains, generally in areas near the wells, had lower infiltration rates and higher percentages of clay than soils overlying the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells. Differences in these soil properties were associated with differences in the occurrence of pesticides. Pesticides were most commonly detected in samples from wells in the Pleistocene terrace deposits, which generally had the highest infiltration rates and lowest clay content. Median dissolved phosphorus concentrations were 0.07, 0.11, and 0.65 milligram per liter in samples from the shallow Tertiary, Pleistocene valley trains, and Holocene alluvium, respectively. The widespread occurrence of dissolved phosphorus at concentrations greater than 0.02 milligram per liter suggests either a natural source in the soils or aquifer sediments, or nonpoint sources such as fertilizer and animal waste or a combination of natural and human sources. Although phosphorus concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium were weakly correlated to concentrations of several inorganic constituents, elevated concentrations of phosphorus could not be attributed to a specific source. Phosphorus concentrations generally were highest where samples indicated anoxic and reducing conditions in the aquifers. Elevated dissolved phosphorus concentrations in base-flow samples from two streams in the study area suggest that transport of phosphorus with groundwater is a potential source contributing to high yields of phosphorus in the lower Mississippi River basin. Water from 55 deep wells (greater than 200 feet deep) completed in regional aquifers of Tertiary age represent a sample of the principal aquifers used for drinking-water supply in the study area. The wells were screened in both confined and

Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Tollett, Roland W.; Seanor, Ronald C.

2009-01-01

239

Oklahoma and SREB  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Oklahoma and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead the…

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

2009-01-01

240

Oklahoma Sheriffs' Association Ok ahoma Sheriff  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Sheriffs' Association Ok ahoma Sheriff The Official Magazine for Oklahoma Sher iffs was recently developed by the Oklahoma Office of Homeland Security (OKOHS), Oklahoma Council on Law Enforcement the current credentialing system already implemented in the state of Oklahoma. In addition to obtaining

Harms, Kyle E.

241

Chickasaw Plum for Wildlife in Oklahoma  

E-print Network

Chickasaw Plum for Wildlife in Oklahoma E-1026 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University #12;Chickasaw Plum for Wildlife in Oklahoma Authors from the Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

242

Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The major Paleozoic artesian aquifers, the aquifers most favorable for continued development, in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming are the Tensleep Sandstone, the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite (Madison-Bighorn aquifer), and the Flathead Sandstone. The minor aquifers include the Goose Egg and Park City Formations (considered in the Ten Sleep area to be the lateral equivalent of the Phosphoria Formation) and the Amsden Formation. Most wells completed in the major and minor aquifers flow at the land surface. Wellhead pressures generally are less than 50 pounds per square inch for the Tensleep Sandstone, 150-250 pounds per square inch for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, and more than 400 pounds per square inch for the Flathead Sandstone. Flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and the Flathead Sandstone yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. The initial test of one well completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer indicated a flow rate of 14,000 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 500 to 1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and from about 90 to 325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Significant secondary permeability from fracturing in the Paleozoic aquifers allows local upward interformational movement of water, and this affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Water moves upward from the Tensleep and other formations, through the Goose Egg Formation, to discharge at the land surface as springs. Much of the spring flow is diverted for irrigation or is used for rearing fish. Decreases from original well pressures were not apparent in wells completed in the Tensleep Sandstone or in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer in the study area except for a few wells in or near the town of Ten Sleep. Most wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone, which also are open to the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, show a decrease of pressure from the time of completion to 1978. The decrease of pressure is partly the result of water moving from the Flathead Sandstone into the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, which has a lower potentiometric surface than does the Flathead Sandstone, even during the time the wells are not in operation. Pressure in some small-capacity wells completed in the Goose Egg Formation also has decreased near Ten Sleep. Most of the wells, particularly the irrigation wells, show a progressive decrease in pressure during the irrigation season but recover during periods of nonuse. Measurements of the pressure were made principally in 1953, 1962, 1970, and 1975-78. Well water from the Paleozoic aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but excessive hardness. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water are less than 300 milligrams per liter in the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, less than 200 milligrams per liter in the Flathead Sandstone, and as much as 450 milligrams per liter in the Goose Egg Formation. Bicarbonate is the major constituent, followed by calcium and magnesium. Relatively large concentrations of sulfate, as much as 490 milligrams per liter, were found, mainly in water from the Goose Egg Formation. The water has low sodium (alkali) and medium salinity; therefore, the water is satisfactory for irrigation and most other uses, if excessive hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 ? to 27.5 ? Celsius (51 ? to 81.5 ? Fahrenheit) within a range in depth of approximately 250 to 4,000 feet. This gives a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 ? Celsius per 100 feet (0.79 ? Fahrenheit per 100 feet).

Cooley, Maurice E.

1986-01-01

243

Fluorine in the rocks and sediments of volcanic areas in central Italy: total content, enrichment and leaching processes and a hypothesis on the vulnerability of the related aquifers.  

PubMed

Rock, sediment and water samples from areas characterised by hydrothermal alterations in the Sabatini and Vico Volcanic Districts, near Rome and the large city of Viterbo, respectively, were collected and analysed to determine the total fluorine (F) content and to understand the F geochemical background level in the volcanic districts of central Italy. Leaching and alteration processes controlling the high concentration of F in water were also investigated. Fluorine concentrations were directly determined (potentiometrically) by an F selective electrode in water samples, while the procedure for rock samples included preliminary F dissolution through alkaline fusion. F concentrations higher than 800 mg kg(-1) were commonly found in the analysed rocks and sediments; the concentration depended on the lithology and on the distance from the alteration areas. A specific successive sampling campaign was conducted in three areas where the F content in sediments was particularly high; in the same areas, measurements of CO(2) flux were also performed to investigate the possible deep origin of F. To verify the relationships among the high F contents in rocks and sediments, the leaching processes involved and the presence of F in the aquifer, we also collected water samples in the western sector of the Sabatini Volcanic District, where hydrothermal manifestations and mineral springs are common. The data were processed using a GIS system in which the F distribution was combined with morphological and geological observations. The main results of our study are that (1) F concentrations are higher in volcanic and recently formed travertine (especially in hydrothermally altered sediments) than in sedimentary rocks and decrease with distance from hydrothermal alteration areas, (2) F is more easily leached from hydrothermally altered rocks and from travertine and (3) sediments enriched with F may indicate the presence of deep regional fractures that represent direct pathways of hydrothermal fluids from the crust to the surface. PMID:21968879

De Rita, Donatella; Cremisini, Carlo; Cinnirella, Alessandro; Spaziani, Fabio

2012-09-01

244

Groundwater Quality, Age, and Probability of Contamination, Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eagle River watershed is located near the destination resort town of Vail, Colorado. The area has a fastgrowing permanent population, and the resort industry is rapidly expanding. A large percentage of the land undergoing development to support that growth overlies the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA), which likely has a high predisposition to groundwater contamination. As development continues, local organizations need tools to evaluate potential land-development effects on ground- and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. To help develop these tools, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, conducted a study in 2006-2007 of the groundwater quality, age, and probability of contamination in the ERWVFA, north-central Colorado. Ground- and surface-water quality samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, tritium, dissolved gases, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined with very low-level laboratory methods. The major-ion data indicate that groundwaters in the ERWVFA can be classified into two major groups: groundwater that was recharged by infiltration of surface water, and groundwater that had less immediate recharge from surface water and had elevated sulfate concentrations. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the USEPA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (250 milligrams per liter) in many wells near Eagle, Gypsum, and Dotsero. The predominant source of sulfate to groundwater in the Eagle River watershed is the Eagle Valley Evaporite, which is a gypsum deposit of Pennsylvanian age located predominantly in the western one-half of Eagle County.

Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

2009-01-01

245

Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the state line were dominantly cow and horse with one ribotype from bird. Escherichia coli was detected in only one well sample. Bacterial ribotypes in water from that upgradient well indicated human and dog feces as sources for bacteria, and that on site wastewater treatment may not always be adequate in these highly permeable soils. Greater concentrations of nitrate in Cave Springs Branch and O'Brien Spring relative to the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall may be due, in part, to conversion of ammonia from poultry processing plant wastewater. The poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall sample collected in March 2000 contained greater concentrations of ammonia and total organic nitrogen plus ammonia than the spring, stream, and well samples collected during August 1999. Cave Springs Branch and Honey Creek contributed approximately equal loads of nitrogen to Honey Creek below the confluence and the greatest loads of nitrogen were introduced to Cave Springs Branch by the poultry processing plant wastewater outfall and O'Brien Spring. Nitrate concentrations in upgradient well samples ranged from 0.38 to 4.60 milligrams per liter, indicating that there are sources of ground-water nitrogen other than Cave Springs Branch, such as animal waste, fertilizer, or human waste. Nitrogen compounds in water from wells downgradient of Cave Springs Branch may be from Cave Springs Branch, fertilizers, animal waste, or human waste.

Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

2000-01-01

246

Oklahoma NASA EPSCoR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of Oklahoma EPSCoR is to make Oklahoma researchers more successful in competing for research funding. Specific goals, objectives, and strategies were developed for each federal EPSCoR program, based on federal and state needs. A theme of stimulating collaboration among campuses and building on common research strengths is a strong component of the Oklahoma EPSCoR strategic plan. It extends also to our relationships with the federal agencies, and wherever possible, Oklahoma EPSCoR projects are developed collaboratively with federal research laboratories and program offices. Overall, Oklahoma EPSCoR seeks to capitalize on unique research capabilities and opportunities. The NASA EPSCoR Program in Oklahoma was developed through this grant as a joint effort between Oklahoma EPSCoR and the NASA Oklahoma Space Grant Consortium (OSGC). The major goal of the Oklahoma NASA EPSCoR Plan established in 1996 is to develop an academic research enterprise directed towards a long-term, self-sustaining, nationally competitive capability in areas of mutual self-interest to NASA and Oklahoma. Our final technical summary pie chart demonstrates the strong successes we have achieved during this period as a result of the award.

Snowden, Victoria Duca

2002-01-01

247

The Texas- Oklahoma Cattle Feeding Industry: Structure and Operational Characteristics.  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Worth Central' . I owa Nebraska Illinois Other North Central Western RegionZ Arizona Colorado California Other Western states Other states3 United States ------ Percent 3.6 4.2 4.1 4.8 2.8 3.3 3.2 3.8 -8 .9 .9 1 .O 70.6 64.5 65.... NUMBER OF FEEDLOTS AND AVERAGE NUMBER OF CATTLE ON FEED, BY SlZE OF FEEDLOT, TEXAS AND OKLAHOMA, AND SE- LECTED AREAS, JANUARY 1, 1964-68, AND PERCENTAGE CHANGES 1964-68 - --- Under 1.000 head Over 1,000 head 1 tem - -- Percentage Percentage 1964...

Dietrich, Raymond A.

1968-01-01

248

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA CAMPUS ACTIVITIES COUNCIL SPEAKER BUREAU  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA CAMPUS ACTIVITIES COUNCIL SPEAKER BUREAU CONTRACT FOR SERVICES This Contract of Oklahoma Board of Regents, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, hereafter referred to as "SPONSOR: _____________________________ LOCATION: UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, NORMAN, OKLAHOMA 73019

Oklahoma, University of

249

Hydrogeochemistry of regional aquifer systems from Tuscany (central Italy): the state of the art before the definition of a geochemical baseline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European Community Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its derivative regulations have recognized the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water bodies by individual pollutants that may significantly affect the quality of water itself. Italian regulation takes into account the EU Directives, and charges the regional authorities to create monitoring networks and produce assessment reports on the contamination of groundwater. The knowledge of "natural baseline" for various dissolved elements in groundwaters on a regional scale becomes of primary importance to distinguish natural sources and anthropogenic inputs. The studied area includes the whole Tuscan regional district (central Italy) and covers an area of about 23,000 km2. From a geolithological point of view, Tuscan territory consists of several complexes outcropping regionally, the most typical features being the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate and evaporitic formations, overlain by flysch sequences, as well as granite intrusions and volcanic rocks. Moreover, two geothermal areas (Larderello and Mt. Amiata), a large number of thermal springs and CO2-rich gas vents are mostly present in the central-southern part of Tuscany. Finally in southern Tuscany (e.g. Campiglia M.Ma, Mt. Amiata, Elba Island), mining districts, predominantly characterized by polimetallic sulphides ore deposits, were exploited since the Etruscan time. In this work statistical distribution models are used to develop summary statistics and estimate probabilities of exceeding water-quality standards according to the National Legislative Decree 152/06. Descriptive statistics on solute concentrations are based on geochemical data from the main Tuscan aquifers and investigated by the CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, Italy) and Department of Earth Sciences (University of Florence, Italy). The data processing was carried out on 4,767 water samples collected from 1997 to 2009. According to the National Legislative, the chemical constituents were selected according to a priority interest: As, B, Cd, Cr (VI), F, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, sulphate and chloride. For each species probability plots in logarithmic scale were computed and the statistical parameters were evaluated for the individual populations as resulting by the procedure of partitioning. Most of the solutes have concentrations that span within 2-3 orders of magnitude, although Ni, SO4 and Cl concentrations show a larger variability (up to 4 orders of magnitude). All the considered variables are mainly characterized by polymodal distributions and composed by more than one population. High concentration populations, exceeding water-quality standards, are generally recognized for SO4, As, B, Cd, Cr(VI), F, Hg, Ni, Pb and Se.

Nisi, Barbara; Battaglini, Raffaele; Raco, Brunella

2013-04-01

250

Water quality of the Ogallala Formation, central High Plains aquifer within the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District, Texas Panhandle, 2012-13  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In cooperation with the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD), the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water-quality samples at 30 groundwater monitor wells in the NPGCD in the Texas Panhandle. All of the wells were completed in the Ogallala Formation of the central High Plains aquifer. Samples from each well were collected during February–March 2012 and in March 2013. Depth to groundwater in feet below land surface was measured at each well before sampling to determine the water-quality sampling depths. Water-quality samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace metals, and 6 of the 30 samples were analyzed for pesticides. There was a strong relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids as evidenced by a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.98. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from five wells exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Water from 3 of these 5 wells was near the north central part of the NPGCD. Nitrate values exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in 2 of the 30 wells. A sodium-adsorption ratio of 23.4 was measured in the sample collected from well Da-3589 in Dallam County, with the next largest sodium-adsorption ratio measured in the sample collected from well Da-3588 (12.5), also in Dallum County. The sodium-adsorption ratios measured in all other samples were less than 10. The groundwater was generally a mixed cation-bicarbonate plus carbonate type. Twenty-three trace elements were analyzed, and no concentrations exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water supplies. In 2012, 6 of the 30 wells were sampled for commonly used pesticides. Atrazine and its degradate 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine were detected in two samples. Tebuthiuron was detected in one sample at a detection level below the reporting level but above the long-term method detection level. There were no detections of the glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), or glufosinate.

Baldys, Stanley; Haynie, Monti M.; Beussink, Amy M.

2014-01-01

251

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

H. Seay Nance

2003-03-01

252

77 FR 26598 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00059  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 13069 and 13070] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00059 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes...Counties: Woodward. Contiguous Counties: Oklahoma: Dewey, Ellis, Harper, Major,...

2012-05-04

253

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2009 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2009 Audited Standards ...........20 #12;Independent Auditors' Report Board of Regents Oklahoma Agricultural

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

254

77 FR 34890 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OK-034-FOR; Docket ID OSM-2012-0008] Oklahoma Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface...announcing receipt of a proposed amendment to the Oklahoma regulatory program (Oklahoma program) under the Surface Mining Control...

2012-06-12

255

76 FR 59766 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00056  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 12841 and 12842] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00056 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 09/21/2011. Incident: Oklahoma County Wildfire. Incident Period:...

2011-09-27

256

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2010 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2010 Audited Standards ...........20 #12;Independent Auditors' Report Board of Regents Oklahoma Agricultural

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

257

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2011 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INC. June 30, 2011 Standards ...........18 #12; 1 Independent Auditors' Report Board of Regents Oklahoma Agricultural

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

258

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Assistant Professor The School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Oklahoma State University is pleased to invite applications for six. Salary and other compensation are competitive with major research institutions. Oklahoma State University

259

77 FR 61651 - Oklahoma Disaster # OK-00067  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 13330 and 13331] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00067 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of OKLAHOMA dated 10/01/2012. Incident: Multiple...Counties: Payne. Contiguous Counties: Oklahoma: Creek Lincoln, Logan Noble,...

2012-10-10

260

78 FR 31998 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00071  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 13586 and 13587] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00071 AGENCY: U...of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-4117-DR), dated 05/20...Loans): Cleveland, Lincoln, McClain, Oklahoma, Pottawatomie. Contiguous...

2013-05-28

261

76 FR 60959 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00055  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 12839 and 12840] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00055 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 09/21/2011. Incident: Pawnee...Counties: Pawnee. Contiguous Counties: Oklahoma: Creek, Noble, Osage, Payne,...

2011-09-30

262

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY June 30, 2008  

E-print Network

#12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY June 30, 2008 Audited Financial Statements Management's Discussion Standards ...................48 Oklahoma State University Foundation...................................................................................................Appendix C #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Independent Auditors' Report Board of Regents Oklahoma

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

263

Oklahoma seismic network. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent.

Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States)]|[Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Energy Center

1993-07-01

264

USGS Water Resources of Oklahoma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): Water Resources of Oklahoma contains hydrologic data; information on current state water-resource projects; USGS maps and aerial photo images; USGS publications and presentations; technical resources; and information on the general climate and water quality monitoring programs. There is also a form for making water data requests; a drought watch for Oklahoma; analysis of daily and monthly water conditions for Oklahoma; and a Water Science for Schools site.

265

Status of water levels and selected water-quality conditions in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers in eastern and south-central Arkansas, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the spring of 1999, water levels were measured in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers in 321 wells in eastern and south-central Arkansas. Water samples were collected during the spring and summer of 1999 from wells completed in these aquifers. The specific conductance of the ground water was measured from 147 samples and dissolved chloride was measured from 98 samples. Maps of areal distribution of potentiometric surface and specific conductance generated from these data reveal spatial trends across the study area. The altitude of the potentiometric surface ranged from 214 feet below sea level in Union County to 332 feet above sea level in Grant County. The regional direction of ground-water flow in Arkansas is from the north and west to the south and east, away from the recharge zone in the outcrop and subcrop area, except near areas affected by intense ground-water withdrawals; such areas are characterized by large cones of depression centered in Columbia, Jefferson, and Union Counties. Heavy pumpage locally has altered or reversed the natural direction of flow in some areas. Flow in these areas is toward the cones of depression at the center of pumping. Comparison of potentiometric surface maps through time shows that the cones of depression in Columbia and Union Counties are coalescing at or near the Columbia and Union County line. Long-term hydrographs of 20 wells indicate trends of water-level decline over a 31-year period. During the period 1969-1999, average water-level declines generally were less than 0.7 foot per year in Craighead, Drew, Lee, Ouachita, and Phillips Counties, and between 0.7 and 1.1 feet per year in Bradley, Cleveland, Cross, Dallas, Poinsett, and Prairie Counties. Analysis of water-level data from Calhoun, Desha, Jefferson, Lonoke, Lincoln, and Union Counties indicates water levels declined between 1.1 and 2.0 feet per year since 1969. Water levels in Arkansas and Columbia Counties have declined more than 2.0 feet per year for the past 31 years. Water-level data from counties with cones of depressions indicate that water levels continued to decline in three cones of depression from 1995 to 1999; however, water levels increased in one cone of depression. Water levels declined an average of 2.5 feet per year in Union County, 1.4 feet per year in Jefferson County, and 1.7 feet per year in Cross County since 1995. One relatively new cone of depression has formed in Arkansas County. Water levels declined 4.0 feet per year in Arkansas County since 1995. However, water levels appear to be increasing in Columbia County where the same 11 wells were monitored in 1995 and 1999, and the water levels increased at a rate of 0.6 foot per year. Specific conductance measurements made on water samples collected during the study ranged from 44 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at a well in Ouachita County to 1,510 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at a well in Lee County. Dissolved chloride concentrations ranged from 1.1 milligram per liter at a well in Lincoln County to 220 milligrams per liter at a well in Union County.

Joseph, Robert L.

2000-01-01

266

Oklahoma Digital Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A team of talented librarians at the Oklahoma State University Library have created this collection of 3,600 maps, a true find for those with an interest in Sooner history, geography, culture, and more. The cartographic resources are divided into four collections, including the WPA Collection and the USGS Collection. This first collection consists of almost 2,400 detailed county maps produced in the 1930s by the Works Progress Administration and the Oklahoma Tax Commission to determine real estate values. Moving on, the USGS Collection is made up of 300 detailed maps generated from 1892 to the 1950s documenting topographical conditions throughout the state. Interested parties can view all of the maps here via a nice digital image tool and are also welcome to search across the entire collection by keyword.

267

OklahomaState  

Cancer.gov

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY, OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY is inviting applications for two full-time, Assistant Professor, tenure track positions in Quantitative Psychology and Clinical Health Psychology or Behavior Medicine beginning August, 2015. Candidates are expected to have a strong background in and dedication to scholarly activity, and to interact well with colleagues and students. They must also demonstrate the capacity to maintain a high quality research program leading to scholarly productivity in the form of professional publications, presentations, and grantsmanship.

268

Karst in Permian evaporite rocks of western Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Bedded evaporites (gypsum and salt) of Permian age have been dissolved naturally by ground water to form a major evaporite-karst region in western Oklahoma. The Blaine Formation and associated evaporites comprise 100--800 ft of strata that dip gently into broad, structural basins. Outcropping gypsum, dolomite, and red-bed shales of the Blaine display typical karstic features, such as sinkholes, caves, disappearing streams, and springs. Large caves are developed in gypsum beds 10--30 ft thick at several places, and a major gypsum/dolomite karst aquifer provides irrigation water to a large region in southwestern Oklahoma, where salt layers above and below the Blaine Formation have been partly dissolved at depths of 30--800 ft below the land surface. Salt dissolution causes development of brine-filled cavities, into which overlying strata collapse, and the brine eventually is emitted at the land surface in large salt plains.

Johnson, K.S. (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States))

1993-02-01

269

Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major Paleozoic artesian aquifers in the southeastern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming area, in descending order, the Tensleep Sandstone; the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite, which together form the Madison-Bighorn aquifer; and the Flathead Sandstone. Operating yields commonly are more than 1,000 gallons per minute from flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. The initial test of one well indicated a flow of 14,000 gallons per minute. Wellhead pressures range from less than 50 to more than 400 pounds per square inch. Transmissivities are 500-1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and 90-325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Despite extensive development for irrigation there have been few decreases in pressure. Some decreases in pressure have occurred in wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone. Fractures along linear structural features result in significant secondary permeability and allow upward interformational movement of water that affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces in the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Upward-moving water from the Tensleep and other formations discharges at the land surface as springs along or near these lineations. Water from the aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but has excessive hardness. The water is satisfactory for irrigation and other purposes when hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 degrees to 27.5 degrees C, giving a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 degrees C per 100 feet. (USGS)

Cooley, M.E.

1985-01-01

270

Digital-simulation and projection of water-level declines in basalt aquifers of the Odessa-Lind area, east-central Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital computer program using finite-difference techniques simulates an intensively pumped, multilayered basalt-aquifer system near Odessa. The aquifers now developed are in the upper 1,000 feet of a regionally extensive series of southwesterly dipping basalt flows of the Columbia River Group. Most of the aquifers are confined. Those in the depth range of about 500 to 1,000 feet are the chief source of ground water pumped from irrigation wells. Transmissivity of these aquifers ranges from less than 2,700 feet squared per day to more than 40,000 feet squared per day, and storage coefficients range from 0.0015 to 0.006. Shallower aquifers are generally much less permeable, but they are a source of recharge to deeper aquifers with lower artesian heads; vertical leakage occurs along joints in the basalt and down uncased wells, which short circuit the aquifer system. For model analysis, the deeper, pumped aquifers were grouped and treated as a single layer with drawdown-dependent leakage from an overlying confining layer. Verification of the model was achieved primarily by closely matching observed pumpage-related head declines ranging from about 10 feet to more than 40 feet over the 4-year period from March 1967 to March 1971. Projected average annual rates of decline in the Odessa-Lind area during the 14-year period from March 1967 to March 1981 are: from 1 to 9 feet per year if pumpage is maintained at the 1970 rate of 117,000 acre-feet per year; or, from 3 to 33 feet per year if 1970 pumpage is increased to 233,000 acre-feet per year, which includes 116,000 acre-feet per year covered by water-right applications held in abeyance. In each case, projected drawdown on the northeast side of a major ground-water barrier is about double that on the southwest side because of differences in transmissivity and storage coefficient and in sources of recharge.

Luzier, J.E.; Skrivan, James A.

1975-01-01

271

Ground-water flow and recharge in the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, east-central Illinois: A conceptual model based on hydrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Major-ion and isotopic analyses of ground water have been used to develop a conceptual model of flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA). The MVA is composed of clean, permeable sands and gravels and forms a basal'' fill up to 60 m thick in a buried, west-trending bedrock valley. A thick succession of glacial tills, some containing interbedded lenses of sand and gravel, covers the MVA. Three regions within the MVA have hydrochemically distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west.

Panno, S.V.; Hackley, K.C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, C.L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

1994-04-01

272

78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Statement for Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln, Creek...Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) Rail Division intend to prepare an EIS pursuant...for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City...

2013-05-28

273

Regional groundwater-flow model of the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and alluvial basin aquifer systems of northern and central Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A numerical flow model (MODFLOW) of the groundwater flow system in the primary aquifers in northern Arizona was developed to simulate interactions between the aquifers, perennial streams, and springs for predevelopment and transient conditions during 1910 through 2005. Simulated aquifers include the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and basin-fill aquifers. Perennial stream reaches and springs that derive base flow from the aquifers were simulated, including the Colorado River, Little Colorado River, Salt River, Verde River, and perennial reaches of tributary streams. Simulated major springs include Blue Spring, Del Rio Springs, Havasu Springs, Verde River headwater springs, several springs that discharge adjacent to major Verde River tributaries, and many springs that discharge to the Colorado River. Estimates of aquifer hydraulic properties and groundwater budgets were developed from published reports and groundwater-flow models. Spatial extents of aquifers and confining units were developed from geologic data, geophysical models, a groundwater-flow model for the Prescott Active Management Area, drill logs, geologic logs, and geophysical logs. Spatial and temporal distributions of natural recharge were developed by using a water-balance model that estimates recharge from direct infiltration. Additional natural recharge from ephemeral channel infiltration was simulated in alluvial basins. Recharge at wastewater treatment facilities and incidental recharge at agricultural fields and golf courses were also simulated. Estimates of predevelopment rates of groundwater discharge to streams, springs, and evapotranspiration by phreatophytes were derived from previous reports and on the basis of streamflow records at gages. Annual estimates of groundwater withdrawals for agriculture, municipal, industrial, and domestic uses were developed from several sources, including reported withdrawals for nonexempt wells, estimated crop requirements for agricultural wells, and estimated per capita water use for exempt wells. Accuracy of the simulated groundwater-flow system was evaluated by using observational control from water levels in wells, estimates of base flow from streamflow records, and estimates of spring discharge. Major results from the simulations include the importance of variations in recharge rates throughout the study area and recharge along ephemeral and losing stream reaches in alluvial basins. Insights about the groundwater-flow systems in individual basins include the hydrologic influence of geologic structures in some areas and that stream-aquifer interactions along the lower part of the Little Colorado River are an effective control on water level distributions throughout the Little Colorado River Plateau basin. Better information on several aspects of the groundwater flow system are needed to reduce uncertainty of the simulated system. Many areas lack documentation of the response of the groundwater system to changes in withdrawals and recharge. Data needed to define groundwater flow between vertically adjacent water-bearing units is lacking in many areas. Distributions of recharge along losing stream reaches are poorly defined. Extents of aquifers and alluvial lithologies are poorly defined in parts of the Big Chino and Verde Valley sub-basins. Aquifer storage properties are poorly defined throughout most of the study area. Little data exist to define the hydrologic importance of geologic structures such as faults and fractures. Discharge of regional groundwater flow to the Verde River is difficult to identify in the Verde Valley sub-basin because of unknown contributions from deep percolation of excess surface water irrigation.

Pool, D.R.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Leake, Stanley A.; Graser, Leslie F.

2011-01-01

274

A multidisciplinary approach for the management of the water resources hosted in the multi-layer coastal aquifers of Central-Southern Tuscany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correct management of subterranean water resources should be based on the studies aimed to acquire informations about geological, hydrogeological and geochemical characteristics of water and aquifer. Taking in mind this idea, the subterranean water resources hosted in the multi-layer aquifers below the coastal plains of the Cecina River, Cornia River, Follonica, Grosseto, and Albegna River were recently investigated through a multidisciplinary approach in the framework of the Significant Groundwater Bodies (SGB) Project, funded by the Tuscany Region (Italy). In the first step, the distinction of main aquifer, aquitard, and aquiclude levels has been done by means of the geometrical reconstruction of the geological sequences, using available stratigraphical data. For each hydrogeological complex, the total volumes and the percentages of the different grain sizes were also calculated. The second step was addressed to elaborate the piezometric surfaces during low-flow and high-flow conditions, aimed to individuate the main flow pattern and the most exploited zones of the multi-layer aquifers. Moreover, considering the saturated zone and applying an effective porosity (weighed in function of grain sizes percentages), the amounts of the total water volumes stored in the aquifer system were estimate. The third step comprised the hydrogeochemical characterization of the areas of interest, by means of both: a deterministic approach, including the elaboration and interpretation of classification diagrams, Eh-pH plots, calculation of water speciation and saturation state, activity diagrams, etc. a geo-statistical approach, aimed to the study of the spatial distribution of the most significant geochemical parameters, such as the concentrations of chloride, sulfate, nitrate and boron. If suitable database is available, this multidisciplinary approach can allow to identify the main recharge areas and flow path and the physical-chemical processes (naturals or antropics) responsible of the peculiar chemical and isotopical characteristics of water resources. The application of this method is easy and can be used in others sites in which right management of water resources is needed.

Lelli, M.; Doveri, M.; Cerrina Feroni, A.; Da Prato, S.; Ellero, A.; Marini, L.; Masetti, G.; Nisi, B.; Raco, B.

2012-12-01

275

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY JUNE 30, 2001  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY JUNE 30, 2001 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY June 30, 2001 Table Appendix B--General University Appendix C--Schedule of Agency Acronyms #12;i OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Management's Discussion and Analysis Overview of the Financial Statements and Financial Analysis The Oklahoma

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

276

OKLAHOMA STATE Report of Independent Accountants' Application  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Report of Independent Accountants' Application of Agreed-Upon Procedures to Assist the University in Complying with NCAA Bylaws 6.2.3.1 Year Ended June 30, 2007 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE.2.3.1 .......................................................................................................................................... 1 Intercollegiate Athletics Program Accounts of Oklahoma State University and the Oklahoma State

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

277

Naturally occurring hepatozoonosis in coyotes from Oklahoma.  

PubMed

Nine of 16 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Oklahoma (USA) had naturally acquired infections of Hepatozoon americanum. Infections were confirmed by recognition of tissue stages closely resembling H. americanum in skeletal and cardiac muscle. At the time coyotes were collected they were infested with a variety of ticks, including adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum). We propose that the high prevalence of H. americanum in this small sample of free-ranging coyotes and the ability of these same animals to harbor adult populations of A. maculatum is an important component of the epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in North America. PMID:10073352

Kocan, A A; Breshears, M; Cummings, C; Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A; Barker, R W

1999-01-01

278

Morphological and cultural comparison of microorganisms in surface soil and subsurface sediments at a pristine study site in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-soil and subsurface microfloras at the site of a shallow aquifer in Oklahoma were examined and compared with respect to (1) total and viable cell numbers, (2) colony and cell types that grew on various plating media, (3) cell morphologies seen in flotation films stripped from sample particles, and (4) cellular ultrastructure. Appreciable numbers of microbial cells were present in

T. L. Bone; D. L. Balkwill

1988-01-01

279

Geochemical Effects of Induced Stream-Water and Artificial Recharge on the Equus Beds Aquifer, South-Central Kansas, 1995-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer is part of a strategy implemented by the city of Wichita, Kansas, to preserve future water supply and address declining water levels in the aquifer of as much as 30 feet caused by withdrawals for water supply and irrigation since the 1940s. Water-level declines represent a diminished water supply and also may accelerate migration of saltwater from the Burrton oil field to the northwest and the Arkansas River to the southwest into the freshwater of the Equus Beds aquifer. Artificial recharge, as a part of the Equus Beds Ground-Water Recharge Project, involves capturing flows larger than base flow from the Little Arkansas River and recharging the water to the Equus Beds aquifer by means of infiltration or injection. The geochemical effects on the Equus Beds aquifer of induced stream-water and artificial recharge at the Halstead and Sedgwick sites were determined through collection and analysis of hydrologic and water-quality data and the application of statistical, mixing, flow and solute-transport, and geochemical model simulations. Chloride and atrazine concentrations in the Little Arkansas River and arsenic concentrations in ground water at the Halstead recharge site frequently exceeded regulatory criteria. During 30 percent of the time from 1999 through 2004, continuous estimated chloride concentrations in the Little Arkansas River at Highway 50 near Halstead exceeded the Secondary Drinking-Water Regulation of 250 milligrams per liter established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chloride concentrations in shallow monitoring wells located adjacent to the stream exceeded the drinking-water criterion five times from 1995 through 2004. Atrazine concentrations in water sampled from the Little Arkansas River had large variability and were at or near the drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 3.0 micrograms per liter as an annual average established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Atrazine concentrations were much smaller than the drinking-water criterion and were detected at much smaller concentrations in shallow monitoring wells and diversion well water located adjacent to the stream probably because of sorption on aquifer sediment. Before and after artificial recharge, large, naturally occurring arsenic concentrations in the recharge water for the Halstead diversion well and recharge site exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Arsenic and iron concentrations decreased when water was recharged through recharge basins or a trench; however, chemical precipitation and potential biofouling eventually may decrease the artificial recharge efficiency through basins and trenches. At the Sedgwick site, chloride concentrations infrequently exceeded regulatory criteria. Large concentrations of atrazine were treated to decrease concentrations to less than regulatory criteria. Recharge of treated stream water through recharge basins avoids potentially large concentrations of arsenic and iron that exist at the Halstead diversion site. Results from a simple mixing model using chloride as a tracer indicated that the water chemistry in shallow monitoring well located adjacent to the Little Arkansas River was 80 percent of stream water, demonstrating effective recharge of the alluvial aquifer by the stream. Results also indicated that about 25 percent of the water chemistry of the diversion well water was from the shallow part of the aquifer. Additionally, diverting water through a diversion well located adjacent to the stream removed about 75 percent of the atrazine, probably through sorption to aquifer sediment, and decreased the need for additional water treatment to remove atrazine. A flow and solute-transport model was developed using water-level and chloride concentration data to simulate and better evaluate the quantity of stream-water flow to the p

Schmidt, Heather C. Ross; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Parkhurst, David L.

2007-01-01

280

Were the 2011 Prague, Oklahoma Earthquakes Natural, Induced, or Something in Between?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the Prague, Oklahoma earthquake sequence, which is under debate. I offer a third explanation, whereby this sequence was triggered by approximately 12 million cubic m of wastewater injected into the epicentral zone, from five high-volume injection wells. This sequence included three earthquakes of M5 or greater: a M5 foreshock, the M5.7 main shock, and a M5 aftershock (Keranen et al., Geology, 2013). The main shock, which caused substantial damage, is of exceptional importance in the central and eastern United States because it is the second largest earthquake that has been recorded in this vast region. Because of its importance in assessing seismic hazard, especially in central Oklahoma, there is an urgent need to understand its origin. The first hypothesis argues that the Prague earthquakes are of natural origin (Keller and Holland, OGS website, 2013). As shown by Ellsworth et al. (abstract, SSA Meeting, 2012,), the seismicity in central Oklahoma has increased dramatically starting in 2009. This increase is inconsistent with natural processes that are likely to occur in this geologically stable area. Instead, it seems more likely that the increase in seismicity is related to the increase of fluid injection activities related to expanding oil and gas operations. Even so, the Prague earthquakes themselves could be a natural sequence. The second hypothesis argues that the M5 foreshock was triggered by pore pressure increase due to wastewater injected from two wells near the northeast end of the epicentral zone. This M5 event, in turn, increased the Coulomb stress on a pre-existing fault triggering the M5.7 mainshock and its numerous aftershocks (Keranen, et al., 2013). This hypothesis focuses on two nearly co-located disposal wells, Stasta 1 and 2, that together injected nearly 100,000 cubic m of wastewater into the basal aquifer during the years leading up to the Prague earthquakes. There are, however, five much higher-volume disposal wells in the zone of epicenters, each of which injected more than 1 million cubic m into the same aquifer. Indeed, the highest volume well, Wilzetta 1, which injected nearly 4 million cubic m starting in 1999, is also at the northeast end of the zone of epicenters, close to the two Stasta wells. Accordingly, the third hypothesis, favored here, is based on a relationship developed by McGarr (2013, manuscript submitted for publication) that gives the maximum seismic moment as less than or equal to the product of the total volume of injected fluid and the modulus of rigidity. This upper bound is consistent with observations of seismic moments and corresponding injected volumes from numerous case histories during the past 50 years including the Prague sequence for which a total injected volume of 12 million cubic m resulted in a maximum seismic moment of about 3.9e17 Nm.

McGarr, A.

2013-12-01

281

Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

McGuire, V.L.

2009-01-01

282

Coseismic and post-seismic hydrogeological response of the Gran Sasso carbonate aquifer to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mw=6.3 April 6 2009 L'Aquila earthquake mainshock produced self-evident co-seismic and post-seismic changes in the hydrogeological setting of the Gran Sasso carbonate fractured aquifer (Adinolfi Falcone et alii, 2008; Barbieri et alii, 2005) in which the seismogenic Paganica Fault, which is responsible for the mainshock, is located (Anzidei et alii, 2009; Atzori et alii, 2009; Chiarabba et alii, 2009;

Antonella Amoruso; Luca Crescentini; Marco Petitta; Sergio Rusi; Marco Tallini

2010-01-01

283

Simulation of the effects of management alternatives on the stream-aquifer system, South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

With extensive irrigation use of both surface water and groundwater in the South Fork Solomon River valley shortages of these water supplies have been created. A two-dimensional digital model of transient groundwater flow was applied to investigate the potential effects on the stream aquifer system of seven management alternatives. These alternatives included proposals to conserve surface water supplies by lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay, replacing the lateral canals with pipe, removing phreatophytes, decreasing surface water use by 75%, 50%, or 25% and replacing it with groundwater sources, and continuing 1978 groundwater use and 1970-78 average surface water use until the end of the 20th century. Results were assessed by comparison of drawdowns of hydraulic head in the alluvial aquifer and base flow for each simulation. As listed in order of the smallest to the greatest potential effects on the system relative to drawdown and base flow the alternatives are: (1) removal of one-half of the phreatophytes; (2) continuation of 1978 groundwater withdrawals and average 1970-78 surface water supply; (3) replacement of the lateral canals with pipe; (4) lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay; (5) decrease of surface water use by 25% and replacement of it with groundwater; (6) decrease of surface water use by 50% and replacement of it with groundwater; and (7) decrease of surface water use by 75% and replacement of it with groundwater. The removal of one-half of the phreatophytes would result in a decrease in average drawdown in the alluvial aquifer to about 1.74 ft and an increase in base flow of the Solomon River to about 12.3 cu ft/sec. The decrease of surface water supply by 75 % and a corresponding increase in groundwater withdrawal would result in an increase in drawdown in the aquifer to about 2.5 ft and a decrease in base flow to about 6.8 cu ft/sec. (Lantz-PTT)

Burnett, R.D.; Reed, T.B.

1985-01-01

284

Denitrification in a hypersaline lake-aquifer system (Pétrola Basin, Central Spain): the role of recent organic matter and Cretaceous organic rich sediments.  

PubMed

Agricultural regions in semi-arid to arid climates with associated saline wetlands are one of the most vulnerable environments to nitrate pollution. The Pétrola Basin was declared vulnerable to NO3(-) pollution by the Regional Government in 1998, and the hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified body of water. The study assessed groundwater NO3(-) through the use of multi-isotopic tracers (?(15)N, ?(34)S, ?(13)C, ?(18)O) coupled to hydrochemistry in the aquifer connected to the eutrophic lake. Hydrogeologically, the basin shows two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas (Zone 1) to the lake (Zone 2), and a density-driven flow from surface water to the underlying aquifer (Zone 3). In Zones 1 and 2, ?(15)NNO3 and ?(18)ONO3 suggest that NO3(-) from slightly volatilized ammonium synthetic fertilizers is only partially denitrified. The natural attenuation of NO3(-) can occur by heterotrophic reactions. However, autotrophic reactions cannot be ruled out. In Zone 3, the freshwater-saltwater interface (down to 12-16 m below the ground surface) is a reactive zone for NO3(-) attenuation. Tritium data suggest that the absence of NO3(-) in the deepest zones of the aquifer under the lake can be attributed to a regional groundwater flow with long residence time. In hypersaline lakes the geometry of the density-driven flow can play an important role in the transport of chemical species that can be related to denitrification processes. PMID:25169874

Gómez-Alday, J J; Carrey, R; Valiente, N; Otero, N; Soler, A; Ayora, C; Sanz, D; Muñoz-Martín, A; Castaño, S; Recio, C; Carnicero, A; Cortijo, A

2014-11-01

285

Heterogeneity and Stream-Aquifer Interaction in an Unconsolidated Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In north central Kansas the Republican River and its associated alluvial sediments are important regional surface and groundwater supplies. A test site, adjacent to the Republican River, has been established within the porous alluvial sediments to study stream-aquifer interaction and aquifer heterogeneity. This is potentially important research for understanding how to maintain a desired stream flow in the presence of withdrawals from the stream and the aquifer. The site installation consists of seven observation wells located along a line perpendicular to the river channel and centered about a productive irrigation well. In addition to water level data, several geophysical techniques (direct push electrical conductivity, ground penetrating radar, and shallow seismic methods) have been used at this site to characterize the aquifer. The results of the geophysical methods are reported in another paper at this meeting. Water level data collected over a two-week period shows two consecutive irrigation cycles. Each cycle consists of two days of intensive pumping followed by five days of recovery. Several significant elements of stream-aquifer systems can be seen in the data. The water level data demonstrates a regional water level decline in the alluvium that mimics stream gage data located up and down stream from the site, thereby confirming stream-aquifer interaction. Most of the observation wells located symmetrically around the irrigation well show the normal asymmetry expected for a river acting as a specified head boundary. However, heterogeneity causes one pair of symmetric wells to behave differently. Hydraulic data analysis with an automated program (SuprPumpII) demonstrates a degree of heterogeneity within the alluvial sediments not evident from descriptive geologic drilling logs or geophysical logs. A time-drawdown plot of a symmetric pair of observation wells, 310W and 310E, shows an atypical response of the aquifer during early pumping times due to heterogeneous effects; the drawdown plots "cross-over" (transition point) and then behave in a more expected manner during latter pumping times. This "cross-over" phenomenon is an illustration of the interaction between heterogeneity and stream-aquifer influences. At later times the stream influences the observed drawdown to a greater degree than aquifer heterogeneity.

McElwee, C. D.; Healey, J. M.

2003-12-01

286

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 Oklahoma Water for Sustainable Environments (ISE) at Oklahoma State University promotes interdisciplinary environmental research development of the natural environment. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) is located

287

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 Oklahoma Water for Sustainable Environments (ISE) at Oklahoma State University continues to promote interdisciplinary, and sustainably developing the natural environment. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI

288

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2010 Oklahoma Water for Sustainable Environments (ISE) at Oklahoma State University promotes interdisciplinary environmental research development of the natural environment. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) is located

289

OklahOma State UniverSity JUne 30, 2010  

E-print Network

OklahOma State UniverSity JUne 30, 2010 #12;OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY June 30, 2010 AUDITED.................................................................................................61 Discretely Presented Component Units Oklahoma State University Foundation..............................................................................................78 OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY DETAILED SCHEDULE OF EXPENDITURES OF FEDERAL AWARDS General University

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

290

Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program  

E-print Network

, closed circuit television short courses on selected energy management topics, energy auditing, industrial energy audits (through the Oklahoma Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center) , energy and water management research, and two courses currently being...

Turner, W. C.; Estes, C. B.

1982-01-01

291

Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

Farrell, Edmund J.

1994-03-01

292

Promoting School Readiness in Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the research, conducted on Oklahoma's universal Pre-kindergarten (Pre-k) program, on children of Tulsa Public Schools (TPS), the largest school district in the state to increase the school readiness are presented.

Gormley, William T., Jr.; Gayer, Ted

2005-01-01

293

On Streamflow and Water Balance Modeling at Regional and Aquifer Scales: Validation of Remotely Sensed Radar Precipitation Through Continuous Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrologic water balance, governing the amount of water that an aquifer receives, is important for estimating the amount of water that can be safely extracted without diminishing the water resources of a region. The change in storage of water in a stream-aquifer system for a specific time period is affected by precipitation, surface runoff, ground water recharge/discharge/pumping, evaporation, and transpiration. Sufficiently accurate and detailed precipitation measurements are needed over regional, river basin, and aquifer recharge areas. The accuracy and spatial sampling density of rainfall observation systems affect the accuracy of hydrologic predictions, and can be a major limitation to understanding the water fluxes across surface and subsurface boundaries. The study area includes the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer located in South Central Oklahoma and underlies an approximate area of 1295 km2. The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer provides water to streams and rivers as baseflow, including the 1200 km2 Blue River. This study is motivated by research concerning recharge and the hydrologic water balance over the Arbuckle- Simpson aquifer region. The objective of this study is to identify components of the hydrologic water balance, especially streamflow and recharge. The influence of spatially and temporally variable precipitation on the surface runoff, and uncertainty associated with radar and gauge sensor systems is evaluated over a period of fourteen years at hourly timesteps within a distributed hydrologic modeling context. To accomplish this objective, a distributed hydrologic model of the surface drainage systems including the Blue River, and components of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer recharge area are simulated using spatially variable rainfall derived from three rainfall products: 1) Gauge only products derived from surrounding Mesonet gauges, 2) National Weather Service Stage III/MPE radar rainfall (ABRFC) with no adjustment or quality control, and 3) Mean Field Bias adjustment of the ABRFC product with Mesonet gauges and gap filling. Validation of these rainfall products using observed streamflow is assessed through continuous simulation of direct runoff. The uncertainty and accuracy of streamflow within a distributed modeling context is accomplished using Vflo setup at various resolutions including 200- and 500-m grids over an area of 1590 km2, and 13240 km2, respectively. Precipitation derived from rain gauge is consistent with radar estimation at annual timescales, however, significant differences in streamflow simulated with these products result.

Vieux, B. E.; Moreno, M. A.; Looper, J. P.

2007-12-01

294

Assessment of managed aquifer recharge site suitability and influence using a GIS and3 numerical modeling4  

E-print Network

aquifer inputs. The latter can be accomplished using47 injection wells, aquifer storage and recovery1 1 2 Assessment of managed aquifer recharge site suitability and influence using a GIS for managed aquifer recharge (MAR)16 in the Pajaro Valley Groundwater Basin, central coastal California

Fisher, Andrew

295

Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

McGuire, V.L.

2011-01-01

296

Biological assessment of environmental flows for Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large-scale patterns in fish assemblage structure and functional groups are influenced by alterations in streamflow regime. In this study, we defined an objective threshold for alteration for Oklahoma streams using a combination of the expected range of 27 flow indices and a discriminant analysis to predict flow regime group. We found that fish functional groups in reference flow conditions had species that were more intolerant to flow alterations and preferences for stream habitat and faster flowing water. In contrast, altered sites had more tolerant species that preferred lentic habitat and slower water velocity. Ordination graphs of the presence and functional groups of species revealed an underlying geographical pattern roughly conforming to ecoregions, although there was separation between reference and altered sites within the larger geographical framework. Additionally, we found that reservoir construction and operation significantly altered fish assemblages in two different systems, Bird Creek in central Oklahoma and the Kiamichi River in southeastern Oklahoma. The Bird Creek flow regime shifted from a historically intermittent stream to one with stable perennial flows, and changes in fish assemblage structure covaried with changes in all five components of the flow regime. In contrast, the Kiamichi River flow regime did not change significantly for most flow components despite shifts in fish assemblage structure; however, most of the species associated with shifts in assemblage structure in the Kiamichi River system were characteristic of lentic environments and were likely related more to proximity of reservoirs in the drainage system than changes in flow. The spatial patterns in fish assemblage response to flow alteration, combined with different temporal responses of hydrology and fish assemblage structure at sites downstream of reservoirs, indicate that interactions between flow regime and aquatic biota vary depending on ecological setting. This supports the notion that regional variation in natural flow regimes could affect the development of flow recommendations.

Fisher, William L.; Seilheimer, Titus S.; Taylor, Jason M.

2012-01-01

297

Analysis of aquifer mineralization by paleodrainage channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralization of groundwater resources is a problem in south-central Kansas, due to the penetration of saline water from Permian bedrock formations into the overlying alluvial aquifer. One of the mechanisms involved in the mineralization involves small bedrock features of high permeability located in places occupied by streams and rivers in past geological eras. These geological features are termed 'paleodrainage channels'. The permeability of the overlying aquifer can be significantly smaller than that of the channel fill material. The comparatively fast migration of saline water through these channels of high permeability is associated with the transfer of minerals into the overlying freshwater aquifer. This study applies a set of boundary layer approaches to quantify the process of mineral transfer from the channels into the aquifer. The methods used in the present study provide quick estimation and evaluation of the dilution of the channel flow, as well as mineral concentration profile changes in the mineralized zone created in the overlying aquifer. More generally, the method can also be useful for the analysis and evaluation of various types of groundwater contamination in heterogeneous aquifers. The application of the method is exemplified by a complete set of calculations characterizing the possible mineralization process at a specific channel in south central Kansas. Sensitivity analyses are performed and provide information about the importance of the various parameters that affect the mineralization process. Some possible scenarios for the aquifer mineralization phenomena are described and evaluated. It is shown that the channel mineralization may create either several stream tubes of the aquifer with high mineral concentration, or many stream tubes mineralized to a lesser extent. Characteristics of these two patterns of aquifer mineralization are quantified and discussed.

Rubin, Hillel; Buddemeier, Robert W.

2003-06-01

298

Analysis of aquifer mineralization by paleodrainage channels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mineralization of groundwater resources is a problem in south-central Kansas, due to the penetration of saline water from Permian bedrock formations into the overlying alluvial aquifer. One of the mechanisms involved in the mineralization involves small bedrock features of high permeability located in places occupied by streams and rivers in past geological eras. These geological features are termed 'paleodrainage channels'. The permeability of the overlying aquifer can be significantly smaller than that of the channel fill material. The comparatively fast migration of saline water through these channels of high permeability is associated with the transfer of minerals into the overlying freshwater aquifer. This study applies a set of boundary layer approaches to quantify the process of mineral transfer from the channels into the aquifer. The methods used in the present study provide quick estimation and evaluation of the dilution of the channel flow, as well as mineral concentration profile changes in the mineralized zone created in the overlying aquifer. More generally, the method can also be useful for the analysis and evaluation of various types of groundwater contamination in heterogeneous aquifers. The application of the method is exemplified by a complete set of calculations characterizing the possible mineralization process at a specific channel in south central Kansas. Sensitivity analyses are performed and provide information about the importance of the various parameters that affect the mineralization process. Some possible scenarios for the aquifer mineralization phenomena are described and evaluated. It is shown that the channel mineralization may create either several stream tubes of the aquifer with high mineral concentration, or many stream tubes mineralized to a lesser extent. Characteristics of these two patterns of aquifer mineralization are quantified and discussed. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

2003-01-01

299

Combined use of tracer approach and numerical simulation to estimate groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system: A case study of Nasunogahara area, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system in the Nasunogahara area of Japan. Natural stable isotopes (18O, D) were considered as additional calibration targets in a numerical model. The reliability of the model outputs was further validated by comparing the results from the numerical simulation and an independent tracer approach. The results indicated that the calibrated model can effectively simulate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the contribution ratios of recharge sources to groundwater in the Nasunogahara area. However, the tracer approach (i.e., end member mixing analysis) provided more reliable results at point scale, particularly for the estimated contribution ratios of paddy field water. The precipitation in the Nasunogahara area is the major recharge source; its mean contribution ratio is 58% for a one-year period over the entire alluvial fan. River seepage is significant in the upstream area of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of river waters along the river channels in the upstream area increases during the wet season. Paddy field water is a highly important recharge source in the midstream and downstream areas of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of paddy field water obviously increases from dry season to wet season because of irrigation. This study demonstrates that combined use of the tracer approach and numerical simulation with stable isotopes as additional calibration targets can eliminate their respective limitations and can assist in better understanding the groundwater recharge mechanism in alluvial aquifer systems.

Liu, Yaping; Yamanaka, Tsutomu; Zhou, Xun; Tian, Fuqiang; Ma, Wenchao

2014-11-01

300

Drinking-water quality and variations in water levels in the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer, west-central Jefferson County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In parts of Jefferson County, CO, water for domestic use from the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer contained excessive concentrations of major ions, coliform bacteria, trace elements, or radiochemicals. Based on results of analyses from 26 wells, water from 21 of the wells contained excessive concentrations of one or more constituents. Drinking water standards were exceeded for fluoride in water from 2 wells, nitrate plus nitrite in 2 wells, dissolved solids in 1 well, iron in 6 wells, manganese in 8 wells, zinc in 2 wells, coliform bacteria in 4 wells, gross alpha radiation in 11 wells and possibly 4 more, and gross beta radiation possibly in 1 well. Local variations in concentrations of 15 chemical constituents, specific conductance, and water temperature were statistically significant. Specific conductance increased significantly during 1973-75 only in the vicinity of Indian Hills. Annual range in depths to water in 11 observation wells varied from 1 to 15 feet. The shallowest water levels were recorded in late winter, usually in February. The deepest water levels occurred during summer or fall, depending on the well and the year. Three-year trends in water level changes in 6 of the 11 wells indicated decreasing water storage in the aquifer. (USGS).

Hall, Dennis C.; Johnson, Carl J.

1979-01-01

301

Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water (transition zone). As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current freshwater supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey, San Antonio Water System, and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone.

Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.

2013-01-01

302

University of Oklahoma [INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY POLICY] The University of Oklahoma |IP Policy 1  

E-print Network

University of Oklahoma [INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY POLICY] The University of Oklahoma |IP Policy 1 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY POLICY 3.27.1 PREAMBLE (A) The people of the State of Oklahoma may reasonably expect from their creative works, trademarks, discoveries, and inventions. #12;University of Oklahoma

Oklahoma, University of

303

OSU Human Resources, 106 Whitehurst, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (405) 744-5449 Oklahoma State University  

E-print Network

OSU Human Resources, 106 Whitehurst, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 ­ (405) 744-5449 Oklahoma State.okstate.edu osu-es@okstate.edu Dental/Vision Information EDS Services, Inc. P O Box 24870 Oklahoma City, OK 73124-0870 (800) 752-9475 Emeriti Association Oklahoma State University Conoco Philips Bldg.201 Suite 102

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

304

40 CFR 81.337 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Oklahoma—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective... Oklahoma—1997 8-Hour Ozone NAAQS (Primary and...

2013-07-01

305

40 CFR 81.337 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Oklahoma—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...otherwise noted. Oklahoma—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2012-07-01

306

40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment...Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2010-07-01

307

40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment...Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2011-07-01

308

40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment...Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2012-07-01

309

For Employees of The University of Oklahoma  

E-print Network

For Employees of The University of Oklahoma 1215 South Boulder · P. O. Box 3283 · Tulsa, OK 74102 Association Blue Health Plans of Oklahoma BlueChoice PPO Certificate of Benefits #12;- 2 - Table of Contents

Oklahoma, University of

310

40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment...Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2013-07-01

311

40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment...Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2014-07-01

312

Tharsis Basin Aquifer System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a QuickTime movie animating an enormous ancient drainage basin and aquifer system in the Tharsis region of Mars. The movie shows the geological stages of the aquifer system, as reported in a University of Arizona study.

Arizona, University O.; Spaceref.com

313

Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in Southwestern USA: Comparison between texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area  

EPA Science Inventory

Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012.The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characteriza...

314

The Winona-Tallahatta Aquifer in Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This aquifer atlas describing the Winona-Tallahatta aquifer is the seventh in a series prepared in cooperation with the Mississippi Board of Water Commissioners. The atlas summarizes the large amount of unpublished data available in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and it describes the extent, character, and present utilization of the aquifer and its potential for additional development. The Winona-Tallahatta aquifer, which contains freshwater having less than 1,000 mg/liter of dissolved solids in about 25 percent of the State occurs in northwestern and central Mississippi. The water-bearing zones extend into Tennessee and become part of the Memphis aquifer. In Arkansas and Louisiana the aquifer is in the Cane River Formation. The Tallahatta Formation which is the basal unit of the Claiborne Group includes, in ascending order, the Meridian Sand, Basic City Shale, and Neshoba Sand Members. The Winona-Tallahatta aquifer is the source of water for only a few large water users, but is the source of water for hundreds of small-yield domestic and stock wells less than 200 feet deep. Total water use in the State in 1977 from the Winona-Tallahatta is estimated to be about 3 mdg. (Woodard-USGS)

Spiers, C.A.

1977-01-01

315

Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2002 Introduction The Environmental Institute at Oklahoma State University has as its mission to serve as a center for stimulation and promotion two programs: Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) funded by the Department

316

Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction The Environmental Institute at Oklahoma State University has as its mission to serve as a center for stimulation and promotion through two programs: Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI)funded by the Department

317

1Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA.  

E-print Network

1Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA. Presentation at Tohoku University, Japan Aug 6 of Computer Science University of Oklahoma. Email: atiq@ieee.org Web: www.cs.ou.edu/~atiq Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Aug 6, 2002. #12;2Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA. Presentation

Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

318

78 FR 66671 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...S1D1SSS08011000SX066A00067F134S180110; S2D2SSS08011000SX066A00033F13XS501520] Oklahoma Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface...announcing receipt of a proposed amendment to the Oklahoma regulatory program (Oklahoma program) under the Surface Mining Control...

2013-11-06

319

Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 1999 Introduction The Environmental Institute at Oklahoma State University has as its mission to serve as a center for stimulation and promotion research funded through two programs: ¨ Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) funded by the U

320

1Mohammed Atiquzzaman University of Oklahoma  

E-print Network

Page 1 1Mohammed Atiquzzaman University of Oklahoma ItswTCM: A New Aggregate Marker to Improve Fairness in DiffServ Mohammed Atiquzzaman School of Computer Science University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK of Oklahoma DiffServ n Provides statistical guarantees to a few pre- defined per hop behavior Y Expedited

Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

321

Other, Describe: The University of Oklahoma  

E-print Network

Other, Describe: New Hire The University of Oklahoma Background Check Authorization Attention Transfer Incoming Medical Resident Volunteer The University of Oklahoma will conduct Standard Pre. I understand that the University of Oklahoma may utilize the services of a third-party as part

Oklahoma, University of

322

Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2000 Introduction The Environmental Institute at Oklahoma State University has as its mission to serve as a center for stimulation and promotion research funded through two programs: Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) funded by the U

323

1Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA.  

E-print Network

1Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA. Presentation at Tohoku University, Japan Aug 6 of Computer Science University of Oklahoma. Email: atiq@ieee.org Web: www.cs.ou.edu/~atiq Presentation at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Aug 6, 2002. #12;2Mohammed Atiquzzaman, University of Oklahoma, USA

Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

324

Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2003 Introduction The Environmental Institute at Oklahoma State University has as its mission to serve as a center for stimulation and promotion and sustaining the natural environment. The federally supported Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute

325

The Active Bacterial Community in a Pristine Confined Aquifer  

EPA Science Inventory

This study of the active bacteria residing in a pristine confined aquifer provides unexpected insights into the ecology of iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the subsurface. At 18 wells in east-central Illinois, we trapped the microbes that attached to aquifer sedimen...

326

PayneOklahoma SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

E-print Network

SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA OSURR Headquarters 0 700 1,400 2,100 2,800350 Feet 0 200 400100 Meters Web Soil Survey 1.1 National Cooperative Soil Survey 5/7/2007 Page 1 of 4 #12;MAP INFORMATION SOIL Web Soil Survey URL: http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov Coordinate System: UTM Zone 14 Soil Survey

Ghajar, Afshin J.

327

A Karst Aquifer Map for the United States—Is it possible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is it possible to classify karst aquifers? This question is central to any attempt to construct a map of karst aquifers for the United States. To make such a map, one must assign spatial boundaries to karst aquifers that are defined by an encompassing set of classifying criteria. The classification paradigm used to make such a map should permit comparison

Daniel H; David J. Weary; Jack B. Epstein; Randall C. Orndorff

328

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE  

E-print Network

R N00014-10-1-0133. The experiments were performed on the supercomputers of OSCER, University of Oklahoma, supercomputers at Pittsburg Supercomputing Center, supercomputers at Texas Advanced Computing Center and supercomputers at National Institute of Computational Science, University of Tennessee. #12;VI

Xue, Ming

329

Manpower in Oklahoma: Health Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a survey of Oklahoma business designed to develop occupational data for the present and future, 300 occupations were selected and 11 schedules prepared to reflect various types of firms. The schedule concerning medical and other health services facilities was sent to nearly 200 firms and institutions and usable information was received from…

DeSpain, Don

330

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

331

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

332

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book presents findings of the Kids Count Project on current conditions faced by Oklahoma children age birth through 18. This second annual factbook organizes state and county data over a period of time to enable conditions for children in each county to be compared and ranked. The benchmark indicators studied include low birthweight…

Ingraham, Sandy

333

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

334

STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES CODE -1 THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA  

E-print Network

of the University of Oklahoma is charged in the Constitution of the State of Oklahoma with governing the University of the United States and the State of Oklahoma and the University of Oklahoma Student Association. Those. Student Rights Students of the University of Oklahoma are guaranteed certain rights by the Constitutions

Oklahoma, University of

335

Checklists for: Oklahoma 4-H Hall of Fame  

E-print Network

Checklists for: Oklahoma 4-H Hall of Fame National 4-H Youth Congress Name County Oklahoma 4-H Hall of Fame National 4-H Youth Congress Oklahoma 4-H Hall of Fame has the following requirements: Oklahoma 4-H on the front page of the Oklahoma 4-H Report Form and on the heading for Section I Member must be 16 years

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

336

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2013 Oklahoma Water the Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI, part of the Oklahoma Water Resources Center) continued its integration in to the Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources at Oklahoma State

337

Oklahoma Whistleblower Act The Oklahoma Whistleblower Act (74 O.S. 840 -2.5) protects employees who  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Whistleblower Act The Oklahoma Whistleblower Act (74 O.S. §840 -2.5) protects employees of Oklahoma shall prohibit or take disciplinary action against employees for Disclosing a violation of the Oklahoma Constitution or law or a rule promulgated pursuant to law; Reporting a violation of the Oklahoma

Oklahoma, University of

338

Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

2014-01-01

339

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oklahoma State-Administered Program. 282...Approved State Programs § 282.86 Oklahoma State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Oklahoma is approved to administer and...

2012-07-01

340

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2005 Introduction The Environmental Institute (EI) at Oklahoma State University promotes interdisciplinary environmental research developing the natural environment. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute, located within the EI

341

75 FR 13236 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications...licensee of KWTV-DT, channel 9, Oklahoma City, requesting the substitution of channel 39 for channel 9 at Oklahoma City. DATES: This rule is...

2010-03-19

342

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oklahoma State-Administered Program. 282...Approved State Programs § 282.86 Oklahoma State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Oklahoma is approved to administer and...

2011-07-01

343

Oklahoma State University Office of the Registrar Submit to  

E-print Network

Oklahoma State University Office of the Registrar Submit to: 322 Student Union Stillwater, Oklahoma on ______________ by _______________ Oklahoma Legislation (House Bill 2103 and House Bill 3397) requires that new freshmen be given

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

344

75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RM-11589] Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...Griffin''), the licensee of KWTV-DT, channel 9, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Griffin requests the substitution of channel...

2010-02-01

345

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklahoma State-Administered Program. 282...Approved State Programs § 282.86 Oklahoma State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Oklahoma is approved to administer and...

2010-07-01

346

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oklahoma State-Administered Program. 282...Approved State Programs § 282.86 Oklahoma State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Oklahoma is approved to administer and...

2014-07-01

347

78 FR 40819 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00071  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 13586 and 13587] Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00071 AGENCY...of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA--4117-DR), dated 05...disaster declaration for the State of Oklahoma, dated 05/20/2013 is hereby...

2013-07-08

348

75 FR 32821 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00038  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 12194 and 12195] Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00038 AGENCY...of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA--1917--DR), dated 05...disaster declaration for the State of Oklahoma, dated 05/24/2010 is hereby...

2010-06-09

349

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2006 #12;Introduction The Environmental Institute (EI) at Oklahoma State University promotes interdisciplinary environmental research developing the natural environment. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI), located within

350

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oklahoma State-Administered Program. 282...Approved State Programs § 282.86 Oklahoma State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Oklahoma is approved to administer and...

2013-07-01

351

What Works in Oklahoma Schools: A Comprehensive Needs Assessment of Oklahoma Schools. Phase II State Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phase II provides a more detailed examination of classroom variables important to achievement in Oklahoma schools. Where Phase I addressed all nine of the Oklahoma essential elements using survey data, Phase II focuses on what occurs in Oklahoma classrooms primarily using data from principal interviews, classroom observations (on-site), and video…

Marzano Research Laboratory, 2010

2010-01-01

352

Center for Executive & Professional Development -Oklahoma State University 215 Business Building -Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078  

E-print Network

Center for Executive & Professional Development - Oklahoma State University 215 Business Building - Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 Monday, November 18, 2013 Fine Tuning Your Business Writing 9 AM ­ noon | OSU, December 18, 2013 | 9 am ­ 4 pm OSU-OKC | $325 Oklahoma State University Management and Professional

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

353

THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA The General Catalog was produced by the University of Oklahoma Office of  

E-print Network

THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GENERAL CATALOG 2009-2011® ® #12;The General Catalog was produced by the University of Oklahoma Office of Academic Publications, Judy K. Cain, Coordinator of Curricular Changes, Norman Campus. This publication, revised in June 2010, is issued by The University of Oklahoma

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

354

Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

2009-01-01

355

Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, East-Central New Mexico-Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer in Curry and Roosevelt Counties, N. Mex., and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. This report provides a summary of the current (2007) water-level status of the Southern High Plains aquifer in New Mexico, including a basis for estimating future trends by comparison with historical conditions. This report includes estimates of the extent of ground-water level declines in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey-Lingo Ground-water Management Area parts of the High Plains Aquifer in eastern New Mexico since predevelopment. Maps representing 2007 water levels, water-level declines, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. The results of this mapping show the water level declined as much as 175 feet in the study area at rates as high as 1.76 feet per year.

Tillery, Anne

2008-01-01

356

Geothermal resource assessment in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The procedures and methods used to develop a geothermal gradient map of Oklahoma are discussed. Two areas, Haskell and Pittsburg Counties, in the Arkoma Basin, are discussed in detail. Three sandstone units, the Spiro, Cromwell, and Hartshorne were selected as potential low-temperature geothermal water sources. The average temperature ranged from 103/sup 0/F at Hartshorne to 158/sup 0/F at Cromwell. (MJF)

Harrison, W.E. (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman); Luza, K.V.; Prater, M.L.; Cheung, P.K.; Ruscetta, C.A. (ed.)

1982-07-01

357

Modeling The Evolution Of A Regional Aquifer System With The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finite element application IWFM has been used to develop an integrated groundwater-surface water model for California's Central Valley, an area of ~50,000 km2, to simulate the evolution of the groundwater flow system and historical groundwater-surface water interactions on a monthly time step from October 1921 to September 2003. The Central Valley's hydrologic system changed significantly during this period. Prior to 1920, most surface water flowed unimpeded from source areas in the mountains surrounding the Central Valley through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to the Pacific Ocean, and groundwater largely flowed from recharge areas on the valley rim to discharge as evapotransipration in extensive marshes along the valley's axis. Rapid agricultural development led to increases in groundwater pumping from ~0.5 km3/yr in the early 1920's to 13-18 km3/yr in the 1940's to 1970's, resulting in strong vertical head gradients, significant head declines throughout the valley, and subsidence of >0.3 m over an area of 13,000 km2. Construction of numerous dams and development of an extensive surface water delivery network after 1950 altered the surface water flow regime and reduced groundwater pumping to the current ~10 km3/yr, increasing net recharge and leading to local head gradient reversals and water level recoveries. A model calibrated to the range of historical flow regimes in the Central Valley will provide robust estimations of stream-groundwater interactions for a range of projected future scenarios. C2VSIM uses the IWFM application to simulate a 3-D finite element groundwater flow process dynamically coupled with 1-D land surface, stream flow, lake and unsaturated zone processes. The groundwater flow system is represented with three layers each having 1393 elements. Land surface processes are simulated using 21 subregions corresponding to California DWR water-supply planning areas. The surface-water network is simulated using 431 stream nodes representing 72 stream reaches, with 108 deliveries specified at 80 diversion locations. Monthly land use, agricultural crops, urban demand, precipitation, evapotranspiration, boundary stream flows and surface water diversions are specified, and the land-surface process calculates crop water demands and routes runoff to streams and deep percolation to the unsaturated zone. The stream process routes surface water flows, allocates available water to meet specified deliveries, and calculates stream-groundwater interactions. Groundwater pumping (which is not metered in California) can be specified or calculated by the model. Model calibration included automated selection of optimum hydraulic parameters using PEST, and manual selection of the areal and vertical distribution of groundwater pumping, to obtain the best match to historical groundwater heads and stream flows. The calibrated model is being used to calculate stream accretions and depletions for use in CALSIM-III, a reservoir-river simulation tool used for planning and management of the State Water Project and Central Valley Project, large surface water distribution networks in California's Central Valley.

Brush, C. F.; Dogrul, E. C.; Kadir, T. N.; Moncrief, M. R.; Shultz, S.; Tonkin, M.; Wendell, D.

2006-12-01

358

Aquifer-nomenclature guidelines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Guidelines and recommendations for naming aquifers are presented to assist authors of geohydrological reports in the United States Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. The hierarchy of terms that is used for water- yielding rocks from largest to smallest is aquifer system, aquifer, and zone. If aquifers are named, the names should be derived from lithologic terms, rock-stratigraphic units, or geographic names. The following items are not recommended as sources of aquifer names: time-stratigraphic names, relative position, alphanumeric designations, depositional environment, depth of occurrence, acronyms, and hydrologic conditions. Confining units should not be named unless doing so clearly promotes understanding of a particular aquifer system. Sources of names for confining units are similar to those for aquifer names, i.e. lithologic terms, rock-stratigraphic units or geographic names. Examples of comparison charts and tables that are used to define the geohydrologic framework are included. Aquifers are defined in 11 hypothetical examples that characterize geohydrologic settings throughout the country. (Author 's abstract)

Laney, R.L.; Davidson, C.B.

1986-01-01

359

Percentage of Probability of Nonpoint-Source Nitrate Contamination of Recently Recharged Ground Water in the High Plains Aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This raster data set represents the percentage of probability of nonpoint-source nitrate contamination (greater than the proposed background concentration of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as N) of recently (defined as less than 50 years) recharged ground water in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer covers approximately 175,000 square miles in eight States; Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Elevated nitrate concentrations above the background concentration have been detected in recently recharged (less than 50 years) ground water in the High Plains aquifer. This data set is derived from empirical models developed using multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the vulnerability of the High Plains aquifer to nitrate contamination from nonpoint sources. This data set was generated in a geographic information system from these models and represents the spatial extent of vulnerability of nitrate contamination greater than 4 mg/L across the aquifer.

Qi, Sharon L.; Gurdak, Jason J.

2006-01-01

360

Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and surrounding the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water, the transition zone. As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), San Antonio Water System (SAWS), and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone. During 2010 and 2011, the USGS, in cooperation with SAWS, conducted a study to further assess the potential for movement of the transition zone in part of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Equivalent freshwater heads were computed to investigate the transition from saline to freshwater zones in the San Antonio segment and evaluate the potential for lateral flow at the freshwater/saline-water interface. Data were collected within and surrounding the transition zone from 13 wells in four transects (East Uvalde, Tri-County, Fish Hatchery, and Kyle). Hydraulic head and geophysical log data were used to calculate equivalent freshwater heads and then analyzed to identify possible horizontal gradients across the transition zone and thus flow. Unlike previous studies that used indirect methods to calculate fluid conductivity from fluid resistivity, in this study geophysical tools that directly measured fluid conductivity were used. Electromagnetic (EM) flowmeter logs were collected under both ambient and stressed (pumping) conditions and were processed to identify vertical flow zones within the borehole. The San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer (the study area) is about 175 miles long and extends from the western groundwater divide near Brackettville in Kinney County to the eastern groundwater divide near Kyle in Hays County. The four transects consist of two to five wells per transect and were configured approximately perpendicular to and across the expected trace of the freshwater/saline-water interface. The deep flow zone indicated by the EM flowmeter data for East Uvalde transect well EU2 corresponds directly with a large, negative deflection of the fluid logs, indicating an inflow of fresher water from the Devils River Limestone. To the southwest, towards the freshwater/saline-water interface, this same flow zone was observed in well EU1, but with a reduction of flow, and displayed no apparent fluid curve deflections. The highest observed transmissivity of the study area was observed in the saline zone of the Tri-County transect, at well TC3, which had a total transmissivity of 24,900 square feet per day. Zones of high transmissivity throughout the study site were observed to not be continuous and are likely caused by localized secondary porosity such as intersecting faults or karst features. Although analyses of daily mean equivalent freshwater heads for the East Uvalde transect indicated that the gradient across the freshwater/saline-water interface varied between into and out of the freshwater zone, the data indicate that there was a slightly longer period during which the gradient was out of the freshwater zone. Analyses of all daily mean equivalent freshwater heads for the Tri-County transect indicated that the lateral-head gradients across the freshwater/saline-water interface were typically mixed (not indicative of flow into or out of freshwater zone). Assessment of the daily mean equivalent freshwater heads indicated that, although the lateral-head gradient at the Kyle transect varied between into and out of the freshwater zone, the lateral-head gradient was typically from the transition zone into the freshwater zone.

Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

2012-01-01

361

Factors Affecting Public-Supply Well Vulnerability in Two Karst Aquifers  

PubMed Central

Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501

Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J

2014-01-01

362

Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers.  

PubMed

Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501

Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J

2014-09-01

363

Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

NONE

1991-11-17

364

Chronology of migration by American coots in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

American coots (Fulica americana) were studied on large reservoirs in north-central Oklahoma in 1979-1982 to determine chronologies of migrations by age- and sex class. Coots began migrating into Oklahoma in mid-September, numbers peaked in early to mid-October, and few birds were seen after 1 November. Some late migrants appeared in mid-December. In spring, coots began migrating in late February, numbers peaked in mid-April, and the last birds were seen in mid-May. Generally, adult and juvenile males and juvenile female coots migrated simultaneously in autumn, but adult females completed migration by 1 November. A few juveniles and adult males migrated in December. Adult coots preceded yearlings in spring. Despite annual and between-lake differences in chronology of autumn migration, most coots migrated before waterfowl hunting season in Oklahoma. Coot hunting seasons in mid-latitude states should commence before the general waterfowl season where management goals are to increase hunter interest and the harvest of birds.

Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Patterson, Craig T.

1985-01-01

365

Biscayne aquifer, southeast Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peak daily pumpage from the highly permeable, unconfined Biscayne aquifer for public water-supply systems in southeast Florida in 1975 was about 500 million gallons. Another 165 million gallons was withdrawn daily for irrigation. Recharge to the aquifer is primarily by local rainfall. Discharge is by evapotranspiration, canal drainage, coastal seepage, and pumping. Pollutants can enter the aquifer by direct infiltration from land surface or controlled canals, septic-tank and other drainfields, drainage wells, and solid-waste dumps. Most of the pollutants are concentrated in the upper 20 to 30 feet of the aquifer; public supply wells generally range in depth from about 75 to 150 feet. Dilution, dispersion, and adsorption tend to reduce the concentrations. Seasonal heavy rainfall and canal discharge accelerate ground-water circulation, thereby tending to dilute and flush upper zones of the aquifer. The ultimate fate of pollutants in the aquifer is the ocean, although some may be adsorbed by the aquifer materials en route to the ocean, and some are diverted to pumping wells. (Woodard-USGS)

Klein, Howard; Hull, John E.

1978-01-01

366

Deployment of the Oklahoma borehole seismic experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the Oklahoma borehole seismic experiment, currently in operation, set up by members of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Treaty Verification Program and the Oklahoma Geophysical Observatory to determine deep-borehole seismic characteristics in geology typical of large regions in the Soviet Union. We evaluated and logged an existing 772-m deep borehole on the Observatory site by running caliper,

P. E. Harben; D. W. Rock

1989-01-01

367

Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil  

SciTech Connect

Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

1991-03-30

368

Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

369

Water used by grazed pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan(L) Millsp] in Oklahoma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water use by the warm-season annual pulse pigeon pea must be described to effectively use this legume as forage to support late-summer grazing by stocker cattle in the southern Great Plains (SGP). This study was conducted in central Oklahoma during 2008 to 2010 to quantify water and water use effici...

370

Faculty Productivity. Report & Recommendations to the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of Oklahoma higher education faculty productivity at state supported institutions resulted in recommendations to enhance quality while working within policy goals. The review identified faculty workload as the central issue and found that studies consistently show that full-time faculty members work 50 to 65 hours a week with about half…

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

371

Reproductive Cycle of Notropis boops (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in Brier Creek, Marshall County, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive cycle of the big eye shiner (Notropis boops) in Brier Creek, S-central Oklahoma, is described for 1976 and 1977. Reproduction occurred from late April into August. The breeding season was longer and began earlier in the year than those of northern populations of the species. Ovarian regression began earlier in the 1977 breeding season than in 1976; this

Steven Lehtinen; Anthony A. Echelle

1979-01-01

372

Build Your Own Aquifer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity illustrates how water is stored in an aquifer, how groundwater can become contaminated, and how this contamination ends up in the drinking water well. They will also realize that many communities obtain their drinking water from underground sources called aquifers and that water suppliers or utility officials drill wells through soil and rock into aquifers to supply the public with drinking water. In addition, they will learn that homeowners who cannot obtain drinking water from a public water supply have private wells that tap the groundwater supply and that groundwater can become contaminated by improper use or disposal of harmful chemicals such as lawn care products and household cleaners.

373

Aquifer-characteristics data for West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Specific-capacity, storage-coefficient, and specific-yield data for wells in West Virginia were compiled to provide a data set from which transmissivity could be estimated. This data can be used for analytical and mathematical groundwater flow modeling. Analysis of available storage-coefficient and (or) specific-yield data indicates the Ohio River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.20, which is characteristic of an unconfined aquifer. The Kanawha River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.003, which is characteristic of a semi-confined aquifer. The median storage coefficient of fractured-bedrock aquifers is only 0.007, which is characteristic of confined aquifers. The highest median transmissivity of a specific aquifer in West Virginia occurs in Ohio River alluvium (4,800 ft2/d); the second highest occurs in Kanawha River alluvium (1,600 ft2/d). The lowest median transmissivity (23 ft2/d) is for the McKenzie-Rose Hill-Tuscarora aquifer. Rocks of Cambrian age within the Waynesboro-Tomstown-Harpers-Weverton-Loudon aquifer had a low median transmissivity of only 67 ft2/d. Other aquifers with low transmissivities include the Hampshire Formation, Brallier-Harrell Formations, Mahantango Formations, Oriskany Sandstone, and the Conococheague Formation with median transmissivities of 74, 72, 92, 82, and 92 ft2/d, respectively. All other aquifers within the State had intermediate values of transmissivity (130-920 ft2/d). The highest median transmissivities among bedrock aquifers were those for aquifers within the Pennsylvanian age Pocahontas Formation (1,200 ft2/d) and Pottsville Group (1,300 ft2/d), and the Mississippian age Mauch Chunk Group (1,300 ft2/d). These rocks crop out primarily in the southern part of the State and to a lesser extent within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. The highest mean annual ground-water recharge rates within West Virginia (24.6 in.) occur within a band that extends through the central part of the State within the eastern part of the Kanawha River Basin. This area of relatively high relief has peaks higher than 4,000 ft and precipitation greater than 50 in./yr. The band of high recharge rates extends northward towards Pennsylvania and includes the Monongahela River Basin, which has a mean annual recharge of 21.4 inches. To the west of this central band lies a region of lower relief with much lower mean annual precipitation rates. Mean annual recharge for the Tug Fork, Twelvepole Creek, and Guyandotte River Basins is only 12.6 inches. For the western part of the Kanawha River Basin, mean recharge is 11.9 inches. The lowest mean annual recharge rates (8.4 in.) within the State occur in the Little Kanawha River Basin and the tributary streams in the region that discharge directly to the Ohio River. West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle is an area characterized by long linear northeast to southwest trending ridges and valleys. The mean annual ground-water recharge rate for this region, which is drained almost entirely by the Potomac River and its tributaries, is 9.4 inches. This area, which is located within a rain shadow resulting from orographic lifting in the higher altitude area to the west, receives less precipitation (approximately 30 in.) than the region to the west.

Kozar, Mark D.; Mathes, Melvin V.

2001-01-01

374

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 Oklahoma Water changes to the Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI). OWRRI moved from the Division of the Vice President for Research at Oklahoma State University (OSU) to join the Water Research and Extension

375

Oklahoma GSHP Ini0a0ve Jim Bullington  

E-print Network

Oklahoma GSHP Ini0a0ve Jim Bullington Trade & Industrial Education Oklahoma Department for Business and Industry · Describe the Oklahoma CareerTech GSHP Ini0a0ve Model;Who is Oklahoma CareerTech? · 29 Technology Center districts · 57 campuses (not

376

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 Oklahoma Water Institute at Oklahoma State University was renamed the Institute for Sustainable Environments, or ISE. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) is located within the ISE and is responsible

377

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 1 #12;Introduction During 2012 the Oklahoma Sciences and Natural Resources at Oklahoma State University (OSU). Together with the Water Research

378

Oklahoma State University Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources  

E-print Network

E-979 Oklahoma State University Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma. Bartholomew Big Game Biologist Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation White-tailed Deer Habitat-Soil Conservation Service (now NRCS) in Oklahoma. The authors greatly appreciate Dr. Teels' efforts in initiating

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

379

Implementation of a 3-D groundwater flow model in a semi-arid region using MODFLOW and GIS tools: The Zéramdine-Béni Hassen Miocene aquifer system (east-central Tunisia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an integrated methodology was developed to investigate hydrological processes in Zéramdine-Béni Hassen Miocene aquifer and to validate the groundwater proprieties deduced from the geological, geophysical, hydrodynamic and hydrochemical studies done in the region, using the coupling of groundwater flow model MODFLOW 2000 code with Geographic Information System tools. A 3-D groundwater flow model was developed for this aquifer using a large amount of available geological and hydrological data. The groundwater flow model was calibrated and validated with datasets during the 1980-2007 period. The results show that the ZBH aquifer exhibits the highest sensibility to changes of water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity. The model simulation shows a good degree of understand to the aquifer hydrogeology. The model can be regarded as a useful tool for analyzing the hydrological processes for complex groundwater that have similar geological and hydrogeological conditions and will help to propose a management rescue plan for the studied aquifer, especially for aquifer characterization in arid and semi arid regions.

Lachaal, Fethi; Mlayah, Ammar; Bédir, Mourad; Tarhouni, Jamila; Leduc, Christian

2012-11-01

380

Velocity oscillations in turbulent RayleighBenard convection Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078  

E-print Network

, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 X.-D. Shang Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong P. Tong Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 and Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear

Tong, Penger

381

Sulfate and chloride concentrations in Texas aquifers.  

PubMed

Median sulfate and chloride concentrations in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 8236 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). Concentration clusters for both solutes were highest in north-central, west, and south Texas. Thirty-four counties had median sulfate levels above the secondary standard of 250 mg/L, and 31 counties registered median chloride concentrations above 250 mg/L. County median concentrations ranged from < 1.5 to 1,953 mg/L for sulfate, and from 6 to 1,275 mg/L for chloride. Various factors contribute to high sulfate and chloride levels in Texas aquifers, including mineral constitutents of aquifers, seepage of saline water from nearby formations, coastal saltwater intrusion, irrigation return flow, and oil/gas production. Ten counties in central and northeast Texas lack data and warrant additional monitoring. PMID:11345739

Hudak, P F

2000-08-01

382

Modeling Seismicity Rate Changes in Oklahoma and Arkansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of M?3 earthquakes in the central and eastern US increased beginning in 2009, particularly in regions such as Oklahoma and central Arkansas where fluid injection has occurred (Ellsworth et al., SSA abs, 2012; Horton, SRL, 2012). We compare rate changes observed in Oklahoma, which had a low background seismicity rate before 2009, to rate changes observed in central Arkansas, which had swarms prior to the start of wastewater injection (Chiu et al., BSSA, 1984; Horton, SRL, 2012). In both cases, stochastic Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) models (Ogata, JASA, 1988) and statistical tests demonstrate that the background rate of independent events and the aftershock productivity must increase in 2009 in order to explain the observed increase in seismicity. Productivity is lower during the earlier tectonic swarms in Arkansas. The change in aftershock productivity may provide a way to distinguish manmade from natural earthquake rate changes and could provide insights into the physical mechanisms of induced seismicity. We fit the ETAS model, which is based on empirical aftershock scaling laws such as Omori's Law and the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution, to a 1973-2011 USGS PDE catalog of M?3 Oklahoma earthquakes and a 1982-2012 ANSS catalog of M?2.2 Arkansas earthquakes. To determine whether a rate increase is due to a change in background seismicity rate, aftershock productivity, or some combination of the two, we do the following: 1) fit the model parameters to the data, 2) convert origin times to transformed times (Ogata, JGR, 1992), and 3) use Runs and autocorrelation function tests to test the null hypothesis that the transformed times are drawn from a Poisson distribution with constant rate (as expected when no external processes trigger earthquakes besides a constant tectonic loading rate). In both cases a single set of parameters cannot fit the entire time period, suggesting that significant changes in the underlying process occurred. The null hypothesis is rejected in both Oklahoma (p<0.001) and Arkansas (p=0.015). Then, given a change point in 2009 (Ellsworth et al., SSA abs, 2012; Horton, SRL, 2012), we estimate ETAS parameters for both time periods to determine which parameters must vary. Space-time models are unstable due to the low number of events and large location error in the earlier catalogs, but likelihood tests of the temporal models indicate the data are better fit when both background rate and productivity increase.

Llenos, A. L.; Michael, A. J.

2012-12-01

383

Sources of Groundwater Based on Helium Analyses in and near the Freshwater/Saline-Water Transition Zone of the San Antonio Segment of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas, 2002-03  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report evaluates dissolved noble gas data, specifically helium-3 and helium-4, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, during 2002-03. Helium analyses are used to provide insight into the sources of groundwater in the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Sixty-nine dissolved gas samples were collected from 19 monitoring wells (categorized as fresh, transitional, or saline on the basis of dissolved solids concentration in samples from the wells or from fluid-profile logging of the boreholes) arranged in five transects, with one exception, across the freshwater/saline-water interface (the 1,000-milligrams-per-liter dissolved solids concentration threshold) of the Edwards aquifer. The concentration of helium-4 (the dominant isotope in atmospheric and terrigenic helium) in samples ranged from 63 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature (20 degrees Celsius) and pressure (1 atmosphere) in a well in the East Uvalde transect to 160,587 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature and pressure in a well in the Kyle transect. Helium-4 concentrations in the 10 saline wells generally increase from the western transects to the eastern transects. Increasing helium-4 concentrations from southwest to northeast in the transition zone, indicating increasing residence time of groundwater from southwest to northeast, is consistent with the longstanding conceptualization of the Edwards aquifer in which water recharges in the southwest, flows generally northeasterly (including in the transition zone, although more slowly than in the fresh-water zone), and discharges at major springs in the northeast. Excess helium-4 was greater than 1,000 percent for 60 of the 69 samples, indicating that terrigenic helium is largely present and that most of the excess helium-4 comes from sources other than the atmosphere. The helium data of this report cannot be used to identify sources of groundwater in and near the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer in terms of specific geologic (stratigraphic) units or hydrogeologic units (aquifers or confining units). However, the data indicate that the source or sources of the helium, and thus the water in which the helium is dissolved, in the transition zone are mostly terrigenic in origin rather than atmospheric. Whether most helium in and near the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer originated either in rocks outside the transition zone and at depth or in the adjacent Trinity aquifer is uncertain; but most of the helium in the transition zone had to enter the transition zone from the Trinity aquifer because the Trinity aquifer is the hydrogeologic unit immediately beneath and laterally adjacent to the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer. Thus the helium data support a hypothesis of sufficient hydraulic connection between the Trinity and Edwards aquifers to allow movement of water from the Trinity aquifer to the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer.

Hunt, Andrew G.; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Fahlquist, Lynne

2010-01-01

384

POST-DOCTORAL ASSOCIATE POSITION IN CLIMATE SCIENCES South Central Climate Science Center  

E-print Network

POST-DOCTORAL ASSOCIATE POSITION IN CLIMATE SCIENCES South Central Climate Science Center College, the South Central Climate Science Center at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma, is seeking for climate impacts research. This post-doctoral associate will examine the strengths and limitations

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

385

The University of Oklahoma NUTRITION INFORMATION  

E-print Network

CrossRoads Restaurant The University of Oklahoma® NUTRITION INFORMATION Fitter Foods Certified Sliders Cheeseburger (3) Chicken (3) BBQ (3) Hot Dogs Hot Dogs (2) Chili Dogs (2) Chicago Dogs (2) Baskets

Oklahoma, University of

386

A Look at Conservation Education in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported are three conservation education activities in Oklahoma: a study to determine if teachers are applying what they've learned; an outdoor classroom in the city; and a week-long environmental study camp. (Author/RE)

Soil Conservation, 1979

1979-01-01

387

75 FR 45679 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00043  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1926-DR), dated 07/26/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 06/13/2010 through 06/15/2010. DATES: Effective Date:...

2010-08-03

388

76 FR 24555 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00045  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1970-DR), dated 04/22/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 04/14/2011. Effective Date: 04/22/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline...

2011-05-02

389

Sang Rae Lee University of Oklahoma,  

E-print Network

of groups, CAT(0) cubical complexes, asymptotic cones of groups. Education Ph. D. in Mathematics, University of Oklahoma · Mathematics and Music ­ The chord sequence of Canon in D, April 2007. Conferences Attended

Forester, Max

390

75 FR 35103 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00040  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1917-DR), dated 06/11/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-line winds. Incident Period: 05/10/2010 through 05/13/2010. Effective Date:...

2010-06-21

391

75 FR 30871 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00038  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1917-DR), dated 05/24/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-line winds. Incident Period: 05/10/2010 through 05/13/2010. Effective Date:...

2010-06-02

392

76 FR 31670 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00048  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1970-DR), dated 05/06/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 04/14/2011. Effective Date: 05/06/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-06-01

393

76 FR 77578 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00057  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 12/07/2011. Incident: Earthquakes. Incident Period: 11/05/2011 and continuing. Effective Date: 12/07/2011. Physical Loan Application...

2011-12-13

394

Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this grant was to increase the awareness of students of space sciences and commerce through experimentation. This objective was carried out through the award and administration, by OSIDA, the Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority, of eleven smaller grants to fund thirteen projects at schools determined by competitive application. Applications were graded on potential outreach, experimentation objectives and impact on students' awareness of space sciences. We chose projects from elementary, middle and high schools as well as colleges that would encourage students through research and experimentation to consider education and careers in related disciplines. Each organization did not receive an equal share of the grant; instead, OSIDA distributed the money to each project based on the organization's need. A copy of the dispersement record is enclosed with this final grant report. The projects covered topics such as: space colonization, space stations, constellations, model rocketry, and space commerce.

2002-01-01

395

Ground-water movement and effects of coal strip mining on water quality of high-wall lakes and aquifers in the Macon-Huntsville area, north- central Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glacial drift and Pennsylvanian bedrock were mixed together forming spoil during pre-reclamation strip mining for coal in north-central Missouri. This restructuring of the land increases the porosity of the material, and increases aqueous concentrations of many dissolved constituents. Median sodium and bicarbonate concentrations were slightly greater, calcium 5 times greater, magnesium 6 times greater, manganese 15 times greater, iron 19 times greater, and sulfate 24 times greater in water from spoil than in water from glacial drift. Median potassium concentrations were slightly greater, and chloride concentrations were two times greater in water from glacial drift than in water from spoil. Water types in glacial drift and bedrock were mostly sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate; in spoil and lakes in the spoil, the water types were mostly calcium sulfate. Median pH values in water from spoil were 6.6, as compared to 7.4 in water from glacial drift and 9.0 in water from bedrock. Neutralization of acid by carbonate rocks causes the moderate pH values in water from spoil; a carbonate system closed to the atmosphere may result in alkaline pH values in bedrock. Transmissivities generally are greatest for spoil, and decrease in the following order: alluvium, glacial drift, and bedrock. Recharge to spoil is from precipitation, lateral flow from glacial drift, and lateral and vertical flow from bedrock. The rate of recharge to the aquifers is unknown, but probably is small. Groundwater discharge from the glacial drift, bedrock, and spoil is to alluvium. The direction of flow generally was from high-wall lakes in the spoil toward East Fork Little Chariton River or South Fork Claybank Creek. Significant differences (95% confidence level) in values and concentrations of aqueous constituents between spoil areas mined at different times (1940, 1952, and 1968) were obtained for pH, calcium, magnesium, manganese, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids, but not for iron. These differences are attributed to local variations in the geohydrologic system rather than spoil age. (Lantz-PTT)

Hall, D.C.; Davis, R.E.

1986-01-01

396

Generalized potentiometric surfaces of the upper and lower Jasper and equivalent aquifers in Louisiana, 1984  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Maps of the Jasper and equivalent aquifers are the final maps in a series showing water levels in aquifers of Miocene age and younger in central and southern Louisiana, that were prepared as part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study. These maps show generalized contours of the altitude of water levels in wells completed in the Jasper aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana and in aquifers in stratigraphically equivalent deposits of southeastern Louisiana for 1984. Separate maps were prepared for the upper and lower units of the Jasper and equivalent aquifers to provide a better representation of water levels. Although these maps provide a regional picture of water levels in the Jasper aquifer, they do not show the local differences in water levels between individual sand beds that occur near pumping centers. Generally, water levels shown at pumping centers are for the most heavily pumped sand beds at those centers. Most water level measurements used in compiling these maps were made in 1984. Where measurements from 1984 were unavailable, earlier and later measurements were used in areas where evidence indicated little change had occurred and in areas where definite regional trends of water level change could be established. In the areas where trends were established, water levels were adjusted to 1984 values by applying corrections based on the trends. Other maps in the series show water levels in aquifers of Pleistocene age, the Evangeline and equivalent aquifers, and the Catahoula aquifer. (Lantz-PTT)

Martin, Angel, Jr.; Whiteman, C.D., Jr.; Becnel, Miles J.

1988-01-01

397

Aquifer Management with Logistic Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical principles of sustainable aquifer management are laid out in this work. The premise of our treatment is that groundwater is a renewable, although exhaustible, natural resource. The theory of this work is aimed at aquifers with a relatively homogeneous recharge that can be approximated by a logistic growth function. Sustainable aquifer exploitation occurs when the rate of ground-water extraction

Hugo A. Lóaiciga; Roy B. Leipnik

2001-01-01

398

Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets  

E-print Network

://osufacts.okstate.edu Steve Glasgow State Grazing Lands Specialist USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service Terrence G on many factors. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Oklahoma Cooperative ExtensionDivision of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources · Oklahoma State University NREM-2881

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

399

What Works in Oklahoma Schools: A Comprehensive Needs Assessment of Oklahoma Schools. Phase III Action Steps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the Phase III report from the "What Works in Oklahoma Schools" study. As opposed to describing the findings from the study that was conducted, it provides a tool-kit that can be used by Oklahoma principals and teachers to determine the best courses of action for their schools and classrooms. The tools provided in this report…

Marzano Research Laboratory, 2011

2011-01-01

400

TWO ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF OKLAHOMA AND NOTES ON XYRIS JUPICAI (XYRIDACEAE) IN OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleocharis flavescens and Rhynchospora scirpoides are reported as new to Oklahoma. Xyris jupicai, which has been mentioned as occurring in Oklahoma, is documented in the state by citation of voucher specimens. The overall distribution of these species in the West Gulf Coastal Plain is discussed.

Jason R. Singhurst; Edwin L. Bridges; Walter C. Holmes

401

Inquiry and Aquifers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents inquiry-oriented activities that acquaint students with groundwater sources, movement of water through aquifers, and contamination of groundwater by pollution. In one activity, students use well log data from web-based resources to explore groundwater systems. Provides sample well log data for those not having access to local information.…

Leuenberger, Ted; Shepardson, Daniel; Harbor, Jon; Bell, Cheryl; Meyer, Jason; Klagges, Hope; Burgess, Willie

2001-01-01

402

Ground-water Aquifers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This description of a ground-water aquifer has a graphic representation to accompany it. It is part of the U.S. Geologic Survey's Water Science for Schools website. Links to other parts of the site, such as definitions and types of wells, are included.

403

IDAHO AQUIFER TYPES  

EPA Science Inventory

Five aquifer types are presented: Unconsolidated alluvium, Snake River Plain alluvium, Snake River Plain basalt, Columbia River basalt, Sedimentary / volcanic rock. Should only be used for page-sized maps of state, due to the very generalized source materials & digitizing proce...

404

Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1. Regions 1 through 6  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: the Western Mountains; Alluvial Basins; Columbia LAVA Plateau; Colorado Plateau; High Plains; and Glaciated Central Region. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-06-01

405

Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material  

E-print Network

Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material a column reactor system containing Hanford Aquifer material in order to assess the potential of in situ bioremediation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) at the Hanford site in south- central Washington state. Benzoate

Semprini, Lewis

406

Applications of universal kriging to an aquifer study in New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describes the use of kriging for optimizing data collection and utility in a regional groundwater investigation of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in central New Jersey, Kriging was used to 1) estimate the altitude of an aquifer surface, 2) estimate hydraulic conductivities from point data, and 3) estimate the associated kriged errors. -from Authors

Pucci, A.A., Jr.; Murashige, J.A.E.

1987-01-01

407

Potential for Siting New Water Wells and Restoring Existing Wells in Arsenic-Impacted Aquifers  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (ug/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central ...

408

Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2. Regions 7 through 12  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: Unglaciated Central Region; Glaciated Appalachians, Unglaciated Appalachians; Coastal Plain; Hawaii; and Alaska. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-06-01