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1

Potentiometric surface in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer, Oklahoma, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer was started in 2008 to provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) hydrogeologic data and a groundwater flow model that can be used as a tool to help manage the aquifer. The 1973 Oklahoma water law requires the OWRB to do hydrologic investigations of Oklahoma's aquifers (termed 'groundwater basins') and to determine amounts of water that may be withdrawn by permitted water users. 'Maximum annual yield' is a term used by OWRB to describe the total amount of water that can be withdrawn from a specific aquifer in any year while allowing a minimum 20-year life of the basin (Oklahoma Water Resources Board, 2010). Currently (2010), the maximum annual yield has not been determined for the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Until the maximum annual yield determination is made, water users are issued a temporary permit by the OWRB for 2 acre-feet/acre per year. The objective of the study, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, was to study the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer to provide information that will enable the OWRB to determine the maximum annual yield of the aquifer based on different proposed management plans. Groundwater flow models are typically used by the OWRB as a tool to help determine the maximum annual yield. This report presents the potentiometric surface of the Central Oklahoma aquifer based on water-level data collected in 2009 as part of the current (2010) hydrologic study. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-724 by Christenson and others (1992) presents the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map. This 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map was made as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer that examined the geochemical and hydrogeological processes operating in the aquifer. An attempt was made to obtain water-level measurements for the 2009 potentiometric-surface map from the wells used for the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map. Well symbols with circles on the 2009 potentiometric-surface map (fig. 1) indicate wells that were used for the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map.

Mashburn, Shana L.; Magers, Jessica

2011-01-01

2

Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer, Oklahoma, 1987 to 2009, and simulation of available water in storage, 2010-2059  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma. The study area for this investigation was the extent of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer is used for public, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supply. With the exception of Oklahoma City, all of the major communities in central Oklahoma rely either solely or partly on groundwater from this aquifer. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, incorporating parts of Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties, has a population of approximately 1.2 million people. As areas are developed for groundwater supply, increased groundwater withdrawals may result in decreases in long-term aquifer storage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, investigated the hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow in the aquifer using a numerical groundwater-flow model. The purpose of this report is to describe an investigation of the Central Oklahoma aquifer that included analyses of the hydrogeology, hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer, and construction of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate groundwater levels and for water-budget analysis. A calibrated transient model was used to evaluate changes in groundwater storage associated with increased future water demands.

Mashburn, Shana L.; Ryter, Derek; Neel, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Magers, Jessica S.

2014-01-01

3

Ground-water-quality assessment of the central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma - Analysis of available water-quality data through 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water quality of the Central Oklahoma aquifer was assessed using the information available through 1987. The following conclusions were drawn from the available data and the contingency-table statistics. The word common is used to describe situations where approximately 10% or more of the data exceeded a water quality standard: (1) groundwater concentrations of nitrate and selenium commonly exceed the

D. L. Parkhurst; S. C. Christenson; J. L. Schlottmann

1989-01-01

4

Three-dimensional geologic model of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma encompasses more than 850 square kilometers and is the principal water resource for south-central Oklahoma. Rock units comprising the aquifer are characterized by limestone, dolomite, and sandstones assigned to two lower Paleozoic units: the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups. Also considered to be part of the aquifer is the underlying Cambrian-age Timbered Hills Group that contains limestone and sandstone. The highly faulted and fractured nature of the Arbuckle-Simpson units and the variable thickness (600 to 2,750 meters) increases the complexity in determining the subsurface geologic framework of this aquifer. A three-dimensional EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model was constructed to quantify the geometric relationships of the rock units of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Hunton anticline area. This 3-D EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model incorporates 54 faults and four modeled units: basement, Arbuckle-Timbered Hills Group, Simpson Group, and post-Simpson. Primary data used to define the model's 54 faults and four modeled surfaces were obtained from geophysical logs, cores, and cuttings from 126 water and petroleum wells. The 3-D framework model both depicts the volumetric extent of the aquifer and provides the stratigraphic layer thickness and elevation data used to construct a MODFLOW version 2000 regional groundwater-flow model.

Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pantea, Michael P.; Puckette, James O.; Halihan, Todd; Osborn, Noel; Christenson, Scott; Pack, Skip

2010-01-01

5

Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater in the aquifer moves from areas of high head (altitude) to areas of low head along streams and springs. The potentiometric surface in the eastern Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer generally slopes from a topographic high from northwest to the southeast, indicating that regional groundwater flow is predominantly toward the southeast. Freshwater is known to extend beyond the aquifer outcrop near the City of Sulphur, Oklahoma, and Chickasaw National Recreation Area, where groundwater flows west from the outcrop of the eastern Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer and becomes confin

Christenson, Scott; Osborn, Noel I.; Neel, Christopher R.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Puckette, James; Pantea, Michael P.

2011-01-01

6

Ground-water-quality assessment of the central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma - Analysis of available water-quality data through 1987  

SciTech Connect

The water quality of the Central Oklahoma aquifer was assessed using the information available through 1987. The following conclusions were drawn from the available data and the contingency-table statistics. The word common is used to describe situations where approximately 10% or more of the data exceeded a water quality standard: (1) groundwater concentrations of nitrate and selenium commonly exceed the 10 mg/L maximum contaminant level (MCL) in most parts of the study unit except of depths > 300 ft in the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation; (2) groundwater concentrations of arsenic and chromium commonly exceed the 50 micrograms/L MCL at depths > 300 ft in the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, but rarely exceed the MCL in the rest of the study unit; (3) no data were available for residual-alpha radioactivity for many parts of the study unit. In the data that were available, concentrations exceeded the MCL most frequently in groundwater samples from the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups; (4) groundwater pH values commonly exceed 8.5 at depths > 300 ft in the Garber Sandstone and the Wellington Formation and in the Vanoss Formation; and (5) groundwater concentrations of sulfate and chloride commonly exceed the 250 mg/L secondary MCL (SMCL) in most parts of the study unit and concentrations greater than the SMCL are most common in groundwater from the Hennessey Group.

Parkhurst, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Schlottmann, J.L.

1989-01-01

7

Discrete and Continuous Gravity Studies of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, South-Central Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a high-resolution gravity study using traditional and novel observational methods focused on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer (ASA), a major ground-water system in Oklahoma that is experiencing demand from distant regions. We have partnered with the National Park Service to conduct gravity surveys of prominent faults near the Chickasaw National Recreation Area. These structures, created during late

D. Scheirer; A. Hosford Scheirer; R. Herr

2005-01-01

8

SUBSURFACE WELL-LOG CORRELATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

The fluvial Garber Sandstone and the underlying Wellington Formation are important sources of drinking water in central Oklahoma. These formations, which make up much of the COA, consist of amalgamated sandstones with some interbedded mudstones, siltstones, and local mudstone- a...

9

Ground-Water Quality in the Central High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A network of 74 randomly distributed domestic water-supply wells completed in the central High Plains aquifer was sampled and analyzed from April to August 1999 as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program to provide a broad-scale assessment of the ground-water-quality in this part of the High Plains aquifer. Water properties were relatively consistent across the aquifer, with water being alkaline and well oxidized. Water was mostly of the calcium and magnesium-bicarbonate type and very hard. Sulfate concentrations in water from three wells and chloride concentration in water from one well exceeded Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels. Fluoride concentration was equal to the Maximum Contaminant Level in one sample. Nitrate concentrations was relatively small in most samples, with the median concentration of 2.3 milligrams per liter. Dissolved organic carbon concentration was relatively low, with a median concentration of 0.5 milligram per liter. The Maximum Contaminant Level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for nitrate as nitrogen of 10 milligrams per liter was exceeded by water samples from three wells. Most samples contained detectable concentrations of the trace elements aluminum, arsenic, barium, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, zinc, and uranium. Only a few samples had trace element concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels. Fifty-five of the samples had radon concentrations exceeding the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picocuries per liter. The greatest radon concentrations were detected where the Ogallala Formation overlies sandstones, shales and limestones of Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous age. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 9 of 74 samples. Toluene was detected in eight of those nine samples. All volatile organic compound concentrations were substantially less than Maximum Contaminant Levels. Detections of toluene may have been artifacts of the sampling and analytical processes. Pesticides were detected in 18 of the 74 water samples. None of the pesticide concentrations exceeded Maximum Contaminant Levels. The most frequently detected pesticides were atrazine and its metabolite deethylatrazine, which were detected in water from 15 and 17 wells, respectively. Most of the samples with a detectable pesticide had at least two detectable pesticides. Six of the samples had more than two detectable pesticides. Tritium concentrations was greater than 0.5 tritium unit in 10 of 51 samples, indicating recent recharge to the aquifer. Twenty-one of the samples that had nitrate concentrations greater than 4.0 milligrams per liter were assumed to have components of recent recharge. Detection of volatile organic compounds was not associated with those indicators of recent recharge, with most of volatile organic compounds being detected in water from wells with small tritium and nitrate concentrations. Detection of pesticides was associated with greater tritium or nitrate concentrations, with 16 of the 18 wells producing water with pesticides also having tritium or nitrate concentrations indicating recent recharge.

Becker, Mark F.; Bruce, Breton W.; Pope, Larry M.; Andrews, William J.

2002-01-01

10

OUTCROP-BASED HIGH RESOLUTION GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA). CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

The COA supplies drinking water to a number of municipalities in central Oklahoma. Two major stratigraphic units in the COA, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, contain naturally occurring arsenic that exceeds government mandated drinking-water standards (EPA, 2001). ...

11

Water supplies of East Central and Southeastern Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To plan effectively for future growth in East Central and Southeastern Oklahoma, sound information on public water systems is imperative. This report evaluates the 229 public water systems in 24 counties in East Central and Southeastern Oklahoma. Areas included are: the Central Oklahoma Economic Development District, the Kiamichi Economic Development District of Oklahoma, and the Southern Oklahoma Development Authority. Quantity,

J. W. Ferrell; J. B. Perry; W. F. Harris

1984-01-01

12

Water Flow in the High Plains Aquifer in Northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains is a major agricultural area, supported primarily by water from the High Plains aquifer, which is used to irrigate wheat and corn and to raise cattle and swine. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) began a study of the High Plains aquifer in 1996. One purpose of the study was to develop a ground-water flow model that the OWRB could use to allocate the amount of water withdrawn from the a aquifer. The study area in Oklahoma covers all or parts of Beaver, Cimarron, Dewey, Ellis, Harper, Texas, and Woodward Counties. To provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the ground-water flow model, the study area was expanded to include parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas.

Luckey, Richard R.; Osborn, Noel I.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.

2000-01-01

13

Analysis of regional aquifers in the central Midwest of the United States in Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming :summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large quantities of ground water are available for use from three regional aquifer systems in the central Midwest of the United States. Parts of the lowermost aquifer contain nearly immobile brine and may be hydrologically suitable for material storage or waste disposal. Results of numerical modeling and geochemical analyses confirm general concepts of ground-water flow in the regional aquifer systems.

Jorgensen, Donald G.; Helgesen, J. O.; Signor, D. C.; Leonard, R. B.; Imes, J. L.; Christenson, S. C.

1996-01-01

14

Helminth fauna of waterfowl in central Oklahoma.  

PubMed

Free-ranging waterfowl wintering in and migrating through central Oklahoma were collected and examined for intestinal helminths. Seventy-one ducks, including mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), American widgeons (Anas americana), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were examined; 64 (90.1%) harbored one or more species of metazoa. Six cestodes, 6 trematodes, 6 nematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan were identified, An experimental, non-flying population of ducks was established and monitored to determine the extent of helminth transmission in central Oklahoma. Seven species of helminths were acquired by the sentinel birds during the study. The significance of the parasites recovered and variations in prevalence and species composition of the infections are discussed as they relate to the life cycles of the parasites and the ecology of the hosts. PMID:7373725

Shaw, M G; Kocan, A A

1980-01-01

15

Numerical simulation of the alluvium and terrace aquifer along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser, central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age, which cover an area of about 400 square miles along the North Canadian River between Canton Lake and Lake Overholser, locally yield as much as 500 gallons per minute to wells. The deposits are as much as 100 feet thick and consist of clay, silt, sand, and gravel, with sand-sized material dominating. The underlying bedrock is Permian sandstone and shale. The amount of water stored in the aquifer during 1980 was estimated to be 4.00 x 1010 cubic feet. A digital model was used to estimate the ability of the aquifer to continue to supply water for irrigation, industry, and domestic use. A block-centered, finite-difference model with 1 mile node spacing was used to project the amount and distribution of water in the aquifer in the future. The model was calibrated using the aquifer discharge to the North Canadian River and the difference between computed and measured heads. The model was calibrated using recharge rate of 1 inch per year, a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 4.5 x 10 -4 feet per second and a specific yield of 0.16. Model simulations using the 1979 pumping rate, a projected pumping rate (based on expected increases in water use), and double the projected increase in pumping rate were made to 1993. With the 1979 pumping rate, the volume of water in storage in 1993 is 3.88 x 10 10 cubic feet and ground-water discharge to the North Canadian River is 10.9 cubic feet per second. With the projected pumping increase, the volume of water in storage is 3.81 x 1010 cubic feet and ground-water discharge to the stream is 6.91 cubic feet per second. At double the projected increase in pumping rate, the volume of water in storage is 3.74 x 1010 cubic feet and the ground-water discharge is 2.93 cubic feet per second.

Christenson, S.C.

1983-01-01

16

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air...

2010-07-01

17

Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

Cederstrand, J. R.; Becker, M. F.

1998-01-01

18

A preliminary appraisal of the Garber-Wellington Aquifer, southern Logan and northern Oklahoma counties, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Garber-Wellington aquifer, which dips westward at 30 to 40 feet per mile, consists of about 900 feet of interbedded sandstone, shale, and siltstone. Sandstone comprises 35 to 75 percent of the aquifer and averages about 50 percent. Water-table conditions generally exist in the upper 200 feet in the outcrop area of the aquifer; semi-artesian or artesian conditions exist below a depth of 200 feet and beneath rocks of the Hennessey Group (predominantly shale) where the aquifer is fully saturated. Water containing more than 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids occurs at various depths through the area. The altitude of the base of fresh water ranges from 250 feet above sea level in the south-central part of the area to 950 feet in the northwestern part. The thickness of the fresh-water zone ranges from less than 150 feet in the northern part of the area to about 850 feet in the southern part. The total amount of water stored in the fresh-water zone is estimated to be 21 million acre-feet based on specific yield of 0.20. Minimum recharge to the aquifer in 1975 is estimated to be 190 acre-feet per square mile or about 10 percent of the annual precipitation. Total minimum recharge to the aquifer in the study area in 1975 is estimated to be 129,000 acre-feet. Streams in the area are the principal means of ground-water discharge; the amount of discharge is essentially the same as recharge. The amount of groundwater used for municipal and rural water supply in 1975 is estimated to have been 5,000 acre-feet; a similar amount may have been used for industrial purposes. As a result of pumping, the potentiometric surface in 1975 had been lowered about 200 feet in the vicinity of Edmond and about 100 feet in the vicinity of Nichols Hills. Chemical analyses of water from the aquifer indicates that hardness is greater in the upper part of the aquifer than in the lower part, and that sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids increase with depth. Reported yields of wells more than 250 feet deep range from 70 to 475 gallons per minute and average 240 gallons per minute. Potential well yields range from 225 gallons per minute when the fresh-water zone is 350 feet thick to about 550 gallons per minute where the fresh water zone is 850 feet thick. These estimates of potential yield are based on an available drawdown of half the thickness of the fresh-water zone and a specific capacity of 1.3 gallons per minute per foot. Intrusion of saline water into the fresh-water zone is a potential threat to water quality in the aquifer if the pressure head in the fresh-water zone is reduced sufficiently to allow upconing of saline water. One way to avoid the problem of upconing is by steady pumping at low rates from widely spaced wells; however, information required to determine pumping rates and well spacing is not available. For proper aquifer management the distribution of wells and rates of withdrawals should be designed to capture maximum recharge to the ground-water system. This may be accomplished by developing regional ground-water gradients that are sufficiently large to move water to pumpage centers but not so steep as to cause upconing of saline water or excessive water-level declines.

Carr, Jerry E.; Marcher, Melvin V.

1977-01-01

19

Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square miles in eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set represents a compilation of information from digital and paper sources and personal communication. This boundary is an update to the boundary published in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, and this report supersedes Open-File Report 99-267. The purpose of this data set is to refine and update the extent of the High Plains aquifer based on currently available information. This data set represents a compilation of arcs from a variety of sources and scales that represent the 174,000 square-mile extent of the High Plains aquifer within the eight states. Where updated information was not available, the original boundary extent defined by OFR 99-267 was retained. The citations for the sources in each State are listed in the 00README.txt file. The boundary also contains internal polygons, or 'islands', that represent the areas within the aquifer boundary where the aquifer is not present due to erosion or non-deposition. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

Qi, Sharon

2010-01-01

20

Records of wells and water quality for the Garber-Wellington Aquifer, northern Oklahoma and southern Logan Counties, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has collected data on Oklahoma's ground-water resources since 1934. Most of these data were collected as part of specific ground-water studies conducted in cooperation with various Federal, State, and local agencies. In 1972, at the request of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the Geological Survey undertook a study of the Garber-Wellington aquifer in northern Oklahoma and southern Logan Counties. As a part of this project, records of about 120 wells were collected and 12 samples of ground water from the aquifer were analyzed in the laboratories of the Geological Survey; these records are included in this report. In addition, records of about 302 wells and analyses of 60 water samples were taken from a report by Wood and Burton (1966) and from the files of the Geological Survey. Also included in this report are selected references for those desiring more information on the area's ground-water resources. The stratigraphic nomenclature and age determinations used in this report are those accepted by the Oklahoma Geological Survey and do not necessarily agree with those of the U.S. Geological Survey. Acknowledgment is extended to the many hundred of individuals who have provided the data compiled in this report.

Carr, Jerry E.; Havens, John S.

1976-01-01

21

Aquifer Tests and Characterization of Transmissivity, Ada-Vamoosa Aquifer on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of northeastern Oklahoma is a sedimentary bedrock aquifer of Pennsylvanian age that crops out over 800 square miles of the Osage Reservation. The Osage Nation needed additional information regarding the production potential of the aquifer to aid them in future development planning. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Osage Nation, conducted a study of aquifer properties in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. This report presents the results of the aquifer tests from 20 wells in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer and one well in a minor aquifer east of the Ada-Vamoosa outcrop on the Osage Reservation. Well information for 17 of the 21 wells in this report was obtained from the Indian Health Service. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during this investigation are pumping well data from four domestic wells collected during the summer of 2006. Transmissivity values were calculated from well pumping data or were estimated from specific capacity values depending on the reliability of the data. The estimated transmissivity values are 1.1 to 4.3 times greater than the calculated transmissivity values. The calculated and estimated transmissivity values range from 5 to 1,000 feet squared per day.

Abbott, Marvin M.; DeHay, Kelli

2008-01-01

22

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace aquifer encompasses the unconsolidated terrace deposits and alluvium associated with the North Fork of the Red River and the Red River in the western half of Tillman County. These sediments consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer extends over an area of 285 square miles and is used for irrigation and domestic purposes. Granite and the Hennessey Formation outcrop in northern parts of the aquifer where alluvial deposits are absent. These outcrops were included as part of the aquifer in a thesis that modeled the ground-water flow in the aquifer. Most of the aquifer boundaries and some of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity and recharge data sets were extracted from a published digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of 1:250,000. Most of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and 1969 water-level elevation contour data sets, and one line in the aquifer boundary data set were digitized from a paper map published at a scale of 1:249,695 in a thesis in which the ground-water flow in the aquifer was modeled. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C. J.; Runkle, D. L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

23

Digital Map of Saturated Thickness in the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1996 to 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set consists of saturated thickness contours for the High Plains aquifer in Central United States, 1996-97. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set was based on 10,085 water-level measurements, 49 stream elevations, (March 1997) and 10,036 water-level elevations from wells (1,370 from 1996 and 8,666 from 1997) and the base of aquifer value for each measurement location. The saturated thickness at each measurement location was determined by subtracting the water-level elevation from the base of aquifer at that location.

Fischer, Brian C.; Kollasch, Keith M.; McGuire, Virginia L.

2000-01-01

24

Hydrogeologic data for the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a compilation of hydrogeologic data collected for an areal ground-water investigation of the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas. The study area includes parts of Greer, Harmon, and Jackson counties in Oklahoma and parts of Childress, Collingsworth, Hall, Hardeman, and Wilbarger counties in Texas. The Blaine aquifer consists of cavernous gypsum and dolomite beds. Water from the Blaine aquifer supports a local agriculture based mainly on irrigated cotton and wheat. The purpose of the study was to determine the availability, quantity, and quality of ground water from the Blaine aquifer and associated units. This report provides a reference for some of the data that was used as input into a computer ground-water flow model that simulates ground-water flow in the Blaine aquifer. The data in this report consists of: (1) Monthly or periodic water-level measurements in 134 wells; (2) daily mean water-level measurements for 11 wells equipped with water-level recorders; (3) daily total precipitation measurements from five precipitation gages; (4) low-flow stream-discharge measurements for 89 stream sites; (5) miscellaneous stream-discharge measurements at seven stream sites; (6) chemical analyses of surface water from 78 stream sites during low-flow periods; (7) chemical analyses of ground water from 41 wells; and (8) chemical analyses of runoff water collected at five sites.

Runkle, D.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Fabian, R.S.

1997-01-01

25

Digital map of base of aquifer for High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for base of aquifer contours of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The original data are from the 1:1,000,000-scale mylar source map for Gutentag and others (1984).

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1998-01-01

26

Numerical simulation of the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer consists of the Tertiary Ogallala Formation and overlying Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits together with parts of underlying rocks. Before extensive irrigation in the 1960's, recharge from precipitation was balanced by natural discharge. Baseflow was estimated as approximately 118 cubic feet per second in 1980. A finite-difference digital model simulated flow in the aquifer. Recharge was adjusted so that 1980 baseflow was 118 cubic feet per second. Recharge in the eastern half of the modeled area was 0.45 inch per year and one-half this value in the western half. Three hydraulic conductivity zones were used: 19.3 feet per day in the east; 16.2 feet per day in the center; and 8.28 feet per day in the west. A specific yield of 14.7 percent was used. The calibrated model gave a mean difference between predevelopment modeled and measured heads of -0.044 foot. Using 1980 pumping rates, the model was used to predict 1993 and 2020 water in storage and saturated thickness. The calculated water in storage , in million acre-feet, in 1941 (predevelopment) was 135.2; in 1980, 121.9; in 1993, 112.7; and in 2020, 96.2. (USGS)

Havens, J.S.; Christenson, S.C.

1984-01-01

27

Digital map of specific yield for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set consists of specific yield percentage contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 106 degrees west longitude. The outcrop area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Dakota, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the specific yield percentage contours from a 1:1,000,000 base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, J. R.; Becker, M. F.

1998-01-01

28

Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for aquifer boundaries for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was compiled from a digital coverage that was created for publication of paper maps in McGrath and Dugan (1993, Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer -- predevelopment to 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4088, 53 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

29

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

2014-07-01

30

Rapid Recharge of Parts of the High Plains Aquifer Indicated by a Reconnaissance Study in Oklahoma, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight states, including about 7,100 square miles in northwestern Oklahoma (fig. 1). This aquifer consists of the saturated part of the Ogallala Formation and saturated materials of Quaternary Age that are hydraulically connected to the Ogallala. The High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma is the primary source of water to an important agricultural region. Most water is withdrawn from the aquifer for irrigating wheat and other grain crops, with the remainder used for livestock (primarily cattle and swine), municipal, and domestic needs. Historically, water from precipitation was thought to take hundreds or thousands of years to reach the water table because the depth of the water table is greater than 100 feet over most of the aquifer and the low-permeability beds in the Ogallala would impede downward flow. It also was thought that land uses would take a similar period of time to affect water quality in the aquifer.

Andrews, William J.; Osborn, Noel I.; Luckey, Richard R.

2000-01-01

31

Magnetic, Electromagnetic, and Bathymetric Survey of the Lake of the Arbuckles, South-Central Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 2009, we conducted a week-long geophysical and sonar survey of the Lake of the Arbuckles, within Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma. In this region, Pennsylvanian-aged orogenic deformation and sedimentation created the conditions that now govern the groundwater recharge, storage, and flow in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, one of the most important bedrock aquifers in Oklahoma. The Lake of the Arbuckles reservoir, filled about 40 years ago, occupies an area where two major faults disrupt the geologic units that constitute the aquifer. The Reagan fault and the Mill Creek fault are hypothesized to intersect beneath the lake, based on available geologic exposures and inferences from gravity, magnetic, and helicopter electromagnetic (EM) observations in areas surrounding the lake. To understand the obscured geometry of these faults, we developed a pontoon-raft to carry a broad-band (15 kHz - 135 kHz) EM bird and a cesium-vapor magnetic sensor across the lake. We towed the raft 15 m behind a small boat to minimize EM and magnetic interference from the vessel, and we collected data on 200-m-spaced transects across much of the lake. The Reagan fault has a large electrical conductivity contrast and magnetic signature due to its juxtaposition at shallow depth of magnetic Proterozoic basement rocks with Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks. Initial results will show how the lake survey magnetic transects help to define the location of this fault beneath the lake. In addition, we collected dual-frequency sonar data to map the present-day bathymetry of the lake, and we collected vertical, water-column profiles of sound velocity, conductivity, temperature, pH, redox potential, and dissolved oxygen. The water-column profiles allow correction of the sonar travel-times to depth and estimation of the EM response of the lake water, which will be essential in later inversion modeling of the EM data. In addition, comparisons of the present-day bathymetry with pre-reservoir topographic contours and with sedimentation range line transects surveyed prior to the filling of the reservoir will yield estimates of sedimentation rates and patterns of the lake.

Scheirer, D. S.; Smith, D. V.; Coffee, R.; Cason, J.

2009-12-01

32

Digital Map of Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States, 1980 to 1997. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 5,233 wells measured in both 1980 and 1997. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The contours then were converted to a digital map.

Fischer, Brian C.; Kollasch, Keith M.; McGuire, Virginia L.

2000-01-01

33

Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States, 1980 to 1995. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 5,892 wells measured in both 1980 and 1995. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar. The contours were converted to a digital map at a scale of 1:1,250,000. The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,250,000.

Fischer, Brian C.; McGuire, Virginia L.

1999-01-01

34

Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1996  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the Central United States, 1980 to 1996. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 5,429 wells measured in both 1980 and 1996. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar. The contours were converted into a digital map at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Fischer, Brian C.; McGuire, Virginia L.

1999-01-01

35

Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital water-level-change contour for the High Plains aquifer in the Central United States, 1980 to 1994. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 6,143 wells measured in both 1980 and 1994. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar. The contours were converted into a digital map at a scale of 1:1,250,000. The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,250,000.

Fischer, Brian C.; McGuire, Virginia L.

1999-01-01

36

Estimation of Recharge to the Middle Trinity Aquifer of Central Texas Using Water-Level Fluctuations  

E-print Network

A 23-site monitoring well network located in the Trinity Aquifer region of Central Texas, with all wells penetrating the Middle Trinity Aquifer, was used with available values of aquifer storativity and specific yield to estimate recharge...

Jennings, Marshall; Chad, Thomas; Burch, John; Creutzburg, Brian; Lambert, Lance

37

Digital map of predevelopment water levels for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for aquifer boundaries of contours for predevelopment water-level elevations for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment water-level elevations from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

38

Digital map of water levels in 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours for 1980 water-level elevations for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the 1980 water-level elevation contours from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer Systems-Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

39

Digital map of geologic faults for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for faults of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the faults from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

40

Plan of study for the High Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ogallala Formation and associated Tertiary and Quarternary deposits from the principal aquifers supporting irrigation in the High Plains of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The volume of water in storage within the aquifers is declining in most of the High Plains because water is being withdrawn in excess of the rate of replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains aquifer system to develop the geohydrologic data base and computer models of the ground-water flow system needed to evaluate the response of the aquifer system to ground-water management alternatives. This report describes the objectives, plan, and organization of the study and outlines the work to be accomplished in each State in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

Weeks, John B.

1978-01-01

41

Water table in the High Plains aquifer in 1978 in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer includes an area of about 177,000 square miles, with 74 percent of the area in Kansas, Nebraska, and Texas, and 26 percent of the area in Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Wyoming. The High Plains aquifer consists of one or more hydraulically connected geologic units of late Tertiary or Quaternary age. The late Tertiary rocks consist of the Brule Formation, Arikaree Group, and Ogallala Formation. The Quaternary rocks consist of alluvial, dune-sand, and valley-fill deposits. The configuration of the water table indicates that the High Plains aquifer is continuous throughout its extent, ground water generally flows west to east, and areas overlain by dune sand are recharge areas. Discharge from the aquifer is primarily to wells and streams. (USGS).

Gutentag, Edwin D.; Weeks, John B.

1980-01-01

42

Geochemistry of the Springfield Plateau aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a carbonate aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in central USA, has two distinct hydrochemical zones. Within each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different than water from wells. Geochemical data indicate that spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells. Water type throughout most of the aquifer was calcium bicarbonate, indicating that carbonate-rock dissolution is the primary geochemical process occurring in the aquifer. Concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, dissolved oxygen and tritium indicate that most ground water in the aquifer recharged rapidly and is relatively young (less than 40 years). In general, field-measured properties, concentrations of many chemical constituents, and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from the northern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone A) than in samples from the southern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone B). Factors affecting differences in the geochemical composition of ground water between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zone A than in zone B. In addition, specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, concentrations of many chemical constituents and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from wells than in samples from springs in each hydrochemical zone. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite plus nitrate, and chloride generally were greater in samples from springs than in samples from wells. Water from springs generally flows rapidly through large conduits with minimum water-rock interactions. Water from wells flow through small fractures, which restrict flow and increase water-rock interactions. As a result, springs tend to be more susceptible to surface contamination than wells. The results of this study have important implications for the geochemical and hydrogeological processes of similar carbonate aquifers in other geographical locations. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau carbonate aquifer has two distinct hydrochemical zones. With each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different from the water from wells. Spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells. Factors affecting the differences in the geochemical composition of groundwater between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zones.

Adamski, J. C.

2000-01-01

43

Induced earthquakes. Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity since 2008 induced by massive wastewater injection.  

PubMed

Unconventional oil and gas production provides a rapidly growing energy source; however, high-production states in the United States, such as Oklahoma, face sharply rising numbers of earthquakes. Subsurface pressure data required to unequivocally link earthquakes to wastewater injection are rarely accessible. Here we use seismicity and hydrogeological models to show that fluid migration from high-rate disposal wells in Oklahoma is potentially responsible for the largest swarm. Earthquake hypocenters occur within disposal formations and upper basement, between 2- and 5-kilometer depth. The modeled fluid pressure perturbation propagates throughout the same depth range and tracks earthquakes to distances of 35 kilometers, with a triggering threshold of ~0.07 megapascals. Although thousands of disposal wells operate aseismically, four of the highest-rate wells are capable of inducing 20% of 2008 to 2013 central U.S. seismicity. PMID:24993347

Keranen, K M; Weingarten, M; Abers, G A; Bekins, B A; Ge, S

2014-07-25

44

Sulfur isotopic composition and water chemistry in water from the High Plains aquifer, Oklahoma Panhandle and southwestern Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ogallala Formation comprises the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma and southwestern Kansas. Regional ground-water flow is from west to east in the Ogallala Formation, and the concentration of dissolved solids in ground water increases in the direction of flow. This increase may be influenced by residence time, but underlying bedrock appears to control ground-water chemistry. The Ogallala Formation is underlain by Mesozoic rocks in the west and Permian rocks in the east. Mean concentration of dissolved solids in ground water from the Mesozoic rocks is 552 milligrams per liter and Permian rocks is 4,720 milligrams per liter. Mean concentration of dissolved solids for water in the Ogallala Formation is 396 milligrams per liter where it overlies Mesozoic rocks and 569 milligrams per liter where it overlies Permian rocks. Del sulfur-34 sulfate values range from a high of +6.9 parts per thousand to a low of -25.1 parts per thousand. Sulfate increases from about 20 milligrams per liter to more than 350 milligrams per liter from west to east. Increasing concentration of dissolved solids, lighter Del sulfur-34 values, and increasing sulfate concentration in the east implies that ground water or hydrogen sulfide from Permian rocks may be moving upward into the Ogallala Formation. (USGS)

Krothe, Noel C.; Oliver, Joseph W.

1982-01-01

45

Ground-water flow in the Gulf Coast aquifer systems, south-central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Gulf Coast regional aquifer systems constitute one of the largest, most complicated, and most interdependent aquifer systems in the United States. Ground-water flow in a 230,000-square-mile area of the south-central United States was modeled for the effect of withdrawing freshwater at the rate of nearly 10 billion gallons per day in 1985 from regional aquifers in the Mississippi Embayment, the Texas coastal uplands, and the coastal lowlands aquifer systems. The 1985 rate of pumping was three times the average rate of recharge to the aquifers before development. The report also estimates the effects of even greater withdrawal rates in the aquifer systems. About two-thirds of the water in the aquifers is saline to brine, which complicates the modeling. Land subsidence due to water withdrawal also was modeled.

Williamson, A. K.; Grubb, H. F.

2001-01-01

46

40 CFR 81.337 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lincoln County Logan County McClain County Oklahoma County Pottawatomie County AQCR 185 North Central Oklahoma...County Logan County McClain County Pottawatomie County AQCR 185North Central Oklahoma Intrastate...

2010-07-01

47

Behavior of North-Central Texas Paleozoic Aquifers: Geological Controls vs. Surface Water Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleozoic formations and small associated aquifers (Paleozoic aquifers) of North-Central Texas could become a target as Barnett Shale gas play development progresses westward. Paleozoic aquifers lie west of the productive Trinity aquifer, but well yields from Paleozoic aquifers are much lower. Although many recharge features such as streams and lakes exist in the region, lower salinity groundwater (<5,000 ppm) in Paleozoic aquifers is found mostly in outcrop areas, and salinity increases rapidly downdip. The limited availability of fresh water in Paleozoic aquifers could be attributed to the low permeability of the geological formations, whose regional trends show transition westward to muddier facies downdip. On the other hand, high water flux through geological formations by surface water driven circulation could generate active shallow systems having limited interaction with downdip confined sections. Whether such active shallow systems exist in the Paleozoic aquifers is unknown but important in understanding the behavior of Paleozoic aquifers. With the ultimate goal of quantifying Paleozoic aquifer capacity and yield, the study addresses the following related questions: (1) Are there active shallow systems associated with Paleozoic aquifers? (2) How does the groundwater interact with surface water in this environment? and (3) Does groundwater production in this system capture appreciable surface water? Hydraulic properties of geological formations, groundwater flow, and surface water fluxes (precipitation, recharge, evapotranspiration, streamflow, etc.) are analyzed to evaluate the main processes driving the regional hydrology. Hydrology of the Trinity and Paleozoic aquifers is compared to explain the difference in behavior between the two neighboring aquifers. Expected findings include a quantification of groundwater availability of Paleozoic aquifers and an understanding of how surface water influences groundwater availability. The study will (1) quantify groundwater and surface water fluxes, (2) enhance our understanding of groundwater surface water interaction in the footprint of the Paleozoic aquifers, and (3) provide a basis for evaluating groundwater production potential.

Huang, Y.; Wolaver, B. D.; Nicot, J.; Mercier, J.; Hingst, M.; Breton, C.

2011-12-01

48

Geohydrology and simulation of steady-state flow conditions in regional aquifer systems in Cretaceous and older rocks underlying Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three regional aquifers systems are the basis for describing the geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the central United States. The Great Plains aquifer system, composed of Lower Cretaceous sandstone, generally contains brackish water (1,000 to 10,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids); the Western Interior Plains aquifer system of lower Paleozoic rocks contains saline water and is laterally adjacent to the freshwater-bearing Ozark Plateaus aquifer system composed of rocks of the same age.

Signor, D. C.; Helgesen, J. O.; Jorgensen, D. G.; Leonard, R. B.

1997-01-01

49

Digital map of changes in water levels from predevelopment to 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours of predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation changes for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation change from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

50

Geohydrology and numerical simulation of the alluvium and terrace aquifer along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the Panhandle to Canton Lake, northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A quantitative description of the hydrologic system in alluvium and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River in northwestern Oklahoma is needed as a aid for planning and management of the aquifer. A two-dimensional finite-difference model was used to describe the aquifer and to predict the effects of future ground-water withdrawals. The aquifer principally consists of three geologic units: Alluvium with an average thickness of 30 feet, low terrace deposits with an average thickness of 50 feet, and high terrace deposits with an average thickness of 70 feet. A thin cover of dune sand overlies much of the area and provides an excellent catchment for recharge, but is generally unsaturated. Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer ranges from 0 to 160 feet per day and average 59 feet per day. Specific yield is estimated to be 0.29. Recharge to the aquifer is approximately 1 inch annually. Under present conditions (1978), most discharge is the result of ground-water flow to the Beaver-North Canadian River at a rate of 36 cubic feet per second and to pumpage for public-supply, industrial, and irrigation use at a rate of 28 cubic feet per second. In 1978, the aquifer had an average saturated thickness of 31 feet and contained 4.07 million acre-feet of water. The model was used to predict future head response in the aquifer to various pumping stresses. For any one area, the pumping stress was applied until the saturated thickness for that area was less than 5 feet, at which time the pumping ceased. The results of the modeled projections show that if the aquifer is stressed from 1978 to 1993 at the 1977 pumpage rates and well distribution, the average saturated thickness will decrease 1.0 foot and the volume of water in storage will be 3.94 million acre-feet, or 97 percent of the 1978 volume. If the aquifer is stressed at this same rate until 2020, the average saturated thickness will decrease an additional 0.7 foot and the volume of water in storage will be 3.84 million acre-feet, or 94 percent of the 1978 volume. If all areas of the aquifer having a 1978 saturated thickness of 5 feet or more are stressed from 1978 to 1993 at a rate of approximately 1.4 acre-feet per acre per year, the average saturated thickness will decrease by 20.9 feet and the volume of water in storage will be 1.28 million acre-feet, or 31 percent of the 1978 volume. If the aquifer is stressed at this same rate until 2020, the average saturated thickness will decrease an additional 2.2 feet and the volume of water in storage will be 980,000 acre-feet, or 24 percent of the 1978 volume. The water in the aquifer is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type and is suitable for most uses. Most of the 30 water samples analyzed contained less than 500 milligrams of dissolved solids per liter.

Davis, Robert E.; Christenson, Scott C.

1981-01-01

51

Preliminary digital model of the Arikaree aquifer in the Sweetwater River basin, central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In central Wyoming, Potentially large supplies of ground water are available in the Sweetwater River basin from the Arikaree aquifer, which consists of the upper part of the White River, the Arikaree, and the Ogallala Formations. A preliminary digital model was developed for the Arikaree aquifer using a small amount of poorly distributed data, an estimated distribution of recharge, and a conceptual model of the Arikaree aquifer flow system. Calibration of the model was based on reproduction of the potentiometric surface and the base flow of the Sweetwater River in November 1975. Calculated steady-state hydraulic heads were within 50 feet of the observed heads in about 98 percent of the nodes. The calculated leakage from the Arikaree aquifer to he Sweetwater River in the western area was within about 12 percent of the leadage determined by gain and loss studies. In order to develop a comprehensive digital model that would respond to hydraulic stress in nearly the same manner as the actual aquifer flow system, measured responses of the aquifer to stress are needed. Also needed are additional data on aquifer characteristics, recharge to the aquifer, and stream-aquifer relationships. (Woodard-USGS)

Borchert, W. B.

1977-01-01

52

Water quality of the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The project was to provide information on the quality of ground water from rural-domestic-water wells within the Osage Reservation and compare the water-quality to proximity to oil wells. About 38,500 oil wells have been drilled in the Reservation since drilling began in 1896. About 1,480 square miles or 64 percent of the Reservation is within a quarter mile of an oil well. The unconfined Quaternary sand aquifer covers about 315 square miles or about 14 percent of the Reservation and the confined Ada-Vamoosa sandstone aquifer covers about 800 square miles or about 35 percent of the Reservation. Fifty-eight percent of the Quaternary aquifer and 69 percent of the outcrop area of the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer are within a quarter mile of an oil well . One hundred twenty domestic ground-water wells were sampled from the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers. Forty-nine percent of the Reservation is underlain by the aquifers. Ground-water quality is good on most of the Reservation, but the use of domestic water-supply wells tend to minimize water-quality problems. Existing water-supply wells commonly are located in areas that produce usable volumes of potable water. Several constituents in samples from the Ada-Vamoosa-aquifer within a quarter mile of an oil well were significantly greater than from the aquifer not near oil wells. The constituents include specific conductance, dissolved solids, sodium, sulfate, chloride, bromide, and silica. These ions are probably derived from brine water. In the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer subgroups, 57 percent of the samples near oil wells and 24 percent of the samples not near oil wells had dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 500 milligrams per liter. The water quality in the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers is similar in areas where no oil wells have been drilled but is significantly different for several constituents. Median concentrations of major constituents from the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer not near oil wells were less than or equal to values from the Quaternary aquifer. Sixty-four percent of the water-quality samples from the Quaternary and 51 percent from the Ada-Vamoosa aquifers have dissolved-solids concentrations less than the secondary drinking water regulations of 500 milligrams per liter. Fifty-nine percent of the aquifer samples in the Quaternary aquifer subgroups not near oil wells and 70 percent of the samples near oil wells had dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Areas in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer near Hominy, Pershing, and Hula Lake have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than the secondary drinking water regulations. Water-quality samples from the Quaternary aquifer in these areas also have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 500 milligrams per liter.

Abbott, Marvin M.

2000-01-01

53

P and S Travel Time Tomography Using a Dense Array of Portable Seismographs and Earthquake Sources in Central Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two pockets of increased seismicity rates in Central Oklahoma provide a unique opportunity to study the deep crustal structure of the area using passive travel-time tomography to analyze data from 156 single-channel seismic recorders with spacings between 0.4 and 0.8 km. The consistency of the seismicity in these areas provided the equivalent of a detailed, reversed seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile. The November 5, 2011, M5.6 earthquake in Lincoln County, Oklahoma, was followed by a series of aftershocks, which provided the sources on the eastern end of the profile, and an earthquake swarm 50km to the west, which has been ongoing since October 2009 in Oklahoma County, provided the western sources. Previous studies of these earthquake sequences, using the Oklahoma Geological Survey's Regional Seismic Network, aided by additional stations from the U. S. Geological Survey, provided reasonably well-constrained velocity models and double-differenced relocations for each earthquake. During the four nights the instruments were recording, eight earthquakes with magnitudes between M0.9 and M2.3 were recorded for this study: two were a part of the Oklahoma County swarm, and the other six were of the Lincoln County sequence. These earthquakes yielded a combined total of approximately 2,500 travel times for direct and refracted P and S phases, and provided ray coverage into the Conrad discontinuity, as well as arrivals that appear to be deep reflections. The earthquake sources also provided strong S-wave arrivals.

Toth, C. R.; Holland, A. A.; Keller, G. R.; Holloway, S. D.

2012-12-01

54

SUSTAINABLE YIELD OF A KARST AQUIFER IN CENTRAL TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, various hydrogeologic studies have been conducted to characterize the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer and to support sustainable yield determination. These studies include: geologic mapping, pumping tests, tracer tests, evaluation of historical data, numerical ground-water modeling, well-impact analysis, and biological studies. A broad definition of sustainable yield considers that water can be extracted from an

Brian A. Smith; Brian B. Hunt; Kirk Holland

55

Statistical analysis of stream water-quality data and sampling network design near Oklahoma City, central Oklahoma, 1977-1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality data collected from 1993-99 at five sites on Bluff, Deer, and Chisholm Creeks and from 1988-99 at five sites in the North Canadian River indicated that there were significant differences in constituent values among sites for water properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, turbidity, pesticides, and bacteria. Concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate generally decreased as streams flowed through the Oklahoma City urban area. Concentrations of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, lindane, and 2,4-D, and frequencies of detection of pesticides increased in the North Canadian River as it flowed through the urban area. Volatile organic compounds were not detected in samples collected quarterly from 1988-90 at sites on the North Canadian River. Concentrations of some compounds, including dissolved oxygen, sulfate, chloride, ammonia, manganese, diazinon, dieldrin, and fecal coliform bacteria periodically exceeded Federal or state water-quality standards at some sites. Regression analyses were used to identify trends in constituent concentrations related to streamflow, season, and time. Trends for some constituents were indicated at all sites, but most trends were site-specific. Seasonal trends were evident for several constituents: suspended solids, organic nitrogen, and biochemical oxygen demand were greatest during summer. Dissolved oxygen, ammonia, and nitrite plus nitrate-nitrogen were greatest during winter. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, fluoride, sulfate, total suspended solids, iron, and manganese generally increased with time. Concentrations of chloride, nitrite plus nitrate-nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate, biochemical oxygen demand, dieldrin, and lindane decreased with time. There was relatively little change in land use from the late 1970s to the mid-1990s due to relatively modest rates of population growth in the study area during that period. Most changes in water quality in these streams and rivers may be due to changes in chemical use and wastewater treatment practices. The sampling network was evaluated with respect to areal coverage, sampling frequency, and analytical schedules. Areal coverage could be expanded to include one additional watershed that is not part of the current network. A new sampling site on the North Canadian River might be useful because of expanding urbanization west of the city, but sampling at some other sites could be discontinued or reduced based on comparisons of data between the sites. Additional real-time or periodic monitoring for dissolved oxygen may be useful to prevent anoxic conditions in pools behind new low-water dams. The sampling schedules, both monthly and quarterly, are adequate to evaluate trends, but additional sampling during flow extremes may be needed to quantify loads and evaluate water quality during flow extremes. Emerging water-quality issues may require sampling for volatile organic compounds, sulfide, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, Escherichia coli, and enterococci, as well as use of more sensitive laboratory analytical methods for determination of cadmium, mercury, lead, and silver.

Brigham, Mark E.; Payne, Gregory A.; Andrews, William J.; Abbott, Marvin M.

2002-01-01

56

Digital map of areas of little or no saturated thickness for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for boundaries of areas of little or no saturated thickness within the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was compiled from a digital coverage that was created for publication of paper maps in McGrath and Dugan (1993, Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer -- predevelopment to 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4088, 53 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

57

Climatology of aerosol optical depth in north?central Oklahoma: 1992–2008  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow?band, interference?filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloudscreening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun’s elevation is greater than 9.25°. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month?by?month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

Michalsky, Joseph J.; Denn, Frederick; Flynn, Connor J.; Hodges, G. B.; Kiedron, Piotr; Koontz, Annette S.; Schlemmer, James; Schwartz, Stephen E.

2010-04-13

58

Climatology of aerosol optical depth in North-Central Oklahoma: 1992-2008  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloud-screening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun's elevation is greater than 9.25{sup o}. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

Michalsky, J.; Schwartz, S.; Denn, F.; Flynn, C.; Hodges, G.; Kiedron, P.; Koontz, A.; Schlemmer, J., and Schwartz, S. E

2010-04-01

59

Estimation of aquifer hydraulic parameters from surface geophysical measurements: a case study of the Upper Cretaceous aquifer, central Sinai, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of geophysical data with direct hydrogeological measurements can provide a minimally invasive approach to characterize the subsurface at a variety of resolutions and over many spatial scales. The field of hydrogeophysics has attracted much attention during the last two decades. In this domain, the geophysical data inverted to geophysical models are interpreted in terms of the hydrogeology to serve as a basis for the definition of hydraulic models in the areas of interest. The hydraulic conductivity ( K) value measured in a reference borehole has been combined with the electrical conductivity obtained from nearby geo-electromagnetic sounding data in the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) aquifer, central Sinai, Egypt. The resulting relation was interpreted with Dar Zarrouk parameters to infer the transmissivity variations at other vertical electrical sounding locations, where K values are unknown. Coincident transient electromagnetic data have been adopted to increase accuracy while interpreting the aquifer geoelectrical properties. The results indicate that the transmissivity values in the aquifer of interest vary from 2,446 to 9,694 m2/day, and K varies from 12.9 to 57.0 m/day throughout the studied area.

Massoud, Usama; Santos, Fernando; Khalil, Mohamed A.; Taha, Ayman; Abbas, Abbas M.

2010-05-01

60

Parsimonious recharge/discharge modeling in carbonate fractured aquifers: The groundwater flow in the Gran Sasso aquifer (Central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIn the carbonate fractured aquifer of the Gran Sasso (Central Italy), numerical simulations have been applied to validate a conceptual model of the recharge/discharge cycle at regional scale. To identify the effective aquifer features that mostly affect the spring discharges, simple parsimonious models, based on few key parameters whose effective values are well-constrained by previous hydrological/geological studies, are used. Input data are represented by infiltration, calculated considering rainfall, snowmelt and runoff in endorheic basins, and effective permeability distribution, estimated by geological, tectonic and hydrogeological settings of the aquifer. Discharges of tapped springs and tunnel drainages for the 1999-2009 period have been simulated, after estimating the recharge area of each monitored spring by the hydrogeological setting and checking them by mean isotope elevation values. Discharge monitoring has been compared with the simulations, obtaining a good agreement both at seasonal and yearly time basis. The simulations will also be useful for previewing discharge in drought period and evaluating protection zones of tapped springs in the territory of a National Park.

Amoruso, Antonella; Crescentini, Luca; Petitta, Marco; Tallini, Marco

2013-01-01

61

Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer of central Israel, its development and possible use as a storage reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cenomanian-Turonian formations constitute a highly permeable dolomite and limestone aquifer in central Israel. The aquifer is on the west limb of an anticlinorium that trends north-northeast. In places it may be as much as 800 meters thick, but in the report area, largely the foothills of the Judean-Ephraim Mountains where the water development is most intensive, its thickness is generally considerably less. In some places the aquifer occurs at or near the land surface, or it is covered by sandy and gravelly coastal-plain deposits. However, in a large part of the area, it is overlain by as much as 400 meters of relatively impermeable strata, and it is probably underlain by less permeable Lower Cretaceous strata. In general the aquifer water is under artesian pressure. The porosity of the aquifer is characterized mainly by solution channels and cavities produced by jointing and faulting. In addition to the generally high permeability of the aquifer, some regions, which probably coincide with ancient drainage patterns and (or) fault zones, have exceptionally high permeabilities. The source of most of the water in the aquifer is believed to be rain that falls on the foothills area. The westward movement of ground water from the mountainous outcrop areas appears to be impeded by a zone of low permeability which is related to structural and stratigraphic conditions along the western side of the mountains. Gradients of the piezometric surface are small, and the net direction of water movement is westward and northwestward under natural conditions. Locally, however, the flow pattern may be in other directions owing to spatial variations in permeability in the aquifer, the location of natural discharge outlets, and the relation of the aquifer to adjacent geologic formations. There probably is also a large vertical component of flow. Pumping has modified the flow pattern by producing several irregularly shaped shallow depressions in the piezometric surface although, to date, no unwatering of the aquifer has occurred. In the central part of the area, pumping has induced some infiltration from overlying coastal-plain formations. Injecting and storing surplus water seasonally in the aquifer should be feasible at almost any place. However, the movement and recovery of the injected water probably could be controlled most easily if the water were injected where depressions have been formed in the piezometric surface.

Schneider, Robert

1964-01-01

62

Potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system, west-central Florida, May, 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The intermediate aquifer system underlies a 5000-sq-mi area including De Soto, Sarasota, Hardee, Manatee, and parts of Charlotte, Hillsborough, Highlands, and Polk Counties, Florida. It is overlain by the surf@cial aquifer system and underlain by the Floridan aquifer system. The potentiometric surface of the intermediate aquifer system was mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and represented on a map by contours that connect points of equal altitude. This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the spring dry season when ground- water withdrawals for agricultural use were high. The cumulative rainfall for the study area was 4.84 inches above normal for the period from June 1992 to May 1993. Hydrographs for selected wells indicated that the annual and seasonal fluctuations of the water levels were generally large (greater than 15 feet) in the central interior region where water demand for irrigation is high during the fall and spring. Seasonal fluctuations were smaller in the northern recharge area where water use is predominantly for public supply. Water levels measured in May 1993 for the composite intermediate aquifer potentiometric surface were lower than those measured in May or September 1992. A cone of depression exists in the potentiometric surface for the composite aquifer system at Warm Mineral Springs, which is a natural discharge point from this system.

Mularoni, R. A.

1994-01-01

63

Chloride and nitrate distributions in the Hickory aquifer, Central Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate and chloride concentrations were compiled for 53 water wells in a rural, six-county area of central Texas. The counties reside above the Hickory Aquifer, an important source of ground-water in the region. Farming is the predominant land use in the study area. Consequently, fertilizer and animal waste are potential sources of contamination to the underlying groundwater. Some parts of

Paul F. Hudak

1999-01-01

64

Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater in the central part of the Dakota (Great Plains) aquifer, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dakota aquifer of the central and eastern Great Plains of the United States is an important source of water for municipal supplies, irrigation and industrial use. Although the regional flow system can be characterized generally as east to northeasterly from the Rocky Mountains towards the Missouri River, locally the flow systems are hydrologically complex. This study uses Sr isotopic

David C. Gosselin; F. Edwin Harvey; Carol Frost; Randy Stotler; P. Allen Macfarlane

2004-01-01

65

The Mahomet aquifer: A transboundary resource in east-central Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emerging intrastate transboundary issues focus on use of the Mahomet aquifer, which underlies about fifteen counties and many other political entities in east-central Illinois. This sand and gravel aquifer in the lower part of the buried Mahomet Bedrock Valley ranges between four and fourteen miles wide and from about 50 to 200 feet thick. Much of the region's rural population, several large communities, and many small towns obtain water from the Mahomet aquifer, as do industrial, agricultural, and commercial users. Increased development of the Mahomet aquifer to meet growing demands for water has caused conflicts over real or perceived adverse effects. One result has been the creation of fifteen resource protection zones and twelve water authorities. For groundwater supplies, resource protection zones help municipalities protect water-supply wells from potential adverse impacts. Many resource protection zones overlap one another, however, so this situation could lead to disputes over use of the resource. The reason that several of the twelve water authorities were organized was to meet a challenge perceived from a demand to be placed on the aquifer, in other words, a potential for conflict of use. Complicating the situation is that some of the water authorities overlap the resource protection zones. This could lead to disputes not only about water use, but also over which jurisdiction has the authority to settle a dispute. The Mahomet Aquifer Consortium was recently organized by concerned people representing diverse groundwater interests at the local level, including the private sector, professional organizations, and various governmental units. The consortium brings together representatives of some groups that typically did not communicate with each other in the past. The consortium may provide a forum through which emerging transboundary issues pertaining to use of the Mahomet aquifer can be addressed. Because the consortium is a voluntary organization that relies on Consensus building, the success it may achieve in resolving future conflicts over groundwater use from the Mahomet aquifer remains to be seen.

Larson, D.R.; Mehnert, E.; Herzog, B.L.

2003-01-01

66

Ethnic Identity and the Boarding School Experience of West-Central Oklahoma American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports on a study of the perceptions of Oklahoma American Indians about their childhood experiences in government and church-sponsored boarding schools. Drawing on symbolic anthropology, the boarding school experience is interpreted to be a complex cultural symbol and symbolic process that contributes to group collectivity and belonging…

McBeth, Sally J.

67

Oklahoma BEEF Incorporated (OBI) Bull Delivery Sheet Central bull testing at Oklahoma BEEF, Incorporated, is managed and supervised with the emphasis on the performance, health, and safety of the bulls; however, Oklahoma  

E-print Network

for Oklahoma Cattle *Out of state cattle must comply with Oklahoma Animal Health requirements Date Tested/dd/yy Have the following vaccinations been given at home? (Please check the appropriate boxes) YES NO DATE Leptospira bacterin Pasteurella vaccines (PresponseTM, One ShotTM, or Pulmo-guardTM) Do not use old style

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

68

Geochemical and Hydrogeological Controls on Arsenic in Sand-and-Gravel Aquifers in Central Illinois, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 176 wells in sand-and-gravel aquifers in central Illinois were sampled for arsenic and other chemical parameters. These results were combined with archived and published data from several hundred well samples to characterize the spatial distribution of arsenic and determine the potential geochemical controls on its solubility and mobility. There was considerable spatial variability in the arsenic concentrations, and arsenic was not correlated with aquifer depth. There did not appear to be any arsenic "plumes" at the scale of the sampling. Arsenic solubility appeared to be controlled by oxidation-reduction conditions, especially the presence of organic matter. Geochemical conditions in the aquifers are typically reducing, but only in the most reducing waters does arsenic accumulate in solution. In wells in which sulfate was present, arsenic concentrations were low or below the detection limit (0.5 ig/L). Elevated arsenic concentrations were only found in wells where sulfate was absent or at low concentrations, indicating post-sulfate-reducing conditions. Methane was detected and organic carbon and ammonium concentrations were generally elevated in these wells. Iron is common in the aquifer sediments, and iron reduction appears to be occurring throughout the aquifers. Arsenic is likely released from the solid phase as iron oxide is reduced.

Kelly, W. R.; Holm, T. R.; Wilson, S. D.; Roadcap, G. S.

2004-12-01

69

Appraisal of the Pelican River sand-plain aquifer, west-central Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pelican River sand-plain area includes approximately 200 squares miles of outwash deposits in parts of Becker, Otter Trail, and Clay Counties in west-central Minnesota. Saturated thickness of the outwash is as much as 140 feet and yields and properly constructed wells locally may exceed 1,200 gallons per minute. Recharge to the outwash from snowmelt and rain ranged from 3.2 to 6.1 inches in 1979-80. Discharge from the aquifer, as base flow of the Pelican River averaged 2.0 inches for 1979-80. Evapotranspiration is 22.4 inches per year. The chemical quality of ground-water is suitable for irrigation as measured by sodium-adsorption ratios, but locally high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate may cause clogging of well screens. Mathematical models of parts of the ground-water-flow system indicate that lake levels and streamflow may decline due to pumping wells. The exact water-level decline is dependent on the total number of wells, pumping rates, location of pumping wells with respect to one another and surface-water bodies, duration of pumping, and the amount of ground-water recharge. Sensitivity analyses of the models indicates that additional data on hydraulic conductivity, evapotranspiration, and recharge may increase the reliability of model results. Buried aquifers are known to be present in the area. Aquifer-test results showed that pumping from a buried aquifer had no effect on water levels in the unconfined aquifer. (USGS)

Miller, R.T.

1982-01-01

70

Natural trace elements baselines and dissolved loads in groundwater from carbonate aquifers of central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the natural baselines of several trace and ultra-trace elements dissolved in groundwater of the carbonate aquifers of central Italy are defined based on a probabilistic approach. The concentration of minor and trace elements is showed as cumulative frequency distribution diagrams, and the mean value and the confidence interval for each element are estimated. Most of the elements considered in this study are characterised by a polymodal distribution. The differences between the various populations are mainly related to natural geological causes and, to a lesser extent, to local contamination. Most of the data are below the European standards for drinking water. The highest concentration of trace and ultra-trace species is generally representative of deep circulation in carbonate-evaporite aquifer, while the lower concentration is relative to shallower circulation into the carbonate aquifer. The estimated dissolved load of groundwater from carbonate-evaporite aquifers is about 1.4 × 10 6 ton yr -1 that represents 25-30% of the annual dissolved transport of the main river of the region (Tiber River), and the elemental fluxes discharged by the whole Umbrian carbonate aquifer give an important contribution to the composition of the surface water of the region.

Morgantini, N.; Frondini, F.; Cardellini, C.

71

Potentiometric surface of the upper Floridan aquifer system, west-central Florida, May 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by a middle confining unit. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer was mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and represented on a map by contours that connect points of equal altitude. This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the spring dry season when groundwater withdrawals for agricultural use were high. The cumulative rainfall for the study area was 4.84 inches above normal for the period from June 1992 to May 1993. Hydrographs of selected wells generally indicated that water levels in wells north of the Hillsborough/Pasco County line (northern area), where the aquifer generally is unconfined and groundwater withdrawals are relatively small, remained fairly uniform from year to year and season to season, whereas water levels south of the county line (southern area), where the aquifer is confined and withdrawals are relatively large, showed large year-to-year and seasonal fluctuations. Maximum daily water levels for selected wells from May 1992 through May 1993 showed that water levels were relatively stable during May 1993 in the northern part of the study area, but were declining rapidly in the southern part. Water levels in most wells measured in May 1993 were lower than those measured in September 1992. The greatest decline in water levels occurred in southern Hillsborough, central Manatee, and northern Sarasota Counties as a result of heavy seasonal groundwater withdrawals for irrigation. Water levels measured in May 1993 were generally higher than those reported for May 1992. The general increase in water levels during this period was largely the result of above-normal rainfall that resulted in below-average seasonal groundwater withdrawals from the aquifer.

Mularoni, R. A.

1994-01-01

72

A study of the relationship between certain moisture parameters and severe convective storms in central Oklahoma  

E-print Network

Blanchard, 1934 CST 4. 500 mb Vinds for Tabler, 1745-0027 CST. . 18 25 52 5. TP1J, LP'V, and UPb1 for Tabler, 1745-0027 CST. . . 53 6. Vinds from Oklahoma City, 1800 CST. 61 LIST OF FIGURES Page 1. A sounding typical of the "Narfa" front. . 2. A... cloud model illustrating incloud circulation and entrainment of ambient air 3. NSSL WSR-57 radar system (after Wilk and Gray, 1970). 4. Surface observational network used in this study. . 13 5. Radiosonde network used in this study. . 14 6. Svrface...

Scott, Carven Allen

2012-06-07

73

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma. Ground water in 830 square miles of the Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace aquifer is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer consists of poorly sorted, fine to coarse, unconsolidated quartz sand with minor amounts of clay, silt, and basal gravel. The hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits unconformably overlie the Tertiary-age Ogallala Formation and Permian-age formations. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary and recharge data sets and some of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity data set were extracted from a published digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of 1:250,000. The ground-water elevation contours and some of the lines for the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were digitized from a ground-water modeling report about the aquifer published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values and recharge rates also are from the ground-water modeling report. The data sets are provided in both nonproprietary and ARC/INFO export file formats. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G.P.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

74

Geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks of the Biscayne aquifer in central Miami-Dade County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluations of the lithostratigraphy, lithofacies, paleontology, ichnology, depositional environments, and cyclostratigraphy from 11 test coreholes were linked to geophysical interpretations, and to results of hydraulic slug tests of six test coreholes at the Snapper Creek Well Field (SCWF), to construct geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks for the study area in central Miami-Dade County, Florida. The resulting geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks are consistent with those recently described for the Biscayne aquifer in the nearby Lake Belt area in Miami-Dade County and link the Lake Belt area frameworks with those developed for the SCWF study area. The hydrogeologic framework is characterized by a triple-porosity pore system of (1) matrix porosity (mainly mesoporous interparticle porosity, moldic porosity, and mesoporous to megaporous separate vugs), which under dynamic conditions, produces limited flow; (2) megaporous, touching-vug porosity that commonly forms stratiform groundwater passageways; and (3) conduit porosity, including bedding-plane vugs, decimeter-scale diameter vertical solution pipes, and meter-scale cavernous vugs. The various pore types and associated permeabilities generally have a predictable vertical spatial distribution related to the cyclostratigraphy. The Biscayne aquifer within the study area can be described as two major flow units separated by a single middle semiconfining unit. The upper Biscayne aquifer flow unit is present mainly within the Miami Limestone at the top of the aquifer and has the greatest hydraulic conductivity values, with a mean of 8,200 feet per day. The middle semiconfining unit, mainly within the upper Fort Thompson Formation, comprises continuous to discontinuous zones with (1) matrix porosity; (2) leaky, low permeability layers that may have up to centimeter-scale vuggy porosity with higher vertical permeability than horizontal permeability; and (3) stratiform flow zones composed of fossil moldic porosity, burrow related vugs, or irregular vugs. Flow zones with a mean hydraulic conductivity of 2,600 feet per day are present within the middle semiconfining unit, but none of the flow zones are continuous across the study area. The lower Biscayne aquifer flow unit comprises a group of flow zones in the lower part of the aquifer. These flow zones are present in the lower part of the Fort Thompson Formation and in some cases within the limestone or sandstone or both in the uppermost part of the Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation. The mean hydraulic conductivity of major flow zones within the lower Biscayne aquifer flow unit is 5,900 feet per day, and the mean value for minor flow zones is 2,900 feet per day. A semiconfining unit is present beneath the Biscayne aquifer. The boundary between the two hydrologic units is at the top or near the top of the Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation. The lower semiconfining unit has a hydraulic conductivity of less than 350 feet per day. The most productive zones of groundwater flow within the two Biscayne aquifer flow units have a characteristic pore system dominated by stratiform megaporosity related to selective dissolution of an Ophiomorpha-dominated ichnofabric. In the upper flow unit, decimeter-scale vertical solution pipes that are common in some areas of the SCWF study area contribute to high vertical permeability compared to that in areas without the pipes. Cross-hole flowmeter data collected from the SCWF test coreholes show that the distribution of vuggy porosity, matrix porosity, and permeability within the Biscayne aquifer of the SCWF is highly heterogeneous and anisotropic. Groundwater withdrawals from production well fields in southeastern Florida may be inducing recharge of the Biscayne aquifer from canals near the well fields that are used for water-management functions, such as flood control and well-field pumping. The SCWF was chosen as a location within Miami-Dade County to study the potential for such recharge to the Biscayne aquifer from the C–2 (Snapper Creek) canal that roughly divides the

Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.; Williams, John H.

2014-01-01

75

Potential for downward leakage to the Floridan Aquifer, Green Swamp area, central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A qualitative evaluation of the potential for downward leakage from the surficial sand aquifer to the underlying Floridan aquifer was made for the Green Swamp area (about 870 sq mi) in central Florida. Downward leakage, or recharge, is limited under natural conditions owing to the nearness to land surface of the potentiometric surface of both the sand aquifer and the underlying Floridan aquifer. Continuous cores of the unconsolidated section were obtained at 74 sites in the study area and were evaluated for downward leakage potential based on grain-size distribution. Sand percentage was estimated for each interval or bed from microscopic examination of the core samples. The four maps prepared from this data show sand thickness, clay thickness, relative vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds and the relative potential for downward leakage. About 20 percent (178 sq mi) of the area classified has a relatively good potential for downward leakage; almost 50 percent of the area has a relatively poor potential. (Woodard-USGS)

Grubb, H. F.

1977-01-01

76

An Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment of the Paluxy Aquifer, Central Texas, USA, Using GIS and a Modified DRASTIC Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

D  epth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media,\\u000a Topography, Impact of the vadose zone, and\\u000a Conductivity of the aquifer). Using such an approach allows one to investigate the potential for groundwater contamination\\u000a on a regional, rather than site-specific, scale. Based upon data from variables such as soil permeability, depth to water,\\u000a aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and topography, subjective numerical weightings

Todd G. Fritch; Cleavy L. McKnight; Joe C. Yelderman Jr.; Jeff G. Arnold

2000-01-01

77

Water-level changes in the high plains aquifer underlying parts of South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas; predevelopment through nonirrigation season 1987-88  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The changes in water levels in the High Plains aquifer from the nonirrigation season 1986-87 through the nonirrigation season 1987-88 and from the nonirrigation season 1979-80 through the nonirrigation season 1987-88 are presented in maps for the entire High Plains aquifer area. Water level changes are caused by interacting changes in precipitation, land use, and annual pumpage. Water levels declined from conditions prior to development until 1980 through parts of the High Plains of Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. From 1980 through 1987 water level changes were mixed, with declines of more than 10 ft in the highly developed areas of Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas and relatively stable to rising water tables throughout the remaining aquifer area. The net change was a rise of 0.8 ft. The 1981-87 period was generally wetter than normal and pumping for irrigated agriculture was therefore reduced. Water level changes were mixed during 1987. Declines continued in some highly developed areas, but water levels generally rose throughout most of the aquifer. The average area-weighted change was a rise of 0.28 ft. This rise was due to the generally greater than normal precipitation, decreased acreage under irrigation, and decreased pumpage for those areas irrigated. At the end of the growing season, the drought in the Midwest in 1988 affected only limited areas of the High Plains. The effects of the drought on water levels can not be assessed until the water-level measurements for the nonirrigation season of 1988-89 are compiled. (USGS)

Kastner, W. M.; Schild, D. E.; Spahr, D. S.

1989-01-01

78

Investigating Vertical Mixing Between Two Carbonate Aquifers Using a Multiport Well, Central Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the occurrence and extent of mixing between vertically-adjacent aquifers is critical to dual-aquifer management. This can be challenging due to variable well depths and uncertainty as to hydrostratigraphic sources of groundwater. This study uses a multiport monitor well to investigate the degree of aquifer mixing between the overlying Edwards aquifer and underlying Trinity aquifer in central Texas. The results will inform dual-aquifer management as the Trinity aquifer is being developed as an alternative water source to the Edwards aquifer due to pumping limits and projections of increasing water demand. Water levels from isolated hydrostratigraphic units (n = 19) were measured monthly in the well as climate conditions transitioned from wet to dry (Sept 2010 to May 2011). Groundwater was sampled over a two-week interval in May to June 2011. At the start of the monitoring interval, water levels were high in the Edwards and the uppermost units of the Trinity relative to the rest of the Trinity units. Water levels decreased to lower elevations, from about 635 to 585 ft-msl, under dry conditions. Water levels in the lowermost Trinity declined less, from about 630 to 620 ft-msl, under dry conditions. Two zones separating the Edwards and lowermost Trinity showed almost no head change during this period. The water-level variations between the two aquifers suggest that: i) vertical flow potential from the Edwards to the Trinity occurs during dry conditions, ii) the uppermost stratigraphic units of the Trinity and Edwards are mixing, and iii) portions of the Trinity behave as an aquitard, providing hydrologic separation between the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units. Groundwater samples indicate the presence of three distinct hydrochemical facies: Ca-HCO3 (Edwards), Ca-HCO3-SO4 (lowermost Trinity), and Ca-SO4 (Trinity-Glen Rose Fm), suggesting little vertical flow and mixing. Covariation between groundwater 87Sr/86Sr values and SO4 concentrations from units of the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units can be accounted for by a two-end-member fluid mixing model, which uses a unit from the Edwards and lowermost Trinity as end members. This may indicate that 87Sr/86Sr values and SO4 concentrations are controlled by varying extents of mixing between the two units. Groundwater from units in the Glen Rose Formation (between the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units) cannot be accounted for by this mixing process due to elevated SO4 concentrations likely associated with dissolution of evaporites. 87Sr/86Sr values of evaporites recovered from the well are consistent with 87Sr/86Sr values of groundwater from these Glen Rose units. Although the geochemical model results suggest possible mixing between the Edwards and Trinity aquifers, water-level variations and the presence of distinct hydrochemical facies indicate that vertical flow between the Edwards and Trinity is limited to the uppermost units of the Trinity. This study suggests that the Edwards aquifer and lowermost Trinity units are not likely in hydrologic communication and independent management may be possible.

Kromann, J.; Wong, C. I.; Hunt, B.; Smith, B.; Banner, J. L.

2011-12-01

79

Potentiometric surface of the upper Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida, September 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A map of the September 1993 potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida depicts ground-water levels for the annual high water-level period. Water levels measured in September 1993 were generally lower than those reported for September 1992. In 572 wells with paired measurements, the September 1993 level ranged from 9.60 feet below to 4.73 feet above the September 1992 level and averaged 0.41 foot below the September 1992 level. The general decline in water levels during this period was largely the result of below normal rainfall that resulted in above average seasonal ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer.

Mularoni, R. A.

1994-01-01

80

Geologic framework of the Edwards Aquifer and upper confining unit, and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Edwards Aquifer, south-central Uvalde County, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stratigraphic units of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County generally are porous and permeable. The stratigraphic units that compose the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County are the Devils River Formation in the Devils River trend; and the West Nueces, McKnight, and Salmon Peak Formations in the Maverick Basin. The Balcones fault zone is the principal structural feature in Uvalde County; however, the displacement along the fault zone is less in Uvalde County than in adjacent Medina and Bexar Counties to the east. The Uvalde Salient is a structural high in south-central Uvalde County, and consists of several closely connected crustal uplifts that bring Edwards aquifer strata to the surface generally forming prominent hills. The crustal uplifts forming this structural high are the remnants of intrusive and extrusive magnatic activity. Six primary faults?Cooks, Black Mountain, Blue Mountain, Uvalde, Agape, and Connor?cross the length of the study area from the southwest to the northeast juxtaposing the Lower Cretaceous Salmon Peak Formation at the surface in the northwestern part of the study area against Upper Cretaceous formations in the central part of the study area. In the study area, the porosity of the rocks in the Edwards aquifer is related to depositional or diagenetic elements along specific stratigraphic horizons (fabric selective) and to dissolution and structural elements that can occur in any lithostratigraphic horizon (not fabric selective). Permeability depends on the physical properties of the rock such as size, shape, distribution of pores, and fissuring and dissolution. The middle 185 feet of the lower part of the Devils River Formation, the upper part of the Devils River Formation, and the upper unit of the Salmon Peak Formation probably are the most porous and permeable stratigraphic zones of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County.

Clark, Allan K.; Small, Ted A.

1997-01-01

81

Comparing flowmeter, aquifer test, and surface nuclear magnetic resonance data in Central Nebraska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally the only means of estimating the hydraulic properties of aquifers has involved drilling boreholes. The logistical and economic requirements of aquifer tests has limited the ability of hydrologists to construct the detailed groundwater models needed for resource management. As such, water policy decisions are often based on sparse aquifer tests combined with geologic interpretation and extrapolation. When dealing with complicated groundwater systems these extrapolations are often not accurate at the scale required to characterize the groundwater system, and additional information is needed to make better informed resource decisions. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) is a geophysical technique which allows for non-invasive estimates of hydraulic permeability and transmissivity. Protons in a volume of liquid water form a weak bulk magnetic moment as they align and precess about the earth's magnetic field. This moment is too small to be measured directly but may be observed by tipping it away from equilibrium using radio-frequency pulses oscillating at the same frequency as its precession (the Larmor frequency). After a short tipping pulse, the moment continues to precess around the static field, although at a tipped angle, slowly returning to its equilibrium state. The decay of these spinning magnetic moments can be observed inductively using loops of wire on the surface of the earth. In the simplest experiment a time series is recorded after a single tipping pulse. By varying the strength of the tipping pulse, different regions of the subsurface can be probed. The amplitude of the signal is directly proportional to the amount of water in the investigated volume. The decay rate of the signal is related to pore geometry and interconnectivity and can be used to estimate hydraulic conductivity. However, this relationship cannot be universally defined as it is affected by additional factors including the mineralogy of the host rock and homogeneity of the earth's magnetic field. This necessitates locally calibrating the SNMR data against aquifer tests in order to derive a relation of the SNMR data to the local aquifers. After calibration, additional SNMR data can be used at sites with the same aquifer units to produce estimates of hydraulic properties. To test this methodology, SNMR, aquifer tests and flowmeter measurements were conducted at two sites within the High Plains Aquifer in Central Nebraska. A novel compressive inversion scheme was developed that simultaneously processes the entire SNMR dataset and accounts for electrical conductivity. The inverted porosity and decay times were then regressed against the aquifer and flowmeter tests to derive local calibration coefficients. Using this calibration, the SNMR derived hydraulic conductivity estimates were in good agreement with the aquifer test-derived estimates. Since the same calibration was appropriate at both sites, SNMR data can now be collected at additional sites in the area and used to estimate hydraulic properties.

Irons, T.; Abraham, J. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Steele, G.; Hobza, C. M.; Li, Y.; McKenna, J. R.

2011-12-01

82

Effects of brine on the chemical quality of water in parts of Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, Payne, Pottawatomie, and Seminole Counties, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of water-quality degradation due to brine contamination was made in an area of ~1,700 mi2 in east-central Oklahoma. The study area coincides in part with the outcrop of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer of Pennsylvanian age.

Morton, Robert B.

1986-01-01

83

Characterizing a complex aquifer system using geophysics, hydrodynamics and geochemistry: A new distribution of Miocene aquifers in the Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks (east-central Tunisia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks are located in the Sahel region in east-central Tunisia. Active tectonics have divided the region into numerous sub-units, as result of multiple phases of distension and compression. The Miocene fluvio-deltaic sediment sandy layers have aquiferous capacities but their hydraulic properties are still unknown, due to the lack of investigation wells. This study proposes a new description of the regional hydrogeology of Miocene deposits. Seismic-reflection and wireline logging of petroleum and water wells were used to understand the structure and the geometry of the Miocene reservoirs. The groundwater flow and its relationship to the sedimentary and tectonic context were then identified by studying piezometry and hydrochemistry. Two Miocene deep aquifer systems were identified: (1) Zéramdine-Béni Hassen to the north and (2) Jébéniana-Ksour Essef to the south. These aquifers are separated by the Mahdia graben. Other major tectonic structures, such as the Zéramdine fault corridor, the Moknine graben, and the El-Jem half-graben represent lateral boundaries for these aquifers. Other deeper sandy and clayey-sandy reservoirs were also identified in the area. Their repartition, thickness and depth vary from one block to other. Hydrodynamics of the deep aquifers seems to be controlled by geological structures. Two independent compartments were identified: in the northern block groundwater flows from West to East and from Northwest to Southeast, while in the southern block it flows from Northwest to Southeast. Geochemical facies are of two types: Na-Ca-Cl-SO 4 for the Zéramdine-Béni Hassen deep aquifer and Na-Cl for the Jébéniana-Ksour Essef deep aquifer. The hydrodynamic and geochemical results confirm the sharing of the Miocene sediments into two aquifers.

Lachaal, Fethi; Bédir, Mourad; Tarhouni, Jamila; Gacha, Ayadi Ben; Leduc, Christian

2011-06-01

84

Hydrochemistry of aquifer systems and relation to regional flow patterns in Cretaceous and older rocks underlying Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquifer systems in Cretaceous and older rocks of the Central Midwest are divided on the basis of hydrochemistry and ground-water flow patterns in the Plains subregion, the Western Interior Plains aquifer system contains sodium chloride type water with large concentrations of dissolved solids. Ion ratios suggest that the water was derived from seawater by concentration and by depletion of calcium and sulfate ions. In the overlying Western Interior Plains confining system, concentrations of depositional sea water and dissolution of extensive evaporite deposits have resulted in sodium chloride type water with large concentrations of dissolved solids and sodium. Overlying this confining system in the northwest part of the study area, the Great Plains aquifer system yields water that generally is less mineralized and more variable in water type than the underlying systems. Recharge of meteoric water, concentration of brackish water in which the rocks were deposited, and dissolution of underlying evaporite deposits have contributed to the observed water chemistry. The Great Plains confining system restricts the exchange of water between the underlying Great Plains aquifer system and the overlying unconfined aquifers. In the Ozark subregion, geological units equivalent to the Western Interior Plains aquifer system comprise the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. Units of this aquifer system are exposed at the land surface, and fresh meteoric water moves rapidly through fractures and solution openings. Water chemistry in this system reflects primarily the dissolution of the predominately carbonate rocks.

Baker, Claud H., Jr.; Leonard, Robert B.

1995-01-01

85

Chloride and nitrate distributions in the Hickory Aquifer, central Texas, USA  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate and chloride concentrations were compiled for 53 water wells in a rural, six-county area of central Texas. The counties reside above the Hickory Aquifer, an important source of groundwater in the region. Farming is the predominant land use in the study area. Consequently, fertilizer and animal waste are potential sources of contamination to the underlying groundwater. Some parts of the aquifer contain above-background nitrate levels, but no spatial trends were evident for chloride. Observations from four wells exceeded the primary drinking water standard of 44.27 mg/L for nitrate (10 mg/L for NO{sub 3}-N), and two wells surpassed the secondary standard of 250 mg/L for chloride. Rank correlations between nitrate and well depth were statistically significant, consistent with nitrate contamination originating at the land surface. However, no significant correlation was observed between nitrate and chloride, nor between chloride and well depth. A low recharge rate may contribute to the absence of pervasive nitrate contamination in the aquifer.

Hudak, P.F. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Geography

1999-05-01

86

Data for ground-water test hole near Butte City, Central Valley aquifer project, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides preliminary data for the third of seven test holes drilled as part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 1 W., Glenn County, California, about one-half mile south of the town of Butte City. Drilled to a depth of 1,432 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 82 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 592 feet, 968 feet, and 1,330 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer , and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Nine cores and 49 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, and chemical quality of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

French, James J.; Page, R. W.; Bertoldi, G. L.

1983-01-01

87

Data for ground-water test hole near Nicolaus, Central Valley aquifer project, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Preliminary data are provided for the third of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 2, T.12N., R.3E., Sutter County, California, about 1 1/2 miles northwest of the town of Nicolaus. Drilled to a depth of 1,150 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 100 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 311, 711, and 1,071 feet. A 5-foot well screen is set in sand at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer, and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Thirty-one cores and 34 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for minerology, consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis of the three tapped zones and measured for water level. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

French, James J.; Page, R. W.; Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

1983-01-01

88

Calibrated models as management tools for stream-aquifer systems: the case of central Kansas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We address the problem of declining streamflows in interconnected stream-aquifer systems and explore possible management options to address the problem for two areas of central Kansas: the Arkansas River valley from Kinsley to Great Bend and the lower Rattlesnake Creek-Quivira National Wildlife Refuge area. The approach we followed implements, calibrates, and partially validates for the study areas a stream-aquifer numerical model combined with a parameter estimation package and sensitivity analysis. Hydrologic budgets for both predevelopment and developed conditions indicate significant differences in the hydrologic components of the study areas resulting from development. The predevelopment water budgets give an estimate of natural ground-water recharge, whereas the budgets for developed conditions give an estimate of induced recharge, indicating that major ground-water development changes the recharge-discharge regime of the model areas with time. Such stream-aquifer models serve to link proposed actions to hydrologic effects, as is clearly demonstrated by the effects of various management alternatives on the streamflows of the Arkansas River and Rattlesnake Creek. Thus we show that a possible means of restoring specified streamflows in the area is to implement protective stream corridors with restricted ground-water extraction. ?? 1993.

Sophocleous, M.; Perkins, S. P.

1993-01-01

89

Potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system, west-central Florida, September, 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A map of the September 1993 potentiometric surface of the intermediate aquifer system in west- central Florida depicts water levels for the annual high water-level period. Water levels measured in September 1993 were generally below those reported for September 1992. In 134 wells with paired measurements, the September 1993 level ranged from 4.86 feet below to 5.91 feet above the September 1992 level and averaged 0.59 foot below the September 1992 level. The general decline in water levels during this period was largely the result of below normal rainfall and above average seasonal ground-water withdrawals.

Mularoni, R. A.

1994-01-01

90

Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater in the central part of the Dakota (Great Plains) aquifer, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dakota aquifer of the central and eastern Great Plains of the United States is an important source of water for municipal supplies, irrigation and industrial use. Although the regional flow system can be characterized generally as east to northeasterly from the Rocky Mountains towards the Missouri River, locally the flow systems are hydrologically complex. This study uses Sr isotopic data from groundwater and leached aquifer samples to document the complex subsystems within the Dakota aquifer in Nebraska and Kansas. The interaction of groundwater with the geologic material through which it flows has created spatial patterns in the isotopic measurements that are related to: long-term water-rock interaction, during which varying degrees of isotopic equilibrium between water and rock has been achieved; and the alteration of NaCl fluids by water-rock interaction. Specifically, Sr isotopic data distinguish brines from Kansas and western Nebraska from those in eastern Nebraska: the former are interpreted to reflect interaction with Permian rocks, whereas the latter record interaction with Pennsylvanian rocks. The Sr isotopic composition of groundwater from other parts of Nebraska and Kansas are a function of the dynamic interaction between groundwater and unlithified sediments (e.g., glacial till and loess), followed by interaction with oxidized and unoxidized sediments within the Dakota Formation. This study illustrates the power of combining Sr chemistry with more conventional geochemical data to obtain a more complete understanding of groundwater flow systems within regional aquifer systems where extensive monitoring networks do not exist. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gosselin, D.C.; Harvey, F.E.; Frost, C.; Stotler, R.; Macfarlane, P.A.

2004-01-01

91

Hydrogeology and analysis of aquifer characteristics in west-central Pinellas County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pinellas County, Florida, conducted an investigation to describe the hydrogeology and analyze the aquifer characteristics in west-central Pinellas County. A production test well and four monitor wells were constructed in Pinellas County at Walsingham Park during 1996-97. Water-quality sampling, static and dynamic borehole geophysical surveys, and hydraulic tests were conducted at the wells to delineate the hydrogeology at Walsingham Park. A 9-day aquifer test was conducted to determine the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer system and observe the changes in water quality due to pumping. A numerical model was constructed to simulate the aquifer test and calculate values for hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient for permeable zones and confining units at Walsingham Park. Final calibrated values for hydraulic conductivity for the different permeable zones and confining units at the test site were 18 feet per day for Upper Zone A, 750 feet per day for Lower Zone A, 1 foot per day for Zone B, 1x10-4 feet per day for the intermediate confining unit, and 10 feet per day for the semiconfining unit separating Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A. Final calibrated values for storage coefficient were 3.1x10-4 for Upper Zone A, 8.6x10-5 for Lower Zone A, 2.6x10-5 for Zone B, 3.1x10-4 for the intermediate confining unit, and 4.3x10-5 for the semiconfining unit separating Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A. Estimates of transmissivity for Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A were about 2,500 and 37,500 feet squared per day, respectively.

Broska, J.C.; Barnette, H.L.

1999-01-01

92

Impact of groundwater withdrawals on the interaction of multi-layered aquifers in the Viterbo geothermal area (central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of groundwater withdrawals on the interaction between multi-layered aquifers with different water qualities in the Viterbo geothermal area (central Italy) was studied. In this area, deep thermal waters are used to supply thermal spas and public pools. A shallow overlying aquifer carries cold and fresh water, used for irrigation and the local drinking-water supply. Starting with a conceptual hydrogeological model, two simplified numerical models were implemented: a steady-state flow model of the entire groundwater system, and a steady-state flow and heat transport model of a representative area, which included complex interactions between the aquifers. The impact of increased withdrawals associated with potential future development of the thermal aquifer must be considered in terms of the water temperature of the existing thermal sources. However, withdrawals from the shallow aquifer might also influence the discharge of thermal sources and quality of the water withdrawn from the shallow wells. The exploitation of the two aquifers is dependent on the hydraulic conductivity and thickness of the intervening aquitard, which maintains the delicate hydrogeological equilibrium. Effective methods to control this equilibrium include monitoring the vertical gradient between the two aquifers and the residual discharge of natural thermal springs.

Baiocchi, Antonella; Lotti, Francesca; Piscopo, Vincenzo

2013-09-01

93

Inter-seasonal variability in baseflow recession rates: The role of aquifer antecedent storage in central California watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baseflow recession rates vary inter-seasonally in many watersheds. This variability is generally associated with changes in evapotranspiration; however, an additional and less studied control over inter-seasonal baseflow recession rates is the effect of aquifer antecedent storage. Understanding the role of aquifer antecedent storage on baseflow recession rates is crucial for Mediterranean-climate regions, where seasonal asynchronicity of precipitation and energy levels produces large inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the relation between aquifer antecedent storage and baseflow recession rates in four central California watersheds using antecedent streamflow as a surrogate for watershed storage. In addition, a parsimonious storage-discharge model consisting of two nonlinear stores in parallel was developed as a heuristic tool for interpreting the empirical results and providing insight into how inter-seasonal changes in aquifer antecedent storage may affect baseflow recession rates. Antecedent streamflow cumulated from the beginning of the wateryear was found to be the strongest predictor of baseflow recession rates, indicating that inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage are a key control on baseflow recession rates in California watersheds. Baseflow recession rates and antecedent streamflow exhibited a negative power-law relation, with baseflow recession rates decreasing by up to two orders of magnitude as antecedent streamflow levels increased. Inference based on the storage-discharge model indicated that the dominant source of recession flow shifted from small, rapid response aquifers at the beginning of the wet season to large, seasonal aquifers as the wet season progressed. Aquifer antecedent storage in California watersheds should be accounted for along with evapotranspiration when characterizing baseflow recession rates.

Bart, Ryan; Hope, Allen

2014-11-01

94

Estimation of heterogeneous aquifer parameters using centralized and decentralized fusion of hydraulic tomography data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of spatial variability of hydraulic properties of groundwater systems at high resolution is essential to simulate flow and transport phenomena. This paper investigates two schemes to invert transient hydraulic head data resulting from multiple pumping tests for the purpose of estimating the spatial distributions of the hydraulic conductivity, K, and the specific storage, Ss, of an aquifer. The two methods are centralized fusion and decentralized fusion. The centralized fusion of transient data is achieved when data from all pumping tests are processed concurrently using a central inversion processor, whereas the decentralized fusion inverts data from each pumping test separately to obtain optimal local estimates of hydraulic parameters, which are consequently fused using the generalized Millman formula, an algorithm for merging multiple correlated or uncorrelated local estimates. For both data fusion schemes, the basic inversion processor employed is the ensemble Kalman filter, which is employed to assimilate the temporal moments of impulse response functions obtained from the transient hydraulic head measurements resulting from multiple pumping tests. Assimilating the temporal moments instead of the hydraulic head transient data themselves is shown to provide a significant improvement in computational efficiency. Additionally, different assimilation strategies to improve the estimation of Ss are investigated. Results show that estimation of the K and Ss distributions using temporal moment analysis is fairly good, and the centralized inversion scheme consistently outperforms the decentralized inversion scheme.

Alzraiee, A. H.; Baú, D.; Elhaddad, A.

2014-08-01

95

Data for ground-water test hole near Zamora, Central Valley Aquifer Project, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Preliminary data are presented for the first of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 34, T. 12 N. , R. 1 E., Yolo County, California, about 3 miles northeast of the town of Zamora. Drilled to a depth of 2,500 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 190 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 947, 1,401, and 2,125 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Eighteen cores and 68 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, diatom identification, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

French, J. J.; Page, R. W.; Bertoldi, G. L.

1982-01-01

96

Potentiometric surface of the Sparta aquifer in eastern and south-central Arkansas and north-central Louisiana, and the Memphis Aquifer in east-central Arkansas, October 1996-July 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 1997 water year, the water level in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers was measured in about 274 wells in Arkansas, and the water level in the Sparta aquifer was measured in about 55 wells in Louisiana. The potentiometric surface data reveal spatial trends across the study area. In Arkansas, the altitude of the potentiometric surfaced ranged from 199 feet below sea level in Union County to 307 feet above sea level in Saline County. In Louisiana, the altitude of the potentiometric surface ranged from 224 feet below sea level in Ouachita Parish to 230 feet above sea level in Bienville Parish. The general direction of ground-water flow in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers is from the west to the Southeast. The regional direction of ground-water flow in Arkansas is from the north and west to the south and east, away from the recharge zone in the outcrop and subcrop area, except near areas affected by intense ground-water withdrawals; such areas are manifested by large cones of depression centered in Columbia, Jefferson, and Union Counties. The regional ground-water flow in the Sparta aquifer in north-central Louisiana generally is downdip in an easterly direction from the recharge zone in the outcrop and subcrop area in the west toward the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The potentiometric surface of the Sparta aquifer in Arkansas and Louisiana exhibits cones of depression descending below sea level. Comparison of potentiometric surface maps through time shows that the cones of depression in Columbia and Union Counties are coalescing at or near the Columbia and Union County line. However, the general direction of ground-water movement indicates that heavy pumpage locally has altered or reversed the natural direction of flow in some areas. Flow in these areas is toward the cones of depression at the center of pumping. Hydrographs from wells in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers reveals that water levels have declined more than 2.0 feet per year in some wells. Long-term hydrographs of eight wells in Arkansas, during the period 1972-1997, reveal water-level declines ranging from less than 0.8 foot per year in Phillips County to more than 2.0 feet per year in Union County. Long-term hydrographs of two wells in Louisiana, during the period 1972-1997, reveal water-level declines were more than 2.0 feet per year in Lincoln and Ouachita Parishes.

Joseph, Robert L.

1998-01-01

97

Dissolved solids and sodium in water from the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer to provide: (1) Hydrologic information needed to evaluate the effects of continued ground-water development; and (2) computer models to predict aquifer response to changes in ground-water development. The plan of study for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis was described by Weeks (1978). A description of the High Plains aquifer and a map of the 1978 water table were presented by Gutentag and Weeks (1980). Maps of the bedrock geology, altitude of aquifer base, and saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer were published by Weeks and Gutentag (1981). Water-level and saturated-thickness changes, from predevelopment to 1980, were mapped by Luckey, Gutentag, and Weeks (1981). This report describes the areal distribution of dissolved solids and sodium in the water of the High Plains aquifer. Data used in this study were provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in each of the eight States in the High Plains. Their contribution is an integral part of this investigation.

Krothe, Noel C.; Oliver, Joseph W.; Weeks, John B.

1982-01-01

98

Oklahoma Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published since the 1950s, Oklahoma Today is a production of several state agencies, and it is designed to showcase various cultural, historical, and social aspects of Oklahoma. Over the past several years, Oklahoma State University has digitized back issues of the magazine, and visitors can now read all the way back to the first issue from 1956. Visitors can browse back issues by decade, and they can also perform key-word searches. First-time visitors should start by reading through the spring 1960 issue, which contains pieces on rattlesnakes, Oklahoma wildflowers, and the Washington Irving Trail. While the name Washington Irving may not be commonly associated with Oklahoma, the author spent part of 1832 wandering through the state with a Native American guide. More recent issues feature profiles of singer Vince Gill and Route 66.

99

High-resolution stratigraphic and structural characterization of the fault-partitioned Hickory Sandstone aquifer system, Mason County, central Texas  

E-print Network

The Hickory Sandstone is an important aquifer in central Texas and is partitioned by faults that impede cross-fault fluid flow. This study provides a detailed stratigraphic and structural model in the vicinity of a normal, oblique-slip fault...

Wilson, Jason Steven

2012-06-07

100

Potentiometric surface of the intermediate aquifer system, west- central Florida, May 1987  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The intermediate aquifer system within the Southwest Florida Water Management District underlies a 5,000 sq mi area of De Soto, Sarasota, Hardee, Manatee, and parts of Charlotte, Hillsborough, Highlands, and Polk Counties. The intermediate aquifer system occurs between the overlying surficial aquifer system and the underlying Floridan aquifer system, and consists of layers of sand, shell, clay, marl, limestone, and dolom of the Tamiami, Hawthorn, and Tampa Formations of late Tertiary age. The intermediate aquifer system contains one or more water-bearing units separated by discontinuous confining units. This aquifer system is the principal source of potable water in the southwestern part of the study area and is widely used as a source of water in other parts where wells are open to the intermediate aquifer system or to both the intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems. Yields of individual wells open to the intermediate aquifer system range from a few gallons to several hundred gallons per minute. The volume of water withdrawn from the intermediate aquifer system is considerably less than that withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer system in the study area. The surface was mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and is represented on maps by contours that connect points of equal altitude. The compos potentiometric surface of all water-bearing units within the intermediate aquifer system is shown. In areas where multiple aquifers exist, wells open to all aquifers were selected for water level measurements whenever possible. In the southwestern and lower coastal region of the study area, two aquifers and confining units are described for the intermediate aquifer system: the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer and the underlying lower Hawthorn-upper Tampa aquifer. The potentiometric surface of the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer is also shown. Water levels are from wells drilled and open exclusively to that aquifer. The exact boundary for the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer is undetermined because of limd geohydrologic data available from wells. (Lantz-PTT)

Lewelling, B. R.

1988-01-01

101

OUTCROP-BASED LITHOFACIES AND DEPOSITIONAL SETTING OF ARSENIC-BEARING PERMIAN RED BEDS IN THE CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

In January 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency established safe drinking water standards for arsenic at a maximum concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (USGS), however, document the occurrence of arsenic concentrations in drin...

102

Carbonate aquifers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

2012-01-01

103

Correlation of Geoelectric Data with Aquifer Parameters to Delineate the Groundwater Potential of Hard rock Terrain in Central Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of aquifer parameters is essential for management of groundwater resources. Conventionally, these parameters are estimated through pumping tests carried out on water wells. This paper presents a study that was conducted in three villages (Tumba, Kabazi, and Ndaiga) of Nakasongola District, central Uganda to investigate the hydrogeological characteristics of the basement aquifers. Our objective was to correlate surface resistivity data with aquifer properties in order to reveal the groundwater potential in the district. Existing electrical resistivity and borehole data from 20 villages in Nakasongola District were used to correlate the aquifer apparent resistivity ( ? e) with its hydraulic conductivity ( K e), and aquifer transverse resistance (TR) with its transmissivity ( T e). K e was found to be related to ? e by; {{Log }}(K_{{e}} ) = - 0.002?_{{e}} + 2.692 . Similarly, TR was found to be related to T by; {{TR}} = - 0.07T_{{e}} + 2260 . Using these expressions, aquifer parameters ( T c and K c) were extrapolated from measurements obtained from surface resistivity surveys. Our results show very low resistivities for the presumed water-bearing aquifer zones, possibly because of deteriorating quality of the groundwater and their packing and grain size. Drilling at the preferred VES spots was conducted before the pumping tests to reveal the aquifer characteristics. Aquifer parameters ( T o and K o) as obtained from pumping tests gave values (29,424.7 m2/day, 374.3 m/day), (9,801.1 m2/day, 437.0 m/day), (31,852.4 m2/day, 392.9 m/day). The estimated aquifer parameter ( T c and K c) when extrapolated from surface geoelectrical data gave (7,142.9 m2/day, 381.9 m/day), (28,200.0 m2/day, 463.4 m/day), (19,428.6 m2/day, 459.2 m/day) for Tumba, Kabazi, and Ndaiga villages, respectively. Interestingly, the similarity between the K c and K o pairs was not significantly different. We observed no significant relationships between the T c and T o pairs. The root mean square errors were estimated to be 18,159 m2/day and 41.4 m/day.

Batte, A. G.; Barifaijo, E.; Kiberu, J. M.; Kawule, W.; Muwanga, A.; Owor, M.; Kisekulo, J.

2010-12-01

104

Water Quality in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1999-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2004 assessment of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings for principal and other aquifers and major river basins across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, regional, State, and national issues. Conditions in the aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as drinking-water quality, the effects of agricultural practices on water quality, source-water protection, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the region and the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer summarized in this report are discussed in greater detail in other reports that can be accessed in Appendix 1 of http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa). This report accompanies the detailed and technical report of water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer 'Water-quality assessment of the High Plains aquifer, 1999-2004' (http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/)

Gurdak, Jason J.; McMahon, Peter B.; Dennehy, Kevin; Qi, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

105

Evolution of Oxygen and Hydrogen Stable Isotopic Composition in the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer, South-Central Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of stable isotope composition of oxygen and hydrogen(?18O and ?D) in the Edwards-Trinity aquifer, in South Central Texas is modeled in both closed and open aquifer system to explain possible evaporation effects and mixing of various sources of water. Our modeling uses ?18O and ?D data reported by United States Geological Survey (USGS) from 1988 to 2001, in the Edwards unconfined, Edwards confined and the Trinity aquifers, as well as the Medina lake that overlies parts of these aquifers. The ?18O isotopic compositions of the Edwards confined (av.=-4.20±0.31‰) and Trinity (av.=-4.45±0.37‰) are generally more homogeneous than the Edwards unconfined (av.=-4.05±0.87‰). This is consistent with the higher groundwater velocity (3,000-12,000 ft/day) for the Edwards aquifer which may facilitate faster mixing resulting in homogenous isotopic composition. However, a closer look at data for each aquifer shows periodic variations with time that can be attributed mainly to seasonal effects (i.e.,temperature and precipitation). Groundwater compositions plot to the right of the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) while ?18O and ?D for each aquifer has a unique slope. To account for these trends, isotopic evolution both in open and closed system was modeled assuming Rayleigh fractionation effects during evaporation (both kinetic and equilibrium effects) and binary mixing. Results indicate that an average of 6%-10% evaporation can explain deviations (and the slope of the respective trends) of the groundwater data from LMWL. The isotopic composition of Edwards confined and Edwards unconfined water suggests derivation from a similar meteoric source. Simple binary mixing (10-60%) between end-members(average of Edwards/Trinity aquifer and Medina lake)accounts for water samples plotting along the mixing trend otherwise cannot be explained by evaporation model alone. One interesting result of this modeling is that in selective wells in the Trinity aquifer, the ?18O shows negative correlation (r2= 0.95) with altitude, and decrease by 0.04‰ per 100 ft increase in altitude.

Thomas, S. M.; Paul, D.; Murray, K. E.

2005-12-01

106

Analysis of Fault Permeability Using Mapping and Flow Modeling, Hickory Sandstone Aquifer, Central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir compartments, typical targets for infill well locations, are commonly created by faults that may reduce permeability. A narrow fault may consist of a complex assemblage of deformation elements that result in spatially variable and anisotropic permeabilities. We report on the permeability structure of a km-scale fault sampled through drilling a faulted siliciclastic aquifer in central Texas. Probe and whole-core permeabilities, serial CAT scans, and textural and structural data from the selected core samples are used to understand permeability structure of fault zones and develop predictive models of fault zone permeability. Using numerical flow simulation, it is possible to predict permeability anisotropy associated with faults and evaluate the effect of individual deformation elements in the overall permeability tensor. We found relationships between the permeability of the host rock and those of the highly deformed (HD) fault-elements according to the fault throw. The lateral continuity and predictable permeability of the HD fault elements enhance capability for estimating the effects of subseismic faulting on fluid flow in low-shale reservoirs.

Nieto Camargo, Jorge E., E-mail: jorge.nietocamargo@aramco.com; Jensen, Jerry L., E-mail: jjensen@ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Canada)

2012-09-15

107

Petrology of lower and middle Eocene carbonate rocks, Floridan aquifer, central Florida  

SciTech Connect

Study of cores from a US Geological Survey test well near Polk City, Florida, indicates that the Avon Park-Lake City (Claibornian) and Oldsmar (Sabinian) Limestones, which comprise most of the Floridan aquifer in central Florida, can be divided into six microfacies: foraminiferal mudstone, foraminiferal wackestone-packstone, foraminiferal grainstone, nodular anhydrite, laminated dolomicrite, and replacement dolomite. Dolomite containing variable amounts of nodular anhydrite forms more than 90% of the Avon Park-Lake city interval, whereas thte Oldsmar is chiefly limestone. Several episodes of dolomite formation are recognized. Laminated dolomicrite formed syngenetically in a supratidal-sabhka environment. Crystalline dolomite with nodular anhydrite formed early by replacement of limestone through reflux of dense, magnesium-rich brines. Replacement dolomite not associated with evaporites and containing limpid crystals probably formed later by a mixed-water process in the subsurface environment. Late diagenetic processes affecting crystalline dolomites include hydration of anhydrite to gypsum, partial dissolution of gypsum, minor alteration of gypsum to calcite, and dissolution of calcian dolomite cores in stoichiometric crystals. Crystalline dolomite and grainstone are the only rock types that have high enough porosities and permeabilities to provide significant yields of water. Medium and finely crystalline dolomites show best values of porosity and permeability because they have high percentages of intercrystal and moldic pores that are well connected. Filling of pores by anhydrite or gypsum can significantly reduce porosity and permeability.

Thayer, P.A.; Miller, J.A.

1984-09-01

108

A plan to study the aquifer system of the Central Valley of California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvial deposits comprise a large complex aquifer system in the Central Valley of California. Millions of acre-feet of water is pumped from the system annually to support a large and expanding agribusiness industry. Since the 1950's, water levels have been steadily declining in many areas of the valley and concern has been expressed about the ability of the entire ground-water system to support agribusiness at current levels, not to mention its ability to function at projected expansion levels. At current levels of ground-water use, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet is withdrawn from storage each year; that is, 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet of water is pumped annually in excess of annual replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 4-year study to develop geologic, hydrologic, and hydraulic information and to establish a valleywide ground-water data base that will be used to build computer models of the ground-water flow system. Subsequently, these models may be used to evaluate the system response to various ground-water management alternatives. This report describes current problems, objectives of the study, and outlines the general work to be accomplished in the study area. A bibliography of about 600 references is included. (Kosco-USGS)

Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

1979-01-01

109

An assessment of the potential and impacts of winter water banking in the Sokh aquifer, Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of artificial recharge of winter surface flows coupled with increased summer groundwater use for irrigation in\\u000a the Sokh aquifer (Central Asia) have been investigated. Water release patterns from the giant Toktogul reservoir have changed,\\u000a as priority is now given to hydropower generation in winter in Kyrgyzstan. Winter flows have increased and summer releases\\u000a have declined, but the Syr

Inna Gracheva; Akmal Karimov; Hugh Turral; F. Miryusupov

2009-01-01

110

Chemical evolution and estimated flow velocity of water in the Trinity Aquifer, south-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three permeable zones with varying lithology and water chemistry compose the Trinity aquifer, a principal source of water in the 5,500-square-mile study area in south-central Texas. The upper permeable zone locally yields small quantities of water to wells and was not included in this study. The middle permeable zone primarily is composed of limestone with minor amounts of dolostone. Terrigenous sand and marine limestone, with minor amounts of dolostone, are the principal lithologic units in the lower permeable zone. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 329 to 1,820 milligrams per liter in water samples from the middle permeable zone and from 518 to 3,030 milligrams per liter in water samples from the lower permeable zone. Principal hydrochemical facies in the middle permeable zone are calcium magnesium bicarbonate and calcium magnesium sulfate. Hydrochemical facies in ground-water samples from the lower permeable zone vary. Tritium concentrations as large as 5.3 tritium units in the southeastern part of the study area are indicative of relatively recent recharge. Results of a geochemical mass balance simulation along a flowpath in the middle permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 4.25 millimoles per liter of dolomite dissolved, 5.74 millimoles per liter of gypsum dissolved, 0.46 millimole per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 8.07 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 0.67 millimole per liter of calcium-for-sodium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. These results support dedolomitization as a principal chemical process in the middle permeable zone of the Trinity aquifer. Results of a simulation along a flowpath in the lower permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 0.41 millimole per liter of dolomite dissolved, 0.001 millimole per liter of gypsum dissolved, 9.58 millimoles per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 1.09 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 1.11 millimoles per liter of sodium-for-calcium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. Lower permeable zone processes indicate sodium chloride dissolution, dedolomitization, and cation exchange. Ground-water-flow velocities determined from adjusted carbon-14 ages, calculated using NETPATH, for selected flowpaths in the middle and lower permeable zones were about 1.7 feet per year and less than about 4.4 feet per year, respectively.

Jones, Sonya A.; Lee, Roger W.; Busby, John F.

1997-01-01

111

Aquifer tests at the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine, Pueblo of Laguna, west-central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation, west-central New Mexico, was determined to be 24 sq ft/day at well M2 and 47 sq ft/day at well M3 from constant-discharge aquifer tests conducted at the Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine. The storage coefficient of the Jackpile sandstone bed was estimated to be 0.00018 at well M2 and 0.00029 at well M3 from the same tests. An aquifer test conducted at well M21 indicated the transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed was 2.0 sq ft/day and the storage coefficient was 0.00002. The transmissivity of an unnamed sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation was estimated from ' slug-test ' results to be about 20 sq ft/day. Water levels in this sandstone probably did not change due to pumping from the overlying Jackpile sandstone bed for 88 hours at an average discharge of 15.3 gallons/min. A constant discharge aquifer test at well M4C indicated that the transmissivity of the alluvium at this location was about 430 sq ft/day. Water levels in the underlying Jackpile sandstone bed began declining within 15 minutes after withdrawals of groundwater from the alluvial aquifer began. (USGS)

Risser, D. W.; Davis, P. A.; Baldwin, J. A.; McaAda, D. P.

1984-01-01

112

Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoirs to Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleozoic-age Ozark Plateau Aquifer System (OPAS) in southern Kansas consists of a thick (>450 m) and deeply buried (>1 km) succession of Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group strata (dolomite) overlain by Lower Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous-age carbonate, chert, and shale. The Arbuckle Group is a thick widespread saline aquifer in southern Kansas. A 500 meter core of the OPAS interval and immediate overlying Pennsylvanian shale caprock were cored in early 2011 in the BEREXCO Wellington KGS #1-32 well in Wellington Field, a nearly depleted oil field in Sumner County, in south-central Kansas. An exhaustive set of modern logs were run in the KGS #1-32 well including chemical, microresistivity imaging, dipole sonic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and standard porosity and resistivity wireline logs. In addition, routine and special core analyses provide vital means to calibrate these logs. Core also provide vital chemical analyses and rock samples to run flow experiments, including in situ conditions, to establish reaction kinetics of rock and connate brines with CO2. Core and logs also provide the means to calibrate a 26 km2 multicomponent 3D seismic survey that was acquired in Wellington Field in 2010. Studies of four oil fields, also part of this project, are underway in southwestern Kansas to provide additional calibration points for the western part of the regional study that covers 65,000 km2 where CO2 sequestration capacity will be measured. Several hundred deep wells have been identified to serve as type wells in the regional study area. Well logs and sample descriptions are being digitized, correlated, and mapped to define distribution of aquifers, oil reservoirs, and caprocks. Drill stem test data have been analyzed for deep wells to establish that the Arbuckle is an open aquifer connected to surface exposures 100s of km to east in central Missouri. Over 500 km2 of 3D seismic have been donated by industrial partners to aid in understanding fault and fracture systems. Regional gravity and magnetics data have been analyzed to infer the potential presence of faults using the tilt angle processing of this information to aid in defining discontinuities and estimates of the depth of the anomalies. Results are being uploaded and integrated as part of an interactive web-based project mapper to permit comparison and interrogation of the data. Integrated views based on this comprehensive examination of the northern shelfward extension of the Anadarko Basin is providing new perspectives and insights into basin development and associated structures. Deep-seated basement faults are extensively developed, expressed in the Phanerozoic strata as drape or faults or no evidence for movement. Selection of CO2 sequestration sites will consider aquifer distribution, caprock integrity, and, once established, the extent of fracture and faults to evaluate risk for potential leakage of CO2. The project is funded by DOE/NETL under grant DE-FE0002056 and cost-sharing partners.

Watney, W. L.; Rush, J.

2011-12-01

113

Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the 150,000 local residents of the Gio Linh district and the city of Dong Ha. The coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The area has a tropical monsoon climate which is characterized by an average precipitation of 1500 to 2700 mm in nearly 180 days from August to April. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. These geological formations have a highly heterogeneous lithology. A 3D groundwater model is built to study possible seawater intrusion under the changing conditions. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and some data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Geophysical measurements have been carried out recently and in the past and are used to support the model.

Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

2014-05-01

114

Generalized thickness and configuration of the top of the intermediate aquifer, West-Central Florida  

SciTech Connect

The water-bearing units of the intermediate aquifer consist of discontinuous sand, gravel, shell, and limestone and dolomite beds in the Tamiami Formation of late Miocene age and the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age. Within parts of Polk, Manatee, Hardee, De Soto, Sarasota, and Charlotte Counties, sand and clay beds within the Tampa Limestone that are hydraulically connected to the Hawthorn Formation are also included in the intermediate aquifer. 15 refs.

Corral, M.A. Jr.; Wolansky, R.M.

1984-01-01

115

Key subsurface data help to refine Trinity aquifer hydrostratigraphic units, south-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic framework and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers are important components for studying the nation’s subsurface heterogeneity and predicting its hydraulic budgets. Detailed study of an aquifer’s subsurface hydrostratigraphy is needed to understand both its geologic and hydrologic frameworks. Surface hydrostratigraphic mapping can also help characterize the spatial distribution and hydraulic connectivity of an aquifer’s permeable zones. Advances in three-dimensional (3-D) mapping and modeling have also enabled geoscientists to visualize the spatial relations between the saturated and unsaturated lithologies. This detailed study of two borehole cores, collected in 2001 on the Camp Stanley Storage Activity (CSSA) area, provided the foundation for revising a number of hydrostratigraphic units representing the middle zone of the Trinity aquifer. The CSSA area is a restricted military facility that encompasses approximately 4,000 acres and is located in Boerne, Texas, northwest of the city of San Antonio. Studying both the surface and subsurface geology of the CSSA area are integral parts of a U.S. Geological Survey project funded through the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. This modification of hydrostratigraphic units is being applied to all subsurface data used to construct a proposed 3-D EarthVision model of the CSSA area and areas to the south and west.

Blome, Charles D.; Clark, Allan K.

2014-01-01

116

Estimating the uncertainty of the impact of climate change on alluvial aquifers. Case study in central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence that the precipitation pattern in Europe is trending towards more humid conditions in the northern region and drier conditions in the southern and central-eastern regions. However, a great deal of uncertainty concerns how the changes in precipitations will have an impact on water resources, particularly on groundwater, and this uncertainty should be evaluated on the basis of that coming from 1) future climate scenarios of Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and 2) modeling chains including the downscaling technique, the infiltration model and the calibration/validation procedure used to develop the groundwater flow model. With the aim of quantifying the uncertainty of these components, the Valle Umbra porous aquifer (Central Italy) has been considered as a case study. This aquifer, that is exploited for human consumption and irrigation, is mainly fed by the effective infiltration from the ground surface and partly by the inflow from the carbonate aquifers bordering the valley. A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed through the finite difference MODFLOW2005 code and it has been calibrated and validated considering the recharge regime computed through a Thornthwaite-Mather infiltration model under the climate conditions observed in the period 1956-2012. Future scenarios (2010-2070) of temperature and precipitation have been obtained from three different GMCs: ECHAM-5 (Max Planck Institute, Germany), PCM (National Centre Atmospheric Research) and CCSM3 (National Centre Atmospheric Research). Each scenario has been downscaled (DSC) to the data of temperature and precipitation collected in the baseline period 1960-1990 at the stations located in the study area through two different statistical techniques (linear rescaling and quantile mapping). Then, stochastic rainfall and temperature time series are generated through the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model (NSRP) for precipitation and the Fractionally Differenced ARIMA model (FARIMA) for temperature. Such a procedure has allowed to estimate, through the Thornthwaite-Mather model, the uncertainty related to the future scenarios of recharge to the aquifer. Finally, all the scenarios of recharge have been used as input to the groundwater flow model and the results have been evaluated in terms of the uncertainty on the computed aquifer heads and total budget. The main results have indicated that most of the uncertainty on the impact to the aquifer arise from the uncertainty on the first part of the processing chain GCM-DSC.

Romano, Emanuele; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Pica, Federico; Preziosi, Elisabetta

2014-05-01

117

Geophysical approach to delineate arsenic hot spots in the alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district, Bihar (India) in the central Gangetic plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined study of the geophysical survey and hydro-geochemistry in the Quaternary alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district from Bihar state in central Gangetic plain of India was carried out with the objective of identifying the geochemical processes and their relation with lithological profile. Results of resistivity survey validated with borehole lithology gave us a clear picture of the geological signature of the aquifers, which support the reducing nature of the aquifer where concentration of arsenic was high. Reducing nature of the aquifer environment was shown by water samples having relatively negative Eh value. From XRD study of the soil samples, it was found that goethite, dolomite, calcite, quartz and feldspar are the major minerals for most of the samples. Output of this work concludes that resistivity survey is an economically feasible tool which can be successfully used to target arsenic-safe aquifers on wide scale.

Kumar, Pankaj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Chander Kumar; Tripathi, Parijat; Senthil Kumar, G.; Ramanathan, A. L.

2014-06-01

118

Denitrification in a Shallow Aquifer Underlying a Dairy Farm in the Central Valley of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate loading to shallow aquifers from dairy farm operations presents a serious threat to critical groundwater resources in California. Less well known is the extent to which saturated zone denitrification may mitigate the problem by converting nitrate to the benign end-product nitrogen, before nitrate is transported to deeper aquifers used for drinking water. We are carrying out a multi-disciplinary study of saturated zone denitrification, in a dense network of monitoring points at a 1500-cow dairy in Kings County, California. Detailed vertical profiles of anion and cation concentrations, along with dissolved excess nitrogen were obtained at five-foot intervals using temporary direct-push wells. Results show nitrate concentrations in excess of 100 mg/L over the top few meters of the water column, abruptly falling to less than 5 mg/L below a depth of approximately 10m. Over the same interval, dissolved excess nitrogen concentrations sharply increase, indicating that denitrification is responsible for a significant fraction of the nitrate decrease. This pattern is in effect across the entire dairy site. A key aspect of the project is a concurrent focus on understanding the hydrogeology of the site. Regionally, overdraft over the past several decades has resulted in the development of separate shallow (10 m) and deeper (? 40 m) aquifer systems. Recharge to the shallow aquifer is derived from low TDS, isotopically depleted Kings River water from a nearby unlined irrigation canal. Local agricultural pumping from the shallow aquifer and infiltration from irrigation water are significant factors in the shallow system. The deeper aquifer is characterized by intensive regional pumping, rapidly decreasing water levels, and the apparent disposition of the shallow aquifer as a perched system for a 1-km2 or more area surrounding the farm. The air gap separating the aquifers is low in oxygen and undergoes pressure changes as water levels fluctuate below. Age dating and negligible nitrate levels in the lower aquifer suggest a long horizontal recharge pathway from the perimeter of the perched area, while sustainability of the shallow system is dependent upon continuing recharge through the irrigation canal. This work was conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-Eng-48.

Esser, B. K.; Beller, H. R.; Carle, S. F.; Hudson, G. B.; Kane, S. R.; McNab, W. W.; Moran, J. E.; Tompson, A. F.

2004-12-01

119

Chlorine stable isotope evidence for salinization processes of confined groundwater in southwestern Nobi Plain aquifer system, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A confined aquifer system, isolated from modern seawater, is developed in argillaceous marine and freshwater sediments of Pliocene-Holocene age in southwestern Nobi Plain (SWNP), central Japan. A tongue of brackish confined groundwater (Cl- >1000 mg/L), which extends from the shoreline of Ise Bay inland, mostly has negative ?37Cl values with -0.90‰ to 0.21‰. The Cl isotopic compositions are negatively correlated with paleo seawater Cl- concentrations discriminated by a Rayleigh distillation model with ?34S values, while they are not correlated with either total Cl- concentrations or ?34S values. Furthermore, Cl- concentrations from modern seawater are positively correlated with ?37Cl values. In addition to these observations, diffusion model calculations suggest that paleo seawater Cl- has diffused out from argillaceous marine sediments whereas modern seawater Cl- has not been affected by preferential diffusion of Cl isotopes because it has migrated by advection via both an unconfined aquifer and non-pumping wells. Moreover, the brackish groundwater is characterized by an excess of Na/Cl ratio and deficits of Mg/Cl and Ca/Cl ratios compared to those predicted from simple mixing of freshwater with seawater. This would be caused by cation exchange reactions in the confined aquifer system in which groundwater is freshening after salinization by both paleo seawater and/or modern seawater.

Yamanaka, Masaru; Bottrell, Simon H.; Wu, Jiahong; Kumagai, Yoshihiro; Mori, Kazuki; Satake, Hiroshi

2014-11-01

120

An assessment of the potential and impacts of winter water banking in the Sokh aquifer, Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of artificial recharge of winter surface flows coupled with increased summer groundwater use for irrigation in the Sokh aquifer (Central Asia) have been investigated. Water release patterns from the giant Toktogul reservoir have changed, as priority is now given to hydropower generation in winter in Kyrgyzstan. Winter flows have increased and summer releases have declined, but the Syr Darya River cannot pass these larger winter flows and the excess is diverted to a natural depression, creating a 40 × 109m3 lake. A water balance study of all 18 aquifers feeding the Fergana Valley indicated the feasibility of winter groundwater recharge in storage created by summer abstraction. This modeling study examines the dynamics of the process in one aquifer over a 5-year period, with four scenarios: the current situation; increased groundwater abstraction of around 625 million (M) m3/year; groundwater abstraction with an artificial recharge of 144 Mm3/year, equivalent to the volume available in low flow years in the Sokh River; and with a larger artificial recharge of 268 Mm3/year, corresponding to high flow availability. Summer surface irrigation diversions can be reduced by up to 350 Mm3 and water table levels can be lowered.

Gracheva, Inna; Karimov, Akmal; Turral, Hugh; Miryusupov, F.

2009-09-01

121

Effects of increased pumpage on a fractured-bedrock aquifer system in central Orange County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The bedrock in central Orange County consists of highly indurated siltstone, shale, and conglomerate containing two major fault systems and extensive fracturing; it is overlain by 50 to 100 feet of till. The fracturing permits unusually high well yields. Wells tapping the bedrock yield 75 to 200 gallons per minute; those tapping bedrock in adjacent areas yield only a few tens of gallons per minute. The bedrock aquifer is recharged mainly by percolation of water from precipitation through the till. In 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey studied the hydrologic effects of increased pumpage on the fractured bedrock aquifer system near the Village of Kiryas Joel, in the Town of Monroe. Water levels were measured in several wells in the village 's two well fields from February to October 1983, and pumpage data from the same period were tabulated. Water levels responded to variations in both pumpage and precipitation. Pumping tests and water levels in the southeastern well field in 1983 had no effect on the northwestern well field. An observation well between the two fields shows about 20 feet of seasonal fluctuation from recharge and the effects of pumping at the northwestern well field. Aquifer-test data indicate a transmissivity of 900 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0001. (USGS)

Garber, Murray

1985-01-01

122

Bacterial production of methane and its influence on ground-water chemistry in east-central Texas aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical and isotopic data for methane and ground water indicate that gaseous hydrocarbons in Eocene aquifers in east-central Texas form by bacterial processes. The ?13C values of methane from five wells in the clay-rich Yegua and Cook Mountain Formations range from -71‰ to -62‰. Methane from ten wells in the cleaner sands of the Sparta and Queen City Formations have ?13C values between -57‰ and -53‰. The carbon isotopic difference between methanes from the Yegua and Sparta aquifers is comparable to the isotopic difference in sedimentary organic matter from outcrops of the units, suggesting substrate control on the ?13C of bacterial methane. Hydrogen isotopic compositions of methane from the aquifers are similar, averaging -181‰. This high value suggests methane production predominantly by CO2 reduction. The ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in high bicarbonate waters increases from about -20‰ to 0‰ with increasing DIC. Mass-balance calculations indicate that the DIC added to the ground water has ?;13C values as high as 10‰. This 13C-enriched carbon is predominantly derived from CO2 production by fermentation and anaerobic oxidation reactions combined with CO2 consumption by CO2 reduction. This process is responsible for high bicarbonate contents in these and probably other Gulf Coast ground waters.

Grossman, Ethan L.; Coffman, B. Keith; Fritz, Steven J.; Wada, Hideki

1989-06-01

123

Microbial Abundance and Activity in a Low-Conductivity Aquifer System in East-Central Texas  

E-print Network

and activities in the aquifer sediments likely reflect the importance of increased electron donor and acceptor absence of other electron acceptors (O2, NO3 - , and Fe3+ ), absence of methanogens, high numbers of SRB, and relatively high sulfate reduction activity suggest that sulfate reduction is the dominant terminal electron

Grossman, Ethan L.

124

Quantification of aquifer properties with surface nuclear magnetic resonance in the Platte River valley, central Nebraska, using a novel inversion method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface nuclear magnetic resonance, a noninvasive geophysical method, measures a signal directly related to the amount of water in the subsurface. This allows for low-cost quantitative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In practice, however, additional factors influence the signal, complicating interpretation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District, evaluated whether hydraulic parameters derived from surface nuclear magnetic resonance data could provide valuable input into groundwater models used for evaluating water-management practices. Two calibration sites in Dawson County, Nebraska, were chosen based on previous detailed hydrogeologic and geophysical investigations. At both sites, surface nuclear magnetic resonance data were collected, and derived parameters were compared with results from four constant-discharge aquifer tests previously conducted at those same sites. Additionally, borehole electromagnetic-induction flowmeter data were analyzed as a less-expensive surrogate for traditional aquifer tests. Building on recent work, a novel surface nuclear magnetic resonance modeling and inversion method was developed that incorporates electrical conductivity and effects due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities, both of which can have a substantial impact on the data. After comparing surface nuclear magnetic resonance inversions at the two calibration sites, the nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived parameters were compared with previously performed aquifer tests in the Central Platte Natural Resources District. This comparison served as a blind test for the developed method. The nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived aquifer parameters were in agreement with results of aquifer tests where the environmental noise allowed data collection and the aquifer test zones overlapped with the surface nuclear magnetic resonance testing. In some cases, the previously performed aquifer tests were not designed fully to characterize the aquifer, and the surface nuclear magnetic resonance was able to provide missing data. In favorable locations, surface nuclear magnetic resonance is able to provide valuable noninvasive information about aquifer parameters and should be a useful tool for groundwater managers in Nebraska.

Irons, Trevor P.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Steele, Gregory V.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Woodward, Duane D.

2012-01-01

125

Aquifer modelling of the Ganga-Mahawa sub-basin, a part of the Central Ganga Plain, Uttar Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganga-Mahawa sub-basin, which has an area of 1280 km2 forms the western part of the Central Ganga Plain in the Moradabad and Badaun districts of western Uttar Pradesh, India. The Bundelkhand granite forms the basement complex, overlain unconformably by the upper Vindhyan sequence, which is further overlain by the Neogene (Middle and Upper) Siwaliks and finally by Quaternary alluvium. Four geomorphological units, the Varanasi older alluvial plain, Aligarh older alluvial plain, terrace zones and the Ganga recent floodplain, abandoned channels, channel scars and meander scars represent various landforms. The hydrogeological cross-sections indicate the occurrence of a single aquifer down to 120 m. Some influent seepage from the River Ganga could be seen around Gangeswari, but the rest of the River Ganga is effluent.Groundwater-flow modelling was carried out to assess the degree of Ganga river and aquifer interaction. The River Ganga marks the western boundary; boundaries to the northeast and southeast are set as fixed heads to simulate lateral inflow into and outflow from the sub-basin respectively. The eastern boundary is simulated as a no-flow condition. The Mahawa and Badmar rivers are considered to be effluent. The area modelled is covered by a grid of 34 rows×46 columns with three layers, viz., an unconfined aquifer, an aquitard which is underlain by a semi-confined to confined aquifer. The permeability distribution was inferred from morphometric analysis and pumping tests. Natural recharge due to monsoon rainfall forms the main input. The River Ganga stage data at Ahar, Naora and Ramghat has been used for assigning surface water levels and river bed elevations in the model. Abstraction from all existing deep and shallow tube wells has been assigned as output at various cells. A steady state flow simulation was carried out and calibrated against the June 1986 water level; subsequent transient conditions were calibrated up to May 1995. The computed groundwater balance was comparable to that estimated from field investigations. The aquifer modelling study has attempted to integrate all available information and provided a tool that could be used for predictive simulation.

Ala Eldin, M. E. H.; Sami Ahmed, M.; Gurunadha Rao, V. V. S.; Dhar, R. L.

2000-02-01

126

MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF A SHALLOW UNCONFINED GROUND WATER AQUIFER POLLUTED BY MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The microflora of a shallow anoxic aquifer underlying a municipal landfill In Oklahoma was characterized by direct light microscopy, most probable number of determinations of sulfate reducers and methanogens, and measurements of methanogenesis in aquifer samples containing either...

127

The effects of faults on the groundwater system in the Hickory Sandstone Aquifer in Central Texas  

E-print Network

in the study area of a system of faults that partially offsets the Hickory Sandstone. PREVIOUS RELATED WORK Local Geology and Hydrogeology The geology of the study area was mapped first by Sweet (1957). Barnes and Schofield (1964) subsequently published a... of the study area but lack geologic details essential to the present study. The hydrogeology of portions of the Hickory Sandstone aquifer has been studied most actively in the past several years. Black (1988) and Pettigrew (1988) studied the regional...

Randolph, Leslie Carolyn

2012-06-07

128

Summary of hydrology of the regional aquifer systems, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is potential for further development of ground-water supplies in the Gulf Coastal Plain because of the abundance of water in streams, lakes, and swamps and the generally good hydraulic connection between the water table and underlying water-yielding units. The most favorable conditions for further development of ground-water supplies are generally in the upper permeable zones and aquifers, and the potential for development typically increases from west to east.

Grubb, H. F.

1998-01-01

129

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma agriculture affects each of us every day, young and old, whether we live in largely rural regions or the state's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources promotes sustainable land use and embraces the land

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

130

Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 microg/L to 191 microg/L with a mean concentration of 33 microg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO(3) type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO(4). The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 microg/L. Deeper aquifer (>100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 microg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions. PMID:18502538

Shamsudduha, M; Uddin, A; Saunders, J A; Lee, M-K

2008-07-29

131

Bacterial production of methane and its influence on ground-water chemistry in east-central Texas aquifers  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical and isotopic data for methane and ground water indicate that gaseous hydrocarbons in Eocene aquifers in east-central Texas form by bacterial processes. The {delta}{sup 13}C values of methane from live wells in the clay-rich Yegua and Cook Mountain Formations range from -71{per thousand} to -62{per thousand}. Methane from ten wells in the cleaner sands of the Sparta Queen City Formations have {delta}{sup 13}C values between -57{per thousand} and -53{per thousand}. The carbon isotopic difference between methanes from the Yegua and Sparta aquifers is comparable to the isotopic difference in sedimentary organic matter from outcrops of the units, suggesting substrate control on the {delta}{sup 13}C of bacterial methane. Hydrogen isotopic compositions of methane from the aquifers are similar, averaging -181{per thousand}. This high value suggest methane production predominantly by CO{sub 2} reduction. The {delta}{sup 13}C dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in high bicarbonate waters increase from about -20{per thousand} to 0{per thousand} with increasing DIC. Mass-balance calculations indicate that the DIC added to the ground water has {delta}{sup 13}C values as high as 10{per thousand}. This {sup 13}C-enriched carbon is predominantly derived from CO{sub 2} production by fermentation and anaerobic oxidation reactions combined with CO{sub 2} consumption by CO{sub 2} reduction. This process is responsible for high bicarbonate contents in these and probably other Gulf Coast ground waters.

Grossman, E.L.; Coffman, B.K. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA)); Fritz, S.J. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA)); Wada, Hideki (Shizoka Univ., Shizuoka City (Japan))

1989-06-01

132

Fens, seasonal wetlands, and the unconfined pumice aquifer east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fens and seasonal wetlands in the headwaters of the Klamath and Deschutes river basins in south-central Oregon are present in an area blanketed by 2 to 3 m of pumice during the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama. The lower pumice unit, moderately sorted coarse pumice lapilli to blocks (0.3 to 0.7 cm), phenocrysts, and lithics is 1.5 to 2 m thick; the upper pumice unit, poorly sorted lapilli to blocks (0.2 to 6 cm), minor phenocrysts, and lithics is 1 m thick. Pumice is a perched, unconfined aquifer over low permeability bedrock or pre-eruption fine-grained sediment. Early landscape response included partial erosion of pumice from pre-eruption valleys followed by partial filling by alluvium: phenocryst- and lithic-rich sand grading upward to glassy silt with rounded pumice pebbles. Groundwater-fed wetlands, fens, associated with the unconfined pumice aquifer occur as areas of diffuse groundwater discharge through gently sloping, convex surfaces underlain by up to 1.4 m of peat. Locally, focused discharge through the confining peat layer feeds low discharge streams. Carnivorous plants (sundews and pitcher plants) may be present. The sharp contact between peat and underlying pumice is an erosion surface that cuts progressively deeper into the upper and lower pumice units downslope. At the base of the slope peat with fen discharge feeding surface flow, alluvium with no surface flow, or a subtle berm separating the slope underlain by peat from the valley bottom underlain by alluvium may be present. Distinct vegetation changes take place at this transition. The erosion surface that underlies the peat layer in the fen is at the surface on the opposing valley wall and progressively rises up through the lower and upper pumice units: iron staining and cementation of pumice is locally prominent. Up to 1.5 m difference in water table occurs between the fen and opposing valley wall. Water table in piezometers screened in peat is at the surface. Locally, water table screened in pumice below the peat confining layer is up to 24 cm above the surface. Electrical conductivity in groundwater from the unconfined pumice aquifer ranged between 20 and 45 ?S/cm. Rarely, electrical conductivity greater than 250 ?S/cm is measured. Hydrochemistry indicates these waters are distinctly different (Ca-bicarbonate, [Fe] up to 22 mg/l) from water commonly encountered in the unconfined pumice aquifer (Na-bicarbonate, [Fe] less than 0.07 mg/l). Seasonally elevated water tables are present where pre-eruption topography allows snowmelt to accumulate in the unconfined pumice aquifer in valley bottoms and upland surfaces. Differential hardness of volcanic bedrock units control distribution in valley bottoms; emplacement processes and weathering of flow tops control distribution in upland settings. In both settings the lower pumice unit is saturated, but the upper pumice unit may be absent or thin. Alluvium commonly overlies pumice in valley bottoms. The water table may fluctuate up to 1.5 m from the spring snowmelt to late summer. Electrical conductivity in the pumice aquifer ranges between 19 and 250 ?S/cm and commonly increases at single sites as the dry season progresses.

Cummings, M. L.; Large, A.; Mowbray, A.; Weatherford, J.; Webb, B.

2013-12-01

133

Synthesis of the Hydrogeologic Framework of the Floridan Aquifer System and Delineation of a Major Avon Park Permeable Zone in Central and Southern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The carbonate Floridan aquifer system of central and southern Florida (south of a latitude of about 29 degrees north) is an invaluable resource with a complex framework that has previously been mapped and managed primarily in a subregional context according to geopolitical boundaries. As interest and use of the Floridan aquifer system in this area increase, a consistent regional hydrogeologic framework is needed for effective management across these boundaries. This study synthesizes previous studies on the Floridan aquifer system and introduces a new regional hydrogeologic conceptual framework, linking physical relations between central and southern Florida and between the west and east coastal areas. The differences in hydrogeologic nomenclature and interpretation across the study area from previous studies were identified and resolved. The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, middle confining unit, and Lower Floridan aquifer. This study introduces and delineates a new major, regional productive zone or subaquifer, referred to as the Avon Park permeable zone. This zone is contained within the middle confining unit and synthesizes an extensive zone that has been referred to differently in different parts of the study area in previous studies. The name of this zone derives from the description of this zone as the ?Avon Park highly permeable zone? in west-central Florida in a previous study. Additionally, this zone has been identified previously in southeastern Florida as the ?middle Floridan aquifer.? An approximately correlative or approximate time-stratigraphic framework was developed and was used to provide guidance in the identification and determination of aquifers, subaquifers, and confining units within the Floridan aquifer system and to determine their structural relations. Two stratigraphic marker horizons within the Floridan aquifer system and a marker unit near the top of the aquifer system were delineated or mapped. The marker horizons are correlative points in the stratigraphic section rather than a unit with upper and lower boundaries. The two marker horizons and the marker unit originated from previous studies, wherein they were based on lithology and correlation of geophysical log signatures observed in boreholes. The depths of these marker horizons and the marker unit were extended throughout the study area by correlation of natural gamma-ray logs between wells. The Floridan aquifer system includes, in ascending order, the upper part of the Cedar Keys Formation, Oldsmar Formation, Avon Park Formation, Ocala Limestone, Suwannee Limestone, and in some areas the lower part of the Hawthorn Group. The first marker horizon is in the lower part of the aquifer system near the top of the Oldsmar Formation and is associated with the top of distinctive glauconitic limestone beds that are present in some regions; the second marker horizon is near the middle of the aquifer system in the middle part of the Avon Park Formation. The marker unit lies at the top of a basal unit in the Hawthorn Group and provides a stratigraphic constraint for the top of the Floridan aquifer system. The marker horizons do not have distinguishing lithologic characteristics or a characteristic gamma-ray log pattern in all areas but are still thought to be valid because of correlation of the entire section and correlation of all sufficiently deep wells with gamma-ray logs. The Avon Park permeable zone is contained entirely within the Avon Park Formation; its position within the section is either near the middle Avon Park marker horizon or within a thick part of the section that extends several hundred feet above the marker horizon. This subaquifer is present over most of the study area and characteristically consists of thick units of dolostone and interbedded limestone, and limestone in its upper part. Permeability is primarily associated with fracturing. This subaquifer is well developed in west-cen

Reese, Ronald S.; Richardson, Emily

2008-01-01

134

Reconstitution of the local tectonic and geodynamic history to study the fluid transfers in a carbo-gaseous aquifer (Quezac-Southern Massif Central France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary approach taking into account remote sensing, geological, and hydrogeological analyses was developed to reveal the water percolations history through time in the Quezac aquifer (Southern Massif Central - France). Detailed field measurements of the various tectonic joints, water and gas transfers were done in the study site. Microtectonic measurements confirmed the local tectonic history and the structural map

V. Durand; V. Léonardi; B. Deffontaines; J.-C. Macquar

2009-01-01

135

Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline pH values (6.9-7.4) were detected in samples from one well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer, three production wells in the Rush Springs aquifer, and one well in an undefined Permian-aged aquifer. All well-head samples were oxic and arsenate was the only species of arsenic in water from 10 of the 12 production wells sampled. Arsenite was measured above the laboratory reporting level in water from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer and was the only arsenic species measured in water from the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer. Fluoride and uranium were the only trace elements, other than arsenic, that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water in well-head samples collected for the study. Uranium concentrations in four production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer ranged from 30.2 to 99 micrograms per liter exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 30 micrograms per liter for drinking water. Water from these four wells also had the largest arsenic concentrations measured in the study ranging from 30 to 124 micrograms

Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

2010-01-01

136

Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region Despite India's tremendous progress on all fronts after independence in 1947, the fact remains that it is one of the poorest nation in the world in terms of per capita income and energy consumption which is considered to be the gauge of the economic situation of any country. In case of India, it is nearly one tenth of the developed nations. If economic condition of its people is to be raised, then country has to boost its agriculture production which is largely monsoon dependent and to exploit its conventional and unconventional energy sources at a very rapid growth rate. Although, worldwide, 70% of the water that is withdrawn for human use is used for agriculture, 22% for industry and 8% is used for domestic services. But in India which is a low income country, 82% is used for agriculture, 10% for industry and 8% for domestic services. Therefore, India needs new sources of water to reduce the risk of dependency on the monsoon for the Sustainable Development of the country. It is in this connection that the Ambikapur Basin in the Central India has been studied for sustainable water withdrawal. At present, the crops in the Ambikapur region are totally monsoon dependent. However, with the initiatives of the State Government, 25 boreholes in an area of about 25 square kilometers have been drilled up to a depth of 500m and completed in the Gondwana sandstone. The water quality and the discharge rates have been established to sustain the crops of the area which is the only livelihood of the local people , in case the monsoon fails. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer like Transmissivity (T) and the Coefficient of Storage (S) were determined following the graphic method of Jacob and Theis. The rate of discharge (Q) of the pumped well was estimated at 4.05 x 10 to the power 3 cubic meters per second and the values of other parameters like T at the well being 2.5 x 10 to the power 3 square meters per second and, T and S at the piezometric head being 1.56 x 10 to the power 2 square meters per second and 5.8 % respectively. The Interference Tests show that the reservoir is communicable. The measurements of bottom hole pressure indicate that it was always greater than the hydrostatic pressure, therefore, the wells will have a self flow. The residency period of the water in the reservoir comes out to be nearly 30 to 40 years. The reservoir characteristics indicate that the Ambikapur aquifer offers vast water resource worth exploiting the judicious management of which can reduce the dependency of crops on the monsoon and can help a fast sustainable development of the region. Key words : Gondwana sandstone, Aquifer, Transmissivity, Piezometric head, Interference test,

Sharma, S. K.

2009-04-01

137

Changes in flow in the upper North Canadian river basin of western Oklahoma, pre-development to 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels have declined in the southern part of the High Plains aquifer of the central USA since the mid-1960s in response to extensive irrigation development. The North Canadian River originates in western Oklahoma, and most of the basin is underlain by the High Plains aquifer. Average river flow in the headwaters near Guymon, Oklahoma, has decreased from about 0.9 m3/s before 1970 to near zero at present. Canton Lake, on the North Canadian River near Seiling, about 250 km downstream from Guymon, is a source of water supply for Oklahoma City. Precipitation data and streamflow data for gages upstream from Canton Lake were divided into an "early" period ending in 1971 and a "recent" period that begins in 1978. The early period represents conditions before ground-water levels had declined appreciably in the High Plains aquifer, and the recent period reflects the current condition, including the effects of storage reservoirs. Tests for trend and comparisons of flows between the early and recent periods show that the total annual volume of flow and the magnitudes of instantaneous annual peak discharges measured at most locations in the North Canadian River basin have decreased. Precipitation records for the area, however, show no corresponding changes. The decreases in average annual flow, expressed as a percentage of the average flows for the early period, ranged from 91 percent near Guymon to 37 percent near Canton Lake. A major contributing factor in the decreased flows appears to be the large declines in water levels in the High Plains aquifer.

Wahl, K. L.

2001-01-01

138

Assessment of nonpoint-source contamination of the High Plains Aquifer in south-central Kansas, 1987  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water quality was assessed in a 5,000-square-mile area of the High Plains aquifer in south-central Kansas that is susceptible to nonpoint-source contamination from agricultural and petroleum-production activities. Of particular interest was the presence of agricultural chemicals and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons that might have been associated with brines that formerly were disposed into unlined ponds. Random sampling of ground water was done within a framework of discrete land-use areas (irrigated cropland, petroleum-production land containing former brine-disposal ponds, and undeveloped rangeland) of 3-10 square miles. Although true baseline water-quality conditions probably are rare, in this region they are represented most closely by ground water in areas of undeveloped rangeland. The sampling design enabled statistical hypothesis testing, using nonparametric procedures, of the effects of land use, unsaturated-zone lithology, and type of well sampled. Results indicate that regional ground-water quality has been affected by prevailing land-use activities, as shown by increased concentrations of several inorganic constituents. Ground water beneath irrigated cropland was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, potassium, fluofide, and nitrite plus nitrate than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Few nondegraded pesticides were detected in the aquifer, probably because of degradation and sorption. Atrazine was the most common, but only in small concentrations. round water beneath petroleum-production land was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Nonpoint-source contamination by oil-derived hydrocarbons was not discernible. The occurrences of trace organic compounds were similar between petroleum-production land and undeveloped rangeland, which indicates a natural origin for these compounds. The unsaturated zone in the study area is lithologically heterogeneous and contains substantial amounts of clay that inhibit the downward movement of water and solutes. Within the aquifer, the rate of lateral regional flow and solute transport is slow enough so that the ground-water quality reflects overlying land use in discrete areas of several square miles, but it is still sufficiently rapid so that the type of well sampled is not important in regional characterizations of water quality beneath irrigated cropland; the seasonal pumping of irrigation wells does not appear to divert regional flow enough to cause substantial local anomalies of more mineralized ground water.

Helgesen, John O.; Stullken, Lloyd E.; Rutledge, A. T.

1994-01-01

139

Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for NO3 contamination in agricultural areas.

Plummer, L. N.; Rupert, M. G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

2000-01-01

140

Potential for pollution of the Upper Floridan aquifer from five sinkholes and an internally drained basin in west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sinkholes are natural and common geologic features in west-central Florida, which is underlain by water soluble limestone deposits. Dissolution of these deposits is the fundamental cause of sinkhole development. Sinkholes and other karst features are more pronounced in the northern part of the study area, but sinkhole activity has occurred throughout the area. Fifty-eight sinkholes with known or suspected connection to the Upper Floridan aquifer are located in the study area. An internally drained basin near the city of Brandon and five sinkholes in Hillsborough, Pasco, and Hernando Counties were selected for detailed investigation. At all sites, chemical or biological constituents were detected that indicate pollutants had entered the aquifer. A generalized classification, based on the potential to pollute, was applied to the selected sites. Four of the sites have high potential and two have moderate potential to pollute the Upper Floridan aquifer. All of the sites investigated are capable of recharging large volumes of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer in short periods of time. Continued monitoring of the quality of water entering the sinkholes and of wells downgradient to the sinks is needed to assess the future impacts on the aquifer. (Author 's abstract)

Trommer, J. T.

1987-01-01

141

Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Central Valley Aquifer System near Modesto, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Modesto, California. The well selected for study pumps on average about 1,600 gallons per minute from the Central Valley aquifer system during peak summer demand. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in the Modesto vicinity. Samples from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents uranium, nitrate, arsenic, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although none were present at concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards. Of these contaminants, uranium and nitrate pose the most significant water-quality risk to the public-supply well because human activities have caused concentrations in groundwater to increase over time. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and (or) fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Modesto: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) irrigation and agricultural and municipal pumping that drives contaminants downward into the primary production zone of the aquifer; (3) short-circuiting of contaminated water down the public-supply well during the low-pumping season; and (4) natural geochemical conditions of the aquifer. A local-scale computer model of groundwater flow and transport to the public-supply well was constructed to simulate long-term nitrate and uranium concentrations reaching the well. With regard to nitrate, two conflicting processes influence concentrations in the area contributing recharge to the well: (1) Beneath land that is being farmed or has recently been farmed (within the last 10 to 20 years), downward-moving irrigation waters contain elevated nitrate concentrations; yet (2) the proportion of agricultural land has decreased and the proportion of urban land has increased since 1960. Urban land use is associated with low nitrate concentrations in recharge (3.1 milligrams per liter). Results of the simulation indicate that nitrate concentrations in the public-supply well peaked in the late 1990s and will decrease slightly from the current level of 5.5 milligrams per liter during the next 100 years. A lag time of 20 to 30 years between peak nitrate concentrations in recharge and peak concentrations in the well is the result of the wide range of ages of water reaching the public-supply well combined with changing nitrogen input concentrations over time. As for uranium, simulation results show that concentrations in the public-supply well will likely approach the Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter over time; however, it will take more than 100 years because of the contribution of old water at depth in the public-supply well that dilutes uranium concentrations in shallower water entering the well. This allows time to evaluate management strategies and to alter well-construction or pumping strategies to prevent uranium concentrations from exceeding the drinking-water standard.

Jagucki, Martha L.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Burow, Karen R.; Eberts, Sandra M.

2009-01-01

142

Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1960  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is part of a regional aquifer system that extends into Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part of the State. The aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits. In western Kansas, the High Plains aquifer consists principally of the Ogallala Formation of the late Tertiary age and the overlying deposits of Quaternary age. In south-central Kansas, the aquifer consists of unconsolidated deposits principally of Quaternary age. Valley alluvium of Quaternary age also is included in the deposits in both areas. The High Plains aquifer is delimited on the east by outcrops of Permian or Cretaceous rocks and by unsaturated deposits of Quaternary age. The altitude and configuration of the water table during 1960 are shown for the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. The water table sloped generally from west to east at an average rate of 10 feet per mile. The altitude of the water table ranged from about 3,900 feet in the southwest corner of Sherman County, northwestern Kansas, to about 1,350 feet in northern Sedgwick County, southcentral Kansas. Groundwater moves perpendicular to the water table contours from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the east. Contours that cross stream valleys without flexure may indicate that the water table was below the streambed. Upstream flexure of water table contours along streams indicates that groundwater flowed toward, and discharged into, streams. This is most evident along the South Fork Republican River in Cheyenne County, Northwestern Kansas, and the South Fork Ninnescah River in Pratt and Kingman Counties, south-central Kansas. (USGS)

Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

1986-01-01

143

Linking groundwater use and stress to specific crops using the groundwater footprint in the Central Valley and High Plains aquifer systems, U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

number of aquifers worldwide are being depleted, mainly by agricultural activities, yet groundwater stress has not been explicitly linked to specific agricultural crops. Using the newly developed concept of the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services), we develop a methodology to derive crop-specific groundwater footprints. We illustrate this method by calculating high-resolution groundwater footprint estimates of crops in two heavily used aquifer systems: the Central Valley and High Plains, U.S. In both aquifer systems, hay and haylage, corn, and cotton have the largest groundwater footprints, which highlights that most of the groundwater stress is induced by crops meant for cattle feed. Our results are coherent with other studies in the High Plains but suggest lower groundwater stress in the Central Valley, likely due to artificial recharge from surface water diversions which were not taken into account in previous estimates. Uncertainties of recharge and irrigation application efficiency contribute the most to the total relative uncertainty of the groundwater footprint to aquifer area ratios. Our results and methodology will be useful for hydrologists, water resource managers, and policy makers concerned with which crops are causing the well-documented groundwater stress in semiarid to arid agricultural regions around the world.

Esnault, Laurent; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Heinke, Jens; Gerten, Dieter; Flanary, Elizabeth; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.

2014-06-01

144

Oklahoma Forestry Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Oklahoma Forestry Services (OFS) is "to conserve, enhance and protect the forest resources of Oklahoma for present and future generations." As part of this mission the OFS website contains information about fire reports, tree and forest health, and water quality. First-time visitors should start their journey through the site by clicking on the "Oklahoma's Forests" section. Here they will find information about Oklahoma's major forest types, the ecoregions of Oklahoma, and several Trees of Oklahoma fact sheets. Back on the homepage, visitors can learn about upcoming workshops and events, read a list of forestry bulletins, and find out about the Forest Heritage Center Museum. Residents of Oklahoma may also wish to look through the "Home and Community Trees" area to learn more about planning their own trees and Arbor Day related activities.

145

Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

2014-09-01

146

Transport of calcium, magnesium and SO 4 in the Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida: implications to cementation rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior hydrogeochemical studies have documented a down-gradient increase in dissolved calcium, magnesium and SO 4 in the confined, upper Floridan aquifer and have attributed the changes to dissolution of gypsum and dolomite and precipitation of calcite. In this study, hydrochemical data (mol l -1) are coupled with calculated discharges (1 year -1) to calculate the down-gradient changes in ion fluxes (mol year -1) along two predevelopment stream tubes in west-central Florida. Evaluation of ion inflows (including leakage from above) and outflows to and from well-to-well sectors of the stream tubes enables isolation of the changes in ion fluxes due to the previously identified reactions and, hence, quantification of the geological work done by those reactions in the sectors. Over about half of the stream tubes, the amount of calcite precipitation is small to non-existent (0 ±0.25% of the bulk volume per million years), which is consistent with geological evidence. Significant cementation rates are calculated for areas influenced by upward flow, such as at the end of the stream tubes and along the Peace River. Half of these significantly large values are impossibly large, apparently reflecting an inherited signal from a flow history below the depth of the upper Floridan wells. Similarly, mass-balance results that suggest significant dissolution of dolomite and gypsum probably reflect upwelling, not diagenesis at the depths of the sampled wells.

Jones, I. C.; Vacher, H. L.; Budd, D. A.

1993-03-01

147

Preliminary Gravity and Ground Magnetic Data in the Arbuckle Uplift near Sulphur, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Improving knowledge of the geology and geophysics of the Arbuckle Uplift in south-central Oklahoma is a goal of the Framework Geology of Mid-Continent Carbonate Aquifers project sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP). In May 2007, we collected ground magnetic and gravity observations in the Hunton Anticline region of the Arbuckle Uplift, near Sulphur, Oklahoma. These observations complement prior gravity data collected for a project sponsored by the National Park Service and helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) and aeromagnetic data collected in March 2007 for the NCGMP project. This report describes the instrumentation and processing that was utilized in the May 2007 geophysical fieldwork, and it presents preliminary results as gravity anomaly maps and magnetic anomaly profiles. Digital tables of gravity and magnetic observations are provided as a supplement to this report. Future work will generate interpretive models of these anomalies and will involve joint analysis of these ground geophysical measurements with airborne and other geophysical and geological observations, with the goal of understanding the geological structures influencing the hydrologic properties of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer.

Scheirer, Daniel S.; Aboud, Essam

2008-01-01

148

Conjunctive-use optimization model and sustainable-yield estimation for the Sparta aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conjunctive-use optimization modeling was done to assist water managers and planners by estimating the maximum amount of ground water that hypothetically could be withdrawn from wells within the Sparta aquifer indefinitely without violating hydraulic-head or stream-discharge constraints. The Sparta aquifer is largely a confined aquifer of regional importance that comprises a sequence of unconsolidated sand units that are contained within the Sparta Sand. In 2000, more than 35.4 million cubic feet per day (Mft3/d) of water were withdrawn from the aquifer by more than 900 wells, primarily for industry, municipal supply, and crop irrigation in Arkansas. Continued, heavy withdrawals from the aquifer have caused several large cones of depression, lowering hydraulic heads below the top of the Sparta Sand in parts of Union and Columbia Counties and several areas in north-central Louisiana. Problems related to overdraft in the Sparta aquifer can result in increased drilling and pumping costs, reduced well yields, and degraded water quality in areas of large drawdown. A finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed for the Sparta aquifer using MODFLOW, primarily in eastern and southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Observed aquifer conditions in 1997 supported by numerical simulations of ground-water flow show that continued pumping at withdrawal rates representative of 1990 - 1997 rates cannot be sustained indefinitely without causing hydraulic heads to drop substantially below the top of the Sparta Sand in southern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Areas of ground-water levels below the top of the Sparta Sand have been designated as Critical Ground-Water Areas by the State of Arkansas. A steady-state conjunctive-use optimization model was developed to simulate optimized surface-water and ground-water withdrawals while maintaining hydraulic-head and streamflow constraints, thus determining the 'sustainable yield' for the aquifer. Initial attempts to estimate sustainable yield using simulated 1997 hydraulic heads as initial heads in Scenario 1 and 100 percent of the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rate as the lower specified limit in Scenario 2 led to infeasible results. Sustainable yield was estimated successfully for scenario 3 with three variations on the upper limit of withdrawal rates. Additionally, ground-water withdrawals in Union County were fixed at 35.6 percent of the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rate in Scenario 3. These fixed withdrawals are recognized by the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission to be sustainable as determined in a previous study. The optimized solutions maintained hydraulic heads at or above the top of the Sparta Sand (except in the outcrop areas where unconfined conditions occur) and streamflow within the outcrop areas was maintained at or above minimum levels. Scenario 3 used limits of 100, 150, and 200 percent of baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rates for the upper specified limit on 1,119 withdrawal decision variables (managed wells) resulting in estimated sustainable yields ranging from 11.6 to 13.2 Mft3/d in Arkansas and 0.3 to 0.5 Mft3/d in Louisiana. Assuming the total 2 Conjunctive-Use Optimization Model and Sustainable-Yield Estimation for the Sparta Aquifer of Southeastern Arkansas and North-Central Louisiana water demand is equal to the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rates, the sustainable yields estimated from the three scenarios only provide 52 to 59 percent of the total ground-water demand for Arkansas; the remainder is defined as unmet demand that could be obtained from large, sustainable surface-water withdrawals.

McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.; Czarnecki, John B.

2004-01-01

149

Estimation of heterogeneous aquifer parameters using centralized and decentralized fusion of hydraulic tomography data from multiple pumping tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of spatial variability of hydraulic properties of groundwater systems at high resolution is essential to simulate flow and transport phenomena. This paper investigates two schemes to invert transient hydraulic head data resulting from multiple pumping tests for the purpose of estimating the spatial distributions of the hydraulic conductivity, K, and the specific storage, Ss, of an aquifer. The two methods are centralized fusion and decentralized fusion. The centralized fusion of transient data is achieved when data from all pumping tests are processed concurrently using a central inversion processor, whereas the decentralized fusion inverts data from each pumping test separately to obtain optimal local estimates of hydraulic parameter, which are consequently fused using the Generalized Millman Formula, an algorithm for merging multiple correlated or uncorrelated local estimates. For both data fusion schemes, the basic inversion processor employed is the Ensemble Kalman Filter, which is employed to assimilate the temporal moments of the transient hydraulic head measurements resulting from multiple pumping tests. Assimilating the temporal moments instead of the hydraulic head transient data themselves is shown to provide a significant improvement in computational efficiency. Additionally, different assimilation strategies to improve the estimation of Ss are investigated. Results show that estimation of the K and Ss distributions using temporal moment analysis is fairly good; however, the centralized inversion scheme consistently outperforms the decentralized inversion scheme. Investigations on the sensitivity of the inversion estimates to errors in geostatistical parameters of the random fields of K and Ss reveal that the estimates are not sensitive to errors in the correlation length and the variance of hydraulic properties, but are noticeably sensitive to errors in the stationary mean. The proposed inversion schemes are expanded to estimate the geostatistical parameters of the K and Ss fields. The results show that the estimation of the true stationary mean of the K field and, to a lesser degree, the stationary mean of the Ss field can be successfully achieved, while the estimation of correlation length and standard deviation for both the K and Ss fields are not as effective.

Alzraiee, A. H.; Baú, D.; Elhaddad, A.

2014-04-01

150

The Edwards Aquifer Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Edwards Aquifer is a groundwater system upon which the people of South Central Texas depend for "agricultural, industrial, recreational, and domestic needs." This dependence has caused a depletion of the water in the aquifer, while demand for the water continues to increase. The aquifer's homepage provides a map of the aquifer and its location in Texas, a wonderful introduction to the aquifer, its hydrogeology, and issues surrounding the aquifer. The site provides a plethora of additional information including images and essays, charts and graphs, endangered species, laws and regulations, an extensive glossary, and bibliography.

151

CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned CCDD sites; site assessments and remedial feasibility studies are ongoing in each State. Remediation alternatives addressed physical hazards and potential for groundwater transport of dissolved salt and petroleum hydrocarbons that might be leached from wastes. Remediation options included excavation of wastes and contaminated adjacent soils followed by removal to permitted disposal facilities or land farming if sufficient on-site area were available.

Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

2003-06-01

152

Agriculture-related trends in groundwater quality of the glacial deposits aquifer, central Wisconsin.  

PubMed

Measuring and understanding trends in groundwater quality is necessary for determining whether changes in land-management practices have an effect on groundwater quality. This paper describes an approach that was used to measure and understand trends using data from two groundwater studies conducted in central Wisconsin as part of the USGS NAWQA program. One of the key components of this approach, determining the age of sampled groundwater, gave a temporal component to the snapshots of water quality that were obtained through synoptic-sampling efforts. This approach can be used at other locations where groundwater quality data are collected, groundwater age can be determined, and associated temporal data are available. Results of these studies indicate measured concentrations of nitrate and atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to historical patterns of fertilizer and atrazine use. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater have increased over time; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine increased and then decreased. Concentrations of nitrate also were correlated to screen depth below the water level and concentrations of dissolved O(2); concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to dissolved O(2) and annual precipitation. To measure trends in concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine, the data, collected over a near-decadal period, were adjusted to account for changes in laboratory-reporting levels and analytical recoveries. Only after accounting for these changes was it apparent that the median concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine decreased over the near-decadal interval between sampling efforts. PMID:18765767

Saad, David A

2008-01-01

153

Dissolved-solids concentrations and hydrochemical facies in water of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Much of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system contains freshwater, but sizable parts contain marginally fresh or slightly saline water. The predominant water type in the aquifer system is calcium bicarbonate; however, one of seven other hydrochemical facies characterizes the water in places. The median dissolved-solids concentration of water samples from the Edwards aquifer in the Balcones fault zone is 297 mg/L (milligrams per liter); the interquartile range is 93 mg/L. In the freshwater zone of the Edwards aquifer updip of a freshwater/saline-water transition zone, the water is almost exclusively calcium bicarbonate. The median dissolved-solids concentration of water samples from the Trinity aquifer in the Hill Country is 537 mg/L and the interquartile range is 573 mg/L. Four bicarbonate and sulfate facies, spread vertically throughout the saturated section, characterize most of the Hill Country analyses; calcium bicarbonate predominates. The median concentration of dissolved solids in water samples from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Edwards Plateau is 379 mg/L and the interquartile range is 547 mg/L. Freshwater is nearly everywhere in the southern and northeastern parts of the aquifer, and mostly slightly saline water is in the northwestern part. The distribution of hydrochemical facies shows a similar pattern to dissolved-solids concentration, with bicarbonate water nearly everywhere in the southern and northeastern parts of the aquifer. Sulfate and chloride facies characterize the northwestern part of the Edwards Plateau. The median concentration of dissolved solids among water samples from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Trans-Pecos is 929 mg/L and the interquartile range is 1,626 mg/L. Fresh, calcium bicarbonate water predominates in the southern part, and more saline mixed and sulfate waters are the most common in the northwestern part.

Bush, P. W.; Ulery, R. L.; Rittmaster, R. L.

1994-01-01

154

Heat flow in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 [sup 0]C/km (average 31.2 [sup 0]C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

Cranganu, C.; Deming, D. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

1996-01-01

155

Heat flow in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 {sup 0}C/km (average 31.2 {sup 0}C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

Cranganu, C.; Deming, D. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

1996-12-31

156

History of ground-water pumpage and water-level decline in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers of the central coastal plain of North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical ground-water withdrawals and a general water-level decline in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers of the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina are documented. Total municipal and industrial pumpage from these aquifers has increased from approximately 120,000 gal/day (gpd) in 1910 to >21 million gpd in 1980. Major pumpage, > 10,000 gpd, began around 1900. Since that time, per capita water use in the central Coastal Plain area has ranged from 17 to 172 gpd/person. The higher values partially represent the increasing availability and use of modern conveniences since the World War II era. The range of per capita water use can be subdivided according to general water-use and population characteristics for both urban and rural areas. The pumpage of ground water from the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers has created water-level declines from 0.5 to 4.9 ft/year since 1900. Approximately a third of the study area has experienced a decline > 50 ft up to the period 1979-1981, with 148 ft being the maximum.

Winner, M.D.; Lyke, W.L.

1986-01-01

157

Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas - Field testing and analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last several years, streamflows of a number of Kansas streams have been reduced as a result of groundwater declines. In order to better understand and quantify stream-aquifer interrelationships, an eight-day comprehensive stream-aquifer pumping test, followed by recovery monitoring, was conducted along the Arkansas River near Great Bend, Kansas. In addition to water level monitoring in numerous observation wells, streamflow data, streambed hydraulic gradients, neutron probe-based water content of dewatered sediments, water chemistry and other data were collected. The alluvial aquifer is shown to be highly transmissive (T = 1803 m2d-1) with the pumping stress (9538 m3d-1) having a radius of influence larger than 1.77 km, impacting both the aquifer levels and the streamflow in the nearby Arkansas River. Drawdown and recharge boundary effects were observed in all observation wells, including those on the opposite side of the river. The alluvial aquifer did not exhibit a water table behavior and responded as a leaky confined aquifer. A semiconfining clay layer less than 3 m thick and an additional recharge source from a nearby stream-alluvial system were the probable causes of the observed phenomena. Actual streamflow depletion is shown to be appreciably less than the computed depletion based on analytical solutions. ?? 1988.

Sophocleous, M.; Townsend, M.A.; Vogler, L.D.; McClain, T.J.; Marks, E.T.; Coble, G.R.

1988-01-01

158

Demonstration optimization analyses of pumping from selected Arapahoe aquifer municipal wells in the west-central Denver Basin, Colorado, 2010–2109  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Declining water levels caused by withdrawals of water from wells in the west-central part of the Denver Basin bedrock-aquifer system have raised concerns with respect to the ability of the aquifer system to sustain production. The Arapahoe aquifer in particular is heavily used in this area. Two optimization analyses were conducted to demonstrate approaches that could be used to evaluate possible future pumping scenarios intended to prolong the productivity of the aquifer and to delay excessive loss of saturated thickness. These analyses were designed as demonstrations only, and were not intended as a comprehensive optimization study. Optimization analyses were based on a groundwater-flow model of the Denver Basin developed as part of a recently published U.S. Geological Survey groundwater-availability study. For each analysis an optimization problem was set up to maximize total withdrawal rate, subject to withdrawal-rate and hydraulic-head constraints, for 119 selected municipal water-supply wells located in 96 model cells. The optimization analyses were based on 50- and 100-year simulations of groundwater withdrawals. The optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells for a 50-year simulation time was about 58.8 cubic feet per second. For an analysis in which the simulation time and head-constraint time were extended to 100 years, the optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells was about 53.0 cubic feet per second, demonstrating that a reduction in withdrawal rate of about 10 percent may extend the time before the hydraulic-head constraints are violated by 50 years, provided that pumping rates are optimally distributed. Analysis of simulation results showed that initially, the pumping produces water primarily by release of water from storage in the Arapahoe aquifer. However, because confining layers between the Denver and Arapahoe aquifers are thin, in less than 5 years, most of the water removed by managed-flows pumping likely would be supplied by depleting overlying hydrogeologic units, substantially increasing the rate of decline of hydraulic heads in parts of the overlying Denver aquifer.

Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.

2012-01-01

159

InSAR detection of aquifer recovery: Case studies of Koehn Lake (central California) and Lone Tree Gold Mine (Basin and Range)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic intervention in groundwater flow and aquifer storage often results in vertical movements of Earth's surface, which are well detected by InSAR observations. Most anthropogenic intervention occurs due to groundwater extraction for both agriculture and human consumption and results in land subsidence. However in some cases, ending anthropogenic intervention can lead to aquifer recovery and, consequently, surface uplift. In this study we present two such cases of aquifer recovery. The first case is the aquifer beneath Koehn Lake in Central California, which was overused to meet agricultural demands until the 1990's. The second case is the Lone Tree Gold Mine in Nevada that during active mining in the 1991-2006 groundwater pumping disrupted the aquifer and cause subsidence. But after mining ceased, groundwater flow was recovered and resulted in uplift. In both cases we studied the surface uplift using InSAR time series observations. We conduct an ERS and Envisat InSAR survey over Koehn Lake in California and Lone Tree Gold Mine in Nevada between 1992 and 2010. We followed the SBAS algorithm to generate a time-series of ground displacements and average velocities of pixels, which remain coherent through time in the SAR dataset. A total of 100 and 80 combined ERS and Envisat SAR dates are inverted for Koehn Lake and Lone Tree Gold Mine respectively. Results for the Koehn Lake area indicate a rapid uplift of about 3.5 mm/yr between 1992-2000 and a slower uplift rate of 1.6 mm/yr between 2000-2004, suggesting a decrease in the recovery process. The observed uplift correlates well with groundwater level increase in the Koehn Lake area. Results for the Lone Tree Gold Mine show a constant subsidence (~ 1 cm/yr) due to groundwater extraction between 1992-2006, but uplift of ~1 cm/yr since the beginning of 2007. In both case studies, InSAR observations reveal that the aquifer recovery is accompanied by surface uplift. We plan to use the InSAR observations and the groundwater level records to model and better understand aquifer recovery processes.

Wdowinski, S.; Greene, F.; Amelung, F.

2013-12-01

160

MIXED HERONRIES OF OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this 3-year study were to locate mixed heronries in Oklahoma, census breeding pairs of each species, and indentify site characteristics that may be important to heron ecology. During the study, 17 mixed heronries, containing a total of six ardeid species, were found in Oklahoma. The majority of heronries (82%) were located within the oak-woodland fauna region. Other

G. William Sallee

1982-01-01

161

Pride in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to be used as background material by social studies and history classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Oklahoma's heritage. It includes background information on the land and people of Oklahoma (geology, climate, topography, vegetation, animals, prehistoric peoples, French explorers,…

Moore, Gordon; Blackburn, Bob L.

162

Oklahoma Tribes: A History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…

Gover, Kevin

1977-01-01

163

Oklahoma Historical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Oklahoma Historical Society is "to preserve and perpetuate the history of Oklahoma and its people by collecting, interpreting and disseminating knowledge of Oklahoma and the Southwest." The Society maintains over 20 museums and historic sites, and they are also responsible for maintaining this website. On the homepage, visitors can learn about the sites they maintain, including the Pawnee Bill Ranch and the Pioneer Woman Museum. In the "Publications" area, visitors can read back issues of "The Chronicles of Oklahoma" dating from 1921 to 1962, and they can also find the "Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture". The Society's "Found in Collections" blog is a great way to learn about their current archival work, and visitors can read about textile preservation techniques and the Civil War. Also, the site includes podcasts created to profile various aspects of the state's history. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive email updates on new additions, programs, and exhibits.

164

Effects of aquifer heterogeneity on ground-water flow and chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer near and within an active pumping well field, west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chloride concentrations have been increasing over time in water from wells within and near the Eldridge-Wilde well field, near the coast in west-central Florida. Variable increases in chloride concentrations from well to well over time are the combined result of aquifer heterogeneity and ground-water pumping within the Upper Floridan aquifer. Deep mineralized water and saline water associated with the saltwater interface appear to move preferentially along flow zones of high transmissivity in response to ground-water withdrawals. The calcium-bicarbonate-type freshwater of the Upper Floridan aquifer within the study area is variably enriched with ions by mixing with introduced deep and saline ground water. The amount and variability of increases in chloride and sulfate concentrations at each well are related to well location, depth interval, and permeable intervals intercepted by the borehole. Zones of high transmissivity characterize the multilayered carbonate rocks of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Well-developed secondary porosity within the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones and the Avon Park Formation has created producing zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer. The highly transmissive sections of the Avon Park Formation generally are several orders of magnitude more permeable than the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, but both are associated with increased ground-water flow. The Ocala Limestone is less permeable and is dominated by primary, intergranular porosity. Acoustic televiewer logging, caliper logs, and borehole flow logs (both electromagnetic and heat pulse) indicate that the Tampa/Suwannee Limestone units are dominated by porosity owing to dissolution between 200 and 300 feet below land surface, whereas the porosity of the Avon Park Formation is dominated by fractures that occur primarily from 600 to 750 feet below land surface and range in angle from horizontal to near vertical. Although the Ocala Limestone can act as a semiconfining unit between the Avon Park Formation and the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, seismic-reflection data and photolinear analyses indicate that fractures and discontinuities in the Ocala Limestone are present within the southwestern part of the well field. It is possible that some fracture zones extend upward from the Avon Park Formation through the Ocala, Suwannee, and Tampa Limestones to land surface. These fractures may provide a more direct hydrologic connection between transmissive zones that are vertically separated by less permeable stratigraphic units. Ground water moves along permeable zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer in response to changes in head gradients as a result of pumping. Borehole geophysical measurements, including flow logs, specific conductance logs, and continuous monitoring of specific conductance at selected fixed depths, indicate that borehole specific conductance varies substantially with time and in response to pumping stresses. Ground-water mixing between hydrogeologic units likely occurs along highly transmissive zones and within boreholes of active production wells. Ground-water movement and water-quality changes were greatest along the most transmissive zones. Variable mixing of three water-type end members (freshwater, deepwater, and saltwater) occurs throughout the study area. Both deepwater and saltwater are likely sources for elevated chloride and sulfate concentrations in ground water. Mass-balance calculations of mixtures of the three end members indicate that deepwater is found throughout the aquifer units. Samples from wells within the southwestern part of the well field indicate that deepwater migrates into the shallow permeable units in the southwestern part of the well field. Deepwater contributes to elevated sulfate and chloride concentrations, which increase with depth and are elevated in wells less than 400 feet deep. The greatest increases in chloride concentrations over time are found in water from wells closest to the saltwater interface. Gro

Tihansky, A.B.

2005-01-01

165

Seymour Aquifer Water Quality Improvement Project Final Report  

E-print Network

The Seymour Aquifer is a shallow aquifer underlying over 300,000 acres in 20 counties in northwest central Texas. High nitrate concentrations are widespread in the Seymour Aquifer. Median nitrate levels in Knox, Haskell, Baylor, Hall, Wichita...

Sij, J.; Morgan, C.; Belew, M.; Jones, D.; Wagner, K.

166

76 FR 77578 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00057  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 12/07/2011...the disaster: Primary Counties: Lincoln. Contiguous Counties: Oklahoma: Creek, Logan, Okfuskee, Oklahoma, Payne, Pottawatomie. The Interest Rates...

2011-12-13

167

Oklahoma and American Indian Imagery  

E-print Network

: The Grapes of Wrath and the Oklahoma Dust Bowl 120 Chapter 6: American Indian Imagery Since Statehood 168 Chapter 7: Summary 191 Bibliography 199 vii List of Figures 2.1 Map of the Unassigned Lands... 19 2.2 “Ejecting an Oklahoma Boomer” 20 2.3 “The Fertile Fields of Oklahoma” 37 2.4 “Oklahoma City as it was in 1889” and “Oklahoma City as it is To - Day” 39 3.1. Map of Indian Territory, 1889 - 1907 45...

Anderson, William Brett

2011-12-31

168

Isotopic evidence for glacial meltwater recharge to the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer, north-central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemistry of water in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer in six midwestern states has been studied as part of the Northern Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis of the U.S. Geological Survey. Dissolved-solids concentrations generally increase perpendicular to the direction of regional groundwater flow, from less than 400 mg/liter in southeast Minnesota, southwest Wisconsin, and northeast Iowa to more than 10,000 mg/liter in northwest Missouri. Isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen are significantly depleted from north to south, with an areal distribution approximately parallel to the distribution of dissolved solids. For example, ??18O in southern Iowa and northern Missouri is about 6 parts per thousand lighter than ??18O of modern recharge water in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Covariance between ??18O and ??D of the groundwater, similar to that of modern precipitation, suggests that the differences in isotopic ratios between groundwater and modern recharge water reflect meteoric signatures of water during past recharge events rather than geochemical processes such as isotopic exchange with aquifer materials. The pronounced parallelism between the distribution of isotopes and dissolved solids over large areas probably reflects largescale recharge of Pleistocene glacial meltwater into the aquifer system, which probably had a paleoflow system with a gradient from northeast to southwest rather than from northwest to southeast. ?? 1984.

Siegel, D.I.; Mandle, R.J.

1984-01-01

169

Ground-water flow in the Gulf Coast aquifer systems, south central United States; a preliminary analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A major objective of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is to use digital models of regional groundwater flow systems to develop better understanding and to improve management of the resource. Modeling is used to synthesize information about the aquifer systems and to test hypotheses about the relative importance of the components of the systems. The 290,000-sq mile study area in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain includes the Mississippi embayment, Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas, and the Continental Shelf that are underlain by deposits of Tertiary and younger age, which contain fresh and saline water. A 10-layer, finite-difference, variable density model, with blocks 10 miles on a side, was used to simulate groundwater flow before development and in 1980, assuming steady- state conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the major factors controlling predevelopment regional flow are the topography, land-surface outcrop pattern, and geometry of aquifers and confining units. Geologic structure and the distribution of precipitation were less significant factors. The density of saline water in the deeper parts of the aquifer system probably has a substantial effect on regional groundwater flow that extends into the freshwater part of the system. Variable water density may be a significant driving force that transports salt great distances in many directions, including updip. The distribution and rates of regional recharge and discharge have been substantially changed by development. Groundwater pumpage in 1980 was about five times the value of predevelopment regional recharge. About 80% of the pumpage was supplied from increased regional recharge. Also resistance to vertical flow caused by many fine-grained beds within the permeable zones can be as important as resistance caused by regional confining units. (USGS)

Williamson, A. K.; Grubb, H. F.; Weiss, J. S.

1990-01-01

170

Geohydrology of the Wellington-alluvial aquifer system and evaluation of possible locations of relief wells to decrease saline ground-water discharge to the Smoky Hill and Solomon rivers, central Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Saline water discharges from the alluvial aquifer into the Smoky Hill and Solomon Rivers between New Cambria and Solomon in central Kansas. Chloride concentrations in the Smoky Hill River sometimes exceed 1,000 mg/L during low flow conditions. The source of saline water is the underlying Wellington aquifer, a zone of halite and gypsum dissolution, subsidence, and collapse along the eastern margin of the Permian Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation. Locally, brine from the Wellington aquifer flows upward through collapse structures in the confining layer into the overlying alluvium. Estimated brine discharge averages about 0.8 cu ft/sec. Control of the saline groundwater discharge to the Smoky Hill and Solomon Rivers is desirable to improve the quality of water in the rivers. The upward discharge of natural brine into the alluvium could be partly controlled by relief wells installed in the Wellington aquifer. The wells need to be located in the area of greatest saline groundwater discharge to the rivers and near the eastern end of the Wellington aquifer between New Cambria and Solomon. The relief wells could be pumped just enough to reverse the hydraulic gradient between the Wellington and alluvial aquifers, decreasing the upward flow of brine into the alluvium and, into the rivers. The brine could be disposed into brine aquifers underlying the area at depth or pumped into surface evaporation-storage reservoirs. (Author 's abstract)

Gillespie, Joe B.; Hargadine, G. D.

1986-01-01

171

Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

2009-01-01

172

Statistical analysis of water-level, springflow, and streamflow data for the Edwards Aquifer in south-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-level, springflow, and streamflow data were used to develop simple and multiple linear-regression equations for use in estimating water levels in wells and the flow of three major springs in the Edwards aquifer in the eastern San Antonio area. The equations provide daily, monthly, and annual estimates that compare very favorably with observed data. Analyses of geologic and hydrologic data indicate that the water discharged by the major springs is supplied primarily by regional underflow from the west and southwest and by local recharge in the infiltration area in northern Bexar, Comal, and Hays Counties.

Puente, Celso

1976-01-01

173

Chemical and isotopic composition and potential for contamination of water in the upper Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida, 1986-89  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major ions, unstable field constitutents, and the environmental isotopes tritium, deuterium, and oxygen-18 were measured in water from 112 wells that are open to the uppermost producing zones of the upper Floridan Aquifer. Tritium analyses indicate that the unconfined aquifer in northern areas contains relatively young water that has entered the aquifer since 1953, whereas the confined aquifer in southern areas contains older water. The potential for contamination of the upper Floridan Aquifer generally is greatest in those areas where the aquifer is unconfined and recharge has been shown to be high.

Swancar, Amy; Hutchinson, C.B.

1995-01-01

174

Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma  

E-print Network

Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Terrence G. Bidwell Professor and Extension Specialist Rangeland Ecology Tall Timbers Research Station Tallahassee, Florida Samuel D. Fuhlendorf Associate Professor RangelandE-927 Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Using Prescribed Fire in Oklahoma Using Prescribed Fire

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

175

The past is the key to the future: how the groundwater recharge to carbonate aquifer in central Italy has changed in recent decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate aquifers are important resources especially in mountainous regions because they are able to store huge quantities of groundwater in the humid periods and gradually release them during dry periods. Water quality is often excellent, hence they are regarded as strategic both for human consumption as well as for environmental uses. In many parts of the world this resources are largely exploited to supply large urban areas and possible negative effects of climate changes to their discharge is a great concern. The present study aims to analyze how the regimen of recharge to groundwater is affected by eventual non stationarity in temperature and precipitation during past decades. The case study (235 km2 ) is located in central Italy and feed the Nera river with an average discharge of about 3.3 m3/s. Daily data from 16 (7) stations monitoring precipitation (temperature) covering the area of interest over the period 1951-2013 were spatially homogenized by means of kriging at a 1 km2 resolution. The resulting daily maps were used to force a simple spatial distributed soil water budget model considering the local hydrogeological structure. The reconstructed daily recharge to the aquifer was then compared to the discharge of the groundwater system observed in the period 1991-1993 and 1996-2012 (discontinues measurements). Results show that minimum and maximum temperatures present a significant (95%) positive trend after the 1980, in acceleration after 1990 (+0.055 (+0.07 )°C/yr for the maximum T; +0.03 ( +0.06) °C/yr for the minimum T, for the periods 1980-2013 (1990-2013)); precipitation and recharge to the aquifer present a non-significant (95%) negative linear trend over the period 1951-2013 (-1.5 mm/yr and -3 Ls-1yr-1 respectively) without obvious changings points, indicating in first approximation a marginal impact of temperature non stationarity on the recharge. The decrease in the recharge to the aquifer, although not statistically significant, represents a reduction of 5.5% of the groundwater system discharge over the past 60 years.

Preziosi, Elisabetta; Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Di Salvo, Cristina

2014-05-01

176

InSAR analysis of aquifer-system response to 20 years of mine-dewatering in the Carlin gold trend, north-central Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carlin trend in north-central Nevada has the second largest gold resources in the world, most of it produced from large open-pit mines. Heavy groundwater dewatering is required at the mines to lower water levels below the depth of mining which can exceed 400-500 m. The resulting water level declines have produced surface deformation (subsidence) that can be detected and modeled with InSAR to characterize the aquifer-system response and to estimate hydraulic parameters in order to test and refine groundwater models. In a series of studies we examined the effects of dewatering at mines operated by Newmont Mining Corporation and Barrick Gold of North America near Battle Mountain and Carlin, Nevada. The Lone Tree mine operated a large-scale dewatering program between 1992-2006 using deep bedrock wells that pumped between 64-92 hm3/yr (52,000-75,000 acre-ft/yr) and lowered bedrock water levels more than 120 m. InSAR analysis of ERS and Envisat data for the 1992-2000 and 2004-2010 periods showed that as much as 50 cm of aquifer-system compaction occurred in bedrock and in alluvial basin deposits with subsidence rates ranging between 3-6 cm/yr. Since dewatering ended in late 2006 and water levels began rising, only 7 cm of aquifer-system recovery (uplift) has occurred as of 2010 suggesting that most of the aquifer-system compaction was likely inelastic, apparently in the pumped fractured bedrock. The InSAR subsidence data differ significantly from the pre-pumping groundwater model which predicted 2.5 m of subsidence for the 1992-2000 period. The results yield bulk storage coefficients in the range of 7 x 10-3 to 5.6 x 10-5 with a most frequent value of 1.0 x 10-3 (Baffoe-Twum, 2007), InSAR-derived hydraulic values that can provide better constraints on specific storage estimates in future groundwater models. The Betze-Post mine has been dewatering continually since late 1989 with maximum pumping rates of greater than 140 hm3/yr (110,000 acre-ft/yr) in the early and late 1990s. This resulted in the lowering of groundwater levels by as much as 500 m in some areas. Analysis of InSAR data covering the 1992-2000 and 2004-2010 time periods suggests a cumulative measured subsidence magnitude of approximately 50 cm. In this case, all of the aquifer-system compaction is occurring in bedrock. Estimates of bulk storage coefficients at Betze-Post are also on the order of approximately 1.0 x 10-3 suggesting that subsidence at both sites is occurring in materials of similar character. Subsidence rates have decreased to near zero since groundwater production was reduced in the early 2000s. Since the early 2000s, subsidence rates resulting from dewatering at the neighboring Leeville mine have been greater than those at Betze-Post. Dewatering at the Turquoise Ridge-Twin Creeks and Gold Quarry mines, adjacent to these two larger mines, has also produced measureable aquifer-system compaction but with lower rates of subsidence. However, detailed hydrologic analyses have not been undertaken at these mines.

Bell, J. W.; Katzenstein, K.

2012-12-01

177

Effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and time scale on simulated ground-water exchange with Lake Starr, a seepage lake in central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Starr and other lakes in the mantled karst terrain of Florida's Central Lake District are surrounded by a conductive surficial aquifer system that receives highly variable recharge from rainfall. In addition, downward leakage from these lakes varies as heads in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer change seasonally and with pumpage. A saturated three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and model time scale on ground-water exchange with Lake Starr. The lake was simulated as an active part of the model using high hydraulic conductivity cells. Simulated ground-water flow was compared to net ground-water flow estimated from a rigorously derived water budget for the 2-year period August 1996-July 1998. Calibrating saturated ground-water flow models with monthly stress periods to a monthly lake water budget will result in underpredicting gross inflow to, and leakage from, ridge lakes in Florida. Underprediction of ground-water inflow occurs because recharge stresses and ground-water flow responses during rainy periods are averaged over too long a time period using monthly stress periods. When inflow is underestimated during calibration, leakage also is underestimated because inflow and leakage are correlated if lake stage is maintained over the long term. Underpredicted leakage reduces the implied effect of ground-water withdrawals from the Upper Floridan aquifer on the lake. Calibrating the weekly simulation required accounting for transient responses in the water table near the lake that generated the greater range of net ground-water flow values seen in the weekly water budget. Calibrating to the weekly lake water budget also required increasing the value of annual recharge in the nearshore region well above the initial estimate of 35 percent of the rainfall, and increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the deposits around and beneath the lake. To simulate the total ground-water inflow to lakes, saturated-flow models of lake basins need to account for the potential effects of rapid and efficient recharge in the surficial aquifer system closest to the lake. In this part of the basin, the ability to accurately estimate recharge is crucial because the water table is shallowest and the response time between rainfall and recharge is shortest. Use of the one-dimensional LEACHM model to simulate the effects of the unsaturated zone on the timing and magnitude of recharge in the nearshore improved the simulation of peak values of ground-water inflow to Lake Starr. Results of weekly simulations suggest that weekly recharge can approach the majority of weekly rainfall on the nearshore part of the lake basin. However, even though a weekly simulation with higher recharge in the nearshore was able to reproduce the extremes of ground-water exchange with the lake more accurately, it was not consistently better at predicting net ground-water flow within the water budget error than a simulation with lower recharge. The more subtle effects of rainfall and recharge on ground-water inflow to the lake were more difficult to simulate. The use of variably saturated flow modeling, with time scales that are shorter than weekly and finer spatial discretization, is probably necessary to understand these processes. The basin-wide model of Lake Starr had difficulty simulating the full spectrum of ground-water inflows observed in the water budget because of insufficient information about recharge to ground water, and because of practical limits on spatial and temporal discretization in a model at this scale. In contrast, the saturated flow model appeared to successfully simulate the effects of heads in the Upper Floridan aquifer on water levels and ground-water exchange with the lake at both weekly and monthly stress periods. Most of the variability in lake leakage can be explained by the average vertical head difference between the lake and a re

Swancar, Amy; Lee, Terrie Mackin

2003-01-01

178

Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Ground Water, Norman, Oklahoma, 2004, and Remediation Options for Produced Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reviewed the arsenic drinking water standard for public water supplies. Considering the available research and statistics on the health effects of arsenic ingestion, the EPA reduced the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for public drinking water from 50 micrograms per liter (?g/L) to 10 ?g/L (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001a). As a result of the more stringent standard, the EPA estimates that about 3,000 public water providers across the United States must take action to meet the new standard before it becomes effective on January 23, 2006 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001b). The City of Norman (City) is one of several Oklahoma municipalities affected by the new arsenic standard. About 20 percent of Norman?s water is supplied by wells completed in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer; the rest is supplied by Lake Thunderbird (fig. 1) or purchased from Oklahoma City. The Norman well field is composed of 24 active wells, and water produced from about half of the wells will not be in compliance with the new MCL (figs. 2 and 3). Chemical treatment of water with elevated arsenic is possible, but it is generally cost prohibitive. Another costly solution is simply to abandon the high-arsenic wells and replace them with new wells in low-arsenic areas. In the next phase of well construction beginning in 2005, the City plans to construct as many as 30 new wells in northeast Norman (Bryan Mitchell, City of Norman, oral commun., 2005). The new wells will replace production lost to the new arsenic standard and add new production to keep pace with rapidly growing consumer demand. Well modification to exclude arsenic-bearing water from existing wells is a more cost-effective solution, but it requires a great deal of knowledge about local aquifer properties and individual well dynamics to decide which wells are good candidates for modification. With the goal of determining if well modification can be used to bring some of Norman?s high-arsenic wells into compliance with the new arsenic standard, the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated a three-year research project in 2003 with participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oklahoma State University, and the City of Norman. The primary objectives of the project are to: (1) determine where naturally occurring arsenic is entering wells by collecting water samples at different depths, (2) investigate the utility of new methods for collecting water-quality data in a pumping well, (3) better understand the stratigraphy and composition of aquifer rocks, (4) assess 10 wells for the possibility of arsenic remediation by well modification, and (5) evaluate the effectiveness of well modification in bringing marginal wells into compliance with the new arsenic MCL. The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence of arsenic in ground water near Norman, Oklahoma, and available options for reducing arsenic concentrations in produced ground water.

Smith, S. Jerrod; Christenson, Scott

2005-01-01

179

Educational Reform in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma's answer to the cry for reform and involvement in education emerged as House Bill 1017, a comprehensive $223 million school reform and tax act. This article reviews the HR 1017 story, focusing on its legislative enactment history and offering a content analysis of mandated changes in finance, personnel, governance, student assessment,…

Butorac, Marylin M.; First, Patricia F.

1994-01-01

180

Oklahoma and SREB  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Oklahoma and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead the…

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

2009-01-01

181

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

182

Oklahoma NASA EPSCoR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of Oklahoma EPSCoR is to make Oklahoma researchers more successful in competing for research funding. Specific goals, objectives, and strategies were developed for each federal EPSCoR program, based on federal and state needs. A theme of stimulating collaboration among campuses and building on common research strengths is a strong component of the Oklahoma EPSCoR strategic plan. It extends also to our relationships with the federal agencies, and wherever possible, Oklahoma EPSCoR projects are developed collaboratively with federal research laboratories and program offices. Overall, Oklahoma EPSCoR seeks to capitalize on unique research capabilities and opportunities. The NASA EPSCoR Program in Oklahoma was developed through this grant as a joint effort between Oklahoma EPSCoR and the NASA Oklahoma Space Grant Consortium (OSGC). The major goal of the Oklahoma NASA EPSCoR Plan established in 1996 is to develop an academic research enterprise directed towards a long-term, self-sustaining, nationally competitive capability in areas of mutual self-interest to NASA and Oklahoma. Our final technical summary pie chart demonstrates the strong successes we have achieved during this period as a result of the award.

Snowden, Victoria Duca

2002-01-01

183

Appraisal of the interconnection between the St Johns River and the surficial aquifer, east-central Duval County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The proposed deepening of the navigation channel in the St. Johns River to about 46-48 feet below sea level (45 feet below mean low water) may breach up to 11 feet of limestone unit of the lower part of the surficial aquifer along a 25-mile channel. The limestone supplies water to numerous domestic wells along the river in the Jacksonville area. Recent channel improvements to about 39 feet below sea level have already breached the limestone at many locations. Where breaching has not yet occurred, less than 1 to 6 feet of undifferentiated sediments overlie the limestone. These sediments, consisting predominantly of sand, are generally too permeable to form an effective confining layer. Chloride concentrations determined from water in wells tapping the limestone unit range from 8 to 6,600 milligrams per liter. However, chloride concentrations in water from wells located more than 500 feet from the river, were generally less than 30 milligrams per liter. The proposed dredging operation is not expected to alter significantly the present hydrologic system. The current position of the interface most likely represents conditions that will be present after future channel improvements. (USGS)

Spechler, R.M.; Stone, R.B.

1982-01-01

184

Configuration of the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and hydrogeology of the underlying pre-Cretaceous rocks, west-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system is underlain by an extensive complex of rocks, ranging from Late Cambrian through Late Triassic in age, that are typically about 10 to perhaps 1,000 times less permeable than those composing the aquifer system. The Cretaceous rocks of the aquifer system are separated from the pre-Cretaceous rocks by an unconformity that spans about 60 million years of erosion during the Jurassic Period. The upper surface of the pre-Cretaceous rock complex forms the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system. The configuration of the base reflects the original topography of the eroded pre-Cretaceous land surface plus the effects of subsequent deformation. The most permeable pre-Cretaceous rocks are in the eastern half of the study area where they compose the Hickory aquifer (in Upper Cambrian rocks), Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer (Upper Cambrian- Lower Ordovician), and Marble Falls aquifer (Lower Pennsylvanian). These aquifers are hydraulically connected to the northeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, as their up-turned margins crop out around the flanks of the breached Llano uplift. The Rustler aquifer in rocks of Late Permian age underlies parts of the Trans-Pecos region, where it yields small amounts of greatly mineralized water for industrial and agricultural purposes. The Dockum aquifer in rocks of Late Triassic age directly underlies the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in western parts of the study area, and locally increases the saturated thickness of the ground-water-flow system by an average of about 200 feet. Despite these notable exceptions, the collective effect of the pre-Cretaceous rocks is that 01 a barrier to ground-water flow, which limits the exchange of water across the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system.

Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

1992-01-01

185

78 FR 42147 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00073  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13647 and 13648] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00073...for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 4117-DR...disaster: Primary Counties: Atoka, Canadian...Nowata, Okfuskee, Oklahoma, Okmulgee, Pittsburg, Pottawatomie, Pushmataha,...

2013-07-15

186

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

187

Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than in more urbanized areas. Much of the water in the area is of good quality, though some parts of this area have water quality impaired by very hard surface water and groundwater; large chloride concentrations in some smaller streams; relatively large concentrations of nutrients and counts of fecal-indicator bacteria in the North Canadian River; and chloride, iron, manganese, and uranium concentrations that exceed primary or secondary drinking-water standards in water samples collected from small numbers of wells. Substantial amounts of hydrologic and water-quality data have been collected in much of this area, but there are gaps in those data caused by relatively few streamflow-gaging stations, uneven distribution of surface-water quality sampling sites, lack of surface-water quality sampling at high-flow and low-flow conditions, and lack of a regularly measured and sampled groundwater network. This report summarizes existing water-use, climatic, geographic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and describes several means of filling gaps in hydrologic data for this area.

Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

2013-01-01

188

Regional Groundwater - Flow Model of the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and Alluvial Basin Aquifer Systems of Northern and Central Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to document the development of a groundwater-flow model that simulates the groundwater-flow system that existed in northern and central Arizona before development of groundwater supplies, pre-1938, and the flow system that oc...

D. R. Pool, J. B. Callegary, K. W. Blasch, L. F. Graser, S. A. Leake

2010-01-01

189

Energy resources of Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past, present, and near future production of energy sources in Oklahoma is briefly surveyed. In 1977, the production was noted to be 186 million barrels while the reserve of liquid hydrocarbons was estimated to be about 1.4 billion barrels. This gives a reserves-to-production ratio of slightly less than 7:1 (down from 1976). About the same figures are noted for

Mankin

1978-01-01

190

Testing the sensitivity of pumpage to increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well-field area, West-Central Florida : an optimization technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tampa Bay depends on ground water for most of the water supply. Numerous wetlands and lakes in Pasco County have been impacted by the high demand for ground water. Central Pasco County, particularly the area within the Cypress Creek well field, has been greatly affected. Probable causes for the decline in surface-water levels are well-field pumpage and a decade-long drought. Efforts are underway to increase surface-water levels by developing alternative sources of water supply, thus reducing the quantity of well-field pumpage. Numerical ground-water flow simulations coupled with an optimization routine were used in a series of simulations to test the sensitivity of optimal pumpage to desired increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well field. The ground-water system was simulated using the central northern Tampa Bay ground-water flow model. Pumping solutions for 1987 equilibrium conditions and for a transient 6-month timeframe were determined for five test cases, each reflecting a range of desired target recovery heads at different head control sites in the surficial aquifer system. Results are presented in the form of curves relating average head recovery to total optimal pumpage. Pumping solutions are sensitive to the location of head control sites formulated in the optimization problem and as expected, total optimal pumpage decreased when desired target head increased. The distribution of optimal pumpage for individual production wells also was significantly affected by the location of head control sites. A pumping advantage was gained for test-case formulations where hydraulic heads were maximized in cells near the production wells, in cells within the steady-state pumping center cone of depression, and in cells within the area of the well field where confining-unit leakance is the highest. More water was pumped and the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in optimal pumpage was more than double for test cases where hydraulic heads are maximized in cells located at or near the production wells. Additionally, the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in pumpage was about three times more for the area where confining-unit leakance is the highest than for other leakance zone areas of the well field. For many head control sites, optimal heads corresponding to optimal pumpage deviated from the desired target recovery heads. Overall, pumping solutions were constrained by the limiting recovery values, initial head conditions, and by upper boundary conditions of the ground-water flow model.

Yobbi, Dann K.

2002-01-01

191

Naming aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Names are the symbols used in logic to designate items and to serve as addresses and structures to which information is related. However, in geohydrology, no widely accepted system for naming aquifers exists, and confusion has resulted. The confusion occurs in part because the few available guidelines are not widely known, and practicing geohydrologists may not be aware of or fully knowledgeable about those guidelines. In general, the inexactness and inaccuracy in naming aquifers probably occurs because of inexact or inaccurate definitions of an aquifer.

Jorgensen, Donald G.; Rosenshein, Joseph S.

192

75 FR 30871 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00038  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...affected by the disaster: Primary Counties (Physical Damage and Economic...Cleveland, McIntosh, Okfuskee, Oklahoma, Pottawatomie, Seminole. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Oklahoma: Canadian, Creek,...

2010-06-02

193

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

H. Seay Nance

2003-03-01

194

AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

195

National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Oklahoma City Quadrangle, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconnaissance and detailed geologic and radiometric investigations were conducted throughout the Oklahoma City Quadrangle, Oklahoma, to evaluate the uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. Surface and subsurface studies were augmented by data from aerial radiometric surveys, hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance studies, basement-rock computer modeling studies, and Track Etch surveys. The results indicate that there are no environments favorable

J. R. Derby; L. P. Upshaw; E. O. Carter; L. F. Roach; D. G. Roach

1982-01-01

196

Economic and Hydrologic Implications of Proposed Edwards Aquifer Management Plans  

E-print Network

The Edwards Aquifer underlies a large region in south central Texas extending from west of Uvalde to Austin. The karstic aquifer supports irrigated agriculture in the western part of the region, provides the sole source of water supply for San...

Dillon, Carl R.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Williams, R. Lynn; Jordan, Wayne R.; McCarl, Bruce A.

197

University of Oklahoma Police Department  

E-print Network

University of Oklahoma Police Department Case Log Media Apr 09, 2014 Jun 09, 2014From to Date incidents occurred off-campus and have been reported to the local police. Disposition: Date Reported)Disposition: 1Page No.11:00:0806/10/2014Print Date and Time at #12;University of Oklahoma Police Department Case

Oklahoma, University of

198

Estimated effects of projected ground-water withdrawals on movement of the saltwater front in the Floridan aquifer, 1976-2000, west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Maps of observed 1976 and simulated 2000 potentiometric surfaces were used to estimate rates of saltwater encroachment and theoretical predevelopment equilibrium positions of the saltwater-freshwater interface in west-central Florida. The observed saltwater front, defined by the 19,000 milligrams-per-liter line of equal chloride concentration in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer, corresponds closely to a theoretical predevelopment equilibrium position of a saltwater-freshwater interface. The interface position was computed by the Ghyben-Herzberg method, using heads from a map of the predevelopment potentiometric surface. In maps of both the observed May 1976 and simulated May 2000 potentiometric surface, the saltwater front was within a large seasonal cone of depression in parts of Hillsborough, Manatee, and Sarasota Counties. Average landward flow rate of the front was computed to be 0.30 foot per day in May 1976 and 0.36 foot per day in May 2000. Seaward potentiometric-surface gradient under simulated October 2000 conditions averaged 8.8 x 10-5 foot per foot less than under observed September 1976 conditions. Regional observation wells are desirable for monitoring potentiometric-level changes in western Hardee County and eastern Manatee County and for monitoring water-quality changes along the saltwater front, on its landward side, from mid-Sarasota County northward to Hillsborough County. Net landward movement of the saltwater front in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer is probably occurring under existing conditions. Pumping during 1976-2000 would probably increase slightly the rate of movement. However, rates are so slow that on a regional basis saltwater encroachment under existing and projected conditions is not presently a threat to the existing freshwater resources. The maximum projected regional landward movement, under 'worst case' conditions, of the saltwater front between 1976 and 2000 is estimated to be about one-half mile. Significant local encroachment could result from (1) ground-water development in the zone of transition and (2) deviations of local hydrogeologic conditions from average regional conditions.

Wilson, William Edward

1982-01-01

199

Spatial and temporal controls on biogeochemical indicators at the small-scale interface between a contaminated aquifer and wetland surface water  

E-print Network

This high-resolution biogeochemical study investigated spatial and temporal variability in the mixing interface zones within a wetland-aquifer system near a municipal landfill in the city of Norman, Oklahoma. Steep biogeochemical gradients...

Baez-Cazull, Susan Enid

2009-05-15

200

Oklahoma Indians and the Cultural Deprivation of an Oklahoma Cherokee Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes the history of Oklahoma Indians, highlights the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, and relates the story of the family of one Oklahoma Cherokee woman, Lou Jane Morgan Jernigan. Oklahoma is the state with the largest population of Indians, largely due to federal policy in the 19th century, which forced Indians into Oklahoma (or…

Shaver, Lynda Dixon

201

78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement for Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln, Creek...Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) Rail Division intend to prepare an EIS pursuant...for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City...

2013-05-28

202

Development and calibration of a ground-water flow model for the Sparta Aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana and simulated response to withdrawals, 1998-2027  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sparta aquifer, which consists of the Sparta Sand, in southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana is a major water resource and provides water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses. In recent years, the demand in some areas has resulted in withdrawals from the Sparta aquifer that substantially exceed replenishment of the aquifer. Considerable drawdown has occurred in the potentiometric surface forming regional cones of depression as water is removed from storage by withdrawals. These cones of depression are centered beneath the Grand Prairie area and the cities of Pine Bluff and El Dorado in Arkansas, and Monroe in Louisiana. The rate of decline for hydraulic heads in the aquifer has been greater than 1 foot per year for more than a decade in much of southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana where hydraulic heads are now below the top of the Sparta Sand. Continued hydraulic-head declines have caused water users and managers alike to question the ability of the aquifer to supply water for the long term. Concern over protecting the Sparta aquifer as a sustainable resource has resulted in a continued, cooperative effort by the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey to develop, maintain, and utilize numerical ground-water flow models to manage and further analyze the ground-water system. The work presented in this report describes the development and calibration of a ground-water flow model representing the Sparta aquifer to simulate observed hydraulic heads, documents major differences in the current Sparta model compared to the previous Sparta model calibrated in the mid-1980's, and presents the results of three hypothetical future withdrawal scenarios. The current Sparta model-a regional scale, three-dimensional numerical ground-water flow model-was constructed and calibrated using available hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and water-use data from 1898 to 1997. Significant changes from the previous model include grid rediscretization of the aquifer, extension of the active model area northward beyond the Cane River Formation facies change, and representation of model boundaries. The current model was calibrated with the aid of parameter estimation, a nonlinear regression technique, combined with trial and error parameter adjustment using a total of 795 observations from 316 wells over 4 different years-1970, 1985, 1990, and 1997. The calibration data set provides broad spatial and temporal coverage of aquifer conditions. Analysis of the residual statistics, spatial distribution of residuals, simulated compared to observed hydrographs, and simulated compared to observed potentiometric surfaces were used to analyze the ability of the calibrated model to simulate aquifer conditions within acceptable error. The calibrated model has a root mean square error of 18 feet for all observations, an improvement of more than 12 feet from the previous model. The current Sparta model was used to predict the effects of three hypothetical withdrawal scenarios on hydraulic heads over the period 1998-2027 with one of those extended indefinitely until equilibrium conditions were attained, or steady state. In scenario 1a, withdrawals representing the time period from 1990 to 1997 was held constant for 30 years from 1998 to 2027. Hydraulic heads in the middle of the cone of depression centered on El Dorado decreased by 10 feet from the 1997 simulation to 222 feet below NGVD of 1929 in 2027. Hydraulic heads in the Pine Bluff cone of depression showed a greater decline from 61 feet below NGVD of 1929 to 78 feet below NGVD of 1929 in the center of the cone. With these same withdrawals extended to steady state (scenario 1b), hydraulic heads in the Pine Bluff cone of depression center declined an 2 Development and Calibration of a Ground-Water Flow Model for the Sparta Aquifer of Southeastern Arkansas and North-Central Louisiana and Simulated Response to Withdrawa

McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.

2003-01-01

203

Use of double-mass curves to determine drawdown in a long-term aquifer test in north-central Volusia County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A test well withdrew water from the upper Floridan aquifer system at an average of 530 gallons per minute from June 1978 to July 1979. Ground-water levels were monitored in wells open to the upper Floridan (artesian) aquifer system and in wells open to the surficial (water-table) aquifer. Double-mass curves were used to separate drawdown from natural water-level fluctuations. Drawdowns in the Floridan were 4.3 feet at a site 350 feet away from the pumped well, 4.1 feet at a site 1,000 feet away, 1.0 foot at a site 1.0 mile away, and 0.4 foot at a site 5.8 miles away. After an initial drawdown of 0.2 foot at a surficial aquifer well 1,000 feet from the pumped well, there was some recovery, and long-term drawdown averaged less than 0.2 foot. In a five-day aquifer test during a period of no rainfall in 1976, the ratio of surficial aquifer drawdown to Floridan aquifer system drawdown reached equilibrum at 0.05. The results of the long-term test indicate that this ratio is the upper limit of long-term drawdown because of capture of evapotranspiration and runoff during the long-term test. (USGS)

Rutledge, A. T.

1985-01-01

204

Diurnal cycle of the Oklahoma City urban heat island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the dates of 28 June and 31 July 2003, the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field project was conducted in Oklahoma City and was the largest urban dispersion experiment ever in North America. Because the focus of JU2003 was on atmospheric processes within the urban environment, an extremely dense network of instrumentation was deployed in and around the central business

Jeffrey B. Basara; Peter K. Hall; Amanda J. Schroeder; Bradley G. Illston; Kodi L. Nemunaitis

2008-01-01

205

Naturally occurring hepatozoonosis in coyotes from Oklahoma.  

PubMed

Nine of 16 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Oklahoma (USA) had naturally acquired infections of Hepatozoon americanum. Infections were confirmed by recognition of tissue stages closely resembling H. americanum in skeletal and cardiac muscle. At the time coyotes were collected they were infested with a variety of ticks, including adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum). We propose that the high prevalence of H. americanum in this small sample of free-ranging coyotes and the ability of these same animals to harbor adult populations of A. maculatum is an important component of the epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in North America. PMID:10073352

Kocan, A A; Breshears, M; Cummings, C; Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A; Barker, R W

1999-01-01

206

Turbulence Kinetic Energy in the Oklahoma City Urban Environment  

SciTech Connect

The Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment took place in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during July 2003 to explore the effect of an urban canopy on the transport and diffusion of a passive tracer released in an urban area. Over one hundred three-dimensional sonic anemometers were deployed in and around the urban area to monitor wind speed, direction, and turbulence during releases of SF6. Deployment locations include a profile of eight sonic anemometers mounted on a crane located 1 km north (typically downwind) of the central business district, and several surface meteorological towers within an urban canyon.

Lundquist, J K; Leach, M; Gouveia, F

2004-03-30

207

9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History  

E-print Network

categories of performance each divided by age. · Spoken Language (Pre9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma from the Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair! We are pleased

Oklahoma, University of

208

Hydrogeology of the sand and gravel aquifer in the vicinity of the Wild Rose State Fish Hatchery, north-central Waushara County, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The sand and gravel aquifer in the vicinity of the Wild Rose State Fish Hatchery is approximately 200 feet thick. The aquifer consists mostly of sand that was deposited as glacial till and outwash approximately 15,000 years ago. Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer at the hatchery, calculated from slug tests, is approximately 18 feet per day. Ground water recharges west of the hatch ery, flows from northwest to southeast, and discharges to streams, lakes, springs, and flowing wells. Springs and flowing wells are common at the hatchery because of upward hydraulic gradients in the sand and gravel aquifer. Total flow from springs and wells at the hatchery is approximately 3 million gallons per day. The recharge area for the ground water discharging at the hatchery extends at least 5 miles to the west. Ground water may flow from or under the Pine River to wells and springs at the hatchery.

Conlon, T. D.

1996-01-01

209

Groundwater Quality, Age, and Probability of Contamination, Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eagle River watershed is located near the destination resort town of Vail, Colorado. The area has a fastgrowing permanent population, and the resort industry is rapidly expanding. A large percentage of the land undergoing development to support that growth overlies the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA), which likely has a high predisposition to groundwater contamination. As development continues, local organizations need tools to evaluate potential land-development effects on ground- and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. To help develop these tools, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, conducted a study in 2006-2007 of the groundwater quality, age, and probability of contamination in the ERWVFA, north-central Colorado. Ground- and surface-water quality samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, tritium, dissolved gases, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined with very low-level laboratory methods. The major-ion data indicate that groundwaters in the ERWVFA can be classified into two major groups: groundwater that was recharged by infiltration of surface water, and groundwater that had less immediate recharge from surface water and had elevated sulfate concentrations. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the USEPA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (250 milligrams per liter) in many wells near Eagle, Gypsum, and Dotsero. The predominant source of sulfate to groundwater in the Eagle River watershed is the Eagle Valley Evaporite, which is a gypsum deposit of Pennsylvanian age located predominantly in the western one-half of Eagle County.

Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

2009-01-01

210

Hydrogeology and simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system in Lake County and in the Ocala National Forest and vicinity, north-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogeology of Lake County and the Ocala National Forest in north-central Florida was evaluated (1995-2000), and a ground-water flow model was developed and calibrated to simulate the effects of both present day and future ground-water withdrawals in these areas and the surrounding vicinity. A predictive model simulation was performed to determine the effects of projected 2020 ground-water withdrawals on the water levels and flows in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems. The principal water-bearing units in Lake County and the Ocala National Forest are the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems. The two aquifer systems generally are separated by the intermediate confining unit, which contains beds of lower permeability sediments that confine the water in the Florida aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system has two major water-bearing zones (the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Lower Floridan aquifer), which generally are separated by one or two less-permeable confining units. The Floridan aquifer system is the major source of ground water in the study area. In 1998, ground-water withdrawals totaled about 115 million gallons per day in Lake County and 5.7 million gallons per day in the Ocala National Forest. Of the total ground water pumped in Lake County in 1998, nearly 50 percent was used for agricultural purposes, more than 40 percent for municipal, domestic, and recreation supplies, and less than 10 percent for commercial and industrial purposes. Fluctuations of lake stages, surficial and Floridan aquifer system water levels, and Upper Floridan aquifer springflows in the study area are highly related to cycles and distribution of rainfall. Long-term hydrographs for 9 lakes, 8 surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and 23 Upper Floridan aquifer springs show the most significant increases in water levels and springflows following consecutive years with above-average rainfall, and significant decreases following consecutive years with below-average rainfall. Long-term (1940-2000) hydrographs of lake and ground-water levels and springflow show a slight downward trend; however, after the early 1960's, this downward trend generally is more pronounced, which corresponds with accumulating rainfall deficits and increased development. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional ground-water flow model MODFLOW-2000 was used to simulate ground-water flow in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in Lake County, the Ocala National Forest, and adjacent areas. A steady-state calibration to average 1998 conditions was facilitated by using the inverse modeling capabilities of MODFLOW-2000. Values of hydrologic properties from the calibrated model were in reasonably close agreement with independently estimated values and results from previous modeling studies. The calibrated model generally produced simulated water levels and flows in reasonably close agreement with measured values and was used to simulate the hydrologic effects of projected 2020 conditions. Ground-water withdrawals in the model area have been projected to increase from 470 million gallons per day in 1998 to 704 million gallons per day in 2020. Significant drawdowns were simulated in Lake County from average 1998 to projected 2020 conditions: the average and maximum drawdowns, respectively, were 0.5 and 5.7 feet in the surficial aquifer system, 1.1 and 7.6 feet in the Upper Floridan aquifer, and 1.4 and 4.3 feet in the Lower Floridan aquifer. The largest drawdowns in Lake County were simulated in the southeastern corner of the County and in the vicinities of Clermont and Mount Dora. Closed-basin lakes and wetlands are more likely to be affected by future pumping in these large drawdown areas, as opposed to other areas of Lake County. However, within the Ocala National Forest, drawdowns were relatively small: the average and maximum drawdowns, respectively, were 0.1 and 1.0 feet in the surficial aquifer system, 0.2 and

Knowles, Leel, Jr.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Adamski, James C.

2002-01-01

211

Water quality of the Ogallala Formation, central High Plains aquifer within the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District, Texas Panhandle, 2012-13  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In cooperation with the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD), the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water-quality samples at 30 groundwater monitor wells in the NPGCD in the Texas Panhandle. All of the wells were completed in the Ogallala Formation of the central High Plains aquifer. Samples from each well were collected during February–March 2012 and in March 2013. Depth to groundwater in feet below land surface was measured at each well before sampling to determine the water-quality sampling depths. Water-quality samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace metals, and 6 of the 30 samples were analyzed for pesticides. There was a strong relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids as evidenced by a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.98. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from five wells exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Water from 3 of these 5 wells was near the north central part of the NPGCD. Nitrate values exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in 2 of the 30 wells. A sodium-adsorption ratio of 23.4 was measured in the sample collected from well Da-3589 in Dallam County, with the next largest sodium-adsorption ratio measured in the sample collected from well Da-3588 (12.5), also in Dallum County. The sodium-adsorption ratios measured in all other samples were less than 10. The groundwater was generally a mixed cation-bicarbonate plus carbonate type. Twenty-three trace elements were analyzed, and no concentrations exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water supplies. In 2012, 6 of the 30 wells were sampled for commonly used pesticides. Atrazine and its degradate 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine were detected in two samples. Tebuthiuron was detected in one sample at a detection level below the reporting level but above the long-term method detection level. There were no detections of the glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), or glufosinate.

Baldys, Stanley; Haynie, Monti M.; Beussink, Amy M.

2014-01-01

212

Hydrogeochemistry of regional aquifer systems from Tuscany (central Italy): the state of the art before the definition of a geochemical baseline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European Community Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its derivative regulations have recognized the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water bodies by individual pollutants that may significantly affect the quality of water itself. Italian regulation takes into account the EU Directives, and charges the regional authorities to create monitoring networks and produce assessment reports on the contamination of groundwater. The knowledge of "natural baseline" for various dissolved elements in groundwaters on a regional scale becomes of primary importance to distinguish natural sources and anthropogenic inputs. The studied area includes the whole Tuscan regional district (central Italy) and covers an area of about 23,000 km2. From a geolithological point of view, Tuscan territory consists of several complexes outcropping regionally, the most typical features being the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate and evaporitic formations, overlain by flysch sequences, as well as granite intrusions and volcanic rocks. Moreover, two geothermal areas (Larderello and Mt. Amiata), a large number of thermal springs and CO2-rich gas vents are mostly present in the central-southern part of Tuscany. Finally in southern Tuscany (e.g. Campiglia M.Ma, Mt. Amiata, Elba Island), mining districts, predominantly characterized by polimetallic sulphides ore deposits, were exploited since the Etruscan time. In this work statistical distribution models are used to develop summary statistics and estimate probabilities of exceeding water-quality standards according to the National Legislative Decree 152/06. Descriptive statistics on solute concentrations are based on geochemical data from the main Tuscan aquifers and investigated by the CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, Italy) and Department of Earth Sciences (University of Florence, Italy). The data processing was carried out on 4,767 water samples collected from 1997 to 2009. According to the National Legislative, the chemical constituents were selected according to a priority interest: As, B, Cd, Cr (VI), F, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, sulphate and chloride. For each species probability plots in logarithmic scale were computed and the statistical parameters were evaluated for the individual populations as resulting by the procedure of partitioning. Most of the solutes have concentrations that span within 2-3 orders of magnitude, although Ni, SO4 and Cl concentrations show a larger variability (up to 4 orders of magnitude). All the considered variables are mainly characterized by polymodal distributions and composed by more than one population. High concentration populations, exceeding water-quality standards, are generally recognized for SO4, As, B, Cd, Cr(VI), F, Hg, Ni, Pb and Se.

Nisi, Barbara; Battaglini, Raffaele; Raco, Brunella

2013-04-01

213

Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

Farrell, Edmund J.

1994-03-01

214

Promoting School Readiness in Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the research, conducted on Oklahoma's universal Pre-kindergarten (Pre-k) program, on children of Tulsa Public Schools (TPS), the largest school district in the state to increase the school readiness are presented.

Gormley, William T., Jr.; Gayer, Ted

2005-01-01

215

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE THE IMPACT OF SINGLE- AND MULTI-MOMENT MICROPHYSICS an immense debt of gratitude. Dr. Kelvin Droegemeier was one of the first professors I met when I first came

Xue, Ming

216

Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program  

E-print Network

, closed circuit television short courses on selected energy management topics, energy auditing, industrial energy audits (through the Oklahoma Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center) , energy and water management research, and two courses currently being...

Turner, W. C.; Estes, C. B.

1982-01-01

217

Status of water levels and selected water-quality conditions in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers in eastern and south-central Arkansas, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the spring of 1999, water levels were measured in the Sparta and Memphis aquifers in 321 wells in eastern and south-central Arkansas. Water samples were collected during the spring and summer of 1999 from wells completed in these aquifers. The specific conductance of the ground water was measured from 147 samples and dissolved chloride was measured from 98 samples. Maps of areal distribution of potentiometric surface and specific conductance generated from these data reveal spatial trends across the study area. The altitude of the potentiometric surface ranged from 214 feet below sea level in Union County to 332 feet above sea level in Grant County. The regional direction of ground-water flow in Arkansas is from the north and west to the south and east, away from the recharge zone in the outcrop and subcrop area, except near areas affected by intense ground-water withdrawals; such areas are characterized by large cones of depression centered in Columbia, Jefferson, and Union Counties. Heavy pumpage locally has altered or reversed the natural direction of flow in some areas. Flow in these areas is toward the cones of depression at the center of pumping. Comparison of potentiometric surface maps through time shows that the cones of depression in Columbia and Union Counties are coalescing at or near the Columbia and Union County line. Long-term hydrographs of 20 wells indicate trends of water-level decline over a 31-year period. During the period 1969-1999, average water-level declines generally were less than 0.7 foot per year in Craighead, Drew, Lee, Ouachita, and Phillips Counties, and between 0.7 and 1.1 feet per year in Bradley, Cleveland, Cross, Dallas, Poinsett, and Prairie Counties. Analysis of water-level data from Calhoun, Desha, Jefferson, Lonoke, Lincoln, and Union Counties indicates water levels declined between 1.1 and 2.0 feet per year since 1969. Water levels in Arkansas and Columbia Counties have declined more than 2.0 feet per year for the past 31 years. Water-level data from counties with cones of depressions indicate that water levels continued to decline in three cones of depression from 1995 to 1999; however, water levels increased in one cone of depression. Water levels declined an average of 2.5 feet per year in Union County, 1.4 feet per year in Jefferson County, and 1.7 feet per year in Cross County since 1995. One relatively new cone of depression has formed in Arkansas County. Water levels declined 4.0 feet per year in Arkansas County since 1995. However, water levels appear to be increasing in Columbia County where the same 11 wells were monitored in 1995 and 1999, and the water levels increased at a rate of 0.6 foot per year. Specific conductance measurements made on water samples collected during the study ranged from 44 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at a well in Ouachita County to 1,510 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at a well in Lee County. Dissolved chloride concentrations ranged from 1.1 milligram per liter at a well in Lincoln County to 220 milligrams per liter at a well in Union County.

Joseph, Robert L.

2000-01-01

218

Were the 2011 Prague, Oklahoma Earthquakes Natural, Induced, or Something in Between?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the Prague, Oklahoma earthquake sequence, which is under debate. I offer a third explanation, whereby this sequence was triggered by approximately 12 million cubic m of wastewater injected into the epicentral zone, from five high-volume injection wells. This sequence included three earthquakes of M5 or greater: a M5 foreshock, the M5.7 main shock, and a M5 aftershock (Keranen et al., Geology, 2013). The main shock, which caused substantial damage, is of exceptional importance in the central and eastern United States because it is the second largest earthquake that has been recorded in this vast region. Because of its importance in assessing seismic hazard, especially in central Oklahoma, there is an urgent need to understand its origin. The first hypothesis argues that the Prague earthquakes are of natural origin (Keller and Holland, OGS website, 2013). As shown by Ellsworth et al. (abstract, SSA Meeting, 2012,), the seismicity in central Oklahoma has increased dramatically starting in 2009. This increase is inconsistent with natural processes that are likely to occur in this geologically stable area. Instead, it seems more likely that the increase in seismicity is related to the increase of fluid injection activities related to expanding oil and gas operations. Even so, the Prague earthquakes themselves could be a natural sequence. The second hypothesis argues that the M5 foreshock was triggered by pore pressure increase due to wastewater injected from two wells near the northeast end of the epicentral zone. This M5 event, in turn, increased the Coulomb stress on a pre-existing fault triggering the M5.7 mainshock and its numerous aftershocks (Keranen, et al., 2013). This hypothesis focuses on two nearly co-located disposal wells, Stasta 1 and 2, that together injected nearly 100,000 cubic m of wastewater into the basal aquifer during the years leading up to the Prague earthquakes. There are, however, five much higher-volume disposal wells in the zone of epicenters, each of which injected more than 1 million cubic m into the same aquifer. Indeed, the highest volume well, Wilzetta 1, which injected nearly 4 million cubic m starting in 1999, is also at the northeast end of the zone of epicenters, close to the two Stasta wells. Accordingly, the third hypothesis, favored here, is based on a relationship developed by McGarr (2013, manuscript submitted for publication) that gives the maximum seismic moment as less than or equal to the product of the total volume of injected fluid and the modulus of rigidity. This upper bound is consistent with observations of seismic moments and corresponding injected volumes from numerous case histories during the past 50 years including the Prague sequence for which a total injected volume of 12 million cubic m resulted in a maximum seismic moment of about 3.9e17 Nm.

McGarr, A.

2013-12-01

219

Hydrologic and chemical interaction of the Arkansas River and the Equus Beds aquifer between Hutchinson and Wichita, south-central Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large chloride concentrations in Arkansas River water may degrade water quality in the adjacent Equus beds aquifer. A ground-water flow-model program (MODFLOW) was used to simulate hydrologic interaction of the Arkansas River and the Equus beds aquifer. A particle-tracking program (MODPATH) was used to simulate the movement of chloride from the river through the aquifer. Model-simulation results indicate that declining water levels in the Equus beds aquifer have caused net base-flow gains in the Arkansas and Little Arkansas Rivers to decrease from about 21 and 67 ft3/s (cubic feet per second), respectively, in 1940 to about -52 and 27 ft3/s, respectively, by the end of 1989. In hypothetical simulations (1990-2019) where only pumpage varied, net base-flow loss from the Arkansas River ranged from about 59 to 117 ft3/s for no increase in pumpage and a 3-percent per year increase in pumpage since 1989, respectively. Estimated chloride discharge from the Arkansas River Iassuming a chloride concentration of 630 milligrams per liter) to the aquifer increased from about 21 ton/d (tons per day) in 1940 to about 100 ton/d by the end of 1989 and was estimated to range from about 110 to 200 ton/d by 2019, depending on pumpage and climate conditions. Particle-tracking simulations show that the distribution of particles representing chloride from the Arkansas River expanded from relatively narrow bands near the river to a wider distribution within the aquifer, and may have reached the edge of the Wichita well field by 1963.

Myers, N.C.; Hargadine, G.D.; Gillespie, Joe B.

1996-01-01

220

Fault control on the hydrogeological setting of the Sibillini Mountains aquifers (Central Apennines, Italy): an example of hydrogeological structures in thrust-belt contexts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is aimed at highlighting the importance of fault control on the hydrogeological setting in orogenic areas. In Sibillini Montains, Umbrian-Marchean pelagic succession outcrops. This succession, characterized by calcareous, calcareous-marly and silicate could presents condensed succession and is involved in fold and overthrust deformation, followed by a development of normal faults. The lithostratigraphical and structural study allowed defining the aquifer settings. Several cross-sections have been drawn to identify the three-dimensional geological setting and aquifer's boundaries that consist on: lithological limit between permeable and very low permeable complexes and structural features (groundwater divide and faults). The analyses of principals structural features (e.g. overthrust) have allowed to identify the prominent groundwater flow direction: the Sibillini Montains, Monte Val di Fibbia-P.ta Bambucerta and Visso overthrusts represent three important inverse faults oriented NNW-SSE having aquiclude role due to the high displacement. The altitude gradual decrease forward N of aquiclude handing aquifers combined to Apennine orientation of overthrusts induce a SSE-NNW groundwater flow. A detailed analysis of base flow has allowed to: 1) define the river's base flow; 2) recognize the punctual, diffused and linear springs; 3) quantify the water resource on average drained; and 4) determine the discharge regime of springs and rivers. The geologic-structural analyses with the quantitative hydrogeological studies have allowed to prepare the Conceptual Hydrogeological Model (CHM) and to calculate the hydrogeological balance for each aquifer. This double approach let to carry out a detailed study and make out hypotheses about groundwater circulation for each aquifer. These hypotheses represent the bases for the groundwater modelling that could give an important contribute to confirm or not them. The CHM of main aquifer has been adopted to carry out the groundwater numerical simulation. Modelling validation has been performed through the matching between the experimental and calculated discharge values, between the piezometric field and topography (the calculated piezometric field always resulting above the spring altitude and below the hydrographical network without base flow) and between the piezometric field and altitude of aquiclude that limits the aquifer. If one of these three conditions is not verified the model is not realistic and the hypotheses must be rejected. In two cases the modelling results suggested a revision of the assumptions and only through a depth structural analysis has been possible to estimate the real role of Vettore Mont normal fault and recognize a secondary fault that divide an aquifer. In conclusion this study represents an example of necessary combination between structural and hydrogeological analyses and underlines the importance of information exchange and/or cooperation to allow the 3-D reconstruction of hydrogeological setting.

Tarragoni, C.

2012-04-01

221

In Brief: Assessing carbonate aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of water quality in 12 carbonate aquifers, mostly in the eastern and central United States, found that while water quality in the aquifers was highly variable, most of the samples met drinking water standards. The study, “Factors affecting water quality in selected carbonate aquifers in the United States, 1993-2005,” was released by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on 26 June. According to the study, carbonate aquifers provide about 20% of the groundwater used as drinking water in the United States. The study, which included sample results for 151 chemical constituents or physical properties in 1042 wells and springs across 20 states, found that contaminants “were most often detected at concentrations less than human-health benchmarks except for nitrate.” The study also indicated that “the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants was related to contaminant sources but also was affected by degree of aquifer confinement, ground-water age, and redox status. Areas with higher amounts of agricultural or urban land in unconfined aquifers were the most likely to have elevated concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants.”

Showstack, Randy

2009-07-01

222

Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets  

E-print Network

://osufacts.okstate.edu Lease Hunting Opportunities for Oklahoma Landowners Michael D. Porter Regional Manager/Wildlife, and manage wildlife resources. Lease hunting has occurred in Oklahoma as far back as the 1940s. Many Oklahoma of wildlife hunted on Oklahoma hunting leases is native wildlife. Private land managers control wildlife

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

223

76 FR 30224 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00047  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Declaration 12592 and 12593] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00047 AGENCY...Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-- 1985--DR...by the disaster: Primary Counties: Craig, Creek, Jefferson...Osage, Ottawa, Pawnee, Pottawatomie, Rogers, Stephens,...

2011-05-24

224

75 FR 11949 - Oklahoma Disaster # OK-00035  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Declaration 12070 and 12071] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00035 AGENCY...Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1883-DR), dated...by the disaster: Primary Counties: Alfalfa, Caddo, Cleveland...Muskogee, Okmulgee, Pontotoc, Pottawatomie, Roger Mills,...

2010-03-12

225

75 FR 35103 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00040  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Declaration 12206 and 12207] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00040 AGENCY...Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1917-DR), dated...by the disaster: Primary Counties: Alfalfa, Cleveland, Grant...Noble, Okfuskee, Osage, Pottawatomie, Seminole. The...

2010-06-21

226

76 FR 34799 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00050  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1989-DR...disaster: Primary Counties (Physical Damage...Mcclain, Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Oklahoma: Adair, Blaine...Payne, Pontotoc, Pottawatomie, Stephens....

2011-06-14

227

78 FR 31998 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00071  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...affected by the disaster: Primary Counties (Physical Damage and Economic Injury...Cleveland, Lincoln, McClain, Oklahoma, Pottawatomie. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Oklahoma: Canadian, Creek, Garvin,...

2013-05-28

228

75 FR 10330 - Oklahoma Disaster # OK-00034  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Declaration 12051 and 12052] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00034 AGENCY...Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1876-DR), dated...by the disaster: Primary Counties: Canadian, Cleveland, Comanche...Ottawa, Payne, Pontotoc, Pottawatomie, Rogers, Sequoyah,...

2010-03-05

229

Regional groundwater-flow model of the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and alluvial basin aquifer systems of northern and central Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A numerical flow model (MODFLOW) of the groundwater flow system in the primary aquifers in northern Arizona was developed to simulate interactions between the aquifers, perennial streams, and springs for predevelopment and transient conditions during 1910 through 2005. Simulated aquifers include the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and basin-fill aquifers. Perennial stream reaches and springs that derive base flow from the aquifers were simulated, including the Colorado River, Little Colorado River, Salt River, Verde River, and perennial reaches of tributary streams. Simulated major springs include Blue Spring, Del Rio Springs, Havasu Springs, Verde River headwater springs, several springs that discharge adjacent to major Verde River tributaries, and many springs that discharge to the Colorado River. Estimates of aquifer hydraulic properties and groundwater budgets were developed from published reports and groundwater-flow models. Spatial extents of aquifers and confining units were developed from geologic data, geophysical models, a groundwater-flow model for the Prescott Active Management Area, drill logs, geologic logs, and geophysical logs. Spatial and temporal distributions of natural recharge were developed by using a water-balance model that estimates recharge from direct infiltration. Additional natural recharge from ephemeral channel infiltration was simulated in alluvial basins. Recharge at wastewater treatment facilities and incidental recharge at agricultural fields and golf courses were also simulated. Estimates of predevelopment rates of groundwater discharge to streams, springs, and evapotranspiration by phreatophytes were derived from previous reports and on the basis of streamflow records at gages. Annual estimates of groundwater withdrawals for agriculture, municipal, industrial, and domestic uses were developed from several sources, including reported withdrawals for nonexempt wells, estimated crop requirements for agricultural wells, and estimated per capita water use for exempt wells. Accuracy of the simulated groundwater-flow system was evaluated by using observational control from water levels in wells, estimates of base flow from streamflow records, and estimates of spring discharge. Major results from the simulations include the importance of variations in recharge rates throughout the study area and recharge along ephemeral and losing stream reaches in alluvial basins. Insights about the groundwater-flow systems in individual basins include the hydrologic influence of geologic structures in some areas and that stream-aquifer interactions along the lower part of the Little Colorado River are an effective control on water level distributions throughout the Little Colorado River Plateau basin. Better information on several aspects of the groundwater flow system are needed to reduce uncertainty of the simulated system. Many areas lack documentation of the response of the groundwater system to changes in withdrawals and recharge. Data needed to define groundwater flow between vertically adjacent water-bearing units is lacking in many areas. Distributions of recharge along losing stream reaches are poorly defined. Extents of aquifers and alluvial lithologies are poorly defined in parts of the Big Chino and Verde Valley sub-basins. Aquifer storage properties are poorly defined throughout most of the study area. Little data exist to define the hydrologic importance of geologic structures such as faults and fractures. Discharge of regional groundwater flow to the Verde River is difficult to identify in the Verde Valley sub-basin because of unknown contributions from deep percolation of excess surface water irrigation.

Pool, D.R.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Leake, Stanley A.; Graser, Leslie F.

2011-01-01

230

A multidisciplinary approach for the management of the water resources hosted in the multi-layer coastal aquifers of Central-Southern Tuscany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correct management of subterranean water resources should be based on the studies aimed to acquire informations about geological, hydrogeological and geochemical characteristics of water and aquifer. Taking in mind this idea, the subterranean water resources hosted in the multi-layer aquifers below the coastal plains of the Cecina River, Cornia River, Follonica, Grosseto, and Albegna River were recently investigated through a multidisciplinary approach in the framework of the Significant Groundwater Bodies (SGB) Project, funded by the Tuscany Region (Italy). In the first step, the distinction of main aquifer, aquitard, and aquiclude levels has been done by means of the geometrical reconstruction of the geological sequences, using available stratigraphical data. For each hydrogeological complex, the total volumes and the percentages of the different grain sizes were also calculated. The second step was addressed to elaborate the piezometric surfaces during low-flow and high-flow conditions, aimed to individuate the main flow pattern and the most exploited zones of the multi-layer aquifers. Moreover, considering the saturated zone and applying an effective porosity (weighed in function of grain sizes percentages), the amounts of the total water volumes stored in the aquifer system were estimate. The third step comprised the hydrogeochemical characterization of the areas of interest, by means of both: a deterministic approach, including the elaboration and interpretation of classification diagrams, Eh-pH plots, calculation of water speciation and saturation state, activity diagrams, etc. a geo-statistical approach, aimed to the study of the spatial distribution of the most significant geochemical parameters, such as the concentrations of chloride, sulfate, nitrate and boron. If suitable database is available, this multidisciplinary approach can allow to identify the main recharge areas and flow path and the physical-chemical processes (naturals or antropics) responsible of the peculiar chemical and isotopical characteristics of water resources. The application of this method is easy and can be used in others sites in which right management of water resources is needed.

Lelli, M.; Doveri, M.; Cerrina Feroni, A.; Da Prato, S.; Ellero, A.; Marini, L.; Masetti, G.; Nisi, B.; Raco, B.

2012-12-01

231

Chickasaw Plum for Wildlife in Oklahoma  

E-print Network

Chickasaw Plum for Wildlife in Oklahoma E-1026 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University #12;Chickasaw Plum for Wildlife is eaten by a variety of animals, including humans (Figure 2). Native American tribes, including the Pawnee

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

232

Geochemical Effects of Induced Stream-Water and Artificial Recharge on the Equus Beds Aquifer, South-Central Kansas, 1995-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer is part of a strategy implemented by the city of Wichita, Kansas, to preserve future water supply and address declining water levels in the aquifer of as much as 30 feet caused by withdrawals for water supply and irrigation since the 1940s. Water-level declines represent a diminished water supply and also may accelerate migration of saltwater from the Burrton oil field to the northwest and the Arkansas River to the southwest into the freshwater of the Equus Beds aquifer. Artificial recharge, as a part of the Equus Beds Ground-Water Recharge Project, involves capturing flows larger than base flow from the Little Arkansas River and recharging the water to the Equus Beds aquifer by means of infiltration or injection. The geochemical effects on the Equus Beds aquifer of induced stream-water and artificial recharge at the Halstead and Sedgwick sites were determined through collection and analysis of hydrologic and water-quality data and the application of statistical, mixing, flow and solute-transport, and geochemical model simulations. Chloride and atrazine concentrations in the Little Arkansas River and arsenic concentrations in ground water at the Halstead recharge site frequently exceeded regulatory criteria. During 30 percent of the time from 1999 through 2004, continuous estimated chloride concentrations in the Little Arkansas River at Highway 50 near Halstead exceeded the Secondary Drinking-Water Regulation of 250 milligrams per liter established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chloride concentrations in shallow monitoring wells located adjacent to the stream exceeded the drinking-water criterion five times from 1995 through 2004. Atrazine concentrations in water sampled from the Little Arkansas River had large variability and were at or near the drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 3.0 micrograms per liter as an annual average established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Atrazine concentrations were much smaller than the drinking-water criterion and were detected at much smaller concentrations in shallow monitoring wells and diversion well water located adjacent to the stream probably because of sorption on aquifer sediment. Before and after artificial recharge, large, naturally occurring arsenic concentrations in the recharge water for the Halstead diversion well and recharge site exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Arsenic and iron concentrations decreased when water was recharged through recharge basins or a trench; however, chemical precipitation and potential biofouling eventually may decrease the artificial recharge efficiency through basins and trenches. At the Sedgwick site, chloride concentrations infrequently exceeded regulatory criteria. Large concentrations of atrazine were treated to decrease concentrations to less than regulatory criteria. Recharge of treated stream water through recharge basins avoids potentially large concentrations of arsenic and iron that exist at the Halstead diversion site. Results from a simple mixing model using chloride as a tracer indicated that the water chemistry in shallow monitoring well located adjacent to the Little Arkansas River was 80 percent of stream water, demonstrating effective recharge of the alluvial aquifer by the stream. Results also indicated that about 25 percent of the water chemistry of the diversion well water was from the shallow part of the aquifer. Additionally, diverting water through a diversion well located adjacent to the stream removed about 75 percent of the atrazine, probably through sorption to aquifer sediment, and decreased the need for additional water treatment to remove atrazine. A flow and solute-transport model was developed using water-level and chloride concentration data to simulate and better evaluate the quantity of stream-water flow to the p

Schmidt, Heather C. Ross; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Parkhurst, David L.

2007-01-01

233

Gulf Coast regional aquifer-system analysis; a Mississippi perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers in sediments of mostly Cenozoic age in an area of about 230,000 sq mi in the Central Plain of Alabama, Arkansas , Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas, and an additional 60,000 sq mi offshore. Three aquifer systems have been identified: the Mississippi embayment aquifer system, the Texas coastal uplands aquifer system, and the coastal lowlands aquifer system. These aquifer systems thicken from < 100 ft near their updip limit to thousands of ft gulfward toward their downdip limits. The Mississippi embayment aquifer system exceeds 5,000 ft in thickness in central Louisiana and in southwestern Mississippi. The thickest area in southwestern Mississippi underlies most of the six Mississippi counties, centered around Jefferson County. The greatest thickness of the coastal lowlands aquifer system in Mississippi occurs in southern Hancock County where the system is composed of several individual aquifers and confining units. There are seven aquifers and three confining units in the Mississippi embayment aquifer system, five aquifers and two confining units in the Texas coastal uplands aquifer system, and five aquifers and two confining units in the coastal lowlands aquifer system. Most of the thicker parts of each aquifer system contain moderately saline to very saline water. Water in the Mississippi embayment aquifer system is moderately saline to very saline in most of a seven county area in southwestern Mississippi. About 9,600 million gal/day (gpd) of ground water was pumped from the aquifers in the study area during 1980. About 15% of that pumpage (or about 1,400 million gpd was in Mississippi, mostly from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. About 10% of the Mississippi pumpage, or 140 million gpd, was from the coastal lowlands aquifer system. Preliminary results from simulation of groundwater flow indicates that parts of Mississippi are major regional recharge areas for both the Mississippi embayment aquifer system and the coastal lowlands aquifer system. (Peters-PTT)

Grubb, H. F.

1986-01-01

234

Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

McGuire, V. L.

2009-01-01

235

PayneOklahoma SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

E-print Network

Map Units Cities Detailed Counties Detailed States Interstate Highways Roads Rails Water Hydrography SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA OSURR Headquarters Source of Map: Natural Resources Conservation Service Miscellaneous Water Rock Outcrop Saline Spot Sandy Spot Slide or Slip Sinkhole Sodic Spot Spoil Area Stony Spot

Ghajar, Afshin J.

236

Denitrification in a hypersaline lake-aquifer system (Pétrola Basin, Central Spain): The role of recent organic matter and Cretaceous organic rich sediments.  

PubMed

Agricultural regions in semi-arid to arid climates with associated saline wetlands are one of the most vulnerable environments to nitrate pollution. The Pétrola Basin was declared vulnerable to NO3(-) pollution by the Regional Government in 1998, and the hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified body of water. The study assessed groundwater NO3(-) through the use of multi-isotopic tracers (?(15)N, ?(34)S, ?(13)C, ?(18)O) coupled to hydrochemistry in the aquifer connected to the eutrophic lake. Hydrogeologically, the basin shows two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas (Zone 1) to the lake (Zone 2), and a density-driven flow from surface water to the underlying aquifer (Zone 3). In Zones 1 and 2, ?(15)NNO3 and ?(18)ONO3 suggest that NO3(-) from slightly volatilized ammonium synthetic fertilizers is only partially denitrified. The natural attenuation of NO3(-) can occur by heterotrophic reactions. However, autotrophic reactions cannot be ruled out. In Zone 3, the freshwater-saltwater interface (down to 12-16m below the ground surface) is a reactive zone for NO3(-) attenuation. Tritium data suggest that the absence of NO3(-) in the deepest zones of the aquifer under the lake can be attributed to a regional groundwater flow with long residence time. In hypersaline lakes the geometry of the density-driven flow can play an important role in the transport of chemical species that can be related to denitrification processes. PMID:25169874

Gómez-Alday, J J; Carrey, R; Valiente, N; Otero, N; Soler, A; Ayora, C; Sanz, D; Muñoz-Martín, A; Castaño, S; Recio, C; Carnicero, A; Cortijo, A

2014-11-01

237

Water-level changes, 1980 TO 1997, and saturated thickness, 1996-97, in the High Plains Aquifer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Service provides this report detailing water level changes in the High Plains aquifer. Underlying one of the major agricultural regions in the world, the High Plains Aquifer includes parts of eight States -- Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The report describes "(1) water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from 1980 to 1997 and from 1996 to 1997, (2) the precipitation pattern in the High Plains region during 1996, and (3) estimated saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer in 1996-97."

238

Fighting for Scholarships in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fearing a federal court in Oklahoma might end a state-financed merit-scholarship program targeted by a discrimination lawsuit, black legislators passed a bill making the program race and gender neutral. State regents are criticized for failing to develop effective policy to remedy past discrimination. (MSE)

Roach, Ronald

1999-01-01

239

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE  

E-print Network

during the times when I felt like I was not getting anywhere. Additionally, I think that being able of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY By ALEXANDER DANIEL SCHENKMAN Norman, Oklahoma 2012 #12 would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Ming Xue, for his help, advice, and encouragement over the last four

Xue, Ming

240

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical report is based on eight indicators of child well being: (1) percent low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) births to unmarried teens; (4) child abuse and neglect rates; (5) child death rate; (6) children living in…

Oklahoma Inst. for Child Advocacy, Inc., Oklahoma City. Oklahoma Kids Count.

241

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA RETIREMENT POLICY  

E-print Network

or degenerative nature. #12;F. "Disability Benefits" means benefits provided under the Health Plan of all benefits under the University of Oklahoma Retirement Policy. Any conflict between the terms of the Institution are entitled to certain benefits following the completion of a designated number of years

Oklahoma, University of

242

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '98.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school dropouts; and (8)…

Oklahoma Inst. for Child Advocacy, Inc., Oklahoma City. Oklahoma Kids Count.

243

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

244

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

245

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical report is based on eight indicators of child well being: (1) economic distress; (2) percent low birthweight infants; (3) infant mortality rate; (4) births to teens; (5) child abuse and neglect rates; (6) child and teen death rate;…

Oklahoma Inst. for Child Advocacy, Inc., Oklahoma City. Oklahoma Kids Count.

246

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of Oklahoma's children. The statistical portrait is based on eight indicators of child well-being: (1) low birth weight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) child poverty; (7) high school…

Ingraham, Sandy

247

Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book presents findings of the Kids Count Project on current conditions faced by Oklahoma children age birth through 18. This second annual factbook organizes state and county data over a period of time to enable conditions for children in each county to be compared and ranked. The benchmark indicators studied include low birthweight…

Ingraham, Sandy

248

Diurnal cycle of the Oklahoma City urban heat island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between the dates of 28 June and 31 July 2003, the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field project was conducted in Oklahoma City and was the largest urban dispersion experiment ever in North America. Because the focus of JU2003 was on atmospheric processes within the urban environment, an extremely dense network of instrumentation was deployed in and around the central business district (CBD) both prior to and during the field experiment. Among the variables collected were high-resolution observations of air temperature from various instrument sources. Additional observations of air temperature were also collected at Oklahoma Mesonet stations in the rural areas surrounding Oklahoma City. Using an index value, the diurnal cycle of the urban heat island (UHI) for Oklahoma City, with respect to the surrounding rural terrain, was quantified. The results revealed a consistent mean nocturnal UHI greater than 1.5°C at both 2 and 9 m. However, observations at 2 m during JU2003 revealed a significant urban "cool" island during the convective portion of the day. The mean variability of temperature within the urban core of Oklahoma City increased significantly after sunrise, increased to a maximum near solar noon, and decreased following sunset. These results were inconsistent with the rural observations wherein the variability among sites was maximized during the nocturnal period. Finally, the vertical temperature gradient between 2 and 9 m demonstrated a clear and strong diurnal trend at the rural locations, whereas observations from the urban environment were nearly isothermal and consistent with near-neutral conditions throughout JU2003.

Basara, Jeffrey B.; Hall, Peter K.; Schroeder, Amanda J.; Illston, Bradley G.; Nemunaitis, Kodi L.

2008-10-01

249

Flow characteristics for selected streams in the Great Plains subregion of the central Midwest regional aquifer system and selected adjacent areas; Kansas and Nebraska, and parts of Colorado, Iowa, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides flow-duration and low-flow frequency data for continuous-record streamflow- and spring-gaging stations. Values of mean annual precipitation (1951-80) and values of mean annual runoff also are presented. The ranges are from 12 to 52 in for precipitation and from 0.02 to 25 in for runoff.

E. R. Hedman; G. B. Engel

1989-01-01

250

MORPHOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL COMPARISON OF MICROORGANISMS IN SURFACE SOIL AND SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS AT A PRISTINE STUDY SITE IN OKLAHOMA (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Surface-soil and subsurface microfloras at the site of a shallow aquifer in Oklahoma were examined and compared with respect to (1) total and viable cell numbers, (2) colony and cell types that grew on various plating media, (3) cell morphologies seen in flotation films stripped ...

251

A Farm-Level Evaluation of Agricultural Profit and Ground Water Quality: Texas Seymour Aquifer  

E-print Network

The Seymour Aquifer of north-central Texas is known to have elevated levels of nitrates. The design of economically sound policies for reducing agriculture's nitrate contribution to the aquifer suggests a need to evaluate alternative management...

Chowdhury, Manzoor; Lacewell, Ronald D.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Ozuna, Teofilo Jr.; Benson, Verel W.; Harris, Billy L.; Dyke, Paul T.

252

Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

McGuire, V.L.

2011-01-01

253

Drinking-water quality and variations in water levels in the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer, west-central Jefferson County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In parts of Jefferson County, CO, water for domestic use from the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer contained excessive concentrations of major ions, coliform bacteria, trace elements, or radiochemicals. Based on results of analyses from 26 wells, water from 21 of the wells contained excessive concentrations of one or more constituents. Drinking water standards were exceeded for fluoride in water from 2 wells, nitrate plus nitrite in 2 wells, dissolved solids in 1 well, iron in 6 wells, manganese in 8 wells, zinc in 2 wells, coliform bacteria in 4 wells, gross alpha radiation in 11 wells and possibly 4 more, and gross beta radiation possibly in 1 well. Local variations in concentrations of 15 chemical constituents, specific conductance, and water temperature were statistically significant. Specific conductance increased significantly during 1973-75 only in the vicinity of Indian Hills. Annual range in depths to water in 11 observation wells varied from 1 to 15 feet. The shallowest water levels were recorded in late winter, usually in February. The deepest water levels occurred during summer or fall, depending on the well and the year. Three-year trends in water level changes in 6 of the 11 wells indicated decreasing water storage in the aquifer. (USGS).

Hall, Dennis C.; Johnson, Carl J.

1979-01-01

254

Combined use of tracer approach and numerical simulation to estimate groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system: A case study of Nasunogahara area, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in an alluvial aquifer system in the Nasunogahara area of Japan. Natural stable isotopes (18O, D) were considered as additional calibration targets in a numerical model. The reliability of the model outputs was further validated by comparing the results from the numerical simulation and an independent tracer approach. The results indicated that the calibrated model can effectively simulate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the contribution ratios of recharge sources to groundwater in the Nasunogahara area. However, the tracer approach (i.e., end member mixing analysis) provided more reliable results at point scale, particularly for the estimated contribution ratios of paddy field water. The precipitation in the Nasunogahara area is the major recharge source; its mean contribution ratio is 58% for a one-year period over the entire alluvial fan. River seepage is significant in the upstream area of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of river waters along the river channels in the upstream area increases during the wet season. Paddy field water is a highly important recharge source in the midstream and downstream areas of the alluvial fan, and the contribution ratio of paddy field water obviously increases from dry season to wet season because of irrigation. This study demonstrates that combined use of the tracer approach and numerical simulation with stable isotopes as additional calibration targets can eliminate their respective limitations and can assist in better understanding the groundwater recharge mechanism in alluvial aquifer systems.

Liu, Yaping; Yamanaka, Tsutomu; Zhou, Xun; Tian, Fuqiang; Ma, Wenchao

2014-11-01

255

77 FR 61466 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00063  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the State of Oklahoma, dated 08/22...disaster: Primary Counties: (Physical Damage...Cleveland. Contiguous Counties: (Economic Injury Loans Only): Oklahoma: Canadian, Mcclain, Oklahoma, Pottawatomie. All other...

2012-10-09

256

75 FR 32491 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...following areas of the State of Oklahoma have been designated as adversely...Cleveland, McIntosh, Okfuskee, Oklahoma, Pottawatomie, and Seminole Counties for Individual Assistance...counties within the State of Oklahoma are eligible to apply...

2010-06-08

257

Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water (transition zone). As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current freshwater supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey, San Antonio Water System, and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone.

Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.

2013-01-01

258

Simulation of ground-water flow in the basin-fill aquifer of the Tularosa Basin, south-central New Mexico, predevelopment through 2040  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrology of the basin-fill aquifer in the Tularosa Basin was evaluated through construction and calibration of steady-state and transient three-dimensional ground-water-flow simulations. Simulations were made using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference modular ground-water-flow computer software MODFLOW-96. The transient simulation covered 1948-2040. Both steady-state and transient simulations were calibrated by matching simulation output to available ground-water-level measurements. The root-mean-square error of the steady-state calibration in the well-calibrated area of the ground-water-flow simulation was 6.3 meters, and root-mean-square errors of individual transient-calibration points ranged from 0.8 to 17.0 meters. The areal distribution of water-level measurements used in the steady-state and transient calibrations restricts the well-calibrated area of the model to the eastern side of the Tularosa Basin. Water levels in the La Luz Creek subbasin area were underestimated by both the steady-state and transient models, suggesting that the hydrology of this area is not well represented in the model. About 143,000 cubic meters per day of recharge is estimated to enter the basin-fill aquifer from subbasins that rim the Tularosa Basin. The estimated recharge is about 4-5 percent of total precipitation in most subbasins. Approximately 88 percent of total recharge left the basin-fill aquifer as evapotranspiration under predevelopment conditions. Water levels were simulated for 1948, 1995, and 2040 under scenarios of zero and maximum return flows. Estimated return flows from municipalities were calculated on the basis of data in the Tularosa Basin Regional Water Plan for 2000-2040. Agricultural return flows were estimated primarily on the basis of ground-water-withdrawal, ground-water-depletion, surface-water-withdrawal, and surface-water-depletion data for the Tularosa Basin. The ground-water-flow simulation was sensitive to the return-flow scenario in the agricultural area near Tularosa and decreasingly sensitive to the south. Declines in simulated water levels near Tularosa between 1948 and 1995 were as large as 30 meters under the zero return-flow scenario and 15 meters under the maximum return-flow scenario. Declines in simulated water levels between 1995 and 2040 were as large as 25 meters under the zero return-flow scenario and 15 meters under the maximum return-flow scenario. Comparison of water levels measured near Tularosa in 1991 and water levels simulated under the maximum return-flow scenario for 1991 suggests that declines in simulated water levels near Tularosa may be overestimated under the zero return-flow scenario. Declines in simulated water levels near the City of Alamogordo well field between 1948 and 1995 were as large as 15 meters under the zero return-flow scenario and 10 meters under the maximum return-flow scenario. Simulated declines in water levels between 1995 and 2040 were nearly 15 meters under both return-flow scenarios assuming that all projected increases in withdrawal came from existing City of Alamogordo public-supply wells and all withdrawal from the wells came from the basin-fill aquifer. Declines in simulated water levels near the Holloman Air Force Base well fields between 1948 and 1995 and between 1995 and 2040 were less than 5 meters under both the zero and maximum return-flow scenarios. In 1995 under the zero return-flow scenario, an estimated 56,000 cubic meters of water per day was removed from aquifer storage. Of the approximately 199,000 cubic meters of water per day that left the aquifer under 1995 conditions, 40 percent left the basin-fill aquifer as ground-water withdrawal, 51 percent as evapotranspiration, 7 percent by interbasin ground-water flow into the Hueco Bolson, and 2 percent by flow into creeks and springs. Generalized directions of ground-water flow were simulated for 1948, 1995, and 2040 for much of the eastern part of the Tularosa Basin. Localized

Huff, Glenn F.

2005-01-01

259

Analysis of aquifer mineralization by paleodrainage channels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mineralization of groundwater resources is a problem in south-central Kansas, due to the penetration of saline water from Permian bedrock formations into the overlying alluvial aquifer. One of the mechanisms involved in the mineralization involves small bedrock features of high permeability located in places occupied by streams and rivers in past geological eras. These geological features are termed 'paleodrainage channels'. The permeability of the overlying aquifer can be significantly smaller than that of the channel fill material. The comparatively fast migration of saline water through these channels of high permeability is associated with the transfer of minerals into the overlying freshwater aquifer. This study applies a set of boundary layer approaches to quantify the process of mineral transfer from the channels into the aquifer. The methods used in the present study provide quick estimation and evaluation of the dilution of the channel flow, as well as mineral concentration profile changes in the mineralized zone created in the overlying aquifer. More generally, the method can also be useful for the analysis and evaluation of various types of groundwater contamination in heterogeneous aquifers. The application of the method is exemplified by a complete set of calculations characterizing the possible mineralization process at a specific channel in south central Kansas. Sensitivity analyses are performed and provide information about the importance of the various parameters that affect the mineralization process. Some possible scenarios for the aquifer mineralization phenomena are described and evaluated. It is shown that the channel mineralization may create either several stream tubes of the aquifer with high mineral concentration, or many stream tubes mineralized to a lesser extent. Characteristics of these two patterns of aquifer mineralization are quantified and discussed. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

2003-01-01

260

78 FR 36556 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...disaster: Cleveland, Lincoln, McClain, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties for Individual Assistance. Cleveland, Lincoln, McClain, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties for debris removal and emergency...

2013-06-18

261

Chronology of migration by American coots in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

American coots (Fulica americana) were studied on large reservoirs in north-central Oklahoma in 1979-1982 to determine chronologies of migrations by age- and sex class. Coots began migrating into Oklahoma in mid-September, numbers peaked in early to mid-October, and few birds were seen after 1 November. Some late migrants appeared in mid-December. In spring, coots began migrating in late February, numbers peaked in mid-April, and the last birds were seen in mid-May. Generally, adult and juvenile males and juvenile female coots migrated simultaneously in autumn, but adult females completed migration by 1 November. A few juveniles and adult males migrated in December. Adult coots preceded yearlings in spring. Despite annual and between-lake differences in chronology of autumn migration, most coots migrated before waterfowl hunting season in Oklahoma. Coot hunting seasons in mid-latitude states should commence before the general waterfowl season where management goals are to increase hunter interest and the harvest of birds.

Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Patterson, Craig T.

1985-01-01

262

The Sparta aquifer, northern Brazos County, Texas  

E-print Network

for municipal aad iadastrial ?ses ia aorthera Brazos Ceaaty, which is located ia the upper Gulf Goastal Plain of East Central Texas as showa ea Figure 1. The purpose of this thesis is te preseat the geology ef the Sparta aquifer ia cea- aoctioa with its... for municipal aad iadastrial ?ses ia aorthera Brazos Ceaaty, which is located ia the upper Gulf Goastal Plain of East Central Texas as showa ea Figure 1. The purpose of this thesis is te preseat the geology ef the Sparta aquifer ia cea- aoctioa with its...

Wauters, John F

2012-06-07

263

The Active Bacterial Community in a Pristine Confined Aquifer  

EPA Science Inventory

This study of the active bacteria residing in a pristine confined aquifer provides unexpected insights into the ecology of iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the subsurface. At 18 wells in east-central Illinois, we trapped the microbes that attached to aquifer sedimen...

264

Attached and suspended microbial communities in a pristine confined aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the community of microbes attached to the sediments in a pristine confined aquifer to the free-floating community suspended in the groundwater there. We sampled the attached microbial community at 19 wells completed in the glacial Mahomet aquifer in east central Illinois using in situ samplers, and we sampled the suspended community by filtering microbes from groundwater. At each

Theodore M. Flynn; Robert A. Sanford; Craig M. Bethke

2008-01-01

265

Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History Department of Native American Languages  

E-print Network

Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History Department of Native American Languages Restrictions archives for language materials, especially for Native Americans. A. The Department of Native American collections in the Department of Native American Languages archives: · central location for Tribal access

Oklahoma, University of

266

Faculty Productivity. Report & Recommendations to the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of Oklahoma higher education faculty productivity at state supported institutions resulted in recommendations to enhance quality while working within policy goals. The review identified faculty workload as the central issue and found that studies consistently show that full-time faculty members work 50 to 65 hours a week with about half…

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

267

Mapping groundwater vulnerable zones using modified DRASTIC approach of an alluvial aquifer in parts of central Ganga plain, Western Uttar Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed hydrogeological and hydrochemical study was carried out in Yamuna-Krishni sub-basin which is a part of the vast\\u000a central Ganga plain. Groundwater is the major source of water supply for agricultural, domestic and industrial uses. The excess\\u000a use of groundwater has resulted in depletion of water levels. The groundwater quality, too, has deteriorated in areas dominated\\u000a by industrial activity.

Rashid Umar; Izrar Ahmed; Fakhre Alam

2009-01-01

268

Monitoring temperature conditions in recently drilled nonproductive industry boreholes in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Temperature conditions were monitored in seven industry petroleum-test wells (called holes-of-opportunity in this report) that were drilled in central and eastern Oklahoma. Five of these wells provided useful temperature information, and two wells were used to determine the length of time needed for the borehole-fluid temperature to achieve thermal equilibrium with the formation rocks. Four wells were used to verify the validity of a geothermal-gradient map of Oklahoma. Temperature surveys in two wells indicated a gradient lower than the predicted gradients on the geothermal-gradient map. When deep temperature data, between 5000 and 13,000 feet, are adjusted for mud-circulation effects, the adjusted gradients approximate the gradients on the geothermal-gradient map. The temperature-confirmation program appears to substantiate the geographic distribution of the high- and low-thermal-gradient regimes in Oklahoma. 13 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs.

Harrison, W.E.; Luza, K.V.

1985-06-01

269

Nest sites and conservation of endangered Interior Least Terns Sterna antillarum athalassos on an alkaline flat in the south-central Great Plains (USA) [Miejsca le??gowe i ochrona rybitwy ma??ej (ssp. athalassos) na alkalicznej ro??wninie w stanie Oklahoma, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We monitored nest sites of endangered Interior Least Terns on a 5 095 ha alkaline flat in north-central Oklahoma, USA. After nest loss, Least Terns commonly renested and experienced 30% apparent nest success in 1995-1996 (n = 233 nests). Nest success and predation differed by location on the alkaline flat in 1995 and overall, but nest success and flooding did not differ by microhabitat type. Predation was highest at nests ??? 5 cm from debris (driftwood/hay) in 1995. No differences in nesting success, flooding, or predation were observed on comparing nests inside and outside electrified enclosures. Coyotes and Striped Skunks were confirmed nest predators, and Ring-billed Gulls were suspected nest predators. We identified one location on the alkaline flat of about 1 000 ha with consistently lower nest losses attributable to flooding and predation and the highest hatching success compared with other parts of the alkaline flat; it was typified by open ground and bisected by several creeks. Management activities that minimize flooding and predation in this area could further enhance nest success and theoretically increase overall productivity of this population of Least Terns. However, the efficacy of electrified enclosures and nest-site enhancements, as currently undertaken, is questionable because of considerable annual variation in use by and protection of Least Terns.

Winton, B.R.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

2003-01-01

270

Tomographic Characterization of Aquifer Heterogeneity  

E-print Network

aquifer tests, such as slug and pumping tests, predict hydraulic conductivity values without detailed information about aquifer heterogeneity. The multiple source and receiver signals of a hydraulic tomography aquifer test can estimate interwell...

Lyle, Shane

2011-05-31

271

Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

2009-01-01

272

Geohydrology of the High Plains Aquifer, western Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,050 sq mi of eight states (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming) and contains approximately 3.3 billion acre-ft of water in storage. Saturated thicknesses within the aquifer are as great as 600 ft near the southern border of southwest Kansas. The aquifer is replenished primarily by infiltration from precipitation. Average precipitation at the Garden City Experiment Station is 18.93 in/yr. Groundwater flow is generally from west to east under unconfined conditions. Hydraulic connection with subcropping consolidated aquifers allows ground water to flow vertically in minor quantities. The aquifer is depleted primarily by irrigation. Hydraulic conductivity estimates from 1,612 lithologic logs had an average value of 75 ft/day, with a standard deviation of 35 ft/day. Specific yields estimated from the same lithologic logs had a mean of 0.17 and a standard deviation of 0.047. Water from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas generally is suitable for human and animal consumption and irrigation of crops. Typically, it is a calcium bicarbonate type water, with concentrations of total dissolved solids ranging from 250 to 500 mg/L. The quality of water in the aquifer deteriorates toward the east due to mixing with recharge water containing dissolved minerals leached from the overlying soil and unsaturated zones and mineralized water from adjacent bedrock units. The simulated water budget for the steady state model of predevelopment (pre-1950) conditions in the High Plains aquifer in northwest Kansas showed that annual recharge to the aquifer from infiltration of precipitation was 87,000 acre-ft/yr and from boundary inflow, 21,000 acre-ft/yr. Annual discharge from the aquifer was 108,000 acre-ft/yr, including 81,000 acre-ft/yr from leakage to streams, 23,000 acre-ft from outflow at the boundaries of the aquifer, and 4,000 acre-ft from municipal and industrial pumpage. (Lantz-PTT)

Stullken, L.E.; Watts, K.R.; Lindgren, R.J.

1985-01-01

273

Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, East-Central New Mexico-Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer in Curry and Roosevelt Counties, N. Mex., and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. This report provides a summary of the current (2007) water-level status of the Southern High Plains aquifer in New Mexico, including a basis for estimating future trends by comparison with historical conditions. This report includes estimates of the extent of ground-water level declines in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey-Lingo Ground-water Management Area parts of the High Plains Aquifer in eastern New Mexico since predevelopment. Maps representing 2007 water levels, water-level declines, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. The results of this mapping show the water level declined as much as 175 feet in the study area at rates as high as 1.76 feet per year.

Tillery, Anne

2008-01-01

274

Retirement Guide Norman -Oklahoma City -Tulsa  

E-print Network

Employee Contributions Employer Contributions Termination Prior To Retirement Retirement Benefits TaxRetirement Guide Norman - Oklahoma City - Tulsa IMPORTANT NOTICE: The Board of Regents and policy booklet available through the benefits office. Retirement Guide updated 2007. #12; 2

Oklahoma, University of

275

50 CFR 32.55 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.55 Oklahoma. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2012-10-01

276

50 CFR 32.55 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.55 Oklahoma. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2013-10-01

277

50 CFR 32.55 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.55 Oklahoma. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2011-10-01

278

50 CFR 32.55 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.55 Oklahoma. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2010-10-01

279

REGISTRATION PACKET 9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair  

E-print Network

REGISTRATION PACKET 9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair, Lists, and Entry Forms to: Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair For questions about the ONAYLF, forms

Oklahoma, University of

280

Digital geologic map of Beaver County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital data and accompanying documentation for the surficial geology of Beaver County, Oklahoma. The original data are from the Hydrogeologic Map, sheet 1 of 3, included in the U.S. Geological Survey publication, Reconnaissance of the Water Resources of Beaver County, Oklahoma, Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-450, Morton and Goemaat, 1973. The geology was compiled by S.L. Schoff, 1953.

Cederstrand, J.R.

1997-01-01

281

Radium geochemistry of ground waters in paleozoic carbonate aquifers, Midcontinent, U. S. A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the processes controlling the distribution and behavior of the longer-lived radium (Ra) isotopes in continuous Paleozoic carbonate aquifers of parts of Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma. Activities of (²²⁸Ra) and (²²⁶Ra) were analyzed in fresh and saline ground waters, brines, and rocks. The fluids have a wide salinity range (200-250,000 mg l⁻¹ total

N. C. Sturchio; J. L. Banner; C. M. Binz; L. J. Heraty; M. Musgrove; Loras Coll

2001-01-01

282

Epidemiology of homicide-suicide events: Oklahoma, 1994-2001.  

PubMed

In Oklahoma, all nonnatural deaths must be reported to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (ME), whose trained investigators report cause of death using a centralized, statewide, standardized reporting system. The purpose of this study was to determine temporal trends of Oklahoma homicide-suicide events and characterize the epidemiology of these events. By reviewing all ME reports of homicides and suicides from 1994 through 2001, we identified 73 homicide-suicide events resulting in 73 suicides and 89 homicides. Suicidal perpetrators of homicide-suicide events were most often white men aged >or=30 years who killed a current or ex-spouse or intimate partner. Homicide victims tended to be younger women the same race as their killer. Firearms were the predominant method of death in both homicides and suicides, with handguns used most frequently. Divorce/estrangement was the main contributing factor to these events, and the most common relationship type was possessive. The existence of a statewide, centralized, and computerized ME system and the ability to access the detailed information in the ME narratives were critical to identifying homicide-suicide events and obtaining the type of detailed information necessary to fully investigate these events. PMID:16121077

Comstock, R Dawn; Mallonee, Sue; Kruger, Elizabeth; Rayno, Kim; Vance, April; Jordan, Fred

2005-09-01

283

Aquifer-nomenclature guidelines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Guidelines and recommendations for naming aquifers are presented to assist authors of geohydrological reports in the United States Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. The hierarchy of terms that is used for water- yielding rocks from largest to smallest is aquifer system, aquifer, and zone. If aquifers are named, the names should be derived from lithologic terms, rock-stratigraphic units, or geographic names. The following items are not recommended as sources of aquifer names: time-stratigraphic names, relative position, alphanumeric designations, depositional environment, depth of occurrence, acronyms, and hydrologic conditions. Confining units should not be named unless doing so clearly promotes understanding of a particular aquifer system. Sources of names for confining units are similar to those for aquifer names, i.e. lithologic terms, rock-stratigraphic units or geographic names. Examples of comparison charts and tables that are used to define the geohydrologic framework are included. Aquifers are defined in 11 hypothetical examples that characterize geohydrologic settings throughout the country. (Author 's abstract)

Laney, R. L.; Davidson, C. B.

1986-01-01

284

Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and surrounding the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water, the transition zone. As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), San Antonio Water System (SAWS), and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone. During 2010 and 2011, the USGS, in cooperation with SAWS, conducted a study to further assess the potential for movement of the transition zone in part of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Equivalent freshwater heads were computed to investigate the transition from saline to freshwater zones in the San Antonio segment and evaluate the potential for lateral flow at the freshwater/saline-water interface. Data were collected within and surrounding the transition zone from 13 wells in four transects (East Uvalde, Tri-County, Fish Hatchery, and Kyle). Hydraulic head and geophysical log data were used to calculate equivalent freshwater heads and then analyzed to identify possible horizontal gradients across the transition zone and thus flow. Unlike previous studies that used indirect methods to calculate fluid conductivity from fluid resistivity, in this study geophysical tools that directly measured fluid conductivity were used. Electromagnetic (EM) flowmeter logs were collected under both ambient and stressed (pumping) conditions and were processed to identify vertical flow zones within the borehole. The San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer (the study area) is about 175 miles long and extends from the western groundwater divide near Brackettville in Kinney County to the eastern groundwater divide near Kyle in Hays County. The four transects consist of two to five wells per transect and were configured approximately perpendicular to and across the expected trace of the freshwater/saline-water interface. The deep flow zone indicated by the EM flowmeter data for East Uvalde transect well EU2 corresponds directly with a large, negative deflection of the fluid logs, indicating an inflow of fresher water from the Devils River Limestone. To the southwest, towards the freshwater/saline-water interface, this same flow zone was observed in well EU1, but with a reduction of flow, and displayed no apparent fluid curve deflections. The highest observed transmissivity of the study area was observed in the saline zone of the Tri-County transect, at well TC3, which had a total transmissivity of 24,900 square feet per day. Zones of high transmissivity throughout the study site were observed to not be continuous and are likely caused by localized secondary porosity such as intersecting faults or karst features. Although analyses of daily mean equivalent freshwater heads for the East Uvalde transect indicated that the gradient across the freshwater/saline-water interface varied between into and out of the freshwater zone, the data indicate that there was a slightly longer period during which the gradient was out of the freshwater zone. Analyses of all daily mean equivalent freshwater heads for the Tri-County transect indicated that the lateral-head gradients across the freshwater/saline-water interface were typically mixed (not indicative of flow into or out of freshwater zone). Assessment of the daily mean equivalent freshwater heads indicated that, although the lateral-head gradient at the Kyle transect varied between into and out of the freshwater zone, the lateral-head gradient was typically from the transition zone into the freshwater zone.

Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

2012-01-01

285

Proceedings: Oklahoma School Plant Manager's Workshop (4th, Oklahoma City, OK, April 20-21, 1982).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen addresses given at the 1982 Oklahoma School Plant Manager's Workshop are presented in this document. Following a welcoming speech, an overview of the issues currently facing school plant managers in Oklahoma, and a general address by a representative of the Arkansas Department of Education, the speakers focused on a number of specific…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

286

TWO ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF OKLAHOMA AND NOTES ON XYRIS JUPICAI (XYRIDACEAE) IN OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleocharis flavescens and Rhynchospora scirpoides are reported as new to Oklahoma. Xyris jupicai, which has been mentioned as occurring in Oklahoma, is documented in the state by citation of voucher specimens. The overall distribution of these species in the West Gulf Coastal Plain is discussed.

Jason R. Singhurst; Edwin L. Bridges; Walter C. Holmes

287

Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets  

E-print Network

-green or purple with a The Ring-necked Pheasant in Oklahoma bright white collar. It is this collar that gives northwest counties. The ring-neck has a high resistance to disease and parasites, is adaptable, a strong Rangeland Specialist Oklahoma State University Jason Sykes Farm Bill Wildlife Biologist Pheasants Forever

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

288

Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers.  

PubMed

Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501

Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J

2014-09-01

289

The early planning and development of Oklahoma City  

E-print Network

An analysis of the planning, development, and implementation of Oklahoma City's Grand Boulevard. In the early days of 1909, a plan emerged to build an expansive parks and boulevard system to encircle Oklahoma City. Such ...

Humphreys, Blair D. (Blair David)

2009-01-01

290

76 FR 36559 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the State of Oklahoma, have been designated...Ottawa, Pawnee, Pottawatomie, Rogers, Stephens...and Washington Counties for Public Assistance...Ottawa, Pawnee, Pottawatomie, Stephens, Wagoner...within the State of Oklahoma are eligible...

2011-06-22

291

75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...substitution of channel 39 for channel 9 at Oklahoma City...ADDRESSES: Federal Communications Commission, Office...is amended by adding channel 39 and removing channel 9 at Oklahoma City. Federal Communications Commission. Clay...

2010-02-01

292

75 FR 13236 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION...licensee of KWTV-DT, channel 9, Oklahoma City...is amended by adding channel 39 and removing channel 9 at Oklahoma City. Federal Communications Commission. Clay...

2010-03-19

293

Aquifer-characteristics data for West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Specific-capacity, storage-coefficient, and specific-yield data for wells in West Virginia were compiled to provide a data set from which transmissivity could be estimated. This data can be used for analytical and mathematical groundwater flow modeling. Analysis of available storage-coefficient and (or) specific-yield data indicates the Ohio River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.20, which is characteristic of an unconfined aquifer. The Kanawha River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.003, which is characteristic of a semi-confined aquifer. The median storage coefficient of fractured-bedrock aquifers is only 0.007, which is characteristic of confined aquifers. The highest median transmissivity of a specific aquifer in West Virginia occurs in Ohio River alluvium (4,800 ft2/d); the second highest occurs in Kanawha River alluvium (1,600 ft2/d). The lowest median transmissivity (23 ft2/d) is for the McKenzie-Rose Hill-Tuscarora aquifer. Rocks of Cambrian age within the Waynesboro-Tomstown-Harpers-Weverton-Loudon aquifer had a low median transmissivity of only 67 ft2/d. Other aquifers with low transmissivities include the Hampshire Formation, Brallier-Harrell Formations, Mahantango Formations, Oriskany Sandstone, and the Conococheague Formation with median transmissivities of 74, 72, 92, 82, and 92 ft2/d, respectively. All other aquifers within the State had intermediate values of transmissivity (130-920 ft2/d). The highest median transmissivities among bedrock aquifers were those for aquifers within the Pennsylvanian age Pocahontas Formation (1,200 ft2/d) and Pottsville Group (1,300 ft2/d), and the Mississippian age Mauch Chunk Group (1,300 ft2/d). These rocks crop out primarily in the southern part of the State and to a lesser extent within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. The highest mean annual ground-water recharge rates within West Virginia (24.6 in.) occur within a band that extends through the central part of the State within the eastern part of the Kanawha River Basin. This area of relatively high relief has peaks higher than 4,000 ft and precipitation greater than 50 in./yr. The band of high recharge rates extends northward towards Pennsylvania and includes the Monongahela River Basin, which has a mean annual recharge of 21.4 inches. To the west of this central band lies a region of lower relief with much lower mean annual precipitation rates. Mean annual recharge for the Tug Fork, Twelvepole Creek, and Guyandotte River Basins is only 12.6 inches. For the western part of the Kanawha River Basin, mean recharge is 11.9 inches. The lowest mean annual recharge rates (8.4 in.) within the State occur in the Little Kanawha River Basin and the tributary streams in the region that discharge directly to the Ohio River. West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle is an area characterized by long linear northeast to southwest trending ridges and valleys. The mean annual ground-water recharge rate for this region, which is drained almost entirely by the Potomac River and its tributaries, is 9.4 inches. This area, which is located within a rain shadow resulting from orographic lifting in the higher altitude area to the west, receives less precipitation (approximately 30 in.) than the region to the west.

Kozar, Mark D.; Mathes, Melvin V.

2001-01-01

294

Muriel Wright: Telling the Story of Oklahoma Indian Nations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wright family, descended from the patriarch Allen Wright, who arrived in the new Choctaw Nation after surviving the "Trail of Tears," played an important role in Oklahoma politics and society. Following removal to Oklahoma, Allen went on to become Principal Chief of the Choctaw Nation and gave the name, Oklahoma, to the southwest territory. He…

Cesar, Dana; Smith, Joan K.; Noley, Grayson

2004-01-01

295

Social and Economic Consequences of Indian Gaming in Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The balancing framework of Indian gaming as it operates in Oklahoma constrains Oklahoma Indian nations from operating facilities according to the dictates of the marketplace on a large-scale Class III basis. Indian gaming actually brings substantial net economic benefits to the state, contrary to claims that Oklahoma Indian gaming benefits come at…

Grant, Kenneth W., II; Spilde, Katherine A.; Taylor, Jonathan B.

2004-01-01

296

75 FR 11904 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...exists in the State of Oklahoma. In order to provide...areas of the State of Oklahoma have been designated...Payne, Pontotoc, Pottawatomie, Rogers, Sequoyah...Tillman, and Tulsa Counties for Public Assistance...within the State of Oklahoma are eligible to...

2010-03-12

297

75 FR 15450 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...exists in the State of Oklahoma. In order to provide...areas of the State of Oklahoma have been designated...Okmulgee, Pontotoc, Pottawatomie, Roger Mills, Seminole...Stephens, and Washita Counties for Public Assistance...within the State of Oklahoma are eligible to...

2010-03-29

298

Conodont biostratigraphy of lower Ordovician rocks, Arbuckle Group, southern Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Arbuckle Group of southern Oklahoma displays the only complete exposure of the shallow-water carbonates that characterize the Lower Ordovician of interior North America. Trilobites have been described from some parts of this sequence and sporadic occurrences of other invertebrates are known, but much of the sequence is sparingly fossiliferous. As a consequence, these magnificent exposures have not contributed notably to continuing efforts toward development of a comprehensive biostratigraphic scheme for the Lower Ordovician of the North American platform. Samples collected at 25-ft intervals through the Arbuckle Group along and adjacent to Interstate Highway 35 on the south flank of the Arbuckle anticline near Ardmore, Oklahoma, produced conodonts in abundances ranging from a few tens to over a thousand elements per kilogram and displaying good to excellent preservation with low CAI. These conodonts document a biostratigraphic continuum that provides a standard for correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks in the subsurface of central US and of the many localized and incomplete outcrops of generally equivalent strata in the Ozark and Upper Mississippi Valley regions. The stratigraphic continuity of the collections makes the I-35 section an ideal standard reference section for graphic correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks containing conodonts of the Mid-Continent Province.

Dresbach, R.I.; Ethington, R.L. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (USA))

1989-08-01

299

Aquifer behavior with reinjection  

E-print Network

AQUIFER BEHAVIOR WITH REINJECTION A Thesis By EUCLIDES JOSE BONET Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARUM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, f967 Major Subject... Petroleum Engineering AQUIFER BEHAVIOR WITH REINJECTION A Thesis By E UC LI DES JOSE BONE T Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) May, 1967 ACKNOWLEDGMENT Thanks are due to Petroleo Brasilerio S...

Bonet, Euclides Jose

2012-06-07

300

Nonmarital births in Oklahoma 1975-1995.  

PubMed

This report uses data from the Oklahoma State Department of Health to describe past trends and current patterns of nonmarital births in Oklahoma. Between 1975 and 1995, the percentage of unmarried women delivering a live birth in Oklahoma increased from 12% to 31%. Adult nonmarital births increased faster than teen nonmarital births, but teens had a higher percentage of nonmarital births. White rates increased faster than African-American and Native American rates, but African-Americans had a higher percentage of nonmarital births. Unmarried women who give birth were more likely to be poor and lack education; additionally, they were less likely to receive early prenatal care, more likely to have had low weight births, and more likely to have had an unintended pregnancy. Birth outcomes are poorer among unmarried women, but this may be due to poverty and education rather than marital status alone. PMID:9583321

Campbell, J E; DePersio, S R; Lorenz, R

1998-01-01

301

A Legal Analysis of Litigation against Oklahoma Educators and School Districts under the Oklahoma Governmental Tort Claims Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation analyzed public court decisions in cases against Oklahoma school districts and their employees involving sovereign immunity claims filed under Oklahoma's Governmental Tort Claims Act. The questions addressed were: (1) How have the Oklahoma courts interpreted the Governmental Tort Claims Act, (Okla. Stat. tit. 51 Section 151 et…

Lacefield, Kevin Lee

2010-01-01

302

Digital map of saturated thickness in 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for saturated thickness contours of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the saturated thickness contours from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

303

Sources of Groundwater Based on Helium Analyses in and near the Freshwater/Saline-Water Transition Zone of the San Antonio Segment of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas, 2002-03  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report evaluates dissolved noble gas data, specifically helium-3 and helium-4, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, during 2002-03. Helium analyses are used to provide insight into the sources of groundwater in the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Sixty-nine dissolved gas samples were collected from 19 monitoring wells (categorized as fresh, transitional, or saline on the basis of dissolved solids concentration in samples from the wells or from fluid-profile logging of the boreholes) arranged in five transects, with one exception, across the freshwater/saline-water interface (the 1,000-milligrams-per-liter dissolved solids concentration threshold) of the Edwards aquifer. The concentration of helium-4 (the dominant isotope in atmospheric and terrigenic helium) in samples ranged from 63 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature (20 degrees Celsius) and pressure (1 atmosphere) in a well in the East Uvalde transect to 160,587 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature and pressure in a well in the Kyle transect. Helium-4 concentrations in the 10 saline wells generally increase from the western transects to the eastern transects. Increasing helium-4 concentrations from southwest to northeast in the transition zone, indicating increasing residence time of groundwater from southwest to northeast, is consistent with the longstanding conceptualization of the Edwards aquifer in which water recharges in the southwest, flows generally northeasterly (including in the transition zone, although more slowly than in the fresh-water zone), and discharges at major springs in the northeast. Excess helium-4 was greater than 1,000 percent for 60 of the 69 samples, indicating that terrigenic helium is largely present and that most of the excess helium-4 comes from sources other than the atmosphere. The helium data of this report cannot be used to identify sources of groundwater in and near the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer in terms of specific geologic (stratigraphic) units or hydrogeologic units (aquifers or confining units). However, the data indicate that the source or sources of the helium, and thus the water in which the helium is dissolved, in the transition zone are mostly terrigenic in origin rather than atmospheric. Whether most helium in and near the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer originated either in rocks outside the transition zone and at depth or in the adjacent Trinity aquifer is uncertain; but most of the helium in the transition zone had to enter the transition zone from the Trinity aquifer because the Trinity aquifer is the hydrogeologic unit immediately beneath and laterally adjacent to the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer. Thus the helium data support a hypothesis of sufficient hydraulic connection between the Trinity and Edwards aquifers to allow movement of water from the Trinity aquifer to the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer.

Hunt, Andrew G.; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Fahlquist, Lynne

2010-01-01

304

Fertilizers mobilization in alluvial aquifer: laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In alluvial plains, intensive farming with conspicuous use of agrochemicals, can cause land pollution and groundwater contamination.\\u000a In central Po River plain, paleo-channels are important links between arable lands and the underlaying aquifer, since the\\u000a latter is often confined by clay sediments that act as a barrier against contaminants migration. Therefore, paleo-channels\\u000a are recharge zones of particular interest that have

M. Mastrocicco; N. Colombani; S. Palpacelli

2009-01-01

305

Ground-water movement and effects of coal strip mining on water quality of high-wall lakes and aquifers in the Macon-Huntsville area, north- central Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glacial drift and Pennsylvanian bedrock were mixed together forming spoil during pre-reclamation strip mining for coal in north-central Missouri. This restructuring of the land increases the porosity of the material, and increases aqueous concentrations of many dissolved constituents. Median sodium and bicarbonate concentrations were slightly greater, calcium 5 times greater, magnesium 6 times greater, manganese 15 times greater, iron 19 times greater, and sulfate 24 times greater in water from spoil than in water from glacial drift. Median potassium concentrations were slightly greater, and chloride concentrations were two times greater in water from glacial drift than in water from spoil. Water types in glacial drift and bedrock were mostly sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate; in spoil and lakes in the spoil, the water types were mostly calcium sulfate. Median pH values in water from spoil were 6.6, as compared to 7.4 in water from glacial drift and 9.0 in water from bedrock. Neutralization of acid by carbonate rocks causes the moderate pH values in water from spoil; a carbonate system closed to the atmosphere may result in alkaline pH values in bedrock. Transmissivities generally are greatest for spoil, and decrease in the following order: alluvium, glacial drift, and bedrock. Recharge to spoil is from precipitation, lateral flow from glacial drift, and lateral and vertical flow from bedrock. The rate of recharge to the aquifers is unknown, but probably is small. Groundwater discharge from the glacial drift, bedrock, and spoil is to alluvium. The direction of flow generally was from high-wall lakes in the spoil toward East Fork Little Chariton River or South Fork Claybank Creek. Significant differences (95% confidence level) in values and concentrations of aqueous constituents between spoil areas mined at different times (1940, 1952, and 1968) were obtained for pH, calcium, magnesium, manganese, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids, but not for iron. These differences are attributed to local variations in the geohydrologic system rather than spoil age. (Lantz-PTT)

Hall, D.C.; Davis, R.E.

1986-01-01

306

Analyzing aquifers associated with gas reservoirs using aquifer influence functions  

E-print Network

ANALYZING AQUIFERS ASSOCIATED WITH GAS RESERVOIRS USING AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE TARGAC Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE V z May 1988 z V z z I- Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering ANALYZING AQUIFERS ASSOCIATED WITH GAS RESERVOIRS USING AQUIFER INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE TARGAC Approved as to style and content by: (Chair of Committ R...

Targac, Gary Wayne

2012-06-07

307

OKLAHOMA CITY UNIVERSITY VOLUME 32 SPRING 2007  

E-print Network

.H. 2003). 87 #12;88 Oklahoma City University Law Review [Vol. 32 such as states banning assisted suicide or gay marriages;3 (4) proprietary intrusions, such as a publisher using a family's group portrait, 521 U.S. 702, 705-06 (1997) (assisted suicide) and Lewis v. Harris, 908 A.2d 196,200 (N.J. 2006) (gay

Sharp, Kim

308

Ethnicity and Identity in Northeastern Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origins of the Oklahoma Delaware reflect a complex history of migration, forced relocation, and punitive concentration. Though 36 tribal identities survive today, they are not of equal cultural coherence. Among the Delaware, there is no simple relation between socioeconomic status, level of acculturation, and factional membership. Rather, the…

Roark, Sue N.

309

University of Oklahoma Human Resources Healthy Sooners  

E-print Network

University of Oklahoma Human Resources ­ Healthy Sooners For distribution To: All OU Employees://healthysooners.ouhsc.edu. As provided by university policy, Human Resources has approved the distribution of this mass email. Approval we're concerned about keeping a job, saving for retirement, or meeting the cost of day-to-day living

Oklahoma, University of

310

Oklahoma Sheriffs' Association Ok ahoma Sheriff  

E-print Network

Education and Training (CLEET) and the National Center for Biomedical Research and Training (NCBRT), Academy-based and instructor-led training, which includes mobile and residential training. Each of the courses offered of education and experience. The state of Oklahoma is preparing a multi-year training schedule to meet

Harms, Kyle E.

311

Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for

Mary N. Hill Kutz

1998-01-01

312

Did the Oklahoma City Bombers Succeed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worst case of domestic terrorism in our country's history, the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, led to the enactment of a landmark antiterrorism statute. Not surprisingly, several of the statute's provisions strengthen federal power in extraordinary and unprecedented ways to counter the threat of terrorism. But other provisions radically restrict the ability of

Jordan Steiker

2001-01-01

313

State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oklahoma edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

2009-01-01

314

Public Library Service to Children in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the low density of its population and subsequent low property tax support, library service in Oklahoma is based on the multicounty library operating as a single unit. With the help of federal funds, such units now cover one-third of the state and 60 percent of its population utilizing branch libraries and bookmobile service. Service to…

Wentroth, Mary Ann

315

Oklahoma: A View of the Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a dialogue on twentieth-century Oklahoma artists and writers given at a conference titled "Working from Community: American Indian Art and Literature in a Historical and Cultural Context" and held in the summer of 2003 at Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. Twenty-five educators converged for six weeks of…

Jones, Ruthe Blalock; Depriest, Maria; Fowler, Cynthia

2007-01-01

316

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Financial Guarantee 2014  

E-print Network

Only $19,150 I understand the expenses listed above are average cost estimates for 9 months. The actual's prospective educational and living expenses while in the U.S. Therefore, Oklahoma State University requires their educational costs. The amounts listed below are estimates that are determined by using the cost figures

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

317

Women of Oklahoma, 1890-1920.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the lives of representative White, Black, and American Indian women on the Oklahoma frontier after the abrupt opening of Indian Territory to non-Indian settlement in 1889. Drawing on primary sources, particularly diaries and letters, it focuses on the intersection of race, gender, class, and culture in the relationships among…

Reese, Linda Williams

318

Nutritional Risk among Oklahoma Congregate Meal Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if there were differences by demographic variables in response rates to Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) Checklist statements reported by over 50% of Oklahoma Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) congregate meal participants categorized at high nutritional risk based on cumulative NSI Checklist scores. Design:…

Quigley, Kimberly K.; Hermann, Janice R.; Warde, William D.

2008-01-01

319

Oklahoma Curriculum Guide for Teaching Safety Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by classroom teachers, university professors, and personnel from the Oklahoma State Department of Education, this guide is an effort to assist teachers in locating and utilizing safety materials as well as to assist them in developing well-balanced safety programs for the children and young people in the state. The preschool and…

Oklahoma Curriculum Improvement Commission, Oklahoma City.

320

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA SCHOOL OF MUSIC  

E-print Network

1 20110708 UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA SCHOOL OF MUSIC APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION TO GRADUATE DEGREE MAILING ADDRESS (INCLUDE CITY, STATE, PROVINCE, COUNTRY, ZIP OR POSTAL CODE) CURRENT PHONE NUMBER (INCLUDE AREA CODE OR COUNTRY AND CITY CODES IF APPLICABLE) E-MAIL ADDRESS I AM APPLYING FOR ADMISSION

Oklahoma, University of

321

Aquifer stability investigations  

SciTech Connect

The study of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous rock reservoirs is carried out within the Reservoir Stability Studies Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal of the study is to establish criteria for long-term stability of aquifer CAES reservoirs. These criteria are intended to be guidelines and check lists that utilities and architect-engineering firms may use to evaluate reservoir stability at candidate CAES sites. These criteria will be quantitative where possible, qualitative where necessary, and will provide a focal point for CAES relevant geotechnical knowledge, whether developed within this study or available from petroleum, mining or other geotechnical practices using rock materials. The Reservoir Stability Studies Program had four major activities: a state-of-the-art survey to establish preliminary stability criteria and identify areas requiring research and development; numerical modeling; laboratory testing to provide data for use in numerical models and to investigate fundamental rock mechanics, thermal, fluid, and geochemical response of aquifer materials; and field studies to verify the feasibility of air injection and recovery under CAES conditions in an aquifer, to validate and refine the stability criteria, and to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of the numerical and experimental methodologies developed in previous work. Three phases of study, including preliminary criteria formulation, numerical model development, and experimental assessment of CAES reservoir materials have been completed. Present activity consists of construction and operation of the aquifer field test, and associated numerical and experimental work in support of that activity. Work is presently planned to be complete by 1983 at the end of the field test. At that time the final stability criteria for aquifers will be issued. Attached here also are preliminary criteria for aquifers.

Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.

1981-09-01

322

Cold water aquifer storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

1980-03-01

323

Estimating transmissivity in the Edwards Aquifer using upscaling, geostatistics, and Bayesian updating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Edwards Aquifer, a highly heterogeneous karst aquifer located in south central Texas, is the sole source of drinking water for more than one million people. Hydraulic conductivity (K) measurements in the Edwards Aquifer are sparse, highly variable (log-K variance of 6.4), and are mostly from single-well drawdown tests that are appropriate for the spatial scale of a few meters.

S. L. Painter; Y. Jiang; A. D. Woodbury

2002-01-01

324

Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply.  

PubMed

To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (~70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <9.51 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 ?g/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84×10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65×10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 ?g/L and 1mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8×10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines. PMID:24704952

Biswas, Ashis; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Nath, Bibhash; Alexanderson, Helena; Kundu, Amit K; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

2014-07-01

325

78 FR 41074 - Oklahoma; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2013-0001] Oklahoma; Amendment No. 6 to...declaration for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-4117-DR...declaration for the State of Oklahoma is hereby amended to...Okfuskee, Okmulgee, and LeFlore Counties for Individual...

2013-07-09

326

78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma...improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along an 850-mile corridor...Level EIS, the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study (Study) also includes...

2013-03-13

327

Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14.0 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Civil War Cave ranged from 0.13 to 2.5 square miles using the water-balance equation to 3.80 square miles using a normalized base-flow method. Tracer tests indicated a portion of the water within Civil War Cave was from across a major topographic divide located to the southwest. January-Stansbury Cave is located in Delaware County in northeastern Oklahoma, and provides habitat for the Oklahoma cave crayfish and the Ozark cavefish. January-Stansbury Cave is developed in the St. Joe Limestone member of the Boone Formation. The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 1.0 cubic foot per second and ranged from 0.35 to 8.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for January-Stansbury Cave was 14.3 degrees. The calculated recharge area for January-Stansbury Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from approximately 0.04 to 0.83 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed water discharging from January-Stansbury Cave during high flow originates from within the topographic drainage area and from an area outside the topographic drainage area to the southwest. Nesbitt Spring Cave is located near the city of Mountain View in north-central Arkansas and provides habitat for the Hell Creek cave crayfish. Nesbitt Spring Cave is developed in the Plattin Limestone (Ozark aquifer) and is recharged through the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The mean daily discharge for the period of study was 4.5 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.39 to 70.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Nesbitt Spring Cave was 14.2 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Nesbitt Spring Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from 0.49 square mile to 4.0 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed a portion of water discharging from Nesbitt Spring during high flow originates from outside the topographic drainage area. Wasson's Mud Cave is located near the city of Springtown

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

2009-01-01

328

77 FR 43586 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-479-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent...involving abandonment of facilities by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Logan and Oklahoma Counties,...

2012-07-25

329

Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1. Regions 1 through 6  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: the Western Mountains; Alluvial Basins; Columbia LAVA Plateau; Colorado Plateau; High Plains; and Glaciated Central Region. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-06-01

330

Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2. Regions 7 through 12  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: Unglaciated Central Region; Glaciated Appalachians, Unglaciated Appalachians; Coastal Plain; Hawaii; and Alaska. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-06-01

331

Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material  

E-print Network

Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material a column reactor system containing Hanford Aquifer material in order to assess the potential of in situ bioremediation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) at the Hanford site in south- central Washington state. Benzoate

Semprini, Lewis

332

Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan) crinoids from Oklahoma and Missouri  

E-print Network

as from the Bostwick Conglomerate in Carter County, Oklahoma. Some of the material consists of spinose first primi- brachs of the arms, which have distinctive con- figuration and surface ornamentation. Generic assignment of the axillary primibrachs was at... is in some question because the pos- terior side of the cup is unknown. The monotype of the species is from the Bostwick Conglomerate (Atokan) of Love County, Oklahoma. A large specimen from the Atoka Formation of Coal County, Oklahoma, which is also lacking...

Strimple, H. L.

1975-05-28

333

A digital geologic map database for the state of Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This dataset is a composite of part or all of the 12 1:250,000 scale quadrangles that make up Oklahoma. The result looks like a geologic map of the State of Oklahoma. But it is only an Oklahoma shaped map clipped from the 1:250,000 geologic maps. This is not a new geologic map. No new mapping took place. The geologic information from each quadrangle is available within the composite dataset.

Heran, William D.; Green, Gregory N.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

2003-01-01

334

Largest Dinosaur Ever Discovered Found in Oklahoma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally discovered in a remote corner of Oklahoma in 1994, the fossil of what may have been the largest creature to ever walk the earth has been excavated by a research team from the University of Oklahoma. Dubbed Sauroposeidon proteles, or "thunder lizard," the dinosaur was almost 100 feet long, with a 39 foot neck and weighing over 50 tons, so big that it would have created minor seismic activity just by walking, according to scientists. The new find is about 110 million years old and consists of neck vertebrae, some almost five feet in length, together with neck ribs nearly twelve feet long. The find is also significant because it may shed light on the last of the North American sauropods, who died out about 100 million years ago. A paper on this new find is scheduled to appear in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. The sites listed provide information and background material about this momentous discovery.

De Nie, Michael W.

335

N3280RDCOTTONWOODRD PayneOklahoma 11  

E-print Network

51 2 54 11 51 49 4 11 2 11 10 72 51 96 26 47 51 2651 26 76 76 26 4 32 11 26 3 11 26 10 72 51 31 26 51 11 2626 72 11 49 10 11 26 11 26 96 76 26 41 11 76 51 1011 74 31 51 11 SOIL SURVEY OF PAYNE COUNTY Soil Survey Area: Payne County, Oklahoma Spatial Version of Data: 2 Soil Map Compilation Scale: 1

Ghajar, Afshin J.

336

Use of Bromide: Chloride Ratios to Differentiate Potential Sources of Chloride in a Shallow, Unconfined Aquifer Affected by Brackish-Water Intrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brackish water from Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries has entered the Aquia aquifer in east-central Anne Arundel County, Maryland, USA. This determination was made based on chloride analyses of water samples collected in wells screened in the Aquia aquifer between October 1988 and May 1989. The Aquia aquifer, which is composed of fine- to medium-grained sand, is a shallow, unconfined

David C. Andreasen; William B. Fleck

1997-01-01

337

Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of HydroSOLVE, Inc. These best fit theoretical response curves are based on a transmissivity of 24,000 ft2/d or a hydraulic conductivity of about 600 ft/d, a storage coefficient of 0.05, a specific yield of 0.42, and vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The theoretical type curves match the observed data fairly closely at Wells A and B until about 2,500 minutes and 1,000 minutes, respectively, after pumping began. The increasing rate of drawdown after these breaks is an indication that a no-flow boundary (an area with much lower hydraulic conductivity) likely was encountered and that Wells A and B may be completed in a part of the Elm aquifer with limited hydraulic connection to the rest of the aquifer. Additional analysis indicates that if different assumptions regarding the screened interval for Well B and aquifer anisotropy are used, type curves can be calculated that fit the observed data using a lower specific yield that is within the commonly accepted range. When the screened interval for Well B was reduced to 5 ft near the top of the aquifer and horizontal hydraulic conductivity was set to 20 times vertical hydraulic conductivity, the type curves calculated using a specific yield of 0.1 and a transmissivity of 30,200 ft2/d also matched the observed data from Wells A and B fairly well. A version of the Theim equilibrium equation was used to calculate the theoretical drawdown in an idealized unconfined aquifer when a perfectly efficient well is being pumped at a constant rate. These calculations were performed for a range of pumping rates, drawdowns at the wells, and distances between wells that might be found in a production well field in the Elm aquifer. Although the aquifer test indicates that hydraulic conductivity near the well may be adequate to support a production well, the comparison of drawdown and recovery curves indicates the possibility that heterogeneities may limit the productive capacity of specific loca

Schaap, Bryan D.

2000-01-01

338

Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)  

SciTech Connect

The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma�¢����s impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging from the search for new phenomena at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider to theoretical modeling, computer simulation, detector development and testing, and physics analysis. OCHEP faculty members participating on the D0 collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron and on the ATLAS collaboration at the CERN LHC have made major impact on the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson search, top quark studies, B physics studies, and measurements of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) phenomena. The OCHEP Grid computing facility consists of a large computer cluster which is playing a major role in data analysis and Monte Carlo productions for both the D0 and ATLAS experiments. Theoretical efforts are devoted to new ideas in Higgs bosons physics, extra dimensions, neutrino masses and oscillations, Grand Unified Theories, supersymmetric models, dark matter, and nonperturbative quantum field theory. Theory members are making major contributions to the understanding of phenomena being explored at the Tevatron and the LHC. They have proposed new models for Higgs bosons, and have suggested new signals for extra dimensions, and for the search of supersymmetric particles. During the seven year period when OCHEP was partially funded through the DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, OCHEP members published over 500 refereed journal articles and made over 200 invited presentations at major conferences. The Center is also involved in education and outreach activities by offering summer research programs for high school teachers and college students, and organizing summer workshops for high school teachers, sometimes coordinating with the Quarknet programs at OSU and OU. The details of the Center can be found in http://ochep.phy.okstate.edu.

S. Nandi; M.J. Strauss; J. Snow; F. Rizatdinova; B. Abbott; K. Babu; P. Gutierrez; C. Kao; A. Khanov; K.A. Milton; H. Neaman; H. Severini, P. Skubic

2012-02-29

339

Lithologic and physicochemical properties and hydraulics of flow in and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, based on water-level and borehole geophysical log data, 1999-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas (hereinafter, the Edwards aquifer) is bounded to the south and southeast by a zone of transition from freshwater to saline water (hereinafter, the transition zone). The boundary between the two zones is the freshwater/saline-water interface (hereinafter, the interface), defined as the 1,000-milligrams per liter dissolved solids concentration threshold. This report presents the findings of a study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, to obtain lithologic properties (rock properties associated with known stratigraphic units) and physicochemical properties (fluid conductivity and temperature) and to analyze the hydraulics of flow in and near the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer on the basis of water-level and borehole geophysical log data collected from 15 monitoring wells in four transects during 1999-2007. No identifiable relation between conductivity values from geophysical logs in monitoring wells in all transects and equivalent freshwater heads in the wells at the times the logs were run is evident; and no identifiable relation between conductivity values and vertical flow in the boreholes concurrent with the times the logs were run is evident. The direction of the lateral equivalent freshwater head gradient and thus the potential lateral flow at the interface in the vicinity of the East Uvalde transect fluctuates between into and out of the freshwater zone, depending on recharge and withdrawals. Whether the prevailing direction on average is into or out of the freshwater zone is not clearly indicated. Equivalent freshwater head data do not indicate a prevailing direction of the lateral gradient at the interface in the vicinity of the Tri-County transect. The prevailing direction on average of the lateral gradient and thus potential lateral flow at the interface in the vicinity of the Kyle transect likely is from the transition zone into the freshwater zone. The hypothesis regarding the vertical gradient at the East Uvalde transect, and thus the potential for vertical flow near an interface conceptualized as a surface sloping upward in the direction of the dip of the stratigraphic units, is that the potential for vertical flow fluctuates between into and out of the freshwater zone, depending on recharge and withdrawals. At the Tri-County transect, a downward gradient on the fresh-water side of the interface and an upward gradient on the saline-water side are evidence of opposing potentials that appear to have stabilized the position of the interface over the range of hydrologic conditions that occurred at the times the logs were run. At the Fish Hatchery transect, an upward gradient on the saline-water side of the interface, coupled with the assumption of a sloping interface, implies a vertical gradient from the transition zone into the freshwater zone. This potential for vertical movement of the interface apparently was opposed by the potential (head) on the freshwater side of the interface that kept the interface relatively stable over the range of hydrologic conditions during which the logs were run. The five flow logs for Kyle transect freshwater well KY1 all indicate upward flow that originates from the Glen Rose Limestone, the uppermost unit of the Trinity aquifer; and one log for well KY2 shows upward flow entering the borehole from the Trinity aquifer. These flow data constitute evidence of the potential for flow from the Trinity aquifer into the Edwards aquifer in the vicinity of the Kyle transect. Subsurface temperature data indicate that flow on average is more active, or vigorous, on the freshwater side of the interface than on the saline-water side. A hydraulic connection between the transition zone and the freshwater zone is indicated by similar patterns in the hydrographs of the 15 transect monitoring wells in and near the transition zone and three county index wel

Lambert, Rebecca B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Nyman, Michael B.

2010-01-01

340

Potential leakage between aquifers in a deeply anthropized coastal sedimentary basin (Recife, Brazil): Strontium isotope constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to an increasing demographic pressure, the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) went through remarkable changes of water and land uses over the last decades. These evolutions gave rise to numerous environmental consequences, such as a dramatic decline of the piezometric levels, groundwater salinization and contamination. This degradation of natural resources is linked to the increase of water demand, punctually amplified by drought periods which induced the construction of thousands of private wells. Recife was built on the estuarine area of the Capibaribe River and other small rivers. The Recife coastal plain is located in the geographic limits of the sedimentary basins of Cabo and Pernambuco-Paraíba which consist out of fluvial and marine geologic formations. It is composed of three main aquifers: the two semi-confined Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, both underlining the superficial Boa Viagem unconfined aquifer, which is the most directly exposed to contamination, since it is connected to mangroves, rivers, estuaries and highly urbanized areas. The Boa Viagem aquifer is made of marine terraces of sand, silt and clay has an average thickness of 40 m. The Cabo aquifer occurs in the south of Recife and comprises sandstones, siltstones and mudstones, with an average thickness of 90 m. The Beberibe aquifer occurs in the north and central area of Recife with an average thickness of 100 m of sandstones with intercalations of mudstone; it is the most important one, with the highest amount of good quality water. Both the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers contain large clay levels. The hydraulic connections between the three aquifers are not well known but isotopic studies have shown that the recharge processes are similar, suggesting that exchanges may occur and may be modified or amplified by overexploitation especially between the Cabo and Boa Viagem aquifers. Two other aquifers can be found west of the city: the Barreiras aquifer, characterized by alternating well stratified layers, is coated at its edges by the Boa Viagem aquifer. Mostly underlying the Beberibe and Barreiras aquifers with some outcrops, the Fissural aquifer is composed of basement rocks (granites/migmatites) with low storage capacity. The preliminary results of 62 groundwater samples from the five main aquifers are reported. This part of the study focuses on the major elements together with Sr isotopes to (1) characterize the signature of the different aquifer compartments of the 5 main aquifers, and (2)assess the potential connections between aquifers, e.g. vertical exchanges between the aquifers that can be modified or amplified by overexploitation or triggered through failed or improperly constructed wells.

Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Bertrand, Guillaume; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Helene; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc

2013-04-01

341

Geophysical Fault Mapping Using the Magnetic Method at Hickory Sandstone Aquifer, Llano Uplift, Texas  

E-print Network

A magnetic study over a 95 m x 150 m area of the Hickory sandstone aquifer in central Texas was carried out as part of multitechnique geophysical investigation that included ground penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetic (EM), seismic...

Pereira, Antonio Do Nascimento

2013-04-05

342

INFILTRATION OF ATRAZINE AND METABOLOTES FROM A STREAM TO AN ALLUVIAL AQUIFER  

EPA Science Inventory

The infiltration of atrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine from Walnut Creek, a tributary stream, to the alluvial valley aquifer along the South Skunk River in central Iowa occurred where the stream transects the river's flood plain. A preliminary estimate indicated t...

343

Ground-water ages in confined and unconfined aquifers beneath the High Plains, U. S. A  

SciTech Connect

Ages of confined and unconfined ground waters beneath the High Plains must be better known to evaluate water resources, explain differences in delta D and delta O-18 between the unconfined and confined aquifers, and help interpret Pleistocene and Holocene hydrologic history of the continental interior. Eighteen water samples were collected from a confined aquifer in Dockum Group (Triassic) sandstones beneath the southern High Plains in TX and NM from a confined aquifer in Dakota Formation (Cretaceous) sandstones beneath the central High Plains in southwestern KS, and from a sequence of confined aquifers in Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary rocks beneath the northern Great Plains in eastern WY and western NE. Seven samples were collected from the unconfined High Plains aquifer in the Ogallala Formation (Neogene) beneath the central and northern High Plains. Preliminary calculated ages suggest that waters in the High Plains aquifer are very young, probably less than 1,000 yr, and locally as young as 25 yr. Age of ground water in the deep confined aquifers appears to be 20,000 to 32,000 yr in the different study areas. Age of confined ground water appears to increase with predominant direction of ground-water flow beneath the central and northern High Plains but not beneath the southern High Plains, possibly reflecting greater downward leakage from the unconfined aquifer in the latter area.

Dutton, A.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology)

1992-01-01

344

Facies distributions, recharge-discharge relations, and aquifer sensitivity in a glacial aquifer system, northeastern Indiana  

SciTech Connect

The Huntertown aquifer system underlies about 650 km[sup 2] in the interlobate region of northeastern Indiana and corresponds to a sequence of Saginaw Lobe deposits sandwiched between two Erie Lobe till sheets. The northern part of the system typically consists of a 3 to 10 m thick basal outwash apron composed chiefly of sand and capped by a discontinuous sheet of sandy till. Several small to medium-sized (5 to 30km[sup 2]) ice-contact fans are superposed on this sequence and result in thick (15 to 30 m), transmissive sections of sand and gravel. To the southeast, these sediments grade into finer-grained fan-delta and slackwater facies associated with ancestral Lake Erie. Facies distributions, and thus aquifer connectivity, are related to topographic characteristics of the underlying till sheet, which controlled Saginaw Lobe meltwater drainage. The aquifer system is variably confined by a younger sequence of clayey tills and lacustrine mud. The degree of confinement is related to terrain characteristics, with the thickest till (15 to 25 m) being associated with ridged and moraines in the southern and central parts of the system. These features are characteristic of a regional discharge area and suggest a relatively longer residence time. Sensitivity of aquifers in this part of the system may thus be correspondingly less. The distribution of geochemical facies is much less predictable, however, and may be affected by several independent variables.

Fleming, A.H. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States)); Yarling, M. (Indiana Dept. of Environmental Management, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

1994-04-01

345

Oklahoma GSHP Ini0a0ve Jim Bullington  

E-print Network

Oklahoma GSHP Ini0a0ve Jim Bullington Trade & Industrial Education Oklahoma Department including Skills Centers) · 395 comprehensive school districts with C/T · 550 Comprehensive High Schools with C/T · All 77 coun0es served by CareerTech · 72 coun0es

346

ELECTION AGREEMENT FOR Oklahoma Teachers' Retirement System (OTRS)  

E-print Network

ELECTION AGREEMENT FOR Oklahoma Teachers' Retirement System (OTRS) For Hourly­Paid Employee Contributory Retirement Plan on your behalf. Name (First and Last): Employee ID: Email: Contact Phone #: Last By completing this form you are choosing to participate in the Oklahoma Teachers' Retirement System (OTRS

Oklahoma, University of

347

The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

348

Service Assessment Mother's Day Weekend Tornado in Oklahoma and  

E-print Network

Service Assessment Mother's Day Weekend Tornado in Oklahoma and Missouri, May 10, 2008 U, Maryland #12;Cover Photograph: Survivors of Picher tornado. (Photo courtesy of Tulsa World News.) ii #12;Service Assessment Mother's Day Weekend Tornado in Oklahoma and Missouri, May 10, 2008 October 2009

349

Wrongful Death: Oklahoma Supreme Court Replaces Viability Standard with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 7, 1999, a divided Oklahoma Supreme Court held in Nealis v. Baird that a claim may be brought under Oklahoma's wrongful death statute on behalf of a nonviable fetus born alive. The decision represents a departure from the traditional notion that \\

Fatma E. Marouf

2000-01-01

350

75 FR 23280 - Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma Alcohol Control Ordinance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indian Affairs Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma Alcohol Control Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...publishes the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma's Alcohol Control Ordinance, which was adopted...CB-64-2010 enacted on March 13, 2010. The Alcohol Control Ordinance regulates and...

2010-05-03

351

Color Variation Among Northern Flickers Collected in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eastern (yellow-shafted) race of the northern flicker (Colaptes auratus auratus) is resident in Oklahoma. Except at the western end of the panhandle where it breeds, the western (red-shafted) race (C. a. cafer) occupies the state only during migration and winter. The two races interbreed widely. A total of 179 northern flicker (Colaptes auratus) specimens from Oklahoma were examined for

Vickie A. Ivey; Jack D. Tyler

352

Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets  

E-print Network

://osufacts.okstate.edu Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Joe Armstrong Extension Weed Science Specialist Why should I weeds are of greatest concern? Pigweed species, Italian ryegrass, cheat, marestail, gi- ant ragweed Science Diagnostic Services Attn: Joe Armstrong Dept. of Plant and Soil Sciences 368 Ag Hall Stillwater

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

353

DISABILITIES IN OKLAHOMA--ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS, REPORT OF THE OKLAHOMA SURVEY OF DISABILITIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO PROVIDE REASONABLY ACCURATE ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBER AND TYPES OF DISABLED PERSONS AND THEIR NEEDS AS A BASIS FOR BOTH PRESENT AND FUTURE PLANNING. PERSONAL INTERVIEWS WERE CONDUCTED WITH ADULT RESPONDENTS IN 3,000 HOUSEHOLDS IN OKLAHOMA, A RANDOM SAMPLE STATIFIED ON THE RURAL-URBAN DIMENSION. DATA FROM 2,058…

BOHLEBER, MICHAEL E.

354

Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets  

E-print Network

increased disposable income to be spent in the community. What the Entrepreneur Must Do With the economic a 1994 survey found that 125,000 Oklahoma home-based businesses generated over $3 billion in income. What successful business. The owner, through the sale of products and services, generates income from which

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

355

Oklahoma Aerospace Intellectual Capital/Educational Recommendations: An Inquiry of Oklahoma Aerospace Executives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to conduct detailed personal interviews with aerospace industry executives/managers from both the private and military sectors from across Oklahoma to determine their perceptions of intellectual capital needs of the industry. Interviews with industry executives regarding…

Nelson, Erin M.

2010-01-01

356

40 CFR 147.2102 - Aquifer exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2102 Section 147...PROGRAMS South Dakota § 147.2102 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted in...

2013-07-01

357

40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2554 Section 147...CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming § 147.2554 Aquifer exemptions. In accordance with...4 of this chapter, those portions of aquifers currently being used for...

2013-07-01

358

40 CFR 147.1352 - Aquifer exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1352 Section 147.1352...CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1352 Aquifer exemptions. Those portions of aquifers within one-quarter mile of existing...

2013-07-01

359

40 CFR 147.302 - Aquifer exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.302 Section 147...CONTROL PROGRAMS Colorado § 147.302 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers of their portions exempted in...

2013-07-01

360

40 CFR 147.1652 - Aquifer exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1652 Section 147...CONTROL PROGRAMS New York § 147.1652 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifer or their portions exempted in...

2013-07-01

361

40 CFR 147.1952 - Aquifer exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1952 Section 147...PROGRAMS Pennsylvania § 147.1952 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted in...

2013-07-01

362

Characterizing contaminant concentrations with depth by using the USGS well profiler in Oklahoma, 2003-9  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the USGS well profiler was used to investigate saline water intrusion in a deep public-supply well completed in the Ozark (Roubidoux) aquifer. In northeast Oklahoma, where the Ozark aquifer is known to be susceptible to contamination from mining activities, the well profiler also could be used to investigate sources (depths) of metals contamination and to identify routes of entry of metals to production wells.Water suppliers can consider well rehabilitation as a potential remediation strategy because of the ability to identify changes in contaminant concentrations with depth in individual wells with the USGS well profiler. Well rehabilitation methods, which are relatively inexpensive compared to drilling and completing new wells, involve modifying the construction or operation of a well to enhance the production of water from zones with lesser concentrations of a contaminant or to limit the production of water from zones with greater concentrations of a contaminant. One of the most effective well rehabilitation methods is zonal isolation, in which water from contaminated zones is excluded from production through installation of cement plugs or packers. By using relatively simple and inexpensive well rehabilitation methods, water suppliers may be able to decrease exposure of customers to contaminants and avoid costly installation of additional wells, conveyance infrastructure, and treatment technologies.

Smith, S. Jerrod; Becker, Carol J.

2011-01-01

363

University of Oklahoma: History of Science Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Oklahoma Libraries have done a wonderful job with their history of science collections. Visitors to the site will find seven collections here to keep their minds busy. Their number includes "Copernicus's De revolutionibus" and "Scientific Instruments and Historical Artifacts." Of course this first volume is nothing less than a classic, presenting Copernicus's evidence and arguments in support of heliocentric theory. This volume also contains extensive marginalia from a circle of astronomers located in Paris in the decade following the book's publication in 1543. Moving on, the "Scientific Instruments and Historical Artifacts" area contains 16 wonderful items, including an ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablet and videos of historically significant refractometers.

2012-09-21

364

Appraisal of water in bedrock aquifers, northern Cascade County, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suburban residential expansion of the city of Great Falls has resulted in an increased demand on water supplies from bedrock aquifers in northern Cascade County. The unconsolidated deposits aquifer of Quaternary age, including alluvium and glacial lake deposits, also is an important source of water in the area. Water levels in the Madison-Swift aquifer and all overlying aquifers, including the Quaternary deposits aquifer, reflect unconfined (water-table) conditions in the Great Falls vicinity. This interconnected hydrologic system is the result of breaching of the major anticlinal structure, by ancestral and present day erosion of drainage channels by the Missouri River and its tributaries. Significant vertical inter-aquifer mixing of water, as well as surface water/groundwater interchange, probably occurs in the central part of the study area. Characterization of the chemical composition of water in individual aquifers based on samples from wells in this area probably is unreliable because of this mixing. Quality of water from two wells in the Madison-Swift aquifer near Giant Springs is similar to water from the springs. Water from these three samples is less mineralized than most groundwater in the study area; dissolved solids concentrations for the three samples range from 516 to 550 mg/L. The quality of water varies among aquifers and throughout the study area. The ranges of dissolved solids concentrations determined by chemical analysis are Madison-Swift aquifer, about 520 to 1,570 mg/L; Morrison Formation, 908 to 1 ,480 mg/L; Kootenai Formation, 558 to 1,550 mg/L; Colorado Group , 2,690 and 2,740 mg/L (two samples); and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits, 383 to 2,060 mg/L. The chemical quality of water from the Colorado Group in the western one-third of the area generally is more mineralized than water from aquifers in the rest of the area. Specific conductance of water from eight wells completed in the Colorado Group averages 4,440 micromhos at 25 C. (Author 's abstract)

Wilke, K.R.

1982-01-01

365

Cohort dynamics of an over- wintering Caenis latipennis population in Honey Creek, Oklahoma, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs were collected from a south-central Oklahoma population of Caenis latipennis and reared at three different temperatures: 15, 20, and 25ºC. Eggs took 132 degree-days on average to hatch. Nymphs were reared to adults at 20ºC and emerged on average in 1709 degree-days. Degree-day estimates were applied to fall and winter stream temperatures to predict hatching and emergence times. These

JASON M. TAYLOR; JAMES H. KENNEDY

366

Environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus study unit, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit and the factors that affect water quality are described in this report. The primary natural and cultural features that affect water- quality characteristics and the potential for future water-quality problems are described. These environmental features include climate, physio- graphy, geology, soils, population, land use, water use, and surface- and ground-water flow systems. The study-unit area is approximately 47,600 square miles and includes most of the Ozark Plateaus Province and parts of the adjacent Osage Plains and Mississippi Alluvial Plain in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. The geology is characterized by basement igneous rocks overlain by a thick sequence of dolomites, limestones, sandstones, and shales of Paleozoic age. Land use in the study unit is predominantly pasture and forest in the southeastern part, and pasture and cropland in the northwestern part. All or part of the White, Neosho-lllinois, Osage, Gasconade, Meramec, St. Francis, and Black River Basins are within the study unit. Streams in the Boston Mountains contain the least mineralized water, and those in the Osage Plains contain the most mineralized water. The study unit contains eight hydrogeologic units including three major aquifers--the Springfield Plateau, Ozark, and St. Francois aquifers. Streams and aquifers in the study unit generally contain calcium or calcium-magnesium bicarbonate waters. Ground- and surface-water interactions are greatest in the Salem and Springfield Plateaus and least in the Boston Mountains and Osage Plains. Geology, land use, and population probably are the most important environmental factors that affect water quality.

Adamski, James C.; Petersen, James C.; Freiwald, David A.; Davis, Jerri V.

1995-01-01

367

Modeling earthquake rate changes in Oklahoma and Arkansas: possible signatures of induced seismicity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rate of ML?3 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States increased beginning in 2009, particularly in Oklahoma and central Arkansas, where fluid injection has occurred. We find evidence that suggests these rate increases are man?made by examining the rate changes in a catalog of ML?3 earthquakes in Oklahoma, which had a low background seismicity rate before 2009, as well as rate changes in a catalog of ML?2.2 earthquakes in central Arkansas, which had a history of earthquake swarms prior to the start of injection in 2009. In both cases, stochastic epidemic?type aftershock sequence models and statistical tests demonstrate that the earthquake rate change is statistically significant, and both the background rate of independent earthquakes and the aftershock productivity must increase in 2009 to explain the observed increase in seismicity. This suggests that a significant change in the underlying triggering process occurred. Both parameters vary, even when comparing natural to potentially induced swarms in Arkansas, which suggests that changes in both the background rate and the aftershock productivity may provide a way to distinguish man?made from natural earthquake rate changes. In Arkansas we also compare earthquake and injection well locations, finding that earthquakes within 6 km of an active injection well tend to occur closer together than those that occur before, after, or far from active injection. Thus, like a change in productivity, a change in interevent distance distribution may also be an indicator of induced seismicity.

Llenos, Andrea L.; Michael, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

368

Turbulent Kinetic Energy in the Oklahoma City Urban Environment  

SciTech Connect

A major field experiment, Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003), was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect meteorological and tracer data sets for evaluating dispersion models in urban areas. The Department of Homeland Security and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency were the primary sponsors of JU2003. Investigators from five Department of Energy national laboratories, several other government agencies, universities, private companies, and international agencies conducted the experiment. Observations to characterize the meteorology in and around the urban area complemented the observation of the dispersion of SF6, an inert tracer gas. Over one hundred threedimensional sonic anemometers were deployed in and around the urban area to monitor wind speed, direction, and turbulence fluxes during releases of SF6. Sonic deployment locations included a profile of eight sonic anemometers mounted on a crane less than 1 km north of the central business district (CBD). Using data from these and other sonic anemometers deployed in the urban area, we can quantify the effect of the urban area on atmospheric turbulence and compare results seen in OKC to those in other urban areas to assess the parameters typically used in parameterizations of urban turbulence.

Lundquist, J; Leach, M; Gouveia, F

2004-06-24

369

Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.4 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States-Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the major agricultural regions in the world. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of extensive ground-water irrigation. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level change in the aquifer. A report by the USGS, 'Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005 and 2003 to 2005' (McGuire, 2007), shows the areas of substantial water-level changes in the aquifer from the time prior to substantial ground-water irrigation development (predevelopment or about 1950) to 2005 (fig. 1). In parts of the area, farmers began using ground water for irrigation extensively in the 1930s and 1940s. Estimated irrigated acreage in the area overlying the High Plains aquifer increased rapidly from 1940 to 1980 and changed slightly from 1980 to 2002: 1949-2.1 million acres, 1980-13.7 million acres, 1997-13.9 million acres, 2002-12.7 million acres. Irrigated acres in 2002 were 12 percent of the aquifer area, not including the areas with little or no saturated thickness (McGuire, 2007). Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation and other uses are compiled and reported by the USGS and agencies in each State about every 5 years. Ground-water withdrawals from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation increased from 4 to 19 million acre-feet from 1949 to 1974. Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995 were from 4 to 18 percent less than withdrawals for irrigation in 1974. Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer for irrigation in 2000 were 21 million acre-feet (McGuire, 2007). Water-level changes in the aquifer result from an imbalance between discharge and recharge. Discharge is primarily ground-water withdrawals for irrigation. Discharge also includes evapotranspiration, where the water table is near the land surface, and seepage to streams and springs, where the water table intersects with the land surface. Recharge is primarily from precipitation. Other sources of recharge are irrigation return flow and seepage from streams, canals, and reservoirs. Water-level declines may result in increased costs for ground-water withdrawals because of increased pumping lift and decreased well yields (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Water-level declines also can affect ground-water availability, surface-water flow, and near-stream (riparian) habitat areas (Alley and others, 1999).

McGuire, V. L.

2007-01-01

370

40 CFR 147.2908 - Aquifer exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2908 Section 147...Reserve-Class II Wells § 147.2908 Aquifer exemptions. (a) After notice and...hearing, the Administrator may designate any aquifer or part of an aquifer as an exempted...

2013-07-01

371

Overview of water resources in and near Wichita and Affiliated Tribes treaty lands in western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is an overview of water resources in and near the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes treaty lands in western Oklahoma. The tribal treaty lands are about 1,140 square miles and are bordered by the Canadian River on the north, the Washita River on the south, 98? west longitude on the east, and 98? 40' west longitude on the west. Seventy percent of the study area lies within the Washita River drainage basin and 30 percent of the area lies within the Canadian River drainage basin. March through June are months of greatest average streamflow, with 49 to 57 percent of the annual streamflow occurring in these four months. November through February, July, and August have the least average streamflow with only 26 to 36 percent of the annual streamflow occurring in these six months. Two streamflow-gaging stations, Canadian River at Bridgeport and Cobb Creek near Fort Cobb, indicated peak streamflows generally decrease with regulation. Two other streamflow-gaging stations, Washita River at Carnegie and Washita River at Anadarko, indicated a decrease in peak streamflows after regulation at less than the 100-year recurrence and an increase in peak streamflows greater than the 100-year recurrence. Canadian River at Bridgeport and Washita River at Carnegie had estimated annual low flows that generally increased with regulation. Cobb Creek near Fort Cobb had a decrease of estimated annual low flows after regulation. There are greater than 900 ground-water wells in the tribal treaty lands. Eighty percent of the wells are in Caddo County.The major aquifers in the study area are the Rush Springs Aquifer and portions of the Canadian River and Washita River valley alluvial aquifers. The Rush Springs Aquifer is used extensively for irrigation as well as industrial and municipal purposes, especially near population centers.The Canadian River and Washita River valley alluvial aquifers are not used extensively in the study area. Well yields from the Rush Springs Aquifer ranged from 11 to greater than 850 gallons per minute. The Rush Springs Aquifer is recharged by the infiltration of precipitation. The estimated recharge is about 1.80 inches per year evenly distributed over the outcrop of the aquifer in the study area. Principal factors affecting the water quality in the study area include geology, agricultural practices,and oil and gas production. Calcium, magnesium, sulfate, and bicarbonate are the dominant dissolved constituents in water in the study area. Interquartile dissolved-solids concentrations in surface-water samples in the study area generally were greater than interquartile concentrations in ground-water samples. Median dissolved-solids concentrations for ground-water samples from Canadian River, Ionine Creek, Spring Creek,and Washita River Basins, which ranged from 535 to 1,195 milligrams per liter,exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard of 500 milligrams per liter. Interquartile sulfate concentrations in surface-water samples in the study area generally were greater than interquartile concentrations in ground-water samples. Median sulfate concentrations from ground-water samples in the Canadian River, IonineCreek,and Spring Creek Basins, which ranged from 385 to 570 milligrams per liter, exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard of 250 milligrams per liter. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in surface-water samples in the study area generally were less than concentrations in ground-water samples. The median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentration in ground water was 9.8 milligrams per liter, suggesting almost one-half the ground-water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standard (10 milligrams per liter). An estimated 100 million gallons of water per day were withdrawn from surface and ground water for all uses in

Abbott, Marvin M.; Tortorelli, R. L.; Becker, M. F.; Trombley, T. J.

2003-01-01

372

Using Excel for Aquifer Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is part of a sequence of exercises to help students understand single and multiple aquifer tests. In class, students will receive data from pumping tests at University of Minnesota's hydrogeology field site. Instead of using commercial software, students will create interactive modeling tools to facilitate curve matching and to collaborate on understanding aquifer tests at different scales using different methods. The approaches used in this exercise can be extended to develop models to compare single and multiple aquifer tests using different approaches.

Gao, Yongli

373

Helicopter Electromagnetic and Magnetic Surveys of the Upper and Middle Zones of the Trinity Aquifer, Uvalde and Bexar Counties, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys (HEM) were conducted in northern Uvalde and Bexar Counties, Texas, as part of a geologic mapping and hydrologic study being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The aquifers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity Group (collectively termed the Trinity aquifer) are an important regional water source in the Hill Country of south-central Texas. Rock

D. V. Smith; C. D. Blome; B. D. Smith; A. C. Clark

2009-01-01

374

SFC to cease operations at Gore, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

On February 16, Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (SFC) formally notified the Nuclear Regulatory Commission it intends to terminate operations and commence decommissioning at its uranium conversion facility at Gore, Oklahoma. SFC officially requested that its NRC operating license be terminated July 31, 1993. SFC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of General Atomics Corporation (GA), will be responsible for the estimated $21.2-million decommissioning plan. GA has contended that it is not financially liable for the cleanup but stated it would be available to offer financial assistance if needed. Over the proposed 10-year cleanup schedule, GA said SFC can finance the decommissioning by drawing on SFC's estimated $70-million in revenue from a fee-for-contract agreement in its recently formed joint-venture with AlliedSignal Inc., called ConverDyn.

Not Available

1993-03-01

375

Soil moisture determination study. [Guymon, Oklahoma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil moisture data collected in conjunction with aircraft sensor and SEASAT SAR data taken near Guymon, Oklahoma are summarized. In order to minimize the effects of vegetation and roughness three bare and uniformly smooth fields were sampled 6 times at three day intervals on the flight days from August 2 through 17. Two fields remained unirrigated and dry. A similar pair of fields was irrigated at different times during the sample period. In addition, eighteen other fields were sampled on the nonflight days with no field being sampled more than 24 hours from a flight time. The aircraft sensors used included either black and white or color infrared photography, L and C band passive microwave radiometers, the 13.3, 4.75, 1.6 and .4 GHz scatterometers, the 11 channel modular microwave scanner, and the PRT5.

Blanchard, B. J.

1979-01-01

376

US hydropower resource assessment for Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose, The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Oklahoma.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

377

OKLAHOMA NATIVE AMERICAN YOUTH LANGUAGE FAIR Spoken Language Performance  

E-print Network

OKLAHOMA NATIVE AMERICAN YOUTH LANGUAGE FAIR Spoken Language Performance Category Description Students are invited to present spoken language performances in Native American languages. Traditional are welcome. Please remember the point of the ONAYLF is to demonstrate Native American language use

Oklahoma, University of

378

AN OKLAHOMA WEATHER MODIFICATION PROGRAM STATUS REPORT AND PROJECT REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent history of the Oklahoma Weather Modification Program (OWMP) is presented, the 2001 field program summarized, and the current status of the statewide rainfall stimulation and hail suppression program reported. Some suggestions for program improvement are also enumerated.

Timothy E. Sedlock; Nathan R. Kuhnert; Rebecca L. Resler; Michael E. Mathis; Bruce A. Boe; Brian Vance

379

MISR Scans the Texas-Oklahoma Border  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These MISR images of Oklahoma and north Texas were acquired on March 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 1243. The three images on the left, from top to bottom, are from the 70-degree forward viewing camera, the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and the 70-degree aftward viewing camera. The higher brightness, bluer tinge, and reduced contrast of the oblique views result primarily from scattering of sunlight in the Earth's atmosphere, though some color and brightness variations are also due to differences in surface reflection at the different angles. The longer slant path through the atmosphere at the oblique angles also accentuates the appearance of thin, high-altitude cirrus clouds.

On the right, two areas from the nadir camera image are shown in more detail, along with notations highlighting major geographic features. The south bank of the Red River marks the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. Traversing brush-covered and grassy plains, rolling hills, and prairies, the Red River and the Canadian River are important resources for farming, ranching, public drinking water, hydroelectric power, and recreation. Both originate in New Mexico and flow eastward, their waters eventually discharging into the Mississippi River.

A smoke plume to the north of the Ouachita Mountains and east of Lake Eufaula is visible in the detailed nadir imagery. The plume is also very obvious at the 70-degree forward view angle, to the right of center and about one-fourth of the way down from the top of the image.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2000-01-01

380

Transmissivity estimation for highly heterogeneous aquifers: comparison of three methods applied to the Edwards Aquifer, Texas, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining reliable hydrological input parameters is a key challenge in groundwater modeling. Although many quantitative characterization techniques exist, experience applying these techniques to highly heterogeneous real-world aquifers is limited. Three geostatistical characterization techniques are applied to the Edwards Aquifer, a limestone aquifer in south-central Texas, USA, for the purposes of quantifying the performance in an 88,000-cell groundwater model. The first method is a simple kriging of existing hydraulic conductivity data developed primarily from single-well tests. The second method involves numerical upscaling to the grid-block scale, followed by cokriging the grid-block conductivity. In the third method, the results of the second method are used to establish the prior distribution for a Bayesian updating calculation. Results of kriging alone are biased towards low values and fail to reproduce hydraulic heads or spring flows. The upscaling/cokriging approach removes most of the systematic bias. The Bayesian update reduced the mean residual by more than a factor of 10, to 6 m, approximately 2.5% of the total head variation in the aquifer. This agreement demonstrates the utility of automatic calibration techniques based on formal statistical approaches and lends further support for using the Bayesian updating approach for highly heterogeneous aquifers.

Painter, Scott L.; Woodbury, Allan D.; Jiang, Yefang

2007-03-01

381

ELECTION AGREEMENT FOR UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA OPTIONAL RETIREMENT PLAN FOR AN ELIGIBLE EMPLOYEE THIS Agreement is entered into this ____ day of _____________, 20___, between the University of Oklahoma (the "University") and  

E-print Network

ELECTION AGREEMENT FOR UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA OPTIONAL RETIREMENT PLAN FOR AN ELIGIBLE EMPLOYEE "University") and you, ________________________________, as an Eligible Employee of the University to enable of Oklahoma Optional Retirement Plan (the "Optional Plan") or the Oklahoma Teachers' Retirement System ("OTRS

Oklahoma, University of

382

Multiscale Structure and Evolution of an Oklahoma Winter Precipitation Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant winter precipitation event occurred on 8-9 March 1994 in Oklahoma. Snow accumulations greater than 30 cm (12 in.) were measured within a narrow corridor in northern Oklahoma. On the synoptic scale and mesoscale, a correspondence between large snow accumulations and 600-hPa frontogenesis was re- vealed; the precipitation was formed above the cold frontal surface, owing to midtropospheric ascent

R. Jeffrey Trapp; David M. Schultz; Alexander V. Ryzhkov; Ronald L. Holle

2001-01-01

383

Lower Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) crinoids from Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas  

E-print Network

the mid- dle Wapanucka of southern Oklahoma. N. Gary Lane (1964) in a study New Pennsylvanian crinoids from Clark County, Nevada described two spe- cies from Morrowan strata of the Callville Formation as Polusocrinus pachyplax Lane and Polusocrinus calycu... the mid- dle Wapanucka of southern Oklahoma. N. Gary Lane (1964) in a study New Pennsylvanian crinoids from Clark County, Nevada described two spe- cies from Morrowan strata of the Callville Formation as Polusocrinus pachyplax Lane and Polusocrinus calycu...

Moore, R. C.; Strimple, H. L.

1973-06-22

384

Transboundary aquifers: Southwestern states assess  

E-print Network

tx H2O | pg. 14 Southwestern states assess Researchers from three universities in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona and from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are partnering on a new project to evaluate aquifers that span the United States... and Mexico borders. The federally funded project, known as United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment, will provide a scientific foundation for state and local officials to address pressing water resources challenges in the United States...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

385

Potential ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats in Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas.  

PubMed

The ecological distribution of Cytauxzoon felis, an often-fatal tick-borne apicomplexan that infects domestic cats, has not been evaluated or identified despite its continued emergence. Infection of C. felis is characterized by lethargy, icterus, fever, anorexia, anemia, and death. The natural vertebrate reservoir of C. felis is the bobcat (Lynx rufus). To determine the possible distribution of C. felis in three states where infection is common (Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas), two separate approaches to ecological niche modeling were implemented. First, a model relating several different climatic layers to geographic locations where cases of C. felis infection were confirmed in domestic cats was developed to predict the possible distribution of the parasite. The second model incorporated occurrences of bobcats with environmental layers and land cover suitable for tick vectors to identify areas of overlap where C. felis transmission was likely. Results of both models indicated a high probability of C. felis from central Oklahoma to south-central Missouri. However, other predicted areas of C. felis occurrence varied between the two modeling approaches. Modeling the vertebrate reservoir and the tick vector predicted a broader possible distribution compared to modeling cases of C. felis infection in domestic cats. Our results suggest that C. felis is likely to extend beyond areas predicted by case modeling due to the presence of both the vector and reservoir. PMID:23131576

Mueller, Elisha K; Baum, Kristen A; Pape?, Monica; Cohn, Leah A; Cowell, Annette K; Reichard, Mason V

2013-02-18

386

77 FR 15357 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 106 under Alternative Site Framework, Oklahoma...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Whereas, the Port Authority of Greater Oklahoma City, grantee of Foreign-Trade...Lincoln, Logan, McClain, Noble, Oklahoma, Payne, Pontotoc, Pottawatomie, Seminole and Stephens Counties, Oklahoma, within and adjacent to the...

2012-03-15

387

76 FR 15290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 106-Oklahoma City, OK Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...northeast of Will Rogers World Airport, Oklahoma City; Site 12 (26 acres, sunset...Lincoln, Logan, McClain, Noble, Oklahoma, Payne, Pontotoc, Pottawatomie, Seminole and Stephens Counties, Oklahoma. If approved, the grantee...

2011-03-21

388

77 FR 50762 - Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Line of Union Pacific Railroad...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FD 35655] Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc...Railroad Company Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc. (AOK...at Brangus Road, in Pottawatomie County, Okla. AOK states...Counsel, Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc.,...

2012-08-22

389

Carbonate Chemistry and Isotope Characteristics of Groundwater of Ljubljansko Polje and Ljubljansko Barje Aquifers in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1) Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca2+values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2) northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3) central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4) Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg2+ in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years. PMID:24453928

2013-01-01

390

Carbonate chemistry and isotope characteristics of groundwater of Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1) Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca(2+)values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2) northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3) central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4) Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg(2+) in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years. PMID:24453928

Cerar, Sonja; Urbanc, Janko

2013-01-01

391

Upper Basalt-Confined Aquifer System in the Southern Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 DOE Tiger Team Finding GW/CF-202 found that the hydrogeologic regime at the Hanford Site was inadequately characterized. This finding also identified the need for completing a study of the confined aquifer in the central and southern portions of the Hanford Site. The southern portion of the site is of particular interest because hydraulic-head patterns in the upper basalt-confined aquifer system indicate that groundwater from the Hanford central plateau area, where contaminants have been found in the aquifer, flows southeast toward the southern site boundary. This results in a potential for offsite migration of contaminants through the upper basalt-confined aquifer system. Based on the review presented in this report, available hydrogeologic characterization information for the upper basalt-confined aquifer system in this area is considered adequate to close the action item. Recently drilled offsite wells have provided additional information on the structure of the aquifer system in and near the southern part of the Hanford Site. Information on hydraulic properties, hydrochemistry, hydraulic heads and flow directions for the upper basalt-confined aquifer system has been re-examined and compiled in recent reports including Spane and Raymond (1993), Spane and Vermeul ( 1994), and Spane and Webber (1995).

Thorne, P.

1999-01-04

392

Last Glacial Maximum Development of Parna Dunes in Panhandle Oklahoma, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though dunefields are a ubiquitous feature of the North American Great Plains, those studied to date have consisted primarily of sand grains. In Beaver County of the Oklahoma panhandle, however, upland dune forms consist of sand-sized aggregates of silt and clay. These aptly named parna dunes occur in two swarms, range in height from 10-15 m, and have asymmetrical dome morphologies with approximate north-south dune orientations. Despite their morphological similarities to sand dunes of the region, their origin and evolution is unknown. Documenting parna dune formation in the Oklahoma panhandle will help improve our understanding of prehistoric landscape instability and climate change, particularly in the central Great Plains where such records are limited. Panhandle parna dunes are typified by Blue Mound, our best documented parna dune thus far. Coring has documented a basal paleosol buried at a depth equivalent to the surrounding landscape—14C ages from this soil indicate its formation about 25-21 ka. The paleosol is a hydric Mollisol with a pronounced C3 isotopic signature reflecting hydric plant communities, rather than the regionally dominated C4 prairie vegetation. Hydric soils are associated with many of the playas on the surrounding landscape today, which suggests that they may have been more prevalent during the LGM. The overlying 8-10 m of parna is low in organic C and high in calcite, with indications of up to ten major episodes of sediment flux, which are documented with magnetic, isotope, soil-stratigraphic, particle-size, and color data. Near-surface luminescence (OSL) ages from Blue Mound are similar to the 14C ages from the basal paleosol, indicating rapid dune construction, with little or no Holocene accumulation of sediment. Marine isotope stage (MIS) 3 loess records indicate that upland areas of the region were relatively stable with attendant widespread pedogenesis prior to development of the parna dunes. At the onset of the LGM, however, the landscape destabilized, and aeolian processes dominated. Peoria Loess began accumulating throughout parts of Oklahoma and much of Kansas, Nebraska, and beyond, until landscape stabilization was re-attained about 14-13 ka. Our chronological and geomorphic data suggest that parna dune construction in the Oklahoma panhandle was the result of strong, northerly winds, which precipitated aeolian activity at the beginning of MIS 2. Furthermore, these features appear to be more analogous to the regional loess record than the sand dune activation record, and, with more research, may prove to be a reliable record of late-Quaternary landscape change in the central Great Plains.

Johnson, W. C.; Halfen, A. F.; McGowen, S.; Carter, B.; Fine, S.; Bement, L. C.; Simms, A. R.

2012-12-01