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Sample records for central oklahoma aquifer

  1. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer in central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Cleveland, Lincoln, Logan, Oklahoma, Payne, and Pottawatomie Counties. The Central Oklahoma aquifer includes the alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. The Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Permian-age Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations consist of sandstone with interbedded siltstone and mudstone. The Permian-age Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups consist of sandstone, shale, and thin limestone. The Central Oklahoma aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma where the aquifer is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. Most of the usable ground water within the aquifer is from the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations. Substantial quantities of usable ground water also are present in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and in alluvial and terrace deposits associated with the major streams. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity and recharge values, and ground-water level elevation contours are from previously published reports.

  2. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer, Oklahoma, 1987 to 2009, and simulation of available water in storage, 2010-2059

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Ryter, Derek; Neel, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Magers, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma. The study area for this investigation was the extent of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer is used for public, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supply. With the exception of Oklahoma City, all of the major communities in central Oklahoma rely either solely or partly on groundwater from this aquifer. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, incorporating parts of Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties, has a population of approximately 1.2 million people. As areas are developed for groundwater supply, increased groundwater withdrawals may result in decreases in long-term aquifer storage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, investigated the hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow in the aquifer using a numerical groundwater-flow model. The purpose of this report is to describe an investigation of the Central Oklahoma aquifer that included analyses of the hydrogeology, hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer, and construction of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate groundwater levels and for water-budget analysis. A calibrated transient model was used to evaluate changes in groundwater storage associated with increased future water demands.

  3. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important source of water that underlies about 2,320-square miles of parts of Osage, Pawnee, Payne, Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, and Seminole Counties. Approximately 75 percent of the water withdrawn from the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is for municipal use. Rural domestic use and water for stock animals account for most of the remaining water withdrawn. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is defined in a ground-water report as consisting principally of the rocks of the Late Pennsylvanian-age Vamoosa Formation and overlying Ada Group. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer consists of a complex sequence of fine- to very fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and conglomerate interbedded with very thin limestones. The water-yielding capabilities of the aquifer are generally controlled by lateral and vertical distribution of the sandstone beds and their physical characteristics. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is unconfined where it outcrops in about an 1,700-square-mile area. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were extracted from published digital surficial geology data sets based on a scale of 1:250,000, and represent geologic contacts. Some of lines in the data sets were interpolated in areas where the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits near streams and rivers. These data sets include only the outcrop area of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer and where the aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits. The hydraulic conductivity value and recharge rate are from a ground-water report about the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer. The water-level elevation contours were digitized from a mylar map, at a scale of 1:250,000, used to publish a plate in a ground-water report about the Vamoosa

  4. Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance

  5. Vertical gradients in water chemistry in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas and Oklahoma panhandle, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    The central High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses in parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Water-level declines of more than 100 feet in some areas of the aquifer have increased the demand for water deeper in the aquifer. The maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer ranged from 500 to 600 feet in 1999. As the demand for deeper water increases, it becomes increasingly important for resource managers to understand how the quality of water in the aquifer changes with depth. In 1998?99, 18 monitoring wells at nine sites in southwestern Kansas and the Oklahoma Panhandle were completed at various depths in the central High Plains aquifer, and one monitoring well was completed in sediments of Permian age underlying the aquifer. Water samples were collected once from each well in 1999 to measure vertical gradients in water chemistry in the aquifer. Tritium concentrations measured in ground water indicate that water samples collected in the upper 30 feet of the aquifer were generally recharged within the last 50 years, whereas all of the water samples collected at depths more than 30 feet below the water table were recharged more than 50 years ago. Dissolved oxygen was present throughout the aquifer, with concentrations ranging from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/L. Water in the central High Plains aquifer was predominantly a calcium-bicarbonate type that exhibited little variability in concentrations of dissolved solids with depth (290 to 642 mg/L). Exceptions occurred in some areas where there had been upward movement of mineralized water from underlying sediments of Permian age and areas where there had been downward movement of mineralized Arkansas River water to the aquifer. Calcium-sulfate and sodium-chloride waters dominated and concentrations of dissolved solids were elevated (862 to 4,030 mg/L) near the base of the aquifer in the areas of upward leakage. Dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite and halite

  6. Discrete and Continuous Gravity Studies of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, South-Central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheirer, D.; Hosford Scheirer, A.; Herr, R.

    2005-12-01

    We present the results of a high-resolution gravity study using traditional and novel observational methods focused on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer (ASA), a major ground-water system in Oklahoma that is experiencing demand from distant regions. We have partnered with the National Park Service to conduct gravity surveys of prominent faults near the Chickasaw National Recreation Area. These structures, created during late Paleozoic orogenies, may serve as conduits for ground-water flow to the springs and wells that are important natural resources of this park. Gravity data were collected in two modes: traditional observations at discrete stations and a new approach utilizing continuous data from a marine gravity meter deployed on a moving land vehicle. With the discrete data, we clearly define the extensions of the major Sulphur, South Sulphur, and Mill Creek fault zones beneath younger, unfaulted rocks that form the surface geology of the park. Gravity anomalies range from 1 mGal to 15 mGal and arise from the juxtaposition of Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks across the faults. With the continuous gravity data, we increase the number of gravity observations by two or more orders of magnitude, although the precision of the continuous gravity varies with the quality of the navigation (Eotvos correction) and the measurement of vertical motion of the vehicle. To explore the limits of this continuous gravity technique, we performed numerous tests operating the vehicle at different speeds and using multiple GPS sensors that range in capability from recreational to survey quality. These tests demonstrate the tradeoff between the along-track data resolution and the precision of the gravity anomaly.

  7. SUBSURFACE WELL-LOG CORRELATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fluvial Garber Sandstone and the underlying Wellington Formation are important sources of drinking water in central Oklahoma. These formations, which make up much of the COA, consist of amalgamated sandstones with some interbedded mudstones, siltstones, and local mudstone- a...

  8. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Becker, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma. Ground water in 710 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer, composed of alluvial and terrace deposits, consists of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The aquifer is underlain and in hydraulic connection with the upper zone of the Permian-age Garber-Wellington aquifer and the Pennsylvanian-age Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. Most of the lines in the four digital data sets were digitized from a published ground-water modeling report but portions of the aquifer boundary data set was extracted from published digital geologic data sets. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  9. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser in Central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Rea, Alan; Runkle, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser in central Oklahoma. Ground water in approximately 400 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace aquifer is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer consists of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. Sand-sized sediments dominate the poorly sorted, fine to coarse, unconsolidated quartz grains in the aquifer. The hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits unconformably overlie Permian-age formations. The aquifer is overlain by a layer of wind-blown sand in parts of the area. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were extracted from published digital surficial geology data sets based on a scale of 1:250,000. The ground-water elevation contours and some of the lines for the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were digitized from a ground-water modeling report about the aquifer published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values and recharge rates also are from the ground-water modeling report. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  10. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma; hydrologic, water-quality, and quality-assurance data 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferree, D.M.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, A.H.; Mesander, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data collected from 202 wells between June 1987 and September 1990 as part of the Central Oklahoma aquifer pilot study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The report describes the sampling networks, the sampling procedures, and the results of the ground-water quality and quality-assurance sample analyses. The data tables consist of information about the wells sampled and the results of the chemical analyses of ground water and quality-assurance sampling. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples in four sampling networks are presented: A geochemical network, a low-density survey bedrock network, a low-density survey alluvium and terrace deposits network, and a targeted urban network. The analyses generally included physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace substances, radionuclides, and organic constituents. The chemical analyses of the ground-water samples are presented in five tables: (1) Physical properties and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, and trace substances; (2) concentrations of radionuclides and radioactivities; (3) carbon isotope ratios and delta values (d-values) of selected isotopes; (4) concentrations of organic constituents; and (5) organic constituents not reported in ground-water samples. The quality of the ground water sampled varied substantially. The sum of constituents (dissolved solids) concentrations ranged from 71 to 5,610 milligrams per liter, with 38 percent of the wells sampled exceeding the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 500 milligrams per liter established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Values of pH ranged from 5.7 to 9.2 units with 20 percent of the wells outside the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 6.5 to 8.5 units. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 to 85 milligrams per liter with 8 percent of the wells exceeding the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of trace substances were highly variable

  11. OUTCROP-BASED HIGH RESOLUTION GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA). CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The COA supplies drinking water to a number of municipalities in central Oklahoma. Two major stratigraphic units in the COA, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, contain naturally occurring arsenic that exceeds government mandated drinking-water standards (EPA, 2001). ...

  12. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountains area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, Roy W.; Hanson, Ronald L.; Davis, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Rocks that make up the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer crop out over ~500 mi2 in the Arbuckle Mountains province in south-central Oklahoma. The aquifer consists of limestone, dolomite, and sandstone of the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups of Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and is about 5,000-9,000 ft thick. The rocks were subjected to intensive folding and faulting associated with major uplift of the area during Early to Late Pennsylvanian time.

  13. A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, ``One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation``. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the ``Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites``.

  14. A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation''. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites''.

  15. Groundwater quality and water-well characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 1948--2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties in central Oklahoma to support the development of a comprehensive water-management plan for the Tribe’s jurisdictional area. In this study, water-quality data from 155 water wells, collected from 1948 to 2011, were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database; these data include measurements of pH, specific conductance, and hardness and concentrations of the major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides that have Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in public drinking-water supplies. Information about well characteristics includes ranges of well yield and well depth of private water wells in the study area and was compiled from the Oklahoma Water Resources Board Multi-Purpose Well Completion Report database. This report also shows depth to water from land surface by using shaded 30-foot contours that were created by using a geographic information system and spatial layers of a 2009 potentiometric surface (groundwater elevation) and land-surface elevation. Wells in the study area produce water from the North Canadian River alluvial and terrace aquifers, the underlying Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that compose the Garber–Wellington aquifer, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. Water quality varies substantially between the alluvial and terrace aquifers and bedrock aquifers in the study area. Water from the alluvial aquifer has relatively high concentrations of dissolved solids and generally is used for livestock only, whereas water from the terrace aquifer has low concentrations of dissolved solids and is used extensively by households in the study area. Water from the bedrock aquifer also is used extensively by

  16. Analysis of regional aquifers in the central Midwest of the United States in Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming :summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Helgesen, J.O.; Signor, D.C.; Leonard, R.B.; Imes, J.L.; Christenson, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Large quantities of ground water are available for use from three regional aquifer systems in the central Midwest of the United States. Parts of the lowermost aquifer contain nearly immobile brine and may be hydrologically suitable for material storage or waste disposal. Results of numerical modeling and geochemical analyses confirm general concepts of ground-water flow in the regional aquifer systems.

  17. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace aquifer covers approximately 82 square miles and supplies water for irrigation, domestic, municipal, and industrial use for the City of Enid and western Garfield County. The Quaternary-age Enid isolated terrace aquifer is composed of terrace deposits that consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer is unconfined and is bounded by the underlying Permian-age Hennessey Group on the east and the Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation of the Permian-age El Reno Group on the west. The Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation fills a channel beneath the thickest section of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in the midwestern part of the aquifer. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:62,500. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  18. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City Aquifer in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000 acres and supplies ground water for irrigation, domestic, and industrial purposes in Beckham, Custer, Roger Mills, and Washita Counties along the divide between the Washita and Red River basins. The Elk City aquifer consists of the Elk City Sandstone and overlying terrace deposits, made up of clay, silt, sand and gravel, and dune sands in the eastern part and sand and gravel of the Ogallala Formation (or High Plains aquifer) in the western part of the aquifer. The Elk City aquifer is unconfined and composed of very friable sandstone, lightly cemented with clay, calcite, gypsum, or iron oxide. Most of the grains are fine-sized quartz but the grain size ranges from clay to cobble in the aquifer. The Doxey Shale underlies the Elk City aquifer and acts as a confining unit, restricting the downward movement of ground water. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Elk City aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:63,360. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  19. Digital data set that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format file This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers Sandstone is an important source of water in an area that underlies about 4,400-square miles of all or part of Atoka, Bryan, Carter, Choctaw, Johnston, Love, Marshall, McCurtain, and Pushmataha Counties. The Antlers aquifer consists of sand, clay, conglomerate, and limestone in the outcrop area. The upper part of the Antlers aquifer consists of beds of sand, poorly cemented sandstone, sandy shale, silt, and clay. The Antlers aquifer is unconfined where it outcrops in about an 1,800-square-mile area. The recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and aquifer boundaries data sets include the outcrop area of the Antlers Sandstone in Oklahoma and areas where the Antlers is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits and a few small thin outcrops of the Goodland Limestone. Most of the lines in these data sets were extracted from published digital geology data sets. Some of the lines were interpolated in areas where the Antlers aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits near streams and rivers. The interpolated lines are very similar to the aquifer boundaries published in a ground-water modeling report for the Antlers aquifer. The maps from which this data set was derived were scanned or digitized from maps published at a scale of 1:250,000. The water-level elevation contours were digitized from a map at a scale of 1:250,000 that was used to prepare the final map published in a ground-water flow model report. Hydraulic conductivity and recharge values also are published in the ground-water model report for the Antlers aquifer. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may

  20. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains Aquifer in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver, and the western counties of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills. The High Plains aquifer underlies approximately 7,000 square miles of Oklahoma and is used extensively for irrigation. The High Plains aquifer is a water-table aquifer and consists predominately of the Tertiary-age Ogallala Formation and overlying Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits. In some areas the aquifer is absent and the underlying Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous-age rocks are exposed at the surface. These rocks are hydraulically connected with the aquifer in some areas. The High Plains aquifer is composed of interbedded sand, siltstone, clay, gravel, thin limestones, and caliche. The proportion of various lithological materials changes rapidly from place to place, but poorly sorted sand and gravel predominate. The rocks are poorly to moderately well cemented by calcium carbonate. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were created by extracting geologic contact lines from published digital surficial geology maps based on a scale of 1:125,000 for the panhandle counties and 1:250,000 for the western counties. The water-level elevation contours and some boundary lines were digitized from maps in a published water-level elevation map for 1980 based on a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity and recharge values in this report were used as input to the ground-water flow model on the High Plains aquifer. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and

  1. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Rush Springs Aquifer in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Becker, M.F.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Rush Spring aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Blaine, Caddo, Canadian, Comanche, Custer, Dewey, Grady, Stephens, and Washita Counties. These digital data sets were developed by Mark F. Becker to use as input into a computer model that simulated ground-water flow in the Rush Springs aquifer (Mark F. Becker, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1997). For the purposes of modeling the ground-water flow in the Rush Springs aquifer, Mark F. Becker (written commun., 1997) defined the Rush Springs aquifer to include the Rush Springs Formation, alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, and parts of the Marlow Formations, particularly in the eastern part of the aquifer boundary area. The Permian-age Rush Springs Formation consists of highly cross-bedded sandstone with some interbedded dolomite and gypsum. The Rush Springs Formation is overlain by Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits that consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Rush Springs Formation is underlain by the Permian-age Marlow Formation that consists of interbedded sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, gypsum-anhydrite, and dolomite beds (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). The parts of the Marlow Formation that have high permeability and porosity are where the Marlow Formation is included as part of the Rush Springs aquifer. The Rush Springs aquifer underlies about 2,400 square miles of western Oklahoma and is an important source of water for irrigation, livestock, industrial, municipal, and domestic use. Irrigation wells are reported to have well yields greater than 1,000 gallons per minute (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). Mark F. Becker created some of the aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets by digitizing parts of previously published surficial geology

  2. Parasitism of aphids in canola fields in central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter canola, Brassica napus L., production in Oklahoma has increased from essentially 0 ha in 2001 to 40,500 ha in 2011, and acreage is expected to continue to increase. Three aphid species typically infest canola fields in central Oklahoma, the turnip aphid Lypaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), the cab...

  3. Microgravity monitoring of recharge in a karst aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.A.; Ahern, J.L. . School of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-02-01

    Natural and artificial recharge of a shallow karst aquifer in Harmon County, Oklahoma, is being studied by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the US Bureau of Reclamation. The aquifer, the Permian Blaine Formation, consists of interbedded gypsum, shale, and dolomite. It is the only significant fresh water aquifer developed in evaporite rocks in the USA. The Blaine Formation forms major cave systems locally and generally consists of an intricate network of caves, cavities, sinks, and dissolution-collapse structures affecting the five gypsum bed subunits. At the recharge-demonstration sites, the Blaine is roughly 200 feet thick. At each site, observations wells cluster about a central recharge well which injects rainfall runoff at the depth of maximum void space (approximately 100 to 200 feet) determining from drilling. Annual variation in water level is up to 50 feet. Local storms can cause a rise of several tens of feet in a few days and a gradual decrease over several weeks. This may lead to a regional increase in water table elevation near the recharge well ( mounding'), and localized filling of voids in the gypsum. Both of these effects are expected to cause changes in the local gravity field following a heavy rainfall. For example, the filling of a 5 meter radius cylindrical void at a depth of 25 meters would produce a 46 microgal anomaly, easily detectable by a microgravity meter after instrumental and tidal drift corrections are made. To look for these changes, microgravity profiles will be conducted across the recharge zones. If correlation of gravity with measured water levels and recharge volume is demonstrated, microgravity surveys may prove useful in siting recharge wells from surface measurements alone.

  4. Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, J.R.; Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

  5. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  6. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  7. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  8. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  9. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  10. A preliminary appraisal of the Garber-Wellington Aquifer, southern Logan and northern Oklahoma counties, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Jerry E.; Marcher, Melvin V.

    1977-01-01

    The Garber-Wellington aquifer, which dips westward at 30 to 40 feet per mile, consists of about 900 feet of interbedded sandstone, shale, and siltstone. Sandstone comprises 35 to 75 percent of the aquifer and averages about 50 percent. Water-table conditions generally exist in the upper 200 feet in the outcrop area of the aquifer; semi-artesian or artesian conditions exist below a depth of 200 feet and beneath rocks of the Hennessey Group (predominantly shale) where the aquifer is fully saturated. Water containing more than 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids occurs at various depths through the area. The altitude of the base of fresh water ranges from 250 feet above sea level in the south-central part of the area to 950 feet in the northwestern part. The thickness of the fresh-water zone ranges from less than 150 feet in the northern part of the area to about 850 feet in the southern part. The total amount of water stored in the fresh-water zone is estimated to be 21 million acre-feet based on specific yield of 0.20. Minimum recharge to the aquifer in 1975 is estimated to be 190 acre-feet per square mile or about 10 percent of the annual precipitation. Total minimum recharge to the aquifer in the study area in 1975 is estimated to be 129,000 acre-feet. Streams in the area are the principal means of ground-water discharge; the amount of discharge is essentially the same as recharge. The amount of groundwater used for municipal and rural water supply in 1975 is estimated to have been 5,000 acre-feet; a similar amount may have been used for industrial purposes. As a result of pumping, the potentiometric surface in 1975 had been lowered about 200 feet in the vicinity of Edmond and about 100 feet in the vicinity of Nichols Hills. Chemical analyses of water from the aquifer indicates that hardness is greater in the upper part of the aquifer than in the lower part, and that sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids increase with depth. Reported yields of wells more

  11. Generalized altitude and configuration of the base of the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1981-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This report consists of two maps showing the altitude and configuration of the eroded pre-Ogallala bedrock surface (sheets 1 and 2) that forms the base of the aquifer. Bedrock slopes generally from west to east and is composed of rocks of Permian, Triassic-Jurassic, and Cretaceous age. The subcrop extent of these rocks is shown by Morton (1973) for Oklahoma and by Weeks and Gutentag (1981) for the entire High Plains study area. Altitudes of the aquifer base were determined from drillers' logs provided by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and from published and unpublished information in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. Where data were sparse, the total well depth was used as the aquifer base under the assumption that wells generally are not drilled very deep into non-water yielding bedrock.

  12. Altitude and configuration of the 1980 water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties (sheet 1), and for the Panhandle area, consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties (sheet 2). Water levels were measured in January, February, and March 1980 by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board.

  13. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square miles in eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set represents a compilation of information from digital and paper sources and personal communication. This boundary is an update to the boundary published in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, and this report supersedes Open-File Report 99-267. The purpose of this data set is to refine and update the extent of the High Plains aquifer based on currently available information. This data set represents a compilation of arcs from a variety of sources and scales that represent the 174,000 square-mile extent of the High Plains aquifer within the eight states. Where updated information was not available, the original boundary extent defined by OFR 99-267 was retained. The citations for the sources in each State are listed in the 00README.txt file. The boundary also contains internal polygons, or 'islands', that represent the areas within the aquifer boundary where the aquifer is not present due to erosion or non-deposition. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

  14. Water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the Ozark aquifer in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Davis, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    The Ozark aquifer is a thick sequence of water-bearing dolostone, limestone, and sandstone of latest Cambrian through Middle Devonian age that is widely used as a source of water throughout the Ozark Plateaus province (index map). The Ozark aquifer is the largest of three aquifers that form part of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. The aquifer was studied as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CMRASA; Jorgensen and Signor, 1981), a study of regional aquifer systems in the midcontinent United States that includes parts of 10States. Because of its significance as a source of freshwater in parts of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma, a subregional project was established to investigate the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in more detail than the regional study could provide.The geologic and hydrologic relation between the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and other regional aquifer systems of the Midwest is presented in Jorgensen and others (in press). The relation of the Ozark aquifer to the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is explained in Imes [in press (a)]. A companion publication, Imes [1990 (b)], contains contour maps of the altitude of the top, thickness, and potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer. This report contains maps that show water type and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the Ozark aquifer. Most of the data from which these maps are compiled is stored in the CMRASA hydrochemical data base (R.B. Leonard, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1986). Data for Oklahoma were also taken from data published by Havens (1978). The maps in this report on the Ozark subregion may contain small differences from maps in other CMRASA publications because the criteria for data selection may be different and the subregional maps may contain additional data. However, regional trends in these maps are consistent with other maps published as part of the regional project.

  15. Aquifer Tests and Characterization of Transmissivity, Ada-Vamoosa Aquifer on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; DeHay, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    The Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of northeastern Oklahoma is a sedimentary bedrock aquifer of Pennsylvanian age that crops out over 800 square miles of the Osage Reservation. The Osage Nation needed additional information regarding the production potential of the aquifer to aid them in future development planning. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Osage Nation, conducted a study of aquifer properties in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. This report presents the results of the aquifer tests from 20 wells in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer and one well in a minor aquifer east of the Ada-Vamoosa outcrop on the Osage Reservation. Well information for 17 of the 21 wells in this report was obtained from the Indian Health Service. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during this investigation are pumping well data from four domestic wells collected during the summer of 2006. Transmissivity values were calculated from well pumping data or were estimated from specific capacity values depending on the reliability of the data. The estimated transmissivity values are 1.1 to 4.3 times greater than the calculated transmissivity values. The calculated and estimated transmissivity values range from 5 to 1,000 feet squared per day.

  16. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace aquifer encompasses the unconsolidated terrace deposits and alluvium associated with the North Fork of the Red River and the Red River in the western half of Tillman County. These sediments consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer extends over an area of 285 square miles and is used for irrigation and domestic purposes. Granite and the Hennessey Formation outcrop in northern parts of the aquifer where alluvial deposits are absent. These outcrops were included as part of the aquifer in a thesis that modeled the ground-water flow in the aquifer. Most of the aquifer boundaries and some of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity and recharge data sets were extracted from a published digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of 1:250,000. Most of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and 1969 water-level elevation contour data sets, and one line in the aquifer boundary data set were digitized from a paper map published at a scale of 1:249,695 in a thesis in which the ground-water flow in the aquifer was modeled. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  17. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  18. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  19. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  20. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  1. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  2. Water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the St. Francois aquifer in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Davis, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    The St. Francois aquifer, the lowermost of three regional aquifers that form part of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, is composed of water-bearing sandstone and dolostone of Late Cambrian age. The aquifer was studied as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CMRASA, Jorgensen and Signor, 1981), a study of regional aquifer systems in the midcontinent United States that includes parts of 10 States. Because of its significance as a source of freshwater in and adjacent to the Ozark Plateaus province (index map) of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma, a subregional project was established to investigate the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in more detail than the regional study could provide.The geologic and hydrologic relation between the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and other regional aquifer systems of the Midwest is presented in Jorgensen an others (in press). The relation of the St. Francois aquifer to the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is explained in Imes [in press (a)]. A companion publication, Imes [in press (b)], contains contour maps of the altitude of the top, thickness, and potentiometric surface of the St. Francois aquifer. This report contains maps that show water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the St. Francois aquifer. Most of the data from which these maps are compiled is stored in the CMRASA hydrochemical data base (R.B. Leonard, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1986). Only water quality analyses that ionically balanced to within 10 percent are included in this report. Because few water wells are completed in the St. Francois aquifer beyond the vicinity of the St. Francois Mountains in southeastern Missouri (index map), water-quality data, with few exceptions, are limited to a relatively small area near the outcrop of the aquifer.

  3. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Hunton anticline, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Blome, Charles D.; Hill, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This report is a digital data release for multiple geophysical surveys conducted in the Hunton anticline area of south-central Oklahoma. The helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys were flown on March 16–17, 2007, in four areas of the Hunton anticline in south-central Oklahoma. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The electromagnetic sensor for the helicopter electromagnetic survey consisted of six different transmitter-receiver orientations that measured the earth's electrical response at six distinct frequencies from approximately 500 Hertz to approximately 115,000 Hertz. The electromagnetic measurements were converted to electrical resistivity values, which were gridded and plotted on georeferenced maps. The map from each frequency represents a different depth of investigation for each area. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow groundwater. The four areas selected for the helicopter electromagnetic study, blocks A–D, have different geologic and hydrologic settings. Geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by modelers and resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow, Resource Optimization, and Potential Effects of Prolonged Drought for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryter, Derek W.; Kunkel, Christopher D.; Peterson, Steven M.; Traylor, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The hypothetical decrease in recharge during the simulated drought caused groundwater in storage over the entire model in the study area to decrease by 361,500 acre-feet (14,100 acre-feet in the North Canadian River alluvial aquifer and 347,400 acre-feet in the Central Oklahoma aquifer), or approximately 0.2 percent of the total groundwater in storage over the drought period. This small percentage of groundwater loss showed that the Central Oklahoma aquifer as a bedrock aquifer has relatively low rates of recharge from the surface relative to the approximate storage. The budget for base flow to the North Canadian River indicated that the change in groundwa

  5. Altitude and configuration of the predevelopment water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area (sheet 1) and for the Panhandle area (sheet 2). In the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, water levels measured from the 1950's to the 1970's represent predevelopment conditions and were obtained from published and unpublished data in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the Panhandle, predevelopment contours were based on measurements made from 1937 to 1940. Some water levels in Beaver County were measured as late as 1959 in areas where significant development had not occurred previously.

  6. Aquifer characteristics, water availability, and water quality of the Quaternary aquifer, Osage County, northeastern Oklahoma, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Cope, Caleb C.; Abbott, Marvin M.

    2003-01-01

    Additional sources of water are needed on the Osage Reservation for future growth and development. The Quaternary aquifer along the Arkansas River in the Osage Reservation may represent a substantial water resource, but limited amounts of hydrogeologic data were available for the aquifer. The study area is about 116 square miles of the Quaternary aquifer in the Arkansas River valley and the nearby upland areas along the Osage Reservation. The study area included the Arkansas River reach downstream from Kaw Lake near Ponca City, Oklahoma to upstream from Keystone Lake near Cleveland, Oklahoma. Electrical conductivity logs were produced for 103 test holes. Water levels were determined for 49 test holes, and 105 water samples were collected for water-quality field analyses at 46 test holes. Water-quality data included field measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen). Sediment cores were extracted from 20 of the 103 test holes. The Quaternary aquifer consists of alluvial and terrace deposits of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The measured thickness of the alluvium ranged from 13.7 to 49.8 feet. The measured thickness of the terrace sediments ranged from 7 to 93.8 feet. The saturated thickness of all sediments ranged from 0 to 38.2 feet with a median of 24.8 feet. The weighted-mean grain size for cores from the alluvium ranged from 3.69 to 0.64 f, (0.08- 0.64 millimeter), and ranged from 4.02 to 2.01 f (0.06-0.25 millimeter) for the cores from terrace deposits. The mean of the weighted-mean grain sizes for cores from the alluvium was 1.67 f (0.31 millimeter), and the terrace deposits was 2.73 f (0.15 millimeter). The hydraulic conductivity calculated from grain size of the alluvium ranged from 2.9 to 6,000 feet per day and of the terrace deposits ranged from 2.9 to 430 feet per day. The calculated transmissivity of the alluvium ranged from 2,000 to 26,000 feet squared per day with a median

  7. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey studies conducted in cooperation with the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, central Oklahoma, 2011–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Carol J.; Ryter, Derek W.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2016-01-01

    Numerical groundwater-flow models were created to characterize flow systems in aquifers underlying this study area and areas of particular interest within the study area. Those models were used to estimate sustainable groundwater yields from parts of the North Canadian River alluvial aquifer, characterize groundwater/surface-water interactions, and estimate the effects of a 10-year simulated drought on streamflows and water levels in alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Pumping of wells at the Iron Horse Industrial Park was estimated to cause negligible infiltration of water from the adjoining North Canadian River. A 10-year simulated drought of 50 percent of normal recharge was tested for the period 1990–2000. For this period, the total amount of groundwater in storage was estimated to decrease by 8.6 percent in the North Canadian River alluvial aquifer and approximately 0.2 percent in the Central Oklahoma aquifer, and groundwater flow to streams was estimated to decrease by 28–37 percent. This volume of groundwater loss showed that the Central Oklahoma aquifer is a bedrock aquifer that has relatively low rates of recharge from the land surface. The simulated drought decreased simulated streamflow, composed of base flow, in the North Canadian River at Shawnee, Okla., which did not recover to predrought conditions until the relatively wet year of 2007 after the simulated drought period.

  8. Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A report on the research activities at the USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Laboratory in Stillwater, Oklahoma, were compiled for WERA-066 Meeting that was held in Ft. Collins, Colorado, February 13, 2008. Research presentations included barley breeding research, sorghum breeding research, wheat br...

  9. Recharge processes in an alluvial aquifer riparian zone, Norman Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha; Christenson, Scott; Cozzarelli, Isabelle; Ferree, Dale; Jaeshke, Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of stable isotope profiles (d2H and d18O) in the saturated zone, combined with water-table fluctuations, gave a comprehensive picture of recharge processes in an alluvial aquifer riparian zone. At the Norman Landfill U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology research site in Norman, Oklahoma, recharge to the aquifer appears to drive biodegradation, contributing fresh supplies of electron acceptors for the attenuation of leachate compounds from the landfill. Quantifying recharge is a first step in studying this process in detail. Both chemical and physical methods were used to estimate recharge. Chemical methods included measuring the increase in recharge water in the saturated zone, as defined by isotopic signature, specific conductance or chloride measurements; and infiltration rate estimates using storm event isotopic signatures. Physical methods included measurement of water-table rise after individual rain events and on an approximately monthly time scale. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated using diurnal watertable fluctuations; outflux of water from the alluvial aquifer during the growing season had a large effect on net recharge at the site. Evaporation and methanogenesis gave unique isotopic signatures to different sources of water at the site, allowing the distinction of recharge using the offset of the isotopic signature from the local meteoric water line. The downward movement of water from large, isotopically depleted rain events in the saturated zone yielded recharge rate estimates (2.2 - 3.3 mm/day), and rates also were determined by observing changes in thickness of the layer of infiltrated recharge water at the top of the saturated zone (1.5 - 1.6 mm/day). Recharge measured over 2 years (1998-2000) in two locations at the site averaged 37 percent of rainfall, however, part of this water had only a short residence time in the aquifer. Isotopes showed recharge water entering the ground-water system in winter and spring, then being

  10. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow in the Rush Springs Aquifer, western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    A simplified steady-state ground-water flow model was prepared for the Rush Springs aquifer in western Oklahoma. A 3-kilometer square grid was established over the area containing two layers with 674 active nodes simulated in the model. The steady-state model simulation used a mean recharge rate of 3.05 x 10-4 feet per day and a hydraulic conductivity range from 0.8 to 10 feet per day. The error at each node in the model is defined as the difference between the measured and simulated water levels.The arithmetic mean error for 170 of the 674 active nodes was -0.11 feet, the absolute value mean error was 7.55 feet, and the standard deviation of the error was 10.21 feet. A net simulated recharge of 231 cubic feet per second is balanced by a discharge to drains and seeps of 190.6 cubic feet per second about 82 percent of the total recharge. Discharge to the main stem of the Washita River is about 41 cubic feet per second about 18 percent of the recharge.

  11. Gravity investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Daniel S.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford

    2006-01-01

    The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian wells in and around the park. A confining layer of well-cemented conglomerate lies immediately below the surface of the recreation area, and groundwater migrates from an area of meteoric recharge where rocks of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer crop out as close as two kilometers to the east of the park. Prominent, Pennsylvanian-aged faults are exposed in the aquifer outcrop, and two of the fault traces project beneath the conglomerate cover toward two groups of springs within the northern section of the park. We conducted gravity fieldwork and analysis to investigate the subsurface extensions of these major faults beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area. By defining gravity signatures of the faults where they are exposed, we infer that the Sulphur and Mill Creek Faults bend to the south-west where they are buried. The South Sulphur Fault may project westward linearly if it juxtaposes rocks that have a density contrast opposite that of that fault's density configuration in the Sulphur Syncline area. The Sulphur Syncline, whose eastern extent is exposed in the outcrop area of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, does not appear to extend beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area nor the adjacent City of Sulphur. The South Sulphur Fault dips steeply northward, and its normal sense of offset suggests that the Sulphur Syncline is part of a graben. The Mill Creek Fault dips vertically, and the Reagan Fault dips southward, consistent with its being mapped as a thrust fault. The Sulphur and Mill Creek Synclines may have formed as pull-apart basins in a left-lateral, left-stepping strike-slip environment. The character of the gravity field of Chickasaw National Recreation Area is different from the lineated gravity field in the area

  12. Risk across disciplines: An interdisciplinary examination of water and drought risk in South-Central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.; Towler, E.; McPherson, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a challenge faced by communities across the United States, exacerbated by growing demands on water resources and climate variability and change. The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer (ASA) in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only free-flowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To examine this question, we are conducting an investigation of drought risk from multiple disciplines. Anthropological data comes from stakeholder interviews that were designed to investigate conflict over water management by understanding how people perceive risk differently based on different opinions about the structure of the resource, varying levels of trust in authorities, and unequal access to resources. . The Cultural Theory of Risk is used to explain how people view risks as part of their worldviews and why people who hold different worldviews disagree about risks associated with water availability. Meteorological analyses of longitudinal data indicate periods of drought that are noted in stakeholder interviews. Analysis of stream gauge data investigates the influence of climate variability on local hydrologic impacts, such as changing groundwater levels and streamflows, that are relevant to planning and management decisions in the ASA. Quantitative assessment of future drought risk and associated uncertainty and their effect on type and scale of future economic and social impacts are achieved by combining elements of statistical and dynamical downscaling to improve predictions of

  13. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow in the Blaine Aquifer, southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, Donna L.; McLean, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A generalized finite-difference model was prepared for the Blaine aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas. This report releases the model for use and modification. A grid of 1-square-mile nodes was established over the area, with 1,030 of the nodes actively simulated in the model. The steady-state model simulation used a uniform recharge rate of 2.2 inches per year and three values of hydraulic conductivity: 80, 19, and 4.7 feet per day. About 44 percent of the recharge is discharged as pumpage from wells, and the remainder is discharged to rivers and creeks within and adjacent to the study area.

  14. Digital Map of Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Brian C.; Kollasch, Keith M.; McGuire, Virginia L.

    2000-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States, 1980 to 1997. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 5,233 wells measured in both 1980 and 1997. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The contours then were converted to a digital map.

  15. Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Brian C.; McGuire, Virginia L.

    1999-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the Central United States, 1980 to 1996. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 5,429 wells measured in both 1980 and 1996. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar. The contours were converted into a digital map at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  16. Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Brian C.; McGuire, Virginia L.

    1999-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-level-change contour for the High Plains aquifer in the Central United States, 1980 to 1994. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 6,143 wells measured in both 1980 and 1994. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar. The contours were converted into a digital map at a scale of 1:1,250,000. The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,250,000.

  17. Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Brian C.; McGuire, Virginia L.

    1999-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States, 1980 to 1995. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 5,892 wells measured in both 1980 and 1995. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar. The contours were converted to a digital map at a scale of 1:1,250,000. The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,250,000.

  18. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountain area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, R.W.; Hanson, R.L.; Davis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Water in the aquifer is confined in some parts of the area, while in other parts it is unconfined. The average saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 3,500 feet in the outcrop area. Water levels measured in wells fluctuated from 8 to 53 feet each year, primarily in response to recharge from rainfall. Recharge to the aquifer is estimated at about 4.7 inches per year. The average storage coefficient of the aquifer is estimated at 0.008, and the average transmissivity is estimated at 15,000 feet squared per day. Based on an average saturated thickness of about 3,500 feet and a storage coefficient of 0.008, the volume of ground water contained in the 500-square-mile outcrop area is about 9 million acre-feet. An undetermined amount of fresh water probably exists in the aquifer around the periphery of the aquifer outcrop. Base flow of streams that drain the aquifer accounts for about 60 percent of the total annual runoff from the outcrop area and is maintained by numerous springs. The close hydraulic connection between streams in the outcrop area and the aquifer is shown by a close correlation between base flow in Blue River and the fluctuation of ground-water levels in five wells in the Blue River basin. This correlation also exists between the discharge by Byrds Mill Spring and the fluctuation in water level in a nearby observation well; increase and decrease in spring discharge correspond to rise and fall of the water level in the well. The chemical quality of water from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer is suitable for most industrial and municipal uses. The water is hard and of the bicarbonate type; the average hardness is about 340 milligrams per liter, and the average dissolved-solids concentration is about 360 milligrams per liter. Because springs issue from the aquifer and discharge to streams in the area, the quality of water from springs and base flow in streams is similar to that of ground water. The average dissolved-solids concentration of stream water is

  19. Estimated predevelopment discharge to streams from the High Plains Aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma, southwestern Kansas, and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, R.R.; Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the High Plains aquifer in Okla homa was initiated in 1996 to: (1) provide the information needed by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board to manage the quantity of water produced from the aquifer; and (2) provide base line water-chemistry data. The approach used to meet the first objective is to develop a digital ground-water flow model. The model will be cali brated, in part, by comparing simulated and esti mated predevelopment discharge from the aquifer to streams and cross-boundary flow. This report presents the estimated predevelopment discharge to streams from the High Plains aquifer. Streamflow data were the primary source of information used to estimate predevelopment dis charge from the High Plains aquifer. Data from 30 streamflow stations between the Arkansas and Canadian Rivers were considered in the analysis, and winter low-flow frequencies for 7-, 14-, and 30-day periods were determined for 25 stations. The 14-day low flow with a recurrence interval of 2 years was the primary value used to estimate pre development discharge from the aquifer. The streams that drain the eastern part of the High Plains aquifer in Kansas (generally east of 99.5 longitude) are estimated to have had large predevelopment discharge from the aquifer, and most of them received discharge from near their headwaters. For streams with more than one streamflow gage, the upper perennial reaches appeared to have gained more discharge from the aquifer than the lower reaches. The total predevel opment discharge from the aquifer in this area to several streams is estimated to have been about 312 cubic feet per second, not including discharge that probably went directly to the Arkansas River. The Cimarron River and its tributaries are estimated to have gained about 78 cubic feet per second, but nearly one-half that amount was lost in the lower reaches of the river. The cause of the loss in the lower reaches is unknown. The Beaver River and its tributaries are estimated to have

  20. Watershed sediment yield reduction through soil conservation in a west-central Oklahoma watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil conservation practices on the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in West-Central Oklahoma were few before the 1950s. In the second half of the 20th century, extensive soil conservation measures were implemented to protect agriculturally fertile but erosion-prone soils. Fortuitously, the U.S. Geolo...

  1. Aphids and parasitoids in wheat and nearby canola fields in central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In central Oklahoma, winter canola has recently become the primary rotational winter crop with wheat. Annual aphid pest outbreaks in canola have resulted in widespread insecticide applications. Insect parasitoids, which frequently suppress aphids in nearby wheat, may move to canola due to the larg...

  2. A Systematic Approach to Process Evaluation in the Central Oklahoma Turning Point (COTP) Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Cheney, Marshall K.; Chrislip, David D.; Blankenship, Derek; Troup, Pam; Hann, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Formation is an important stage of partnership development. Purpose: To describe the systematic approach to process evaluation of a Turning Point initiative in central Oklahoma during the formation stage. The nine-month collaborative effort aimed to develop an action plan to promote health. Methods: A sound planning framework was used in the…

  3. Effects of climate variations and soil conservation on sedimentation of a west-central Oklahoma reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the second half of the 20th century, extensive soil conservation practices were implemented on the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in West-Central Oklahoma. Sediment and flow observations were made on major tributaries in 1943-1950 (pre-conservation time period), and again in 2004-2008 (post-co...

  4. STUDY OF THE ARBUCKLE-SIMPSON AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study directed by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation will investigate the hydrogeology of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in south-central Oklahoma. The five year study will involve field investigations including the installation of ne...

  5. Distribution and variability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the alluvial, High Plains, Rush Springs, and Blaine aquifers in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers are the primary source of water for drinking and agricultural purposes in western Oklahoma. Health concerns about consuming nitrogen and an increased reliance on ground water for drinking necessitate a better understanding of the cause and effect of contamination from nutrients. The purpose of this project was to compile nutrients data from the National Water Information System data base for the alluvial aquifers west of longitude 98 degrees W. and from three bedrock aquifers, High Plains, Rush Springs, and Blaine, and provide this information in a report for future projects and for the facilitation of nutrient source management. The scope of the work consisted of (1) compiling ground-water quality data concerning nitrogen and phosphorus ions, (2) constructing boxplots illustrating data variability, (3) maps for each aquifer showing locations of wells when nitrogen and phosphorus ions were measured in ground water and where concentrations of nitrate and nitrite, reported as nitrogen, exceed the maximum contaminant level, and (4) calculating summary statistics. Nutrient data were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey data base called the National Water Information System. Data were restricted to ground-water samples, but no restrictions were placed on well and water use or date and time of sampling. Compiled nutrient data consist of dissolved and total concentrations of the common nitrogen and phosphorus ions measured in ground water. For nitrogen these ions include nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and nitrite plus nitrate. All concentrations are reported in milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Phosphorus in ground water is measured as the orthophosphate ion, and is reported in milligrams per liter as phosphorus. Nutrient variability is illustrated by a standard boxplot. The data are presented by aquifer or hydrologic subregion for alluvial aquifers, with one boxplot constructed for each nutrient compound if more than four analyses are present. Maps for each

  6. Digital map of water levels in 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours for 1980 water-level elevations for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the 1980 water-level elevation contours from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer Systems-Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  7. Contamination of wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer by abandoned zinc and lead mines, Ottawa County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.

    1995-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in Ottawa County Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. Water in the Roubidoux aquifer in eastern Ottawa County has relatively low dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 mg/L) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. The Boone Formation is stratigraphically above the Roubidoux aquifer and is the host rock for zinc and lead sulfide ores, with the richest deposits located in the vicinity of the City of Picher. Mining in what became known as the Picher mining district began in the early 1900's and continued until about 1970. The water in the abandoned zinc and lead mines contains high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Water from the abandoned mines is a potential source of contamination to the Roubidoux aquifer and to wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer. Water samples were collected from wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer in the Picher mining district and from wells outside the mining district to determine if 10 public supply wells in the mining district are contaminated. The chemical analyses indicate that at least 7 of the 10 public supply wells in the Picher mining district are contaminated by mine water. Application of the Mann-Whitney test indicated that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination are different in water samples from wells in the mining area as compared to wells outside the mining area. Application of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination were higher in current (1992-93) data than in historic (1981-83) data, except for pH, which was lower in current than in historic data. pH and sulfate, alkalinity, bicarbonate, magnesium, iron, and tritium concentrations consistently

  8. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M; Opsahl, S P; Mahler, B J; Herrington, C; Sample, T L; Banta, J R

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3(-)) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3(-) in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008-12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3(-) stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(18)O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3(-) concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3(-) concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3(-) concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3(-). These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3(-) contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008-10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3(-) than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously unrecognized

  9. Plan of study for the High Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The Ogallala Formation and associated Tertiary and Quarternary deposits from the principal aquifers supporting irrigation in the High Plains of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The volume of water in storage within the aquifers is declining in most of the High Plains because water is being withdrawn in excess of the rate of replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains aquifer system to develop the geohydrologic data base and computer models of the ground-water flow system needed to evaluate the response of the aquifer system to ground-water management alternatives. This report describes the objectives, plan, and organization of the study and outlines the work to be accomplished in each State in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Thickness variation of Simpson group in south-central Oklahoma and its tectonic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Q.T.; Crump, J. )

    1989-08-01

    The Middle Ordovician Simpson Group in the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen is composed of interbedded sandstone, limestone, and shale. Several pulses of subsidence controlled the deposition of these sediments. Simpson Group thickness variations, based on an isopach map and corresponding regional cross sections, define the presence of two distinct depositional basins flanked on their northern sides by a stable cratonic shelf. The anomalous thickness of Simpson sediments within these basins is related to syndepositional subsidence along zones of weakness initiated during the rifting stage of aulacogen development. The larger basin covers the western part of south-central Oklahoma. The northern flank of this basin illustrates a zone of rapid thickening of sediments. The updip portion of the northern flank is the northernmost limit of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. The depocenter of the larger basin is positioned in the Ardmore basin. Paleostress studies using calcite twin lamellae along the southeastern portion of the Sulfur fault within the smaller basin reveal an east-west compression followed by north-south compression. Surface folds formed by the east-west compression are highly faulted and overturned, whereas the folds formed by the north-south compression are open, slightly asymmetric, with rounded hinges and limbs. Similar east-west-trending structures in the subsurface could be a favorable target for hydrocarbon exploration. In general, these basins are genetically related but are separated by a large Precambrian basement block (Tishomingo Granite).

  11. Current distribution of North American river otters in central and eastern Oklahoma, with seven new county records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Dominic A.; Leslie,, David M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In 1984 and 1985, the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation reintroduced North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) from coastal Louisiana into eastern Oklahoma. Those reintroductions and immigration from Arkansas and possibly northeastern Texas allowed river otters to become reestablished in eastern Oklahoma. Our goals were to determine the contemporary distribution of river otters in central and eastern Oklahoma with voucher specimens, sign surveys, and mail surveys and to compare proportion of positive detections among watersheds. We report new distributional records with voucher specimens from seven counties (Adair, Bryan, Coal, Johnston, McIntosh, Okfuskee, Tulsa) in Oklahoma. We also provide locality information for specimens collected from four counties (Haskell, McCurtain, Muskogee, Wagoner) where river otters were described in published literature but no voucher specimens existed. During winter and spring 2006 and 2007, we visited 340 bridge sites in 28 watersheds in eastern and central Oklahoma and identified river otter signs in 16 counties where river otters were not previously documented in published literature or by voucher specimens. Proportion of positive sites within each watershed ranged 0–100%. Mail surveys suggested that river otters occurred in eight additional counties where they were not previously documented by published literature, voucher specimens, or sign-survey efforts.

  12. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries, maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma. Ground water in 1,305 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. Alluvial and terrace deposits are composed of interfingering lenses of clay, sandy clay, and cross-bedded poorly sorted sand and gravel. The aquifer is composed of hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits that unconformably overlie the Permian-age Formations. The aquifer boundaries are from a ground-water modeling report on the alluvial and terrace aquifer along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma and published digital surficial geology data sets. The aquifer boundary data set was created from digital geologic data sets from maps published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values, recharge rates, and ground-water level elevation contours are from the ground-water modeling report. Water-level elevation contours were digitized from a map at a scale of 1:250,000. The maps were published at a scale of 1:900,000. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  13. Enhanced recharge and karst, Edwards aquifer, south central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, W.W. Jr. . Center for Water Research)

    1993-02-01

    Enhanced recharge is a water management strategy which can add significant quantities of ground water to the available water resources of the San Antonio region by utilizing the immense storage capacity of the unconfined zone of the Edwards aquifer. The Edwards aquifer presently is the sole source of water for a population of over 1,200,000, meeting public supply, industrial, and irrigation demands over a wide area of south central Texas. Valdina Farms Sinkhole is located adjacent to Seco Creek in Medina County and is in the recharge zone of the aquifer. Initial studies indicated that the sinkholes was capable of taking flood flows from Seco Creek and functioning as a recharge structure. Stream channels in the cavern system associated with Valdina Farms Sinkhole were incised into cave deposits and flood debris was present in the caverns at some distance from the sinkhole. Chemical analyses of samples of water from the cave and from nearby wells showed nitrate concentrations that decreased with distance from the cavern. Gradient of the potentiometric surface in the vicinity of the cave was very low, indicating high values of hydraulic conductivity for the aquifer. Based on evidence from these field studies a dam was constructed in 1982 on Seco Creek and a flood diversion channel was excavated to the sinkhole. Reservoir capacity is 2 acre-feet and design recharge rate is 3.8-6.7 m[sup 3]/sec. Annual recharge at the sinkhole has varied from 0 during periods of low runoff to 12,915 acre-feet.

  14. Identifying aquifer type in fractured rock aquifers using harmonic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Khayyun A; Halihan, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Determining aquifer type, unconfined, semi-confined, or confined, by drilling or performing pumping tests has inherent problems (i.e., cost and complex field issues) while sometimes yielding inconclusive results. An improved method to cost-effectively determine aquifer type would be beneficial for hydraulic mapping of complex aquifer systems like fractured rock aquifers. Earth tides are known to influence water levels in wells penetrating confined aquifers or unconfined thick, low-porosity aquifers. Water-level fluctuations in wells tapping confined and unconfined aquifers are also influenced by changes in barometric pressure. Harmonic analyses of water-level fluctuations of a thick (~1000 m) carbonate aquifer located in south-central Oklahoma (Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer) were utilized in nine wells to identify aquifer type by evaluating the influence of earth tides and barometric-pressure variations using signal identification. On the basis of the results, portions of the aquifer responded hydraulically as each type of aquifer even though there was no significant variation in lithostratigraphy. The aquifer type was depth dependent with confined conditions becoming more prevalent with depth. The results demonstrate that harmonic analysis is an accurate and low-cost method to determine aquifer type. PMID:22463080

  15. Hydrogeology, water use, and simulation of flow in the High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, northeastern New Mexico, and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, Richard L.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, began a three-year study of the High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma in 1996. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a ground-water flow model to provide the Water Board with the information it needs to manage the quantity of water withdrawn from the aquifer. The study area consists of about 7,100 square miles in Oklahoma and about 20,800 square miles in adjacent states to provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the flow model. The High Plains aquifer includes all sediments from the base of the Ogallala Formation to the potentiometric surface. The saturated thickness in Oklahoma ranges from more than 400 feet to less than 50 feet. Natural recharge to the aquifer from precipitation occurs throughout the area but is extremely variable. Dryland agricultural practices appear to enhance recharge from precipitation, and part of the water pumped for irrigation also recharges the aquifer. Natural discharge occurs as discharge to streams, evapotranspiration where the depth to water is shallow, and diffuse ground-water flow across the eastern boundary. Artificial discharge occurs as discharge to wells. Irrigation accounted for 96 percent of all use of water from the High Plains aquifer in the Oklahoma portion of the study area in 1992 and 93 percent in 1997. Total estimated water use in 1992 for the Oklahoma portion of the study area was 396,000 acre-feet and was about 3.2 million acre-feet for the entire study area. Since development of the aquifer, water levels have declined more than 100 feet in small areas of Texas County, Oklahoma, and more than 50 feet in areas of Cimarron County. Only a small area of Beaver County had declines of more than 10 feet, and Ellis County had rises of more than 10 feet. A flow model constructed using the MODFLOW computer code had 21,073 active cells in one layer and had a 6,000- foot grid in both the north-south and east

  16. Timberland and woodland resources of central and west Oklahoma. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Rosson, J.F.

    1995-09-01

    The first forest survey of 44 central and west Oklahoma counties shows 1,338,100 acres of timberland and 908,700 acres of woodland. Total live-tree volume was 1,476.8 million cubic feet (cubic feet), 65 percent of which was in timberland. Post oak is the predominant species, making up 20 percent of live-tree volume on timberland and 75 percent of live-tree volume on woodland. There were 2,865 million board feet (fbm) of sawtimber, 76 percent of which was in timberland. Net growth for growing stock was 18.7 and 7.6 million cubic feed/year for timberland and woodland, respectively.

  17. Earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms in central Oklahoma reveal a complex system of reactivated subsurface strike-slip faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.; Bergman, Eric A.; Earle, Paul; Holland, Austin F.; Baldwin, Randy W.; Gassner, A.

    2015-01-01

    The sharp increase in seismicity over a broad region of central Oklahoma has raised concern regarding the source of the activity and its potential hazard to local communities and energy industry infrastructure. Since early 2010, numerous organizations have deployed temporary portable seismic stations in central Oklahoma in order to record the evolving seismicity. In this study, we apply a multiple-event relocation method to produce a catalog of 3,639 central Oklahoma earthquakes from late 2009 through 2014. RMT source parameters were determined for 195 of the largest and best-recorded earthquakes. Combining RMT results with relocated seismicity enabled us to determine the length, depth and style-of-faulting occurring on reactivated subsurface fault systems. Results show that the majority of earthquakes occur on near vertical, optimally oriented (NE-SW and NW-SE), strike-slip faults in the shallow crystalline basement. These are necessary first order observations required to assess the potential hazards of individual faults in Oklahoma.

  18. Earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms in central Oklahoma reveal a complex system of reactivated subsurface strike-slip faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Benz, H. M.; Herrmann, R. B.; Bergman, E. A.; Earle, P.; Holland, A.; Baldwin, R.; Gassner, A.

    2015-04-01

    The sharp increase in seismicity over a broad region of central Oklahoma has raised concern regarding the source of the activity and its potential hazard to local communities and energy industry infrastructure. Since early 2010, numerous organizations have deployed temporary portable seismic stations in central Oklahoma in order to record the evolving seismicity. In this study, we apply a multiple-event relocation method to produce a catalog of 3639 central Oklahoma earthquakes from late 2009 through 2014. Regional moment tensor (RMT) source parameters were determined for 195 of the largest and best recorded earthquakes. Combining RMT results with relocated seismicity enabled us to determine the length, depth, and style of faulting occurring on reactivated subsurface fault systems. Results show that the majority of earthquakes occur on near-vertical, optimally oriented (NE-SW and NW-SE), strike-slip faults in the shallow crystalline basement. These are necessary first-order observations required to assess the potential hazards of individual faults in Oklahoma.

  19. Groundwater modeling of the Calera Aquifer region in Central Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Calera Aquifer is the main source of water for irrigated agriculture, industrial, and drinking water purposes in the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 80% of the total groundwater extracted from the Calera Aquifer. In recent years, ...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: An Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment of the Paluxy Aquifer, Central Texas, USA, Using GIS and a Modified DRASTIC Approach.

    PubMed

    Fritch; McKnight; Yelderman; Arnold

    2000-03-01

    / The Paluxy aquifer in north-central Texas is composed primarily of Lower Cretaceous clastics. This aquifer provides water for both domestic and agricultural purposes in the region. The study area for this investigation incorporates the outcrop and recharge areas, as well as the confined and unconfined portions of the aquifer. The purpose of this investigation is to perform a groundwater vulnerability assessment on the Paluxy aquifer using the GRASS 4.1 geographic information system combined with a modified DRASTIC approach. DRASTIC is an acronym for the variables that control the groundwater pollution potential (Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media,Topography, Impact of the vadose zone, andConductivity of the aquifer). Using such an approach allows one to investigate the potential for groundwater contamination on a regional, rather than site-specific, scale. Based upon data from variables such as soil permeability, depth to water, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and topography, subjective numerical weightings have been assigned according to the variable's relative importance in regional groundwater quality. The weights for each variable comprise a GIS map layer. These map layers are combined to formulate the final groundwater pollution potential map. Using this method of investigation, the pollution potential map for the study area classifies 47% of the area as having low pollution potential, 26% as having moderate pollution potential, 22% as having high pollution potential, and 5% as having very high pollution potential. PMID:10629314

  1. An aquifer vulnerability assessment of the Paluxy Aquifer, central Texas, USA, using GIS and a modified DRASTIC approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fritch, T.G.; McKnight, C.L.; Yelderman, J.C. Jr.; Arnold, J.G.

    2000-03-01

    The Paluxy aquifer in north-central Texas is composed primarily of Lower Cretaceous clastics. This aquifer provides water for both domestic and agricultural purposes in the region. The study area for this investigation incorporates the outcrop and recharge areas, as well as the confined and unconfined portions of the aquifer. The purpose of this investigation is to perform a groundwater vulnerability assessment on the Paluxy aquifer using the GRASS 4.1 geographic information system combined with a modified DRASTIC approach. DRASTIC is an acronym for the variables that control the groundwater pollution potential (Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of the vadose zone, and Conductivity of the aquifer). Using such an approach allows one to investigate the potential for groundwater contamination on a regional, rather than site-specific, scale. Based upon data from variables such as soil permeability, depth to water, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and topography, subjective numerical weightings have been assigned according to the variable's relative importance in regional groundwater quality. The weights for each variable comprise a GIS map layer. These map layers are combined to formulate the final groundwater pollution potential map. Using this method of investigation, the pollution potential map for the study area classified 47% of the area as having low pollution potential, 26% as having moderate pollution potential, 22% as having high pollution potential, and 5% as having very high pollution potential.

  2. Growth of Cities and Loss of Streams: Land Cover Change Impacts on Stream Channel Loss in Central Oklahoma from 1874 to 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Oklahoma has undergone substantial land cover changes since the 1800’s. Accordingly, regional watersheds have been covered by impervious surfaces, peripheral agricultural areas have been subdivided or intensified, and large reservoirs have been constructed. Here, we...

  3. Digital map of changes in water levels from predevelopment to 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours of predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation changes for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation change from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  4. Lacustrine and paludine facies: Cretaceous Baum Limestone, south-central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Balkan, E.D.; Elmore, R.D.

    1983-03-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Baum Limestone in the Arbuckle Mountains of south-central Oklahoma was deposited in lacustrine and paludine settings near the Cretaceous shoreline. The unit rests unconformably on folded Pennsylvanian rocks and is overlain by and grades into the Paluxy Formation, a sandstone deposit with numerous Ophiomorpha burrows. The lacustrine lithofacies include the following: (1) massive micrite containing charophyte fragments and ostracodes; (2) intraformational conglomerate composed of rounded micrite clasts in a micritic matrix; (3) rounded peloids and coated peloids; (4) laminated micrite; and (5) conglomerate composed of clasts derived from Paleozoic rocks within a micritic matrix. Disintegration of charophytes that grew in the littoral zone of the lake produced the massive micrite. Intraformational conglomerates and peloids represent reworking of massive micrite whereas the other conglomerates represent fluvial influx. Features found within the paludine facies include: (1) brecciated micritic limestone that probably formed as a result of shrinking and swelling due to an oscillating phreatic water table; (2) subspherical nodules of micrite (peds) separated by red shale (plasma) that represent pedogenic alteration of exposed lacustrine mud; and (3) subcylindrial columns composed of micritic limestone representing root-casts. These paludine features formed as a result of pedogenic processes in a marsh that rimmed the shallow lake where the lacustrine facies accumulated.

  5. P and S Travel Time Tomography Using a Dense Array of Portable Seismographs and Earthquake Sources in Central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, C. R.; Holland, A. A.; Keller, G. R.; Holloway, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Two pockets of increased seismicity rates in Central Oklahoma provide a unique opportunity to study the deep crustal structure of the area using passive travel-time tomography to analyze data from 156 single-channel seismic recorders with spacings between 0.4 and 0.8 km. The consistency of the seismicity in these areas provided the equivalent of a detailed, reversed seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile. The November 5, 2011, M5.6 earthquake in Lincoln County, Oklahoma, was followed by a series of aftershocks, which provided the sources on the eastern end of the profile, and an earthquake swarm 50km to the west, which has been ongoing since October 2009 in Oklahoma County, provided the western sources. Previous studies of these earthquake sequences, using the Oklahoma Geological Survey's Regional Seismic Network, aided by additional stations from the U. S. Geological Survey, provided reasonably well-constrained velocity models and double-differenced relocations for each earthquake. During the four nights the instruments were recording, eight earthquakes with magnitudes between M0.9 and M2.3 were recorded for this study: two were a part of the Oklahoma County swarm, and the other six were of the Lincoln County sequence. These earthquakes yielded a combined total of approximately 2,500 travel times for direct and refracted P and S phases, and provided ray coverage into the Conrad discontinuity, as well as arrivals that appear to be deep reflections. The earthquake sources also provided strong S-wave arrivals.

  6. Geohydrology and simulation of steady-state flow conditions in regional aquifer systems in Cretaceous and older rocks underlying Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signor, D.C.; Helgesen, J.O.; Jorgensen, D.G.; Leonard, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three regional aquifers systems are the basis for describing the geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the central United States. The Great Plains aquifer system, composed of Lower Cretaceous sandstone, generally contains brackish water (1,000 to 10,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids); the Western Interior Plains aquifer system of lower Paleozoic rocks contains saline water and is laterally adjacent to the freshwater-bearing Ozark Plateaus aquifer system composed of rocks of the same age.

  7. Geohydrology and numerical simulation of the alluvium and terrace aquifer along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the Panhandle to Canton Lake, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Robert E.; Christenson, Scott C.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative description of the hydrologic system in alluvium and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River in northwestern Oklahoma is needed as a aid for planning and management of the aquifer. A two-dimensional finite-difference model was used to describe the aquifer and to predict the effects of future ground-water withdrawals. The aquifer principally consists of three geologic units: Alluvium with an average thickness of 30 feet, low terrace deposits with an average thickness of 50 feet, and high terrace deposits with an average thickness of 70 feet. A thin cover of dune sand overlies much of the area and provides an excellent catchment for recharge, but is generally unsaturated. Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer ranges from 0 to 160 feet per day and average 59 feet per day. Specific yield is estimated to be 0.29. Recharge to the aquifer is approximately 1 inch annually. Under present conditions (1978), most discharge is the result of ground-water flow to the Beaver-North Canadian River at a rate of 36 cubic feet per second and to pumpage for public-supply, industrial, and irrigation use at a rate of 28 cubic feet per second. In 1978, the aquifer had an average saturated thickness of 31 feet and contained 4.07 million acre-feet of water. The model was used to predict future head response in the aquifer to various pumping stresses. For any one area, the pumping stress was applied until the saturated thickness for that area was less than 5 feet, at which time the pumping ceased. The results of the modeled projections show that if the aquifer is stressed from 1978 to 1993 at the 1977 pumpage rates and well distribution, the average saturated thickness will decrease 1.0 foot and the volume of water in storage will be 3.94 million acre-feet, or 97 percent of the 1978 volume. If the aquifer is stressed at this same rate until 2020, the average saturated thickness will decrease an additional 0.7 foot and the volume of water in storage will be 3

  8. Generalized thickness and configuration of the top of the intermediate aquifer, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corral, Miguel A., Jr.; Wolansky, Richard M.

    1984-01-01

    Generalized map show the thickness and top of the intermediate aquifer in west-central Florida within the boundaries of the Southwest Florida Water Management District. The intermediate aquifer consists of a series of water-bearing units and confining beds between the surficial aquifer (water table) and the Floridan aquifer. This aquifer contains from one to several water-bearing units in west-central Florida. The aquifer and confining beds consist of the Tamiami and Hawthorn Formations of late and middle Miocene age and parts of the Tampa Limestone of early Miocene age. The top of the intermediate aquifer is about 100 feet above sea level in the north and slopes to about 100 feet below sea level in the south. The thickness ranges from zero in the north to more than 600 feet in the south. Despite the high mineral content of the water in some areas, the intermediate aquifer offers the best source of ground water to the coastal and southern areas of west-central Florida. (USGS)

  9. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in North-Central Oklahoma: 1992-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Schwartz, S.; Denn, F.; Flynn, C.; Hodges, G.; Kiedron, P.; Koontz, A.; Schlemmer, J., and Schwartz, S. E

    2010-04-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloud-screening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun's elevation is greater than 9.25{sup o}. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

  10. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in north-central Oklahoma: 1992–2008

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, Joseph; Denn, Frederick; Flynn, Connor; Hodges, Gary; Kiedron, Piotr; Koontz, Annette; Schlemmer, James; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2010-04-13

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloudscreening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun’s elevation is greater than 9.25°. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

  11. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50

  12. Predicting carbon mass of central Oklahoma soils with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in carbon (C) storage within agricultural soils of Oklahoma as an aid in reducing atmospheric greenhouse gasses, and cash flow land managers might access, has increased recently. Description of C mass requires measurement of both bulk density and C concentration, but the techniques used ar...

  13. Ethnic Identity and the Boarding School Experience of West-Central Oklahoma American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeth, Sally J.

    This book reports on a study of the perceptions of Oklahoma American Indians about their childhood experiences in government and church-sponsored boarding schools. Drawing on symbolic anthropology, the boarding school experience is interpreted to be a complex cultural symbol and symbolic process that contributes to group collectivity and belonging…

  14. Carbonate aquifer of the Central Roswell Basin: recharge estimation by numerical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rehfeldt, K.R.; Gross, G.W.

    1982-02-01

    The flow of ground water in the Roswell, New Mexico, Artesian Basin, has been studied since the early 1900s and varied ideas have been proposed to explain different aspects of the ground water flow system. The purpose of the present study was to delineate the spatial distribution and source, or sources, of recharge to the carbonate aquifer of the central Roswell Basin. A computer model was used to simulate ground water flow in the carbonate aquifer, beneath and west of Roswell and in the Glorieta Sandstone and Yeso Formation west of the carbonate aquifer.

  15. First Two Years of Observations NASA ACTS Propagation Experiment Central Oklahoma Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Robert K.

    1996-01-01

    Continuous observations from December 1, 1993 through November 30, 1995 were made at the ACTS Propagation Terminal on the roof of the Sarkeys Energy Center at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma. Beacon and radiometer observations were combined to calibrate the beacon system for the estimation of total attenuation (attenuation relative to free space) and attenuation relative to clear sky (gaseous absorption component removed). Empirical cumulative distributions (edf's) were compiled for each month of observation and for each year. The annual edf's are displayed in the figures, the monthly and annual edf's are listed in the tables. The tables are organized by blocks and pages within a block. The blocks correspond to the headings in the edf files generated by the ACTS Preprocessing (actspp) software and contained in the fourth disk in the set of ACTS Propagation Experiment CD-ROMs generated by the University of Texas.

  16. Estimation of aquifer hydraulic parameters from surface geophysical measurements: a case study of the Upper Cretaceous aquifer, central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, Usama; Santos, Fernando; Khalil, Mohamed A.; Taha, Ayman; Abbas, Abbas M.

    2010-05-01

    The integration of geophysical data with direct hydrogeological measurements can provide a minimally invasive approach to characterize the subsurface at a variety of resolutions and over many spatial scales. The field of hydrogeophysics has attracted much attention during the last two decades. In this domain, the geophysical data inverted to geophysical models are interpreted in terms of the hydrogeology to serve as a basis for the definition of hydraulic models in the areas of interest. The hydraulic conductivity ( K) value measured in a reference borehole has been combined with the electrical conductivity obtained from nearby geo-electromagnetic sounding data in the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) aquifer, central Sinai, Egypt. The resulting relation was interpreted with Dar Zarrouk parameters to infer the transmissivity variations at other vertical electrical sounding locations, where K values are unknown. Coincident transient electromagnetic data have been adopted to increase accuracy while interpreting the aquifer geoelectrical properties. The results indicate that the transmissivity values in the aquifer of interest vary from 2,446 to 9,694 m2/day, and K varies from 12.9 to 57.0 m/day throughout the studied area.

  17. Can We Mitigate Climate Extremes using Managed Aquifer Recharge: Case Studies California Central Valley and South-Central Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Faunt, C. C.; Pool, D. R.; Uhlman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Frequent long-term droughts interspersed with intense floods in the southwestern U.S. underscore the need to store more water to manage these climate extremes. Here we show how managed aquifer recharge can enhance drought resilience in the southwestern U.S. with ~ 70% of California under extreme drought and 75% of Arizona under moderate drought. Data on water sources, transportation, and users were compiled for managed aquifer recharge systems in the Central Valley and south-central Arizona. Groundwater depletion of 115 to 145 km3 in the 1900s created large subsurface reservoirs in thick alluvial basins in these regions. Large canals and aqueducts up to several 100 km long allow water to be imported from reservoirs, mostly in more humid regions. Imported water is either used instead of groundwater or is applied in surface spreading basins primarily during wet periods (≤1.3 km3/yr Central Valley, ≤0.7 km3/yr Arizona) and is extracted during droughts. The dominant water users include irrigators and municipalities both within and outside the managed aquifer recharge systems. Groundwater modeling indicates that recharge basins significantly increase groundwater storage in the Central Valley. Managed aquifer recharge systems significantly enhance drought resilience and increase sustainability of water resources in semiarid regions, complementing surface water reservoirs and conjunctive surface water/groundwater use by providing longer term storage.

  18. Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer of central Israel, its development and possible use as a storage reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1964-01-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian formations constitute a highly permeable dolomite and limestone aquifer in central Israel. The aquifer is on the west limb of an anticlinorium that trends north-northeast. In places it may be as much as 800 meters thick, but in the report area, largely the foothills of the Judean-Ephraim Mountains where the water development is most intensive, its thickness is generally considerably less. In some places the aquifer occurs at or near the land surface, or it is covered by sandy and gravelly coastal-plain deposits. However, in a large part of the area, it is overlain by as much as 400 meters of relatively impermeable strata, and it is probably underlain by less permeable Lower Cretaceous strata. In general the aquifer water is under artesian pressure. The porosity of the aquifer is characterized mainly by solution channels and cavities produced by jointing and faulting. In addition to the generally high permeability of the aquifer, some regions, which probably coincide with ancient drainage patterns and (or) fault zones, have exceptionally high permeabilities. The source of most of the water in the aquifer is believed to be rain that falls on the foothills area. The westward movement of ground water from the mountainous outcrop areas appears to be impeded by a zone of low permeability which is related to structural and stratigraphic conditions along the western side of the mountains. Gradients of the piezometric surface are small, and the net direction of water movement is westward and northwestward under natural conditions. Locally, however, the flow pattern may be in other directions owing to spatial variations in permeability in the aquifer, the location of natural discharge outlets, and the relation of the aquifer to adjacent geologic formations. There probably is also a large vertical component of flow. Pumping has modified the flow pattern by producing several irregularly shaped shallow depressions in the piezometric surface although, to

  19. A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35

  20. Artificial recharge to the Floridan aquifer system, Orlando Area, Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, E.R.; Bradner, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 400 drainage wells exist in Orange County, central Florida. The rate of recharge through drainage wells is limited by the rate of surface flow to the wells; the hydraulic properties of weirs, overflow pipes, and well casings; or the water level above the top of the casing. The rate commonly is not limited by the hydraulic properties of the very transmissive aquifer system.

  1. Preliminary projections of the effects of chloride-control structures on the Quaternary aquifer at Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    About 1,200 tons of chloride per day are added to the salt load of the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River at Great Salt Plains Lake from natural sources. The source of this chloride is brine discharge from the rocks of Permian age in the vicinity of the lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has planned a chloride-control project. The Corps requested that the U.S. Geological Survey use a digital model to project the effects of the chloride-control plan on ground water. Ground-water flow and ground-water transport models were calibrated to represent the Quaternary aquifer that is the near-surface part of the flow system. The models were used to project the effects of planned chloride-control structures. Based on model results, ground-water levels are projected to rise as much as 19 feet. However, these water-level rises will occur only in areas near three reservoirs. Changes in ground-water level caused by the project will be small throughout most of the area. Chloride concentration of ground water is projected to increase by more than 90,000 milligrams per liter at one location. However, significant increases in chloride concentration during the 50-year period simulated are projected to be limited to areas where the ground water already contains excessive chloride concentrations.

  2. Structural constraints on the groundwater regime of the Cretaceous aquifers in Central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, A.; Embaby, A.; Seiam, A.

    2012-10-01

    The Lower Cretaceous aquifer is one of the most important water bearing formations not only in Sinai but also in the Middle East because of its high hydraulic parameters and good water quality. This aquifer is dominated by a thick sequence of well sorted and permeable sandstones The Lower Cretaceous aquifer is generally crossed by two main E-W trending, down to the north normal right-lateral oblique-slip faults; the Ragabet El-Naam Fault (RANF) to the south and Minsherih-Abu Kandu Shear Zone (MAKZ) further north. In Central Sinai, the water flow pattern and hydrochemistry of the Lower Cretaceous aquifer are controlled by the fault-fold patterns. Across the RANF the water flow is retarded behind the fault zone and deviates toward its central segment where the groundwater spills-out northward at Nekhel City. In contrast, the MAKZ defines a barrier for the northward flowing groundwater where the Lower Cretaceous aquifer south of the fault is blocked by the Upper Cretaceous to Eocene limestone and shale to the north. The water type changes across the fault zones from meteoric water to water of marine origin at the RANF and north of MAKZ respectively with sporadic occurrences of old marine water types limited to NW-trending structural lows. Generally the northward flow pattern of the Lower Cretaceous aquifer shows an eastward deviation to Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea rift and southwestward deviation to Gulf of Suez rift. Such deviations are controlled by the fault patterns characterizing north and west Sinai provinces.

  3. Potentiometric surface, 2012, and water-level differences, 2005-12, of the Sparta Aquifer in north-central Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, Benton D.; Brantly, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The Sparta aquifer is used in 15 parishes in north-central Louisiana, primarily for public supply and industrial purposes. Of those parishes, eight (Bienville, Claiborne, Jackson, Lincoln, Ouachita, Union, Webster, and Winn) rely on the Sparta aquifer as their principal source of groundwater. In 2010, withdrawals from the Sparta aquifer in Louisiana totaled 63.11 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), a reduction of more than 11 percent from 1995, when the highest rate of withdrawals (71.32 Mgal/d) from the Sparta aquifer were documented. The Sparta aquifer provides water for a variety of purposes which include public supply (34.61 Mgal/d), industrial (25.60 Mgal/d), rural domestic (1.50 Mgal/d), and various agricultural (1.40 Mgal/d). Of the 13 major aquifers or aquifer systems in Louisiana, the Sparta aquifer is currently (2012) the sixth most heavily pumped. The Sparta aquifer is the second most heavily pumped aquifer in Arkansas, which borders Louisiana to the north. In 2005, 170 Mgal/d were withdrawn from the Sparta aquifer in eastern and southern Arkansas; of that total, about 15.55 Mgal/d were withdrawn from the aquifer in Union County, which borders Claiborne and Union Parishes to the north. By 1997, a large cone of depression (a cone-shaped depression in the potentiometric surface caused by and centered on a pumping well or wells) in the Sparta aquifer centered over Union County had merged with the cone of depression at West Monroe. In 2004, the rate of withdrawal from the Sparta aquifer in Union County began to decline and water levels in the aquifer began to rise in nearby areas of Arkansas and Louisiana.

  4. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma. Ground water in 830 square miles of the Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace aquifer is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer consists of poorly sorted, fine to coarse, unconsolidated quartz sand with minor amounts of clay, silt, and basal gravel. The hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits unconformably overlie the Tertiary-age Ogallala Formation and Permian-age formations. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary and recharge data sets and some of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity data set were extracted from a published digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of 1:250,000. The ground-water elevation contours and some of the lines for the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were digitized from a ground-water modeling report about the aquifer published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values and recharge rates also are from the ground-water modeling report. The data sets are provided in both nonproprietary and ARC/INFO export file formats. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  5. Water-level changes in the high plains aquifer underlying parts of South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas; predevelopment through nonirrigation season 1987-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kastner, W.M.; Schild, D.E.; Spahr, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The changes in water levels in the High Plains aquifer from the nonirrigation season 1986-87 through the nonirrigation season 1987-88 and from the nonirrigation season 1979-80 through the nonirrigation season 1987-88 are presented in maps for the entire High Plains aquifer area. Water level changes are caused by interacting changes in precipitation, land use, and annual pumpage. Water levels declined from conditions prior to development until 1980 through parts of the High Plains of Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. From 1980 through 1987 water level changes were mixed, with declines of more than 10 ft in the highly developed areas of Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas and relatively stable to rising water tables throughout the remaining aquifer area. The net change was a rise of 0.8 ft. The 1981-87 period was generally wetter than normal and pumping for irrigated agriculture was therefore reduced. Water level changes were mixed during 1987. Declines continued in some highly developed areas, but water levels generally rose throughout most of the aquifer. The average area-weighted change was a rise of 0.28 ft. This rise was due to the generally greater than normal precipitation, decreased acreage under irrigation, and decreased pumpage for those areas irrigated. At the end of the growing season, the drought in the Midwest in 1988 affected only limited areas of the High Plains. The effects of the drought on water levels can not be assessed until the water-level measurements for the nonirrigation season of 1988-89 are compiled. (USGS)

  6. Geochemical Characteristics of Aquifer system in Taichung Area, Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jui-Fen; Chen, Cheng-Hong; Liu, Tsung-Kwei

    2016-04-01

    For understanding the relationship between water bodies and host rocks and getting more information for groundwater in Taichung area, Central Taiwan, we systematically analyzed the stable isotopes (hydrogen and oxygen), helium isotopes and radon concentrations of dissolved gases from 54 groundwater, 39 river and 4 rain samples collected from Taichung Basin in wet and dry seasons of the year 2015. In the δ18O vs. δD plot, all samples present a linear trend similar to local meteoric water, indicating a meteoric origin. However, river samples are relative lighter than rain samples, it appears that the rivers are mainly recharged from precipitation of high-elevation areas with a lighter isotopic composition. Because the seasonal isotopic variation of river samples is significant, we calculated relative contribution of precipitation by seasons using the mass balance equation. Results show that the precipitation in the rainy season is the major source of groundwater. The helium isotopic ratio in dissolved gases of most groundwater samples are close to 1 RA (RA = 3He/4He ratio of air), except the sample from Wu-Feng well that exhibits 0.3 RA. This sample also has an older C-14 age (˜27000 yrs.) than others (<200 yrs.), implying that the dissolved helium is likely affected by radiogenic 4He of surrounding rocks. The average concentration of radon for groundwater in the northern section of Taichung Basin is 20.3 Bq/L, which is higher than that of the southern section (14.5 Bq/L). Variations of radon concentrations in the two sections may be related to the different drainage systems (Paleo-Dajia River vs. Wu River), in which sediments from Paleo-Dajia River may contain higher uranium concentrations. On the other hand, water in rivers usually contains undetectable radon (<0.37 Bq/L) because it rapidly escapes to the atmosphere. However, river samples from the central part of basin have radon concentrations ranging between 1 and 3 Bq/L, reflecting that the sampling sites

  7. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model

  8. Digital model of predevelopment flow in the Tertiary limestone (Floridan) aquifer system in West-Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Paul D.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model was calibrated to approximate predevelopment flow conditions in a multilayered aquifer system in 10,600 square miles in west-central Floria. The lowermost aquifer, called the Floridan aquifer, is confined in most of the study area and consists of carbonate rocks ranging up to 1,300 feet thick. The Floridan aquifer is the chief source for large withdrawals and natural springflow in the study area. Daily springflows within the study area have averaged about 2.4 billion gallons. The secondary artesian and the surficial aquifers are much less permeable than the Floridan aquifer. Where they are present and have heads higher than those in the Floridan aquifer, they provide recharge to the Floridan. Initial estimates of recharge to the Floridan aquifer were from water-balance calculations for surface-water basins; initial estimates of transmissivity were from aquifer tests and flow-net analyses. The model was calibrated for the predevelopment era, wherein steady-state flow conditions were assumed. Calibrated transmissivities for the Floridan aquifer range from less than 15,000 to several million feet squared per day. Recharge to the system was about 3,700 cubic feet per second. About 90% was discharged as springflow, and 10% was upward leakage. (USGS)

  9. Modeling saltwater upconing in a freshwater aquifer in south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ma, T.-S.; Sophocleous, M.; Yu, Y.-S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Great Bend Prairie freshwater alluvial aquifer in south-central Kansas overlies a bedrock brine aquifer of Permian age. The continuous extraction of freshwater mainly for irrigation in this area has accelerated the upward movement of the saltwater, resulting in the deterioration of water quality. Predicting saltwater upconing is critical for maintaining a long-term supply of water of good quality to the Groundwater Management District No. 5. This paper uses a numerical model to predict the effect of saltwater upconing on the salinity of pumped water. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for estimating the effects of uncertainties in model parameters on the numerical results. The most important factors affecting the salinity of discharged water are found to be the location and nature of clay layers in the aquifer, the pumping rate, the location of the well screen, and the hydraulic conductivities of the medium. The effect of uncertainties in aquifer porosity and dispersivity on salinity is appreciable but not substantial, whereas that of recharge from precipitation in the study area is relatively insignificant. In addition, a numerical model based on the field conditions observed at the Siefkes site was constructed and calibrated to reproduce and project the variation of measured water levels and discharged groundwater concentration. Finally, a number of practical management recommendations based on this study are presented.

  10. Potential for downward leakage to the Floridan Aquifer, Green Swamp area, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative evaluation of the potential for downward leakage from the surficial sand aquifer to the underlying Floridan aquifer was made for the Green Swamp area (about 870 sq mi) in central Florida. Downward leakage, or recharge, is limited under natural conditions owing to the nearness to land surface of the potentiometric surface of both the sand aquifer and the underlying Floridan aquifer. Continuous cores of the unconsolidated section were obtained at 74 sites in the study area and were evaluated for downward leakage potential based on grain-size distribution. Sand percentage was estimated for each interval or bed from microscopic examination of the core samples. The four maps prepared from this data show sand thickness, clay thickness, relative vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds and the relative potential for downward leakage. About 20 percent (178 sq mi) of the area classified has a relatively good potential for downward leakage; almost 50 percent of the area has a relatively poor potential. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Effects of brine on the chemical quality of water in parts of Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, Payne, Pottawatomie, and Seminole Counties, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of water-quality degradation due to brine contamination was made in an area of ~1,700 mi2 in east-central Oklahoma. The study area coincides in part with the outcrop of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer of Pennsylvanian age.

  12. Multiple episodes of dolomitization in the Arbuckle Group, Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma: Field, petrographic, and geochemical evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, G.; Land, L.S.; Elmore, R.D.

    1995-04-03

    The Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group in the Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma, had a complex history of dolomitization that resulted in two different geometries of dolomite bodies: stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically consistent, widespread distribution, and non-stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically inconsistent, local occurrence. Stratal dolomite includes the Royer and Butterly units in the lower Arbuckle Group. Most stratal dolomite samples are coarsely crystalline and have {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios similar to Late Cambrian limestone and coeval seawater. All stratal dolomite and Arbuckle limestone samples have low {Delta}{sup 18}O values. Nonstratal dolomite is present in two areas: the Tishomingo Anticline and the Arbuckle Anticline. In the Tishomingo Anticline area, massive bodies (> 10 km{sup 2}) of nonstratal dolomite are present in a paleokarst system of pre-Middle Ordovician age. The petrographic and isotopic characteristics suggest that the nonstratal dolomite probably resulted from dolomitization of recrystallized limestone by post-Early Ordovician seawater. In the Arbuckle Anticline area, nonstratal dolomite is present as small irregular bodies that are related to Pennsylvanian faults and are associated with the margins of stratal Butterly dolomite. The nonstratal dolomite, medium to coarsely crystalline and brightly luminescent, is characterized by high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios values, and Fe and Mn concentrations, relative to all Arbuckle carbonates. Such compositions suggest that this type of dolomite probably originated from fluids that were derived from the adjacent basin(s) during late Paleozoic time.

  13. Investigating Vertical Mixing Between Two Carbonate Aquifers Using a Multiport Well, Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromann, J.; Wong, C. I.; Hunt, B.; Smith, B.; Banner, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the occurrence and extent of mixing between vertically-adjacent aquifers is critical to dual-aquifer management. This can be challenging due to variable well depths and uncertainty as to hydrostratigraphic sources of groundwater. This study uses a multiport monitor well to investigate the degree of aquifer mixing between the overlying Edwards aquifer and underlying Trinity aquifer in central Texas. The results will inform dual-aquifer management as the Trinity aquifer is being developed as an alternative water source to the Edwards aquifer due to pumping limits and projections of increasing water demand. Water levels from isolated hydrostratigraphic units (n = 19) were measured monthly in the well as climate conditions transitioned from wet to dry (Sept 2010 to May 2011). Groundwater was sampled over a two-week interval in May to June 2011. At the start of the monitoring interval, water levels were high in the Edwards and the uppermost units of the Trinity relative to the rest of the Trinity units. Water levels decreased to lower elevations, from about 635 to 585 ft-msl, under dry conditions. Water levels in the lowermost Trinity declined less, from about 630 to 620 ft-msl, under dry conditions. Two zones separating the Edwards and lowermost Trinity showed almost no head change during this period. The water-level variations between the two aquifers suggest that: i) vertical flow potential from the Edwards to the Trinity occurs during dry conditions, ii) the uppermost stratigraphic units of the Trinity and Edwards are mixing, and iii) portions of the Trinity behave as an aquitard, providing hydrologic separation between the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units. Groundwater samples indicate the presence of three distinct hydrochemical facies: Ca-HCO3 (Edwards), Ca-HCO3-SO4 (lowermost Trinity), and Ca-SO4 (Trinity-Glen Rose Fm), suggesting little vertical flow and mixing. Covariation between groundwater 87Sr/86Sr values and SO4 concentrations from units of

  14. Potentiometric surface of the Peedee Aquifer in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, December 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brockman, Allen R.; Lyke, William L.; Winner, M.D., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Water level measurements were made in 37 wells open to the Peedee aquifer at the end of 1986 to determine the configuration of its potentiometric surface over an area of about 4,100 square miles in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The potentiometric surface of the Peedee slopes southeastward from an altitude of more than 100 ft above sea level along the western limits of the aquifer to less than 20 ft near the coastline. Several cones of depression have formed in response to the effects of groundwater pumpage. The largest cone occurs near the City of Jacksonville in Onslow County where the potentiometric surface is nearly 70 ft below sea level.

  15. Calibrated models as management tools for stream-aquifer systems: the case of central Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sophocleous, Marios; Perkins, Samuel P.

    1993-12-01

    We address the problem of declining streamflows in interconnected stream-aquifer systems and explore possible management options to address the problem for two areas of central Kansas: the Arkansas River valley from Kinsley to Great Bend and the lower Rattlesnake Creek-Quivira National Wildlife Refuge area. The approach we followed implements, calibrates, and partially validates for the study areas a stream-aquifer numerical model combined with a parameter estimation package and sensitivity analysis. Hydrologic budgets for both predevelopment and developed conditions indicate significant differences in the hydrologic components of the study areas resulting from development. The predevelopment water budgets give an estimate of natural ground-water recharge, whereas the budgets for developed conditions give an estimate of induced recharge, indicating that major ground-water development changes the recharge-discharge regime of the model areas with time. Such stream-aquifer models serve to link proposed actions to hydrologic effects, as is clearly demonstrated by the effects of various management alternatives on the streamflows of the Arkansas River and Rattlesnake Creek. Thus we show that a possible means of restoring specified streamflows in the area is to implement protective stream corridors with restricted ground-water extraction.

  16. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  17. Data for ground-water test hole near Butte City, Central Valley aquifer project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides preliminary data for the third of seven test holes drilled as part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 1 W., Glenn County, California, about one-half mile south of the town of Butte City. Drilled to a depth of 1,432 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 82 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 592 feet, 968 feet, and 1,330 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer , and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Nine cores and 49 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, and chemical quality of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  18. Data for ground-water test hole near Nicolaus, Central Valley aquifer project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary data are provided for the third of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 2, T.12N., R.3E., Sutter County, California, about 1 1/2 miles northwest of the town of Nicolaus. Drilled to a depth of 1,150 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 100 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 311, 711, and 1,071 feet. A 5-foot well screen is set in sand at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer, and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Thirty-one cores and 34 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for minerology, consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis of the three tapped zones and measured for water level. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  19. Calibrated models as management tools for stream-aquifer systems: the case of central Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Perkins, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    We address the problem of declining streamflows in interconnected stream-aquifer systems and explore possible management options to address the problem for two areas of central Kansas: the Arkansas River valley from Kinsley to Great Bend and the lower Rattlesnake Creek-Quivira National Wildlife Refuge area. The approach we followed implements, calibrates, and partially validates for the study areas a stream-aquifer numerical model combined with a parameter estimation package and sensitivity analysis. Hydrologic budgets for both predevelopment and developed conditions indicate significant differences in the hydrologic components of the study areas resulting from development. The predevelopment water budgets give an estimate of natural ground-water recharge, whereas the budgets for developed conditions give an estimate of induced recharge, indicating that major ground-water development changes the recharge-discharge regime of the model areas with time. Such stream-aquifer models serve to link proposed actions to hydrologic effects, as is clearly demonstrated by the effects of various management alternatives on the streamflows of the Arkansas River and Rattlesnake Creek. Thus we show that a possible means of restoring specified streamflows in the area is to implement protective stream corridors with restricted ground-water extraction. ?? 1993.

  20. Recharge of an Unconfined Pumice Aquifer: Winter Rainfall Versus Snow Pack, South-central Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, M. L.; Weatherford, J. M.; Eibert, D.

    2015-12-01

    Walker Rim study area, an uplifted fault block east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon, exceeds 1580 m elevation and includes Round Meadow-Sellers Marsh closed basin, and headwaters of Upper Klamath Basin, Deschutes Basin, and Christmas Lake Valley in the Great Basin. The water-bearing unit is 2.8 to 3.0 m thick Plinian pumice fall from the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama, Cascade Range. The perched pumice aquifer is underlain by low permeability regolith and bedrock. Disruption of the internal continuity of the Plinian pumice fall by fluvial and lacustrine processes resulted in hydrogeologic environments that include fens, wet meadows, and areas of shallow water table. Slopes are low and surface and groundwater pathways follow patterns inherited from the pre-eruption landscape. Discharge for streams and springs and depth to water table measured in open-ended piezometers slotted in the pumice aquifer have been measured between March and October, WY 2011 through WY2015. Yearly occupation on same date has been conducted for middle April, June 1st, and end of October. WY2011 and WY2012 received more precipitation than the 30 year average while WY2014 was the third driest year in 30 years of record. WY2014 and WY2015 provide an interesting contrast. Drought conditions dominated WY2014 while WY2015 was distinct in that the normal cold-season snow pack was replaced by rainfall. Cumulative precipitation exceeded the 30-year average between October and March. The pumice aquifer of wet meadows and areas of shallow water table experienced little recharge in WY2015. Persistence of widespread diffuse discharge from fens declined by middle summer as potentiometric surfaces lowered into confining peat layers or in some settings into the pumice aquifer. Recharge of the perched pumice aquifer in rain-dominated WY2015 was similar to or less than in the snow-dominated drought of WY2014. Rain falling on frozen ground drove runoff rather than aquifer recharge.

  1. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater in the central part of the Dakota (Great Plains) aquifer, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosselin, D.C.; Harvey, F.E.; Frost, C.; Stotler, R.; Macfarlane, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota aquifer of the central and eastern Great Plains of the United States is an important source of water for municipal supplies, irrigation and industrial use. Although the regional flow system can be characterized generally as east to northeasterly from the Rocky Mountains towards the Missouri River, locally the flow systems are hydrologically complex. This study uses Sr isotopic data from groundwater and leached aquifer samples to document the complex subsystems within the Dakota aquifer in Nebraska and Kansas. The interaction of groundwater with the geologic material through which it flows has created spatial patterns in the isotopic measurements that are related to: long-term water-rock interaction, during which varying degrees of isotopic equilibrium between water and rock has been achieved; and the alteration of NaCl fluids by water-rock interaction. Specifically, Sr isotopic data distinguish brines from Kansas and western Nebraska from those in eastern Nebraska: the former are interpreted to reflect interaction with Permian rocks, whereas the latter record interaction with Pennsylvanian rocks. The Sr isotopic composition of groundwater from other parts of Nebraska and Kansas are a function of the dynamic interaction between groundwater and unlithified sediments (e.g., glacial till and loess), followed by interaction with oxidized and unoxidized sediments within the Dakota Formation. This study illustrates the power of combining Sr chemistry with more conventional geochemical data to obtain a more complete understanding of groundwater flow systems within regional aquifer systems where extensive monitoring networks do not exist. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ...) for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor... currently has no passenger rail service. This corridor is part of the South Central High Speed Rail Corridor and is a federally-designated high-speed rail (HSR) corridor. ODOT envisions the Tulsa--Oklahoma...

  3. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    metamorphosed to some degree, thus rock types and their relationships vary over distance. Quaternary-age sediment and basalt compose the primary source of groundwater in the Wood River Valley aquifer system. These Quaternary deposits can be divided into three units: a coarse-grained sand and gravel unit, a fine-grained silt and clay unit, and a single basalt unit. The fine- and coarse-grained units were primarily deposited as alluvium derived from glaciation in the surrounding mountains and upper reaches of tributary canyons. The basalt unit is found in the southeastern Bellevue fan area and is composed of two flows of different ages. Most of the groundwater produced from the Wood River Valley aquifer system is from the coarse-grained deposits. The altitude of the pre-Quaternary bedrock surface in the Wood River Valley was compiled from about 1,000 well-driller reports for boreholes drilled to bedrock and about 70 Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) ambient-noise measurements. The bedrock surface generally mimics the land surface by decreasing down tributary canyons and the main valley from north to south; it ranges from more than 6,700 feet in Baker Creek to less than 4,600 feet in the central Bellevue fan. Most of the south-central portion of the Bellevue fan is underlain by an apparent topographically closed area on the bedrock surface that appears to drain to the southwest towards Stanton Crossing. Quaternary sediment thickness ranges from less than a foot on main and tributary valley margins to about 350 feet in the central Bellevue fan. Hydraulic conductivity for 81 wells in the study area was estimated from well-performance tests reported on well-driller reports. Estimated hydraulic conductivity for 79 wells completed in alluvium ranges from 1,900 feet per day (ft/d) along Warm Springs Creek to less than 1 ft/d in upper Croy Canyon. A well completed in bedrock had an estimated hydraulic conductivity value of 10 ft/d, one well completed in basalt had a value of

  4. Arsenic and fluoride in a loess aquifer in the central area of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, M. L.; Blarasin, M. T.; Martínez, D. E.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the geochemical conditions associated with the presence of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in the phreatic aquifer of Coronel Moldes, in the central sector of the Argentine Chacopampean plain. The studied aquifer is composed of silty sand sediments of aeolian origin, typically loess-like sediments. The geochemical composition of water varies from sodium bicarbonate to sodium sulfate-chloride water. As contents range from low concentrations, below detection level, to 250 μg/l. High values of F (up to 12 mg/l) were recorded. A high As-F correlation was found ( R 2 = 0.84). The pH varied from 7.31 to 8.85 and the nitrates reached concentrations up to 200 mg/l, indicating an oxidant environment. The highest values of As and F agreed with sodium bicarbonate waters as well as with the highest values of pH recorded. There was a high correlation between As and F- as well as between As and the Na/Ca ratio. The composition and texture of loess, low permeability and hydraulic gradients together with the geochemical features of sodium bicarbonate waters are proper conditions for the mobilization of As and F in groundwater in the central area of Argentina.

  5. Geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks of the Biscayne aquifer in central Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.; Williams, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluations of the lithostratigraphy, lithofacies, paleontology, ichnology, depositional environments, and cyclostratigraphy from 11 test coreholes were linked to geophysical interpretations, and to results of hydraulic slug tests of six test coreholes at the Snapper Creek Well Field (SCWF), to construct geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks for the study area in central Miami-Dade County, Florida. The resulting geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks are consistent with those recently described for the Biscayne aquifer in the nearby Lake Belt area in Miami-Dade County and link the Lake Belt area frameworks with those developed for the SCWF study area. The hydrogeologic framework is characterized by a triple-porosity pore system of (1) matrix porosity (mainly mesoporous interparticle porosity, moldic porosity, and mesoporous to megaporous separate vugs), which under dynamic conditions, produces limited flow; (2) megaporous, touching-vug porosity that commonly forms stratiform groundwater passageways; and (3) conduit porosity, including bedding-plane vugs, decimeter-scale diameter vertical solution pipes, and meter-scale cavernous vugs. The various pore types and associated permeabilities generally have a predictable vertical spatial distribution related to the cyclostratigraphy. The Biscayne aquifer within the study area can be described as two major flow units separated by a single middle semiconfining unit. The upper Biscayne aquifer flow unit is present mainly within the Miami Limestone at the top of the aquifer and has the greatest hydraulic conductivity values, with a mean of 8,200 feet per day. The middle semiconfining unit, mainly within the upper Fort Thompson Formation, comprises continuous to discontinuous zones with (1) matrix porosity; (2) leaky, low permeability layers that may have up to centimeter-scale vuggy porosity with higher vertical permeability than horizontal permeability; and (3) stratiform flow zones composed of fossil moldic porosity, burrow

  6. Comparative evolution of Pennsylvanian platform margins in Oklahoma and north-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaves, A.W.; Puckette, J.O. )

    1991-08-01

    Pennsylvanian evolution of the Midland basin's eastern shelf and the northern shelves of the Anadarko and Arkoma basins demonstrates a strongly contrasting pattern with regard to the facies composition and stability of the shelf margin. For the Midland basin a carbonate ramp system developed adjacent to the Eastern shelf during the early Desmoinesian but received no coarse-grained clastic sediment until after the central Fort Worth basin was completely filled by Ouachita orogenic debris in the late Desmoinesian. At that time, a distinct north-south hingeline formed between the shelf and incipient Midland basin that allowed for subsequent vertical accretion of a Missourian-age double bank system. Due to the absence of active deltaic depocenters across the southern two-thirds of the shelf, the Missourian shelf margin did not prograde basinward nor did a submarine fan system develop adjacent to this reciprocal bank complex. Later, during the Virgilian, a single shelf-edge bank and submarine fan complex prograded the shelf edge westward. The shelf edges for the Anadarko and Arkoma basins demonstrate a significantly different pattern. Only during the late Desmoinesian (Marmaton Group) did a shelf-edge bank develop in association with shelf-slope reciprocal sedimentation. For the Anadarko basin, widespread submarine fans, fed from a northeasterly cratonic source, are first seen with Red Fork deposition. Post-Tonkawa cyclic sedimentation prograded the shelf edge southward and gave rise to a more carbonate-dominated shelf sequence. In virtually all instances the regressive submarine fan units indicate eustatic lowstands of sea level.

  7. Description and Evaluation of Numerical Groundwater Flow Models for the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, Richard J.; Taylor, Charles J.; Houston, Natalie A.

    2009-01-01

    A substantial number of public water system wells in south-central Texas withdraw groundwater from the karstic, highly productive Edwards aquifer. However, the use of numerical groundwater flow models to aid in the delineation of contributing areas for public water system wells in the Edwards aquifer is problematic because of the complex hydrogeologic framework and the presence of conduit-dominated flow paths in the aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, evaluated six published numerical groundwater flow models (all deterministic) that have been developed for the Edwards aquifer San Antonio segment or Barton Springs segment, or both. This report describes the models developed and evaluates each with respect to accessibility and ease of use, range of conditions simulated, accuracy of simulations, agreement with dye-tracer tests, and limitations of the models. These models are (1) GWSIM model of the San Antonio segment, a FORTRAN computer-model code that pre-dates the development of MODFLOW; (2) MODFLOW conduit-flow model of San Antonio and Barton Springs segments; (3) MODFLOW diffuse-flow model of San Antonio and Barton Springs segments; (4) MODFLOW Groundwater Availability Modeling [GAM] model of the Barton Springs segment; (5) MODFLOW recalibrated GAM model of the Barton Springs segment; and (6) MODFLOW-DCM (dual conductivity model) conduit model of the Barton Springs segment. The GWSIM model code is not commercially available, is limited in its application to the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and lacks the ability of MODFLOW to easily incorporate newly developed processes and packages to better simulate hydrologic processes. MODFLOW is a widely used and tested code for numerical modeling of groundwater flow, is well documented, and is in the public domain. These attributes make MODFLOW a preferred code with regard to accessibility and ease of use. The MODFLOW conduit-flow model

  8. Dissolved solids and sodium in water from the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krothe, Noel C.; Oliver, Joseph W.; Weeks, John B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer to provide: (1) Hydrologic information needed to evaluate the effects of continued ground-water development; and (2) computer models to predict aquifer response to changes in ground-water development. The plan of study for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis was described by Weeks (1978). A description of the High Plains aquifer and a map of the 1978 water table were presented by Gutentag and Weeks (1980). Maps of the bedrock geology, altitude of aquifer base, and saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer were published by Weeks and Gutentag (1981). Water-level and saturated-thickness changes, from predevelopment to 1980, were mapped by Luckey, Gutentag, and Weeks (1981). This report describes the areal distribution of dissolved solids and sodium in the water of the High Plains aquifer. Data used in this study were provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in each of the eight States in the High Plains. Their contribution is an integral part of this investigation.

  9. Machine-readable files developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Machine-readable files were developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project are stored on two magnetic tapes available from the U.S. Geological Survey. The first tape contains computer programs that were used to prepare, store, retrieve, organize, and preserve the areal interpretive data collected by the project staff. The second tape contains 134 data files that can be divided into five general classes: (1) Aquifer geometry data, (2) aquifer and water characteristics , (3) water levels, (4) climatological data, and (5) land use and water use data. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Inter-seasonal variability in baseflow recession rates: The role of aquifer antecedent storage in central California watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, Ryan; Hope, Allen

    2014-11-01

    Baseflow recession rates vary inter-seasonally in many watersheds. This variability is generally associated with changes in evapotranspiration; however, an additional and less studied control over inter-seasonal baseflow recession rates is the effect of aquifer antecedent storage. Understanding the role of aquifer antecedent storage on baseflow recession rates is crucial for Mediterranean-climate regions, where seasonal asynchronicity of precipitation and energy levels produces large inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the relation between aquifer antecedent storage and baseflow recession rates in four central California watersheds using antecedent streamflow as a surrogate for watershed storage. In addition, a parsimonious storage-discharge model consisting of two nonlinear stores in parallel was developed as a heuristic tool for interpreting the empirical results and providing insight into how inter-seasonal changes in aquifer antecedent storage may affect baseflow recession rates. Antecedent streamflow cumulated from the beginning of the wateryear was found to be the strongest predictor of baseflow recession rates, indicating that inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage are a key control on baseflow recession rates in California watersheds. Baseflow recession rates and antecedent streamflow exhibited a negative power-law relation, with baseflow recession rates decreasing by up to two orders of magnitude as antecedent streamflow levels increased. Inference based on the storage-discharge model indicated that the dominant source of recession flow shifted from small, rapid response aquifers at the beginning of the wet season to large, seasonal aquifers as the wet season progressed. Aquifer antecedent storage in California watersheds should be accounted for along with evapotranspiration when characterizing baseflow recession rates.

  11. OUTCROP-BASED LITHOFACIES AND DEPOSITIONAL SETTING OF ARSENIC-BEARING PERMIAN RED BEDS IN THE CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In January 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency established safe drinking water standards for arsenic at a maximum concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (USGS), however, document the occurrence of arsenic concentrations in drin...

  12. Spatial Analysis of Suitability for Managed Aquifer Recharge in a Groundwater Basin in Central Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, T. A.; Fisher, A. T.; Hanson, R. T.; Lockwood, B. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Pajaro Valley Groundwater Basin (PVGB), central coastal California, relies almost entirely on groundwater to satisfy agricultural and municipal/domestic needs (83% and 17% of water usage, respectively). The rate of groundwater extraction and other outflows from the PVGB over the last five decades has exceeded the total rate of inflows, resulting in chronic overdraft. This has led to a lowering of water levels throughout the basin and seawater intrusion near the coast. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) likely will become increasingly important for sustaining groundwater supply in future years; however, identifying areas amenable to MAR remains challenging. A geographical information system (GIS) analysis was completed to evaluate areas of the PVGB suitable for MAR. Initially GIS analyses used topographic, land use, bedrock geology, and soil property data to assess shallow conditions, and subsequent analyses have included subsurface information such as aquifer and associated confining layer locations, properties, thicknesses, and historical changes in water levels. Additional GIS coverages included potential supplemental water supplies. A preliminary map of MAR site suitability suggests that about 10% of the basin may be suitable for MAR. Ongoing field testing will provide "ground truth" for the assessment of GIS-based calculations, and both field and GIS analyses will provide critical input for regional hydrologic models that will be used to quantify the potential influences of different MAR scenarios. Collectively, these studies are helping to evaluate management options for improving long-term groundwater conditions throughout the PVGB.

  13. Data for ground-water test hole near Zamora, Central Valley Aquifer Project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, J.J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented for the first of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 34, T. 12 N. , R. 1 E., Yolo County, California, about 3 miles northeast of the town of Zamora. Drilled to a depth of 2,500 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 190 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 947, 1,401, and 2,125 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Eighteen cores and 68 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, diatom identification, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  14. Potentiometric surface of the Sparta aquifer in eastern and south-central Arkansas and north-central Louisiana, and the Memphis Aquifer in east-central Arkansas, October 1996-July 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    During the 1997 water year, the water level in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers was measured in about 274 wells in Arkansas, and the water level in the Sparta aquifer was measured in about 55 wells in Louisiana. The potentiometric surface data reveal spatial trends across the study area. In Arkansas, the altitude of the potentiometric surfaced ranged from 199 feet below sea level in Union County to 307 feet above sea level in Saline County. In Louisiana, the altitude of the potentiometric surface ranged from 224 feet below sea level in Ouachita Parish to 230 feet above sea level in Bienville Parish. The general direction of ground-water flow in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers is from the west to the Southeast. The regional direction of ground-water flow in Arkansas is from the north and west to the south and east, away from the recharge zone in the outcrop and subcrop area, except near areas affected by intense ground-water withdrawals; such areas are manifested by large cones of depression centered in Columbia, Jefferson, and Union Counties. The regional ground-water flow in the Sparta aquifer in north-central Louisiana generally is downdip in an easterly direction from the recharge zone in the outcrop and subcrop area in the west toward the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The potentiometric surface of the Sparta aquifer in Arkansas and Louisiana exhibits cones of depression descending below sea level. Comparison of potentiometric surface maps through time shows that the cones of depression in Columbia and Union Counties are coalescing at or near the Columbia and Union County line. However, the general direction of ground-water movement indicates that heavy pumpage locally has altered or reversed the natural direction of flow in some areas. Flow in these areas is toward the cones of depression at the center of pumping. Hydrographs from wells in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers reveals that water levels have declined more than 2.0 feet per year in some wells. Long

  15. Ground-water flow analysis of the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, South-Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, J.K.; Taylor, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Mississippi Embayment aquifer system is composed of six regional aquifers covering about 160,000 square miles in parts of Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. The flow analysis presented in this report as part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study pertains to five aquifers in sediments of the Wilcox and Claiborne groups of Tertiary age. In descending order, the aquifers are (1) the upper Claiborne, (2) the middle Claiborne, (3) the lower Claiborne-upper Wilcox, (4) the middle Wilcox, and (5) the lower Wilcox. The flow analysis of the sixth aquifer in the aquifer system, the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer in sediments of Holocene and Pleistocene age, is presented in chapter D of this Professional Paper.

  16. Hydrogeology of and potential mining impacts on strippable lignite areas in the Denver Aquifer, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, N.E.; Williams, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study describes the hydrogeology of and potential impacts of mining on strippable lignite areas in the Denver aquifer in the east-central Colorado plains. Strippable lignitic coal seams , 20 to 60 ft thick, are present in the Denver Formation. The Denver aquifer, the saturated part of the Denver Formation, is likely to be affected locally by surface mining of lignite. Transmissivity of the aquifer in the study area ranges from 145 to 1,000 mg/L to the northeast in the study area as, hydraulic head decreases from 6,600 to 5,400 ft. Distance-drawdown curves show the extent of water level drawdown near a dewatered surface mine. After reclamation of the lignite mine pit, flow through the lignite spoil pile may increase the dissolved solids concentrations in the Denver aquifer. This increase could occur, because, as water from rain and overland flow percolates through the newly-exposed rock surfaces in the spoil material, minerals from the overburden can be dissolved in the water, which then joins with water from the aquifer. This increase could locally change streams, springs, and alluvial and bedrock aquifers. (USGS)

  17. Modeling groundwater levels on the Calera Aquifer Region in Central Mexico using ModFLow.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A conceptual model for the Calera Aquifer has been created to represent the aquifer system beneath the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The CAR area was uniformly partitioned into a 500 X 500 m grid generating a high resolution model that represented the natural boundar...

  18. Rescuing degrading aquifers in the Central Coastal Plain of North Carolina (USA): Just process, effective groundwater management policy, and sustainable aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Alex K.; Klein, Wendy A.

    2014-07-01

    Strategic management of degrading coastal aquifers in eastern North Carolina (USA) became imperative after a severe imbalance occurred between withdrawal and recharge rates. To ameliorate this growing problem, an aggressive water policy was developed through public input by creating the Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA) to maintain beneficial use of groundwater resources. Insights from social psychology, and socio-legal studies are used to evaluate how procedural justice and public participation played major roles to resolving groundwater resource management problems. A mixed methods approach uses archival data and interviews with various rule-making participants to assess the process of stakeholder involvement that led to creation of the policy. In addition, data analysis techniques are utilized to evaluate the effects of the policy on aquifer health (through water levels) over a ˜10 year period. Results suggest that not only did a stakeholder group participate in a process that was deemed fair, understandable, and relatively easy to administer for users and regulators, but public participation resulted in an effective plan that ensures the long-term sustainable use of groundwater. Declining groundwater withdrawals and recovering water levels suggest that the rule is achieving its intended goal of protecting the aquifers from depletion and degradation. This paper touches on global themes that are essential to water demand and consumption, water management techniques, and water resources protection.

  19. 3D geological modeling of the Kasserine Aquifer System, Central Tunisia: New insights into aquifer-geometry and interconnections for a better assessment of groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassen, Imen; Gibson, Helen; Hamzaoui-Azaza, Fadoua; Negro, François; Rachid, Khanfir; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2016-08-01

    The challenge of this study was to create a 3D geological and structural model of the Kasserine Aquifer System (KAS) in central Tunisia and its natural extension into north-east Algeria. This was achieved using an implicit 3D method, which honors prior geological data for both formation boundaries and faults. A current model is presented which provides defendable predictions for the spatial distribution of geology and water resources in aquifers throughout the model-domain. This work has allowed validation of regional scale geology and fault networks in the KAS, and has facilitated the first-ever estimations of groundwater resources in this region by a 3D method. The model enables a preliminary assessment of the hydraulic significance of the major faults by evaluating their influence and role on groundwater flow within and between four compartments of the multi-layered, KAS hydrogeological system. Thus a representative hydrogeological model of the study area is constructed. The possible dual nature of faults in the KAS is discussed in the context that some faults appear to be acting both as barriers to horizontal groundwater flow, and simultaneously as conduits for vertical flow. Also discussed is the possibility that two flow directions occur within the KAS, at a small syncline area of near Feriana. In summary, this work evaluates the influence of aquifer connectivity and the role of faults and geology in groundwater flow within the KAS aquifer system. The current KAS geological model can now be used to guide groundwater managers on the best placement for drilling to test and further refine the understanding of the groundwater system, including the faults connectivity. As more geological data become available, the current model can be easily edited and re-computed to provide an updated model ready for the next stage of investigation by numerical flow modeling.

  20. Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma, USA J.P.S. Neel USDA ARS, El Reno, OK A reduction in enteric CH4 production in ruminants is associated with improved production effic...

  1. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains (fig. 1A). Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers (fig. 2) knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone (fig. 3). However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer (figs. 1A and 1B). The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in

  2. Stress drop and its Uncertainty for Earthquakes M3.8-5.5 in Central California and Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Luyuan

    Stress drop is the stress that is effectively available to drive fault motion. It is a key parameter in predicting peak ground acceleration (PGA), since PGA∝, and it is very important in estimating ground motion. However, it is difficult to get an accurate estimation of stress drop. In order to get a more stable measurement of stress drop, we test two methods in this thesis: the first one is the Brune stress drop, which is more commonly applied, and the second one is the Arms stress drop, which less applied before and theoretically should have less uncertainty. By comparing these two methods we would like to test the feasibility and stability of the Arms method. We applied these two methods to data of earthquakes M3-5.5 in California and Oklahoma. We found that, taking Oklahoma results as an example, the mean value of Brune stress drop is 0.38 MPa, with a multiplicative uncertainty of 3.12, and the mean value of Arms stress drop is 1.04, with a multiplicative uncertainty of 1.79. Therefore we concluded that the Arms method is a good estimator of stress drop, with a smaller uncertainty. We determine the path attenuation so that we can increase the source-station distance of events studied to be as much as 76 km. The path seismic attenuation is a critical parameter that must be included in the analysis.

  3. Effects of projected climate (2011–50) on karst hydrology and species vulnerability—Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, and Madison aquifer, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Stamm, John F.; Poteet, Mary F.; Symstad, Amy J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Long, Andrew J.; Norton, Parker A.

    2014-01-01

    Karst aquifers—formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone—are critical groundwater resources in North America, and karst springs, caves, and streams provide habitat for unique flora and fauna. Springflow and groundwater levels in karst terrane can change greatly over short time scales, and therefore are likely to respond rapidly to climate change. How might the biological communities and ecosystems associated with karst respond to climate change and accompanying changes in groundwater levels and springflow? Sites in two central U.S. regions—the Balcones Escarpment of south-central Texas and the Black Hills of western South Dakota (fig. 1)—were selected to study climate change and its potential effects on the local karst hydrology and ecosystem. The ecosystems associated with the Edwards aquifer (Balcones Escarpment region) and Madison aquifer (Black Hills region) support federally listed endangered and threatened species and numerous State-listed species of concern, including amphibians, birds, insects, and plants. Full results are provided in Stamm and others (2014), and are summarized in this fact sheet.

  4. Soil Remediation Requirements Related to Abandoned Centralized and Commercial Drilling-Fluid Disposal Sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Alan R.

    2002-03-20

    This study was a compilation and summary of information on active and inactive centralized or commercial drilling-fluid disposal sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The objective of the analysis of these sites wass to gain insight into the probable behavior of contaminants at poorly documented abandoned drilling fluid disposal sites. Available information being reported in this study includes number and acreage of pits, delivered waste volumes, and levels of selected constituents in the solid waste, in the water overlying the solids, and groundwater monitored at on-site wells. For many sites, dated constituent analyses for specific monitor wells are available for time-series mapping and graphing of variable concentrations.

  5. Carbonate aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  6. THE OKLAHOMA MESONET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Oklahoma Mesonet, operated and maintained by the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, is Oklahoma's premier climatological data collection system. For the area covered, which includes the entire state, no other system within the United States or internationally has the degree of ...

  7. Analysis of Fault Permeability Using Mapping and Flow Modeling, Hickory Sandstone Aquifer, Central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto Camargo, Jorge E. Jensen, Jerry L.

    2012-09-15

    Reservoir compartments, typical targets for infill well locations, are commonly created by faults that may reduce permeability. A narrow fault may consist of a complex assemblage of deformation elements that result in spatially variable and anisotropic permeabilities. We report on the permeability structure of a km-scale fault sampled through drilling a faulted siliciclastic aquifer in central Texas. Probe and whole-core permeabilities, serial CAT scans, and textural and structural data from the selected core samples are used to understand permeability structure of fault zones and develop predictive models of fault zone permeability. Using numerical flow simulation, it is possible to predict permeability anisotropy associated with faults and evaluate the effect of individual deformation elements in the overall permeability tensor. We found relationships between the permeability of the host rock and those of the highly deformed (HD) fault-elements according to the fault throw. The lateral continuity and predictable permeability of the HD fault elements enhance capability for estimating the effects of subseismic faulting on fluid flow in low-shale reservoirs.

  8. A plan to study the aquifer system of the Central Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

    1979-01-01

    Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvial deposits comprise a large complex aquifer system in the Central Valley of California. Millions of acre-feet of water is pumped from the system annually to support a large and expanding agribusiness industry. Since the 1950's, water levels have been steadily declining in many areas of the valley and concern has been expressed about the ability of the entire ground-water system to support agribusiness at current levels, not to mention its ability to function at projected expansion levels. At current levels of ground-water use, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet is withdrawn from storage each year; that is, 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet of water is pumped annually in excess of annual replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 4-year study to develop geologic, hydrologic, and hydraulic information and to establish a valleywide ground-water data base that will be used to build computer models of the ground-water flow system. Subsequently, these models may be used to evaluate the system response to various ground-water management alternatives. This report describes current problems, objectives of the study, and outlines the general work to be accomplished in the study area. A bibliography of about 600 references is included. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains Aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1950 to average 1980-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical technique, called kriging, was programmed for a computer to interpolate hydrologic data based on a network of 296 measured values in west-central Kansas and eastern Colorado. The computer program generated estimated values of selected hydrologic data at the center of each 1-mile section in the Western Kansas Groundwater Management District No. 1. This program facilitated contouring of the data that are needed to aid in the management of ground water for irrigation. The kriging technique produced a map that illustrates the percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer from 1950 to average 1980-82 in west-central Kansas. Estimated changes in saturated thickness of the aquifer, as shown on the map, range from about a 50% increase to a 100% decrease. (USGS)

  10. Chemical evolution and estimated flow velocity of water in the Trinity Aquifer, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Sonya A.; Lee, Roger W.; Busby, John F.

    1997-01-01

    Three permeable zones with varying lithology and water chemistry compose the Trinity aquifer, a principal source of water in the 5,500-square-mile study area in south-central Texas. The upper permeable zone locally yields small quantities of water to wells and was not included in this study. The middle permeable zone primarily is composed of limestone with minor amounts of dolostone. Terrigenous sand and marine limestone, with minor amounts of dolostone, are the principal lithologic units in the lower permeable zone. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 329 to 1,820 milligrams per liter in water samples from the middle permeable zone and from 518 to 3,030 milligrams per liter in water samples from the lower permeable zone. Principal hydrochemical facies in the middle permeable zone are calcium magnesium bicarbonate and calcium magnesium sulfate. Hydrochemical facies in ground-water samples from the lower permeable zone vary. Tritium concentrations as large as 5.3 tritium units in the southeastern part of the study area are indicative of relatively recent recharge. Results of a geochemical mass balance simulation along a flowpath in the middle permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 4.25 millimoles per liter of dolomite dissolved, 5.74 millimoles per liter of gypsum dissolved, 0.46 millimole per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 8.07 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 0.67 millimole per liter of calcium-for-sodium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. These results support dedolomitization as a principal chemical process in the middle permeable zone of the Trinity aquifer. Results of a simulation along a flowpath in the lower permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 0.41 millimole per liter of dolomite dissolved, 0.001 millimole per liter of gypsum dissolved, 9.58 millimoles per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 1.09 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 1.11 millimoles per liter of sodium-for-calcium cation

  11. Estimated Freshwater Withdrawals in Oklahoma, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Oklahoma by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: irrigation, water supply, livestock, thermoelectric-power generation, domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, water supply, livestock, and thermoelectric-power generation are illustrated in this report, although data for all categories are tabulated. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established the National Water-Use Information Program in 1977 to collect uniform, current, and reliable information on water use. The Oklahoma District of the USGS and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board participate in a cooperative program to collect and publish water-use information for Oklahoma. Data contained in this report were made available through the cooperative program.

  12. Hydrogeology of the Buffalo aquifer, Clay and Wilkin Counties, West-Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Buffalo aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supplies in the Moorhead, Minnesota area. The aquifer is an elongate deposit of sand and gravel, which locally contains water under confined conditions. Although the Buffalo aquifer contains about 270 billion gallons of water in storage, only 120 billion gallons could be withdrawn. Largest well yields occur along the deep trough in the center of the aquifer. Induced streambed infiltration may be possible in certain areas where the stream overlies the aquifer and where the intervening lake sediments are thin or absent. A numerical model constructed for aquifer evaluation has shown that a considerable amount of ground water is discharged through the confining bed to the stream or leaves the area as underflow to the west. Water from the Buffalo aquifer generally is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The average discharge of the Buffalo River for the base period 1946-78 ranges from 0.229 cubic foot per second per square mile near Hawley to 0.108 cubic foot per second per square mile at Sabin. Surface water in the Buffalo River drainage system is dominantly a calcium bicarbonate type similar to ground water of the area, especially at low flow in the upper reaches of the tributaries.

  13. Digital models of a glacial outwash aquifer in the Pearl-Sallie Lakes area, west-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.P.; McBride, Mark S.; Wolf, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    -p^e need for study of lake-ground-water interchange has been accentuated by eutrophication of lakes in the Pearl-Sallie Lakes area of west-central Minnesota. The local ground-water flow system is dominated by an outwash aquifer that is sandwiched between two till layers in the western part of the area and exposed at the land surface in the eastern part. Ground water discharges from the aquifer into lakes in the outwash area but is recharged from lakes in the till-covered area. Irregular aquifer geometry resulted in a complex ground-water flow system. Simulation of the system by areal and vertical-section models showed that the lakes significantly control groundwater flow near their boundaries. Inadequate field data and complex geology caused difficulty in obtaining solutions with the vertical-section model. The models may be used to guide collection and interpretation of field data, and quantification of the ground-water flow system. With modification, they could be used to predict aquifer response to transient stresses. They also could be incorporated into more complex models to determine the movement of solutes in the ground-water system.

  14. Aquifer tests at the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine, Pueblo of Laguna, west-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.; Davis, P.A.; Baldwin, J.A.; McaAda, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    The transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation, west-central New Mexico, was determined to be 24 sq ft/day at well M2 and 47 sq ft/day at well M3 from constant-discharge aquifer tests conducted at the Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine. The storage coefficient of the Jackpile sandstone bed was estimated to be 0.00018 at well M2 and 0.00029 at well M3 from the same tests. An aquifer test conducted at well M21 indicated the transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed was 2.0 sq ft/day and the storage coefficient was 0.00002. The transmissivity of an unnamed sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation was estimated from ' slug-test ' results to be about 20 sq ft/day. Water levels in this sandstone probably did not change due to pumping from the overlying Jackpile sandstone bed for 88 hours at an average discharge of 15.3 gallons/min. A constant discharge aquifer test at well M4C indicated that the transmissivity of the alluvium at this location was about 430 sq ft/day. Water levels in the underlying Jackpile sandstone bed began declining within 15 minutes after withdrawals of groundwater from the alluvial aquifer began. (USGS)

  15. Integrated geophysical interpretation for delineating the structural elements and groundwater aquifers at central part of Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araffa, Sultan Awad Sultan; Sabet, Hassan S.; Gaweish, Wael R.

    2015-05-01

    The study area is inhabited by Bedouins, suffering from scarcity of water necessary for domestic use and agricultural activities. The study area is located at central part of Sinai between Nakhl area and El Thamed area. Magnetic, gravity and geoelectric methods were used in this investigation to determine the groundwater aquifers and delineate the structural elements in the study area. Two hundreds and eighty eight magnetic and gravity stations were acquired by the EnviMag and Autograv CG3 instruments respectively. The magnetic data were processed by using Oasis Montaj. Reductions to the pole and 2D magnetic modeling were established to construct basement relief map. The depth to the basement rocks in the study area is ranging from 1200 m to 7000 m. The regional-residual separation and Euler deconvolution techniques were applied to the gravity data. Nine deep Vertical Electrical Sounding stations were measured to estimate the deep groundwater aquifer in the study area (Nubian Sandstone aquifer). The depth of upper surface of Nubian Sandstone aquifer is ranging between 975 m and 1100 m and affected by two major fault trends in the NE-SW and NW-SE directions.

  16. Hydrogeological framework, numerical simulation of groundwater flow, and effects of projected water use and drought for the Beaver-North Canadian River alluvial aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryter, Derek W.; Correll, Jessica S.

    2016-01-01

    A hypothetical severe drought was simulated by using aquifer recharge flow rates during the drought year of 2011 for a period of 10 years. All other flows including evapotranspiration and groundwater pumping were set at estimated 2011 rates. The hypothetical drought caused a decrease in water in aquifer storage by about 7 percent in Reach I and 7 percent in Reach II. Another analysis of the effects of hypothetical drought estimated the effects of drought on streamflow and lake storage. The hypothetical drought was simulated by decreasing recharge by 75 percent for a selected 10-year period (1994–2004) during the 1980–2011 simulation. In Reach I, the amounts of water stored in Canton Lake and streamflow at the Seiling, Okla., streamflow-gaging station were analyzed. Streamflow at the Seiling station decreased by a mean of 75 percent and was still diminished by 10 percent after 2011. In Reach II, the effect of drought on the streamflow at the Yukon, Okla., streamflow-gaging station was examined. The greatest mean streamflow decrease was approximately 60 percent during the simulated drought, and after 2011, the mean decrease in streamflow was still about 5 percent. Canton Lake storage decreased by as much as 83 percent during the simulated drought and did not recover by 2011.

  17. Hydrologic characteristics of soils in the High Plains, northern Great Plains, and Central Texas Carbonates Regional Aquifer Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.; Hobbs, Ryne D.; Ihm, Laurie A.

    1990-01-01

    Certain physical characteristics of soils, including permeability, available water capacity, thickness, and topographic position, have a measurable effect on the hydrology of an area. These characteristics control the rate at which precipitation infiltrates or is transmitted through the soil, and thus they have an important role in determining the rates of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), groundwater recharge, and surface runoff. In studies of groundwater hydrology, it is useful to differentiate soils spatially according to their physical characteristics and to assign values that indicate their hydrologic responses.The principal purpose of this report is to describe the relation between the hydrologic characteristics of the soils in the study area and those environmental factors that affect the development and distribution of the soils. This objective will be achieved by (1) defining both qualitatively and quantitatively those soil characteristics that affect hydrology, and (2) classifying and delineating the boundaries of the soils in the study area according to these hydrologic characteristics.The study area includes the High Plains, Northern Great Plains, the Central Texas Carbonates, and parts of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer Systems as described by the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program (Sun, 1986, p.5and Sun, personal commun., June 1985) and shown in figures 1 through 5. The spatial patterns of the soils classified according to their quantifiable hydrologic characteristics will subsequently serve as an integral component in the analysis of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), consumptive irrigation requirements, and potential ground-water recharge of the study area.The classification system used to describe the soils in this report is compatible with that of Dugan (1986). Dugan described the same characteristics of soils that are immediately underlain by principal aquifers of

  18. Chemical and isotopic composition and potential for contamination of water in the upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, 1986-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Swancar, A.; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer of west-central Florida in terms of major ion and environmental isotope concentrations, and assesses the potential for contamination of the aquifer. It also contains mineral saturation indices of ground water and a statistical analysis of ground-water chemistry data. Information and results are presented in maps showing the distribution of physical aspects of the hydrogeologic setting, chemical constituents, and potential for contamination of the Upper Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida.

  19. Ground-water quality beneath irrigated agriculture in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, Breton W.; Becker, Mark F.; Pope, Larry M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, 30 water-quality monitoring wells were installed in the central High Plains aquifer to evaluate the quality of recently recharged ground water in areas of irrigated agriculture and to identify the factors affecting ground-water quality. Wells were installed adjacent to irrigated agricultural fields with 10- or 20-foot screened intervals placed near the water table. Each well was sampled once for about 100 waterquality constituents associated with agricultural practices. Water samples from 70 percent of the wells (21 of 30 sites) contained nitrate concentrations larger than expected background concentrations (about 3 mg/L as N) and detectable pesticides. Atrazine or its metabolite, deethylatrazine, were detected with greater frequency than other pesticides and were present in all 21 samples where pesticides were detected. The 21 samples with detectable pesticides also contained tritium concentrations large enough to indicate that at least some part of the water sample had been recharged within about the last 50 years. These 21 ground-water samples are considered to show water-quality effects related to irrigated agriculture. The remaining 9 groundwater samples contained no pesticides, small tritium concentrations, and nitrate concentrations less than 3.45 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. These samples are considered unaffected by the irrigated agricultural land-use setting. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate that commercial fertilizer was the dominant source of nitrate in 13 of the 21 samples affected by irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen isotope ratios for 4 of these 21 samples were indicative of an animal waste source. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in samples affected by irrigated agriculture, with large sulfate concentrations having strong correlation with large dissolved solids concentrations in these samples. A strong statistical correlation is shown between samples affected by irrigated agriculture and sites with large rates of

  20. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2014-05-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the 150,000 local residents of the Gio Linh district and the city of Dong Ha. The coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The area has a tropical monsoon climate which is characterized by an average precipitation of 1500 to 2700 mm in nearly 180 days from August to April. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. These geological formations have a highly heterogeneous lithology. A 3D groundwater model is built to study possible seawater intrusion under the changing conditions. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and some data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Geophysical measurements have been carried out recently and in the past and are used to support the model.

  1. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2013-04-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the local residents of the Gio Linh district. This coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 and is situated between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The elevation varies from 0.5 m at the seaside in the East to 19.5 m further inland. During the rainy season from August to April the precipitation is on average 2000 to 2700 mm. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Drinking water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. A SEAWAT groundwater model will be built to study the effects on the groundwater system. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Historical production records of an operational groundwater production well-field are available to be used for validation of the model. Finally, to achieve a sustainable integrated water resources management in the Gio Linh district different adaptive scenarios will be developed.

  2. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoirs to Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watney, W. L.; Rush, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Paleozoic-age Ozark Plateau Aquifer System (OPAS) in southern Kansas consists of a thick (>450 m) and deeply buried (>1 km) succession of Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group strata (dolomite) overlain by Lower Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous-age carbonate, chert, and shale. The Arbuckle Group is a thick widespread saline aquifer in southern Kansas. A 500 meter core of the OPAS interval and immediate overlying Pennsylvanian shale caprock were cored in early 2011 in the BEREXCO Wellington KGS #1-32 well in Wellington Field, a nearly depleted oil field in Sumner County, in south-central Kansas. An exhaustive set of modern logs were run in the KGS #1-32 well including chemical, microresistivity imaging, dipole sonic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and standard porosity and resistivity wireline logs. In addition, routine and special core analyses provide vital means to calibrate these logs. Core also provide vital chemical analyses and rock samples to run flow experiments, including in situ conditions, to establish reaction kinetics of rock and connate brines with CO2. Core and logs also provide the means to calibrate a 26 km2 multicomponent 3D seismic survey that was acquired in Wellington Field in 2010. Studies of four oil fields, also part of this project, are underway in southwestern Kansas to provide additional calibration points for the western part of the regional study that covers 65,000 km2 where CO2 sequestration capacity will be measured. Several hundred deep wells have been identified to serve as type wells in the regional study area. Well logs and sample descriptions are being digitized, correlated, and mapped to define distribution of aquifers, oil reservoirs, and caprocks. Drill stem test data have been analyzed for deep wells to establish that the Arbuckle is an open aquifer connected to surface exposures 100s of km to east in central Missouri. Over 500 km2 of 3D seismic have been donated by industrial partners to aid in understanding fault and fracture

  3. Assessing Groundwater Availability in the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.; Christenson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Resources Program is conducting an assessment of groundwater availability to gain a clearer understanding of the status of the Nation's groundwater resources and the natural and human factors that can affect those resources. The goals of this national effort are to define the current status and improve understanding of the Nation's groundwater resources, to better estimate availability and suitability of those resources for use in the future, and to provide tools to estimate the future availability of ground-water for its various uses. Assessments will be completed for regional aquifer systems across the Nation to help characterize how much water we have, where groundwater resources are most stressed, how groundwater availability is changing, and where groundwater resources are most available for future use.

  4. Linkages Between Boundary-Layer Structure and the Development of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets in Central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Petra M.; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Shapiro, Alan; Xue, Ming

    2016-03-01

    In the Southern Great Plains, nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) develop frequently after sunset and play an important role in the transport and dispersion of moisture and atmospheric pollutants. However, our knowledge regarding the LLJ evolution and its feedback on the structure of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) is still limited. In the present study, NBL characteristics and their interdependencies with LLJ evolution are investigated using datasets collected across the Oklahoma City metropolitan area during the Joint Urban field experiment in July 2003 and from three-dimensional simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The strength of the LLJs and turbulent mixing in the NBL both increase with the geostrophic forcing. During nights with the strongest LLJs, turbulent mixing persisted after sunset in the NBL and a strong surface temperature inversion did not develop. However, the strongest increase in LLJ speed relative to the mixed-layer wind speed in the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL) occurred when the geostrophic forcing was relatively weak and thermally-induced turbulence in the CBL was strong. Under these conditions, turbulent mixing at night was typically much weaker and a strong surface-based inversion developed. Sensitivity tests with the WRF model confirm that weakening of turbulent mixing during the decay of the CBL in the early evening transition is critical for LLJ formation. The cessation of thermally-induced CBL turbulence during the early evening transition triggers an inertial oscillation, which contributes to the LLJ formation.

  5. Estimating the uncertainty of the impact of climate change on alluvial aquifers. Case study in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Emanuele; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Pica, Federico; Preziosi, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence that the precipitation pattern in Europe is trending towards more humid conditions in the northern region and drier conditions in the southern and central-eastern regions. However, a great deal of uncertainty concerns how the changes in precipitations will have an impact on water resources, particularly on groundwater, and this uncertainty should be evaluated on the basis of that coming from 1) future climate scenarios of Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and 2) modeling chains including the downscaling technique, the infiltration model and the calibration/validation procedure used to develop the groundwater flow model. With the aim of quantifying the uncertainty of these components, the Valle Umbra porous aquifer (Central Italy) has been considered as a case study. This aquifer, that is exploited for human consumption and irrigation, is mainly fed by the effective infiltration from the ground surface and partly by the inflow from the carbonate aquifers bordering the valley. A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed through the finite difference MODFLOW2005 code and it has been calibrated and validated considering the recharge regime computed through a Thornthwaite-Mather infiltration model under the climate conditions observed in the period 1956-2012. Future scenarios (2010-2070) of temperature and precipitation have been obtained from three different GMCs: ECHAM-5 (Max Planck Institute, Germany), PCM (National Centre Atmospheric Research) and CCSM3 (National Centre Atmospheric Research). Each scenario has been downscaled (DSC) to the data of temperature and precipitation collected in the baseline period 1960-1990 at the stations located in the study area through two different statistical techniques (linear rescaling and quantile mapping). Then, stochastic rainfall and temperature time series are generated through the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model (NSRP) for precipitation and the Fractionally Differenced ARIMA model (FARIMA

  6. Denitrification in a Shallow Aquifer Underlying a Dairy Farm in the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Beller, H. R.; Carle, S. F.; Hudson, G. B.; Kane, S. R.; McNab, W. W.; Moran, J. E.; Tompson, A. F.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrate loading to shallow aquifers from dairy farm operations presents a serious threat to critical groundwater resources in California. Less well known is the extent to which saturated zone denitrification may mitigate the problem by converting nitrate to the benign end-product nitrogen, before nitrate is transported to deeper aquifers used for drinking water. We are carrying out a multi-disciplinary study of saturated zone denitrification, in a dense network of monitoring points at a 1500-cow dairy in Kings County, California. Detailed vertical profiles of anion and cation concentrations, along with dissolved excess nitrogen were obtained at five-foot intervals using temporary direct-push wells. Results show nitrate concentrations in excess of 100 mg/L over the top few meters of the water column, abruptly falling to less than 5 mg/L below a depth of approximately 10m. Over the same interval, dissolved excess nitrogen concentrations sharply increase, indicating that denitrification is responsible for a significant fraction of the nitrate decrease. This pattern is in effect across the entire dairy site. A key aspect of the project is a concurrent focus on understanding the hydrogeology of the site. Regionally, overdraft over the past several decades has resulted in the development of separate shallow (10 m) and deeper (≥ 40 m) aquifer systems. Recharge to the shallow aquifer is derived from low TDS, isotopically depleted Kings River water from a nearby unlined irrigation canal. Local agricultural pumping from the shallow aquifer and infiltration from irrigation water are significant factors in the shallow system. The deeper aquifer is characterized by intensive regional pumping, rapidly decreasing water levels, and the apparent disposition of the shallow aquifer as a perched system for a 1-km2 or more area surrounding the farm. The air gap separating the aquifers is low in oxygen and undergoes pressure changes as water levels fluctuate below. Age dating and

  7. Geomorphic and hydrologic assessment of erosion hazards at the Norman municipal landfill, Canadian River floodplain, Central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, J.A.; Whitney, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Norman, Oklahoma, municipal landfill closed in 1985 after 63 years of operation, because it was identified as a point source of hazardous leachate composed of organic and inorganic compounds. The landfill is located on the floodplain of the Canadian River, a sand-bed river characterized by erodible channel boundaries and by large variation in mean monthly discharges. In 1986, floodwaters eroded riprap protection at the southern end of the landfill and penetrated the landfill's clay cap, thereby exposing the landfill contents. The impact of this moderate-magnitude flood event (Q12) was the catalyst to investigate erosion hazards at the Norman landfill. This geomorphic investigation analyzed floodplain geomorphology and historical channel changes, flood-frequency distributions, an erosion threshold, the geomorphic effectiveness of discharge events, and other factors that influence erosion hazards at the landfill site. The erosion hazard at the Norman landfill is a function of the location of the landfill with respect to the channel thalweg, erosional resistance of the channel margins, magnitude and duration of discrete discharge events, channel form and hydraulic geometry, and cumulative effects related to a series of discharge events. Based on current climatic conditions and historical channel changes, a minimum erosion threshold is set at bankfull discharge (Q = 572 m3/s). The annual probability of exceeding this threshold is 0.53. In addition, this analysis indicates that peak stream power is less informative than total energy expenditures when estimating the erosion potential or geomorphic effectiveness of discrete discharge events. On the Canadian River, long-duration, moderate-magnitude floods can have larger total energy expenditures than shorter-duration, high-magnitude floods and therefore represent the most serious erosion hazard to floodplain structures.

  8. Geophysical approach to delineate arsenic hot spots in the alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district, Bihar (India) in the central Gangetic plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Chander Kumar; Tripathi, Parijat; Senthil Kumar, G.; Ramanathan, A. L.

    2014-06-01

    A combined study of the geophysical survey and hydro-geochemistry in the Quaternary alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district from Bihar state in central Gangetic plain of India was carried out with the objective of identifying the geochemical processes and their relation with lithological profile. Results of resistivity survey validated with borehole lithology gave us a clear picture of the geological signature of the aquifers, which support the reducing nature of the aquifer where concentration of arsenic was high. Reducing nature of the aquifer environment was shown by water samples having relatively negative Eh value. From XRD study of the soil samples, it was found that goethite, dolomite, calcite, quartz and feldspar are the major minerals for most of the samples. Output of this work concludes that resistivity survey is an economically feasible tool which can be successfully used to target arsenic-safe aquifers on wide scale.

  9. Aquifer compaction and ground-water levels in south-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Daniel W.; Pool, Donald R.

    2000-01-01

    As of 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey is monitoring water-level fluctuationa dn aquifer compaction at 19 wells that are fitted with borehole extensometers in the Eloy Basin, Stanfield Basin, Avra Valley, and Upper Santa Cruz Basin. Decreased ground-water pumping has resulted in water-level recoveries of more than 100 feet at a well near Eloy and almost 200 feet at a well in Avra Valley. Aquifer compaction has continued in both areas despite the large water-level recoveries in Eloy and the stable water levels in Avra Valley. Extensometer sites in the Upper Santa Cruz Basin have recorded as much as 50 feet of water-level decline and 0.2 feet of aquifer compaction during 1980 to 1996. Rates of compaction vary throughout the extensometer network, with the greater rates of compaction being associated with the more compressible sediments of Eloy and Stanfield Basins.

  10. Geologic history and hydrogeologic setting of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.A.; Bush, P.W.; Baker, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    Because the diagenetic effects of cementation, recrystallization, and mineral replacement diminish the hydraulic conductivity of most rocks composing the Trinity and Edwards-Trinity aquifers, transmissivity values average less than 10,000 feet squared per day over more than 90 percent of the study area. However, the effects of tectonic fractures and dissolution in the Balcones fault zone cause transmissivity values to average about 750,000 feet squared per day in the Edwards aquifer, which occupies less than 10 percent of the study area.

  11. ADAPTATIONS OF INDIGENOUS BACTERIA TO FUEL CONTAMINATION IN KARST AQUIFERS IN SOUTH-CENTRAL KENTUCKY

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byl, Thomas D.; Metge, David W.; Daniel T. Agymang; Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The karst aquifer systems in southern Kentucky can be dynamic and quick to change. Microorganisms that live in these unpredictable aquifers are constantly faced with environmental changes. Their survival depends upon adaptations to changes in water chemistry, taking advantage of positive stimuli and avoiding negative environmental conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2001 to determine the capability of bacteria to adapt in two distinct regions of water quality in a karst aquifer, an area of clean, oxygenated groundwater and an area where the groundwater was oxygen depleted and contaminated by jet fuel. Water samples containing bacteria were collected from one clean well and two jet fuel contaminated wells in a conduit-dominated karst aquifer. Bacterial concentrations, enumerated through direct count, ranged from 500,000 to 2.7 million bacteria per mL in the clean portion of the aquifer, and 200,000 to 3.2 million bacteria per mL in the contaminated portion of the aquifer over a twelve month period. Bacteria from the clean well ranged in size from 0.2 to 2.5 mm, whereas bacteria from one fuel-contaminated well were generally larger, ranging in size from 0.2 to 3.9 mm. Also, bacteria collected from the clean well had a higher density and, consequently, were more inclined to sink than bacteria collected from contaminated wells. Bacteria collected from the clean portion of the karst aquifer were predominantly (,95%) Gram-negative and more likely to have flagella present than bacteria collected from the contaminated wells, which included a substantial fraction (,30%) of Gram-positive varieties. The ability of the bacteria from the clean portion of the karst aquifer to biodegrade benzene and toluene was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in laboratory microcosms. The rate of fuel biodegradation in laboratory studies was approximately 50 times faster under aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic, sulfur-reducing conditions. The

  12. Effects of increased pumpage on a fractured-bedrock aquifer system in central Orange County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garber, Murray

    1985-01-01

    The bedrock in central Orange County consists of highly indurated siltstone, shale, and conglomerate containing two major fault systems and extensive fracturing; it is overlain by 50 to 100 feet of till. The fracturing permits unusually high well yields. Wells tapping the bedrock yield 75 to 200 gallons per minute; those tapping bedrock in adjacent areas yield only a few tens of gallons per minute. The bedrock aquifer is recharged mainly by percolation of water from precipitation through the till. In 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey studied the hydrologic effects of increased pumpage on the fractured bedrock aquifer system near the Village of Kiryas Joel, in the Town of Monroe. Water levels were measured in several wells in the village 's two well fields from February to October 1983, and pumpage data from the same period were tabulated. Water levels responded to variations in both pumpage and precipitation. Pumping tests and water levels in the southeastern well field in 1983 had no effect on the northwestern well field. An observation well between the two fields shows about 20 feet of seasonal fluctuation from recharge and the effects of pumping at the northwestern well field. Aquifer-test data indicate a transmissivity of 900 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0001. (USGS)

  13. Chlorine stable isotope evidence for salinization processes of confined groundwater in southwestern Nobi Plain aquifer system, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Masaru; Bottrell, Simon H.; Wu, Jiahong; Kumagai, Yoshihiro; Mori, Kazuki; Satake, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    A confined aquifer system, isolated from modern seawater, is developed in argillaceous marine and freshwater sediments of Pliocene-Holocene age in southwestern Nobi Plain (SWNP), central Japan. A tongue of brackish confined groundwater (Cl- >1000 mg/L), which extends from the shoreline of Ise Bay inland, mostly has negative δ37Cl values with -0.90‰ to 0.21‰. The Cl isotopic compositions are negatively correlated with paleo seawater Cl- concentrations discriminated by a Rayleigh distillation model with δ34S values, while they are not correlated with either total Cl- concentrations or δ34S values. Furthermore, Cl- concentrations from modern seawater are positively correlated with δ37Cl values. In addition to these observations, diffusion model calculations suggest that paleo seawater Cl- has diffused out from argillaceous marine sediments whereas modern seawater Cl- has not been affected by preferential diffusion of Cl isotopes because it has migrated by advection via both an unconfined aquifer and non-pumping wells. Moreover, the brackish groundwater is characterized by an excess of Na/Cl ratio and deficits of Mg/Cl and Ca/Cl ratios compared to those predicted from simple mixing of freshwater with seawater. This would be caused by cation exchange reactions in the confined aquifer system in which groundwater is freshening after salinization by both paleo seawater and/or modern seawater.

  14. Bacterial production of methane and its influence on ground-water chemistry in east-central Texas aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Ethan L.; Coffman, B. Keith; Fritz, Steven J.; Wada, Hideki

    1989-06-01

    Geochemical and isotopic data for methane and ground water indicate that gaseous hydrocarbons in Eocene aquifers in east-central Texas form by bacterial processes. The δ13C values of methane from five wells in the clay-rich Yegua and Cook Mountain Formations range from -71‰ to -62‰. Methane from ten wells in the cleaner sands of the Sparta and Queen City Formations have δ13C values between -57‰ and -53‰. The carbon isotopic difference between methanes from the Yegua and Sparta aquifers is comparable to the isotopic difference in sedimentary organic matter from outcrops of the units, suggesting substrate control on the δ13C of bacterial methane. Hydrogen isotopic compositions of methane from the aquifers are similar, averaging -181‰. This high value suggests methane production predominantly by CO2 reduction. The δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in high bicarbonate waters increases from about -20‰ to 0‰ with increasing DIC. Mass-balance calculations indicate that the DIC added to the ground water has δ;13C values as high as 10‰. This 13C-enriched carbon is predominantly derived from CO2 production by fermentation and anaerobic oxidation reactions combined with CO2 consumption by CO2 reduction. This process is responsible for high bicarbonate contents in these and probably other Gulf Coast ground waters.

  15. Simulated effects of ground-water development on potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, W.E.; Gerhart, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    A digital model of two-dimensional ground-water flow was used to predict changes in the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, 1976 to 2000, in a 5,938-square-mile area of west-central Florida. In 1975, ground water withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer for irrigation, phosphate mines, other industries, and municipal supplies averaged about 649 million gallons per day. Rates are projected to increase to about 840 million gallons per day by 2000. The model was calibrated under steady-state and transient conditions. Input parameters included transmissivity and storage coefficient of the Floridan aquifer; thickness, vertical hydraulic conductivity, and storage coefficient of the upper confining bed; altitudes of the water table and potentiometric surface; and ground-water withdrawals. Simulation of May 1976 to May 2000, using projected combined pumping rates for municipal supplies, irrigation, and industry (including existing and proposed phosphate mines), resulted in a rise in the potentiometric surface of about 10 feet in Polk County, and a decline of about 35 feet in parts of Manatee and Hardee Counties. The lowest predicted potentiometric level was about 30 feet below sea level. Predicted declines for November 1976 to October 2000 were generally 5 to 10 feet less than those for May 1976 to May 2000. (USGS)

  16. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The East-Central Florida Transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into ET, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5,000 milligrams

  17. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffery B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The east-central Florida transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration, runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into evapotranspiration, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5

  18. Estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability with index-overlay and statistical methods: the case of eastern Kopaida, central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziritis, E.; Lombardo, L.

    2016-03-01

    The intrinsic vulnerability of a karstic aquifer system in central Greece was jointly assessed with the use of a statistical approach and PI method, as a function of topography, protective cover effectiveness and the degree to which this cover is bypassed due to flow conditions. The input data for the index-overlay PI method were derived from field works and 71 boreholes of the area; the information was obtained, subsequently its critical factors were compiled which included lithology, fissuring and karstification of bedrock, soil characteristics, hydrology, hydrogeology, topography and vegetation. The aforementioned parameters were processed jointly with the aid of a GIS and yielded the final estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results were compared with an equivalent spatially distributed probability map obtained through a stochastic approach. The calibration and test phase of the latter relied on morphometric conditions derived by terrain analyses of a digital elevation model as well as on geology and land use from thematic maps. This procedure allowed taking into account the topographic influences with respect to a deep system such as the local karstic aquifer of eastern Kopaida basin. Finally, results were validated with ground truth nitrate values obtained from 41 groundwater samples, highlighted the spatial delineation of susceptible areas to contamination in both cases and provided a robust tool for regional planning actions and water resources management schemes.

  19. Hydrostratigraphic subdivisions and fault barriers of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maclay, R.W.; Small, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The karstic Edwards Limestone within the Balcones Fault Zone of south-central Texas forms a productive confined aquifer that consists predominately of dense carbonate rocks and contains several layers of highly permeable and porous honeycombed rocks that have been produced by the leaching of evaporitic, tidal flat or reefal deposits. Fractures have hydraulically interconnected these layers at some places. Faults, however, commonly place rocks of very high-permeability opposite rocks of very low permeability, thus creating a lateral discontinuity and a flow barrier. At places, fault barriers probably cause partial to almost complete blockage of groundwater flow normal to the fault. ?? 1982.

  20. Geochemistry, radiocarbon ages, and paleorecharge conditions along a transect in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Christenson, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Water samples from short-screen monitoring wells installed along a 90-km transect in southwestern Kansas were analyzed for major ions, trace elements, isotopes (H, B, C, N, O, S, Sr), and dissolved gases (He, Ne, N2, Ar, O2, CH4) to evaluate the geochemistry, radiocarbon ages, and paleorecharge conditions in the unconfined central High Plains aquifer. The primary reactions controlling water chemistry were dedolomitization, cation exchange, feldspar weathering, and O2 reduction and denitrification. Radiocarbon ages adjusted for C mass transfers ranged from 10 ka to reduce the average NO3 concentration in recent recharge to the Holocene background concentration.

  1. Computer simulation of the steady-state flow system of the Tertiary limestone (Floridan) aquifer system in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbals, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    The predevelopment steady-state ground-water flow system for 13 ,700 square miles of the Tertiary limestone aquifer system (known as the Florida aquifer in Florida) in east-central Florida is simulated by means of a digital computer model. The model results indicate that about 1,900 cubic feet per second recharges the aquifer as downward leakage from the surficial aquifer. The average recharge rate where recharge actually occurs (approximately 6,550 square miles) is about 4 inches per year. The maximum recharge rate is about 14 inches per year. An additional 21 cubic feet per second is recharged to the modeled area of the aquifer by means of lateral boundary inflow along the northeast boundary. The Floridan aquifer system, as simulated, discharges 1,300 cubic feet per second as springflow, 540 cubic feet per second as diffuse upward leakage to the surficial aquifer in an area of approximately 7,150 square miles and 81 cubic feet per second as lateral boundary outflow to the southwest and to the east. The average transmissivity of the upper unit of the aquifer, as simulated, is about 120,000 square feet per day while that for the lower unit is about 60,000 square feet per day. (USGS)

  2. Simpson-Arbuckle contact revisited in Northwest Oklahoma County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.D.; Allen, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    The Joins Formation, the lowermost formation of the Simpson Group, is traditionally the least studied or understood of the Simpson formations. The Joins, not known to produce hydrocarbons in central Oklahoma, is frequently overlooked by those more interested in the productive Simpson formations above and the Arbuckle carbonates below. In a study of the lower Simpson to upper Arbuckle interval in northwestern Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, the Joins Formation was found to be present. The central Oklahoma section consists of interbedded gray, olive gray and green splintery moderately waxy shale, cream to light gray homogeneous microcrystallin dolomite, and microcrystalline to fine crystalline fossiliferous slightly glauconitic well cemented sandstones are also noted. The entire Joins Formation is moderately to very fossiliferous; primarily consisting of crinoids, ostracods, brachiopods, and trilobites. The ostracod fauna closely resembles and correlates with the Arbuckle Mountain section, which has been extensively studied over the years by such authors as Taff, Ulrich and Harris. Beneath the Joins in this area is a normal section of Arbuckle dolomites. Due to the absence of a basal sand in the Joins the separation of the Joins and Arbuckle, utilizing electric logs only, is frequently tenuous. In comparison with the Arbuckle, the Joins tends to have higher gamma ray and S.P. values. Other tools, such as resistivity, bulk density and photoelectric (PE), are frequently inconclusive. For geologists studying the Simpson-Arbuckle contact in central Oklahoma, the presence or absence of the Joins Formation is best determined through conventional lithologic and palenontologic sample identification techniques. Once this has been done, correlation of electric logs with this type log is possible for the local area.

  3. Quantification of aquifer properties with surface nuclear magnetic resonance in the Platte River valley, central Nebraska, using a novel inversion method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irons, Trevor P.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Steele, Gregory V.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Woodward, Duane D.

    2012-01-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance, a noninvasive geophysical method, measures a signal directly related to the amount of water in the subsurface. This allows for low-cost quantitative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In practice, however, additional factors influence the signal, complicating interpretation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District, evaluated whether hydraulic parameters derived from surface nuclear magnetic resonance data could provide valuable input into groundwater models used for evaluating water-management practices. Two calibration sites in Dawson County, Nebraska, were chosen based on previous detailed hydrogeologic and geophysical investigations. At both sites, surface nuclear magnetic resonance data were collected, and derived parameters were compared with results from four constant-discharge aquifer tests previously conducted at those same sites. Additionally, borehole electromagnetic-induction flowmeter data were analyzed as a less-expensive surrogate for traditional aquifer tests. Building on recent work, a novel surface nuclear magnetic resonance modeling and inversion method was developed that incorporates electrical conductivity and effects due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities, both of which can have a substantial impact on the data. After comparing surface nuclear magnetic resonance inversions at the two calibration sites, the nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived parameters were compared with previously performed aquifer tests in the Central Platte Natural Resources District. This comparison served as a blind test for the developed method. The nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived aquifer parameters were in agreement with results of aquifer tests where the environmental noise allowed data collection and the aquifer test zones overlapped with the surface nuclear magnetic resonance testing. In some cases, the previously performed aquifer tests were not designed fully to characterize

  4. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF A SHALLOW UNCONFINED GROUND WATER AQUIFER POLLUTED BY MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microflora of a shallow anoxic aquifer underlying a municipal landfill In Oklahoma was characterized by direct light microscopy, most probable number of determinations of sulfate reducers and methanogens, and measurements of methanogenesis in aquifer samples containing either...

  5. Properties and chemical constituents in ground water from the lower Wilcox Aquifer, Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Busby, John F.; Beckman, Jeffery D.

    1993-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers composed of sediments of mostly Cenozoic age that underlie about 230,000 sq mi of the Gulf Coastal Plain. These regional aquifers are part of three aquifer systems: (1) the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, (2) the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System, and (3) the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System. The water chemistry of the Lower Wilcox Aquifer, which is part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System is presented by a series of maps. These maps show the areal distribution of (1) the concentration of dissolved solids and temperature, (2) the primary water types and pH, (3) the concentration of major ions and silica, and (4) the milliequivalent ratios of selected ions. Dissolved constituents, pH, temperature, and ratios are based on the median values of all samples in each 100-sq-mi area. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer ranges from 18 mg/L near the outcrop in western Tennessee to 122,000 mg/L in a down-dip area in southern Mississippi. The primary water type is calcium bicarbonate in the outcrop area and sodium bicarbonate in all other areas of the aquifer within the limits of available data. The concentrations of major ions generally increase from the outcrop area to the down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio maps of selected ions in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer indicate some trends. The milliequivalent ratio of magnesium plus calcium to bicarbonate ranges from less than 0.1 to 40.4 and generally decreases from outcrop to down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio of bicarbonate to chloride ranges from 0.01 in southern Mississippi to 52.3 in northwestern Mississippi. This ratio increases from the outcrop toward the Mississippi River and from north to south in the

  6. Hydrochemistry of the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, East-Central Illinois: indicators of recharge and ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, Chao-Li

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual model of the ground-water flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA), east-central Illinois, was developed using major ion chemistry and isotope geochemistry. The MVA is a 'basal' fill in the east-west trending buried bedrock valley composed of clean, permeable sand and gravel to thicknesses of up to 61 m. It is covered by a thick sequence of glacial till containing thinner bodies of interbedded sand and gravel. Ground water from the MVA was found to be characterized by clearly defined geochemical regions with three distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west. Ground water in the Onarga Valley, a northeastern tributary of the MVA, is of two types, a mixed cation-SO42- type and a mixed cation-HCO3- type. The ground water is enriched in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- which appears to be the result of an upward hydraulic gradient and interaction of deeper ground water with oxidized pyritic coals and shale. We suggest that recharge to the Onarga Valley and overlying aquifers is 100% from bedrock (leakage) and lateral flow from the MVA to the south. The central MVA (south of the Onarga Valley) is composed of relatively dilute ground water of a mixed cation-HCO3- type, with low total dissolved solids, and very low concentrations of Cl- and SO42-. Stratigraphic relationships of overlying aquifers and ground-water chemistry of these and the MVA suggest recharge to this region of the MVA (predominantly in Champaign County) is relatively rapid and primarily from the surface. Midway along the westerly flow path of the MVA (western MVA), ground water is a mixed cation-HCO3- type with relatively high Cl-, where Cl- increases abruptly by one to ??? two orders of magnitude. Data suggest that the increase in Cl- is the result of leakage of saline ground water from bedrock into the MVA. Mass-balance calculations indicate that approximately 9.5% of

  7. Oklahoma...OK. Oklahoma Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This guide provides articles and activities designed to make elementary students in Oklahoma aware of their historical heritage. It introduces students to the people and events that produced the state of Oklahoma. The guide is arranged into five sections. Section one presents 12 articles focusing on such topics as life before the white man,…

  8. Effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on water quality in the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer, south-central Kansas, 2011-14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Mandy L.; Garrett, Jessica D.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    The Equus Beds aquifer in south-central Kansas is aprimary water source for the city of Wichita. The Equus Beds aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project was developed to help the city of Wichita meet increasing current (2016) and future water demands. The Equus Beds ASR project pumps water out of the Little Arkansas River during above-base flow conditions, treats it using drinking-water quality standards as a guideline, and recharges it into the Equus Beds aquifer for later use. Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR project currently (2016) includes a river intake facility and a surface-water treatment facility with a 30 million gallon per day capacity. Water diverted from the Little Arkansas River is delivered to an adjacent presedimentation basin for solids removal. Subsequently, waste from the surface-water treatment facility and the presedimentation basin is returned to the Little Arkansas River through a residuals return line. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Wichita, developed and implemented a hydrobiological monitoring program as part of the ASR project to characterize and quantify the effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds aquifer water quality.Data were collected from 2 surface-water sites (one upstream and one downstream from the residuals return line), 1 residuals return line site, and 2 groundwater well sites (each having a shallow and deep part): the Little Arkansas River upstream from the ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (upstream surface-water site 375350097262800), about 0.03 mile (mi) upstream from the residuals return line site; the Little Arkansas River near Sedgwick, Kans. (downstream surface-water site 07144100), about 1.68 mi downstream from the residuals return line site; discharge from the Little Arkansas River ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (residuals return line site 375348097262800); 25S 01 W 07BCCC01 SMW–S11 near CW36 (MW–7 shallow groundwater well

  9. Geochemical and geophysical analysis of shallow aquifer materials in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata in east-central Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, R.J.; Rowe, G.L. Jr. . Water Resources Div.)

    1992-01-01

    Three cores holes were drilled through sandstone, shale, and coal deposits of the Pennsylvanian-age Allegheny Group to provide samples for geochemical and geophysical evaluation of shallow aquifer materials in east-central Ohio. The samples were analyzed for forms of sulfur and carbon, and for more than 40 major and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma scans. Temperature, electrical, caliper, and gamma-ray logs were run in the boreholes to improve definition of the stratigraphy and geohydrologic properties of the shallow aquifers. The stratigraphy in this region is dominated by thick sandstone and shale sequences with minor amounts of limestone and the Middle and Lower Kittanning coal/underclay sequences. Depth profiles of major and trace-element chemistry reveal many trace elements are enriched in the underclay with respect to the overlying sandstone/shale sequences. Pyritic-sulfur contents in the underclay is highly variable and in the shale sequences are less than 1 weight percent. Evaluation of the volume-weighted net-neutralization potential of the entire sampling interval indicates an average deficit of approximately 30 tons of CaCO[sub 3] per 1,000 tons of rock in the resultant spoils after mining of the coal. Aquifer properties were inferred from the interpretation of the geophysical logs. Temperature logs reveal that the coals are the major water-bearing units. Minor fractures were seen in the core; these fractures may control vertical ground-water flow within the sampled interval. Gamma logs proved to be the most effective geophysical tool for correlating stratigraphy between the three holes.

  10. Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline

  11. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamsudduha, M; Uddin, A; Saunders, J A; Lee, M-K

    2008-07-29

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 microg/L to 191 microg/L with a mean concentration of 33 microg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO(3) type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO(4). The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 microg/L. Deeper aquifer (>100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 microg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions. PMID:18502538

  12. Hydrogeological study of the intensely exploited aquifer of the Santa Croce leather-producing district, Tuscany (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Sergio; Doveri, Marco; Cortecci, Gianni; Amadori, Michele

    2011-05-01

    A hydrogeological study was undertaken to define the groundwater circulation in the Santa Croce area (Tuscany, central Italy) where the existing multilayered aquifer has long been intensively exploited. Investigations carried out on about 150 wells revealed the existence of a deep piezometric depression (to 20 m below sea level) which drains groundwater from the entire surrounding area. Samples from about 70 water points, collected twice in 2007, were analysed for major elements and stable isotope composition. Three major groups of waters, which mix in the study area, have been distinguished: (1) waters of the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type mainly flowing along the Arno River Plain; (2) waters of the Na-K-Cl/Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4, type with SO4 content up to 275 mg/L, inflowing from the Pisane Hills; (3) relatively high-salinity waters mainly of the Na-HCO3 type which, with Cl concentrations up to 750 mg/L, likely arise from a normal fault located at the foot of the northern hills. The characteristics of the different components are greatly affected by significant modifying processes such as cation exchange and sulfate reduction. The achieved conceptual model suggests the southern hills as the main recharging area of the aquifer system from which water circulation, characterized by pathways of different length and depth, develops.

  13. Key subsurface data help to refine Trinity aquifer hydrostratigraphic units, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, Charles D.; Clark, Allan K.

    2014-01-01

    The geologic framework and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers are important components for studying the nation’s subsurface heterogeneity and predicting its hydraulic budgets. Detailed study of an aquifer’s subsurface hydrostratigraphy is needed to understand both its geologic and hydrologic frameworks. Surface hydrostratigraphic mapping can also help characterize the spatial distribution and hydraulic connectivity of an aquifer’s permeable zones. Advances in three-dimensional (3-D) mapping and modeling have also enabled geoscientists to visualize the spatial relations between the saturated and unsaturated lithologies. This detailed study of two borehole cores, collected in 2001 on the Camp Stanley Storage Activity (CSSA) area, provided the foundation for revising a number of hydrostratigraphic units representing the middle zone of the Trinity aquifer. The CSSA area is a restricted military facility that encompasses approximately 4,000 acres and is located in Boerne, Texas, northwest of the city of San Antonio. Studying both the surface and subsurface geology of the CSSA area are integral parts of a U.S. Geological Survey project funded through the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. This modification of hydrostratigraphic units is being applied to all subsurface data used to construct a proposed 3-D EarthVision model of the CSSA area and areas to the south and west.

  14. Changes in flow in the upper North Canadian river basin of western Oklahoma, pre-development to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water levels have declined in the southern part of the High Plains aquifer of the central USA since the mid-1960s in response to extensive irrigation development. The North Canadian River originates in western Oklahoma, and most of the basin is underlain by the High Plains aquifer. Average river flow in the headwaters near Guymon, Oklahoma, has decreased from about 0.9 m3/s before 1970 to near zero at present. Canton Lake, on the North Canadian River near Seiling, about 250 km downstream from Guymon, is a source of water supply for Oklahoma City. Precipitation data and streamflow data for gages upstream from Canton Lake were divided into an "early" period ending in 1971 and a "recent" period that begins in 1978. The early period represents conditions before ground-water levels had declined appreciably in the High Plains aquifer, and the recent period reflects the current condition, including the effects of storage reservoirs. Tests for trend and comparisons of flows between the early and recent periods show that the total annual volume of flow and the magnitudes of instantaneous annual peak discharges measured at most locations in the North Canadian River basin have decreased. Precipitation records for the area, however, show no corresponding changes. The decreases in average annual flow, expressed as a percentage of the average flows for the early period, ranged from 91 percent near Guymon to 37 percent near Canton Lake. A major contributing factor in the decreased flows appears to be the large declines in water levels in the High Plains aquifer.

  15. Fens, seasonal wetlands, and the unconfined pumice aquifer east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, M. L.; Large, A.; Mowbray, A.; Weatherford, J.; Webb, B.

    2013-12-01

    Fens and seasonal wetlands in the headwaters of the Klamath and Deschutes river basins in south-central Oregon are present in an area blanketed by 2 to 3 m of pumice during the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama. The lower pumice unit, moderately sorted coarse pumice lapilli to blocks (0.3 to 0.7 cm), phenocrysts, and lithics is 1.5 to 2 m thick; the upper pumice unit, poorly sorted lapilli to blocks (0.2 to 6 cm), minor phenocrysts, and lithics is 1 m thick. Pumice is a perched, unconfined aquifer over low permeability bedrock or pre-eruption fine-grained sediment. Early landscape response included partial erosion of pumice from pre-eruption valleys followed by partial filling by alluvium: phenocryst- and lithic-rich sand grading upward to glassy silt with rounded pumice pebbles. Groundwater-fed wetlands, fens, associated with the unconfined pumice aquifer occur as areas of diffuse groundwater discharge through gently sloping, convex surfaces underlain by up to 1.4 m of peat. Locally, focused discharge through the confining peat layer feeds low discharge streams. Carnivorous plants (sundews and pitcher plants) may be present. The sharp contact between peat and underlying pumice is an erosion surface that cuts progressively deeper into the upper and lower pumice units downslope. At the base of the slope peat with fen discharge feeding surface flow, alluvium with no surface flow, or a subtle berm separating the slope underlain by peat from the valley bottom underlain by alluvium may be present. Distinct vegetation changes take place at this transition. The erosion surface that underlies the peat layer in the fen is at the surface on the opposing valley wall and progressively rises up through the lower and upper pumice units: iron staining and cementation of pumice is locally prominent. Up to 1.5 m difference in water table occurs between the fen and opposing valley wall. Water table in piezometers screened in peat is at the surface. Locally, water table screened in

  16. Spatial hydrochemical and isotopic variations within the alluvial aquifer of the Allier River (Massif Central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, N.; Celle-Jeanton, H.; Huneau, F.; Le Coustumer, P.; Lavastre, V.; Bertrand, G.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrodynamic, hydrochemical (major ions, traces, pharmaceuticals and pesticides), isotopic (oxygen, hydrogen and carbon stable isotopes) and biological investigations were conducted every two weeks, since December 2010, to assess groundwater quality in the unconfined shallow alluvial aquifer of the Allier River (main tributary of the Loire River). The aquifer is mainly composed of unconsolidated alluvial deposits produced by the erosion of local crystalline rocks, the aquifer overlies impervious Oligocene marls; the surrounding hills are constituted with Quaternary deposits (early and old alluvial deposits on both sides of river), Oligocene limestones, marls and sandstones and Miocene volcano-sedimentary formations (Peperites). The study area is located in the east of the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France) where groundwater resources are used mainly for water supplies and then play an important socio-economic role as it is the major source of drinking water for about 100 000 inhabitants. This study aims at determining the factors and processes controlling shallow groundwater quality and groundwater origin by using the hydrochemical and hydrodynamical data collected on 87 water samples (71 boreholes, 13 piezometers and 4 surface waters) during a first field campaign carried out from the 9th to the 14th of December 2010. The Cournon Meteoric Water Line was determined according to 30 weekly rainfall samples. The results of this study show that spatial variations of physico-chemical parameters do exist in the study area, and the groundwater chemical composition is characterized by different water types with the predominance of the Ca-HCO3 type. Ionic concentration increases in boreholes far from the Allier River due to the increase of residence time or by a mixing with groundwater coming from the hills. The ð2H and ð18O signature of groundwater and surface water indicate that most of the boreholes close to the river are recharged by the Allier River, while boreholes

  17. Synthesis of the Hydrogeologic Framework of the Floridan Aquifer System and Delineation of a Major Avon Park Permeable Zone in Central and Southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Richardson, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The carbonate Floridan aquifer system of central and southern Florida (south of a latitude of about 29 degrees north) is an invaluable resource with a complex framework that has previously been mapped and managed primarily in a subregional context according to geopolitical boundaries. As interest and use of the Floridan aquifer system in this area increase, a consistent regional hydrogeologic framework is needed for effective management across these boundaries. This study synthesizes previous studies on the Floridan aquifer system and introduces a new regional hydrogeologic conceptual framework, linking physical relations between central and southern Florida and between the west and east coastal areas. The differences in hydrogeologic nomenclature and interpretation across the study area from previous studies were identified and resolved. The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, middle confining unit, and Lower Floridan aquifer. This study introduces and delineates a new major, regional productive zone or subaquifer, referred to as the Avon Park permeable zone. This zone is contained within the middle confining unit and synthesizes an extensive zone that has been referred to differently in different parts of the study area in previous studies. The name of this zone derives from the description of this zone as the ?Avon Park highly permeable zone? in west-central Florida in a previous study. Additionally, this zone has been identified previously in southeastern Florida as the ?middle Floridan aquifer.? An approximately correlative or approximate time-stratigraphic framework was developed and was used to provide guidance in the identification and determination of aquifers, subaquifers, and confining units within the Floridan aquifer system and to determine their structural relations. Two stratigraphic marker horizons within the Floridan aquifer system and a marker unit near the top of the aquifer system were delineated or mapped. The marker

  18. Urban flood analysis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; Huntzinger, T.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Patneaude, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Flood insurance study information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency is utilized to estimate future flood hazard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Techniques are described for estimating future urban runoff estimates. A method of developing stream cross section rating curves is explained. Future runoff estimates are used in conjuction with the rating curves to develop an estimate of 50- and 100- year flood profiles that would result from future urban development.

  19. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned

  20. Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.

    2009-04-01

    Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region Despite India's tremendous progress on all fronts after independence in 1947, the fact remains that it is one of the poorest nation in the world in terms of per capita income and energy consumption which is considered to be the gauge of the economic situation of any country. In case of India, it is nearly one tenth of the developed nations. If economic condition of its people is to be raised, then country has to boost its agriculture production which is largely monsoon dependent and to exploit its conventional and unconventional energy sources at a very rapid growth rate. Although, worldwide, 70% of the water that is withdrawn for human use is used for agriculture, 22% for industry and 8% is used for domestic services. But in India which is a low income country, 82% is used for agriculture, 10% for industry and 8% for domestic services. Therefore, India needs new sources of water to reduce the risk of dependency on the monsoon for the Sustainable Development of the country. It is in this connection that the Ambikapur Basin in the Central India has been studied for sustainable water withdrawal. At present, the crops in the Ambikapur region are totally monsoon dependent. However, with the initiatives of the State Government, 25 boreholes in an area of about 25 square kilometers have been drilled up to a depth of 500m and completed in the Gondwana sandstone. The water quality and the discharge rates have been established to sustain the crops of the area which is the only livelihood of the local people , in case the monsoon fails. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer like Transmissivity (T) and the Coefficient of Storage (S) were determined following the graphic method of Jacob and Theis. The rate of discharge (Q) of the pumped well was estimated at 4.05 x 10 to the power 3 cubic meters per second and the values of other parameters like T at

  1. Assessment of nonpoint-source contamination of the High Plains Aquifer in south-central Kansas, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgesen, John O.; Stullken, Lloyd E.; Rutledge, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water quality was assessed in a 5,000-square-mile area of the High Plains aquifer in south-central Kansas that is susceptible to nonpoint-source contamination from agricultural and petroleum-production activities. Of particular interest was the presence of agricultural chemicals and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons that might have been associated with brines that formerly were disposed into unlined ponds. Random sampling of ground water was done within a framework of discrete land-use areas (irrigated cropland, petroleum-production land containing former brine-disposal ponds, and undeveloped rangeland) of 3-10 square miles. Although true baseline water-quality conditions probably are rare, in this region they are represented most closely by ground water in areas of undeveloped rangeland. The sampling design enabled statistical hypothesis testing, using nonparametric procedures, of the effects of land use, unsaturated-zone lithology, and type of well sampled. Results indicate that regional ground-water quality has been affected by prevailing land-use activities, as shown by increased concentrations of several inorganic constituents. Ground water beneath irrigated cropland was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, potassium, fluofide, and nitrite plus nitrate than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Few nondegraded pesticides were detected in the aquifer, probably because of degradation and sorption. Atrazine was the most common, but only in small concentrations. round water beneath petroleum-production land was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Nonpoint-source contamination by oil-derived hydrocarbons was not discernible. The occurrences of trace organic compounds were similar between petroleum-production land and undeveloped rangeland, which indicates a natural origin

  2. Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Rupert, M.G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for

  3. Nonlinear-regression flow model of the Gulf Coast aquifer systems in the south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuiper, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-regression methodology was used to help answer questions concerning model reliability, and to calibrate a time-dependent variable-density ground-water flow model of the gulf coast aquifer systems in the south-central United States. More than 40 regression models with 2 to 31 regressions parameters are used and detailed results are presented for 12 of the models. More than 3,000 values for grid-element volume-averaged head and hydraulic conductivity are used for the regression model observations. Calculated prediction interval half widths, though perhaps inaccurate due to a lack of normality of the residuals, are the smallest for models with only four regression parameters. In addition, the root-mean weighted residual decreases very little with an increase in the number of regression parameters. The various models showed considerable overlap between the prediction inter- vals for shallow head and hydraulic conductivity. Approximate 95-percent prediction interval half widths for volume-averaged freshwater head exceed 108 feet; for volume-averaged base 10 logarithm hydraulic conductivity, they exceed 0.89. All of the models are unreliable for the prediction of head and ground-water flow in the deeper parts of the aquifer systems, including the amount of flow coming from the underlying geopressured zone. Truncating the domain of solution of one model to exclude that part of the system having a ground-water density greater than 1.005 grams per cubic centimeter or to exclude that part of the systems below a depth of 3,000 feet, and setting the density to that of freshwater does not appreciably change the results for head and ground-water flow, except for locations close to the truncation surface.

  4. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Schalk, Charles W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 μg/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45 μm). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000 g/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The δD and δ18O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater.

  5. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Schalk, Charles W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 µg/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70–100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93–99%) in particulates (>0.45 µm). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560–13,000 mg/kg of As and 14–35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5–20 mmole/mole) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000–100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1,300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The δD and δ18O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater. PMID:24842411

  6. Geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water of the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems, Hickman and Maury counties, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hileman, G.E.; Lee, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems in Hickman and Maury Counties, Tennessee, was conducted in 1989. Water in both aquifer systems typically is of the calcium or calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, but concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate are greater in water of the Central Basin system; differences in the concentrations are statistically significant. Dissolution of calcite, magnesium-calcite, dolomite, and gypsum are the primary geochemical processes controlling ground-water chemistry in both aquifer systems. Saturation-state calculations using the computer code WATEQF indicated that ground water from the Central Basin system is more saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, and gypsum than water from the Highland Rim system. Geochemical environments within each aquifer system are somewhat different with respect to dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals. Water samples from the Highland Rim system had a fairly constant calcium to magnesium molar ratio, implying congruent dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals, whereas water samples from the Central Basin system had highly variable ratios, implying either incongruent dissolution or heterogeneity in soluble constituents of the aquifer matrix. Concentrations of radionuclides in water were low and not greatly different between aquifer systems. Median gross alpha activities were 0.54 picocuries per liter in water from each system; median gross beta activities were 1.1 and 2.3 picocuries per liter in water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin systems, respectively. Radon-222 concentrations were 559 and 422 picocuries per liter, respectively. Concentrations of gross alpha and radium in all samples were substantially less than Tennessee?s maximum permissible levels for community water-supply systems. The data indicated no relations between concentrations of dissolved

  7. Water Use in Oklahoma 1950-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive planning for water resources development and use in Oklahoma requires a historical perspective on water resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, summarized the 1950-2005 water-use information for Oklahoma. This report presents 1950-2005 estimates of freshwater withdrawal for water use in Oklahoma by source and category in 5-year intervals. Withdrawal source was either surface water or groundwater. Withdrawal categories include: public supply, irrigation, livestock and aquaculture, thermoelectric-power generation (cooling water), domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data were aggregated and tabulated by county, major river basin, and principal aquifer. The purpose of this report is to summarize water-use data in Oklahoma through: (1) presentation of detailed information on freshwater withdrawals by source, county, major river basin, and principal aquifer for 2005; (2) comparison of water use by source, category, major river basin, and principal aquifer at 5-year intervals from 1990-2005; and (3) comparison of water use on a statewide basis by source and category at 5-year intervals from 1950-2005. Total withdrawals from surface-water and groundwater sources during 2005 were 1,559 million gallons per day-989 million gallons a day or 63 percent from surface-water sources and 570 million gallons per day or 37 percent from groundwater sources. The three largest water use categories were: public supply, 646 million gallons per day or 41 percent of total withdrawals; irrigation, 495 million gallons per day or 32 percent of total withdrawals; and livestock and aquaculture, 181 million gallons per day or 12 percent of total withdrawals. All other categories were 237 million gallons per day or 15 percent of total withdrawals. The influence of public supply on the total withdrawals can be seen in the eastern two-thirds of Oklahoma; whereas, the influence of irrigation on total

  8. Potential for pollution of the Upper Floridan aquifer from five sinkholes and an internally drained basin in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trommer, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Sinkholes are natural and common geologic features in west-central Florida, which is underlain by water soluble limestone deposits. Dissolution of these deposits is the fundamental cause of sinkhole development. Sinkholes and other karst features are more pronounced in the northern part of the study area, but sinkhole activity has occurred throughout the area. Fifty-eight sinkholes with known or suspected connection to the Upper Floridan aquifer are located in the study area. An internally drained basin near the city of Brandon and five sinkholes in Hillsborough, Pasco, and Hernando Counties were selected for detailed investigation. At all sites, chemical or biological constituents were detected that indicate pollutants had entered the aquifer. A generalized classification, based on the potential to pollute, was applied to the selected sites. Four of the sites have high potential and two have moderate potential to pollute the Upper Floridan aquifer. All of the sites investigated are capable of recharging large volumes of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer in short periods of time. Continued monitoring of the quality of water entering the sinkholes and of wells downgradient to the sinks is needed to assess the future impacts on the aquifer. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Central Valley Aquifer System near Modesto, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Burow, Karen R.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Modesto, California. The well selected for study pumps on average about 1,600 gallons per minute from the Central Valley aquifer system during peak summer demand. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in the Modesto vicinity. Samples from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents uranium, nitrate, arsenic, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although none were present at concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards. Of these contaminants, uranium and nitrate pose the most significant water-quality risk to the public-supply well because human activities have caused concentrations in groundwater to increase over time. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and (or) fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Modesto: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) irrigation and agricultural and municipal pumping that drives contaminants downward into the primary production zone of the aquifer; (3) short-circuiting of contaminated water down the public-supply well during the low-pumping season; and (4) natural geochemical conditions of the aquifer. A local-scale computer model of groundwater flow and transport to the public-supply well was constructed to simulate long-term nitrate and uranium concentrations reaching the well. With regard to nitrate, two conflicting processes influence concentrations in the area contributing recharge to the well: (1) Beneath land that is being farmed or has recently been farmed (within the last 10 to 20 years), downward-moving irrigation waters contain elevated nitrate concentrations; yet (2) the proportion of agricultural land has decreased and the proportion of urban land has increased since 1960. Urban land use is associated with low nitrate

  10. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of glacial-drift aquifers, Leech Lake Indian Reservation, north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water collected from wells completed in the unconfined aquifer in residential and recreational land-use areas had concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, and cyanide equal to or less than 6 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of organic-acid herbicides in water from three wells screened in the unconfined aquifer in managed-forest land-use areas were all below detection levels. Concentrations of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants in water from three wells screened in the unconfined aquifer and from one well screened in the uppermost confined aquifer were also all below detection levels.

  11. Linking Groundwater Use and Stress to Specific Crops Using the Groundwater Footprint in the Central Valley and High Plains Aquifer Systems, U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Esnault, L.; Gleeson, T.; Heinke, J.; Gerten, D.; Flanary, E.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    A number of aquifers worldwide are being depleted, mainly by agricultural activities, yet groundwater stress has not been explicitly linked to specific agricultural crops. Using the newly-developed concept of the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services), we develop a methodology to derive crop-specific groundwater footprints. We illustrate this method by calculating high resolution groundwater footprint estimates of crops in two heavily used aquifer systems: the Central Valley and High Plains, U.S. In both aquifer systems, hay and haylage, corn and cotton have the largest groundwater footprints, which highlights that most of the groundwater stress is induced by crops meant for cattle feed. Our results are coherent with other studies in the High Plains but suggest lower groundwater stress in the Central Valley, likely due to artificial recharge from surface water diversions which were not taken into account in previous estimates. Uncertainties of recharge and irrigation application efficiency contribute the most to the total relative uncertainty of the groundwater footprint to aquifer area ratios. Our results and methodology will be useful for hydrologists, water resource managers, and policy makers concerned with which crops are causing the well-documented groundwater stress in semiarid to arid agricultural regions around the world.

  12. Linking groundwater use and stress to specific crops using the groundwater footprint in the Central Valley and High Plains aquifer systems, U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esnault, Laurent; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Heinke, Jens; Gerten, Dieter; Flanary, Elizabeth; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.

    2014-06-01

    A number of aquifers worldwide are being depleted, mainly by agricultural activities, yet groundwater stress has not been explicitly linked to specific agricultural crops. Using the newly developed concept of the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services), we develop a methodology to derive crop-specific groundwater footprints. We illustrate this method by calculating high-resolution groundwater footprint estimates of crops in two heavily used aquifer systems: the Central Valley and High Plains, U.S. In both aquifer systems, hay and haylage, corn, and cotton have the largest groundwater footprints, which highlights that most of the groundwater stress is induced by crops meant for cattle feed. Our results are coherent with other studies in the High Plains but suggest lower groundwater stress in the Central Valley, likely due to artificial recharge from surface water diversions which were not taken into account in previous estimates. Uncertainties of recharge and irrigation application efficiency contribute the most to the total relative uncertainty of the groundwater footprint to aquifer area ratios. Our results and methodology will be useful for hydrologists, water resource managers, and policy makers concerned with which crops are causing the well-documented groundwater stress in semiarid to arid agricultural regions around the world.

  13. Pride in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gordon; Blackburn, Bob L.

    This booklet is intended to be used as background material by social studies and history classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Oklahoma's heritage. It includes background information on the land and people of Oklahoma (geology, climate, topography, vegetation, animals, prehistoric peoples, French explorers,…

  14. Oklahoma Tribes: A History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, Kevin

    1977-01-01

    Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…

  15. Oklahoma's Advanced School Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary

    A new means of funding school operations known as advanced school funding allows Oklahoma schools financing during the temporary cash shortfalls. The program consists of the Oklahoma Development Authority issuing revenue bonds purchased by E. F. Hutton and Company, Inc., which then sells the tax free bonds to investors throughout the country. A…

  16. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1960

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1986-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is part of a regional aquifer system that extends into Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part of the State. The aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits. In western Kansas, the High Plains aquifer consists principally of the Ogallala Formation of the late Tertiary age and the overlying deposits of Quaternary age. In south-central Kansas, the aquifer consists of unconsolidated deposits principally of Quaternary age. Valley alluvium of Quaternary age also is included in the deposits in both areas. The High Plains aquifer is delimited on the east by outcrops of Permian or Cretaceous rocks and by unsaturated deposits of Quaternary age. The altitude and configuration of the water table during 1960 are shown for the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. The water table sloped generally from west to east at an average rate of 10 feet per mile. The altitude of the water table ranged from about 3,900 feet in the southwest corner of Sherman County, northwestern Kansas, to about 1,350 feet in northern Sedgwick County, southcentral Kansas. Groundwater moves perpendicular to the water table contours from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the east. Contours that cross stream valleys without flexure may indicate that the water table was below the streambed. Upstream flexure of water table contours along streams indicates that groundwater flowed toward, and discharged into, streams. This is most evident along the South Fork Republican River in Cheyenne County, Northwestern Kansas, and the South Fork Ninnescah River in Pratt and Kingman Counties, south-central Kansas. (USGS)

  17. Regional evaluation of the hydrogeologic framework, hydraulic properties, and chemical characteristics of the intermediate aquifer system underlying southern west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2006-01-01

    Three major aquifer systems-the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system, and the Floridan aquifer system-are recognized in the approximately 5,100-square-mile southern west-central Florida study area. The principal source of freshwater for all uses is ground water supplied from the three aquifer systems. Ground water from the intermediate aquifer system is considered only moderately abundant compared to the Upper Floridan aquifer, but it is an important source of water where the Upper Floridan aquifer contains water too mineralized for most uses. In the study area, the potential ground-water resources of the intermediate aquifer system were evaluated by regionally assessing the vertical and lateral distribution of hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics. Although the intermediate aquifer system is considered a single entity, it is composed of multiple water-bearing zones separated by confining units. Deposition of a complex assemblage of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments during the late Oligocene to early Pliocene time resulted in discontinuities that are reflected in transitional and abrupt contacts between facies. Discontinuous facies produce water-bearing zones that may be locally well-connected or culminate abruptly. Changes in the depositional environment created the multilayered intermediate aquifer system that contains as many as three zones of enhanced water-bearing capacity. The water-bearing zones consist of indurated limestone and dolostone and in some places unindurated sand, gravel, and shell beds, and these zones are designated, in descending order, as Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3. Zone 1 is thinnest (<80 feet thick) and is limited to <20 percent (southern part) of the study area. Zone 2, the only regionally extensive zone, is characterized by moderately low permeability. Zone 3 is found in about 50 percent of the study area, has the highest transmissivities, and generally is in good hydraulic connection with the

  18. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium

  19. Geohydrologic characteristics and simulated response to pumping stresses in the Sparta aquifer in East-Central Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Daniel J.; Kilpatrick, John M.; McWreath, Harry

    1990-01-01

    A finite difference digital model of the Sparta aquifer system in Arkansas was developed to aid in assessing the geohydrologic characteristics of the aquifer as well as the impact of withdrawals on water-level declines in the aquifer. The model consists of two layers. The Cockfield aquifer, represented by layer 1, was modeled as a constant head surface. The Sparta aquifer is represented by layer 2. The base of the Sparta aquifer was modeled as a no-flow boundary. The model boundaries to the north, south, and east in Mississippi were represented by specified heads, while boundaries to the west in Louisiana were represented as no flow. The model period of 1989 to 1985 was divided into 25 stress periods. Appropriate aquifer withdrawals were assigned to each stress period. Calibrated hydraulic conductivities of the Sparta aquifer, ranged from 1 to 35 ft/day. Calibrated hydraulic vertical conductivities of the Cook Mountain confining unit ranged from 0.0003 to 0.000009 ft/day. The calibrated storage coefficient of the aquifer was 0.0001. More than 80% of the recharge to the aquifer came from vertical leakage and from direct recharge on the outcrop. Greater than 90 % of outflow from the aquifer was from pumpage or leakage to rivers. Theoretical pumping schemes to the year 2005 indicated that virtually no change to the potentiometric surface occurred when 1985 pumping rates were extended to 2005. Doubling of pumpage over the entire study area resulted in additional water-level declines of up to 130 ft. (USGS)

  20. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  1. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  2. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Matteucci, Federica; Ercole, Claudia; del Gallo, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    Perchloroethene, trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form dense non-aqueous phase liquids that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy, there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo (“Val Vibrata”), characterized by a significant chlorinated solvents contamination. Data from the various monitoring campaigns that have taken place over time were collected, and new samplings were carried out, resulting in a complete database. The data matrix was processed with a multivariate statistic analysis (in particular principal component analysis, PCA) and was then imported into geographic information system (GIS), to obtain a model of the contamination. A microcosm anaerobic study was utilized to assess the potential for in situ natural or enhanced bioremediation. Most of the microcosms were positive for dechlorination, particularly those inoculated with a mineral medium. This indicate the presence of an active native dechlorinating population in the subsurface, probably inhibited by co-contaminants in the groundwater, or more likely by the absence or lack of nutritional factors. Among the tested electron donors (i.e., yeast extract, lactate, and butyrate) lactate and butyrate enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated compounds. PCA and GIS studies allowed delimiting the contamination; the microcosm study helped to identify the conditions to promote the bioremediation of the area. PMID:26388862

  3. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 4, Oklahoma, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    The two States, Oklahoma and Texas, that compose Segment 4 of this Atlas are located in the south-central part of the Nation. These States are drained by numerous rivers and streams, the largest being the Arkansas, the Canadian, the Red, the Sabine, the Trinity, the Brazos, the Colorado, and the Pecos Rivers and the Rio Grande. Many of these rivers and their tributaries supply large amounts of water for human use, mostly in the eastern parts of the two States. The large perennial streams in the east with their many associated impoundments coincide with areas that have dense populations. Large metropolitan areas such as Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Okla., and Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, and Austin, Tex., are supplied largely or entirely by surface water. However, in 1985 more than 7.5 million people, or about 42 percent of the population of the two States, depended on ground water as a source of water supply. The metropolitan areas of San Antonio and El Paso, Tex., and numerous smaller communities depend largely or entirely on ground water for their source of supply. The ground water is contained in aquifers that consist of unconsolidated deposits and consolidated sedimentary rocks. This chapter describes the geology and hydrology of each of the principal aquifers throughout the two-State area. Precipitation is the source of all the water in Oklahoma and Texas. Average annual precipitation ranges from about 8 inches per year in southwestern Texas to about 56 inches per year in southeastern Texas (fig. 1). In general, precipitation increases rather uniformly from west to east in the two States. Much of the precipitation either flows directly into rivers and streams as overland runoff or indirectly as base flow that discharges from aquifers where the water has been stored for some time. Accordingly, the areal distribution of average annual runoff from 1951 to 1980 (fig. 2) reflects that of average annual precipitation. Average annual runoff in the two-State area ranges

  4. Conjunctive-use optimization model and sustainable-yield estimation for the Sparta aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.; Czarnecki, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Conjunctive-use optimization modeling was done to assist water managers and planners by estimating the maximum amount of ground water that hypothetically could be withdrawn from wells within the Sparta aquifer indefinitely without violating hydraulic-head or stream-discharge constraints. The Sparta aquifer is largely a confined aquifer of regional importance that comprises a sequence of unconsolidated sand units that are contained within the Sparta Sand. In 2000, more than 35.4 million cubic feet per day (Mft3/d) of water were withdrawn from the aquifer by more than 900 wells, primarily for industry, municipal supply, and crop irrigation in Arkansas. Continued, heavy withdrawals from the aquifer have caused several large cones of depression, lowering hydraulic heads below the top of the Sparta Sand in parts of Union and Columbia Counties and several areas in north-central Louisiana. Problems related to overdraft in the Sparta aquifer can result in increased drilling and pumping costs, reduced well yields, and degraded water quality in areas of large drawdown. A finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed for the Sparta aquifer using MODFLOW, primarily in eastern and southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Observed aquifer conditions in 1997 supported by numerical simulations of ground-water flow show that continued pumping at withdrawal rates representative of 1990 - 1997 rates cannot be sustained indefinitely without causing hydraulic heads to drop substantially below the top of the Sparta Sand in southern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Areas of ground-water levels below the top of the Sparta Sand have been designated as Critical Ground-Water Areas by the State of Arkansas. A steady-state conjunctive-use optimization model was developed to simulate optimized surface-water and ground-water withdrawals while maintaining hydraulic-head and streamflow constraints, thus determining the 'sustainable yield' for the aquifer. Initial attempts

  5. Water Decisions for Sustainability of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazrus, H.; Mcpherson, R. A.; Morss, R. E.; PaiMazumder, D.; Silvis, V.; Towler, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only freeflowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To address these issues, this interdisciplinary project takes an integrated approach to understanding risk perceptions and water decisions for sustainability of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer. Our interdisciplinary research asks: How do stakeholders in the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer perceive drought risks across weather and climate scales, and how do these perceptions guide water management decisions given (i) diverse cultural beliefs, (ii) valued hydrologic services, (iii) past drought experience, and (iv) uncertainties in future projection of precipitation and drought? We will use ethnographic methods to diagnose how cultural values and beliefs inform risk perceptions, and how this in turn guides decision making or ignites conflict across different sectors and stakeholder groups. Further, the characterization of drought risk will be examined in the context of historic meteorological and hydrologic events, as well as climate variability and change. This will identify which risks are prioritized, and under what conditions, in regional decision making or water-related conflicts.

  6. Assessment of recharge and flowpaths in a limestone thermomineral aquifer system using environmental isotope tracers (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Marques, Jose M; Eggenkamp, Hans G M; Graca, Henrique; Carreira, Paula M; Jose Matias, Maria; Mayer, Bernhard; Nunes, Dina

    2010-06-01

    We conducted chemical and isotopic analyses to develop and test a hydrogeological model of thermomineral water circulation in a limestone aquifer system at Caldas da Rainha (Central Portugal), contributing to future borehole-drilling and development strategies, with the aim of extracting waters with the best possible flow and/or temperature. The thermomineral waters (T approximately 33 degrees C) discharge from springs and boreholes located close to a locally N-S-oriented oblique fault (60 degrees E) that places loamy and detritic Upper Jurassic rocks and Hettangian-Rhaetian marls (and evaporitic deposits) in contact. (14)C determinations indicate a pmC content between 29.33+/-0.14 and 44.39+/-0.20 pmC. The presence of HCO[image omitted] , Ca(2+) (and Mg(2+)) are ascribed to water-limestone interactions, while Na(+), Cl(-) and SO[image omitted] concentrations are mainly associated with the dissolution of halite and gypsum lenses found along the regional syncline structure. The delta(18)O values of Caldas da Rainha thermomineral water were slightly lower than those of shallow groundwater from the Upper Jurassic rocks, suggesting the existence of two distinct aquifer systems. The different isotopic composition of water also indicates that the main recharge of the thermomineral waters likely occurs in the Middle and Lower Jurassic limestone formations of the Candeeiros Mountains. The presence of (3)H (from 1.1 to 2.8 TU) in some thermomineral borehole waters (showing rather similar geochemical signatures) suggests mixing of small amounts of shallow groundwater with thermomineral waters, as a result of leaking borehole casing construction or a recharge when the (3)H content in the atmosphere was higher than that at present. Caldas da Rainha thermomineral waters having delta(34)S(sulphate) and delta(18)O(sulphate) values between+14.9 and+19.1 per thousand and+11.1 and+16.2 per thousand, respectively, indicate that the sulphate is the result of water-rock interaction

  7. Natural attenuation processes of nitrate in a saline lake-aquifer system: Pétrola Basin (Central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiente, Nicolas; Menchen, Alfonso; Jirsa, Franz; Hein, Thomas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gomez-Alday, Juan Jose

    2016-04-01

    Saline wetlands associated with intense agricultural activities in semi-arid to arid climates are among the most vulnerable environments to NO3‑ pollution. The endorheic Pétrola Basin (High Segura River Basin, Central Spain) was declared vulnerable to NO3‑ pollution by the Regional Government of Castilla-La Mancha in 1998. The hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified waterbody, due to the inputs of pollutants from agricultural sources and urban waste waters, the latest are discharged directly into the lake without proper treatment. Previous studies showed that the aquifer system has two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas into the lake, and a density-driven flow from the lake to the underlying aquifer. The NO3‑ inputs derived from agriculture originate from nitrification of synthetic ammonium fertilizers, and afterwards, NO3‑ is expected to be attenuated by denitrification (up to 60%) in the saltwater-freshwater interface around the lake. However, the spatial and temporal pattern of nitrate reduction in lake sediments is not known. In this study, an isotope pairing technique was used in order to clarify the main pathways for the NO3‑ attenuation linked to the sediment-water interface. For that purpose mesocosm experiments were performed: organic-rich lake sediment (up to 23% organic carbon content) was incubated for 96 hours with the addition of 15N nitrate tracer. During the experiments two factors were modified: light and oxic conditions. Analyzing inorganic N-species (n=20) over time (72 hours) showed that NO3‑ attenuation was coupled with an increment in the NH4+ concentration (from 0.8 mg/L up to 5.3 mg/L) and a decrease in redox values (from 135.1 mV up to -422 mV) in the water column. The main outcome of this study was to elucidate the importance of different microbial pathways denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), in

  8. Properties and chemical constituents in ground water from the middle Wilcox aquifer, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Busby, John F.; Beckman, Jeffery D.

    1993-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers composed of sediments of mostly Cenozoic age that underlie about 230,000 sq mi of the Gulf Coastal Plain. These regional aquifers are part of three aquifer systems: (1) the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, (2) the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System, and (3) the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System. The water chemistry of the Middle Wilcox Aquifer, which is part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System and the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System is presented by a series of maps. These maps show the area1 distribution of (1) the concentration of dissolved solids and temperature, (2) the primary water types and pH, (3) the concentration of major ions and silica, and (4) the milliequivalent ratios of selected ions. Dissolved constituents, pH, temperature, and ratios are based on the median values of all samples in each 100-sq-mi area. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Middle Wilcox Aquifer ranges from 26 mg/L in the northern part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System to 125,500 mg/L in a down-dip area in southeastern Texas. The primary water types, which are based on the most frequently observed type in each 100-sq-mi area, are calcium bicarbonate in the outcrop in Missouri, Kentucky, Mississippi, and southern Texas; sodium bicarbonate in the remaining outcrop areas and all areas from outcrop to mid-dip; and sodium chloride in all down-dip areas. The concentrations of major ions in water from the Middle Wilcox Aquifer generally increase from the outcrop area to the down-dip limit of the data. The milliequivalent ratio of magnesium plus calcium to bicarbonate ranges from less than 0.01 to 158 and generally decreases from outcrop to mid-dip and increases from mid-dip to the down-dip limit of the data. From the Sabine Uplift eastward to southwestern Alabama the ratio of bicarbonate to chloride generally decreases from outcrop to down-dip in the area west of

  9. Oklahoma City, Canadian River, OK, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of Oklahoma City, OK (35.5N, 97.5W) surrounded by the grasslands of the central plains, is detailed enough to use as a map of the major highways and throughfares within the city and surrounding area. Tinker Air Force Base and Will Rogers International Airport as well as Lakes Hefner, Stanley Draper and nearby recreation areas. The smaller community of Norman, on the banks of the Canadian River to the south, is home to the University of Oklahoma.

  10. State summaries: Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, Oklahoma mines produced both industrial minerals and coal. No metals were mined in the state. Based on value, leading industrial minerals include crushed stone followed by cement, construction sand and gravel, industrial sand and gravel, iodine and gypsum. The Oklahoma Department of Mines (ODOM) reported that more than 343 mine operators produced nonfuel minerals from 405 mines in the state. However, 530 mining permitted sites were on file. The Oklahoma Miner Training Institute (OMTI) held 239 classes for 33,768 classroom hours of instruction, in which 84 coal miners and 4,587 metal/nonmetal miners were trained.

  11. Agriculture-related trends in groundwater quality of the glacial deposits aquifer, central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring and understanding trends in groundwater quality is necessary for determining whether changes in land-management practices have an effect on groundwater quality. This paper describes an approach that was used to measure and understand trends using data from two groundwater studies conducted in central Wisconsin as part of the USGS NAWQA program. One of the key components of this approach, determining the age of sampled groundwater, gave a temporal component to the snapshots of water quality that were obtained through synoptic-sampling efforts. This approach can be used at other locations where groundwater quality data are collected, groundwater age can be determined, and associated temporal data are available. Results of these studies indicate measured concentrations of nitrate and atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to historical patterns of fertilizer and atrazine use. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater have increased over time; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine increased and then decreased. Concentrations of nitrate also were correlated to screen depth below the water level and concentrations of dissolved O2; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to dissolved O2 and annual precipitation. To measure trends in concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine, the data, collected over a near-decadal period, were adjusted to account for changes in laboratory-reporting levels and analytical recoveries. Only after accounting for these changes was it apparent that the median concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine decreased over the near-decadal interval between sampling efforts. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  12. Origin of the groundwater salinity and geochemical processes in detrital and carbonate aquifers: Case of Chougafiya basin (Central Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farid, Intissar; Zouari, Kamel; Rigane, Adel; Beji, Ridha

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive investigations of groundwaters were performed in the detrital and carbonate aquifers of the Chougafiya basin, central Tunisia. In the present review, hydrochemistry and isotopic tools were combined to get an insight into the processes controlling mineralization, recharge conditions, flow pattern of groundwater and C chemistry in the investigated hydrological system. Analysis of the dissolved constituents revealed that several processes controlled the observed chemical composition: (i) the dissolution of evaporitic minerals, (ii) cation exchange reactions, (iii) sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions, (iv) incongruent dissolution of carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite) coupled with gypsum dissolution and calcite precipitation, and (v) silicates weathering. Data inferred from 18O and deuterium isotopes in groundwater samples indicated recharge with modern rainfall. Water characterized by lower δ18O and δ2H values is interpreted as recharged by non-evaporated rainfall originating from Mediterranean and Atlantic air masses. However, water with relatively enriched δ18O and δ2H contents is thought to reflect the occurrence of an evaporation process related to the long term practice of flood irrigation. The radiogenic (3H) isotope data provided insight into the presence of two recharge periods in the investigated groundwaters. Waters with 3H contents of <1 TU indicated a pre-nuclear recharge. Waters with 3H contents of >1 TU clearly suggested the occurrence of a contemporaneous recharge probably during the last two decades. Carbon isotopes provided some insights into the timescales of groundwater flow, but mainly revealed that main sources of C are active in the system. These are likely: dissolved biogenic CO2, carbonate dissolution and incongruent reaction of the carbonate matrix. Mean residence times were determined after correction of the initial activities for dead C from the rock matrix and suggest ages ranging from the present day to the

  13. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  14. Libraries in Oklahoma: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/oklahoma.html Libraries in Oklahoma To use the sharing features on this page, ... Box 1308 Norman, OK 73070 405-307-1426 Oklahoma City INTEGRIS BAPTIST MEDICAL CENTER OF OKLAHOMA WANN ...

  15. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-08-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

  16. History of ground-water pumpage and water-level decline in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers of the central coastal plain of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Lyke, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Historical ground-water withdrawals and a general water-level decline in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers of the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina are documented. Total municipal and industrial pumpage from these aquifers has increased from approximately 120,000 gal/day (gpd) in 1910 to >21 million gpd in 1980. Major pumpage, > 10,000 gpd, began around 1900. Since that time, per capita water use in the central Coastal Plain area has ranged from 17 to 172 gpd/person. The higher values partially represent the increasing availability and use of modern conveniences since the World War II era. The range of per capita water use can be subdivided according to general water-use and population characteristics for both urban and rural areas. The pumpage of ground water from the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers has created water-level declines from 0.5 to 4.9 ft/year since 1900. Approximately a third of the study area has experienced a decline > 50 ft up to the period 1979-1981, with 148 ft being the maximum.

  17. InSAR detection of aquifer recovery: Case studies of Koehn Lake (central California) and Lone Tree Gold Mine (Basin and Range)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Greene, F.; Amelung, F.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic intervention in groundwater flow and aquifer storage often results in vertical movements of Earth's surface, which are well detected by InSAR observations. Most anthropogenic intervention occurs due to groundwater extraction for both agriculture and human consumption and results in land subsidence. However in some cases, ending anthropogenic intervention can lead to aquifer recovery and, consequently, surface uplift. In this study we present two such cases of aquifer recovery. The first case is the aquifer beneath Koehn Lake in Central California, which was overused to meet agricultural demands until the 1990's. The second case is the Lone Tree Gold Mine in Nevada that during active mining in the 1991-2006 groundwater pumping disrupted the aquifer and cause subsidence. But after mining ceased, groundwater flow was recovered and resulted in uplift. In both cases we studied the surface uplift using InSAR time series observations. We conduct an ERS and Envisat InSAR survey over Koehn Lake in California and Lone Tree Gold Mine in Nevada between 1992 and 2010. We followed the SBAS algorithm to generate a time-series of ground displacements and average velocities of pixels, which remain coherent through time in the SAR dataset. A total of 100 and 80 combined ERS and Envisat SAR dates are inverted for Koehn Lake and Lone Tree Gold Mine respectively. Results for the Koehn Lake area indicate a rapid uplift of about 3.5 mm/yr between 1992-2000 and a slower uplift rate of 1.6 mm/yr between 2000-2004, suggesting a decrease in the recovery process. The observed uplift correlates well with groundwater level increase in the Koehn Lake area. Results for the Lone Tree Gold Mine show a constant subsidence (~ 1 cm/yr) due to groundwater extraction between 1992-2006, but uplift of ~1 cm/yr since the beginning of 2007. In both case studies, InSAR observations reveal that the aquifer recovery is accompanied by surface uplift. We plan to use the InSAR observations and the

  18. Demonstration optimization analyses of pumping from selected Arapahoe aquifer municipal wells in the west-central Denver Basin, Colorado, 2010–2109

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Declining water levels caused by withdrawals of water from wells in the west-central part of the Denver Basin bedrock-aquifer system have raised concerns with respect to the ability of the aquifer system to sustain production. The Arapahoe aquifer in particular is heavily used in this area. Two optimization analyses were conducted to demonstrate approaches that could be used to evaluate possible future pumping scenarios intended to prolong the productivity of the aquifer and to delay excessive loss of saturated thickness. These analyses were designed as demonstrations only, and were not intended as a comprehensive optimization study. Optimization analyses were based on a groundwater-flow model of the Denver Basin developed as part of a recently published U.S. Geological Survey groundwater-availability study. For each analysis an optimization problem was set up to maximize total withdrawal rate, subject to withdrawal-rate and hydraulic-head constraints, for 119 selected municipal water-supply wells located in 96 model cells. The optimization analyses were based on 50- and 100-year simulations of groundwater withdrawals. The optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells for a 50-year simulation time was about 58.8 cubic feet per second. For an analysis in which the simulation time and head-constraint time were extended to 100 years, the optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells was about 53.0 cubic feet per second, demonstrating that a reduction in withdrawal rate of about 10 percent may extend the time before the hydraulic-head constraints are violated by 50 years, provided that pumping rates are optimally distributed. Analysis of simulation results showed that initially, the pumping produces water primarily by release of water from storage in the Arapahoe aquifer. However, because confining layers between the Denver and Arapahoe aquifers are thin, in less than 5 years, most of the water removed by managed-flows pumping likely would be supplied

  19. Thresholds for earthquake-induced hydrological changes in sedimentary aquifers: a record from 9 earthquakes and 107 boreholes in central New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Konrad; Cox, Simon; Holden, Caroline; Townend, John

    2016-04-01

    A dense hydrogeological network in central New Zealand has recorded groundwater fluctuations from 12 years of seismic events. Hydrological data over the past 15 years were assessed in 107 boreholes at depths of 4 - 405 m. Nine seismic events (M≥5.9) occurred at near- to far-field distances of 10 - 913 km, shaking the sedimentary aquifers at a wide range of 10‑4 to 103 J/m3 seismic energy densities. The earthquakes produced 258 detectable hydrological responses, exhibiting different polarities (rise or fall), amplitudes (2 to 820 mm, -859 to -2 mm) and timescales (15 min to day [s]). Shaking parameters were calculated from 28 proximal GeoNet broadband seismometers, providing local estimates of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), Arias intensity, and spectral amplitudes. ShakeMap model solutions, utilising ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), were also acquired at borehole sites. Continuous oceanic tidal responses of 38 boreholes were derived using Baytap08, with temporal transmissivity and earthquake-induced changes estimated from tidal properties. The earthquake-induced changes to groundwater level and tidal response are used to infer those events which caused aquifer deformation and changes to the groundwater flow regime. A transient (15 min to 2 hr) / permanent (15 min to day [s]) deformation boundary is observed when shaking reaches ˜1 %g PGA. As well as defining thresholds at which hydrological changes occurred, the central New Zealand dataset provided an opportunity to examine aquifer ability in resistance to the effects induced by earthquakes. Where monitoring is dense and continuous, the absence of responses under certain levels of shaking is equally informative and helps delineate causative processes. On-going work utilises data mining to assess the contribution of seismic, hydrological, and geological parameters to earthquake-induced hydrological changes in sedimentary aquifer systems.

  20. Dolomite dissolution rates and possible Holocene dedolomitization of water-bearing units in the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deike, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Rates of dolomite dissolution can be used to test the concept, based on geomorphologic evidence, that a major part of the Edwards aquifer could have formed within the Holocene, a timeframe of approximately 10,000 years. During formation of the aquifer in the Edwards limestone (Cretaceous, Albian) of the Balcones fault zone, dolomite dissolution and porosity development were synchronous and the result of mixing-zone dedolomitization. Initiation of the mixing zone in the early Holocene (???11,000 years before present) is suggested by the maximum age of formation of major discharge sites that allowed the influx of meteoric water into brine-filled, dolomitic preaquifer units. Dedolomitization, the dissolution of dolomite and net precipitation of calcite, has left aquifer units that are calcitic, and 40 vol.% interconnected pore space. The mass of dolomite missing is obtained by comparison of stratigraphically equivalent altered and unaltered units. One dissolution rate (1.76 ?? 10-4 mmol dolomite kgH2O-1yr-1) is determined from this mass, 104yr reaction time, and a log-linear function describing the increase in mass discharge (three orders of magnitude) during aquifer formation. The second estimated dissolution rate is obtained from the mass transfer of dolomite to solution calculated from the increase in magnesium in pore fluids selected from the modern aquifer to represent a typical flowpath during aquifer formation. A reaction time of 104yr for this mass transfer yields a rate of 0.56 ?? 10-4 mmol dolomite kgH2O-1yr-1. Both of these rates are comparable to modern rates of dolomite dissolution (0.3 to 4.5 ?? 10-4 mmol dolomite kgH2O-1yr-1) calculated from measured reaction times in the Tertiary Floridan aquifer system in Florida and the Madison aquifer in the Mississippian Madison Limestone of the Northern Great Plains. Similarity of these rates to the estimated paleo-rates of dolomite dissolution supports a 104 yr reaction timeframe. The Holocene reaction time also

  1. Effects of aquifer heterogeneity on ground-water flow and chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer near and within an active pumping well field, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tihansky, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations have been increasing over time in water from wells within and near the Eldridge-Wilde well field, near the coast in west-central Florida. Variable increases in chloride concentrations from well to well over time are the combined result of aquifer heterogeneity and ground-water pumping within the Upper Floridan aquifer. Deep mineralized water and saline water associated with the saltwater interface appear to move preferentially along flow zones of high transmissivity in response to ground-water withdrawals. The calcium-bicarbonate-type freshwater of the Upper Floridan aquifer within the study area is variably enriched with ions by mixing with introduced deep and saline ground water. The amount and variability of increases in chloride and sulfate concentrations at each well are related to well location, depth interval, and permeable intervals intercepted by the borehole. Zones of high transmissivity characterize the multilayered carbonate rocks of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Well-developed secondary porosity within the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones and the Avon Park Formation has created producing zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer. The highly transmissive sections of the Avon Park Formation generally are several orders of magnitude more permeable than the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, but both are associated with increased ground-water flow. The Ocala Limestone is less permeable and is dominated by primary, intergranular porosity. Acoustic televiewer logging, caliper logs, and borehole flow logs (both electromagnetic and heat pulse) indicate that the Tampa/Suwannee Limestone units are dominated by porosity owing to dissolution between 200 and 300 feet below land surface, whereas the porosity of the Avon Park Formation is dominated by fractures that occur primarily from 600 to 750 feet below land surface and range in angle from horizontal to near vertical. Although the Ocala Limestone can act as a semiconfining unit between the Avon Park

  2. Effects of recharge from drainage wells on quality of water in the Floridan Aquifer in the Orlando area, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiner, G.R.; German, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    Approximately 400 drainage wells in the Orlando area inject, by gravity, large quantities of stormwater runoff that may or may not be suitable for most purposes without treatment into the same freshwater zones of the Floridan aquifer tapped for public supply. The wells are used mostly to control lake levels and dispose of urban storm runoff. Recharge from drainage wells compensates for heavy withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer and helps maintain aquifer pressures that retard upward saltwater encroachment. Sixty-five supply wells and 21 drainage wells within a 16-mile radius of Orlando were sampled from September 1977 to June 1979. Most constituent concentrations were slightly higher in water from drainage wells than in water from supply wells. The most notable differences were in bacteria colony count and total nitrogen concentrations. With the exception of bacteria, water from drainage wells would generally meet the maximum contaminant levels established by the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. (USGS)

  3. Stable and radio-isotope analysis to determine recharge timing and paleoclimate of sandstone aquifers in central and southeast Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Faitouri, Mohamed; Sanford, William E.

    2015-02-01

    Stable isotopes of water and 14C activities (percent modern carbon, pmc) were used to estimate the timing of recharge and paleoclimatic conditions during recharge for three sandstone aquifers in Libya. These aquifers are part of the Nubian Aquifer System, with current and planned groundwater development designed to produce 106 m3/day of water. 14C activities from water samples collected at three wellfields (Sarir, Tazerbo and Al Kufra) indicate recharge during late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Stable isotope compositions from all three locations are significantly depleted relative to modern water, indicating that the climate was more humid than today. These results are in line with previous regional groundwater studies. This was the first study of its kind for the aquifers at Tazerbo and Sarir wellfield. The Tazerbo wellfield, which produces from the deepest aquifer, had the oldest estimated recharge ages (late Pleistocene). For Sarir, 14C activities ranged from 6.30 to 41.42 pmc; the Sarir aquifer is leaky confined and this range is likely due to mixing of shallow younger water with older deeper water. At Al Kufra, the 14C activity (5.27 pmc) of a well which is part of an agriculture project, is greater than the activity of wells sampled in 1973 (0.5-2.0 pmc). The greater activity is likely due to the lowering of the regional potentiometric surface causing younger water to be captured after four decades of wellfield operation. It is recommended that periodic monitoring be done in large wellfields to identify changes in isotope compositions as production continues.

  4. Potentiometric surface of the lower Cape Fear Aquifer in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, December 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D., Jr.; Lyke, William L.; Brockman, Allen R.

    1989-01-01

    Water level measurements were made in four wells open to the lower Cape Fear aquifer at the end of 1986 to determine the configuration of its potentiometric surface over an area of approximately 4,100 sq mi. Because of the scarcity of data, five earlier measurements were also used to help estimate the position of the potentiometric contours. These were one-time measurements in temporary observation wells. A broad cone of depression has formed in the area between Kinston and New Bern where the potentiometric surface is below sea level and seems likely related to large groundwater withdrawals from the aquifers overlying the lower Cape Fear in that area.

  5. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the Contoocook River basin, south-central New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, P.T.; Johnson, William

    1995-01-01

    Stratified-drift aquifers discontinuously underlie 121 mi2 (square miles) of the Contoocook River Basin, which has a total drainage area of 776 mi2. Maps of these aquifers, showing water-table configurations, saturated thicknesses, and transmissivities were prepared from well and test-hole data and seismic-refraction profiles. The distribution of stratified-drift aquifers is largely controlled by the Pleistocene glaciation process and the formation of multiple glacial lakes along the main stem of the Contoocook River. Locally, saturated thickness of stratified drift within these aquifers are as great as 200 feet. Estimated transmissivities exceed 8,000 ft2/d (squared feet per day) at three locations and is as high as 22,800 ft2/d at one location. Stratified-drift aquifers that have the greatest potential to supply additional amounts of water include the aquifers at Greenfield-Otter Brook and Hancock-Norway Pond. Potential yields to hypothetical supply wells were estimated for the Greenfield-Otter Brook, Hillsborough-Contoocook River, and Andover- Blackwater River aquifers by use of a analytical ground-water-flow model. The model results predict that the potential yields are greatest from the Greenfield-Otter Brook aquifer, yielding up to 1.85 gallons per day during half-year periods of no recharge. The effective ground-water recharge to the entire basin, which includes recharge to the till, bedrock, and stratified drift, is 13.9 in./yr (inches per year) (521 million gallons per day) on the basis of hydrograph separation of streamflow. The quality of water obtained from 11 observation wells and 10 municipal supply wells is generally suitable for drinking and most other domestic purposes. Ground water in the region has low alkalinity, is slightly acidic, and has low concentrations of dissolved solids. Concentrations of dissolved constituents in ground-water samples were generally less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's primary and secondary maximum

  6. Simulated effects of projected ground-water withdrawals in the Floridan aquifer system, greater Orlando metropolitan area, east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Louis C., Jr.; Halford, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water levels in the Floridan aquifer system within the greater Orlando metropolitan area are expected to decline because of a projected increase in the average pumpage rate from 410 million gallons per day in 1995 to 576 million gallons per day in 2020. The potential decline in ground-water levels and spring discharge within the area was investigated with a calibrated, steady-state, ground-water flow model. A wetter-than-average condition scenario and a drought-condition scenario were simulated to bracket the range of water-levels and springflow that may occur in 2020 under average rainfall conditions. Pumpage used to represent the drought-condition scenario totaled 865 million gallons per day, about 50 percent greater than the projected average pumpage rate in 2020. Relative to average 1995 steady-state conditions, drawdowns simulated in the Upper Floridan aquifer exceeded 10 and 25 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively, in parts of central and southwest Orange County and in north Osceola County. In Seminole County, drawdowns of up to 20 feet were simulated for dry conditions, compared with 5 to 10 feet simulated for wet conditions. Computed springflow was reduced by 10 percent for wet conditions and by 38 percent for dry conditions, with the largest reductions (28 and 76 percent) occurring at the Sanlando Springs group. In the Lower Floridan aquifer, drawdowns simulated in southwest Orange County exceeded 20 and 40 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively.

  7. Hydrogeology of stratified-drift aquifers and water quality in the Nashua Regional Planning Commission Area, south-central New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toppin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nashua Regional Planning Commission area in south-central New Hampshire is a 12-community area that is experiencing increases in population and in demands for water supply. The study area is underlain by 129 sq mi (40% of the area) of stratified drift which, where sufficiently saturated and permeable, form the most productive aquifers in the area. Eight towns use the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal water supply. The saturated thickness of stratified drift in the study area ranges from 0 or < 20 ft near aquifer boundaries to more than 100 ft in the Souhegan and Merrimack River valleys. The transmissivity of stratified drift ranges from < 2,000 sq ft/day throughout much of the area to more than 8,000 sq ft/day in the communities of Amherst, Brookline, Hollis, Hudson, Litchfield, Merrimack, Milford, Nashua, and Pelham. Directions of groundwater flow are generally from valley walls to surface waters, which act as drains for the stratified drift aquifers. The estimated total yield of community water-supply systems in the study area (surface and groundwater combined) is 22 mgd (million gallons per day). Analytical modeling indicates that an additional 12 mgd could be obtained from six aquifers located in the communities of Amherst, Litchfield, Merrimack, Milford, and Pelham. Other aquifers in the area, not modeled in the study, could also provide increased amounts of water especially where yields could be augmented by induced recharge of surface water. Groundwater quality in the study area is characterized by naturally elevated levels of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). Of 32 wells sampled, 7 exceeded EPA recommended drinking water limits for both Fe and Mn, and 3 wells exceeded the Mn limit only. The average total dissolved solids concentration for 32 samples was 121 mg/L. Groundwater in the area is slightly corrosive; pH 's ranged from 5.0-7.3. Groundwater contamination has been detected at two ' Superfund ' sites in the study area located in Milford and

  8. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoir To Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Watney, W. Lynn; Rush, Jason; Raney, Jennifer

    2014-09-30

    1. Drilled, cored, and logged three wells to the basement and collecting more than 2,700 ft of conventional core; obtained 20 mi2 of multicomponent 3D seismic imaging and merged and reprocessed more than 125 mi2 of existing 3D seismic data for use in modeling CO2- EOR oil recovery and CO2 storage in five oil fields in southern Kansas. 2. Determined the technical feasibility of injecting and sequestering CO2 in a set of four depleted oil reservoirs in the Cutter, Pleasant Prairie South, Eubank, and Shuck fields in southwest Kansas; of concurrently recovering oil from those fields; and of quantifying the volumes of CO2 sequestered and oil recovered during the process. 3. Formed a consortium of six oil operating companies, five of which own and operate the four fields. The consortium became part of the Southwest Kansas CO2-EOR Initiative for the purpose of sharing data, knowledge, and interest in understanding the potential for CO2-EOR in Kansas. 4. Built a regional well database covering 30,000 mi2 and containing stratigraphic tops from ~90,000 wells; correlated 30 major stratigraphic horizons; digitized key wells, including wireline logs and sample logs; and analyzed more than 3,000 drill stem tests to establish that fluid levels in deep aquifers below the Permian evaporites are not connected to the surface and therefore pressures are not hydrostatic. Connectivity with the surface aquifers is lacking because shale aquitards and impermeable evaporite layers consist of both halite and anhydrite. 5. Developed extensive web applications and an interactive mapping system that do the following: a. Facilitate access to a wide array of data obtained in the study, including core descriptions and analyses, sample logs, digital (LAS) well logs, seismic data, gravity and magnetics maps, structural and stratigraphic maps, inferred fault traces, earthquakes, Class I and II disposal wells, and surface lineaments. b. Provide real-time analysis of the project dataset, including

  9. Isotopic evidence for glacial meltwater recharge to the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer, north-central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, D. I.; Mandle, R. J.

    1984-11-01

    The chemistry of water in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer in six midwestern states has been studied as part of the Northern Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis of the U.S. Geological Survey. Dissolved-solids concentrations generally increase perpendicular to the direction of regional groundwater flow, from less than 400 mg/liter in southeast Minnesota, southwest Wisconsin, and northeast Iowa to more than 10,000 mg/liter in northwest Missouri. Isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen are significantly depleted from north to south, with an areal distribution approximately parallel to the distribution of dissolved solids. For example, δ 18O in southern Iowa and northern Missouri is about 6 parts per thousand lighter than δ 18O of modern recharge water in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Covariance between δ 18O and δD of the groundwater, similar to that of modern precipitation, suggests that the differences in isotopic ratios between groundwater and modern recharge water reflect meteoric signatures of water during past recharge events rather than geochemical processes such as isotopic exchange with aquifer materials. The pronounced parallelism between the distribution of isotopes and dissolved solids over large areas probably reflects largescale recharge of Pleistocene glacial meltwater into the aquifer system, which probably had a paleoflow system with a gradient from northeast to southwest rather than from northwest to southeast.

  10. Isotopic evidence for glacial meltwater recharge to the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer, north-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, D.I.; Mandle, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chemistry of water in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer in six midwestern states has been studied as part of the Northern Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis of the U.S. Geological Survey. Dissolved-solids concentrations generally increase perpendicular to the direction of regional groundwater flow, from less than 400 mg/liter in southeast Minnesota, southwest Wisconsin, and northeast Iowa to more than 10,000 mg/liter in northwest Missouri. Isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen are significantly depleted from north to south, with an areal distribution approximately parallel to the distribution of dissolved solids. For example, ??18O in southern Iowa and northern Missouri is about 6 parts per thousand lighter than ??18O of modern recharge water in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Covariance between ??18O and ??D of the groundwater, similar to that of modern precipitation, suggests that the differences in isotopic ratios between groundwater and modern recharge water reflect meteoric signatures of water during past recharge events rather than geochemical processes such as isotopic exchange with aquifer materials. The pronounced parallelism between the distribution of isotopes and dissolved solids over large areas probably reflects largescale recharge of Pleistocene glacial meltwater into the aquifer system, which probably had a paleoflow system with a gradient from northeast to southwest rather than from northwest to southeast. ?? 1984.