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1

Three-dimensional geologic model of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma encompasses more than 850 square kilometers and is the principal water resource for south-central Oklahoma. Rock units comprising the aquifer are characterized by limestone, dolomite, and sandstones assigned to two lower Paleozoic units: the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups. Also considered to be part of the aquifer is the underlying Cambrian-age Timbered Hills Group that contains limestone and sandstone. The highly faulted and fractured nature of the Arbuckle-Simpson units and the variable thickness (600 to 2,750 meters) increases the complexity in determining the subsurface geologic framework of this aquifer. A three-dimensional EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model was constructed to quantify the geometric relationships of the rock units of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Hunton anticline area. This 3-D EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model incorporates 54 faults and four modeled units: basement, Arbuckle-Timbered Hills Group, Simpson Group, and post-Simpson. Primary data used to define the model's 54 faults and four modeled surfaces were obtained from geophysical logs, cores, and cuttings from 126 water and petroleum wells. The 3-D framework model both depicts the volumetric extent of the aquifer and provides the stratigraphic layer thickness and elevation data used to construct a MODFLOW version 2000 regional groundwater-flow model.

Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pantea, Michael P.; Puckette, James O.; Halihan, Todd; Osborn, Noel; Christenson, Scott; Pack, Skip

2010-01-01

2

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important source of water that underlies about 2,320-square miles of parts of Osage, Pawnee, Payne, Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, and Seminole Counties. Approximately 75 percent of the water withdrawn from the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is for municipal use. Rural domestic use and water for stock animals account for most of the remaining water withdrawn. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is defined in a ground-water report as consisting principally of the rocks of the Late Pennsylvanian-age Vamoosa Formation and overlying Ada Group. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer consists of a complex sequence of fine- to very fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and conglomerate interbedded with very thin limestones. The water-yielding capabilities of the aquifer are generally controlled by lateral and vertical distribution of the sandstone beds and their physical characteristics. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is unconfined where it outcrops in about an 1,700-square-mile area. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were extracted from published digital surficial geology data sets based on a scale of 1:250,000, and represent geologic contacts. Some of lines in the data sets were interpolated in areas where the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits near streams and rivers. These data sets include only the outcrop area of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer and where the aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits. The hydraulic conductivity value and recharge rate are from a ground-water report about the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer. The water-level elevation contours were digitized from a mylar map, at a scale of 1:250,000, used to publish a plate in a ground-water report about the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer. The water-level elevation contours in this data set extend west of the aquifer outcrop area to areas where Vanoss Group rocks overlie the Ada Group. The data set also includes a water-level elevation contour for a terrace deposit east of the aquifer outcrop near the North Canadian River.

Abbott, Marvin M.; Runkle, D. L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

3

Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7 do not include long- and short-normal resistivity, spontaneous-potential, or single-point resistivity. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7A include only caliper and natural-gamma logs.

Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

1991-01-01

4

Comparison of ground-water quality in samples from selected shallow and deep wells in the central Oklahoma aquifer, 2003-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquifer units of the Central Oklahoma aquifer underlie about 2,890 square miles of central Oklahoma and are used extensively to supply water for municipal, domestic, industrial, and agricultural needs. The Central Oklahoma aquifer also is commonly referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer because the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation yield the greatest quantities of usable water for domestic and high-capacity wells. The major water-quality concerns for the Central Oklahoma aquifer described by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program (1987 to 1992) were elevated concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in shallow water and the occurrence of arsenic, chromium, and selenium in parts of the aquifer. The quality of water from deep public-water supply wells in the Central Oklahoma aquifer is monitored by the State of Oklahoma. The chemical quality of water from shallow domestic wells is not monitored, and, therefore, there is a concern that well owners may be unknowingly ingesting water with nitrate nitrogen, arsenic, chromium, selenium, and other chemical constituents at concentrations that are considered harmful. As a result of this concern, the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborated on a study to sample water during June 2003 through August 2005 from 23 shallow wells (less than 200 feet in depth) and 28 deep wells (200 feet or greater in depth) completed in the bedrock aquifer units of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. The objectives of the study were to describe the chemical quality of water from shallow and deep wells and to determine if the differences in constituent concentrations are statistically significant. Water from shallow wells had significantly higher concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, and nitrate nitrogen than water from deep wells. There were no significant differences between concentrations of dissolved solids, sodium, and fluoride in water from shallow and deep wells. Water from 9 shallow wells had nitrate nitrogen concentrations greater than 2 milligrams per liter, suggesting nitrogen sources at land surface have had an effect on water from these wells. Water from three shallow wells (13 percent) exceeded the nitrate nitrogen maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in drinking water. Water from shallow wells had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic, chromium, iron, and selenium than water from deep wells, whereas, concentrations of barium, copper, manganese, and zinc were similar. Water-quality data indicate that arsenic frequently occurs in shallow ground water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer, but at low concentrations (<10 micrograms per liter). The occurrence of chromium and selenium in water from shallow wells was infrequent and at low concentrations in this study. It does not appear that the quality of water from a shallow well can be predicted based on the quality of water from a nearby deep well. The results show that in general terms, shallow ground water has significantly higher concentrations of most major ions and significantly lower concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and selenium than water from deep wells.

Carol J. Becker

2006-01-01

5

SUBSURFACE WELL-LOG CORRELATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

The fluvial Garber Sandstone and the underlying Wellington Formation are important sources of drinking water in central Oklahoma. These formations, which make up much of the COA, consist of amalgamated sandstones with some interbedded mudstones, siltstones, and local mudstone- a...

6

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma. Ground water in 710 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer, composed of alluvial and terrace deposits, consists of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The aquifer is underlain and in hydraulic connection with the upper zone of the Permian-age Garber-Wellington aquifer and the Pennsylvanian-age Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. Most of the lines in the four digital data sets were digitized from a published ground-water modeling report but portions of the aquifer boundary data set was extracted from published digital geologic data sets. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G. P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Becker, C. J.

1997-01-01

7

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser in Central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser in central Oklahoma. Ground water in approximately 400 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace aquifer is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer consists of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. Sand-sized sediments dominate the poorly sorted, fine to coarse, unconsolidated quartz grains in the aquifer. The hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits unconformably overlie Permian-age formations. The aquifer is overlain by a layer of wind-blown sand in parts of the area. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were extracted from published digital surficial geology data sets based on a scale of 1:250,000. The ground-water elevation contours and some of the lines for the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were digitized from a ground-water modeling report about the aquifer published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values and recharge rates also are from the ground-water modeling report. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G. P.; Rea, Alan; Runkle, D. L.

1997-01-01

8

Digital geologic map of Oklahoma City Quadrangle, central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital data and accompanying documentation of the surficial geology of the 1:250,000-scale Oklahoma City quadrangle, Oklahoma. The original data are from the Geologic Map, sheet 1 of 4, included in the Oklahoma Geological Survey publication, 'Reconnaissance of the water resources of the Oklahoma City quadrangle, central Oklahoma', Hydrologic Atlas 4, Bingham and Moore, 1975. The geology was compiled by R.H. Bingham and R.O. Fay, in 1973.

Cederstrand, J. R.

1997-01-01

9

OUTCROP-BASED HIGH RESOLUTION GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA). CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

The COA supplies drinking water to a number of municipalities in central Oklahoma. Two major stratigraphic units in the COA, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, contain naturally occurring arsenic that exceeds government mandated drinking-water standards (EPA, 2001). ...

10

Geohydrology of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer east-central Oklahoma with a section on chemical quality of water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer, which underlies an area of about 2,320 mi2, consists principally of the Vamoosa Formation and the overlying Ada Group of Pennsylvanian age. Rocks comprising the aquifer were deposited in a nearshore environment ranging from marine on the west to nonmarine on the east. Because of changes in depositional environments with time and from place to place, the aquifer is a complex sequence of fine- to very fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and conglomerate, with interbedded very thin limestone. The aggregate thickness of water-bearing sandstones is greatest south of the Cimarron River, where it reaches a maximum of 550 ft in the vicinity of Seminole. North of the Cimarron River, the average aggregate thickness of the sandstones is about 100 ft, but locally it may be as much as 200 ft. Transmissivity values derived from seven aquifer tests made for this study range from 70 to 490 ft2 per day; values decrease from south to north with decreasing sandstone thickness. Hydraulic-conductivity values range from 2 to 4 ft per day. Storage coefficients for the confined part of the aquifer, as determined from four aquifer tests made during 1944, have an average value of 0.0002. The average storage coefficient for the unconfined part of the aquifer is estimated at 0.12, based on an analysis of geophysical logs and grain-size data. The specific capacity of wells tested is generally less than 1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown. An approximate hydrologic budget for the aquifer for 1975 gives values, in acre-feet per year, of 93,000 for recharge, 233,000 for runoff, and 2,003,000 for evapotranspiration. The total of these values is almost equal to the average annual precipitation of 2,330,000 acre-ft per year. The estimated amount of water containing a maximum of 1,500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids stored in the aquifer is estimated at 60 million acre-ft. Of this amount, an estimated 36 million acre-ft is available for use. The quality of water in the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer generally is suitable for municipal, domestic, and stock use. Of 55 water samples analyzed in the laboratory, about 75 percent were of the sodium bicarbonate or sodium calcium bicarbonate type; the remainder were of the sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, sodium chloride, or indeterminate types. Laboratory and on-site chemical-quality data indicate that mineralization of both ground and surface waters is greater than normal in some areas. Water samples from 7 wells and 12 stream sites had concentrations of bromide exceeding 1 milligram per liter; the only known source of bromide in the area is brine associated with petroleum production.

D'Lugosz, Joseph J.; McClaflin, Roger G.; Marcher, Melvin V.

1986-01-01

11

Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountains area, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rocks that make up the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer crop out over ~500 mi2 in the Arbuckle Mountains province in south-central Oklahoma. The aquifer consists of limestone, dolomite, and sandstone of the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups of Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and is about 5,000-9,000 ft thick. The rocks were subjected to intensive folding and faulting associated with major uplift of the area during Early to Late Pennsylvanian time.

Fairchild, Roy W.; Hanson, Ronald L.; Davis, Robert E.

1990-01-01

12

Water Flow in the High Plains Aquifer in Northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains is a major agricultural area, supported primarily by water from the High Plains aquifer, which is used to irrigate wheat and corn and to raise cattle and swine. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) began a study of the High Plains aquifer in 1996. One purpose of the study was to develop a ground-water flow model that the OWRB could use to allocate the amount of water withdrawn from the a aquifer. The study area in Oklahoma covers all or parts of Beaver, Cimarron, Dewey, Ellis, Harper, Texas, and Woodward Counties. To provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the ground-water flow model, the study area was expanded to include parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas.

Luckey, Richard R.; Osborn, Noel I.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.

2000-01-01

13

Groundwater quality and water-well characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 1948--2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties in central Oklahoma to support the development of a comprehensive water-management plan for the Tribe’s jurisdictional area. In this study, water-quality data from 155 water wells, collected from 1948 to 2011, were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database; these data include measurements of pH, specific conductance, and hardness and concentrations of the major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides that have Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in public drinking-water supplies. Information about well characteristics includes ranges of well yield and well depth of private water wells in the study area and was compiled from the Oklahoma Water Resources Board Multi-Purpose Well Completion Report database. This report also shows depth to water from land surface by using shaded 30-foot contours that were created by using a geographic information system and spatial layers of a 2009 potentiometric surface (groundwater elevation) and land-surface elevation. Wells in the study area produce water from the North Canadian River alluvial and terrace aquifers, the underlying Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that compose the Garber–Wellington aquifer, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. Water quality varies substantially between the alluvial and terrace aquifers and bedrock aquifers in the study area. Water from the alluvial aquifer has relatively high concentrations of dissolved solids and generally is used for livestock only, whereas water from the terrace aquifer has low concentrations of dissolved solids and is used extensively by households in the study area. Water from the bedrock aquifer also is used extensively by households but may have high concentrations of trace elements, including uranium, in some areas where groundwater pH is above 8.0. Well yields vary and are dependent on aquifer characteristics and well-completion practices. Well yields in the unconsolidated alluvial and terrace aquifers generally are higher than yields from bedrock aquifers but are limited by the thickness and extent of these river deposits. Well yields in the alluvium and terrace aquifers commonly range from 50 to 150 gallons per minute and may exceed 300 gallons per minute, whereas well yields in the bedrock aquifers commonly range from 25 to 50 gallons per minute in the western one-third of study area (Oklahoma County) and generally less than 25 gallons per minute in the eastern two-thirds of the study area (Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties).

Becker, Carol J.

2013-01-01

14

A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation''. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites''.

Brown, R.M.

1991-06-01

15

A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, ``One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation``. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the ``Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites``.

Brown, R.M.

1991-06-01

16

Analysis of regional aquifers in the central Midwest of the United States in Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming :summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large quantities of ground water are available for use from three regional aquifer systems in the central Midwest of the United States. Parts of the lowermost aquifer contain nearly immobile brine and may be hydrologically suitable for material storage or waste disposal. Results of numerical modeling and geochemical analyses confirm general concepts of ground-water flow in the regional aquifer systems.

Jorgensen, Donald G.; Helgesen, J. O.; Signor, D. C.; Leonard, R. B.; Imes, J. L.; Christenson, S. C.

1996-01-01

17

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace aquifer covers approximately 82 square miles and supplies water for irrigation, domestic, municipal, and industrial use for the City of Enid and western Garfield County. The Quaternary-age Enid isolated terrace aquifer is composed of terrace deposits that consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer is unconfined and is bounded by the underlying Permian-age Hennessey Group on the east and the Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation of the Permian-age El Reno Group on the west. The Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation fills a channel beneath the thickest section of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in the midwestern part of the aquifer. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:62,500. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C. J. Runkle, D. L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

18

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City Aquifer in western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000 acres and supplies ground water for irrigation, domestic, and industrial purposes in Beckham, Custer, Roger Mills, and Washita Counties along the divide between the Washita and Red River basins. The Elk City aquifer consists of the Elk City Sandstone and overlying terrace deposits, made up of clay, silt, sand and gravel, and dune sands in the eastern part and sand and gravel of the Ogallala Formation (or High Plains aquifer) in the western part of the aquifer. The Elk City aquifer is unconfined and composed of very friable sandstone, lightly cemented with clay, calcite, gypsum, or iron oxide. Most of the grains are fine-sized quartz but the grain size ranges from clay to cobble in the aquifer. The Doxey Shale underlies the Elk City aquifer and acts as a confining unit, restricting the downward movement of ground water. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Elk City aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:63,360. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C. J.; Runkle, D. L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

19

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains Aquifer in western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver, and the western counties of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills. The High Plains aquifer underlies approximately 7,000 square miles of Oklahoma and is used extensively for irrigation. The High Plains aquifer is a water-table aquifer and consists predominately of the Tertiary-age Ogallala Formation and overlying Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits. In some areas the aquifer is absent and the underlying Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous-age rocks are exposed at the surface. These rocks are hydraulically connected with the aquifer in some areas. The High Plains aquifer is composed of interbedded sand, siltstone, clay, gravel, thin limestones, and caliche. The proportion of various lithological materials changes rapidly from place to place, but poorly sorted sand and gravel predominate. The rocks are poorly to moderately well cemented by calcium carbonate. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were created by extracting geologic contact lines from published digital surficial geology maps based on a scale of 1:125,000 for the panhandle counties and 1:250,000 for the western counties. The water-level elevation contours and some boundary lines were digitized from maps in a published water-level elevation map for 1980 based on a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity and recharge values in this report were used as input to the ground-water flow model on the High Plains aquifer. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C. J.; Runkle, D. L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

20

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Rush Springs Aquifer in western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Rush Spring aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Blaine, Caddo, Canadian, Comanche, Custer, Dewey, Grady, Stephens, and Washita Counties. These digital data sets were developed by Mark F. Becker to use as input into a computer model that simulated ground-water flow in the Rush Springs aquifer (Mark F. Becker, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1997). For the purposes of modeling the ground-water flow in the Rush Springs aquifer, Mark F. Becker (written commun., 1997) defined the Rush Springs aquifer to include the Rush Springs Formation, alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, and parts of the Marlow Formations, particularly in the eastern part of the aquifer boundary area. The Permian-age Rush Springs Formation consists of highly cross-bedded sandstone with some interbedded dolomite and gypsum. The Rush Springs Formation is overlain by Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits that consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Rush Springs Formation is underlain by the Permian-age Marlow Formation that consists of interbedded sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, gypsum-anhydrite, and dolomite beds (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). The parts of the Marlow Formation that have high permeability and porosity are where the Marlow Formation is included as part of the Rush Springs aquifer. The Rush Springs aquifer underlies about 2,400 square miles of western Oklahoma and is an important source of water for irrigation, livestock, industrial, municipal, and domestic use. Irrigation wells are reported to have well yields greater than 1,000 gallons per minute (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). Mark F. Becker created some of the aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets by digitizing parts of previously published surficial geology maps. The hydraulic conductivity and recharge values are the input data to the ground-water flow model (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). The water-level elevation data set was prepared at a scale of 1:250,000 by Mark F. Becker (written commun., 1997) from water levels measured in wells prior to the year 1950. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Runkle, D. L.; Becker, M. F.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

21

Numerical simulation of the alluvium and terrace aquifer along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser, central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age, which cover an area of about 400 square miles along the North Canadian River between Canton Lake and Lake Overholser, locally yield as much as 500 gallons per minute to wells. The deposits are as much as 100 feet thick and consist of clay, silt, sand, and gravel, with sand-sized material dominating. The underlying bedrock is Permian sandstone and shale. The amount of water stored in the aquifer during 1980 was estimated to be 4.00 x 1010 cubic feet. A digital model was used to estimate the ability of the aquifer to continue to supply water for irrigation, industry, and domestic use. A block-centered, finite-difference model with 1 mile node spacing was used to project the amount and distribution of water in the aquifer in the future. The model was calibrated using the aquifer discharge to the North Canadian River and the difference between computed and measured heads. The model was calibrated using recharge rate of 1 inch per year, a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 4.5 x 10 -4 feet per second and a specific yield of 0.16. Model simulations using the 1979 pumping rate, a projected pumping rate (based on expected increases in water use), and double the projected increase in pumping rate were made to 1993. With the 1979 pumping rate, the volume of water in storage in 1993 is 3.88 x 10 10 cubic feet and ground-water discharge to the North Canadian River is 10.9 cubic feet per second. With the projected pumping increase, the volume of water in storage is 3.81 x 1010 cubic feet and ground-water discharge to the stream is 6.91 cubic feet per second. At double the projected increase in pumping rate, the volume of water in storage is 3.74 x 1010 cubic feet and the ground-water discharge is 2.93 cubic feet per second.

Christenson, S. C.

1983-01-01

22

Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

Cederstrand, J. R.; Becker, M. F.

1998-01-01

23

Simulating the impacts of groundwater pumping on stream–aquifer dynamics in semiarid northwestern Oklahoma, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater flow model, was used to evaluate the impacts of groundwater exploitation on streamflow\\u000a depletion in the Alluvium and Terrace aquifer of the Beaver-North Canadian River (BNCR) in northwestern Oklahoma, USA. Water\\u000a demand in semi-arid northwestern Oklahoma is projected to increase by 53% during the next five decades, driven primarily by\\u000a irrigation, public water supply, and

Joseph Zume; Aondover Tarhule

2008-01-01

24

A preliminary appraisal of the Garber-Wellington Aquifer, southern Logan and northern Oklahoma counties, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Garber-Wellington aquifer, which dips westward at 30 to 40 feet per mile, consists of about 900 feet of interbedded sandstone, shale, and siltstone. Sandstone comprises 35 to 75 percent of the aquifer and averages about 50 percent. Water-table conditions generally exist in the upper 200 feet in the outcrop area of the aquifer; semi-artesian or artesian conditions exist below a depth of 200 feet and beneath rocks of the Hennessey Group (predominantly shale) where the aquifer is fully saturated. Water containing more than 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids occurs at various depths through the area. The altitude of the base of fresh water ranges from 250 feet above sea level in the south-central part of the area to 950 feet in the northwestern part. The thickness of the fresh-water zone ranges from less than 150 feet in the northern part of the area to about 850 feet in the southern part. The total amount of water stored in the fresh-water zone is estimated to be 21 million acre-feet based on specific yield of 0.20. Minimum recharge to the aquifer in 1975 is estimated to be 190 acre-feet per square mile or about 10 percent of the annual precipitation. Total minimum recharge to the aquifer in the study area in 1975 is estimated to be 129,000 acre-feet. Streams in the area are the principal means of ground-water discharge; the amount of discharge is essentially the same as recharge. The amount of groundwater used for municipal and rural water supply in 1975 is estimated to have been 5,000 acre-feet; a similar amount may have been used for industrial purposes. As a result of pumping, the potentiometric surface in 1975 had been lowered about 200 feet in the vicinity of Edmond and about 100 feet in the vicinity of Nichols Hills. Chemical analyses of water from the aquifer indicates that hardness is greater in the upper part of the aquifer than in the lower part, and that sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids increase with depth. Reported yields of wells more than 250 feet deep range from 70 to 475 gallons per minute and average 240 gallons per minute. Potential well yields range from 225 gallons per minute when the fresh-water zone is 350 feet thick to about 550 gallons per minute where the fresh water zone is 850 feet thick. These estimates of potential yield are based on an available drawdown of half the thickness of the fresh-water zone and a specific capacity of 1.3 gallons per minute per foot. Intrusion of saline water into the fresh-water zone is a potential threat to water quality in the aquifer if the pressure head in the fresh-water zone is reduced sufficiently to allow upconing of saline water. One way to avoid the problem of upconing is by steady pumping at low rates from widely spaced wells; however, information required to determine pumping rates and well spacing is not available. For proper aquifer management the distribution of wells and rates of withdrawals should be designed to capture maximum recharge to the ground-water system. This may be accomplished by developing regional ground-water gradients that are sufficiently large to move water to pumpage centers but not so steep as to cause upconing of saline water or excessive water-level declines.

Carr, Jerry E.; Marcher, Melvin V.

1977-01-01

25

Generalized altitude and configuration of the base of the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This report consists of two maps showing the altitude and configuration of the eroded pre-Ogallala bedrock surface (sheets 1 and 2) that forms the base of the aquifer. Bedrock slopes generally from west to east and is composed of rocks of Permian, Triassic-Jurassic, and Cretaceous age. The subcrop extent of these rocks is shown by Morton (1973) for Oklahoma and by Weeks and Gutentag (1981) for the entire High Plains study area. Altitudes of the aquifer base were determined from drillers' logs provided by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and from published and unpublished information in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. Where data were sparse, the total well depth was used as the aquifer base under the assumption that wells generally are not drilled very deep into non-water yielding bedrock.

Havens, John S.

1981-01-01

26

Altitude and configuration of the 1980 water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties (sheet 1), and for the Panhandle area, consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties (sheet 2). Water levels were measured in January, February, and March 1980 by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board.

Havens, John S.

1982-01-01

27

Effects of municipal ground-water withdrawals on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma consists of a thick sequence of folded and faulted carbonate and clastic rocks of Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age. Fractures and karst features locally increase the aquifer's capacity to transmit and store ground water. The aquifer is a principal source of water for municipal and rural users. A hydrologic study was conducted to evaluate the effects of municipal ground-water withdrawal from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer on local ground-water levels and discharge from nearby springs and streams in south-central Pontotoc County. A municipal well was pumped for 63 hours at an average rate of 1,170 gallons per minute. A maximum observed drawdown of 0.3 feet was recorded half a mile from the pumping well. Drawdown was observed as far as 1.2 miles from the pumping well. No measurable response was observed at any of the surface-water-discharge measurement sites; however, recharge from precipitation may have masked any decreases in discharge caused by the pumping. Simultaneous pumping of two municipal wells for 241 hours at average rates of 1,170 and 2,730 gallons per minute resulted in a maximum observed drawdown of 1.3 feet recorded at an average distance of 0.80 miles from the pumping wells. The most distant drawdown observed was at an average distance 1.1 miles from the pumped wells. Less that 2 days after pumping stopped, increases in springflow were recorded at two springs; it is unknown whether these discharge responses reflect the effects of recharge from precipitation, or the combined effects of precipitation and the cessation of ground-water withdrawal. The effects of the stress tests on the hydrologic system were offset by recharge from concurrent precipitation. The maximum observed drawdown represents about 6 percent of the median natural water-level fluctuation during the study period. The effect of drawdown could become critical during extended periods of low precipitation, if water levels are already near the bottom of domestic wells in the area. However, a comparison of maximum observed drawdown (1.3 ft) with the minimum saturated thickness of fresh ground water (1,500 ft) suggests that municipal pumping had little effect on the amount of ground water stored in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the study area. This evaluation is based on the limited pumping rates and times of the stress tests.

Savoca, M. E.; Bergman, D. L.

1994-01-01

28

CHARACTERIZATION OF SUBSURFACE BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH TWO SHALLOW AQUIFERS IN OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

The bacterial microflora of two shallow aquifers in Oklahoma was characterized by direct observation with light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM), by plating, and by examination of colony morphology and distribution. Total cell counts varied only slightly from sample to sample, w...

29

Geophysical Investigation of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, Oklahoma, to Determine the Influence of Subsurface Structure on Groundwater Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate an area of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in southern Oklahoma by employing near-surface geophysical surveying. This predominantly carbonate aquifer encompasses the Simpson, Arbuckle, and Timbered Hills Groups, which range in age from Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician. The aquifer serves as a principle water source for the surrounding area and feeds several major springs and creeks, including Pennington Creek,

E. Lewallen; K. Ramachandran; B. Tapp

2007-01-01

30

Aquifer Tests and Characterization of Transmissivity, Ada-Vamoosa Aquifer on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of northeastern Oklahoma is a sedimentary bedrock aquifer of Pennsylvanian age that crops out over 800 square miles of the Osage Reservation. The Osage Nation needed additional information regarding the production potential of the aquifer to aid them in future development planning. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Osage Nation, conducted a study of aquifer properties in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. This report presents the results of the aquifer tests from 20 wells in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer and one well in a minor aquifer east of the Ada-Vamoosa outcrop on the Osage Reservation. Well information for 17 of the 21 wells in this report was obtained from the Indian Health Service. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during this investigation are pumping well data from four domestic wells collected during the summer of 2006. Transmissivity values were calculated from well pumping data or were estimated from specific capacity values depending on the reliability of the data. The estimated transmissivity values are 1.1 to 4.3 times greater than the calculated transmissivity values. The calculated and estimated transmissivity values range from 5 to 1,000 feet squared per day.

Abbott, Marvin M.; DeHay, Kelli

2008-01-01

31

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace aquifer encompasses the unconsolidated terrace deposits and alluvium associated with the North Fork of the Red River and the Red River in the western half of Tillman County. These sediments consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer extends over an area of 285 square miles and is used for irrigation and domestic purposes. Granite and the Hennessey Formation outcrop in northern parts of the aquifer where alluvial deposits are absent. These outcrops were included as part of the aquifer in a thesis that modeled the ground-water flow in the aquifer. Most of the aquifer boundaries and some of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity and recharge data sets were extracted from a published digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of 1:250,000. Most of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and 1969 water-level elevation contour data sets, and one line in the aquifer boundary data set were digitized from a paper map published at a scale of 1:249,695 in a thesis in which the ground-water flow in the aquifer was modeled. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C. J.; Runkle, D. L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

32

Oklahoma City - Central State University Cooperative Program in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oklahoma City-Central State University Cooperative Program in Teacher Education is designed to provide student teachers preparing for middle school careers with a more realistic opportunity to integrate educational theories of learning and behavior with day-to-day public school experiences. A maximum of 25 students spend a full semester in an…

Central State Univ., Edmond, OK. Coll. of Education.

33

Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Hunton anticline, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a digital data release for multiple geophysical surveys conducted in the Hunton anticline area of south-central Oklahoma. The helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys were flown on March 16–17, 2007, in four areas of the Hunton anticline in south-central Oklahoma. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The electromagnetic sensor for the helicopter electromagnetic survey consisted of six different transmitter-receiver orientations that measured the earth's electrical response at six distinct frequencies from approximately 500 Hertz to approximately 115,000 Hertz. The electromagnetic measurements were converted to electrical resistivity values, which were gridded and plotted on georeferenced maps. The map from each frequency represents a different depth of investigation for each area. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow groundwater. The four areas selected for the helicopter electromagnetic study, blocks A–D, have different geologic and hydrologic settings. Geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by modelers and resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer.

Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Blome, Charles D.; Hill, Patricia

2011-01-01

34

Simulating the impacts of groundwater pumping on stream aquifer dynamics in semiarid northwestern Oklahoma, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater flow model, was used to evaluate the impacts of groundwater exploitation on streamflow depletion in the Alluvium and Terrace aquifer of the Beaver-North Canadian River (BNCR) in northwestern Oklahoma, USA. Water demand in semi-arid northwestern Oklahoma is projected to increase by 53% during the next five decades, driven primarily by irrigation, public water supply, and agricultural demand. Using MODFLOW’s streamflow routing package, pumping-induced changes in baseflow and stream leakage were analyzed to estimate streamflow depletion in the BNCR system. Simulation results indicate groundwater pumping has reduced baseflow to streams by approximately 29% and has also increased stream leakage into the aquifer by 18% for a net streamflow loss of 47%. The magnitude and intensity of streamflow depletion, however, varies for different stream segments, ranging from 0 to 20,804 m3/d. The method provides a framework for isolating and quantifying impacts of aquifer pumping on stream function in semiarid alluvial environments.

Zume, Joseph; Tarhule, Aondover

2008-06-01

35

Variable seismic response to fluid injection in central Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismicity in Oklahoma since 2009 has been concentrated in the central portion of the state, in the areas of Jones, Prague, and Luther. These three regions account for ~75% of earthquakes in the 2009-2013 Oklahoma Geological Survey catalog. A swarm in the Jones region began in late 2008, with a maximum magnitude of 4.0, and activity continuing to the present. After relocation, the initially diffuse earthquakes in the Jones swarm delineate multiple subparallel faults. The Wilzetta fault zone ruptured in the Prague region in 2010 and again in 2011, with magnitudes up to Mw5.7, and the Luther region experienced two earthquakes of M4.4 and M4.2, with related aftershocks, in 2013. The earthquakes near Prague have previously been linked to wastewater disposal; here we show that the earthquakes near Jones and Luther may also be induced by deep disposal based on the upsurge in seismicity in central Oklahoma coupled with local relationships to pumping and reservoir structure. The timing of each sequence with respect to injection and the distribution of seismic activity differs, highlighting the variability in seismic response to fluid injection related to local permeability structure.

Keranen, K. M.; Hogan, C.; Savage, H. M.; Abers, G. A.; van der Elst, N.

2013-12-01

36

Altitude and configuration of the predevelopment water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area (sheet 1) and for the Panhandle area (sheet 2). In the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, water levels measured from the 1950's to the 1970's represent predevelopment conditions and were obtained from published and unpublished data in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the Panhandle, predevelopment contours were based on measurements made from 1937 to 1940. Some water levels in Beaver County were measured as late as 1959 in areas where significant development had not occurred previously.

Havens, John S.

1982-01-01

37

Hydrogeology, water quality, and geochemistry of the Rush Springs aquifer, western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Rush Springs aquifer, in western Oklahoma, is equivalent to the Permian-age Rush Springs Formation. It is composed of very fine-grained to fine-grained sandstone that is massive to highly cross-bedded and is underlain by less-permeable Marlow Formation. Reported irrigation well yields exceed 1,000 gallons per minute; yields reported on 89 drillers' logs ranged from 11 to 850 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 670 to 1,870 feet squared per day. Specific yields for core samples range from 0.13 to 0.34. Estimates of hydraulic conductivities at one site ranged from 1.05 to 5.62 feet per day. The Rush Springs aquifer is recharged by infiltration of precipitation, ranging from 0.2 to more than 2 inches per year. Discharge is primarily to streams and rivers where the Rush Springs aquifer crops. Estimated total withdrawal was 54.7 million gallons per day in 1990. Over 42 million gallons per day, or 77.8 percent of water withdrawn, was used for irrigation of crops. Thirty-five of the 64 wells sampled produced nitrate concentration that equaled or exceeded drinking water standards. Sulfate concentration also exceeds the drinking water standards in some areas. Two major water types occur in the aquifer, a calcium-magnesium bicarbonate type and a calcium sulfate type. Dissolved solids concentrations in water samples from the aquifer ranged from 52 to 1,840 milligrams per liter. The chemical composition of ground water in the Rush Springs aquifer is the result of chemical reactions between the recharge waters and minerals in the overlying soils and rocks in the Rush Springs and Marlow Formations. Saturation indices of minerals were calculated for 64 water-quality analyses using the geochemical computer model WATEQF. Mass transfer rates were calculated using the mass-balance model NETPATH.

Becker, M. F.; Runkle, D. L.

1998-01-01

38

Aquifer characteristics, water availability, and water quality of the Quaternary aquifer, Osage County, northeastern Oklahoma, 2001-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Additional sources of water are needed on the Osage Reservation for future growth and development. The Quaternary aquifer along the Arkansas River in the Osage Reservation may represent a substantial water resource, but limited amounts of hydrogeologic data were available for the aquifer. The study area is about 116 square miles of the Quaternary aquifer in the Arkansas River valley and the nearby upland areas along the Osage Reservation. The study area included the Arkansas River reach downstream from Kaw Lake near Ponca City, Oklahoma to upstream from Keystone Lake near Cleveland, Oklahoma. Electrical conductivity logs were produced for 103 test holes. Water levels were determined for 49 test holes, and 105 water samples were collected for water-quality field analyses at 46 test holes. Water-quality data included field measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen). Sediment cores were extracted from 20 of the 103 test holes. The Quaternary aquifer consists of alluvial and terrace deposits of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The measured thickness of the alluvium ranged from 13.7 to 49.8 feet. The measured thickness of the terrace sediments ranged from 7 to 93.8 feet. The saturated thickness of all sediments ranged from 0 to 38.2 feet with a median of 24.8 feet. The weighted-mean grain size for cores from the alluvium ranged from 3.69 to 0.64 f, (0.08- 0.64 millimeter), and ranged from 4.02 to 2.01 f (0.06-0.25 millimeter) for the cores from terrace deposits. The mean of the weighted-mean grain sizes for cores from the alluvium was 1.67 f (0.31 millimeter), and the terrace deposits was 2.73 f (0.15 millimeter). The hydraulic conductivity calculated from grain size of the alluvium ranged from 2.9 to 6,000 feet per day and of the terrace deposits ranged from 2.9 to 430 feet per day. The calculated transmissivity of the alluvium ranged from 2,000 to 26,000 feet squared per day with a median of 5,100 feet squared per day. Water in storage in the alluvium was estimated to be approximately 200,000 acre-feet. The amount of water annually recharging the aquifer was estimated to be approximately 4,800 acre-feet. Specific conductance for all water samples ranged from 161 to 6,650 microsiemens per centimeter. Median specific conductance for the alluvium was 683 microsiemens per centimeter and for the terrace deposits was 263 microsiemens per centimeter. Dissolved-solids concentrations, estimated from specific conductance, for water samples from the aquifer ranged from 88 to 3,658 milligrams per liter. Estimated median dissolved- solids concentration for the alluvium was 376 milligrams per liter and for the terrace deposits was 145 milligrams per liter. More than half of the samples from the Quaternary aquifer were estimated to contain less than 500 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Field-screened nitrate concentrations for the sampling in December 2001-August 2002 ranged from 0 to 15 milligrams per liter. The field-screened nitrate concentrations for the second sampling in September 2002 were less than corresponding laboratory reported values.

Mashburn, Shana L.; Cope, Caleb C.; Abbott, Marvin M.

2003-01-01

39

Rapid Recharge of Parts of the High Plains Aquifer Indicated by a Reconnaissance Study in Oklahoma, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight states, including about 7,100 square miles in northwestern Oklahoma (fig. 1). This aquifer consists of the saturated part of the Ogallala Formation and saturated materials of Quaternary Age that are hydraulically connected to the Ogallala. The High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma is the primary source of water to an important agricultural region. Most water is withdrawn from the aquifer for irrigating wheat and other grain crops, with the remainder used for livestock (primarily cattle and swine), municipal, and domestic needs. Historically, water from precipitation was thought to take hundreds or thousands of years to reach the water table because the depth of the water table is greater than 100 feet over most of the aquifer and the low-permeability beds in the Ogallala would impede downward flow. It also was thought that land uses would take a similar period of time to affect water quality in the aquifer.

Andrews, William J.; Osborn, Noel I.; Luckey, Richard R.

2000-01-01

40

Potentiometric Surfaces in the Springfield Plateau and Ozark Aquifers of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers are important sources of ground water in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. Water from these aquifers is used for agricultural, domestic, industrial, and municipal water sources. Changing water use over time in these aquifers presents a need for updated potentiometric-surface maps of the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. The Springfield Plateau aquifer consists of water-bearing Mississippian-age limestone and chert. The Ozark aquifer consists of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian age water-bearing rocks consisting of dolostone, limestone, and sandstone. Both aquifers are complex with areally varying lithologies, discrete hydrologic units, varying permeabilities, and secondary permeabilities related to fractures and karst features. During the spring of 2006, ground-water levels were measured in 285 wells. These data, and water levels from selected lakes, rivers, and springs, were used to create potentiometric-surface maps for the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. Linear kriging was used initially to construct the water-level contours on the maps; the contours were subsequently modified using hydrologic judgment. The potentiometric-surface maps presented in this report represent ground-water conditions during the spring of 2006. During the spring of 2006, the region received less than average rainfall. Dry conditions prior to the spring of 2006 could have contributed to the observed water levels as well. The potentiometric-surface map of the Springfield Plateau aquifer shows a maximum measured water-level altitude within the study area of about 1,450 feet at a spring in Barry County, Missouri, and a minimum measured water-level altitude of 579 feet at a well in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Cones of depression occur in Dade, Lawrence and Newton Counties in Missouri and Delaware and Ottawa Counties in Oklahoma. These cones of depression are associated with private wells. Ground water in the Springfield Plateau aquifer generally flows to the west in the study area, and to surface features (lakes, rivers, and springs) particularly in the south and east of the study area where the Springfield Plateau aquifer is closest to land surface. The potentiometric-surface map of the Ozark aquifer indicates a maximum measured water-level altitude of 1,303 feet in the study area at a well in Washington County, Arkansas, and a minimum measured water-level altitude of 390 feet in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The water in the Ozark aquifer generally flows to the northwest in the northern part of the study area and to the west in the remaining study area. Cones of depression occur in Barry, Barton, Cedar, Jasper, Lawrence, McDonald, Newton, and Vernon Counties in Missouri, Cherokee and Crawford Counties in Kansas, and Craig and Ottawa Counties in Oklahoma. These cones of depression are associated with municipal supply wells. The flow directions, based on both potentiometric-surface maps, generally agree with flow directions indicated by previous studies.

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Czarnecki, John B.; Mugel, Douglas N.

2008-01-01

41

Geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits of the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake, central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This investigation was undertaken to describe the geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River between Lake Overholser and Eufaula Lake, an area of about 1,835 square miles, and to determine the maximum annual yield of ground water. A 1982 water-level map of the alluvial and terrace aquifer was prepared using field data and published records. Data from test holes and other data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board were used to establish the approximate thickness of the alluvial and terrace deposits. The North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, near Oklahoma City, to Eufaula Lake is paralleled by a 2- to 3-mile wide band of alluvium. Scattered terrace deposits on either side of the alluvium reach an extreme width of 8 miles. Rocks of Permian age bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from the west to the midpoint of the study area; Pennsylvanian rocks bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from that point eastward. Three major aquifers are present in the study area: the alluvial and terrace aquifer, consisting of alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age in a narrow band on either side of the North Canadian River; the Garber-Wellington aquifer of Permian age, consisting of an upper unconfined zone and a lower confined zone separated by relatively impermeable shales; and the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of Pennsylvanian age. At locations were the alluvial and terrace aquifer overlies either of the other aquifers, there is hydraulic continuity between the alluvial and terrace aquifer and the other aquifers, and water levels are the same. Most large-scale municipal and industrial pumping from the Garber-Wellington aquifer is from the lower zone and has little discernible effect upon the alluvial and terrace aquifer. The total estimated base flow of the North Canadian River for the studied reach is 264 cubic feet per second. Evapotranspiration from the basin in August is about 60 cubic feet per second for the North Canadian River from Lake Overholser to a measuring station above Eufaula Lake. Estimated recharge rates to the alluvial and terrace aquifer in the basin range from 1.7 inches at the west edge of the study area to 7.0 inches at the east edge. Total permitted withdrawal from the aquifer, according to records of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, ranged from 2,107 acre-feet per year in 1942 to about 21,415 acre-feet per year in 1982. Simulations of the alluvial and terrace aquifer from Lake Overholser to Eufaula Lake were made using a finite-difference model developed by McDonald and Harbaugh (1984). The area of the aquifers was subdivided into a finite-difference grid having 30 rows and 57 columns with cells measuring 1 mile in the north-south direction and 2 miles in the east-west direction. The model was calibrated in two steps: A steady-state calibration simulated head distribution prior to extensive pumping of the aquifer in 1942, and a transient calibration simulated head distribution after extensive pumpage. The final horizontal hydraulic conductivity used for the alluvial and terrace aquifer was 0.0036 feet per second (310 feet per day) at all locations. The recharge rate for the alluvial and terrace aquifer ranged from 1.7 inch per year in the west to 7.0 inches per year in the east, and averaged about 3.3 inches per year. A specific yield of 15 percent was used for the transient simulation. Permitted pumpage for 1942 through 1982 was used in the digital model to estimate the annual volume of water in storage in the alluvial and terrace aquifer for the years for this time period. The 1982 permitted pumpage rates were used for projections for 1983 to 2020. The estimated volume of water in storage was 1,940,000 acre-feet in 1982. Because the estimated recharge rate is equal to the allowed pumpage rate in 1982, the projected volume of water in storage in both 1993 and 2020 was 1,890,000 acre-feet.

Havens, J. S.

1989-01-01

42

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of...

2013-07-01

43

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North...

2013-07-01

44

Characterization of Subsurface Bacteria Associated with Two Shallow Aquifers in Oklahoma  

PubMed Central

The bacterial microflora of two shallow aquifers (saturated subsurface zones) in Oklahoma was characterized by direct observation with light and electron microscopy, by plating, and by examination of colony morphology and distribution. Isolated bacterial strains were also examined. Total cell counts varied only slightly (2.9 × 106 to 9.8 × 106 g [dry wt]?1) from sample to sample, whereas colony counts varied widely (6.3 × 102 to 6.5 × 106 CFU g [dry wt]?1). Colony counts on nutritionally rich media were lower than on low-nutrient media, especially in samples from the saturated zone. The variety of colony types growing on nutritionally rich media decreased with increasing depth and saturation. Colony counts of anaerobic bacteria also decreased with depth but were at least 100-fold lower than aerobic counts on most media. Cell morphologies of bacteria grown aerobically on plates included short rods, cocci, and actinomycete-like forms. Direct light microscopic observation of sediments revealed short, rod-shaped, and coccoid bacterial cells; endospores, actinomycete spores, and eucaryotic forms were not observed by light microscopy. Electron microscopic observation of bacteria released from the samples revealed that 85 to 90% of them were coccoid, gram-positive, Arthrobacter-like organisms, some of which were dividing or contained completed division septa; other types of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were present in lower numbers. Isolated bacterial strains were able to grow on both nutritionally rich and low-nutrient media. A higher proportion of gram-negative organisms was isolated than gram-positive organisms. Most of the isolates were capable of storing polyphosphate, poly-?-hydroxybutyrate, or polysaccharide. The results of this study suggest that the microbial population of these two shallow aquifers is dominated by aerobic, nutritionally versatile bacteria that can subsist on low concentrations of organic compounds without forming specialized resting cells. Other types of microorganisms, such as facultatively anaerobic bacteria and microeucaryotes, may also be present, but they represent only a small fraction of the microflora. Images

Balkwill, David L.; Ghiorse, William C.

1985-01-01

45

STUDY OF THE ARBUCKLE-SIMPSON AQUIFER  

EPA Science Inventory

A study directed by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation will investigate the hydrogeology of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in south-central Oklahoma. The five year study will involve field investigations including the installation of ne...

46

Geophysical Investigation of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, Oklahoma, to Determine the Influence of Subsurface Structure on Groundwater Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate an area of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in southern Oklahoma by employing near-surface geophysical surveying. This predominantly carbonate aquifer encompasses the Simpson, Arbuckle, and Timbered Hills Groups, which range in age from Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician. The aquifer serves as a principle water source for the surrounding area and feeds several major springs and creeks, including Pennington Creek, around which a number of rare species dwell. Due to the high amount of fracturing and faulting present in the aquifer system, the possible effects of large-scale groundwater withdrawal are poorly understood and have spurred increased interest in a comprehensive investigation of the aquifer. We seek to understand the subsurface structure of a small area of the aquifer, focused around Pilot Springs, by identifying and interpreting faults and their interaction with the groundwater hydrology. To this end, we have carried out electrical resistivity soundings using Wenner and Schlumberger array spreads. Analysis of these data is being performed to identify faults and estimate depths to the water table. Modeling of horizontal layers is carried out by means of the IPI2win Resistivity Sounding Interpretation algorithm from Moscow State University. This modeling approach allows us to obtain for each sounding point an optimized subsurface model that specifies the number of layers present and the apparent resistivity and depths to each layer. We are able to refine this model based on our prior understanding of the geology of the region. At least one sounding appears to reveal the presence of one of the major north bounding faults in the area. Further surveying is planned, including additional resistivity soundings as well as resistivity profiling and ground-penetrating radar.

Lewallen, E.; Ramachandran, K.; Tapp, B.

2007-12-01

47

Distribution and variability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the alluvial, High Plains, Rush Springs, and Blaine aquifers in western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquifers are the primary source of water for drinking and agricultural purposes in western Oklahoma. Health concerns about consuming nitrogen and an increased reliance on ground water for drinking necessitate a better understanding of the cause and effect of contamination from nutrients. The purpose of this project was to compile nutrients data from the National Water Information System data base for the alluvial aquifers west of longitude 98 degrees W. and from three bedrock aquifers, High Plains, Rush Springs, and Blaine, and provide this information in a report for future projects and for the facilitation of nutrient source management. The scope of the work consisted of (1) compiling ground-water quality data concerning nitrogen and phosphorus ions, (2) constructing boxplots illustrating data variability, (3) maps for each aquifer showing locations of wells when nitrogen and phosphorus ions were measured in ground water and where concentrations of nitrate and nitrite, reported as nitrogen, exceed the maximum contaminant level, and (4) calculating summary statistics. Nutrient data were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey data base called the National Water Information System. Data were restricted to ground-water samples, but no restrictions were placed on well and water use or date and time of sampling. Compiled nutrient data consist of dissolved and total concentrations of the common nitrogen and phosphorus ions measured in ground water. For nitrogen these ions include nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and nitrite plus nitrate. All concentrations are reported in milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Phosphorus in ground water is measured as the orthophosphate ion, and is reported in milligrams per liter as phosphorus. Nutrient variability is illustrated by a standard boxplot. The data are presented by aquifer or hydrologic subregion for alluvial aquifers, with one boxplot constructed for each nutrient compound if more than four analyses are present. Maps for each aquifer show where nitrogen and phosphorus have been measured in ground water and where the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite exceed the maximum contaminant level. A statistical summary for each aquifer and subregion show if censored data were present, number of samples in each data set, largest minimum reporting level for each nutrient compound, percentiles used to construct boxplots, and minimum and maximum values. Also given are the number of wells sampled in each aquifer and the number of wells exceeding the maximum contaminant level.

Becker, C. J.

1994-01-01

48

Gravity Investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, South-Central Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian we...

D. S. Scheirer A. H. Scheirer

2006-01-01

49

Storm deposits (tempestites) in Ordovician cratonic carbonates (Arbuckle Group, south-central Oklahoma)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Early Ordovician Kindblade Formation (Arbuckle Group), exposed in the Arbuckle Mountains of south-central Oklahoma, is a shallow marine epicontinental carbonate sequence that contains numerous storm deposits. The storm deposits (tempestites) are of two types, proximal and distal; the latter dominates in terms of both number and aggregate thickness. Distal tempestites consist of a fining upward sequence, 5 to 50

R. K. Goldhammer; R. D. Elmore

1983-01-01

50

A Comparison of Needs Among Town Dwelling and Rural Elderly in South-Central Oklahoma 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1980 sample of 271 elderly (133 rural, 138 urban) in 3 south-central Oklahoma counties (Coal, Murray, and Pontotoc) was surveyed to see if: an economical tool could be devised to assess program effectiveness; professionals providing services to the elderly were influenced by, and influenced the opinions of, recipients in urban areas due to their…

Eckert, Mark S.

51

Equivalent dose distribution analysis of Holocene eolian and fluvial quartz sands from Central Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holocene quartz sands were collected from fluvial terrace deposits and eolian dune deposits adjacent to the North Canadian and Cimarron Rivers and their tributaries in Central Oklahoma. Single aliquot regenerative dose optically stimulated luminescence techniques were employed to generate equivalent dose (ED) distribution histograms for each sample. We hypothesize that the ED distributions are convolutions of the distribution arising from

Kenneth Lepper; Niels Agersnap Larsen; Stephen W. S McKeever

2000-01-01

52

Three-Dimensional EarthVision Modeling for Ground-Water Resource Applications: Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, Southern Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in southern Oklahoma encompasses more than 500 square miles and is the primary source of water in the area. The subsurface hydrogeologic framework of this structurally complex carbonate aquifer was unresolved until now because of the complex geology of the aquifer's confining rock units with stratigraphic unit thicknesses from 60 to 1200 m and fault displacements over 2000 m. Three- dimensional analyses of geologic surface and subsurface data have led to the construction of a 3-D EarthVision (EV) geologic framework model that characterizes the lateral continuity of water-bearing rock units across fault zones. The geologic modeling was planned in collaboration with ongoing USGS MODFLOW modeling efforts supported by the Oklahoma State-funded Arbuckle-Simpson Hydrology Study. Although traditional ground-water reservoir characterization techniques were used in the construction of the 3-D EV model, which included the integration of outcrop geology and stratigraphic elevations from more than 300 water and petroleum wells, new geophysical data were also integrated into the model. Despite limited funding for acquisition of basin-wide subsurface data, such as 3-D seismic or deep-hole control wells and cores, new methods of compiling and assimilating multiple data sources into a workable database are demonstrated in this study. The Arbuckle-Simpson 3-D EV model depicts more than 50 principal and intermediate faults and stratigraphic tops (td's) for the following units: Precambrian basement, Arbuckle Group, Simpson Group (Bromide Formation), and overlying units (undivided). To support the subsurface data, existing seismic and gravity data and recently acquired electromagnetic survey data were incorporated into the stratigraphic elevation datasets. Electromagnetic data acquired from a helicopter geophysical survey was used to identify shallow faults that have no recognizable surface expression. Electrical resistivity imaging was conducted across some major fault zones to help accurately locate the fault traces and determine the degree of dip in the subsurface. Gravity surveys were conducted to identify subsurface faults and the depth to Precambrian basement, both of which helped to constrain the volumetric extent of the water-bearing rock units. The resulting framework model represents the first depiction of the volumetric and lateral extent of the aquifer. The faulted geologic layers have also been discretized using a domain with 200x200 meter-node spacing and successfully integrated into the Arbuckle-Simpson Hydrology Study's multi-layer MODFLOW ground-water model.

Faith, J. R.; Blome, C. D.

2008-12-01

53

Contamination of wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer by abandoned zinc and lead mines, Ottawa County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Roubidoux aquifer in Ottawa County Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. Water in the Roubidoux aquifer in eastern Ottawa County has relatively low dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 mg/L) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. The Boone Formation is stratigraphically above the Roubidoux aquifer and is the host rock for zinc and lead sulfide ores, with the richest deposits located in the vicinity of the City of Picher. Mining in what became known as the Picher mining district began in the early 1900's and continued until about 1970. The water in the abandoned zinc and lead mines contains high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Water from the abandoned mines is a potential source of contamination to the Roubidoux aquifer and to wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer. Water samples were collected from wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer in the Picher mining district and from wells outside the mining district to determine if 10 public supply wells in the mining district are contaminated. The chemical analyses indicate that at least 7 of the 10 public supply wells in the Picher mining district are contaminated by mine water. Application of the Mann-Whitney test indicated that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination are different in water samples from wells in the mining area as compared to wells outside the mining area. Application of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination were higher in current (1992-93) data than in historic (1981-83) data, except for pH, which was lower in current than in historic data. pH and sulfate, alkalinity, bicarbonate, magnesium, iron, and tritium concentrations consistently indicate that the Cardin, Commerce 1, Commerce 3, Picher 2, Picher 3, Picher 4, and Quapaw 2 wells are contaminated.

Christenson, Scott C.

1995-01-01

54

Analysis and modeling of spatial correlation structure in small-scale rainfall in Central Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial correlation structure in small-scale rainfall is analyzed based on a dense cluster of raingauges in Central Oklahoma. This cluster, called the EVAC PicoNet, consists of 53 gauges installed in 25 measurement stations covering an area of about 3km by 3km. Two raingauges are placed in 24 stations and five in the central station. Three aspects of the estimated spatial

Grzegorz J. Ciach; Witold F. Krajewski

2006-01-01

55

Hydrologic data for the alluvium and terrace aquifer of the Beaver north Canadian River from the Panhandle to Canton Reservoir, northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has collected data on Oklahoma's ground-water resources since 1934. The data in this report were collected as part of a study in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board to evaluate the geohydrology of the alluvium and terrace aquifer of the Beaver-North Canadian River in northwestern Oklahoma. (Footnote: Above the confluence with Wolf Creek, the main channel of the river is known as the Beaver River; below it is known as the North Canadian River. Therefore, the main channel is generally referred to in this report as the Beaver-North Canadian River.) The data include records of approximately 900 wells, test-holes, and springs, results of chemical analyses of water from 30 wells tapping the aquifer, monthly water-level measurements for selected wells, and low-flow discharge measurements of the Beaver-North Canadian River and its tributaries (plate 1). All of the data were collected in the field during the period 1977-79. Information prior to this period is not included in this report but is contained in reports by Wood and Stacy (1965) and Morton (in press). The stratigraphic nomenclature is that of the Oklahoma Geological Survey and does not necessarily agree with that of the U.S. Geological Survey. Acknowledgment is extended to the residents of the study area for their cooperation in obtaining the data in this report.

Davis, R. E.; Christenson, S. C.; Blumer, S. P.

1981-01-01

56

Groundwater Quality and Water-Well Characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, Central Oklahoma, 1948-2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Countie...

C. J. Becker

2013-01-01

57

Geochemistry of the Springfield Plateau aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a carbonate aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in central USA, has two distinct hydrochemical zones. Within each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different than water from wells. Geochemical data indicate that spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells. Water type throughout most of the aquifer was calcium bicarbonate, indicating that carbonate-rock dissolution is the primary geochemical process occurring in the aquifer. Concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, dissolved oxygen and tritium indicate that most ground water in the aquifer recharged rapidly and is relatively young (less than 40 years). In general, field-measured properties, concentrations of many chemical constituents, and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from the northern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone A) than in samples from the southern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone B). Factors affecting differences in the geochemical composition of ground water between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zone A than in zone B. In addition, specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, concentrations of many chemical constituents and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from wells than in samples from springs in each hydrochemical zone. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite plus nitrate, and chloride generally were greater in samples from springs than in samples from wells. Water from springs generally flows rapidly through large conduits with minimum water-rock interactions. Water from wells flow through small fractures, which restrict flow and increase water-rock interactions. As a result, springs tend to be more susceptible to surface contamination than wells. The results of this study have important implications for the geochemical and hydrogeological processes of similar carbonate aquifers in other geographical locations. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau carbonate aquifer has two distinct hydrochemical zones. With each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different from the water from wells. Spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells. Factors affecting the differences in the geochemical composition of groundwater between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zones.

Adamski, J. C.

2000-01-01

58

Relationship of cliff swallows, ectoparasites, and an Alphavirus in west-central Oklahoma.  

PubMed

Approximately 250 isolates of a newly recognized virus, related to western equine encephalitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), were obtained from cimicid bugs, Oeciacus vicarius; Cliff Swallows, Hirundo pyrrhonata; and House Sparrows, Passer domesticus in a study area in west-central Oklahoma at Buggy Creek and Caddo Canyons. Antigenicity of the virus strains varied slightly from isolate to isolate. This paper summarizes the ecology of the area by describing in general the flora and fauna there. PMID:8381870

Hopla, C E; Francy, D B; Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S

1993-01-01

59

Geochemistry of the Springfield Plateau aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a carbonate aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in central USA, has two distinct hydrochemical zones. Within each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different than water from wells. Geochemical data indicate that spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells.Water type throughout most of the aquifer was calcium bicarbonate, indicating that carbonate-rock dissolution is the primary geochemical process occurring in the aquifer. Concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, dissolved oxygen and tritium indicate that most ground water in the aquifer recharged rapidly and is relatively young (less than 40 years). In general, field-measured properties, concentrations of many chemical constituents, and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from the northern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone A) than in samples from the southern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone B). Factors affecting differences in the geochemical composition of ground water between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zone A than in zone B.In addition, specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, concentrations of many chemical constituents and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from wells than in samples from springs in each hydrochemical zone. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite plus nitrate, and chloride generally were greater in samples from springs than in samples from wells. Water from springs generally flows rapidly through large conduits with minimum water-rock interactions. Water from wells flow through small fractures, which restrict flow and increase water-rock interactions. As a result, springs tend to be more susceptible to surface contamination than wells. The results of this study have important implications for the geochemical and hydrogeological processes of similar carbonate aquifers in other geographical locations.

Adamski, James C.

2000-04-01

60

Processes affecting ??34S and ??18O values of dissolved sulfate in alluvium along the Canadian River, central Oklahoma, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ??34S and ??18O values for dissolved sulfate in groundwater are commonly used in aquifer studies to identify sulfate reservoirs and describe biogeochemical processes. The utility of these data, however, often is compromised by mixing of sulfate sources within reservoirs and isotope fractionation during sulfur redox cycling. Our study shows that, after all potential sulfate sources are identified and isotopically characterized, the ??34SSO4 and ??18OSO4 values differentiate processes such as sulfate-source mixing, sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and organosulfur decomposition. During bacterial reduction of sulfate, the values reflect kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation and exchange of oxygen isotopes between sulfate and water. Detailed analysis of the chemistry (Cl and SO4 concentrations) and isotopic composition (??2HH2O and ??18OH2O) of groundwater in an alluvial aquifer in Central Oklahoma, USA allowed the identification of five distinct end members that supply water to the aquifer (regional groundwater flowing into the study area, river water, leachate from a closed landfill that operated within the site, rain, and surface runoff). The ??34SSO4 and ??18OSO4 values in each end member differentiated three sources of sulfate: sulfate dissolved from Early to Late Permian rocks within the drainage basin (??34SSO4 = 8-12??? and ??18OSO4 = 10???), iron sulfides oxidized by molecular oxygen during low water-table levels (??34SSO4 = - 16??? and ??18OSO4 = 10???), and organosulfur compounds (predominately ester sulfates) from decomposition of vegetation on the surface and from landfill trash buried in the alluvium (??34SSO4 = 8??? and ??18OSO4 = 6???). During bacterial reduction of these sulfate sources, similar isotope fractionation processes are recorded in the parallel trends of increasing ??34SSO4 and ??18OSO4 values. When extensive reduction occurs, the kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation (estimated by ??H2S-SO4 = - 23???) results in the steady increase of ??34SSO4 values to greater than 70???. Equilibrium isotope fractionation during exchange of sulfate oxygen and water oxygen, a process not commonly observed in field-based studies, is documented in ??18OSO4 values asymptotically approaching 21???, the value predicted for conditions at the study site (??SO4-H2O = 27???). These results show that recognition of all potential sulfate sources is a critical first step to resolving complexities in ??34SSO4 and ??18OSO4 data. The approach taken in this study can be used in other aquifer systems where the identification of multiple sulfate sources and sulfur redox cycling is important to understanding natural processes and anthropogenic influences.

Tuttle, M. L. W.; Breit, G. N.; Cozzarelli, I. M.

2009-01-01

61

Identifying aquifer type in fractured rock aquifers using harmonic analysis.  

PubMed

Determining aquifer type, unconfined, semi-confined, or confined, by drilling or performing pumping tests has inherent problems (i.e., cost and complex field issues) while sometimes yielding inconclusive results. An improved method to cost-effectively determine aquifer type would be beneficial for hydraulic mapping of complex aquifer systems like fractured rock aquifers. Earth tides are known to influence water levels in wells penetrating confined aquifers or unconfined thick, low-porosity aquifers. Water-level fluctuations in wells tapping confined and unconfined aquifers are also influenced by changes in barometric pressure. Harmonic analyses of water-level fluctuations of a thick (~1000 m) carbonate aquifer located in south-central Oklahoma (Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer) were utilized in nine wells to identify aquifer type by evaluating the influence of earth tides and barometric-pressure variations using signal identification. On the basis of the results, portions of the aquifer responded hydraulically as each type of aquifer even though there was no significant variation in lithostratigraphy. The aquifer type was depth dependent with confined conditions becoming more prevalent with depth. The results demonstrate that harmonic analysis is an accurate and low-cost method to determine aquifer type. PMID:22463080

Rahi, Khayyun A; Halihan, Todd

2013-01-01

62

Enhanced recharge and karst, Edwards aquifer, south central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced recharge is a water management strategy which can add significant quantities of ground water to the available water resources of the San Antonio region by utilizing the immense storage capacity of the unconfined zone of the Edwards aquifer. The Edwards aquifer presently is the sole source of water for a population of over 1,200,000, meeting public supply, industrial, and irrigation demands over a wide area of south central Texas. Valdina Farms Sinkhole is located adjacent to Seco Creek in Medina County and is in the recharge zone of the aquifer. Initial studies indicated that the sinkholes was capable of taking flood flows from Seco Creek and functioning as a recharge structure. Stream channels in the cavern system associated with Valdina Farms Sinkhole were incised into cave deposits and flood debris was present in the caverns at some distance from the sinkhole. Chemical analyses of samples of water from the cave and from nearby wells showed nitrate concentrations that decreased with distance from the cavern. Gradient of the potentiometric surface in the vicinity of the cave was very low, indicating high values of hydraulic conductivity for the aquifer. Based on evidence from these field studies a dam was constructed in 1982 on Seco Creek and a flood diversion channel was excavated to the sinkhole. Reservoir capacity is 2 acre-feet and design recharge rate is 3.8-6.7 m[sup 3]/sec. Annual recharge at the sinkhole has varied from 0 during periods of low runoff to 12,915 acre-feet.

Hammond, W.W. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Water Research)

1993-02-01

63

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries, maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma. Ground water in 1,305 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. Alluvial and terrace deposits are composed of interfingering lenses of clay, sandy clay, and cross-bedded poorly sorted sand and gravel. The aquifer is composed of hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits that unconformably overlie the Permian-age Formations. The aquifer boundaries are from a ground-water modeling report on the alluvial and terrace aquifer along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma and published digital surficial geology data sets. The aquifer boundary data set was created from digital geologic data sets from maps published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values, recharge rates, and ground-water level elevation contours are from the ground-water modeling report. Water-level elevation contours were digitized from a map at a scale of 1:250,000. The maps were published at a scale of 1:900,000. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G. P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, J. R.

1997-01-01

64

Hydrogeology, water use, and simulation of flow in the High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, northeastern New Mexico, and northwestern Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, began a three-year study of the High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma in 1996. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a ground-water flow model to provide the Water Board with the information it needs to manage the quantity of water withdrawn from the aquifer. The study area consists of about 7,100 square miles in Oklahoma and about 20,800 square miles in adjacent states to provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the flow model. The High Plains aquifer includes all sediments from the base of the Ogallala Formation to the potentiometric surface. The saturated thickness in Oklahoma ranges from more than 400 feet to less than 50 feet. Natural recharge to the aquifer from precipitation occurs throughout the area but is extremely variable. Dryland agricultural practices appear to enhance recharge from precipitation, and part of the water pumped for irrigation also recharges the aquifer. Natural discharge occurs as discharge to streams, evapotranspiration where the depth to water is shallow, and diffuse ground-water flow across the eastern boundary. Artificial discharge occurs as discharge to wells. Irrigation accounted for 96 percent of all use of water from the High Plains aquifer in the Oklahoma portion of the study area in 1992 and 93 percent in 1997. Total estimated water use in 1992 for the Oklahoma portion of the study area was 396,000 acre-feet and was about 3.2 million acre-feet for the entire study area. Since development of the aquifer, water levels have declined more than 100 feet in small areas of Texas County, Oklahoma, and more than 50 feet in areas of Cimarron County. Only a small area of Beaver County had declines of more than 10 feet, and Ellis County had rises of more than 10 feet. A flow model constructed using the MODFLOW computer code had 21,073 active cells in one layer and had a 6,000- foot grid in both the north-south and east-west directions. The model was used to simulate the period before major development of the aquifer and the period of development. The model was calibrated using observed conditions available as of 1998. The predevelopment-period model integrated data or estimates on the base of aquifer, hydraulic conductivity, streambed and drain conductances, and recharge from precipitation to calculate the predevelopment altitude of the water table, discharge to the rivers and streams, and other discharges. Hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and streambed conductance were varied during calibration so that the model produced a reasonable representation of the observed water table altitude and the estimated discharge to streams. Hydraulic conductivity was reduced in the area of salt dissolution in underlying Permianage rocks. Recharge from precipitation was estimated to be 4.0 percent of precipitation in greater recharge zones and 0.37 percent in lesser recharge zones. Within Oklahoma, the mean difference between water levels simulated by the model and measured water levels at 86 observation points is -2.8 feet, the mean absolute difference is 44.1 feet, and the root mean square difference is 52.0 feet. The simulated discharge is much larger than the estimated discharge for the Beaver River, is somewhat larger for Cimarron River and Wolf Creek, and is about the same for Crooked Creek. The development-period model added specific yield, pumpage, and recharge due to irrigation and dryland cultivation to simulate the period 1946 through 1997. During calibration, estimated specific yield was reduced by 15 percent in Oklahoma east of the Cimarron-Texas County line. Simulated recharge due to irrigation ranges from 24 percent for the 1940s and 1950s to 2 percent for the 1990s. Estimated recharge due to dryland cultivation is about 3.9 percent of precipitation. The mean difference between the simulated and observed waterlevel changes from predevelopment to 1998 at 162 observation points in

Luckey, Richard L.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

65

First Two Years of Observations NASA ACTS Propagation Experiment Central Oklahoma Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Continuous observations from December 1, 1993 through November 30, 1995 were made at the ACTS Propagation Terminal on the roof of the Sarkeys Energy Center at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma. Beacon and radiometer observations were combined...

R. K. Crane

1996-01-01

66

Behavior of North-Central Texas Paleozoic Aquifers: Geological Controls vs. Surface Water Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleozoic formations and small associated aquifers (Paleozoic aquifers) of North-Central Texas could become a target as Barnett Shale gas play development progresses westward. Paleozoic aquifers lie west of the productive Trinity aquifer, but well yields from Paleozoic aquifers are much lower. Although many recharge features such as streams and lakes exist in the region, lower salinity groundwater (<5,000 ppm) in Paleozoic aquifers is found mostly in outcrop areas, and salinity increases rapidly downdip. The limited availability of fresh water in Paleozoic aquifers could be attributed to the low permeability of the geological formations, whose regional trends show transition westward to muddier facies downdip. On the other hand, high water flux through geological formations by surface water driven circulation could generate active shallow systems having limited interaction with downdip confined sections. Whether such active shallow systems exist in the Paleozoic aquifers is unknown but important in understanding the behavior of Paleozoic aquifers. With the ultimate goal of quantifying Paleozoic aquifer capacity and yield, the study addresses the following related questions: (1) Are there active shallow systems associated with Paleozoic aquifers? (2) How does the groundwater interact with surface water in this environment? and (3) Does groundwater production in this system capture appreciable surface water? Hydraulic properties of geological formations, groundwater flow, and surface water fluxes (precipitation, recharge, evapotranspiration, streamflow, etc.) are analyzed to evaluate the main processes driving the regional hydrology. Hydrology of the Trinity and Paleozoic aquifers is compared to explain the difference in behavior between the two neighboring aquifers. Expected findings include a quantification of groundwater availability of Paleozoic aquifers and an understanding of how surface water influences groundwater availability. The study will (1) quantify groundwater and surface water fluxes, (2) enhance our understanding of groundwater surface water interaction in the footprint of the Paleozoic aquifers, and (3) provide a basis for evaluating groundwater production potential.

Huang, Y.; Wolaver, B. D.; Nicot, J.; Mercier, J.; Hingst, M.; Breton, C.

2011-12-01

67

Hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer in east-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the relation of the Lower Floridan aquifer to the framework of the Floridan aquifer system were evaluated during a 6-year (1995-2001) study. The study area, a 7,500 square-mile area of east-central Florida, is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a carbonate-rock aquifer system composed of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer, is the major source of water supply to east-central Florida. The Upper Floridan aquifer provides much of the water required to meet the current (2002) demand; however, the Lower Floridan aquifer is being used increasingly as a source of freshwater, particularly for municipal needs. For this reason, a better understanding of the aquifer is needed. The Lower Floridan aquifer is present throughout east-central Florida. The aquifer is composed of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite, and is characterized by abundant fractured dolomite zones and solution cavities. The altitude of the top of the Lower Floridan aquifer ranges from less than 600 feet below sea level in the northern part of the study area to more than 1,600 feet below sea level in the southwestern part. Thickness of the unit ranges from about 910 to 1,180 feet. The top of the Lower Floridan aquifer generally is marked by an increase in formation resistivity and by an increase in the occurrence of fractures and solution cavities within the carbonates. Also, a noticeable increase in borehole flow often marks the top of the unit. The bottom of the Lower Floridan aquifer is based on the first occurrence of evaporites. Ground-water in the Lower Floridan aquifer generally moves in a southwest-to-northeast direction across the study area. In September 1998, the altitude of the potentiometric surface of the Lower Floridan aquifer ranged from about 16 to 113 feet above sea level, and altitudes in May 1999 were about 2 to 7 feet lower than those measured in September 1998. The potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer system is constantly fluctuating, mainly in response to seasonal variations in rainfall and ground-water withdrawals. Seasonal fluctuations in the Lower Floridan aquifer typically range from about 2 to 10 feet. Water samples from 50 Lower Floridan aquifer wells were collected during this study. Most samples were analyzed in the field for temperature, pH, and specific conductance, and in the laboratory for major cations and anions. Specific conductance ranged from 147 to 6,710 microsiemens per centimeter. Chloride concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 2,188 milligrams per liter; sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 750 milli-grams per liter; and hardness ranged from 69 to 940 milligrams per liter. Water was least mineralized in the recharge areas of the Lower Floridan aquifer in the western part of the study area. The most mineralized water in the Lower Floridan aquifer occurred along parts of the Wekiva and St. Johns Rivers and in much of the eastern and southern parts of the study area. The altitude of the base of freshwater in the Floridan aquifer system (where chloride concentrations are equal to 250 milligrams per liter) is variable throughout the study area. The estimated position of the 250 milligram per liter isochlor surface is less than 200 feet below sea level in much of the eastern part of the study area, including the areas along the St. Johns River in Lake, Seminole, and Volusia Counties and near the Wekiva River in western Seminole County. The altitude of the 250 milligram per liter isochlor exceeds 3,000 feet below sea level in the extreme southwestern part of the study area.

O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Spechler, Rick M.; McGurk, Brian E.

2002-01-01

68

Generalized thickness and configuration of the top of the intermediate aquifer, west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Generalized map show the thickness and top of the intermediate aquifer in west-central Florida within the boundaries of the Southwest Florida Water Management District. The intermediate aquifer consists of a series of water-bearing units and confining beds between the surficial aquifer (water table) and the Floridan aquifer. This aquifer contains from one to several water-bearing units in west-central Florida. The aquifer and confining beds consist of the Tamiami and Hawthorn Formations of late and middle Miocene age and parts of the Tampa Limestone of early Miocene age. The top of the intermediate aquifer is about 100 feet above sea level in the north and slopes to about 100 feet below sea level in the south. The thickness ranges from zero in the north to more than 600 feet in the south. Despite the high mineral content of the water in some areas, the intermediate aquifer offers the best source of ground water to the coastal and southern areas of west-central Florida. (USGS)

Corral, Miguel A., Jr.; Wolansky, Richard M.

1984-01-01

69

Geohydrology and numerical simulation of the alluvium and terrace aquifer along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the Panhandle to Canton Lake, northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A quantitative description of the hydrologic system in alluvium and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River in northwestern Oklahoma is needed as a aid for planning and management of the aquifer. A two-dimensional finite-difference model was used to describe the aquifer and to predict the effects of future ground-water withdrawals. The aquifer principally consists of three geologic units: Alluvium with an average thickness of 30 feet, low terrace deposits with an average thickness of 50 feet, and high terrace deposits with an average thickness of 70 feet. A thin cover of dune sand overlies much of the area and provides an excellent catchment for recharge, but is generally unsaturated. Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer ranges from 0 to 160 feet per day and average 59 feet per day. Specific yield is estimated to be 0.29. Recharge to the aquifer is approximately 1 inch annually. Under present conditions (1978), most discharge is the result of ground-water flow to the Beaver-North Canadian River at a rate of 36 cubic feet per second and to pumpage for public-supply, industrial, and irrigation use at a rate of 28 cubic feet per second. In 1978, the aquifer had an average saturated thickness of 31 feet and contained 4.07 million acre-feet of water. The model was used to predict future head response in the aquifer to various pumping stresses. For any one area, the pumping stress was applied until the saturated thickness for that area was less than 5 feet, at which time the pumping ceased. The results of the modeled projections show that if the aquifer is stressed from 1978 to 1993 at the 1977 pumpage rates and well distribution, the average saturated thickness will decrease 1.0 foot and the volume of water in storage will be 3.94 million acre-feet, or 97 percent of the 1978 volume. If the aquifer is stressed at this same rate until 2020, the average saturated thickness will decrease an additional 0.7 foot and the volume of water in storage will be 3.84 million acre-feet, or 94 percent of the 1978 volume. If all areas of the aquifer having a 1978 saturated thickness of 5 feet or more are stressed from 1978 to 1993 at a rate of approximately 1.4 acre-feet per acre per year, the average saturated thickness will decrease by 20.9 feet and the volume of water in storage will be 1.28 million acre-feet, or 31 percent of the 1978 volume. If the aquifer is stressed at this same rate until 2020, the average saturated thickness will decrease an additional 2.2 feet and the volume of water in storage will be 980,000 acre-feet, or 24 percent of the 1978 volume. The water in the aquifer is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type and is suitable for most uses. Most of the 30 water samples analyzed contained less than 500 milligrams of dissolved solids per liter.

Davis, Robert E.; Christenson, Scott C.

1981-01-01

70

Growth of Cities and Loss of Streams: Land Cover Change Impacts on Stream Channel Loss in Central Oklahoma from 1874 to 2010  

EPA Science Inventory

Central Oklahoma has undergone substantial land cover changes since the 1800’s. Accordingly, regional watersheds have been covered by impervious surfaces, peripheral agricultural areas have been subdivided or intensified, and large reservoirs have been constructed. Here, we...

71

Water quality of the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The project was to provide information on the quality of ground water from rural-domestic-water wells within the Osage Reservation and compare the water-quality to proximity to oil wells. About 38,500 oil wells have been drilled in the Reservation since drilling began in 1896. About 1,480 square miles or 64 percent of the Reservation is within a quarter mile of an oil well. The unconfined Quaternary sand aquifer covers about 315 square miles or about 14 percent of the Reservation and the confined Ada-Vamoosa sandstone aquifer covers about 800 square miles or about 35 percent of the Reservation. Fifty-eight percent of the Quaternary aquifer and 69 percent of the outcrop area of the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer are within a quarter mile of an oil well . One hundred twenty domestic ground-water wells were sampled from the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers. Forty-nine percent of the Reservation is underlain by the aquifers. Ground-water quality is good on most of the Reservation, but the use of domestic water-supply wells tend to minimize water-quality problems. Existing water-supply wells commonly are located in areas that produce usable volumes of potable water. Several constituents in samples from the Ada-Vamoosa-aquifer within a quarter mile of an oil well were significantly greater than from the aquifer not near oil wells. The constituents include specific conductance, dissolved solids, sodium, sulfate, chloride, bromide, and silica. These ions are probably derived from brine water. In the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer subgroups, 57 percent of the samples near oil wells and 24 percent of the samples not near oil wells had dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 500 milligrams per liter. The water quality in the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers is similar in areas where no oil wells have been drilled but is significantly different for several constituents. Median concentrations of major constituents from the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer not near oil wells were less than or equal to values from the Quaternary aquifer. Sixty-four percent of the water-quality samples from the Quaternary and 51 percent from the Ada-Vamoosa aquifers have dissolved-solids concentrations less than the secondary drinking water regulations of 500 milligrams per liter. Fifty-nine percent of the aquifer samples in the Quaternary aquifer subgroups not near oil wells and 70 percent of the samples near oil wells had dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Areas in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer near Hominy, Pershing, and Hula Lake have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than the secondary drinking water regulations. Water-quality samples from the Quaternary aquifer in these areas also have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 500 milligrams per liter.

Abbott, Marvin M.

2000-01-01

72

Multiple episodes of dolomitization in the Arbuckle Group, Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma: Field, petrographic, and geochemical evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group in the Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma, had a complex history of dolomitization that resulted in two different geometries of dolomite bodies: stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically consistent, widespread distribution, and non-stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically inconsistent, local occurrence. Stratal dolomite includes the Royer and Butterly units in the lower Arbuckle Group. Most stratal dolomite samples are coarsely crystalline

G. Gao; L. S. Land; R. D. Elmore

1995-01-01

73

Preliminary evaluation of the Central Basin aquifer system in Tennessee for receiving injected wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An aquifer may be allowed to receive injected wastes where the aquifer meets criteria established in the Environmental Protection Agency 's Underground Injection Control program. The Central Basin aquifer system in Tennessee consists of Ordovician to Devonian carbonate rocks and it occurs from the Valley and Ridge province to west of the Tennessee River. This aquifer system is currently used for drinking water in the Central Basin and western Highland Rim, but is not used for drinking water in the northern Highland Rim nor the Cumberland Plateau provinces. Part of the northern Highland Rim and the Cumberland Plateau, according to the Environmental Protection Agency 's Underground Injection Control criteria, will not be used as a source of drinking water in the future and may be eligible to receive injected wastes. (USGS)

Bradley, M. W.

1985-01-01

74

Carbonate aquifer of the Central Roswell Basin: recharge estimation by numerical modeling  

SciTech Connect

The flow of ground water in the Roswell, New Mexico, Artesian Basin, has been studied since the early 1900s and varied ideas have been proposed to explain different aspects of the ground water flow system. The purpose of the present study was to delineate the spatial distribution and source, or sources, of recharge to the carbonate aquifer of the central Roswell Basin. A computer model was used to simulate ground water flow in the carbonate aquifer, beneath and west of Roswell and in the Glorieta Sandstone and Yeso Formation west of the carbonate aquifer.

Rehfeldt, K.R.; Gross, G.W.

1982-02-01

75

P and S Travel Time Tomography Using a Dense Array of Portable Seismographs and Earthquake Sources in Central Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two pockets of increased seismicity rates in Central Oklahoma provide a unique opportunity to study the deep crustal structure of the area using passive travel-time tomography to analyze data from 156 single-channel seismic recorders with spacings between 0.4 and 0.8 km. The consistency of the seismicity in these areas provided the equivalent of a detailed, reversed seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile. The November 5, 2011, M5.6 earthquake in Lincoln County, Oklahoma, was followed by a series of aftershocks, which provided the sources on the eastern end of the profile, and an earthquake swarm 50km to the west, which has been ongoing since October 2009 in Oklahoma County, provided the western sources. Previous studies of these earthquake sequences, using the Oklahoma Geological Survey's Regional Seismic Network, aided by additional stations from the U. S. Geological Survey, provided reasonably well-constrained velocity models and double-differenced relocations for each earthquake. During the four nights the instruments were recording, eight earthquakes with magnitudes between M0.9 and M2.3 were recorded for this study: two were a part of the Oklahoma County swarm, and the other six were of the Lincoln County sequence. These earthquakes yielded a combined total of approximately 2,500 travel times for direct and refracted P and S phases, and provided ray coverage into the Conrad discontinuity, as well as arrivals that appear to be deep reflections. The earthquake sources also provided strong S-wave arrivals.

Toth, C. R.; Holland, A. A.; Keller, G. R.; Holloway, S. D.

2012-12-01

76

Storm deposits (tempestites) in Ordovician cratonic carbonates (Arbuckle Group, south-central Oklahoma)  

SciTech Connect

The Early Ordovician Kindblade Formation (Arbuckle Group), exposed in the Arbuckle Mountains of south-central Oklahoma, is a shallow marine epicontinental carbonate sequence that contains numerous storm deposits. The storm deposits (tempestites) are of two types, proximal and distal; the latter dominates in terms of both number and aggregate thickness. Distal tempestites consist of a fining upward sequence, 5 to 50 cm (2 to 20 in.) thick, that overlies an eroded hardground or firmground. The sequence consists of a lag lithoclastic grainstone that grades up into a laminated peloidal grainstone and then into mudstone. Primary sedimentary features such as laminations, burrows, and allochems are truncated at the surfaces, and borings are filled with unsorted lithoclasts. The lithoclasts at the base of the sequence are bored, generally well rounded, discoid in shape, and consist of mudstone, peloidal packstone, and oolitic grainstone. The overlying mudstone is sparsely fossiliferous and bioturbated with burrows either selectively dolomitized or infilled with lithoclastric grainstone. Proximal tempestites consist of coarse lithoclastic flat pebble conglomerate beds approximately 1 m (3.25 ft) thick that are interbedded with ooid grainstone and overlie mudstone. The contact between the units is sharp and erosional. The lithoclasts are of variable composition and may be up to 20 cm (7.75 in.) in diameter. The two types of tempestites occur in crude cycles, which consist of distal deposits overlain by proximal tempestites and ooid grainstones. The abundance of the storm deposits in the section, approximately one every 20 cm (7.75 in.), indicates that hundreds of storm-induced events are recorded in the Kindblade Formation.

Goldhammer, R.K.; Elmore, R.D.

1983-03-01

77

Climatology of aerosol optical depth in North-Central Oklahoma: 1992-2008  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloud-screening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun's elevation is greater than 9.25{sup o}. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

Michalsky, J.; Schwartz, S.; Denn, F.; Flynn, C.; Hodges, G.; Kiedron, P.; Koontz, A.; Schlemmer, J., and Schwartz, S. E

2010-04-01

78

Climatology of aerosol optical depth in north-central Oklahoma: 1992-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloud-screening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun's elevation is greater than 9.25°. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

Michalsky, Joseph; Denn, Frederick; Flynn, Connor; Hodges, Gary; Kiedron, Piotr; Koontz, Annette; Schlemmer, James; Schwartz, Stephen E.

2010-04-01

79

Occurrence of nitrous oxide in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrogen-enriched groundwater has been proposed as an important anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), yet few measurements of N2O in large aquifer systems have been made. Concentrations of N2O in water samples collected from the 124 000 km2 central High Plains aquifer in 1999 ranged from < 1 to 940 nM, with a median concentration of 29 nM (n = 123). Eighty percent of the N20 concentrations exceeded the aqueous concentration expected from equilibration with atmospheric N2O. Measurements of N2O, NO3-, and 3H in unsaturated-zone sediments, recently recharged groundwater, and older groundwater indicate that concentrations of N2O in groundwater increased over time and will likely continue to increase in the future as N-enriched water recharges the aquifer. Large concentrations of O2 and NO3- and small concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic carbon in the aquifer indicate that N2O in the central High Plains aquifer was produced primarily by nitrification. Calculations indicate that the flux of N2O from the central High Plains aquifer to the atmosphere from well pumping and groundwater discharge to streams was not a significant source of atmospheric N2O.Nitrogen-enriched groundwater has been proposed as an important anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), yet few measurements of N2O in large aquifer systems have been made. Concentrations of N2O in water samples collected from the 124000 km2 central High Plains aquifer in 1999 ranged from < 1 to 940 nM, with a median concentration of 29 nM (n = 123). Eighty percent of the N2O concentrations exceeded the aqueous concentration expected from equilibration with atmospheric N2O. Measurements of N2O, NO3-, and 3H in unsaturated-zone sediments, recently recharged groundwater, and older groundwater indicate that concentrations of N2O in groundwater increased over time and will likely continue to increase in the future as N-enriched water recharges the aquifer. Large concentrations of O2 and NO3- and small concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic carbon in the aquifer indicate that N2O in the central High Plains aquifer was produced primarily by nitrification. Calculations indicate that the flux of N2O from the central High Plains aquifer to the atmosphere from well pumping and groundwater discharge to streams was not a significant source of atmospheric N2O.Water samples were collected from 92 domestic wells, 16 monitoring wells and 15 public-supply wells in the High Plains Aquifer in 1999, and concentrations of nitrous oxide were measured. The groundwater concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 940 nM. Concentrations expressed as a percent of saturation in water ranged from less than 10 to 9690%. A significant decrease was noted in N2O concentrations with increasing depth of the well screen below the water table, and a significant positive correlation was found between the concentrations of N2O and nitrate. The small area-averaged N2O emission rate for the aquifer indicated that it was not an important component of the atmospheric N2O budget, but the importance could increase as groundwater N2O concentrations increase.

Mcmahon, P. B.; Bruch, B. W.; Becker, M. F.; Pope, L. M.; Dennehy, K. F.

2000-01-01

80

Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer of central Israel, its development and possible use as a storage reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cenomanian-Turonian formations constitute a highly permeable dolomite and limestone aquifer in central Israel. The aquifer is on the west limb of an anticlinorium that trends north-northeast. In places it may be as much as 800 meters thick, but in the report area, largely the foothills of the Judean-Ephraim Mountains where the water development is most intensive, its thickness is generally considerably less. In some places the aquifer occurs at or near the land surface, or it is covered by sandy and gravelly coastal-plain deposits. However, in a large part of the area, it is overlain by as much as 400 meters of relatively impermeable strata, and it is probably underlain by less permeable Lower Cretaceous strata. In general the aquifer water is under artesian pressure. The porosity of the aquifer is characterized mainly by solution channels and cavities produced by jointing and faulting. In addition to the generally high permeability of the aquifer, some regions, which probably coincide with ancient drainage patterns and (or) fault zones, have exceptionally high permeabilities. The source of most of the water in the aquifer is believed to be rain that falls on the foothills area. The westward movement of ground water from the mountainous outcrop areas appears to be impeded by a zone of low permeability which is related to structural and stratigraphic conditions along the western side of the mountains. Gradients of the piezometric surface are small, and the net direction of water movement is westward and northwestward under natural conditions. Locally, however, the flow pattern may be in other directions owing to spatial variations in permeability in the aquifer, the location of natural discharge outlets, and the relation of the aquifer to adjacent geologic formations. There probably is also a large vertical component of flow. Pumping has modified the flow pattern by producing several irregularly shaped shallow depressions in the piezometric surface although, to date, no unwatering of the aquifer has occurred. In the central part of the area, pumping has induced some infiltration from overlying coastal-plain formations. Injecting and storing surplus water seasonally in the aquifer should be feasible at almost any place. However, the movement and recovery of the injected water probably could be controlled most easily if the water were injected where depressions have been formed in the piezometric surface.

Schneider, Robert

1964-01-01

81

Historical saturated thickness of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and selected contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The saturated thickness of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system exceeds 1,000 feet in the southern part of the aquifer system and thins to less than 100 feet near the northern limits. The Edwards- Trinity aquifer system of west-central Texas is composed primarily of Cretaceous limestone and dolomite. The three aquifers comprising the aquifer system are the Edwards aquifer of the Balcones fault zone, the Trinity aquifer of the Balcones fault zone and Hill Country, and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer of the Edwards Plateau and Trans-Pecos. The two confining units within the aquifer system are the Hammett and the Navarro-Del Rio confining units, neither of which is laterally extensive throughout the entire aquifer system. The saturated thickness was determined by subtracting the altitude of the base of the aquifer system from the altitude of the historical potentiometric surface. Variations in saturated thickness result from variations in the altitude of the base of the aquifer and the altitude of the historical potentiometric surface. Troughs and ridges on the pre-Cretaceous surface upon which the aquifer system rests affect the thickness of saturation. The potentiometric surface is depressed in areas of stream dissection, resulting in less saturated thickness in these areas.

Ardis, Ann F.; Barker, Rene A.

1993-01-01

82

Artificial recharge to the Floridan aquifer system, Orlando Area, Central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Approximately 400 drainage wells exist in Orange County, central Florida. The rate of recharge through drainage wells is limited by the rate of surface flow to the wells; the hydraulic properties of weirs, overflow pipes, and well casings; or the water level above the top of the casing. The rate commonly is not limited by the hydraulic properties of the very transmissive aquifer system.

German, E. R.; Bradner, L. A.

1989-01-01

83

Assessment of CWS Facilities Utilizing the Macon-Christian Strip Aquifer in Central Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a study of a regional aquifer in central Illinois and the public water supplies that depend on it for all, or most of their drinking water needs. The intent of the study is to bring together and consolidate into one report, several different...

W. Boring

1997-01-01

84

The Mahomet aquifer: A transboundary resource in east-central Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emerging intrastate transboundary issues focus on use of the Mahomet aquifer, which underlies about fifteen counties and many other political entities in east-central Illinois. This sand and gravel aquifer in the lower part of the buried Mahomet Bedrock Valley ranges between four and fourteen miles wide and from about 50 to 200 feet thick. Much of the region's rural population, several large communities, and many small towns obtain water from the Mahomet aquifer, as do industrial, agricultural, and commercial users. Increased development of the Mahomet aquifer to meet growing demands for water has caused conflicts over real or perceived adverse effects. One result has been the creation of fifteen resource protection zones and twelve water authorities. For groundwater supplies, resource protection zones help municipalities protect water-supply wells from potential adverse impacts. Many resource protection zones overlap one another, however, so this situation could lead to disputes over use of the resource. The reason that several of the twelve water authorities were organized was to meet a challenge perceived from a demand to be placed on the aquifer, in other words, a potential for conflict of use. Complicating the situation is that some of the water authorities overlap the resource protection zones. This could lead to disputes not only about water use, but also over which jurisdiction has the authority to settle a dispute. The Mahomet Aquifer Consortium was recently organized by concerned people representing diverse groundwater interests at the local level, including the private sector, professional organizations, and various governmental units. The consortium brings together representatives of some groups that typically did not communicate with each other in the past. The consortium may provide a forum through which emerging transboundary issues pertaining to use of the Mahomet aquifer can be addressed. Because the consortium is a voluntary organization that relies on Consensus building, the success it may achieve in resolving future conflicts over groundwater use from the Mahomet aquifer remains to be seen.

Larson, D. R.; Mehnert, E.; Herzog, B. L.

2003-01-01

85

The Diurnal Wind Variation in the Lowest 1500 ft in Central Oklahoma: June 1966-May 1967.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One year of wind data from a television tower in northern Oklahoma City has been analyzed on a diurnal basis. The annual mean speeds below the third level at 296 ft are lowest at night and highest during the day, and conversely the speeds up to the sevent...

K. C. Crawford H. R. Hudson

1972-01-01

86

Ethnic Identity and the Boarding School Experience of West-Central Oklahoma American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports on a study of the perceptions of Oklahoma American Indians about their childhood experiences in government and church-sponsored boarding schools. Drawing on symbolic anthropology, the boarding school experience is interpreted to be a complex cultural symbol and symbolic process that contributes to group collectivity and belonging…

McBeth, Sally J.

87

Succession in grasslands: Thirty-two years of change in a central Oklahoma tallgrass prairie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Old field succession in Oklahoma has been reported to involve four stages of development: pioncer weeds, annual grass, bunch grass, and mature prairie. This sequence has been the basis for a number of analyses of grassland structure and function, but has never been documented on a single site. We used multivariate techniques to study succession on three permanent plots with

S. L. Collins; D. E. Adams

1983-01-01

88

Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 147 micrograms per liter. Both samples had alkaline pH values, 8.0 and 8.4, respectively. Uranium concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 383 micrograms per liter with 5 of 20 samples exceeding the Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter; the five wells with uranium concentrations exceeding 30 micrograms per liter had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and gross alpha-particle activity showed a positive relation to pH, with the highest concentrations and activity in samples having pH values of 8.0 or above. The groundwater samples contained dissolved oxygen and high concentrations of bicarbonate; these characteristics are also factors in increasing uranium solubility. Concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 (combined) ranged from 0.03 to 1.7 picocuries per liter, with a median concentration of 0.45 picocuries per liter for all samples. Radon-222 concentrations ranged from 95 to 3,600 picocuries per liter with a median concentration of 261 picocuries per liter. Eight samples having pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.7 exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picocuries per liter for radon-222. Eight samples exceeded the 15 picocuries per liter Maximum Contaminant Level for gross alpha-particle activity at 72 hours (after sample collection) and at 30 days (after the initial count); those samples had pH values ranging from 8.0 to 8.5. Gross beta-particle activity increased in 15 of 21 samples during the interval from 72 hours to 30 days. The increase in gross beta-particle activity over time probably was caused by the ingrowth and decay of uranium daughter products that emit beta particles. Water-quality data collected for this study indicate that pH values above 8.0 are associated with potentially high concentrations of uranium and radon-222 and high gross alpha-particle activity in the study area. High pH values also are associated with potentially high concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and selenium in groundwater when these elements oc

Becker, Carol J.

2013-01-01

89

Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 41.21 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2006 through May 2007) was 11.63 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.84 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period May 21-25, 2007. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. A corresponding potentiometric-surface map was prepared for areas east and north of the Southwest Florida Water Management District boundary by the U.S. Geological Survey office in Orlando, Florida (Kinnaman and Dixon, 2007). Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal low water-level condition.

Ortiz, A. G.

2008-01-01

90

Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 39.50 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2006 through September 2007) was 13.42 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.92 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. Most of the water-level data for this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period September 17-21, 2007. Supplemental water-level data were collected by other agencies and companies. A corresponding potentiometric-surface map was prepared for areas east and north of the Southwest Florida Water Management District boundary by the U.S. Geological Survey office in Orlando, Florida (Kinnaman and Dixon, 2008). Most water-level measurements were made during a 5-day period; therefore, measurements do not represent a 'snapshot' of conditions at a specific time, nor do they necessarily coincide with the seasonal high water-level condition.

Ortiz, A. G.

2008-01-01

91

Appraisal of the Pelican River sand-plain aquifer, west-central Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pelican River sand-plain area includes approximately 200 squares miles of outwash deposits in parts of Becker, Otter Trail, and Clay Counties in west-central Minnesota. Saturated thickness of the outwash is as much as 140 feet and yields and properly constructed wells locally may exceed 1,200 gallons per minute. Recharge to the outwash from snowmelt and rain ranged from 3.2 to 6.1 inches in 1979-80. Discharge from the aquifer, as base flow of the Pelican River averaged 2.0 inches for 1979-80. Evapotranspiration is 22.4 inches per year. The chemical quality of ground-water is suitable for irrigation as measured by sodium-adsorption ratios, but locally high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate may cause clogging of well screens. Mathematical models of parts of the ground-water-flow system indicate that lake levels and streamflow may decline due to pumping wells. The exact water-level decline is dependent on the total number of wells, pumping rates, location of pumping wells with respect to one another and surface-water bodies, duration of pumping, and the amount of ground-water recharge. Sensitivity analyses of the models indicates that additional data on hydraulic conductivity, evapotranspiration, and recharge may increase the reliability of model results. Buried aquifers are known to be present in the area. Aquifer-test results showed that pumping from a buried aquifer had no effect on water levels in the unconfined aquifer. (USGS)

Miller, R. T.

1982-01-01

92

Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, May 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water table in the surficial aquifer (sand) and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer (limestone) in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared each May and September to coincide with seasonal low and high ground-water levels. The mapped area contains nine producing well fields which supplied 92.8 million gallons on May 12, 1976 to municipalities along the Gulf Coast. This pumpage came from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in the State of Florida. The effect of well-field withdrawals is shown on the maps as cones of depression in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. The May 1976 maps indicate that water levels have declined below sea level in some areas. The decline results from reduced recharge during the dry spring combined with an increase in pumpage for lawn irrigation.

Hutchinson, C. B.; Mills, L. R.

1977-01-01

93

Occurrence of minor toxic elements in volcanic-sedimentary aquifers: a case study in central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of minor toxic elements (arsenic, vanadium and fluoride among others) in the volcanic aquifers of central Italy,\\u000a with concentrations often above the national standards for drinking waters, has been recognized since the 1970s. However,\\u000a these groundwaters are still often used for human consumption. With the aim of providing insight into the water–rock interaction\\u000a processes, as well as into

Raffaella Vivona; Elisabetta Preziosi; Benoît Madé; Giuseppe Giuliano

2007-01-01

94

Audit of Office on Violence Against Women Grant to Reduce Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Assault, and Stalking on Campus Program Awarded to East Central University, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of the Inspector General, Audit Division, has completed an audit of Grant Number 2007-WA-AX-0004, awarded by the Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), to East Central University (ECU), Oklahoma, in the amount of $1,699,999 under the Grants to...

2012-01-01

95

Gravity constraints on lithosphere flexure and the structure of the late Paleozoic Ouachita orogen in Arkansas and Oklahoma, south central North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral analysis of Bouguer gravity anomalies in western central Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma indicates that the thickness of the crust in the Ouachita fold and thrust belt increases from 38 km in the western Ouachitas to 44 km in the eastern Ouachitas. The change in crustal thickness occurs near the western end of the Broken Bow uplift and coincides with

Dennis L. Harry; Kevin L. Mickus

1998-01-01

96

Oklahoma-Kansas Preliminary Regional Experiment for Storm-Central (O-K Pre-Storm). Volume 3. Aircraft Mission Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the document is to provide researchers with a synopsis of the flights taken during May and June of 1985 as part of the Oklahoma-Kansas Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central (PRE-STORM). The technical memorandum is the final publ...

J. G. Meitin

1988-01-01

97

A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 49 synthetic organic compounds. Ten pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the upstream site and seven pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the downstream site. Pesticides detected at both sites were atrazine, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and trans-nonachlor. Additionally at the upstream site, heptachlor, pentachlorophenol, and prometon were detected. The pesticide metabolites p,p'-DDE, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane also were detected at both sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds aroclor-1016/1242, aroclor-1254, and aroclor-1260 were detected at both sites. The upstream site had 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon detections and the downstream site had 8 detections. Because of chromatographic interference during analysis, a positive identification of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could not be made. Consequently, there may have been a greater number of these compounds detected at both sites. A total of 36 synthetic organic compounds were detected at the two sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The upstream site had 21 synthetic organic compound detections: three detergent metabolites, two fecal indicators, three flame retardants, seven industrial compounds, five compounds related to personal care products, and beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol. Fifteen synthetic organic compounds were detected at the downstream site and included: one fecal indicator, three flame retardants, six industrial compounds, and five compounds related to personal care products.

Becker, Carol J.

2010-01-01

98

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the panhandle to Canton Lake in northwestern Oklahoma. Ground water in 830 square miles of the Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace aquifer is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer consists of poorly sorted, fine to coarse, unconsolidated quartz sand with minor amounts of clay, silt, and basal gravel. The hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits unconformably overlie the Tertiary-age Ogallala Formation and Permian-age formations. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary and recharge data sets and some of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity data set were extracted from a published digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of 1:250,000. The ground-water elevation contours and some of the lines for the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were digitized from a ground-water modeling report about the aquifer published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values and recharge rates also are from the ground-water modeling report. The data sets are provided in both nonproprietary and ARC/INFO export file formats. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G. P.; Runkle, D. L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

99

Potential for downward leakage to the Floridan Aquifer, Green Swamp area, central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A qualitative evaluation of the potential for downward leakage from the surficial sand aquifer to the underlying Floridan aquifer was made for the Green Swamp area (about 870 sq mi) in central Florida. Downward leakage, or recharge, is limited under natural conditions owing to the nearness to land surface of the potentiometric surface of both the sand aquifer and the underlying Floridan aquifer. Continuous cores of the unconsolidated section were obtained at 74 sites in the study area and were evaluated for downward leakage potential based on grain-size distribution. Sand percentage was estimated for each interval or bed from microscopic examination of the core samples. The four maps prepared from this data show sand thickness, clay thickness, relative vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds and the relative potential for downward leakage. About 20 percent (178 sq mi) of the area classified has a relatively good potential for downward leakage; almost 50 percent of the area has a relatively poor potential. (Woodard-USGS)

Grubb, H. F.

1977-01-01

100

Preliminary statistical analysis and provenance trends in Desmoinesian sandstones from central and eastern Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Desmoinesian sandstones from the northeast Oklahoma platform and from the Anadarko and McAlester basins record a complex interaction between mid-Pennsylvanian source-area tectonism and cyclic sedimentation patterns associated with transgressions and regressions. Framework grain summaries for 67 thin sections from sandstones of the Cherokee Group (Bartlesville, Red Fork, Skinner, and Prue) were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis to establish regional compositional trends for provenance analysis. R-mode cluster and correspondence analyses were used to determine the contributing effect (total variance) of key framework grains. Fragments of monocrystalline and polycrystalline quartz, chert, metamorphic rock, and limestone contribute most to the variation in the grain population. Q-mode cluster and correspondence analyses were used to identify three distinct petrofacies. Petrofacies I is rich in monocrystalline quartz (86 to 98%) and contains rare mica and rock fragments. Petrofacies II is also rich in monocrystalline quartz (66 to 86%) and contains as much as 15% metamorphic and sedimentary rock fragments. Petrofacies III is compositionally heterogeneous and contains fragments of polycrystalline and monocrystalline quartz, mica, chert, and metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Quantitative analyses indicate that Desmoinesian sandstones were derived from complex sedimentary and metamorphic source areas. Petrofacies I sandstones are restricted to the southwestern part of the Anadarko basin and the northeast Oklahoma platform, whereas petrofacies II and III sandstones are distributed throughout the study area. The distribution of petrofacies within the region suggests a model of source-area interaction and cratonic sediment recycling.

Dyman, T.S.

1987-05-01

101

Basin-scale geohydrologic drought flow features of riparian aquifers in the southern Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-streamflow hydrographs from 22 subbasins in the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) Washita River Experimental Watershed complex in central Oklahoma were subjected to recession slope analysis; this method, after that of Brutsaert and Nieber [1977], was derived from a Dupuit-Boussinesq formulation for the groundwater outflows from the adjoining phreatic aquifers. The long-time aquifer response characteristics were generally found

Wilfried Brutsaert; James P. Lopez

1998-01-01

102

Investigating Vertical Mixing Between Two Carbonate Aquifers Using a Multiport Well, Central Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the occurrence and extent of mixing between vertically-adjacent aquifers is critical to dual-aquifer management. This can be challenging due to variable well depths and uncertainty as to hydrostratigraphic sources of groundwater. This study uses a multiport monitor well to investigate the degree of aquifer mixing between the overlying Edwards aquifer and underlying Trinity aquifer in central Texas. The results will inform dual-aquifer management as the Trinity aquifer is being developed as an alternative water source to the Edwards aquifer due to pumping limits and projections of increasing water demand. Water levels from isolated hydrostratigraphic units (n = 19) were measured monthly in the well as climate conditions transitioned from wet to dry (Sept 2010 to May 2011). Groundwater was sampled over a two-week interval in May to June 2011. At the start of the monitoring interval, water levels were high in the Edwards and the uppermost units of the Trinity relative to the rest of the Trinity units. Water levels decreased to lower elevations, from about 635 to 585 ft-msl, under dry conditions. Water levels in the lowermost Trinity declined less, from about 630 to 620 ft-msl, under dry conditions. Two zones separating the Edwards and lowermost Trinity showed almost no head change during this period. The water-level variations between the two aquifers suggest that: i) vertical flow potential from the Edwards to the Trinity occurs during dry conditions, ii) the uppermost stratigraphic units of the Trinity and Edwards are mixing, and iii) portions of the Trinity behave as an aquitard, providing hydrologic separation between the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units. Groundwater samples indicate the presence of three distinct hydrochemical facies: Ca-HCO3 (Edwards), Ca-HCO3-SO4 (lowermost Trinity), and Ca-SO4 (Trinity-Glen Rose Fm), suggesting little vertical flow and mixing. Covariation between groundwater 87Sr/86Sr values and SO4 concentrations from units of the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units can be accounted for by a two-end-member fluid mixing model, which uses a unit from the Edwards and lowermost Trinity as end members. This may indicate that 87Sr/86Sr values and SO4 concentrations are controlled by varying extents of mixing between the two units. Groundwater from units in the Glen Rose Formation (between the Edwards and lowermost Trinity units) cannot be accounted for by this mixing process due to elevated SO4 concentrations likely associated with dissolution of evaporites. 87Sr/86Sr values of evaporites recovered from the well are consistent with 87Sr/86Sr values of groundwater from these Glen Rose units. Although the geochemical model results suggest possible mixing between the Edwards and Trinity aquifers, water-level variations and the presence of distinct hydrochemical facies indicate that vertical flow between the Edwards and Trinity is limited to the uppermost units of the Trinity. This study suggests that the Edwards aquifer and lowermost Trinity units are not likely in hydrologic communication and independent management may be possible.

Kromann, J.; Wong, C. I.; Hunt, B.; Smith, B.; Banner, J. L.

2011-12-01

103

The diurnal wind variation in the lowest 1500 ft in central Oklahoma - June 1966-May 1967.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-year accumulation of wind data from a television tower in northern Oklahoma City has been analyzed on a diurnal basis. The annual mean speeds below the third level at 296 ft are lowest at night and highest during the day, and conversely the speeds up to the seventh level at 1458 ft are lowest during the day and highest at night. Generally, speed changes occur in short time periods shortly after sunrise and near sunset. Resultant wind directions veer most with height from 1700 to 1000 CST and least during midday. At all levels winds veer with time between 2100 and approximately 1100 CST and then back with time during the remaining hours.

Crawford, K. C.; Hudson, H. R.

1973-01-01

104

Characterizing a complex aquifer system using geophysics, hydrodynamics and geochemistry: A new distribution of Miocene aquifers in the Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks (east-central Tunisia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks are located in the Sahel region in east-central Tunisia. Active tectonics have divided the region into numerous sub-units, as result of multiple phases of distension and compression. The Miocene fluvio-deltaic sediment sandy layers have aquiferous capacities but their hydraulic properties are still unknown, due to the lack of investigation wells. This study proposes a new description of the regional hydrogeology of Miocene deposits. Seismic-reflection and wireline logging of petroleum and water wells were used to understand the structure and the geometry of the Miocene reservoirs. The groundwater flow and its relationship to the sedimentary and tectonic context were then identified by studying piezometry and hydrochemistry. Two Miocene deep aquifer systems were identified: (1) Zéramdine-Béni Hassen to the north and (2) Jébéniana-Ksour Essef to the south. These aquifers are separated by the Mahdia graben. Other major tectonic structures, such as the Zéramdine fault corridor, the Moknine graben, and the El-Jem half-graben represent lateral boundaries for these aquifers. Other deeper sandy and clayey-sandy reservoirs were also identified in the area. Their repartition, thickness and depth vary from one block to other. Hydrodynamics of the deep aquifers seems to be controlled by geological structures. Two independent compartments were identified: in the northern block groundwater flows from West to East and from Northwest to Southeast, while in the southern block it flows from Northwest to Southeast. Geochemical facies are of two types: Na-Ca-Cl-SO 4 for the Zéramdine-Béni Hassen deep aquifer and Na-Cl for the Jébéniana-Ksour Essef deep aquifer. The hydrodynamic and geochemical results confirm the sharing of the Miocene sediments into two aquifers.

Lachaal, Fethi; Bédir, Mourad; Tarhouni, Jamila; Gacha, Ayadi Ben; Leduc, Christian

2011-06-01

105

Calibrated models as management tools for stream-aquifer systems: the case of central Kansas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We address the problem of declining streamflows in interconnected stream-aquifer systems and explore possible management options to address the problem for two areas of central Kansas: the Arkansas River valley from Kinsley to Great Bend and the lower Rattlesnake Creek-Quivira National Wildlife Refuge area. The approach we followed implements, calibrates, and partially validates for the study areas a stream-aquifer numerical model combined with a parameter estimation package and sensitivity analysis. Hydrologic budgets for both predevelopment and developed conditions indicate significant differences in the hydrologic components of the study areas resulting from development. The predevelopment water budgets give an estimate of natural ground-water recharge, whereas the budgets for developed conditions give an estimate of induced recharge, indicating that major ground-water development changes the recharge-discharge regime of the model areas with time. Such stream-aquifer models serve to link proposed actions to hydrologic effects, as is clearly demonstrated by the effects of various management alternatives on the streamflows of the Arkansas River and Rattlesnake Creek. Thus we show that a possible means of restoring specified streamflows in the area is to implement protective stream corridors with restricted ground-water extraction. ?? 1993.

Sophocleous, M.; Perkins, S. P.

1993-01-01

106

Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

2013-04-01

107

Data for ground-water test hole near Butte City, Central Valley aquifer project, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides preliminary data for the third of seven test holes drilled as part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 1 W., Glenn County, California, about one-half mile south of the town of Butte City. Drilled to a depth of 1,432 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 82 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 592 feet, 968 feet, and 1,330 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer , and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Nine cores and 49 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, and chemical quality of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

French, James J.; Page, R. W.; Bertoldi, G. L.

1983-01-01

108

Hydrogeology and analysis of aquifer characteristics in west-central Pinellas County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pinellas County, Florida, conducted an investigation to describe the hydrogeology and analyze the aquifer characteristics in west-central Pinellas County. A production test well and four monitor wells were constructed in Pinellas County at Walsingham Park during 1996-97. Water-quality sampling, static and dynamic borehole geophysical surveys, and hydraulic tests were conducted at the wells to delineate the hydrogeology at Walsingham Park. A 9-day aquifer test was conducted to determine the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer system and observe the changes in water quality due to pumping. A numerical model was constructed to simulate the aquifer test and calculate values for hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient for permeable zones and confining units at Walsingham Park. Final calibrated values for hydraulic conductivity for the different permeable zones and confining units at the test site were 18 feet per day for Upper Zone A, 750 feet per day for Lower Zone A, 1 foot per day for Zone B, 1x10-4 feet per day for the intermediate confining unit, and 10 feet per day for the semiconfining unit separating Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A. Final calibrated values for storage coefficient were 3.1x10-4 for Upper Zone A, 8.6x10-5 for Lower Zone A, 2.6x10-5 for Zone B, 3.1x10-4 for the intermediate confining unit, and 4.3x10-5 for the semiconfining unit separating Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A. Estimates of transmissivity for Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A were about 2,500 and 37,500 feet squared per day, respectively.

Broska, J. C.; Barnette, H. L.

1999-01-01

109

Hydrogeological characterization of the Childress Creek basin, central Texas using aquifer testing and geophysical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Childress Creek Basin comprises about one-seventh of the Washita Prairie Edwards Aquifer which is a shallow aquifer easily susceptible to groundwater contamination. The purpose of this study is to characterize aquifer properties within Childress Creek Basin so that a better understanding can aid management and protection of its water quality. Although this aquifer is sparingly used by the largely

Scheerhorn

1993-01-01

110

Multiple episodes of dolomitization in the Arbuckle Group, Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma: Field, petrographic, and geochemical evidence  

SciTech Connect

The Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group in the Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma, had a complex history of dolomitization that resulted in two different geometries of dolomite bodies: stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically consistent, widespread distribution, and non-stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically inconsistent, local occurrence. Stratal dolomite includes the Royer and Butterly units in the lower Arbuckle Group. Most stratal dolomite samples are coarsely crystalline and have {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios similar to Late Cambrian limestone and coeval seawater. All stratal dolomite and Arbuckle limestone samples have low {Delta}{sup 18}O values. Nonstratal dolomite is present in two areas: the Tishomingo Anticline and the Arbuckle Anticline. In the Tishomingo Anticline area, massive bodies (> 10 km{sup 2}) of nonstratal dolomite are present in a paleokarst system of pre-Middle Ordovician age. The petrographic and isotopic characteristics suggest that the nonstratal dolomite probably resulted from dolomitization of recrystallized limestone by post-Early Ordovician seawater. In the Arbuckle Anticline area, nonstratal dolomite is present as small irregular bodies that are related to Pennsylvanian faults and are associated with the margins of stratal Butterly dolomite. The nonstratal dolomite, medium to coarsely crystalline and brightly luminescent, is characterized by high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios values, and Fe and Mn concentrations, relative to all Arbuckle carbonates. Such compositions suggest that this type of dolomite probably originated from fluids that were derived from the adjacent basin(s) during late Paleozoic time.

Gao, G.; Land, L.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Elmore, R.D. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

1995-04-03

111

Data for ground-water test hole near Zamora, Central Valley Aquifer Project, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Preliminary data are presented for the first of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 34, T. 12 N. , R. 1 E., Yolo County, California, about 3 miles northeast of the town of Zamora. Drilled to a depth of 2,500 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 190 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 947, 1,401, and 2,125 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Eighteen cores and 68 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, diatom identification, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

French, J. J.; Page, R. W.; Bertoldi, G. L.

1982-01-01

112

Stable isotope systematics in ground water from the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Cretaceous Edwards aquifer in the Balcones fault zone of south-central Texas consists of a fresh-water zone to the north and a saline-water zone to the south. Isotopic analyses of water and rock samples collected from the fresh and saline zones, combined with additional chemical data, were used to examine regional variations in isotopic and chemical signatures. The fresh-water zone contains Ca-HCO[sub 3] water under oxidizing conditions. Water in the saline zone varies from Ca-SO[sub 4] to Na-Cl water under generally reducing conditions. The [delta] O-18 and [delta] D values of water from both zones have a meteoric signature. Mineral saturation indices suggest that water compositions are buffered by the predominant aquifer minerals; calcite (dedolomite) in the fresh-water zone and dolomite in the saline-water zone. Covariant linear trends in major element data indicate conservative mixing of a dilute end member with Na-rich and Ca-rich saline end members. Variation of delta C-13 of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with conservative element and TDS concentrations does not suggest simple mixing, but rather that equilibrium processes are controlling the [delta] C-13 signature of DIC. Isotopic equilibrium is observed between DIC and late, pore-lining calcite cements in the fresh-water zone. Carbon isotopic equilibrium between saline-zone dolomite and DIC would imply a dolomite-HCO[sub 3] fractionation of up to 7[per thousand].

Blake, R.E. (Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States). Div. of Earth and Physical Sciences)

1992-01-01

113

Effects of cereal production on nutrient dynamics of shallow, unconfined aquifers in central Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of land management on groundwater chemistry are often poorly understood due to uncertainties in the connection between soil-vadose transport and groundwater recharge. In the Judith River Watershed of central Montana, decades of elevated and increasing groundwater nitrate may reflect both grassland soil organic matter mineralization upon cultivation and increasing N fertilizer use over time. Landform development and age are key to this connection because they determine aquifer character: Alluvial fans and strath terraces formed over the last two million years host shallow unconfined aquifers that are vulnerable to leaching in our study area, and are cultivated primarily for cereals, without irrigation. Solute and isotopic data from soils, well waters and emergent streams on characteristic landforms suggest that landform type and age, and the associated soil and vadose stratigraphy, are key determinants of hydrologic connection between soils and groundwater. We combine these data with conceptual models for nitrate leaching and groundwater flow to argue that solutes enter groundwater by dispersed recharge, as a function of seasonally rising water tables or increased infiltration that transports accumulated solutes from the soil-vadose zone. In leaching hot spots where fine textured soils are shallow to gravel, land management interacts with groundwater most intimately. Based on point measurements, we interpret larger scale effects of leaching using aerial imagery and satellite data.

Ewing, S. A.; Sigler, W.; Weissmann, G. S.

2012-12-01

114

Hydrogeology of and potential mining impacts on strippable lignite areas in the Denver Aquifer, east-central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study describes the hydrogeology of and potential impacts of mining on strippable lignite areas in the Denver aquifer in the east-central Colorado plains. Strippable lignitic coal seams , 20 to 60 ft thick, are present in the Denver Formation. The Denver aquifer, the saturated part of the Denver Formation, is likely to be affected locally by surface mining of lignite. Transmissivity of the aquifer in the study area ranges from 145 to 1,000 mg/L to the northeast in the study area as, hydraulic head decreases from 6,600 to 5,400 ft. Distance-drawdown curves show the extent of water level drawdown near a dewatered surface mine. After reclamation of the lignite mine pit, flow through the lignite spoil pile may increase the dissolved solids concentrations in the Denver aquifer. This increase could occur, because, as water from rain and overland flow percolates through the newly-exposed rock surfaces in the spoil material, minerals from the overburden can be dissolved in the water, which then joins with water from the aquifer. This increase could locally change streams, springs, and alluvial and bedrock aquifers. (USGS)

Driver, N. E.; Williams, R. S.

1986-01-01

115

Geologic Map of the Edwards Aquifer in Northern Medina and Northeastern Uvalde Counties, South-Central Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The southern segment of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas is one of the most productive subsurface reservoirs of ground water in the world, providing water to more than a million people in the San Antonio region. The Environmental Protection Agen...

A. K. Clark C. D. Blome D. E. Pedraza J. R. Faith

2006-01-01

116

Stream and aquifer biology of south-central Texas; a literature review, 1973-97  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes in table format 32 aquatic vertebrate (primarily fish), 54 aquatic invertebrate, and 13 aquatic plant studies available for the area of the South-Central Texas study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment. The studies, published mostly during 1973?97, pertain to the Guadalupe, San Antonio, and Nueces River Basins, the San Antonio-Nueces and Nueces-Rio Grande Coastal Basins, and the Edwards aquifer where it underlies the upper parts of the three river basins. The biology of the study-unit streams is determined mostly by the characteristics of the ecoregions they transect?the Edwards Plateau, Texas Blackland Prairies, East Central Texas Plains, Western Gulf Coastal Plain, and Southern Texas Plains. About 20 percent of the previous fish and invertebrate studies and about 75 percent of the aquatic plant surveys have centered on Comal Springs in Comal County and San Marcos Springs in Hays County. Although several important studies are available for the San Antonio region, documentation of aquatic biology for the remainder of the study unit is relatively sparse. The streams in the study unit, particularly in the Edwards Plateau, support three dominant biological groups?fish, aquatic invertebrates, and plants. Potential threats to these organisms include impoundments and flood-control projects, siltation from erosion, ground-water pumping, recreational activities, wastewater discharge, and introduction of non-native species. More than 30 non-native fish, invertebrate, and plant species have been introduced into the region. Of the 19 aquatic species Federally listed as endangered or threatened in Texas, 8 are associated with springs and spring runs in the study unit. All of the endangered species in the study unit are associated with springs and spring runs. A large number of endemic species in the study unit are associated with subterranean aquatic ecosystems, most likely a consequence of the unique proximity of the varied topographic and hydrologic conditions of the area and of the geological development of the Edwards aquifer. Ninety-one endemics, including 44 species found solely underground, are associated with the aquatic ecosystems (including springs) of the Edwards aquifer.

Ourso, R. T.; Hornig, C. E.

1999-01-01

117

Oklahoma Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published since the 1950s, Oklahoma Today is a production of several state agencies, and it is designed to showcase various cultural, historical, and social aspects of Oklahoma. Over the past several years, Oklahoma State University has digitized back issues of the magazine, and visitors can now read all the way back to the first issue from 1956. Visitors can browse back issues by decade, and they can also perform key-word searches. First-time visitors should start by reading through the spring 1960 issue, which contains pieces on rattlesnakes, Oklahoma wildflowers, and the Washington Irving Trail. While the name Washington Irving may not be commonly associated with Oklahoma, the author spent part of 1832 wandering through the state with a Native American guide. More recent issues feature profiles of singer Vince Gill and Route 66.

118

Rate of diffuse carbon dioxide Earth degassing estimated from carbon balance of regional aquifers: The case of central Apennine, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central Italy is characterized by an anomalous flux of deeply derived CO2. In the western Tyrrhenian sector of central Italy, CO2 degassing occurs mainly from focused emissions (vents and strong diffuse degassing) and thermal springs, whereas in the eastern Apennine area, deep CO2 is dissolved in ``cold'' groundwaters of regional aquifers hosted by Mesozoic carbonate-evaporite formations. Influx of deep CO2

G. Chiodini; F. Frondini; C. Cardellini; F. Parello; L. Peruzzi

2000-01-01

119

Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the middle Connecticut River basin, west-central New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Water Resources Division, to describe the geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the Middle Connecticut River Basin, west-central New Hampshire Stratified-drift aquifers discontinuously underlie 123 mi2 (square miles) of the Middle Connecticut River Basin, which has a total drainage area of 987 mi 2. Saturated thicknesses of stratified drift in the study area are locally greater than 500 feet but generally are less than 100 feet. Aquifer transmissivity locally exceeds 4,000 ft2/d (feet squared per day) but is generally less than 1,000 ft2/d. In only 17.2 mi2 of the study area are the aquifers identified as having a transmissivity greater than 1,000 ft2/d. As of 1990, total groundwater withdrawals from stratified drift for municipal supply were about 1.5 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in the study area. Many of the stratified-drift aquifers underlying the study area are not developed to their fullest potential. The geohydrologic investigation of the stratified-drift aquifers focused on aquifer properties, including aquifer boundaries; recharge, discharge, and direction of ground-water flow; saturated thickness and storage; and transmissivity. Surficial-geologic mapping assisted in the determination of aquifer boundaries. Data from more than 1,000 wells, test borings, and springs were used to prepare maps of water-table altitude, saturated thickness, and transmissivity of stratified drift. More than 11 miles of seismic-refraction profiling at 95 sites was used in the preparation of the water-table-altitude and saturated-thickness maps. Seismic-reflection data collected along 1.6 miles of Mascoma Lake also were used in preparation of the saturated-thickness maps. Four stratified-drift aquifers in the towns of Franconia, Haverhill, and Lisbon were analyzed to estimate the water availability on the basis of analytical ground-water model simulation based on the Theis confined-flow equation adjusted to account for boundary effects commonly associated with stratified-drift aquifers. Conservative estimates of water availability during a 180-day period of no recharge were estimated to be 1.9 Mgal/d for the Meadow Brook aquifer; 1.8 Mgal/d for the Ham Branch Brook aquifer; 1.5 Mgal/d for the Salmon Hole aquifer; and 1.4 Mgal/d for the Haverhill-French Pond aquifer. Water-availability estimates would be higher if periods of recharge were accounted for and if less conservative boundary conditions were used in the model. Results of analysis of water samples from 26 observation wells, 3 municipal water-supply wells, and 1 public-supply spring show that, with the exception of dissolved iron and manganese in some samples, water in the stratified-drift aquifers generally meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's primary and secondary drinking-water standards.

Flanagan, S. M.

1996-01-01

120

Genetic sequence stratigraphy of upper Desmoinesian Oswego limestone along northern shelf margin of Anadarko basin, West-Central Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pennsylvania Oswego limestone (upper Desmoinesian) in the vicinity of the northern shelf break of the Anadarko basin contains stratigraphic sequences and associated depositional facies that were controlled by eustatic variations in a slowly subsiding basin. Core descriptions, detailed well-log correlations, and facies maps of Oswego limestone in Dewey and Custer Counties, Oklahoma, supplemented by seismic data along dip profile,

Timothy P. Derstine

1988-01-01

121

A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains (fig. 1A). Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers (fig. 2) knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone (fig. 3). However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer (figs. 1A and 1B). The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in the Ogallala Formation is separated from overlying land-use practices by as much as 400 feet of unsaturated sediments. Consequently, one may hypothesize that recently recharged water is not present in the formation. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a reconnaissance study in 1999 to establish (a) if recently recharged water was present in the Ogallala Formation underlying irrigated cropland and (b) if agricultural land-use practices affect water quality. Results from the reconnaissance study will be used to determine whether a full-scale land-use study is warranted.

McMahon, Peter B.

2000-01-01

122

Hydrology of the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer, south-central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water flow simulation indicates that pumpage from the aquifer since the early 1900's has caused a decrease in ground-water outflow to rivers, an increase in flow from rivers into the aquifer, and an increase in flow to the aquifer through the overlying confining unit. By the mid-1970's, rivers became a source of more than 30 percent of total flow into the aquifer rather than the sink of net outflow, and by 1982 inflow through the overlying confining unit increased about 60 percent. Areas with the greatest potential for additional pumpage are northwestern Mississippi and northern parts of the area east of Crowleys Ridge.

Ackerman, D. J.

1996-01-01

123

A plan to study the aquifer system of the Central Valley of California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvial deposits comprise a large complex aquifer system in the Central Valley of California. Millions of acre-feet of water is pumped from the system annually to support a large and expanding agribusiness industry. Since the 1950's, water levels have been steadily declining in many areas of the valley and concern has been expressed about the ability of the entire ground-water system to support agribusiness at current levels, not to mention its ability to function at projected expansion levels. At current levels of ground-water use, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet is withdrawn from storage each year; that is, 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet of water is pumped annually in excess of annual replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 4-year study to develop geologic, hydrologic, and hydraulic information and to establish a valleywide ground-water data base that will be used to build computer models of the ground-water flow system. Subsequently, these models may be used to evaluate the system response to various ground-water management alternatives. This report describes current problems, objectives of the study, and outlines the general work to be accomplished in the study area. A bibliography of about 600 references is included. (Kosco-USGS)

Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

1979-01-01

124

Source and migration of dissolved manganese in the Central Nile Delta Aquifer, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved metals in waters in shallow deltaic sediments are one of the world’s major health problems, and a prime example is arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The Central Nile Delta Aquifer, a drinking water source for more than 6 million people, can have high concentrations of dissolved manganese (Mn). Standard hydrochemical analyses coupled with sequential chemical extraction is used to identify the source of the Mn and to identify the probable cause of the contamination. Fifty-nine municipal supply wells were sampled and the results compared with published data for groundwaters and surface waters. Drill cuttings from 4 wells were collected and analyzed by sequential chemical extraction to test the hypothesized Mn-generating processes. The data from this research show that the Mn source is not deep saline water, microbial reduction of Mn oxides at the production depth, or leakage from irrigation drainage ditches. Instead, Mn associated with carbonate minerals in the surficial confining layer and transported down along the disturbed well annulus of the municipal supply wells is the likely source. This analysis provides a basis for future hydrogeological and contaminant transport modeling as well as remediation-modification of well completion practices and pumping schedules to mitigate the problem.

Bennett, P. C.; El Shishtawy, A. M.; Sharp, J. M.; Atwia, M. G.

2014-08-01

125

Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas --- Field testing and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophocleous, M., Townsend, M.A., Vogler, L.D., McClain, T.J., Marks, E.T. and Coble, G.R., 1988. Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas -- Field testing and analysis. J. Hydrol., 98: 249-273. During the last several years, streamflows of a number of Kansas streams have been reduced as a result of groundwater declines. In order to better

MARIOS SOPHOCLEOUS; M. A. TOWNSEND; L. D. VOGLER; T. J. McCLAIN; E. T. MARKS; G. R. COBLE

1988-01-01

126

An assessment of the potential and impacts of winter water banking in the Sokh aquifer, Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of artificial recharge of winter surface flows coupled with increased summer groundwater use for irrigation in\\u000a the Sokh aquifer (Central Asia) have been investigated. Water release patterns from the giant Toktogul reservoir have changed,\\u000a as priority is now given to hydropower generation in winter in Kyrgyzstan. Winter flows have increased and summer releases\\u000a have declined, but the Syr

Inna Gracheva; Akmal Karimov; Hugh Turral; F. Miryusupov

2009-01-01

127

Chemical evolution and estimated flow velocity of water in the Trinity Aquifer, south-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three permeable zones with varying lithology and water chemistry compose the Trinity aquifer, a principal source of water in the 5,500-square-mile study area in south-central Texas. The upper permeable zone locally yields small quantities of water to wells and was not included in this study. The middle permeable zone primarily is composed of limestone with minor amounts of dolostone. Terrigenous sand and marine limestone, with minor amounts of dolostone, are the principal lithologic units in the lower permeable zone. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 329 to 1,820 milligrams per liter in water samples from the middle permeable zone and from 518 to 3,030 milligrams per liter in water samples from the lower permeable zone. Principal hydrochemical facies in the middle permeable zone are calcium magnesium bicarbonate and calcium magnesium sulfate. Hydrochemical facies in ground-water samples from the lower permeable zone vary. Tritium concentrations as large as 5.3 tritium units in the southeastern part of the study area are indicative of relatively recent recharge. Results of a geochemical mass balance simulation along a flowpath in the middle permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 4.25 millimoles per liter of dolomite dissolved, 5.74 millimoles per liter of gypsum dissolved, 0.46 millimole per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 8.07 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 0.67 millimole per liter of calcium-for-sodium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. These results support dedolomitization as a principal chemical process in the middle permeable zone of the Trinity aquifer. Results of a simulation along a flowpath in the lower permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 0.41 millimole per liter of dolomite dissolved, 0.001 millimole per liter of gypsum dissolved, 9.58 millimoles per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 1.09 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 1.11 millimoles per liter of sodium-for-calcium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. Lower permeable zone processes indicate sodium chloride dissolution, dedolomitization, and cation exchange. Ground-water-flow velocities determined from adjusted carbon-14 ages, calculated using NETPATH, for selected flowpaths in the middle and lower permeable zones were about 1.7 feet per year and less than about 4.4 feet per year, respectively.

Jones, Sonya A.; Lee, Roger W.; Busby, John F.

1997-01-01

128

Heat flow in Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty new heat flow values are incorporated, along with 40 previously published data, into a heat flow map of Oklahoma. The new heat flow data were estimated using previous temperature measurements in boreholes made by American Petroleum Institute researchers and 1,498 thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings. The mean of 20 average thermal gradients is 30.50sp°C/km. In general, thermal gradients increase from SW (14.11sp°C/km) to NE (42.24sp°C/km). The range of 1,498 in situ thermal conductivity measurements (after corrections for anisotropy, in situ temperature, and porosity) is 0.90-6.1 W/m-K; the average is 1.68 W/m-K. Estimated near-surface heat flow (±20%) at 20 new sites in Oklahoma varies between 22 ± 4 mW/msp2 and 86 ± 17 mW/msp2; the average is 50 mW/msp2. Twenty-seven new heat-generation estimates, along with 22 previously published data, are used to create a heat generation map of Oklahoma. The range of heat production estimates is 1.1-3.5 muW/msp3, with an average of 2.5 muW/msp3. The heat flow regime in Oklahoma is primarily conductive in nature, except for a zone in northeast. Transient effects due to sedimentary processes and metamorphic/igneous activity, as well as past climatic changes, do not significantly influence the thermal state of the Oklahoma crust. Heat flow near the margins of the Arkoma and Anadarko Basins may be depressed or elevated by 5-13 mW/msp2 by refraction of heat from sedimentary rocks of relatively low thermal conductivity (1-2 W/m-K) into crystalline basement rocks of relatively high thermal conductivity (˜3-4 W/m-K). The heat generation-heat flow relationship shows a modest correlation. The relatively high heat flow (˜70-80 mW/msp2) in part of northeastern Oklahoma suggests that the thermal regime there may be perturbed by regional groundwater flow originating in the fractured outcrops of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Arbuckle Mountains.

Cranganu, Constantin

129

Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoirs to Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleozoic-age Ozark Plateau Aquifer System (OPAS) in southern Kansas consists of a thick (>450 m) and deeply buried (>1 km) succession of Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group strata (dolomite) overlain by Lower Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous-age carbonate, chert, and shale. The Arbuckle Group is a thick widespread saline aquifer in southern Kansas. A 500 meter core of the OPAS interval and immediate overlying Pennsylvanian shale caprock were cored in early 2011 in the BEREXCO Wellington KGS #1-32 well in Wellington Field, a nearly depleted oil field in Sumner County, in south-central Kansas. An exhaustive set of modern logs were run in the KGS #1-32 well including chemical, microresistivity imaging, dipole sonic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and standard porosity and resistivity wireline logs. In addition, routine and special core analyses provide vital means to calibrate these logs. Core also provide vital chemical analyses and rock samples to run flow experiments, including in situ conditions, to establish reaction kinetics of rock and connate brines with CO2. Core and logs also provide the means to calibrate a 26 km2 multicomponent 3D seismic survey that was acquired in Wellington Field in 2010. Studies of four oil fields, also part of this project, are underway in southwestern Kansas to provide additional calibration points for the western part of the regional study that covers 65,000 km2 where CO2 sequestration capacity will be measured. Several hundred deep wells have been identified to serve as type wells in the regional study area. Well logs and sample descriptions are being digitized, correlated, and mapped to define distribution of aquifers, oil reservoirs, and caprocks. Drill stem test data have been analyzed for deep wells to establish that the Arbuckle is an open aquifer connected to surface exposures 100s of km to east in central Missouri. Over 500 km2 of 3D seismic have been donated by industrial partners to aid in understanding fault and fracture systems. Regional gravity and magnetics data have been analyzed to infer the potential presence of faults using the tilt angle processing of this information to aid in defining discontinuities and estimates of the depth of the anomalies. Results are being uploaded and integrated as part of an interactive web-based project mapper to permit comparison and interrogation of the data. Integrated views based on this comprehensive examination of the northern shelfward extension of the Anadarko Basin is providing new perspectives and insights into basin development and associated structures. Deep-seated basement faults are extensively developed, expressed in the Phanerozoic strata as drape or faults or no evidence for movement. Selection of CO2 sequestration sites will consider aquifer distribution, caprock integrity, and, once established, the extent of fracture and faults to evaluate risk for potential leakage of CO2. The project is funded by DOE/NETL under grant DE-FE0002056 and cost-sharing partners.

Watney, W. L.; Rush, J.

2011-12-01

130

Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the local residents of the Gio Linh district. This coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 and is situated between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The elevation varies from 0.5 m at the seaside in the East to 19.5 m further inland. During the rainy season from August to April the precipitation is on average 2000 to 2700 mm. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Drinking water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. A SEAWAT groundwater model will be built to study the effects on the groundwater system. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Historical production records of an operational groundwater production well-field are available to be used for validation of the model. Finally, to achieve a sustainable integrated water resources management in the Gio Linh district different adaptive scenarios will be developed.

Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

2013-04-01

131

Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the 150,000 local residents of the Gio Linh district and the city of Dong Ha. The coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The area has a tropical monsoon climate which is characterized by an average precipitation of 1500 to 2700 mm in nearly 180 days from August to April. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. These geological formations have a highly heterogeneous lithology. A 3D groundwater model is built to study possible seawater intrusion under the changing conditions. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and some data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Geophysical measurements have been carried out recently and in the past and are used to support the model.

Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

2014-05-01

132

Ground-water quality beneath irrigated agriculture in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999 and 2000, 30 water-quality monitoring wells were installed in the central High Plains aquifer to evaluate the quality of recently recharged ground water in areas of irrigated agriculture and to identify the factors affecting ground-water quality. Wells were installed adjacent to irrigated agricultural fields with 10- or 20-foot screened intervals placed near the water table. Each well was sampled once for about 100 waterquality constituents associated with agricultural practices. Water samples from 70 percent of the wells (21 of 30 sites) contained nitrate concentrations larger than expected background concentrations (about 3 mg/L as N) and detectable pesticides. Atrazine or its metabolite, deethylatrazine, were detected with greater frequency than other pesticides and were present in all 21 samples where pesticides were detected. The 21 samples with detectable pesticides also contained tritium concentrations large enough to indicate that at least some part of the water sample had been recharged within about the last 50 years. These 21 ground-water samples are considered to show water-quality effects related to irrigated agriculture. The remaining 9 groundwater samples contained no pesticides, small tritium concentrations, and nitrate concentrations less than 3.45 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. These samples are considered unaffected by the irrigated agricultural land-use setting. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate that commercial fertilizer was the dominant source of nitrate in 13 of the 21 samples affected by irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen isotope ratios for 4 of these 21 samples were indicative of an animal waste source. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in samples affected by irrigated agriculture, with large sulfate concentrations having strong correlation with large dissolved solids concentrations in these samples. A strong statistical correlation is shown between samples affected by irrigated agriculture and sites with large rates of pesticide and nitrogen applications and shallow depths to ground water.

Bruce, Breton W.; Becker, Mark F.; Pope, Larry M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

2003-01-01

133

Estimating the uncertainty of the impact of climate change on alluvial aquifers. Case study in central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence that the precipitation pattern in Europe is trending towards more humid conditions in the northern region and drier conditions in the southern and central-eastern regions. However, a great deal of uncertainty concerns how the changes in precipitations will have an impact on water resources, particularly on groundwater, and this uncertainty should be evaluated on the basis of that coming from 1) future climate scenarios of Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and 2) modeling chains including the downscaling technique, the infiltration model and the calibration/validation procedure used to develop the groundwater flow model. With the aim of quantifying the uncertainty of these components, the Valle Umbra porous aquifer (Central Italy) has been considered as a case study. This aquifer, that is exploited for human consumption and irrigation, is mainly fed by the effective infiltration from the ground surface and partly by the inflow from the carbonate aquifers bordering the valley. A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed through the finite difference MODFLOW2005 code and it has been calibrated and validated considering the recharge regime computed through a Thornthwaite-Mather infiltration model under the climate conditions observed in the period 1956-2012. Future scenarios (2010-2070) of temperature and precipitation have been obtained from three different GMCs: ECHAM-5 (Max Planck Institute, Germany), PCM (National Centre Atmospheric Research) and CCSM3 (National Centre Atmospheric Research). Each scenario has been downscaled (DSC) to the data of temperature and precipitation collected in the baseline period 1960-1990 at the stations located in the study area through two different statistical techniques (linear rescaling and quantile mapping). Then, stochastic rainfall and temperature time series are generated through the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model (NSRP) for precipitation and the Fractionally Differenced ARIMA model (FARIMA) for temperature. Such a procedure has allowed to estimate, through the Thornthwaite-Mather model, the uncertainty related to the future scenarios of recharge to the aquifer. Finally, all the scenarios of recharge have been used as input to the groundwater flow model and the results have been evaluated in terms of the uncertainty on the computed aquifer heads and total budget. The main results have indicated that most of the uncertainty on the impact to the aquifer arise from the uncertainty on the first part of the processing chain GCM-DSC.

Romano, Emanuele; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Pica, Federico; Preziosi, Elisabetta

2014-05-01

134

Processes affecting ? 34S and ? 18O values of dissolved sulfate in alluvium along the Canadian River, central Oklahoma, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?34S and ?18O values for dissolved sulfate in groundwater are commonly used in aquifer studies to identify sulfate reservoirs and describe biogeochemical processes. The utility of these data, however, often is compromised by mixing of sulfate sources within reservoirs and isotope fractionation during sulfur redox cycling. Our study shows that, after all potential sulfate sources are identified and isotopically

Michele L. W. Tuttle; George N. Breit; Isabelle M. Cozzarelli

2009-01-01

135

A Study on the Delivery of Lower Division Collegiate Programs and Services in the Metropolitan Oklahoma City Region for the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990, the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education authorized a study of lower-division education services offered by Central State University, El Reno Junior College, Oklahoma City Community College, Oklahoma State University Technical Branch, and Rose State College--all operating in the Oklahoma City metropolitan area. Special attention…

Parnell, Dale; Philips, Al

136

Geophysical approach to delineate arsenic hot spots in the alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district, Bihar (India) in the central Gangetic plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined study of the geophysical survey and hydro-geochemistry in the Quaternary alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district from Bihar state in central Gangetic plain of India was carried out with the objective of identifying the geochemical processes and their relation with lithological profile. Results of resistivity survey validated with borehole lithology gave us a clear picture of the geological signature of the aquifers, which support the reducing nature of the aquifer where concentration of arsenic was high. Reducing nature of the aquifer environment was shown by water samples having relatively negative Eh value. From XRD study of the soil samples, it was found that goethite, dolomite, calcite, quartz and feldspar are the major minerals for most of the samples. Output of this work concludes that resistivity survey is an economically feasible tool which can be successfully used to target arsenic-safe aquifers on wide scale.

Kumar, Pankaj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Chander Kumar; Tripathi, Parijat; Senthil Kumar, G.; Ramanathan, A. L.

2014-06-01

137

Aquifer compaction and ground-water levels in south-central Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As of 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey is monitoring water-level fluctuationa dn aquifer compaction at 19 wells that are fitted with borehole extensometers in the Eloy Basin, Stanfield Basin, Avra Valley, and Upper Santa Cruz Basin. Decreased ground-water pumping has resulted in water-level recoveries of more than 100 feet at a well near Eloy and almost 200 feet at a well in Avra Valley. Aquifer compaction has continued in both areas despite the large water-level recoveries in Eloy and the stable water levels in Avra Valley. Extensometer sites in the Upper Santa Cruz Basin have recorded as much as 50 feet of water-level decline and 0.2 feet of aquifer compaction during 1980 to 1996. Rates of compaction vary throughout the extensometer network, with the greater rates of compaction being associated with the more compressible sediments of Eloy and Stanfield Basins.

Evans, Daniel W.; Pool, Donald R.

2000-01-01

138

Effects of increased pumpage on a fractured-bedrock aquifer system in central Orange County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The bedrock in central Orange County consists of highly indurated siltstone, shale, and conglomerate containing two major fault systems and extensive fracturing; it is overlain by 50 to 100 feet of till. The fracturing permits unusually high well yields. Wells tapping the bedrock yield 75 to 200 gallons per minute; those tapping bedrock in adjacent areas yield only a few tens of gallons per minute. The bedrock aquifer is recharged mainly by percolation of water from precipitation through the till. In 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey studied the hydrologic effects of increased pumpage on the fractured bedrock aquifer system near the Village of Kiryas Joel, in the Town of Monroe. Water levels were measured in several wells in the village 's two well fields from February to October 1983, and pumpage data from the same period were tabulated. Water levels responded to variations in both pumpage and precipitation. Pumping tests and water levels in the southeastern well field in 1983 had no effect on the northwestern well field. An observation well between the two fields shows about 20 feet of seasonal fluctuation from recharge and the effects of pumping at the northwestern well field. Aquifer-test data indicate a transmissivity of 900 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0001. (USGS)

Garber, Murray

1985-01-01

139

Bacterial production of methane and its influence on ground-water chemistry in east-central Texas aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical and isotopic data for methane and ground water indicate that gaseous hydrocarbons in Eocene aquifers in east-central Texas form by bacterial processes. The ?13C values of methane from five wells in the clay-rich Yegua and Cook Mountain Formations range from -71‰ to -62‰. Methane from ten wells in the cleaner sands of the Sparta and Queen City Formations have ?13C values between -57‰ and -53‰. The carbon isotopic difference between methanes from the Yegua and Sparta aquifers is comparable to the isotopic difference in sedimentary organic matter from outcrops of the units, suggesting substrate control on the ?13C of bacterial methane. Hydrogen isotopic compositions of methane from the aquifers are similar, averaging -181‰. This high value suggests methane production predominantly by CO2 reduction. The ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in high bicarbonate waters increases from about -20‰ to 0‰ with increasing DIC. Mass-balance calculations indicate that the DIC added to the ground water has ?;13C values as high as 10‰. This 13C-enriched carbon is predominantly derived from CO2 production by fermentation and anaerobic oxidation reactions combined with CO2 consumption by CO2 reduction. This process is responsible for high bicarbonate contents in these and probably other Gulf Coast ground waters.

Grossman, Ethan L.; Coffman, B. Keith; Fritz, Steven J.; Wada, Hideki

1989-06-01

140

An assessment of the potential and impacts of winter water banking in the Sokh aquifer, Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of artificial recharge of winter surface flows coupled with increased summer groundwater use for irrigation in the Sokh aquifer (Central Asia) have been investigated. Water release patterns from the giant Toktogul reservoir have changed, as priority is now given to hydropower generation in winter in Kyrgyzstan. Winter flows have increased and summer releases have declined, but the Syr Darya River cannot pass these larger winter flows and the excess is diverted to a natural depression, creating a 40 × 109m3 lake. A water balance study of all 18 aquifers feeding the Fergana Valley indicated the feasibility of winter groundwater recharge in storage created by summer abstraction. This modeling study examines the dynamics of the process in one aquifer over a 5-year period, with four scenarios: the current situation; increased groundwater abstraction of around 625 million (M) m3/year; groundwater abstraction with an artificial recharge of 144 Mm3/year, equivalent to the volume available in low flow years in the Sokh River; and with a larger artificial recharge of 268 Mm3/year, corresponding to high flow availability. Summer surface irrigation diversions can be reduced by up to 350 Mm3 and water table levels can be lowered.

Gracheva, Inna; Karimov, Akmal; Turral, Hugh; Miryusupov, F.

2009-09-01

141

Simulation of ground-water flow in aquifers in Cretaceous rocks in the central Coastal Plain, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The principal sources of water-supply in Cretaceous rocks in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina are the Peedee, Black Creek, and upper Cape Fear aquifers. Ground-water withdrawals from these aquifers have increased from about 0.25 million gallons per day in 1910 to over 29 million gallons per day in 1986, causing water-level declines as much as 160 feet. The maximum rate of water-level decline in 1986 is about 11 feet per year in the Black Creek aquifer. A quasi-three dimensional ground-water flow model was constructed and calibrated for the period 1900 to 1986 to simulate past water-level declines and to estimate the effects of future pumpage. Comparisons of 1,867 observed and model-computed heads were made at 323 well sites. The average difference between computed and observed water levels is -1 foot. About 68 percent of all the differences between computed and observed water levels falls in the range from -21.0 to 21.0 feet. Simulation indicates that the 29 million gallons per day of pumpage in 1986 was supplied by (1) increased recharge (net discharge of 2 million gallons per day in 1900 changed to net recharge of 18 million gallons per day in 1986), (2) increased lateral inflow to the aquifers of about 8 million gallons per day, and (3) depletion of ground-water storage of about 1 million gallons per day. Two pumping scenarios simulated head changes through 1991 and were based on (1) constant pumpage at the 1986 rates in each aquifer, and (2) continuing increases in pumping rates from 1986 through 1991 and rates varying from 10 to 19 percent per year for the three pumped aquifers. For scenario 1, water-level declines exceeded 5 feet locally; however, water-level rises of about 1 foot occurred in two areas. For scenario 2, water-level declines ranged from 1 foot to 30 feet in some pumping centers.

Eimers, J. L.; Lyke, W. L.; Brockman, A. R.

1990-01-01

142

THE OKLAHOMA MESONET  

EPA Science Inventory

The Oklahoma Mesonet, operated and maintained by the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, is Oklahoma's premier climatological data collection system. For the area covered, which includes the entire state, no other system within the United States or internationally has the degree of ...

143

Aerosol Optical and Chemical Properties Within and Without Clouds During an Airborne Field Campaign in Central Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of aerosol particles are one of the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles' lifetime in the atmosphere. Here we present preliminary results showing aerosol optical and chemical properties obtained during the CHAPS field campaign within cloud drops and outside of clouds. The Cumulis Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS), sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program (ASP), took place in the vicinity of Oklahoma City in June, 2007. The intention of the study was to investigate the influence of clouds on aerosols and of aerosol on clouds. Duplicate sets of in-situ aerosol optical instruments were deployed on the ASP G-1 aircraft during the CHAPS campaign. One set of instruments was downstream of an isokinetic inlet designed to sample the ambient aerosol, the other set was downstream of a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) designed to sample and dry cloud droplets so that the cloud drop nuclei could be studied. Each instrument set comprised a 3-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and integrating nephelometer to provide spectral aerosol absorption, scattering and back-scattering and a particle counter to obtain aerosol number concentration. In addition, a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS) was able to sample on either inlet to provide information about the non-refractory chemical composition of the aerosol and cloud drop residuals. The data presented here will describe both how aerosol optical properties change upstream and downstream of a mid-size conurbation (Oklahoma City) and how ambient aerosol optical properties differ from those of the cloud drop nuclei. These changes in aerosol optical properties will be placed in the context of differences in chemical composition derived from the ToF-AMS.

Andrews, E.; Lee, Y.; Alexander, M. L.; Hubbe, J. M.; Ogren, J. A.

2007-12-01

144

76 FR 70940 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; Infrastructure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Central Oklahoma Early Action Compact (EAC) Area \\38\\ incorporated a Memorandum of Agreement...pollution control measures for the Central Oklahoma EAC area. The Attainment Demonstration for the Tulsa EAC Area \\39\\ incorporated a MOA between the...

2011-11-16

145

Quantification of aquifer properties with surface nuclear magnetic resonance in the Platte River valley, central Nebraska, using a novel inversion method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface nuclear magnetic resonance, a noninvasive geophysical method, measures a signal directly related to the amount of water in the subsurface. This allows for low-cost quantitative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In practice, however, additional factors influence the signal, complicating interpretation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District, evaluated whether hydraulic parameters derived from surface nuclear magnetic resonance data could provide valuable input into groundwater models used for evaluating water-management practices. Two calibration sites in Dawson County, Nebraska, were chosen based on previous detailed hydrogeologic and geophysical investigations. At both sites, surface nuclear magnetic resonance data were collected, and derived parameters were compared with results from four constant-discharge aquifer tests previously conducted at those same sites. Additionally, borehole electromagnetic-induction flowmeter data were analyzed as a less-expensive surrogate for traditional aquifer tests. Building on recent work, a novel surface nuclear magnetic resonance modeling and inversion method was developed that incorporates electrical conductivity and effects due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities, both of which can have a substantial impact on the data. After comparing surface nuclear magnetic resonance inversions at the two calibration sites, the nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived parameters were compared with previously performed aquifer tests in the Central Platte Natural Resources District. This comparison served as a blind test for the developed method. The nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived aquifer parameters were in agreement with results of aquifer tests where the environmental noise allowed data collection and the aquifer test zones overlapped with the surface nuclear magnetic resonance testing. In some cases, the previously performed aquifer tests were not designed fully to characterize the aquifer, and the surface nuclear magnetic resonance was able to provide missing data. In favorable locations, surface nuclear magnetic resonance is able to provide valuable noninvasive information about aquifer parameters and should be a useful tool for groundwater managers in Nebraska.

Irons, Trevor P.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Steele, Gregory V.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Woodward, Duane D.

2012-01-01

146

MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF A SHALLOW UNCONFINED GROUND WATER AQUIFER POLLUTED BY MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The microflora of a shallow anoxic aquifer underlying a municipal landfill In Oklahoma was characterized by direct light microscopy, most probable number of determinations of sulfate reducers and methanogens, and measurements of methanogenesis in aquifer samples containing either...

147

Simpson-Arbuckle contact revisited in Northwest Oklahoma County, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joins Formation, the lowermost formation of the Simpson Group, is traditionally the least studied or understood of the Simpson formations. The Joins, not known to produce hydrocarbons in central Oklahoma, is frequently overlooked by those more interested in the productive Simpson formations above and the Arbuckle carbonates below. In a study of the lower Simpson to upper Arbuckle interval

M. D. Allison; R. W. Allen

1995-01-01

148

Water Quality in the Equus Beds Aquifer and the Little Arkansas River Before Implementation of Large-Scale Artificial Recharge, South-Central Kansas, 1995-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer using runoff from the Little Arkansas River in south-central Kansas was first proposed in 1956 and was one of many options considered by the city of Wichita to preserve its water supply. Declining aquifer water levels of as much as 50 feet exacerbated concerns about future water availability and enhanced migration of saltwater into the aquifer from past oil and gas activities near Burrton and from the Arkansas River. Because Wichita changed water-management strategies and decreased pumping from the Equus Beds aquifer in 1992, water storage in the aquifer recovered by about 50 percent. This recovery is the result of increased reliance on Cheney Reservoir for Wichita water supply, decreased aquifer pumping, and larger than normal precipitation. Accompanying the water-level recovery, the average water-level gradient in the aquifer decreased from about 12 feet per mile in 1992 to about 8 feet per mile in January 2006. An important component of artificial recharge is the water quality of the receiving aquifer and the water being recharged (source water). Water quality within the Little Arkansas River was defined using data from two real-time surface-water-quality sites and discrete samples. Water quality in the Equus Beds aquifer was defined using sample analyses collected at 38 index sites, each with a well completed in the shallow and deep parts of the Equus Beds aquifer. In addition, data were collected at diversion well sites, recharge sites, background wells, and prototype wells for the aquifer storage and recovery project. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, radionuclides, organic compounds, and bacterial and viral indicators. Water-quality constituents of concern for artificial recharge are those constituents that frequently (more than 5 percent of samples) may exceed Federal [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)] and State drinking-water criteria in water samples from the receiving aquifer or in samples from the source water. Constituents of concern include major ions (sulfate and chloride), nutrients (nitrite plus nitrate), trace elements (arsenic, iron, and manganese), organic compounds (atrazine), and fecal bacterial indicators. This report describes the water quality in the Equus Beds aquifer and the Little Arkansas River from 1995 through 2005 before implementation of large-scale recharge activities. Sulfate concentrations in water samples from the Little Arkansas River rarely exceeded Federal secondary drinking water regulation (SDWR) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Sulfate concentrations in groundwater were exceeded in about 18 percent of the wells in the shallow (less than or equal to 80 feet deep) parts of the aquifer and in about 13 percent of the wells in the deep parts the aquifer. Larger sulfate concentrations were associated with parts of the aquifer with the largest water-level declines. Water-quality changes in the Equus Beds aquifer likely were caused by dewatering and oxidation of aquifer material that subsequently resulted in increased sulfate concentrations as water levels recovered. The primary sources of chloride to the Equus Beds aquifer are from past oil and gas activities near Burrton and from the Arkansas River. Computed chloride concentrations in the Little Arkansas River near Halstead exceeded the Federal SDWR of 250 mg/L about 27 percent of the time (primarily during low-flow conditions). Chloride concentrations in groundwater exceeded 250 mg/L in about 8 percent or less of the study area, primarily near Burrton and along the Arkansas River. Chloride in groundwater near Burrton has migrated downgradient about 3 miles during the past 40 to 45 years. The downward and horizontal migration of the chloride is controlled by the hydraulic gradient in the aquifer, dispersion of chloride, and discontinuous clay layers that can inhibit further downward migration. Chloride in the shallow parts of the Equus Beds

Ziegler, Andrew C.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Finn, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

149

Earthquake activity in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb)

K. V. Luza; J. E. Jr. Lawson

1989-01-01

150

Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 µg/L to 191 µg/L with a mean concentration of 33 µg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO3 type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO4. The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 µg/L. Deeper aquifer (> 100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 µg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions.

Shamsudduha, M.; Uddin, A.; Saunders, J. A.; Lee, M.-K.

2008-07-01

151

Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 microg/L to 191 microg/L with a mean concentration of 33 microg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO(3) type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO(4). The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 microg/L. Deeper aquifer (>100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 microg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions. PMID:18502538

Shamsudduha, M; Uddin, A; Saunders, J A; Lee, M-K

2008-07-29

152

Geomorphic and hydrologic assessment of erosion hazards at the Norman municipal landfill, Canadian River floodplain, Central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Norman, Oklahoma, municipal landfill closed in 1985 after 63 years of operation, because it was identified as a point source of hazardous leachate composed of organic and inorganic compounds. The landfill is located on the floodplain of the Canadian River, a sand-bed river characterized by erodible channel boundaries and by large variation in mean monthly discharges. In 1986, floodwaters eroded riprap protection at the southern end of the landfill and penetrated the landfill's clay cap, thereby exposing the landfill contents. The impact of this moderate-magnitude flood event (Q12) was the catalyst to investigate erosion hazards at the Norman landfill. This geomorphic investigation analyzed floodplain geomorphology and historical channel changes, flood-frequency distributions, an erosion threshold, the geomorphic effectiveness of discharge events, and other factors that influence erosion hazards at the landfill site. The erosion hazard at the Norman landfill is a function of the location of the landfill with respect to the channel thalweg, erosional resistance of the channel margins, magnitude and duration of discrete discharge events, channel form and hydraulic geometry, and cumulative effects related to a series of discharge events. Based on current climatic conditions and historical channel changes, a minimum erosion threshold is set at bankfull discharge (Q = 572 m3/s). The annual probability of exceeding this threshold is 0.53. In addition, this analysis indicates that peak stream power is less informative than total energy expenditures when estimating the erosion potential or geomorphic effectiveness of discrete discharge events. On the Canadian River, long-duration, moderate-magnitude floods can have larger total energy expenditures than shorter-duration, high-magnitude floods and therefore represent the most serious erosion hazard to floodplain structures.

Curtis, J. A.; Whitney, J. W.

2003-01-01

153

Hydrogeological study of the intensely exploited aquifer of the Santa Croce leather-producing district, Tuscany (central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrogeological study was undertaken to define the groundwater circulation in the Santa Croce area (Tuscany, central Italy) where the existing multilayered aquifer has long been intensively exploited. Investigations carried out on about 150 wells revealed the existence of a deep piezometric depression (to 20 m below sea level) which drains groundwater from the entire surrounding area. Samples from about 70 water points, collected twice in 2007, were analysed for major elements and stable isotope composition. Three major groups of waters, which mix in the study area, have been distinguished: (1) waters of the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type mainly flowing along the Arno River Plain; (2) waters of the Na-K-Cl/Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4, type with SO4 content up to 275 mg/L, inflowing from the Pisane Hills; (3) relatively high-salinity waters mainly of the Na-HCO3 type which, with Cl concentrations up to 750 mg/L, likely arise from a normal fault located at the foot of the northern hills. The characteristics of the different components are greatly affected by significant modifying processes such as cation exchange and sulfate reduction. The achieved conceptual model suggests the southern hills as the main recharging area of the aquifer system from which water circulation, characterized by pathways of different length and depth, develops.

Grassi, Sergio; Doveri, Marco; Cortecci, Gianni; Amadori, Michele

2011-05-01

154

Fens, seasonal wetlands, and the unconfined pumice aquifer east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fens and seasonal wetlands in the headwaters of the Klamath and Deschutes river basins in south-central Oregon are present in an area blanketed by 2 to 3 m of pumice during the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama. The lower pumice unit, moderately sorted coarse pumice lapilli to blocks (0.3 to 0.7 cm), phenocrysts, and lithics is 1.5 to 2 m thick; the upper pumice unit, poorly sorted lapilli to blocks (0.2 to 6 cm), minor phenocrysts, and lithics is 1 m thick. Pumice is a perched, unconfined aquifer over low permeability bedrock or pre-eruption fine-grained sediment. Early landscape response included partial erosion of pumice from pre-eruption valleys followed by partial filling by alluvium: phenocryst- and lithic-rich sand grading upward to glassy silt with rounded pumice pebbles. Groundwater-fed wetlands, fens, associated with the unconfined pumice aquifer occur as areas of diffuse groundwater discharge through gently sloping, convex surfaces underlain by up to 1.4 m of peat. Locally, focused discharge through the confining peat layer feeds low discharge streams. Carnivorous plants (sundews and pitcher plants) may be present. The sharp contact between peat and underlying pumice is an erosion surface that cuts progressively deeper into the upper and lower pumice units downslope. At the base of the slope peat with fen discharge feeding surface flow, alluvium with no surface flow, or a subtle berm separating the slope underlain by peat from the valley bottom underlain by alluvium may be present. Distinct vegetation changes take place at this transition. The erosion surface that underlies the peat layer in the fen is at the surface on the opposing valley wall and progressively rises up through the lower and upper pumice units: iron staining and cementation of pumice is locally prominent. Up to 1.5 m difference in water table occurs between the fen and opposing valley wall. Water table in piezometers screened in peat is at the surface. Locally, water table screened in pumice below the peat confining layer is up to 24 cm above the surface. Electrical conductivity in groundwater from the unconfined pumice aquifer ranged between 20 and 45 ?S/cm. Rarely, electrical conductivity greater than 250 ?S/cm is measured. Hydrochemistry indicates these waters are distinctly different (Ca-bicarbonate, [Fe] up to 22 mg/l) from water commonly encountered in the unconfined pumice aquifer (Na-bicarbonate, [Fe] less than 0.07 mg/l). Seasonally elevated water tables are present where pre-eruption topography allows snowmelt to accumulate in the unconfined pumice aquifer in valley bottoms and upland surfaces. Differential hardness of volcanic bedrock units control distribution in valley bottoms; emplacement processes and weathering of flow tops control distribution in upland settings. In both settings the lower pumice unit is saturated, but the upper pumice unit may be absent or thin. Alluvium commonly overlies pumice in valley bottoms. The water table may fluctuate up to 1.5 m from the spring snowmelt to late summer. Electrical conductivity in the pumice aquifer ranges between 19 and 250 ?S/cm and commonly increases at single sites as the dry season progresses.

Cummings, M. L.; Large, A.; Mowbray, A.; Weatherford, J.; Webb, B.

2013-12-01

155

Synthesis of the Hydrogeologic Framework of the Floridan Aquifer System and Delineation of a Major Avon Park Permeable Zone in Central and Southern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The carbonate Floridan aquifer system of central and southern Florida (south of a latitude of about 29 degrees north) is an invaluable resource with a complex framework that has previously been mapped and managed primarily in a subregional context according to geopolitical boundaries. As interest and use of the Floridan aquifer system in this area increase, a consistent regional hydrogeologic framework is needed for effective management across these boundaries. This study synthesizes previous studies on the Floridan aquifer system and introduces a new regional hydrogeologic conceptual framework, linking physical relations between central and southern Florida and between the west and east coastal areas. The differences in hydrogeologic nomenclature and interpretation across the study area from previous studies were identified and resolved. The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, middle confining unit, and Lower Floridan aquifer. This study introduces and delineates a new major, regional productive zone or subaquifer, referred to as the Avon Park permeable zone. This zone is contained within the middle confining unit and synthesizes an extensive zone that has been referred to differently in different parts of the study area in previous studies. The name of this zone derives from the description of this zone as the ?Avon Park highly permeable zone? in west-central Florida in a previous study. Additionally, this zone has been identified previously in southeastern Florida as the ?middle Floridan aquifer.? An approximately correlative or approximate time-stratigraphic framework was developed and was used to provide guidance in the identification and determination of aquifers, subaquifers, and confining units within the Floridan aquifer system and to determine their structural relations. Two stratigraphic marker horizons within the Floridan aquifer system and a marker unit near the top of the aquifer system were delineated or mapped. The marker horizons are correlative points in the stratigraphic section rather than a unit with upper and lower boundaries. The two marker horizons and the marker unit originated from previous studies, wherein they were based on lithology and correlation of geophysical log signatures observed in boreholes. The depths of these marker horizons and the marker unit were extended throughout the study area by correlation of natural gamma-ray logs between wells. The Floridan aquifer system includes, in ascending order, the upper part of the Cedar Keys Formation, Oldsmar Formation, Avon Park Formation, Ocala Limestone, Suwannee Limestone, and in some areas the lower part of the Hawthorn Group. The first marker horizon is in the lower part of the aquifer system near the top of the Oldsmar Formation and is associated with the top of distinctive glauconitic limestone beds that are present in some regions; the second marker horizon is near the middle of the aquifer system in the middle part of the Avon Park Formation. The marker unit lies at the top of a basal unit in the Hawthorn Group and provides a stratigraphic constraint for the top of the Floridan aquifer system. The marker horizons do not have distinguishing lithologic characteristics or a characteristic gamma-ray log pattern in all areas but are still thought to be valid because of correlation of the entire section and correlation of all sufficiently deep wells with gamma-ray logs. The Avon Park permeable zone is contained entirely within the Avon Park Formation; its position within the section is either near the middle Avon Park marker horizon or within a thick part of the section that extends several hundred feet above the marker horizon. This subaquifer is present over most of the study area and characteristically consists of thick units of dolostone and interbedded limestone, and limestone in its upper part. Permeability is primarily associated with fracturing. This subaquifer is well developed in west-cen

Reese, Ronald S.; Richardson, Emily

2008-01-01

156

Using InSar To Determine Aquifer System Response In North Central Nevada Related To Mine Dewatering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of groundwater to allow development of mineral deposits is a common practice in areas where the ore body is below the water table. In some instances, land subsidence and related earth fissuring can result from such dewatering. Large groundwater withdrawals on the order of 50,000 acre-ft/yr have occurred at one mine since the early 1990's in north-central Nevada to support mining. Ground fissuring believed associated with aquifer compaction has been observed in the Pumpernickel Valley-Kelly Creek Basin of East Central Nevada. The observations were coincident with periods of groundwater withdrawal for mine dewatering. Dewatering operations within the Pumpernickel Valley-Kelly Creek Basin has been from the fractured bedrock and not in the overlying alluvium. The observed basin subsidence may provide new insights into both the hydrologic connections, and also into the deformation behavior of fractured rocks. Subsidence in fractured rock aquifers has not been reported. Several techniques have been used to study and predict land subsidence, but our focus is to use one of the recently developed space-platform-based techniques know as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSar). The InSar processing was done using descending data acquired from European Space Agency Satellites ERS-1 and -2 on track 213 and frame 2781. Data acquired from ERS-1 and -2 covered the period between 1992 and 2000 during which time local dewatering pumping began and recorded subsequently reached a maximum of 57,000 acre-ft/year. A total of 146 interferometric pairs were derived from the data with perpendicular baselines for each pair less than 200 meters. Both the wrapped and unwrapped results were viewed and necessary corrections made. Selected unwrapped results were stacked together producing an 8 year time series showing total amount and spatial extent of subsidence. The final results gave a maximum of 36 cm displacement of the land surface during the groundwater extraction period between 1992 and 2000. The center of the subsidence bowl has been found to be close to the Humboldt River and to the north of the center of groundwater extraction for dewatering. Additional analysis of the observed subsidence, groundwater pumping history, hydrostratigraphy and aquifer systems response are in progress.

Baffoe-Twum, E.; Bell, J. W.; Tyler, S. W.; Fischer, J. R.

2006-12-01

157

Simpson-Arbuckle contact revisited in Northwest Oklahoma County, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Joins Formation, the lowermost formation of the Simpson Group, is traditionally the least studied or understood of the Simpson formations. The Joins, not known to produce hydrocarbons in central Oklahoma, is frequently overlooked by those more interested in the productive Simpson formations above and the Arbuckle carbonates below. In a study of the lower Simpson to upper Arbuckle interval in northwestern Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, the Joins Formation was found to be present. The central Oklahoma section consists of interbedded gray, olive gray and green splintery moderately waxy shale, cream to light gray homogeneous microcrystallin dolomite, and microcrystalline to fine crystalline fossiliferous slightly glauconitic well cemented sandstones are also noted. The entire Joins Formation is moderately to very fossiliferous; primarily consisting of crinoids, ostracods, brachiopods, and trilobites. The ostracod fauna closely resembles and correlates with the Arbuckle Mountain section, which has been extensively studied over the years by such authors as Taff, Ulrich and Harris. Beneath the Joins in this area is a normal section of Arbuckle dolomites. Due to the absence of a basal sand in the Joins the separation of the Joins and Arbuckle, utilizing electric logs only, is frequently tenuous. In comparison with the Arbuckle, the Joins tends to have higher gamma ray and S.P. values. Other tools, such as resistivity, bulk density and photoelectric (PE), are frequently inconclusive. For geologists studying the Simpson-Arbuckle contact in central Oklahoma, the presence or absence of the Joins Formation is best determined through conventional lithologic and palenontologic sample identification techniques. Once this has been done, correlation of electric logs with this type log is possible for the local area.

Allison, M.D.; Allen, R.W. [Kabodi Inc., Ardmore, OK (United States)

1995-09-01

158

Ground Water in the Central Valley, California: A Summary Report. Regional Aquifer-System Analysis, Central Valley, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The agricultural productivity of the Central Valley depends on irrigation. Half of the 22 million acre-feet of irrigation water applied annually is ground water. Nearly all the fresh ground water is contained in the continental rocks and deposits younger ...

G. L. Bertoldi R. H. Johnston K. D. Evenson

1991-01-01

159

Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for NO3 contamination in agricultural areas.

Plummer, L. N.; Rupert, M. G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

2000-01-01

160

Nonlinear-regression flow model of the Gulf Coast aquifer systems in the south-central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A multiple-regression methodology was used to help answer questions concerning model reliability, and to calibrate a time-dependent variable-density ground-water flow model of the gulf coast aquifer systems in the south-central United States. More than 40 regression models with 2 to 31 regressions parameters are used and detailed results are presented for 12 of the models. More than 3,000 values for grid-element volume-averaged head and hydraulic conductivity are used for the regression model observations. Calculated prediction interval half widths, though perhaps inaccurate due to a lack of normality of the residuals, are the smallest for models with only four regression parameters. In addition, the root-mean weighted residual decreases very little with an increase in the number of regression parameters. The various models showed considerable overlap between the prediction inter- vals for shallow head and hydraulic conductivity. Approximate 95-percent prediction interval half widths for volume-averaged freshwater head exceed 108 feet; for volume-averaged base 10 logarithm hydraulic conductivity, they exceed 0.89. All of the models are unreliable for the prediction of head and ground-water flow in the deeper parts of the aquifer systems, including the amount of flow coming from the underlying geopressured zone. Truncating the domain of solution of one model to exclude that part of the system having a ground-water density greater than 1.005 grams per cubic centimeter or to exclude that part of the systems below a depth of 3,000 feet, and setting the density to that of freshwater does not appreciably change the results for head and ground-water flow, except for locations close to the truncation surface.

Kuiper, L. K.

1994-01-01

161

Changes in flow in the upper North Canadian river basin of western Oklahoma, pre-development to 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water levels have declined in the southern part of the High Plains aquifer of the central USA since the mid-1960s in response to extensive irrigation development. The North Canadian River originates in western Oklahoma, and most of the basin is underlain by the High Plains aquifer. Average river flow in the headwaters near Guymon, Oklahoma, has decreased from about 0.9 m3/s before 1970 to near zero at present. Canton Lake, on the North Canadian River near Seiling, about 250 km downstream from Guymon, is a source of water supply for Oklahoma City. Precipitation data and streamflow data for gages upstream from Canton Lake were divided into an "early" period ending in 1971 and a "recent" period that begins in 1978. The early period represents conditions before ground-water levels had declined appreciably in the High Plains aquifer, and the recent period reflects the current condition, including the effects of storage reservoirs. Tests for trend and comparisons of flows between the early and recent periods show that the total annual volume of flow and the magnitudes of instantaneous annual peak discharges measured at most locations in the North Canadian River basin have decreased. Precipitation records for the area, however, show no corresponding changes. The decreases in average annual flow, expressed as a percentage of the average flows for the early period, ranged from 91 percent near Guymon to 37 percent near Canton Lake. A major contributing factor in the decreased flows appears to be the large declines in water levels in the High Plains aquifer.

Wahl, K. L.

2001-01-01

162

Texas-Oklahoma  

... Texas and Oklahoma. Traversing brush-covered and grassy plains, rolling hills, and prairies, the Red River and the Canadian River are ... formats available at JPL March 12, 2000 - Plains, rivers, and smoke plumes along the Texas-Oklahoma border. ...

2013-04-19

163

Geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water of the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems, Hickman and Maury counties, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance of the geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems in Hickman and Maury Counties, Tennessee, was conducted in 1989. Water in both aquifer systems typically is of the calcium or calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, but concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate are greater in water of the Central Basin system; differences in the concentrations are statistically significant. Dissolution of calcite, magnesium-calcite, dolomite, and gypsum are the primary geochemical processes controlling ground-water chemistry in both aquifer systems. Saturation-state calculations using the computer code WATEQF indicated that ground water from the Central Basin system is more saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, and gypsum than water from the Highland Rim system. Geochemical environments within each aquifer system are somewhat different with respect to dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals. Water samples from the Highland Rim system had a fairly constant calcium to magnesium molar ratio, implying congruent dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals, whereas water samples from the Central Basin system had highly variable ratios, implying either incongruent dissolution or heterogeneity in soluble constituents of the aquifer matrix. Concentrations of radionuclides in water were low and not greatly different between aquifer systems. Median gross alpha activities were 0.54 picocuries per liter in water from each system; median gross beta activities were 1.1 and 2.3 picocuries per liter in water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin systems, respectively. Radon-222 concentrations were 559 and 422 picocuries per liter, respectively. Concentrations of gross alpha and radium in all samples were substantially less than Tennessee?s maximum permissible levels for community water-supply systems. The data indicated no relations between concentrations of dissolved radionuclides (uranium, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, gross alpha, and gross beta) and any key indicators of water chemistry, except in water from the Highland Rim system, in which radon-222 was moderately related to pH and weakly related to dissolved magnesium. The only relation among radiochemical constituents indicated by the data was between radium-226 and gross alpha activity; this relation was indicated for water from both aquifer systems.

Hileman, G. E.; Lee, R. W.

1993-01-01

164

Effects of three highway-runoff detention methods on water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida was evaluated at one exfiltration pipe, two ponds (detention and retention), and two swales in central Florida, representing three runoff-detention methods, to detect any effect from infiltrating highway runoff. Concentrations of major ions, metals, and nutrients in groundwater and bottom sediments were measured from 1984 through 1986. At each study area, constituent concentrations in groundwater near the structure were compared to concentrations in groundwater from an upgradient control site. Groundwater quality data were also pooled by detention method and statistically compared to detect any significant differences between methods. Significantly greater mean phosphorus concentrations in groundwater near the exfiltration pipe than those in the control well was the only evidence of increasing constituent concentrations in groundwater near structures. The quality of water was more variable, and had greater constituent concentrations in the unsaturated zone than in the saturated zone near the exfiltration pipe. Values of water quality variables measured in groundwater at all study areas generally were within State drinking water standards. The main exception was dissolved iron, which commonly exceeded 300 micrograms/L at one swale and the detention pond. Results of the study indicate that natural processes occurring in soils attenuate inorganic constituent concentrations prior to reaching the receiving groundwater. However, organic compounds detected in bottom sediments at the retention pond indicate a potential problem that may eventually affect the quality of the receiving groundwater. (USGS)

Schiffer, D. M.

1989-01-01

165

Hydrology of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south- central United States; a preliminary assessment of the regional flow system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data describing the aquifer framework and steady-state regional flow were assembled for the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer north of Vicksburg, Mississippi. The aquifer is part of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. The 60 to 140 ft thick alluvial aquifer grades from gravel at the bottom to fine sand near the top. It is overlain by the Mississippi River Valley confining unit, which consists of 10 to 50 ft of silts, clays, and fine-grained sands. Underlying units consist of alternating sands and clays corresponding to regional hydrogeologic units of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. The three-layer finite difference model was used to simulate two-dimensional confined or unconfined steady-state flow for predevelopment and 1972. Preliminary analysis of predevelopment flow indicates that recharge to the alluvial aquifer was from underlying aquifers and the confining unit. Rivers accounted for almost all discharge. Pumpage from the alluvial aquifer for irrigation substantially changed regional flow direction toward depressions in the potentiometric surface. Recharge from rivers and the confining unit increased and recharge from underlying aquifers decreased. Discharge to underlying aquifers increased and discharge to rivers decreased. Recharge from the confining unit reached a maximum of 1.3 inch/year for large parts of the aquifer. Nearly all drawdown exceeding 20 ft was at two locations in Arkansas--the Grande Prairie region, and west of Crowleys Ridge. Model results indicate the importance of leakage from rivers and the confining unite to providing recharge to sustain large amounts of pumpage from the alluvial aquifer. (USGS)

Ackerman, D. J.

1989-01-01

166

Potential for pollution of the Upper Floridan aquifer from five sinkholes and an internally drained basin in west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sinkholes are natural and common geologic features in west-central Florida, which is underlain by water soluble limestone deposits. Dissolution of these deposits is the fundamental cause of sinkhole development. Sinkholes and other karst features are more pronounced in the northern part of the study area, but sinkhole activity has occurred throughout the area. Fifty-eight sinkholes with known or suspected connection to the Upper Floridan aquifer are located in the study area. An internally drained basin near the city of Brandon and five sinkholes in Hillsborough, Pasco, and Hernando Counties were selected for detailed investigation. At all sites, chemical or biological constituents were detected that indicate pollutants had entered the aquifer. A generalized classification, based on the potential to pollute, was applied to the selected sites. Four of the sites have high potential and two have moderate potential to pollute the Upper Floridan aquifer. All of the sites investigated are capable of recharging large volumes of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer in short periods of time. Continued monitoring of the quality of water entering the sinkholes and of wells downgradient to the sinks is needed to assess the future impacts on the aquifer. (Author 's abstract)

Trommer, J. T.

1987-01-01

167

Lithologic control of magnetite contamination in the upper Trinity aquifer of north central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Very fine-grained (1 micron size) magnetite and maghemite (both confirmed by x-ray diffraction) are identified as a major cause of domestic water supply degradation in groundwater produced from the Hensel Sandstone. The small size of the particles prevents effective filtering. Oxidation of the particles when mixed with air causes a host of problems with symptoms similar to common contamination by iron bacteria. The physical characteristics of the magnetite and maghemite; fine-grain size, irregular shape as determined by SEM, and chemical purity of the material determined by SEM-EDS, suggest a biogenic origin for the material. Characteristics of the magnetite grains indicate microbially-assisted precipitation by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria. The occurrence of magnetite contamination shows a strong correlation to aquifer lithochemistry. Magnetite and maghemite contamination is found in water derived from the flood-basin facies. These rocks are high in oxidized iron and are recognized in well logs as red bed sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Magnetite is absent in water from units that produce from the meanderbelt sandstone facies in which red bed units are absent. Hydrochemical recognition of contamination is present in elevated Fe[sup 2+]/Fe[sup 3+] values. Eh/pH values based on iron species concentrations are radically different compared to actual Eh and pH field measurements in contaminated wells. The bacteria produce magnetite and maghemite as part of their metabolic process and the subsequent oxidation of this magnetite is responsible for the variations in Eh/pH values as well as observed water quality degradation. Iron-reducing bacteria are confined only to those units which can provide ready access to microbially-reducible iron, a source of organic matter, and sufficient nutrient (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations.

Lueth, V.W. (Tarleton State Univ., Stephenville, TX (United States). Dept. of Physical Sciences)

1993-02-01

168

Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Central Valley Aquifer System near Modesto, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Modesto, California. The well selected for study pumps on average about 1,600 gallons per minute from the Central Valley aquifer system during peak summer demand. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in the Modesto vicinity. Samples from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents uranium, nitrate, arsenic, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although none were present at concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards. Of these contaminants, uranium and nitrate pose the most significant water-quality risk to the public-supply well because human activities have caused concentrations in groundwater to increase over time. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and (or) fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Modesto: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) irrigation and agricultural and municipal pumping that drives contaminants downward into the primary production zone of the aquifer; (3) short-circuiting of contaminated water down the public-supply well during the low-pumping season; and (4) natural geochemical conditions of the aquifer. A local-scale computer model of groundwater flow and transport to the public-supply well was constructed to simulate long-term nitrate and uranium concentrations reaching the well. With regard to nitrate, two conflicting processes influence concentrations in the area contributing recharge to the well: (1) Beneath land that is being farmed or has recently been farmed (within the last 10 to 20 years), downward-moving irrigation waters contain elevated nitrate concentrations; yet (2) the proportion of agricultural land has decreased and the proportion of urban land has increased since 1960. Urban land use is associated with low nitrate concentrations in recharge (3.1 milligrams per liter). Results of the simulation indicate that nitrate concentrations in the public-supply well peaked in the late 1990s and will decrease slightly from the current level of 5.5 milligrams per liter during the next 100 years. A lag time of 20 to 30 years between peak nitrate concentrations in recharge and peak concentrations in the well is the result of the wide range of ages of water reaching the public-supply well combined with changing nitrogen input concentrations over time. As for uranium, simulation results show that concentrations in the public-supply well will likely approach the Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter over time; however, it will take more than 100 years because of the contribution of old water at depth in the public-supply well that dilutes uranium concentrations in shallower water entering the well. This allows time to evaluate management strategies and to alter well-construction or pumping strategies to prevent uranium concentrations from exceeding the drinking-water standard.

Jagucki, Martha L.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Burow, Karen R.; Eberts, Sandra M.

2009-01-01

169

Regional evaluation of the hydrogeologic framework, hydraulic properties, and chemical characteristics of the intermediate aquifer system underlying southern west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three major aquifer systems-the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system, and the Floridan aquifer system-are recognized in the approximately 5,100-square-mile southern west-central Florida study area. The principal source of freshwater for all uses is ground water supplied from the three aquifer systems. Ground water from the intermediate aquifer system is considered only moderately abundant compared to the Upper Floridan aquifer, but it is an important source of water where the Upper Floridan aquifer contains water too mineralized for most uses. In the study area, the potential ground-water resources of the intermediate aquifer system were evaluated by regionally assessing the vertical and lateral distribution of hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics. Although the intermediate aquifer system is considered a single entity, it is composed of multiple water-bearing zones separated by confining units. Deposition of a complex assemblage of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments during the late Oligocene to early Pliocene time resulted in discontinuities that are reflected in transitional and abrupt contacts between facies. Discontinuous facies produce water-bearing zones that may be locally well-connected or culminate abruptly. Changes in the depositional environment created the multilayered intermediate aquifer system that contains as many as three zones of enhanced water-bearing capacity. The water-bearing zones consist of indurated limestone and dolostone and in some places unindurated sand, gravel, and shell beds, and these zones are designated, in descending order, as Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3. Zone 1 is thinnest (<80 feet thick) and is limited to <20 percent (southern part) of the study area. Zone 2, the only regionally extensive zone, is characterized by moderately low permeability. Zone 3 is found in about 50 percent of the study area, has the highest transmissivities, and generally is in good hydraulic connection with the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. In parts of the study area, particularly in southwestern Hillsborough County and southeastern De Soto and Charlotte Counties, Zone 3 likely is contiguous with and part of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Transmissivity of the intermediate aquifer system ranges over five orders of magnitude from about 1 to more than 40,000 feet squared per day (ft2/d), but rarely exceeds 10,000 ft2/d. The overall transmissivity of the intermediate aquifer system is substantially lower (2 to 3 orders of magnitude) than the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. Transmissivity varies vertically among the zones within the intermediate aquifer system; Zone 2 has the lowest median transmissivity (700 ft2/d), Zone 1 has a moderate median transmissivity (2,250 ft2/d), and Zone 3 has the highest median transmissivity (3,400 ft2/d). Additionally, the transmissivity varies geographically (from site to site) within a zone. Specifically, a region of relatively low transmissivity (<100 ft2/d) throughout the vertical extent of the intermediate aquifer system is present in the central part of the study area. This low transmissivity region is encompassed by a larger region of moderately low transmissivity (<1,000 ft2/d) that covers a large part of the study area. Clay beds and fine-grained carbonates form the confining units between the water-bearing zones and are characterized by low leakance. Leakance through the intermediate aquifer system confining units ranges over 4 orders of magnitude from 4.2x10-7 to 6.0x10-3 feet per day per foot [(ft/d)/ft]. Despite the large range, the geometric mean and median leakances of individual confining units are within the same order of magnitude, 10-5 (ft/d)/ft, which is 2 orders of magnitude less than the median leakance of the semiconfining unit within the Upper Floridan aquifer. Major ion concentrations in water from the intermediate aquifer system, and throughout the ground-water flow system, generally increase with depth. T

Knochenmus, Lari A.

2006-01-01

170

Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium radioisotopes in 9 of the 12 samples (75 percent). The concentration of radium-224 exceeded that of radium-226 in five of the six (83 percent) samples when both were quantifiable. The radium concentration distribution differed by aquifer, with the highest Ra-228 concentrations present in the Englishtown aquifer system and the highest Ra-226 concentrations present in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer. Radium-224 generally contributed a considerable amount of gross alpha-particle activity to water produced from all the sampled aquifers, but was not the dominant radionuclide as it is in water from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, nor were concentrations greater than 1 pCi/L of radium-224 widespread. Gross alpha-particle activity was found to exceed the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 15 pCi/L in one sample (16 pCi/L) from the Vincentown aquifer. A greater part of the gross alpha-particle activity in water from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer resulted from the decay of Ra-226 than did the gross alpha-particle activity in the other sampled aquifers; this relation is consistent with the concentration distribution of the Ra-226 itself. Concentrations of radium-224 correlate strongly with those of both radium-226 and radium-228 (Spearman correlation coefficients, r, +0.86 and +0.66, respectively). The greatest concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were present in the most acidic ground water. All radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 concentrations greater than 2.5 pCi/L were present in ground-water samples with a pH less than 5.0. The presence of combined radium-226 and radium-228 concentrations greater than 5 pCi/L in samples from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Englishtown aquifer system was not nearly as common as in samples from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, likely because of the slightly higher pH of water from these aquifers relative to that of Kirkwood-Cohansey aqu

dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

2007-01-01

171

Geohydrologic characteristics and simulated response to pumping stresses in the Sparta aquifer in East-Central Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A finite difference digital model of the Sparta aquifer system in Arkansas was developed to aid in assessing the geohydrologic characteristics of the aquifer as well as the impact of withdrawals on water-level declines in the aquifer. The model consists of two layers. The Cockfield aquifer, represented by layer 1, was modeled as a constant head surface. The Sparta aquifer is represented by layer 2. The base of the Sparta aquifer was modeled as a no-flow boundary. The model boundaries to the north, south, and east in Mississippi were represented by specified heads, while boundaries to the west in Louisiana were represented as no flow. The model period of 1989 to 1985 was divided into 25 stress periods. Appropriate aquifer withdrawals were assigned to each stress period. Calibrated hydraulic conductivities of the Sparta aquifer, ranged from 1 to 35 ft/day. Calibrated hydraulic vertical conductivities of the Cook Mountain confining unit ranged from 0.0003 to 0.000009 ft/day. The calibrated storage coefficient of the aquifer was 0.0001. More than 80% of the recharge to the aquifer came from vertical leakage and from direct recharge on the outcrop. Greater than 90 % of outflow from the aquifer was from pumpage or leakage to rivers. Theoretical pumping schemes to the year 2005 indicated that virtually no change to the potentiometric surface occurred when 1985 pumping rates were extended to 2005. Doubling of pumpage over the entire study area resulted in additional water-level declines of up to 130 ft. (USGS)

Fitzpatrick, Daniel J.; Kilpatrick, John M.; McWreath, Harry

1990-01-01

172

Transport of calcium, magnesium and SO 4 in the Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida: implications to cementation rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior hydrogeochemical studies have documented a down-gradient increase in dissolved calcium, magnesium and SO 4 in the confined, upper Floridan aquifer and have attributed the changes to dissolution of gypsum and dolomite and precipitation of calcite. In this study, hydrochemical data (mol l -1) are coupled with calculated discharges (1 year -1) to calculate the down-gradient changes in ion fluxes (mol year -1) along two predevelopment stream tubes in west-central Florida. Evaluation of ion inflows (including leakage from above) and outflows to and from well-to-well sectors of the stream tubes enables isolation of the changes in ion fluxes due to the previously identified reactions and, hence, quantification of the geological work done by those reactions in the sectors. Over about half of the stream tubes, the amount of calcite precipitation is small to non-existent (0 ±0.25% of the bulk volume per million years), which is consistent with geological evidence. Significant cementation rates are calculated for areas influenced by upward flow, such as at the end of the stream tubes and along the Peace River. Half of these significantly large values are impossibly large, apparently reflecting an inherited signal from a flow history below the depth of the upper Floridan wells. Similarly, mass-balance results that suggest significant dissolution of dolomite and gypsum probably reflect upwelling, not diagenesis at the depths of the sampled wells.

Jones, I. C.; Vacher, H. L.; Budd, D. A.

1993-03-01

173

Conjunctive-use optimization model and sustainable-yield estimation for the Sparta aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conjunctive-use optimization modeling was done to assist water managers and planners by estimating the maximum amount of ground water that hypothetically could be withdrawn from wells within the Sparta aquifer indefinitely without violating hydraulic-head or stream-discharge constraints. The Sparta aquifer is largely a confined aquifer of regional importance that comprises a sequence of unconsolidated sand units that are contained within the Sparta Sand. In 2000, more than 35.4 million cubic feet per day (Mft3/d) of water were withdrawn from the aquifer by more than 900 wells, primarily for industry, municipal supply, and crop irrigation in Arkansas. Continued, heavy withdrawals from the aquifer have caused several large cones of depression, lowering hydraulic heads below the top of the Sparta Sand in parts of Union and Columbia Counties and several areas in north-central Louisiana. Problems related to overdraft in the Sparta aquifer can result in increased drilling and pumping costs, reduced well yields, and degraded water quality in areas of large drawdown. A finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed for the Sparta aquifer using MODFLOW, primarily in eastern and southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Observed aquifer conditions in 1997 supported by numerical simulations of ground-water flow show that continued pumping at withdrawal rates representative of 1990 - 1997 rates cannot be sustained indefinitely without causing hydraulic heads to drop substantially below the top of the Sparta Sand in southern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Areas of ground-water levels below the top of the Sparta Sand have been designated as Critical Ground-Water Areas by the State of Arkansas. A steady-state conjunctive-use optimization model was developed to simulate optimized surface-water and ground-water withdrawals while maintaining hydraulic-head and streamflow constraints, thus determining the 'sustainable yield' for the aquifer. Initial attempts to estimate sustainable yield using simulated 1997 hydraulic heads as initial heads in Scenario 1 and 100 percent of the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rate as the lower specified limit in Scenario 2 led to infeasible results. Sustainable yield was estimated successfully for scenario 3 with three variations on the upper limit of withdrawal rates. Additionally, ground-water withdrawals in Union County were fixed at 35.6 percent of the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rate in Scenario 3. These fixed withdrawals are recognized by the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission to be sustainable as determined in a previous study. The optimized solutions maintained hydraulic heads at or above the top of the Sparta Sand (except in the outcrop areas where unconfined conditions occur) and streamflow within the outcrop areas was maintained at or above minimum levels. Scenario 3 used limits of 100, 150, and 200 percent of baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rates for the upper specified limit on 1,119 withdrawal decision variables (managed wells) resulting in estimated sustainable yields ranging from 11.6 to 13.2 Mft3/d in Arkansas and 0.3 to 0.5 Mft3/d in Louisiana. Assuming the total 2 Conjunctive-Use Optimization Model and Sustainable-Yield Estimation for the Sparta Aquifer of Southeastern Arkansas and North-Central Louisiana water demand is equal to the baseline 1990-1997 withdrawal rates, the sustainable yields estimated from the three scenarios only provide 52 to 59 percent of the total ground-water demand for Arkansas; the remainder is defined as unmet demand that could be obtained from large, sustainable surface-water withdrawals.

McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.; Czarnecki, John B.

2004-01-01

174

Water Decisions for Sustainability of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only freeflowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To address these issues, this interdisciplinary project takes an integrated approach to understanding risk perceptions and water decisions for sustainability of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer. Our interdisciplinary research asks: How do stakeholders in the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer perceive drought risks across weather and climate scales, and how do these perceptions guide water management decisions given (i) diverse cultural beliefs, (ii) valued hydrologic services, (iii) past drought experience, and (iv) uncertainties in future projection of precipitation and drought? We will use ethnographic methods to diagnose how cultural values and beliefs inform risk perceptions, and how this in turn guides decision making or ignites conflict across different sectors and stakeholder groups. Further, the characterization of drought risk will be examined in the context of historic meteorological and hydrologic events, as well as climate variability and change. This will identify which risks are prioritized, and under what conditions, in regional decision making or water-related conflicts.

Lazrus, H.; Mcpherson, R. A.; Morss, R. E.; PaiMazumder, D.; Silvis, V.; Towler, E.

2012-12-01

175

The Edwards Aquifer Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Edwards Aquifer is a groundwater system upon which the people of South Central Texas depend for "agricultural, industrial, recreational, and domestic needs." This dependence has caused a depletion of the water in the aquifer, while demand for the water continues to increase. The aquifer's homepage provides a map of the aquifer and its location in Texas, a wonderful introduction to the aquifer, its hydrogeology, and issues surrounding the aquifer. The site provides a plethora of additional information including images and essays, charts and graphs, endangered species, laws and regulations, an extensive glossary, and bibliography.

176

Estimation of heterogeneous aquifer parameters using centralized and decentralized fusion of hydraulic tomography data from multiple pumping tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of spatial variability of hydraulic properties of groundwater systems at high resolution is essential to simulate flow and transport phenomena. This paper investigates two schemes to invert transient hydraulic head data resulting from multiple pumping tests for the purpose of estimating the spatial distributions of the hydraulic conductivity, K, and the specific storage, Ss, of an aquifer. The two methods are centralized fusion and decentralized fusion. The centralized fusion of transient data is achieved when data from all pumping tests are processed concurrently using a central inversion processor, whereas the decentralized fusion inverts data from each pumping test separately to obtain optimal local estimates of hydraulic parameter, which are consequently fused using the Generalized Millman Formula, an algorithm for merging multiple correlated or uncorrelated local estimates. For both data fusion schemes, the basic inversion processor employed is the Ensemble Kalman Filter, which is employed to assimilate the temporal moments of the transient hydraulic head measurements resulting from multiple pumping tests. Assimilating the temporal moments instead of the hydraulic head transient data themselves is shown to provide a significant improvement in computational efficiency. Additionally, different assimilation strategies to improve the estimation of Ss are investigated. Results show that estimation of the K and Ss distributions using temporal moment analysis is fairly good; however, the centralized inversion scheme consistently outperforms the decentralized inversion scheme. Investigations on the sensitivity of the inversion estimates to errors in geostatistical parameters of the random fields of K and Ss reveal that the estimates are not sensitive to errors in the correlation length and the variance of hydraulic properties, but are noticeably sensitive to errors in the stationary mean. The proposed inversion schemes are expanded to estimate the geostatistical parameters of the K and Ss fields. The results show that the estimation of the true stationary mean of the K field and, to a lesser degree, the stationary mean of the Ss field can be successfully achieved, while the estimation of correlation length and standard deviation for both the K and Ss fields are not as effective.

Alzraiee, A. H.; Baú, D.; Elhaddad, A.

2014-04-01

177

Lower-Division Offerings in the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area: Studies and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information on associate degree and certificate offerings at four two-year institutions in the Oklahoma and Tulsa City metropolitan areas and articulation between baccalaureate degree programs at the University of Central Oklahoma and four metropolitan area two-year institutions. Part I classifies Oklahoma City area…

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

178

Urban flood analysis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood insurance study information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency is utilized to estimate future flood hazard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Techniques are described for estimating future urban runoff estimates. A method of developing stream cross section rating curves is explained. Future runoff estimates are used in conjuction with the rating curves to develop an estimate of 50- and 100- year flood profiles that would result from future urban development.

Tortorelli, Robert L.; Huntzinger, T. L.; Bergman, D. L.; Patneaude, A. L.

1983-01-01

179

Agriculture-related trends in groundwater quality of the glacial deposits aquifer, central Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measuring and understanding trends in groundwater quality is necessary for determining whether changes in land-management practices have an effect on groundwater quality. This paper describes an approach that was used to measure and understand trends using data from two groundwater studies conducted in central Wisconsin as part of the USGS NAWQA program. One of the key components of this approach, determining the age of sampled groundwater, gave a temporal component to the snapshots of water quality that were obtained through synoptic-sampling efforts. This approach can be used at other locations where groundwater quality data are collected, groundwater age can be determined, and associated temporal data are available. Results of these studies indicate measured concentrations of nitrate and atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to historical patterns of fertilizer and atrazine use. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater have increased over time; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine increased and then decreased. Concentrations of nitrate also were correlated to screen depth below the water level and concentrations of dissolved O2; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to dissolved O2 and annual precipitation. To measure trends in concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine, the data, collected over a near-decadal period, were adjusted to account for changes in laboratory-reporting levels and analytical recoveries. Only after accounting for these changes was it apparent that the median concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine decreased over the near-decadal interval between sampling efforts. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Saad, D. A.

2008-01-01

180

Heat flow in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 [sup 0]C/km (average 31.2 [sup 0]C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

Cranganu, C.; Deming, D. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

1996-01-01

181

Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

2013-10-01

182

Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

2014-06-01

183

History of ground-water pumpage and water-level decline in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers of the central coastal plain of North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical ground-water withdrawals and a general water-level decline in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers of the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina are documented. Total municipal and industrial pumpage from these aquifers has increased from approximately 120,000 gal/day (gpd) in 1910 to >21 million gpd in 1980. Major pumpage, > 10,000 gpd, began around 1900. Since that time, per capita water use in the central Coastal Plain area has ranged from 17 to 172 gpd/person. The higher values partially represent the increasing availability and use of modern conveniences since the World War II era. The range of per capita water use can be subdivided according to general water-use and population characteristics for both urban and rural areas. The pumpage of ground water from the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers has created water-level declines from 0.5 to 4.9 ft/year since 1900. Approximately a third of the study area has experienced a decline > 50 ft up to the period 1979-1981, with 148 ft being the maximum.

Winner, M. D.; Lyke, W. L.

1986-01-01

184

Map Showing Geology and Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer Catchment Area, Northern Bexar County, South-Central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rock units forming the Edwards and Trinity aquifers in northern Bexar County, Texas, are exposed within all or parts of seven 7.5-minute quadrangles: Bulverde, Camp Bullis, Castle Hills, Helotes, Jack Mountain, San Geronimo, and Van Raub. The Edwards aquifer is the most prolific ground-water source in Bexar County, whereas the Trinity aquifer supplies water for residential, commercial, and industrial uses for areas north of the San Antonio. The geologic map of northern Bexar County shows the distribution of informal hydrostratigraphic members of the Edwards Group and the underlying upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone. Exposures of the Glen Rose Limestone, which forms the Trinity aquifer alone, cover approximately 467 km2 in the county. This study also describes and names five informal hydrostratigraphic members that constitute the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone; these include, in descending order, the Caverness, Camp Bullis, Upper evaporite, Fossiliferous, and Lower evaporite members. This study improves our understanding of the hydrogeologic connection between the two aquifers as it describes the geology that controls the infiltration of surface water and subsurface flow of ground water from the catchment area (outcropping Trinity aquifer rocks) to the Edwards water-bearing exposures.

Clark, Amy R.; Blome, Charles D.; Faith, Jason R.

2009-01-01

185

Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas - Field testing and analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last several years, streamflows of a number of Kansas streams have been reduced as a result of groundwater declines. In order to better understand and quantify stream-aquifer interrelationships, an eight-day comprehensive stream-aquifer pumping test, followed by recovery monitoring, was conducted along the Arkansas River near Great Bend, Kansas. In addition to water level monitoring in numerous observation wells, streamflow data, streambed hydraulic gradients, neutron probe-based water content of dewatered sediments, water chemistry and other data were collected. The alluvial aquifer is shown to be highly transmissive (T = 1803 m2d-1) with the pumping stress (9538 m3d-1) having a radius of influence larger than 1.77 km, impacting both the aquifer levels and the streamflow in the nearby Arkansas River. Drawdown and recharge boundary effects were observed in all observation wells, including those on the opposite side of the river. The alluvial aquifer did not exhibit a water table behavior and responded as a leaky confined aquifer. A semiconfining clay layer less than 3 m thick and an additional recharge source from a nearby stream-alluvial system were the probable causes of the observed phenomena. Actual streamflow depletion is shown to be appreciably less than the computed depletion based on analytical solutions. ?? 1988.

Sophocleous, M.; Townsend, M. A.; Vogler, L. D.; McClain, T. J.; Marks, E. T.; Coble, G. R.

1988-01-01

186

Demonstration optimization analyses of pumping from selected Arapahoe aquifer municipal wells in the west-central Denver Basin, Colorado, 2010–2109  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Declining water levels caused by withdrawals of water from wells in the west-central part of the Denver Basin bedrock-aquifer system have raised concerns with respect to the ability of the aquifer system to sustain production. The Arapahoe aquifer in particular is heavily used in this area. Two optimization analyses were conducted to demonstrate approaches that could be used to evaluate possible future pumping scenarios intended to prolong the productivity of the aquifer and to delay excessive loss of saturated thickness. These analyses were designed as demonstrations only, and were not intended as a comprehensive optimization study. Optimization analyses were based on a groundwater-flow model of the Denver Basin developed as part of a recently published U.S. Geological Survey groundwater-availability study. For each analysis an optimization problem was set up to maximize total withdrawal rate, subject to withdrawal-rate and hydraulic-head constraints, for 119 selected municipal water-supply wells located in 96 model cells. The optimization analyses were based on 50- and 100-year simulations of groundwater withdrawals. The optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells for a 50-year simulation time was about 58.8 cubic feet per second. For an analysis in which the simulation time and head-constraint time were extended to 100 years, the optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells was about 53.0 cubic feet per second, demonstrating that a reduction in withdrawal rate of about 10 percent may extend the time before the hydraulic-head constraints are violated by 50 years, provided that pumping rates are optimally distributed. Analysis of simulation results showed that initially, the pumping produces water primarily by release of water from storage in the Arapahoe aquifer. However, because confining layers between the Denver and Arapahoe aquifers are thin, in less than 5 years, most of the water removed by managed-flows pumping likely would be supplied by depleting overlying hydrogeologic units, substantially increasing the rate of decline of hydraulic heads in parts of the overlying Denver aquifer.

Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.

2012-01-01

187

Feasibility Assessment for Implementing a Geologic Solution for Arsenic Mitigation in Small Public Water Systems in Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2003 the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC), in collaboration with the Association of Central Oklahoma Governments (ACOG), and the cities of Edmond, Nichols Hills and Piedmont, Oklahoma completed a project to investigate the geological and geochemi...

2009-01-01

188

Pride in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to be used as background material by social studies and history classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Oklahoma's heritage. It includes background information on the land and people of Oklahoma (geology, climate, topography, vegetation, animals, prehistoric peoples, French explorers,…

Moore, Gordon; Blackburn, Bob L.

189

Effects of recharge from drainage wells on quality of water in the Floridan Aquifer in the Orlando area, central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Approximately 400 drainage wells in the Orlando area inject, by gravity, large quantities of stormwater runoff that may or may not be suitable for most purposes without treatment into the same freshwater zones of the Floridan aquifer tapped for public supply. The wells are used mostly to control lake levels and dispose of urban storm runoff. Recharge from drainage wells compensates for heavy withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer and helps maintain aquifer pressures that retard upward saltwater encroachment. Sixty-five supply wells and 21 drainage wells within a 16-mile radius of Orlando were sampled from September 1977 to June 1979. Most constituent concentrations were slightly higher in water from drainage wells than in water from supply wells. The most notable differences were in bacteria colony count and total nitrogen concentrations. With the exception of bacteria, water from drainage wells would generally meet the maximum contaminant levels established by the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. (USGS)

Schiner, G. R.; German, E. R.

1983-01-01

190

Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics t...

1991-01-01

191

In situ Stress Analysis of Wellbore Breakouts from Oklahoma and the Texas Panhandle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Orientations of crustal stresses are inferred from stress-induced breakouts (wellbore enlargements) in the eastern part of the Anadarko basin in central Oklahoma, the Marietta basin in south-central Oklahoma, and the Bravo dome area of the central Texas P...

R. L. Dart

1990-01-01

192

Potentiometric surface of the lower Cape Fear Aquifer in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, December 1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water level measurements were made in four wells open to the lower Cape Fear aquifer at the end of 1986 to determine the configuration of its potentiometric surface over an area of approximately 4,100 sq mi. Because of the scarcity of data, five earlier measurements were also used to help estimate the position of the potentiometric contours. These were one-time measurements in temporary observation wells. A broad cone of depression has formed in the area between Kinston and New Bern where the potentiometric surface is below sea level and seems likely related to large groundwater withdrawals from the aquifers overlying the lower Cape Fear in that area.

Winner, M. D., Jr.; Lyke, William L.; Brockman, Allen R.

1989-01-01

193

Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the Contoocook River basin, south-central New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stratified-drift aquifers discontinuously underlie 121 mi2 (square miles) of the Contoocook River Basin, which has a total drainage area of 776 mi2. Maps of these aquifers, showing water-table configurations, saturated thicknesses, and transmissivities were prepared from well and test-hole data and seismic-refraction profiles. The distribution of stratified-drift aquifers is largely controlled by the Pleistocene glaciation process and the formation of multiple glacial lakes along the main stem of the Contoocook River. Locally, saturated thickness of stratified drift within these aquifers are as great as 200 feet. Estimated transmissivities exceed 8,000 ft2/d (squared feet per day) at three locations and is as high as 22,800 ft2/d at one location. Stratified-drift aquifers that have the greatest potential to supply additional amounts of water include the aquifers at Greenfield-Otter Brook and Hancock-Norway Pond. Potential yields to hypothetical supply wells were estimated for the Greenfield-Otter Brook, Hillsborough-Contoocook River, and Andover- Blackwater River aquifers by use of a analytical ground-water-flow model. The model results predict that the potential yields are greatest from the Greenfield-Otter Brook aquifer, yielding up to 1.85 gallons per day during half-year periods of no recharge. The effective ground-water recharge to the entire basin, which includes recharge to the till, bedrock, and stratified drift, is 13.9 in./yr (inches per year) (521 million gallons per day) on the basis of hydrograph separation of streamflow. The quality of water obtained from 11 observation wells and 10 municipal supply wells is generally suitable for drinking and most other domestic purposes. Ground water in the region has low alkalinity, is slightly acidic, and has low concentrations of dissolved solids. Concentrations of dissolved constituents in ground-water samples were generally less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels except for elevated iron concentrations (in water from six wells) and manganese concentrations in water from seven wells.

Harte, P. T.; Johnson, William

1995-01-01

194

Regional ground-water-flow models of surficial sand and gravel aquifers along the Mississippi River between Brainerd and St. Cloud, central Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents regional ground-waterflow models constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to satisfy the requirements of their Source Water Protection Plan (SWPP). Steady-state single-layer ground-water-flow models were constructed with the computer program MODFLOW to simulate flow in surficial sand and gravel aquifers along the Mississippi River between Brainerd and St. Cloud in central Minnesota. The hydrogeologic data that were used to construct the models were compiled from available sources. Calibrated values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and areal recharge for the aquifer in a northern model area were 70 m/d and 3.0x10-4 m/d, respectively. This model was sensitive to net areal recharge, vertical hydraulic conductivity of perennial streambed sediments, and horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The major source of net inflow to the model was from edge boundary cells. The major source of net outflow was ground-water discharge to perennial and ephemeral streams. Calibrated values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and areal recharge for the aquifer in a southern model area were 70 m/d and 6.0x10-4 m/d, respectively. This model was sensitive mostly to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Net areal recharge and ground-water discharge to perennial streams were the major sources of net inflow and outflow, respectively.

Ruhl, J. F.; Cowdery, T. K.

2004-01-01

195

Simulated effects of projected ground-water withdrawals in the Floridan aquifer system, greater Orlando metropolitan area, east-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water levels in the Floridan aquifer system within the greater Orlando metropolitan area are expected to decline because of a projected increase in the average pumpage rate from 410 million gallons per day in 1995 to 576 million gallons per day in 2020. The potential decline in ground-water levels and spring discharge within the area was investigated with a calibrated, steady-state, ground-water flow model. A wetter-than-average condition scenario and a drought-condition scenario were simulated to bracket the range of water-levels and springflow that may occur in 2020 under average rainfall conditions. Pumpage used to represent the drought-condition scenario totaled 865 million gallons per day, about 50 percent greater than the projected average pumpage rate in 2020. Relative to average 1995 steady-state conditions, drawdowns simulated in the Upper Floridan aquifer exceeded 10 and 25 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively, in parts of central and southwest Orange County and in north Osceola County. In Seminole County, drawdowns of up to 20 feet were simulated for dry conditions, compared with 5 to 10 feet simulated for wet conditions. Computed springflow was reduced by 10 percent for wet conditions and by 38 percent for dry conditions, with the largest reductions (28 and 76 percent) occurring at the Sanlando Springs group. In the Lower Floridan aquifer, drawdowns simulated in southwest Orange County exceeded 20 and 40 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively.

Murray, Louis C., Jr.; Halford, Keith J.

1999-01-01

196

Land Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction in the Tucson Active Management Area, South-Central Arizona, 1987-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Geological Survey monitors land subsidence and aquifer-system compaction caused by ground-water depletion in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley--two of the three alluvial basins within the Tucson Active Management Area. In spring 1987, the Global Posit...

2007-01-01

197

Oklahoma City, Canadian River, OK, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of Oklahoma City, OK (35.5N, 97.5W) surrounded by the grasslands of the central plains, is detailed enough to use as a map of the major highways and throughfares within the city and surrounding area. Tinker Air Force Base and Will Rogers International Airport as well as Lakes Hefner, Stanley Draper and nearby recreation areas. The smaller community of Norman, on the banks of the Canadian River to the south, is home to the University of Oklahoma.

1991-01-01

198

Washita Basin Project, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Located adjacent to Americas arid west/humid east division line known as the 100th meridian, western Oklahomas rolling uplands are susceptible to unpredictable weather cycles. Erratic best describes seasonal and annual rainfall patterns, with periods of p...

J. M. Bailey

2008-01-01

199

Child and Family Resource Program (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma). Program Description.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the Oklahoma City, Oklahoma site of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP), a Head Start-affiliated program designed to elicit community and family involvement in fostering optimum development of preschool children and their families. The Oklahoma City site, serving a rural black community, is one of 11 demonstration…

Development Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

200

The past is the key to the future: how the groundwater recharge to carbonate aquifer in central Italy has changed in recent decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate aquifers are important resources especially in mountainous regions because they are able to store huge quantities of groundwater in the humid periods and gradually release them during dry periods. Water quality is often excellent, hence they are regarded as strategic both for human consumption as well as for environmental uses. In many parts of the world this resources are largely exploited to supply large urban areas and possible negative effects of climate changes to their discharge is a great concern. The present study aims to analyze how the regimen of recharge to groundwater is affected by eventual non stationarity in temperature and precipitation during past decades. The case study (235 km2 ) is located in central Italy and feed the Nera river with an average discharge of about 3.3 m3/s. Daily data from 16 (7) stations monitoring precipitation (temperature) covering the area of interest over the period 1951-2013 were spatially homogenized by means of kriging at a 1 km2 resolution. The resulting daily maps were used to force a simple spatial distributed soil water budget model considering the local hydrogeological structure. The reconstructed daily recharge to the aquifer was then compared to the discharge of the groundwater system observed in the period 1991-1993 and 1996-2012 (discontinues measurements). Results show that minimum and maximum temperatures present a significant (95%) positive trend after the 1980, in acceleration after 1990 (+0.055 (+0.07 )°C/yr for the maximum T; +0.03 ( +0.06) °C/yr for the minimum T, for the periods 1980-2013 (1990-2013)); precipitation and recharge to the aquifer present a non-significant (95%) negative linear trend over the period 1951-2013 (-1.5 mm/yr and -3 Ls-1yr-1 respectively) without obvious changings points, indicating in first approximation a marginal impact of temperature non stationarity on the recharge. The decrease in the recharge to the aquifer, although not statistically significant, represents a reduction of 5.5% of the groundwater system discharge over the past 60 years.

Preziosi, Elisabetta; Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Di Salvo, Cristina

2014-05-01

201

Land Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction in the Tucson Active Management Area, South-Central Arizona, 1987-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey monitors land subsidence and aquifer-system compaction caused by ground-water depletion in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley - two of the three alluvial basins within the Tucson Active Management Area. In spring 1987, the Global Positioning System was used to measure horizontal and vertical positions for bench marks at 43 sites to establish a network for monitoring land subsidence in Tucson Basin and Avra Valley. Between 1987 and 2005, the original number of subsidence monitoring stations was gradually increased to more than 100 stations to meet the need for information in the growing metropolitan area. Data from approximately 60 stations common to the Global Positioning System surveys done after an initial survey in 1987 are used to document land subsidence. For the periods of comparison, average land-surface deformation generally is less than the maximum subsidence at an individual station and takes into account land-surface recovery from elastic aquifer-system compaction. Between 1987 and 1998, as much as 3.2 inches of subsidence occurred in Tucson Basin and as much as 4 inches of subsidence occurred in Avra Valley. For the 31 stations that are common to both the 1987 and 1998 Global Positioning System surveys, the average subsidence during the 11-year period was about 0.5 inch in Tucson Basin and about 1.2 inches in Avra Valley. For the approximately 60 stations that are common to both the 1998 and 2002 Global Positioning System surveys, the data indicate that as much as 3.5 inches of subsidence occurred in Tucson Basin and as much as 1.1 inches of subsidence occurred in Avra Valley. The average subsidence for the 4-year period is about 0.4 inch in Tucson Basin and 0.6 inch in Avra Valley. Between the 2002 and the 2005 Global Positioning System surveys, the data indicate that as much as 0.2 inch of subsidence occurred in Tucson Basin and as much as 2.2 inches of subsidence occurred in Avra Valley. The average subsidence for the 3-year period is about 0.7 inch in Avra Valley. Between 1987 and 2004-05, land subsidence was greater in Avra Valley than in Tucson Basin on the basis of the average cumulative subsidence for the stations that were common to the original Global Positioning System survey in 1987. The average total subsidence during the 17- to 18-year period was about 1.3 inches in Tucson Basin and about 2.8 inches in Avra Valley. Three stations in Tucson Basin showed subsidence greater than 4 inches for the period - 5 inches at stations C45 and X419 and 4.1 inches at station PA4. In Avra Valley, two stations showed subsidence for the 17- to 18-year period greater than 4 inches - 4.3 inches at station AV25 and 4.8 inches at station SA105. In 1983, fourteen wells were fitted with borehole extensometers to monitor water-level fluctuations and aquifer-system compaction. Continuous records of water level and aquifer-system compaction indicate that as much as 45 feet of water-level decline and 4 inches of aquifer-system compaction occurred in Tucson Basin from January 1989 through December, 2005. In Avra Valley, extensometer data indicate that as much as 55 feet of water-level decline and 1.7 inches of aquifer-system compaction occurred during the same time period. Rates of compaction vary throughout the extensometer network, with the greater rates of compaction being associated with areas of greater water-level decline and more compressible sediments. In Avra Valley, data from the Global Positioning System surveys indicate that more than half of the total subsidence of the land surface may be the result of aquifer-system compaction below the portion of the aquifer instrumented with the vertical extensometers. For the area in the northern part of Tucson Basin between the Rillito and Santa Cruz rivers, an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar interferogram indicates that about 1.65 inches of subsidence occurred between 2003 and 2006. Between 2002 and 2004, the Global Positioning System

Carruth, Robert L.; Flynn, Pool; Donald R.; Anderson, Carl E.

2007-01-01

202

InSAR analysis of aquifer-system response to 20 years of mine-dewatering in the Carlin gold trend, north-central Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carlin trend in north-central Nevada has the second largest gold resources in the world, most of it produced from large open-pit mines. Heavy groundwater dewatering is required at the mines to lower water levels below the depth of mining which can exceed 400-500 m. The resulting water level declines have produced surface deformation (subsidence) that can be detected and modeled with InSAR to characterize the aquifer-system response and to estimate hydraulic parameters in order to test and refine groundwater models. In a series of studies we examined the effects of dewatering at mines operated by Newmont Mining Corporation and Barrick Gold of North America near Battle Mountain and Carlin, Nevada. The Lone Tree mine operated a large-scale dewatering program between 1992-2006 using deep bedrock wells that pumped between 64-92 hm3/yr (52,000-75,000 acre-ft/yr) and lowered bedrock water levels more than 120 m. InSAR analysis of ERS and Envisat data for the 1992-2000 and 2004-2010 periods showed that as much as 50 cm of aquifer-system compaction occurred in bedrock and in alluvial basin deposits with subsidence rates ranging between 3-6 cm/yr. Since dewatering ended in late 2006 and water levels began rising, only 7 cm of aquifer-system recovery (uplift) has occurred as of 2010 suggesting that most of the aquifer-system compaction was likely inelastic, apparently in the pumped fractured bedrock. The InSAR subsidence data differ significantly from the pre-pumping groundwater model which predicted 2.5 m of subsidence for the 1992-2000 period. The results yield bulk storage coefficients in the range of 7 x 10-3 to 5.6 x 10-5 with a most frequent value of 1.0 x 10-3 (Baffoe-Twum, 2007), InSAR-derived hydraulic values that can provide better constraints on specific storage estimates in future groundwater models. The Betze-Post mine has been dewatering continually since late 1989 with maximum pumping rates of greater than 140 hm3/yr (110,000 acre-ft/yr) in the early and late 1990s. This resulted in the lowering of groundwater levels by as much as 500 m in some areas. Analysis of InSAR data covering the 1992-2000 and 2004-2010 time periods suggests a cumulative measured subsidence magnitude of approximately 50 cm. In this case, all of the aquifer-system compaction is occurring in bedrock. Estimates of bulk storage coefficients at Betze-Post are also on the order of approximately 1.0 x 10-3 suggesting that subsidence at both sites is occurring in materials of similar character. Subsidence rates have decreased to near zero since groundwater production was reduced in the early 2000s. Since the early 2000s, subsidence rates resulting from dewatering at the neighboring Leeville mine have been greater than those at Betze-Post. Dewatering at the Turquoise Ridge-Twin Creeks and Gold Quarry mines, adjacent to these two larger mines, has also produced measureable aquifer-system compaction but with lower rates of subsidence. However, detailed hydrologic analyses have not been undertaken at these mines.

Bell, J. W.; Katzenstein, K.

2012-12-01

203

Potentiometric surface of the upper Cape Fear Aquifer in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, December 1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-level measurements were made in 84 wells open to the upper Cape Fear aquifer at the end of 1986 to determine the configuration of its potentiometric surface over an area of approximately 5,500 sq mi. The major feature of the potentiometric surface is the development of a large, almost circular cone of depression as a result of the merging of a number of smaller cones. The center of the large cone lies along an axis between Greenville and Kinston. The potentiometric surface in the upper Cape Fear is nearly 100 ft below sea level at Greenville; it is more than 100 ft above sea level south of the Neuse River near Colorado.

Winner, M. D., Jr.; Lyke, William L.; Brockman, Allen R.

1989-01-01

204

Microbial ecology of a shallow unconfined ground water aquifer polluted by municipal landfill leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microflora of a shallow anoxic aquifer underlying a municipal landfill in Oklahoma was characterized by direct light microscopy, most probable number determinations of sulfate reducers and methanogens, and measurements of methanogenesis in aquifer samples containing either endogenous or exogenous electron donors and various sulfate concentrations. Acridine orange direct counts of bacteria did not vary significantly with time or between

Ralph E. Beeman; Joseph M. Suflita

1987-01-01

205

Buried aquifers in the Brooten-Belgrade and Lake Emily areas, west-central Minnesota--Factors related to developing water for irrigation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Irrigation has given a substantial boost to the economy in the Brooten-Belgrade and Lake Emily areas of Minnesota. The surficial outwash aquifer is capable of yielding sufficient quantities of water for irrigation over half of its area; the remaining part may be supplied by deep aquifers. Buried glacial outwash and Cretaceous sand aquifers, as thick as 50 feet occur to depths of 300 feet. In places, the buried aquifers are sufficiently thick and permeable to yield large quantities of water to wells. The buried aquifers are probably narrow, elongate, truncated bodies enclosed by clay till. The Precambrian surface, ranging from 190 to 350 feet below the land surface, is the lower limit of the buried aquifers. Water in the buried-drift aquifers is a very hard calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, suitable for irrigation needs. Water in Cretaceous aquifers, although untested, is expected to be higher in dissolved solids. Potenial water problems include slow rate of recharge to buried aquifers, and head loss caused by screening of the surficial and buried aquifers in the same well, and by allowing well to flow unabated. Another potential problem is possible pollution of the buried aquifers through the boreholes of multiaquifer wells. (Woodard-USGS)

Wolf, R. J.

1976-01-01

206

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of Oklahoma nonfuel mineral production was nearly $252.6 million in 1992, a decrease of $22.9 million from that reported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines by State mineral producers in 1991. The value of the top three commodities produced, crushed sto...

J. E. Zelten R. H. Arndt

1994-01-01

207

Oklahoma's Quest for Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The passage of Bill 1706 by the Oklahoma State Legislature is a major step toward building professional schools of education and a true profession. Through the specifications of this law, the total process is to be strengthened, since changes in teacher education are severely limited if done in a piecemeal fashion. There are five major points…

Wisniewski, Richard

208

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

209

Petroleum production and exploration in Ouachita region of Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum production in the Ouachita region of southeastern Oklahoma occurs in three geographic areas parallel to regional structure. The frontal gas, central oil, and central gas belts are distinguished by differences in structural setting, reservoir strata, and types of hydrocarbons. In the frontal belt, nearly 1 trillion ft³ of dry gas has been produced from thrusted and subthrust Morrowan and

N. H. Suneson; J. A. Campbell

1989-01-01

210

Effects of climate, vegetation, and soils on consumptive water use and ground-water recharge to the Central Midwest Regional aquifer system, Mid-continent United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Central Midwest aquifer system, in parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Texas, is a region of great hydrologic diversity. This study examines the relationships between climate, vegetation, and soil that affect consumptive water use and recharge to the groundwater system. Computations of potential recharge and consumptive water use were restricted to those areas where the aquifers under consideration were the immediate underlying system. The principal method of analysis utilized a soil moisture computer model. This model requires four types of input: (1) hydrologic properties of the soils, (2) vegetation types, (3) monthly precipitation, and (4) computed monthly potential evapotranspiration (PET) values. The climatic factors that affect consumptive water use and recharge were extensively mapped for the study area. Nearly all the pertinent climatic elements confirmed the extreme diversity of the region. PET and those factors affecting it--solar radiation, temperature, and humidity--showed large regional differences; mean annual PET ranged from 36 to 70 inches in the study area. The seasonal climatic patterns indicate significant regional differences in those factors affecting seasonal consumptive water use and recharge. In the southern and western parts of the study area, consumptive water use occurred nearly the entire year; whereas, in northern parts it occurred primarily during the warm season (April through September). Results of the soil-moisture program, which added the effects of vegetation and the hydrologic characteristics of the soil to computed PET values, confirmed the significant regional differences in consumptive water use or actual evapotranspiration (AET) and potential groundwater recharge. Under two different vegetative conditions--the 1978 conditions and pre-agricultural conditions consisting of only grassland and woodland--overall differences in recharge were minimal. Mean annual recharge under both conditions averaged slightly more than 4.5 inches for the entire study area, but ranged from less than 0.10 inches in eastern Colorado to slightly more than 15 inches in Arkansas. (Lantz-PTT)

Dugan, J. T.; Peckenpaugh, J. M.

1985-01-01

211

State Data Related to Abandoned Centralized and Commercial Drilling-Fluid Disposal Sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of ...

H. S. Nance A. R. Dutton

2003-01-01

212

Appraisal of the interconnection between the St Johns River and the surficial aquifer, east-central Duval County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The proposed deepening of the navigation channel in the St. Johns River to about 46-48 feet below sea level (45 feet below mean low water) may breach up to 11 feet of limestone unit of the lower part of the surficial aquifer along a 25-mile channel. The limestone supplies water to numerous domestic wells along the river in the Jacksonville area. Recent channel improvements to about 39 feet below sea level have already breached the limestone at many locations. Where breaching has not yet occurred, less than 1 to 6 feet of undifferentiated sediments overlie the limestone. These sediments, consisting predominantly of sand, are generally too permeable to form an effective confining layer. Chloride concentrations determined from water in wells tapping the limestone unit range from 8 to 6,600 milligrams per liter. However, chloride concentrations in water from wells located more than 500 feet from the river, were generally less than 30 milligrams per liter. The proposed dredging operation is not expected to alter significantly the present hydrologic system. The current position of the interface most likely represents conditions that will be present after future channel improvements. (USGS)

Spechler, R. M.; Stone, R. B.

1982-01-01

213

Evaluation of groundwater storage monitoring with the GRACE satellite: Case study of the High Plains aquifer, central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity is a critical issue in semiarid regions; however, regional groundwater monitoring is extremely limited. This study evaluates the ability of the GRACE satellites to monitor groundwater storage in the semiarid High Plains aquifer, United States (450,000 km2 area), which is subjected to intense irrigation. GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) is highly correlated with the sum of soil moisture (SM) and groundwater storage (GWS) (R = 0.96 for in situ measured SM from 78 stations and R = 0.95 for simulated SM with the Noah land surface model with root-mean-square difference of 38 mm and 36 mm, respectively). Correlation between seasonal GWS changes calculated from GRACE TWS minus SM and measured GWS (˜1000 wells per season) is also high (R = 0.73 for in situ SM and R = 0.72 for simulated SM). Variability in SM is mostly restricted to the upper 2 m of the soil. Monitored SM compared favorably with simulated SM (R = 0.82). Study results show the potential for using GRACE gravity measurements to monitor TWS and GWS over large semiarid regions subjected to intense irrigation.

Strassberg, Gil; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Chambers, Don

2009-05-01

214

Naming aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Names are the symbols used in logic to designate items and to serve as addresses and structures to which information is related. However, in geohydrology, no widely accepted system for naming aquifers exists, and confusion has resulted. The confusion occurs in part because the few available guidelines are not widely known, and practicing geohydrologists may not be aware of or fully knowledgeable about those guidelines. In general, the inexactness and inaccuracy in naming aquifers probably occurs because of inexact or inaccurate definitions of an aquifer.

Jorgensen, Donald G.; Rosenshein, Joseph S.

215

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

216

Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than in more urbanized areas. Much of the water in the area is of good quality, though some parts of this area have water quality impaired by very hard surface water and groundwater; large chloride concentrations in some smaller streams; relatively large concentrations of nutrients and counts of fecal-indicator bacteria in the North Canadian River; and chloride, iron, manganese, and uranium concentrations that exceed primary or secondary drinking-water standards in water samples collected from small numbers of wells. Substantial amounts of hydrologic and water-quality data have been collected in much of this area, but there are gaps in those data caused by relatively few streamflow-gaging stations, uneven distribution of surface-water quality sampling sites, lack of surface-water quality sampling at high-flow and low-flow conditions, and lack of a regularly measured and sampled groundwater network. This report summarizes existing water-use, climatic, geographic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and describes several means of filling gaps in hydrologic data for this area.

Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

2013-01-01

217

Testing the sensitivity of pumpage to increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well-field area, West-Central Florida : an optimization technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tampa Bay depends on ground water for most of the water supply. Numerous wetlands and lakes in Pasco County have been impacted by the high demand for ground water. Central Pasco County, particularly the area within the Cypress Creek well field, has been greatly affected. Probable causes for the decline in surface-water levels are well-field pumpage and a decade-long drought. Efforts are underway to increase surface-water levels by developing alternative sources of water supply, thus reducing the quantity of well-field pumpage. Numerical ground-water flow simulations coupled with an optimization routine were used in a series of simulations to test the sensitivity of optimal pumpage to desired increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well field. The ground-water system was simulated using the central northern Tampa Bay ground-water flow model. Pumping solutions for 1987 equilibrium conditions and for a transient 6-month timeframe were determined for five test cases, each reflecting a range of desired target recovery heads at different head control sites in the surficial aquifer system. Results are presented in the form of curves relating average head recovery to total optimal pumpage. Pumping solutions are sensitive to the location of head control sites formulated in the optimization problem and as expected, total optimal pumpage decreased when desired target head increased. The distribution of optimal pumpage for individual production wells also was significantly affected by the location of head control sites. A pumping advantage was gained for test-case formulations where hydraulic heads were maximized in cells near the production wells, in cells within the steady-state pumping center cone of depression, and in cells within the area of the well field where confining-unit leakance is the highest. More water was pumped and the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in optimal pumpage was more than double for test cases where hydraulic heads are maximized in cells located at or near the production wells. Additionally, the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in pumpage was about three times more for the area where confining-unit leakance is the highest than for other leakance zone areas of the well field. For many head control sites, optimal heads corresponding to optimal pumpage deviated from the desired target recovery heads. Overall, pumping solutions were constrained by the limiting recovery values, initial head conditions, and by upper boundary conditions of the ground-water flow model.

Yobbi, Dann K.

2002-01-01

218

Census and Statistical Characterization of Soil and Water Quality at Abandoned and Other Centralized and Commercial Drilling-Fluid Disposal Sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringen...

A. R. Dutton H. S. Nance

2003-01-01

219

CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in

Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

2003-01-01

220

Oklahoma Healthy Homes Initiative  

PubMed Central

Compelling scientific evidence suggests that a strong association exists between housing-related hazards and the health and safety of their residents. Health, safety, and environmental hazards (such as asthma and allergy triggers), unintentional injury hazards, lead-based paint hazards, and poor indoor air quality are interrelated with substandard housing conditions. This article describes a Healthy Homes initiative to address these hazards in a coordinated fashion in the home, rather than taking a categorical approach, even in the presence of multiple hazards. It also provides an overview of Oklahoma's Healthy Homes initiative and its pilot project, the Tulsa Safe and Healthy Housing Project, which is currently administered in Tulsa in collaboration with Children First, Oklahoma's Nurse-Family Partnership program. This pilot project seeks to open new areas of research that can lead to a greater understanding of environmental health issues related to substandard housing in the United States, which will eventually make homes safer and healthier.

Khan, Fahad

2011-01-01

221

Oklahoma Digital Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A team of talented librarians at the Oklahoma State University Library have created this collection of 3,600 maps, a true find for those with an interest in Sooner history, geography, culture, and more. The cartographic resources are divided into four collections, including the WPA Collection and the USGS Collection. This first collection consists of almost 2,400 detailed county maps produced in the 1930s by the Works Progress Administration and the Oklahoma Tax Commission to determine real estate values. Moving on, the USGS Collection is made up of 300 detailed maps generated from 1892 to the 1950s documenting topographical conditions throughout the state. Interested parties can view all of the maps here via a nice digital image tool and are also welcome to search across the entire collection by keyword.

222

Oklahoma seismic network. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent.

Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States)]|[Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Energy Center

1993-07-01

223

Heat flow in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of

C. Cranganu; D. Deming

1996-01-01

224

Heat flow in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty new heat flow values are incorporated, along with 40 previously published data, into a heat flow map of Oklahoma. The new heat flow data were estimated using previous temperature measurements in boreholes made by American Petroleum Institute researchers and 1,498 thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings. The mean of 20 average thermal gradients is 30.50sp°C\\/km. In general, thermal gradients

Constantin Cranganu

1997-01-01

225

AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

226

Distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations and temperature in ground water of the gulf coast aquifer systems, south-central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations and temperature in waters of 10 of the aquifers comprising the gulf coast aquifer systems of the Gulf Mexico Coastal Plain are mapped at a scale of 1:3,500,000. Dissolved solids concentration in the aquifers of the Tertiary System ranges from less than 500 mg/L at the outcrop and subcrop areas to as much as 150,000 mg/L at the downdip extent of these aquifers. A distinct band of sharply increasing concentration of dissolved-solids occurs at about middip of each aquifer of the Tertiary System. Dissolved-solids concentration in younger aquifers ranges from less than 500 mg/L in outcrop and subcrop areas to about 70,000 mg/L at the downdip extent of these aquifers. Temperature of waters in permeable Tertiary deposits ranges from about 18 C at the outcrop and subcrop areas to 90 C at the downdip extent of these aquifers. Temperature of waters in younger deposits ranges from about 14 C at the outcrop and subcrop areas to 30 C at their downdip extent. (USGS)

Pettijohn, Robert A.; Weiss, Jonathan S.; Williamson, Alex K.

1988-01-01

227

Karst in Permian evaporite rocks of western Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Bedded evaporites (gypsum and salt) of Permian age have been dissolved naturally by ground water to form a major evaporite-karst region in western Oklahoma. The Blaine Formation and associated evaporites comprise 100--800 ft of strata that dip gently into broad, structural basins. Outcropping gypsum, dolomite, and red-bed shales of the Blaine display typical karstic features, such as sinkholes, caves, disappearing streams, and springs. Large caves are developed in gypsum beds 10--30 ft thick at several places, and a major gypsum/dolomite karst aquifer provides irrigation water to a large region in southwestern Oklahoma, where salt layers above and below the Blaine Formation have been partly dissolved at depths of 30--800 ft below the land surface. Salt dissolution causes development of brine-filled cavities, into which overlying strata collapse, and the brine eventually is emitted at the land surface in large salt plains.

Johnson, K.S. (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States))

1993-02-01

228

Projected ground-water development, ground-water levels, and stream-aquifer leakage in the South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas, 1979-2020  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A two-dimensional finite difference computer model was used to project changes in the potentiometric surface, saturated thickness, and stream aquifer leakage in an alluvial aquifer resulting from four instances of projected groundwater development. The alluvial aquifer occurs in the South Fork Solomon River valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake in north-central Kansas. In the first two projections, pumpage for irrigation was held constant at 1978 rates throughout the projection period (1979-2020). In the second two projections, the 1978 pumpage was progressively increased each yr through 2020. In the second and fourth projections, surface water diversions in the Osborne Irrigation Canal were decreased by 50 %. For the third and fourth projections, each grid-block in the modeled area was classified initially as one of six types according to whether it represented irrigable or nonirrigable land, to its saturated thickness, to its location inside or outside the canal-river area, and to its pumping rate. The projected base-flow rates (leakage from the aquifer to the river) were lower during the irrigation season (June, July, and August) than during the other months of the yr because of the decline in hydraulic head produced by groundwater pumpage. Stream depletion, calculated as a decrease below the average (1970-78) estimated winter base-flow rate of 16.5 cu ft/sec, varied inversely with base flow. For the first two projections, a constant annual cycle of well pumpage and recharge was used throughout the projection period. Aquifer leakage to the river was nearly constant by the mid-to-late 1990's, implying that flow conditions had attained a stabilized annual cycle. The third and fourth projections never attained an annual stabilized cycle because the irrigation pumpage rate was increased each year. By the early 1980's, the hydraulic head had fallen below river stage, reversing the hydraulic gradient at the stream-aquifer interface and resulting in net leakage from the river to the aquifer during the summer months. By the early 1990 's, the projected potentiometric surface of the aquifer was lower than the river stage even during the winter and spring months. (Author 's abstract)

Kume, Jack; Lindgren, R. J.; Stullken, L. E.

1985-01-01

229

78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement for Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln, Creek...Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) Rail Division intend to prepare an EIS pursuant...for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City...

2013-05-28

230

Study plan for the regional aquifer-system analysis of alluvial basins in south-central Arizona and adjacent states  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has started a 4-year study of the alluvial basins in south-central Arizona and parts of California , Nevada, and New Mexico to describe the hydrologic setting, available groundwater resources, and effects of historical development on the groundwater system. To aid in the study, mathematical models of selected basins will be developed for appraising local and regional flow systems. Major components necessary to accomplish the study objectives include the accumulation of existing data on groundwater quantity and quality, entering the data into a computer file, identification of data deficiencies, and development of a program to remedy the deficiencies by collection of additional data. The approach to the study will be to develop and calibrate models of selected basins for which sufficient data exist and to develop interpretation-transfer techniques whereby general predevelopment and postdevelopment conceptual models of the hydrologic system in other basins may be synthesized. The end result of the project will be a better definition of the hydrologic parameters and a better understanding of the workings of the hydrologic system. The models can be used to study the effects of management alternatives and water-resources development on the system. (USGS)

Anderson, T. W.

1980-01-01

231

Quality of Shallow Groundwater and Drinking Water in the Mississippi Embayment-Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System and the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, South-Central United States, 1994-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system is an important source of drinking water, providing about 724 million gallons per day to about 8.9 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Alabama. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer ranks third in the Nation for total withdrawals of which more than 98 percent is used for irrigation. From 1994 through 2004, water-quality samples were collected from 169 domestic, monitoring, irrigation, and public-supply wells in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in various land-use settings and of varying well capacities as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical properties and about 200 water-quality constituents, including total dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, pesticide degradates, and volatile organic compounds. The occurrence of nutrients and pesticides differed among four groups of the 114 shallow wells (less than or equal to 200 feet deep) in the study area. Tritium concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium, Pleistocene valley trains, and shallow Tertiary wells indicated a smaller component of recent groundwater than samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits. Although the amount of agricultural land overlying the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was considerably greater than areas overlying parts of the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells, nitrate was rarely detected and the number of pesticides detected was lower than other shallow wells. Nearly all samples from the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains were anoxic, and the reducing conditions in these aquifers likely result in denitrification of nitrate. In contrast, most samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits in Memphis, Tennessee, were oxic, and the maximum nitrate concentration measured was 6.2 milligrams per liter. Additionally, soils overlying the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains, generally in areas near the wells, had lower infiltration rates and higher percentages of clay than soils overlying the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells. Differences in these soil properties were associated with differences in the occurrence of pesticides. Pesticides were most commonly detected in samples from wells in the Pleistocene terrace deposits, which generally had the highest infiltration rates and lowest clay content. Median dissolved phosphorus concentrations were 0.07, 0.11, and 0.65 milligram per liter in samples from the shallow Tertiary, Pleistocene valley trains, and Holocene alluvium, respectively. The widespread occurrence of dissolved phosphorus at concentrations greater than 0.02 milligram per liter suggests either a natural source in the soils or aquifer sediments, or nonpoint sources such as fertilizer and animal waste or a combination of natural and human sources. Although phosphorus concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium were weakly correlated to concentrations of several inorganic constituents, elevated concentrations of phosphorus could not be attributed to a specific source. Phosphorus concentrations generally were highest where samples indicated anoxic and reducing conditions in the aquifers. Elevated dissolved phosphorus concentrations in base-flow samples from two streams in the study area suggest that transport of phosphorus with groundwater is a potential source contributing to high yields of phosphorus in the lower Mississippi River basin. Water from 55 deep wells (greater than 200 feet deep) completed in regional aquifers of Tertiary age represent a sample of the principal aquifers used for drinking-water supply in the study area. The wells were screened in both confined and

Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Tollett, Roland W.; Seanor, Ronald C.

2009-01-01

232

Diurnal cycle of the Oklahoma City urban heat island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the dates of 28 June and 31 July 2003, the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field project was conducted in Oklahoma City and was the largest urban dispersion experiment ever in North America. Because the focus of JU2003 was on atmospheric processes within the urban environment, an extremely dense network of instrumentation was deployed in and around the central business

Jeffrey B. Basara; Peter K. Hall; Amanda J. Schroeder; Bradley G. Illston; Kodi L. Nemunaitis

2008-01-01

233

Psychological response to the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City was the most devastating terrorist activity that has occurred in America. Prevention of revictimization of persons seriously affected by the bombing was central to the planned response to this tragedy. Coordination and collaboration among local, state, and national agencies promoted effective clinical services provision, research facilitation, and prevention of revictimization. Information gathered from this cooperative effort will contribute to the effort to minimize the potential for such tragedies in the future as well as help to develop prevention and intervention strategies to reduce the effects when the next such disaster occurs. PMID:8682905

Krug, R S; Nixon, S J; Vincent, R

1996-01-01

234

Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The major Paleozoic artesian aquifers, the aquifers most favorable for continued development, in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming are the Tensleep Sandstone, the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite (Madison-Bighorn aquifer), and the Flathead Sandstone. The minor aquifers include the Goose Egg and Park City Formations (considered in the Ten Sleep area to be the lateral equivalent of the Phosphoria Formation) and the Amsden Formation. Most wells completed in the major and minor aquifers flow at the land surface. Wellhead pressures generally are less than 50 pounds per square inch for the Tensleep Sandstone, 150-250 pounds per square inch for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, and more than 400 pounds per square inch for the Flathead Sandstone. Flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and the Flathead Sandstone yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. The initial test of one well completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer indicated a flow rate of 14,000 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 500 to 1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and from about 90 to 325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Significant secondary permeability from fracturing in the Paleozoic aquifers allows local upward interformational movement of water, and this affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Water moves upward from the Tensleep and other formations, through the Goose Egg Formation, to discharge at the land surface as springs. Much of the spring flow is diverted for irrigation or is used for rearing fish. Decreases from original well pressures were not apparent in wells completed in the Tensleep Sandstone or in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer in the study area except for a few wells in or near the town of Ten Sleep. Most wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone, which also are open to the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, show a decrease of pressure from the time of completion to 1978. The decrease of pressure is partly the result of water moving from the Flathead Sandstone into the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, which has a lower potentiometric surface than does the Flathead Sandstone, even during the time the wells are not in operation. Pressure in some small-capacity wells completed in the Goose Egg Formation also has decreased near Ten Sleep. Most of the wells, particularly the irrigation wells, show a progressive decrease in pressure during the irrigation season but recover during periods of nonuse. Measurements of the pressure were made principally in 1953, 1962, 1970, and 1975-78. Well water from the Paleozoic aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but excessive hardness. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water are less than 300 milligrams per liter in the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, less than 200 milligrams per liter in the Flathead Sandstone, and as much as 450 milligrams per liter in the Goose Egg Formation. Bicarbonate is the major constituent, followed by calcium and magnesium. Relatively large concentrations of sulfate, as much as 490 milligrams per liter, were found, mainly in water from the Goose Egg Formation. The water has low sodium (alkali) and medium salinity; therefore, the water is satisfactory for irrigation and most other uses, if excessive hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 ? to 27.5 ? Celsius (51 ? to 81.5 ? Fahrenheit) within a range in depth of approximately 250 to 4,000 feet. This gives a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 ? Celsius per 100 feet (0.79 ? Fahrenheit per 100 feet).

Cooley, Maurice E.

1986-01-01

235

Conjunctive-Use Optimization Model and Sustainable-Yield Estimation for the Sparta Aquifer of Southeastern Arkansas and North-Central Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the application and evaluation of a conjunctive-use optimization model that was developed from a linear programming routine utilizing the calibrated Sparta aquifer flow model. The objective of the optimization modeling was to simulat...

P. W. McKee B. R. Clark J. B. Czarnecki

2004-01-01

236

Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer; predevelopment to 1991  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Regional variability in water-level change in the High Plains aquifer underlying parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming results from large regional differences in climate, soils, land use, and ground-water withdrawals for irrigation. From the beginning of significant development of the High Plains aquifer for irrigation to 1980, substantial water-level declines have occurred in several areas. The estimated average area-weighted water-level decline from predevelopment to 1980 for the High Plains was 9.9 feet, an average annual decline of about 0.25 foot. These declines exceeded 100 feet in some parts of the Central and Southern High Plains. Declines were much smaller and less extensive in the Northern High Plains as a result of later irrigation development. Since 1980, water levels in those areas of large declines in the Central and Southern High Plains have continued to decline, but at a much slower annual rate. The estimated average area-weighted water-level decline from 1980 to 1991 for the entire High Plains was 1.41 feet, an average annual decline of about 0.13 foot. The relatively small decline since 1980, in relation to the declines prior to 1980, is associated with a decrease in ground-water application for irrigated agriculture and greater than normal precipitation. Water-conserving practices and technology, in addition to reductions in irrigated acreages, contributed to the decrease in ground-water withdrawals for irrigation.

McGrath, T. J.; Dugan, J. T.

1993-01-01

237

Hydrogeochemistry of regional aquifer systems from Tuscany (central Italy): the state of the art before the definition of a geochemical baseline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European Community Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its derivative regulations have recognized the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water bodies by individual pollutants that may significantly affect the quality of water itself. Italian regulation takes into account the EU Directives, and charges the regional authorities to create monitoring networks and produce assessment reports on the contamination of groundwater. The knowledge of "natural baseline" for various dissolved elements in groundwaters on a regional scale becomes of primary importance to distinguish natural sources and anthropogenic inputs. The studied area includes the whole Tuscan regional district (central Italy) and covers an area of about 23,000 km2. From a geolithological point of view, Tuscan territory consists of several complexes outcropping regionally, the most typical features being the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate and evaporitic formations, overlain by flysch sequences, as well as granite intrusions and volcanic rocks. Moreover, two geothermal areas (Larderello and Mt. Amiata), a large number of thermal springs and CO2-rich gas vents are mostly present in the central-southern part of Tuscany. Finally in southern Tuscany (e.g. Campiglia M.Ma, Mt. Amiata, Elba Island), mining districts, predominantly characterized by polimetallic sulphides ore deposits, were exploited since the Etruscan time. In this work statistical distribution models are used to develop summary statistics and estimate probabilities of exceeding water-quality standards according to the National Legislative Decree 152/06. Descriptive statistics on solute concentrations are based on geochemical data from the main Tuscan aquifers and investigated by the CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, Italy) and Department of Earth Sciences (University of Florence, Italy). The data processing was carried out on 4,767 water samples collected from 1997 to 2009. According to the National Legislative, the chemical constituents were selected according to a priority interest: As, B, Cd, Cr (VI), F, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, sulphate and chloride. For each species probability plots in logarithmic scale were computed and the statistical parameters were evaluated for the individual populations as resulting by the procedure of partitioning. Most of the solutes have concentrations that span within 2-3 orders of magnitude, although Ni, SO4 and Cl concentrations show a larger variability (up to 4 orders of magnitude). All the considered variables are mainly characterized by polymodal distributions and composed by more than one population. High concentration populations, exceeding water-quality standards, are generally recognized for SO4, As, B, Cd, Cr(VI), F, Hg, Ni, Pb and Se.

Nisi, Barbara; Battaglini, Raffaele; Raco, Brunella

2013-04-01

238

Ground water available in the Davenport area, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This memorandum describes the ground-water resources in the vicinity of Davenport, Lincoln County, Oklahoma. It is based on a one-day trip to Davenport made by the writer on February 11, 1948, to obtain information in addition to that in the ground-water files in Norman on the availability of ground water for public supply or other uses in the Davenport area. Davenport is a town of about 1,000 in east-central Lincoln County, Oklahoma, on U.S. Highway 66, about half way between Oklahoma City and Tulsa. It is in an area of undulating to gently rolling topography underlain by rocks of Pennsylvanian age. The area is drained into Deep Fork of the Canadian River, by Dry Creek and its tributary, Chuckaho Creek.

Schoff, Stuart L.

1948-01-01

239

Digital atlas of Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This compact disc contains 25 digital map data sets covering the State of Oklahoma that may be of interest to the general public, private industry, schools, and government agencies. Fourteen data sets are statewide. These data sets include: administrative boundaries; 104th U.S. Congressional district boundaries; county boundaries; latitudinal lines; longitudinal lines; geographic names; indexes of U.S. Geological Survey 1:100,000, and 1:250,000-scale topographic quadrangles; a shaded-relief image; Oklahoma State House of Representatives district boundaries; Oklahoma State Senate district boundaries; locations of U.S. Geological Survey stream gages; watershed boundaries and hydrologic cataloging unit numbers; and locations of weather stations. Eleven data sets are divided by county and are located in 77 county subdirectories. These data sets include: census block group boundaries with selected demographic data; city and major highways text; geographic names; land surface elevation contours; elevation points; an index of U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles; roads, streets and address ranges; highway text; school district boundaries; streams, river and lakes; and the public land survey system. All data sets are provided in a readily accessible format. Most data sets are provided in Digital Line Graph (DLG) format. The attributes for many of the DLG files are stored in related dBASE(R)-format files and may be joined to the data set polygon attribute or arc attribute tables using dBASE(R)-compatible software. (Any use of trade names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.) Point attribute tables are provided in dBASE(R) format only, and include the X and Y map coordinates of each point. Annotation (text plotted in map coordinates) are provided in AutoCAD Drawing Exchange format (DXF) files. The shaded-relief image is provided in TIFF format. All data sets except the shaded-relief image also are provided in ARC/INFO export-file format.

Rea, A. H.; Becker, C. J.

1997-01-01

240

Morphological and cultural comparison of microorganisms in surface soil and subsurface sediments at a pristine study site in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-soil and subsurface microfloras at the site of a shallow aquifer in Oklahoma were examined and compared with respect to (1) total and viable cell numbers, (2) colony and cell types that grew on various plating media, (3) cell morphologies seen in flotation films stripped from sample particles, and (4) cellular ultrastructure. Appreciable numbers of microbial cells were present in

T. L. Bone; D. L. Balkwill

1988-01-01

241

Hydrogeology of Ljubljana polje perched aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ljubljana polje aquifer lies in central part of Slovenia and is one of the biggest and most important aquifers in Slovenia. Aquifer was formed in quaternary basin which was filled with sediments from local rivers. River Sava is the biggest and the most important among them. Thickness of the aquifer varies from 20 m to 100 m. In general it is an unconfined aquifer, but locally, between gravel and sand sediments which have good hydraulic conductivity, layers with low hydraulic conductivity, such as silt and clay, appear. Those layers or lenses can form perched aquifers. Perched aquifers are important for prevention of pollution of the main aquifer and also for the water recharge in the time periods with high precipitation. The perched aquifers were located by boreholes, while their spatial distribution has not been studied yet. Within the project INCOME all the existing lithological borehole logs were collected and analysed with Jewel Suite 2011 software. A geostatistical method sequential indicator simulation was used to create spatial distribution of five hydrofacies at the Ljubljana polje aquifer. The layers/lenses that are bigger than 0.07 km2 and have hydraulic conductivity lower than K = 10-7 m/s were defined as lenses that can potentially form perched aquifers. In the modelling area, two areas with higher concentration of lenses with low hydraulic conductivity were defined. At those areas, according to the borehole data, perched aquifers appear few meters below surface to the depth around 30 m. At the other parts of the model area lenses with low hydraulic conductivity are less abundant. With spatial information (lateral and vertical extension) of perched aquifers in Ljubljana polje improvement of existing hydrogeological models can be made which can help to improve the qualitative and quantitative status of the Ljubljana polje main aquifer.

Šram, D.; Bren?i?, M.

2012-04-01

242

Promoting School Readiness in Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the research, conducted on Oklahoma's universal Pre-kindergarten (Pre-k) program, on children of Tulsa Public Schools (TPS), the largest school district in the state to increase the school readiness are presented.

Gormley, William T., Jr.; Gayer, Ted

2005-01-01

243

Were the 2011 Prague, Oklahoma Earthquakes Natural, Induced, or Something in Between?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the Prague, Oklahoma earthquake sequence, which is under debate. I offer a third explanation, whereby this sequence was triggered by approximately 12 million cubic m of wastewater injected into the epicentral zone, from five high-volume injection wells. This sequence included three earthquakes of M5 or greater: a M5 foreshock, the M5.7 main shock, and a M5 aftershock (Keranen et al., Geology, 2013). The main shock, which caused substantial damage, is of exceptional importance in the central and eastern United States because it is the second largest earthquake that has been recorded in this vast region. Because of its importance in assessing seismic hazard, especially in central Oklahoma, there is an urgent need to understand its origin. The first hypothesis argues that the Prague earthquakes are of natural origin (Keller and Holland, OGS website, 2013). As shown by Ellsworth et al. (abstract, SSA Meeting, 2012,), the seismicity in central Oklahoma has increased dramatically starting in 2009. This increase is inconsistent with natural processes that are likely to occur in this geologically stable area. Instead, it seems more likely that the increase in seismicity is related to the increase of fluid injection activities related to expanding oil and gas operations. Even so, the Prague earthquakes themselves could be a natural sequence. The second hypothesis argues that the M5 foreshock was triggered by pore pressure increase due to wastewater injected from two wells near the northeast end of the epicentral zone. This M5 event, in turn, increased the Coulomb stress on a pre-existing fault triggering the M5.7 mainshock and its numerous aftershocks (Keranen, et al., 2013). This hypothesis focuses on two nearly co-located disposal wells, Stasta 1 and 2, that together injected nearly 100,000 cubic m of wastewater into the basal aquifer during the years leading up to the Prague earthquakes. There are, however, five much higher-volume disposal wells in the zone of epicenters, each of which injected more than 1 million cubic m into the same aquifer. Indeed, the highest volume well, Wilzetta 1, which injected nearly 4 million cubic m starting in 1999, is also at the northeast end of the zone of epicenters, close to the two Stasta wells. Accordingly, the third hypothesis, favored here, is based on a relationship developed by McGarr (2013, manuscript submitted for publication) that gives the maximum seismic moment as less than or equal to the product of the total volume of injected fluid and the modulus of rigidity. This upper bound is consistent with observations of seismic moments and corresponding injected volumes from numerous case histories during the past 50 years including the Prague sequence for which a total injected volume of 12 million cubic m resulted in a maximum seismic moment of about 3.9e17 Nm.

McGarr, A.

2013-12-01

244

Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major Paleozoic artesian aquifers in the southeastern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming area, in descending order, the Tensleep Sandstone; the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite, which together form the Madison-Bighorn aquifer; and the Flathead Sandstone. Operating yields commonly are more than 1,000 gallons per minute from flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. The initial test of one well indicated a flow of 14,000 gallons per minute. Wellhead pressures range from less than 50 to more than 400 pounds per square inch. Transmissivities are 500-1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and 90-325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Despite extensive development for irrigation there have been few decreases in pressure. Some decreases in pressure have occurred in wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone. Fractures along linear structural features result in significant secondary permeability and allow upward interformational movement of water that affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces in the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Upward-moving water from the Tensleep and other formations discharges at the land surface as springs along or near these lineations. Water from the aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but has excessive hardness. The water is satisfactory for irrigation and other purposes when hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 degrees to 27.5 degrees C, giving a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 degrees C per 100 feet. (USGS)

Cooley, M. E.

1985-01-01

245

Ground-water flow and recharge in the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, east-central Illinois: A conceptual model based on hydrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Major-ion and isotopic analyses of ground water have been used to develop a conceptual model of flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA). The MVA is composed of clean, permeable sands and gravels and forms a basal'' fill up to 60 m thick in a buried, west-trending bedrock valley. A thick succession of glacial tills, some containing interbedded lenses of sand and gravel, covers the MVA. Three regions within the MVA have hydrochemically distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west.

Panno, S.V.; Hackley, K.C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, C.L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

1994-04-01

246

Fault control on the hydrogeological setting of the Sibillini Mountains aquifers (Central Apennines, Italy): an example of hydrogeological structures in thrust-belt contexts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is aimed at highlighting the importance of fault control on the hydrogeological setting in orogenic areas. In Sibillini Montains, Umbrian-Marchean pelagic succession outcrops. This succession, characterized by calcareous, calcareous-marly and silicate could presents condensed succession and is involved in fold and overthrust deformation, followed by a development of normal faults. The lithostratigraphical and structural study allowed defining the aquifer settings. Several cross-sections have been drawn to identify the three-dimensional geological setting and aquifer's boundaries that consist on: lithological limit between permeable and very low permeable complexes and structural features (groundwater divide and faults). The analyses of principals structural features (e.g. overthrust) have allowed to identify the prominent groundwater flow direction: the Sibillini Montains, Monte Val di Fibbia-P.ta Bambucerta and Visso overthrusts represent three important inverse faults oriented NNW-SSE having aquiclude role due to the high displacement. The altitude gradual decrease forward N of aquiclude handing aquifers combined to Apennine orientation of overthrusts induce a SSE-NNW groundwater flow. A detailed analysis of base flow has allowed to: 1) define the river's base flow; 2) recognize the punctual, diffused and linear springs; 3) quantify the water resource on average drained; and 4) determine the discharge regime of springs and rivers. The geologic-structural analyses with the quantitative hydrogeological studies have allowed to prepare the Conceptual Hydrogeological Model (CHM) and to calculate the hydrogeological balance for each aquifer. This double approach let to carry out a detailed study and make out hypotheses about groundwater circulation for each aquifer. These hypotheses represent the bases for the groundwater modelling that could give an important contribute to confirm or not them. The CHM of main aquifer has been adopted to carry out the groundwater numerical simulation. Modelling validation has been performed through the matching between the experimental and calculated discharge values, between the piezometric field and topography (the calculated piezometric field always resulting above the spring altitude and below the hydrographical network without base flow) and between the piezometric field and altitude of aquiclude that limits the aquifer. If one of these three conditions is not verified the model is not realistic and the hypotheses must be rejected. In two cases the modelling results suggested a revision of the assumptions and only through a depth structural analysis has been possible to estimate the real role of Vettore Mont normal fault and recognize a secondary fault that divide an aquifer. In conclusion this study represents an example of necessary combination between structural and hydrogeological analyses and underlines the importance of information exchange and/or cooperation to allow the 3-D reconstruction of hydrogeological setting.

Tarragoni, C.

2012-04-01

247

Environmental isotopes and noble gases in the deep aquifer system of Kazan Trona Ore Field, Ankara, central Turkey and links to paleoclimate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental isotopes and noble gases in groundwater samples from the Kazan Trona Ore Field are studied to establish the temperature change between the Holocene and the late Pleistocene. Noble gas temperatures (NGTs) presented in this study add an important facet to the global paleotemperature map in the region between Europe and North Africa. The groundwater system under investigation consists of three different aquifers named shallow, middle and deep in which ?18O and ?2H vary from - 8.10‰ to - 12.80‰ and from - 60.89‰ to - 92.60‰ VSMOW, respectively. The average isotopic depletion between unconfined and confined parts of the system is - 2.5‰ in ?18O and - 20‰ in ?2H. It is not possible to explain this depletion solely with the elevation effect. Recharge temperatures derived from dissolved atmospheric noble gases reflect the current average yearly ground temperatures (13°C) for samples collected near the recharge area but are 3 to 8°C lower than today's temperatures in the deep aquifer system. Low 14C activities and high He excesses in the confined parts of the aquifer system suggest that the water in the deep aquifer was recharged during the last Pleistocene under considerably cooler climatic conditions.

Arslan, Sebnem; Yazicigil, Hasan; Stute, Martin; Schlosser, Peter

2013-03-01

248

Regional groundwater-flow model of the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and alluvial basin aquifer systems of northern and central Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A numerical flow model (MODFLOW) of the groundwater flow system in the primary aquifers in northern Arizona was developed to simulate interactions between the aquifers, perennial streams, and springs for predevelopment and transient conditions during 1910 through 2005. Simulated aquifers include the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and basin-fill aquifers. Perennial stream reaches and springs that derive base flow from the aquifers were simulated, including the Colorado River, Little Colorado River, Salt River, Verde River, and perennial reaches of tributary streams. Simulated major springs include Blue Spring, Del Rio Springs, Havasu Springs, Verde River headwater springs, several springs that discharge adjacent to major Verde River tributaries, and many springs that discharge to the Colorado River. Estimates of aquifer hydraulic properties and groundwater budgets were developed from published reports and groundwater-flow models. Spatial extents of aquifers and confining units were developed from geologic data, geophysical models, a groundwater-flow model for the Prescott Active Management Area, drill logs, geologic logs, and geophysical logs. Spatial and temporal distributions of natural recharge were developed by using a water-balance model that estimates recharge from direct infiltration. Additional natural recharge from ephemeral channel infiltration was simulated in alluvial basins. Recharge at wastewater treatment facilities and incidental recharge at agricultural fields and golf courses were also simulated. Estimates of predevelopment rates of groundwater discharge to streams, springs, and evapotranspiration by phreatophytes were derived from previous reports and on the basis of streamflow records at gages. Annual estimates of groundwater withdrawals for agriculture, municipal, industrial, and domestic uses were developed from several sources, including reported withdrawals for nonexempt wells, estimated crop requirements for agricultural wells, and estimated per capita water use for exempt wells. Accuracy of the simulated groundwater-flow system was evaluated by using observational control from water levels in wells, estimates of base flow from streamflow records, and estimates of spring discharge. Major results from the simulations include the importance of variations in recharge rates throughout the study area and recharge along ephemeral and losing stream reaches in alluvial basins. Insights about the groundwater-flow systems in individual basins include the hydrologic influence of geologic structures in some areas and that stream-aquifer interactions along the lower part of the Little Colorado River are an effective control on water level distributions throughout the Little Colorado River Plateau basin. Better information on several aspects of the groundwater flow system are needed to reduce uncertainty of the simulated system. Many areas lack documentation of the response of the groundwater system to changes in withdrawals and recharge. Data needed to define groundwater flow between vertically adjacent water-bearing units is lacking in many areas. Distributions of recharge along losing stream reaches are poorly defined. Extents of aquifers and alluvial lithologies are poorly defined in parts of the Big Chino and Verde Valley sub-basins. Aquifer storage properties are poorly defined throughout most of the study area. Little data exist to define the hydrologic importance of geologic structures such as faults and fractures. Discharge of regional groundwater flow to the Verde River is difficult to identify in the Verde Valley sub-basin because of unknown contributions from deep percolation of excess surface water irrigation.

Pool, D.R.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Leake, Stanley A.; Graser, Leslie F.

2011-01-01

249

A multidisciplinary approach for the management of the water resources hosted in the multi-layer coastal aquifers of Central-Southern Tuscany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correct management of subterranean water resources should be based on the studies aimed to acquire informations about geological, hydrogeological and geochemical characteristics of water and aquifer. Taking in mind this idea, the subterranean water resources hosted in the multi-layer aquifers below the coastal plains of the Cecina River, Cornia River, Follonica, Grosseto, and Albegna River were recently investigated through a multidisciplinary approach in the framework of the Significant Groundwater Bodies (SGB) Project, funded by the Tuscany Region (Italy). In the first step, the distinction of main aquifer, aquitard, and aquiclude levels has been done by means of the geometrical reconstruction of the geological sequences, using available stratigraphical data. For each hydrogeological complex, the total volumes and the percentages of the different grain sizes were also calculated. The second step was addressed to elaborate the piezometric surfaces during low-flow and high-flow conditions, aimed to individuate the main flow pattern and the most exploited zones of the multi-layer aquifers. Moreover, considering the saturated zone and applying an effective porosity (weighed in function of grain sizes percentages), the amounts of the total water volumes stored in the aquifer system were estimate. The third step comprised the hydrogeochemical characterization of the areas of interest, by means of both: a deterministic approach, including the elaboration and interpretation of classification diagrams, Eh-pH plots, calculation of water speciation and saturation state, activity diagrams, etc. a geo-statistical approach, aimed to the study of the spatial distribution of the most significant geochemical parameters, such as the concentrations of chloride, sulfate, nitrate and boron. If suitable database is available, this multidisciplinary approach can allow to identify the main recharge areas and flow path and the physical-chemical processes (naturals or antropics) responsible of the peculiar chemical and isotopical characteristics of water resources. The application of this method is easy and can be used in others sites in which right management of water resources is needed.

Lelli, M.; Doveri, M.; Cerrina Feroni, A.; Da Prato, S.; Ellero, A.; Marini, L.; Masetti, G.; Nisi, B.; Raco, B.

2012-12-01

250

Oklahoma Higher Education: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major headline in recent years has been that cash-strapped state governments are cutting back support for many services, including public higher education. Oklahoma is no different. Indeed, in the most recent state budget crafted by Oklahoma policymakers, Oklahoma's public colleges and universities received a 5.8 percent cut in state…

Denhart, Matthew; Matgouranis, Christopher

2011-01-01

251

Hydrogeology of the Scioto River Valley near Piketon, South-Central Ohio a quantitative study of ground-water yield and induced infiltration in a glacial outwash aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A systematic study was made of one of Ohio's principal aquifers, a sand and gravel outwash in the Scioto River Valley, to determine the feasibility of developing a ground-water supply of 20 million gallons per day at a site near Piketon. The first part of the study was spent in determining the thickness and physical properties of the sand and gravel aquifer and in drilling test wells to determine the best site for the supply wells. The second part of the investigation was an aquifer infiltration test to determine the hydraulic properties of the aquifer and the conditions of stream recharge. A well 83 feet deep was drilled on the flood plain and was pumped for 9 days at the rate of 1,000 gallons per minute. Tile effect on the hydrologic system during and after the pumping was determined by measuring the water levels in an array of deep and shallow observation wells and in 8 drive-point wells installed in the bed of the river. Seldom have more comprehensive data been collected showing the effects of pumping on a natural, unconfined, hydrologic system. From these data were calculated the coefficient of transmissibility (215,000 gallons per day per foot) and the rate of streambed infiltration (0.235 million gallons per day per acre per foot). The aquifer was tested near the end of a long drought; so the ground-water levels and the river stage were very nearly following a level trend. Because the ground-water levels were essentially unaffected by extraneous influences, the test data are probably as precise and uncomplicated as is practical to obtain in the field. These data proved to be valid for use as design criteria for the location, spacing, and construction of four supply wells. The third part of the investigation was the testing and quantitative evaluation of the four supply wells before they were put into service. The wells were found to perform about as predicted, indicating that the hydraulic properties of the aquifer, as determined by standard methods, are fairly representative.

Norris, Stanley Eugene; Fidler, Richard E.

1969-01-01

252

Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

McGuire, V. L.

2009-01-01

253

Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in Southwestern USA: Comparison between texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area  

EPA Science Inventory

Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012.The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characteriza...

254

Coseismic and post-seismic hydrogeological response of the Gran Sasso carbonate aquifer to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mw=6.3 April 6 2009 L'Aquila earthquake mainshock produced self-evident co-seismic and post-seismic changes in the hydrogeological setting of the Gran Sasso carbonate fractured aquifer (Adinolfi Falcone et alii, 2008; Barbieri et alii, 2005) in which the seismogenic Paganica Fault, which is responsible for the mainshock, is located (Anzidei et alii, 2009; Atzori et alii, 2009; Chiarabba et alii, 2009;

Antonella Amoruso; Luca Crescentini; Marco Petitta; Sergio Rusi; Marco Tallini

2010-01-01

255

The reason God made Oklahoma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot. Dusty. Shimmering north Texas noontime. Waves of heat flowing over my car, now making its fourth trip from Sarasota, Florida to Edmond, Oklahoma in the baking summer sun. Trunk of the car loaded with mountains of computer equipment for the Institute. Me praying it's cool enough in there for laser printer, monitor, modem, system case and accessories to survive

Anne M. Parker

1996-01-01

256

Simulation of groundwater and surface-water interaction and effects of pumping in a complex glacial-sediment aquifer, east central Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of groundwater pumping on surface-water features were evaluated by use of a numerical groundwater model developed for a complex glacial-sediment aquifer in northeastern Framingham, Massachusetts, and parts of surrounding towns. The aquifer is composed of sand, gravel, silt, and clay glacial-fill sediments up to 270 feet thick over an irregular fractured bedrock surface. Surface-water bodies, including Cochituate Brook, the Sudbury River, Lake Cochituate, Dudley Pond, and adjoining wetlands, are in hydraulic connection with the aquifer and can be affected by groundwater withdrawals. Groundwater and surface-water interaction was simulated with MODFLOW-NWT under current conditions and a variety of hypothetical pumping conditions. Simulations of hypothetical pumping at reactivated water supply wells indicate that captured groundwater would decrease baseflow to the Sudbury River and induce recharge from Lake Cochituate. Under constant (steady-state) pumping, induced groundwater recharge from Lake Cochituate was equal to about 32 percent of the simulated pumping rate, and flow downstream in the Sudbury River decreased at the same rate as pumping. However, surface water responded quickly to pumping stresses. When pumping was simulated for 1 month and then stopped, streamflow depletions decreased by about 80 percent within 2 months and by about 90 percent within about 4 months. The fast surface water response to groundwater pumping offers the potential to substantially reduce streamflow depletions during periods of low flow, which are of greatest concern to the ecological integrity of the river. Results indicate that streamflow depletion during September, typically the month of lowest flow, can be reduced by 29 percent by lowering the maximum pumping rates to near zero during September. Lowering pumping rates for 3 months (July through September) reduces streamflow depletion during September by 79 percent as compared to constant pumping. These results demonstrate that a seasonal or streamflow-based groundwater pumping schedule can reduce the effects of pumping during periods of low flow.

Eggleston, Jack R.; Carlson, Carl S.; Fairchild, Gillian, M.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

2012-01-01

257

Corrosive ground water in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the vicinity of Ocean County, east-central New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Corrosive groundwater, which has been linked to trace-metal leaching from plumbing materials in Europe and the United States , has been identified in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The corrosiveness of groundwater in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in New Jersey has been estimated by calculating values for the Aggressive Index, using groundwater chemistry data. A contour map of Aggressive-Index values shows that groundwater is very corrosive in the vicinity of Ocean County, New Jersey. Areas with the least corrosive water are generally along the coast, whereas areas with the most corrosive water are farther inland. (USGS)

Kish, George R.; Barringer, Julia L.; Ulery, Randy L.

1989-01-01

258

Diurnal cycle of the Oklahoma City urban heat island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between the dates of 28 June and 31 July 2003, the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field project was conducted in Oklahoma City and was the largest urban dispersion experiment ever in North America. Because the focus of JU2003 was on atmospheric processes within the urban environment, an extremely dense network of instrumentation was deployed in and around the central business district (CBD) both prior to and during the field experiment. Among the variables collected were high-resolution observations of air temperature from various instrument sources. Additional observations of air temperature were also collected at Oklahoma Mesonet stations in the rural areas surrounding Oklahoma City. Using an index value, the diurnal cycle of the urban heat island (UHI) for Oklahoma City, with respect to the surrounding rural terrain, was quantified. The results revealed a consistent mean nocturnal UHI greater than 1.5°C at both 2 and 9 m. However, observations at 2 m during JU2003 revealed a significant urban "cool" island during the convective portion of the day. The mean variability of temperature within the urban core of Oklahoma City increased significantly after sunrise, increased to a maximum near solar noon, and decreased following sunset. These results were inconsistent with the rural observations wherein the variability among sites was maximized during the nocturnal period. Finally, the vertical temperature gradient between 2 and 9 m demonstrated a clear and strong diurnal trend at the rural locations, whereas observations from the urban environment were nearly isothermal and consistent with near-neutral conditions throughout JU2003.

Basara, Jeffrey B.; Hall, Peter K.; Schroeder, Amanda J.; Illston, Bradley G.; Nemunaitis, Kodi L.

2008-10-01

259

Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2: Regions 7 through 12  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the unglaciated central region, glaciated Appalachians, unglaciated Appalachians, coastal plain, Hawaii, and Alaska are discussed.

1981-06-01

260

Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

McGuire, V.L.

2011-01-01

261

Alternative conceptual models and the robustness of groundwater management scenarios in the multi-aquifer system of the Central Veneto Basin, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional (3D) groundwater flow model of the deep multi-aquifer Quaternary deposits of the Po plain sedimentary basin, within a 3,300-km2 area (Veneto, Italy), is developed, tested and applied to aid sustainable large-scale water-resources management. Integrated mathematical modelling proves significantly successful, owing to an unusual wealth of available geological, geophysical, and hydrologic data and to state-of-the-art numerical tools. Of particular interest is the evaluation of the influence of alternative conceptual models; that is, of reconstructed representations of the 3D geological model of the structure of the aquifers. The reference conceptual model is set up by means of extended geological sections and stratigraphic records, and is used to create a large, unstructured 3D finite element grid. By analyzing the effects on piezometric surfaces and on the overall water budget of geometrical perturbations from the reference structure, alternative geo-structural models, obtained by systematically shifting the pinch-out of the aquitards, are compared. Interestingly, the impacts of aquitard pinch-out prove far from negligible. The results suggest the critical importance of reliable geological models even for large, complex 3D models. The good practice of iteratively testing numerically the impact of surprises on the conceptual model, as more field information is collected, is thus supported.

Passadore, Giulia; Monego, Martina; Altissimo, Lorenzo; Sottani, Andrea; Putti, Mario; Rinaldo, Andrea

2012-05-01

262

Drinking-water quality and variations in water levels in the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer, west-central Jefferson County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In parts of Jefferson County, CO, water for domestic use from the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer contained excessive concentrations of major ions, coliform bacteria, trace elements, or radiochemicals. Based on results of analyses from 26 wells, water from 21 of the wells contained excessive concentrations of one or more constituents. Drinking water standards were exceeded for fluoride in water from 2 wells, nitrate plus nitrite in 2 wells, dissolved solids in 1 well, iron in 6 wells, manganese in 8 wells, zinc in 2 wells, coliform bacteria in 4 wells, gross alpha radiation in 11 wells and possibly 4 more, and gross beta radiation possibly in 1 well. Local variations in concentrations of 15 chemical constituents, specific conductance, and water temperature were statistically significant. Specific conductance increased significantly during 1973-75 only in the vicinity of Indian Hills. Annual range in depths to water in 11 observation wells varied from 1 to 15 feet. The shallowest water levels were recorded in late winter, usually in February. The deepest water levels occurred during summer or fall, depending on the well and the year. Three-year trends in water level changes in 6 of the 11 wells indicated decreasing water storage in the aquifer. (USGS).

Hall, Dennis C.; Johnson, Carl J.

1979-01-01

263

Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water (transition zone). As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current freshwater supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey, San Antonio Water System, and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone.

Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.

2013-01-01

264

Geohydrology of alluvium and terrace deposits of the Cimarron River from freedom to Guthrie, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water in 1,305 square miles of Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie, Oklahoma, is used for irrigation, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. As much as 120 feet of clay, silt, sand, and gravel form an unconfined aquifer with an average saturated thickness of 28 feet. The 1985-86 water in storage, assuming a specific yield of 0.20, was 4.47 million acre-feet. The aquifer is bounded laterally and underlain by relatively impermeable Permian geologic units. Regional ground-water flow is generally southeast to southwest toward the Cimarron River, except where the flow direction is affected by perennial tributaries. Estimated average recharge to the aquifer is 207 cubic feet per second. Estimated average discharge from the aquifer by seepage and evapotranspiration is 173 cubic feet per second. Estimated 1985 discharge by withdrawals from wells was 24.43 cubic feet per second. Most water in the terrace deposits varied from a calcium bicarbonate to mixed bicarbonate type, with median dissolved-solids concentration of 538 milligrams per liter. Cimarron River water is a sodium chloride type with up to 16,600 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. A finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed and calibrated to test the conceptual model of the aquifer under steady-state conditions. The model was calibrated to match 1985-86 aquifer heads and discharge to the Cimarron River between Waynoka and Dover.

Adams, G. P.; Bergman, D. L.

1996-01-01

265

West Lawn Site and Planting Plans Oklahoma City Civic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

West Lawn Site and Planting Plans - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

266

Site Plans (1936 and 2001) Oklahoma City Civic Center, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Site Plans (1936 and 2001) - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

267

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following elements submitted to EPA in Oklahoma's program application for final...Underground Storage Tank Program, Oklahoma Corporation Commission, Jim Thorpe Building, Room 238, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (1) State...

2010-07-01

268

Municipal Building Planting Plan Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Municipal Building Planting Plan - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

269

Typical Raised Planter Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Typical Raised Planter - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

270

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following elements submitted to EPA in Oklahoma's program application for final...Underground Storage Tank Program, Oklahoma Corporation Commission, Jim Thorpe Building, Room 238, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (1) State...

2009-07-01

271

Granite Monument Plaza Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Granite Monument Plaza - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

272

Site Plans (2008 As Built) Oklahoma City Civic Center, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Site Plans (2008 As Built) - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

273

Analysis of aquifer mineralization by paleodrainage channels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mineralization of groundwater resources is a problem in south-central Kansas, due to the penetration of saline water from Permian bedrock formations into the overlying alluvial aquifer. One of the mechanisms involved in the mineralization involves small bedrock features of high permeability located in places occupied by streams and rivers in past geological eras. These geological features are termed 'paleodrainage channels'. The permeability of the overlying aquifer can be significantly smaller than that of the channel fill material. The comparatively fast migration of saline water through these channels of high permeability is associated with the transfer of minerals into the overlying freshwater aquifer. This study applies a set of boundary layer approaches to quantify the process of mineral transfer from the channels into the aquifer. The methods used in the present study provide quick estimation and evaluation of the dilution of the channel flow, as well as mineral concentration profile changes in the mineralized zone created in the overlying aquifer. More generally, the method can also be useful for the analysis and evaluation of various types of groundwater contamination in heterogeneous aquifers. The application of the method is exemplified by a complete set of calculations characterizing the possible mineralization process at a specific channel in south central Kansas. Sensitivity analyses are performed and provide information about the importance of the various parameters that affect the mineralization process. Some possible scenarios for the aquifer mineralization phenomena are described and evaluated. It is shown that the channel mineralization may create either several stream tubes of the aquifer with high mineral concentration, or many stream tubes mineralized to a lesser extent. Characteristics of these two patterns of aquifer mineralization are quantified and discussed. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R. W.

2003-01-01

274

Tharsis Basin Aquifer System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a QuickTime movie animating an enormous ancient drainage basin and aquifer system in the Tharsis region of Mars. The movie shows the geological stages of the aquifer system, as reported in a University of Arizona study.

Arizona, University O.; Spaceref.com

275

Modeling The Evolution Of A Regional Aquifer System With The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite element application IWFM has been used to develop an integrated groundwater-surface water model for California's Central Valley, an area of ~50,000 km2, to simulate the evolution of the groundwater flow system and historical groundwater-surface water interactions on a monthly time step from October 1921 to September 2003. The Central Valley's hydrologic system changed significantly during this period. Prior

C. F. Brush; E. C. Dogrul; T. N. Kadir; M. R. Moncrief; S. Shultz; M. Tonkin; D. Wendell

2006-01-01

276

40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment...Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2013-07-01

277

Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

278

Statistics of Oklahoma's petroleum industry, 1966  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploratory wells were drilled in all but 9 counties of Oklahoma during 1966. The concentration of discoveries, extensions, outposts, and new pay horizons was in NW. Oklahoma in Beaver, Ellis, Roger Mills, Woods, and Woodward Counties. This area had a 40% success ratio, whereas the state-wide success ratio was 28% for exploratory wells. Tonkawa completions were the most numerous, followed

1967-01-01

279

Water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer; predevelopment to 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-level change in the High Plains aquifer underlying parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming results from differences in recharge from precipitation and ground-water withdrawals for irrigation. From the beginning of irrigation development (1940) to 1980, water levels declined in several areas, and exceeded 100 feet in parts of the Central and Southern High Plains. From 1980 to 1993, water-level declines continued in these same areas, but at a smaller annual rate. This smaller rate of decline was associated with above-normal precipitation during 1981-93 and a decrease in ground-water application rates. Declines exceeding 20 feet from 1980 to 1993 were common in areas of intense irrigation development in the Central and Southern High Plains. In the Northern High Plains, water levels declined 10 to 20 feet from 1980 to 1993 in parts of northeastern Colorado, northwestern Kansas, southwestern Nebraska, and the Nebraska Panhandle. Water-level rises exceeding 20 feet, however, occurred in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Also, rises of 10 to 20 feet occurred in parts of southeastern and south-central Nebraska. The average area-weighted water level rose 0.21 foot from 1992 to 1993 in association was well-above normal precipitation in 1992. Water-level declines, however, continued in the intensively irrigated areas of the Central High Plains. Declines also' continued in the northern part of the Southern High Plains in spite of well-above normal precipitation. Water-level rises from 1992 to 1993 was widespread in eastern and southern Nebraska, northwestern and south-central Kansas, and in the southern two-thirds of the Southern High Plains of Texas in association with well-above normal precipitation in 1992. These rises exceeded 3 feet.

Dugan, J. T.; Cox, D. A.

1994-01-01

280

Groundwater Flow in the Edwards Aquifer: Comparison of Groundwater Modeling and Dye Trace Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Edwards Aquifer of central Texas is a karst aquifer developed in faulted and fractured Cretaceous-age limestones and dolomites. Numerous groundwater models have been developed for the three segments of the Edwards Aquifer since completion of the first major flow model in 1979. Groundwater models have helped refine our understanding of the relationships among flowpaths, recharge, groundwater pumping, and springflow.

Brian A. Smith; Brian B. Hunt; Geary M. Schindel

281

Restoration of One-Room School Facilities in Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the last 4 years, four one-room school houses have been restored for use as educational museum facilities. These include the Pleasant Valley School in Stillwater, Oklahoma; the Rose Hill School at Perry, Oklahoma; the old school located on the grounds of the Harn Homestead Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the Old Roll School, located…

McKinley, Kenneth H.

282

Did Divorces Decline after the Oklahoma City Bombing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995 was an act of terrorism that had many potential influences on the city and state, including influences on families. We analyzed divorce data from 1985 to 2000 for all 77 counties in Oklahoma to assess the divorce response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Our prediction was that divorce rates in Oklahoma would…

Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reddick, Rebecca; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

2004-01-01

283

Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Arcadia Lake, Oklahoma: A Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Arcadia Lake is located within the metropolitan area of Oklahoma City and Edmund, in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, about 2.4 km (1.5 miles) southwest of Arcadia, Oklahoma (Figure 1). Construction of the earth-filled dam was authorized by the Flood Control Ac...

G. O. Dick R. M. Smart E. R. Gilliland

2004-01-01

284

Seismicity and Tectonic Relationships of the Nemaha Uplift in Oklahoma, Part IV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lineament map was prepared for north-central Oklahoma. The Nemaha Uplift project area contains 90 linear features derived from Landsat imagery. Of these, eight are high confident, 16 are confident and 66 are low confident. One high confident lineament t...

K. V. Luza J. E. Lawson

1981-01-01

285

The concentrations and distributions of U and Th in Paleozoic aquifers surrounding the Llano Uplift area, central Texas, U.S.A.: application to the sources of Ra and Rn in groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between groundwater and aquifer rock can result in anomalously high levels of radium (Ra) and radon (Rn) in groundwaters.\\u000a An understanding of aquifer mineralogy and determining the sources of natural radionuclides are, therefore, essential to design\\u000a possible means for improving groundwater quality. The Cambrian Hickory Sandstones and Cap Mountain Limestones constitute important\\u000a aquifers in the area surrounding the Llano

Yongje Kim

1999-01-01

286

Recent (2008-10) water quality in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer and its contributing zone, central Texas, with emphasis on factors affecting nutrients and bacteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Barton Springs zone, which comprises the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer and the watersheds to the west that contribute to its recharge, is in south-central Texas, an area with rapid growth in population and increasing amounts of land area affected by development. During November 2008-March 2010, an investigation of factors affecting the fate and transport of nutrients and bacteria in the Barton Springs zone was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The primary objectives of the study were to characterize occurrence of nutrients and bacteria in the Barton Springs zone under a range of flow conditions; to improve understanding of the interaction between surface-water quality and groundwater quality; and to evaluate how factors such as streamflow variability and dilution affect the fate and transport of nutrients and bacteria in the Barton Springs zone. The USGS collected and analyzed water samples from five streams (Barton, Williamson, Slaughter, Bear, and Onion Creeks), two groundwater wells (Marbridge and Buda), and the main orifice of Barton Springs in Austin, Texas. During the period of the study, during which the hydrologic conditions transitioned from exceptional drought to wetter than normal, water samples were collected routinely (every 3 to 4 weeks) from the streams, wells, and spring and, in response to storms, from the streams and spring. All samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, the bacterium Escherichia coli, and suspended sediment. During the dry period, the geochemistry of groundwater at the two wells and at Barton Springs was dominated by flow from the aquifer matrix and was relatively similar and unchanging at the three sites. At the onset of the wet period, when the streams began to flow, the geochemistry of groundwater samples from the Marbridge well and Barton Springs changed rapidly, and concentrations of most major ions and nutrients and densities of Escherichia coli became more similar to those of samples from the streams relative to concentrations and densities during the dry period. Geochemical modeling indicated that the proportion of Barton Springs discharge composed of stream recharge increased from about 0-8 percent during the dry period to about 80 percent during the wet period. The transition from exceptional drought to wetter-than-normal conditions resulted in a number of marked changes that highlight factors affecting the fate and transport of nutrients and bacteria and the strong influence of stream recharge on water quality in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer and had a pronounced effect on the fate of nitrogen species. Organic nitrogen loaded to and stored in soils during the dry period was nitrified to nitrate when the soils were rewetted, resulting in elevated concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite in streams as these constituents were progressively leached during continued wet weather. Estimated mean monthly loads of organic nitrogen and nitrate plus nitrite in stream recharge and Barton Springs discharge, which were relatively low and constant during the dry period, increased during the wet period. Loads of organic nitrogen, on average, were about six times greater in stream recharge than in Barton Springs discharge, indicating that organic nitrogen likely was being converted to nitrate within the aquifer. Loads of total nitrogen (organic nitrogen plus ammonia and nitrate plus nitrite) in stream recharge (162 kilograms per day) and in Barton Springs discharge (157 kilograms per day) for the period of the investigation were not significantly different. Dilution was not an important factor affecting concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite in the streams or in Barton Springs during the period of this investigation: Concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite did not decrease in streams with increasing stream discharge, and nitrate plus nitrite concentrations measured at Barton

Mahler, Barbara J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Sample, Thomas L.; Wong, Corinne I.

2011-01-01

287

Quantification of deep CO 2 fluxes from Central Italy. Examples of carbon balance for regional aquifers and of soil diffuse degassing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Central Italy non-volcanic CO2 is discharged by focused degassing (strong diffuse emission and vents) and by high-CO2 groundwater. 3He\\/4He data and the carbon isotopic composition of CO2 are compatible with derivation from mantle degassing and\\/or metamorphic decarbonation. The gases produced at depth accumulate in permeable reservoirs composed of Mesozoic carbonates. When total pressure (roughly corresponding to pCO2) of the

G. Chiodini; F. Frondini; D. M. Kerrick; J. Rogie; F. Parello; L. Peruzzi; A. R. Zanzari

1999-01-01

288

Monitoring temperature conditions in recently drilled nonproductive industry boreholes in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Temperature conditions were monitored in seven industry petroleum-test wells (called holes-of-opportunity in this report) that were drilled in central and eastern Oklahoma. Five of these wells provided useful temperature information, and two wells were used to determine the length of time needed for the borehole-fluid temperature to achieve thermal equilibrium with the formation rocks. Four wells were used to verify the validity of a geothermal-gradient map of Oklahoma. Temperature surveys in two wells indicated a gradient lower than the predicted gradients on the geothermal-gradient map. When deep temperature data, between 5000 and 13,000 feet, are adjusted for mud-circulation effects, the adjusted gradients approximate the gradients on the geothermal-gradient map. The temperature-confirmation program appears to substantiate the geographic distribution of the high- and low-thermal-gradient regimes in Oklahoma. 13 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs.

Harrison, W.E.; Luza, K.V.

1985-06-01

289

Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

2009-01-01

290

Occurrence of Selected Organic Compounds in Groundwater Used for Public Supply in the Plio-Pleistocene Deposits in East-Central Nebraska and the Dawson and Denver Aquifers near Denver, Colorado, 2002-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has an ongoing Source Water-Quality Assessment program designed to characterize the quality of water in aquifers used as a source of drinking-water supply for some of the largest metropolitan areas in the Nation. In addition to the sampling of the source waters, sampling of finished or treated waters was done in the second year of local studies to evaluate if the organic compounds detected in the source waters also were present in the water supplied to the public. An evaluation of source-water quality used in selected groundwater-supplied public water systems in east-central Nebraska and in the south Denver metropolitan area of Colorado was completed during 2002 through 2004. Fifteen wells in the Plio-Pleistocene alluvial and glacial deposits in east-central Nebraska (the High Plains study) and 12 wells in the Dawson and Denver aquifers, south of Denver (the South Platte study), were sampled during the first year to obtain information on the occurrence and distribution of selected organic chemicals in the source waters. During the second year of the study, two wells in east-central Nebraska were resampled, along with the associated finished water derived from these wells, to determine if organic compounds detected in the source water also were present in the finished water. Selection of the second-phase sampling sites was based on detections of the most-frequently occurring organic compounds from the first-year Source Water-Quality Assessment study results. The second-year sampling also required that finished waters had undergone water-quality treatment processes before being distributed to the public. Sample results from the first year of sampling groundwater wells in east-central Nebraska show that the most-frequently detected organic compounds were the pesticide atrazine and its degradate, deethylatrazine (DEA, otherwise known as 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine or CIAT), which were detected in 9 of the 15 wells (60 percent of the samples). The second most frequently detected organic compound was tetrachloroethylene, detected in 4 of the 15 wells (27 percent of the samples), followed by chloroform, trichloroethylene, and 2-hydroxyatrazine (2-hydroxy-4-isopropylamino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine, or OIET), present in 3 of the 15 wells (20 percent of the samples). The pesticide compounds deisopropylatrazine (2-chloro-6-ethylamino-4-amino-s-triazine, or CEAT), metolachlor, and simazine and the volatile organic compound cis-1,2-dichloroethylene were detected in 2 of the 15 wells, and the compounds diuron and 1,2-dichloroethane were detected in only 1 of the 15 wells during the first-year sampling. Most detections of these compounds were at or near the minimum reporting levels, and none were greater than their regulatory maximum contaminant level. There were few detections of organic compounds during the first year of sampling groundwater wells in the South Platte study area. The compounds atrazine, deethylatrazine, picloram, tetrachloroethylene, methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and bromoform were detected only once in all the samples from the 12 wells. Most detections of these compounds were at or near the minimum reporting levels, and none were greater than their regulatory maximum contaminant level. Second-year sampling, which included the addition of paired source- and finished-water samples, was completed at two sites in the High Plains study area. Source-water samples from the second-year sampling had detections of atrazine and deethylatrazine; at one site deisopropylatrazine and chloroform also were detected. The finished-water samples, which represent the source water after blending with water from other wells and treatment, indicated a decrease in the concentrations of the pesticides at one site, whereas concentrations remained nearly constant at a second site. The trihalomethanes (THMs or disinfec

Bails, Jeffrey B.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Landon, Matthew K.; Paschke, Suzanne S.

2009-01-01

291

Modeling Seismicity Rate Changes in Oklahoma and Arkansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of M?3 earthquakes in the central and eastern US increased beginning in 2009, particularly in regions such as Oklahoma and central Arkansas where fluid injection has occurred (Ellsworth et al., SSA abs, 2012; Horton, SRL, 2012). We compare rate changes observed in Oklahoma, which had a low background seismicity rate before 2009, to rate changes observed in central Arkansas, which had swarms prior to the start of wastewater injection (Chiu et al., BSSA, 1984; Horton, SRL, 2012). In both cases, stochastic Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) models (Ogata, JASA, 1988) and statistical tests demonstrate that the background rate of independent events and the aftershock productivity must increase in 2009 in order to explain the observed increase in seismicity. Productivity is lower during the earlier tectonic swarms in Arkansas. The change in aftershock productivity may provide a way to distinguish manmade from natural earthquake rate changes and could provide insights into the physical mechanisms of induced seismicity. We fit the ETAS model, which is based on empirical aftershock scaling laws such as Omori's Law and the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution, to a 1973-2011 USGS PDE catalog of M?3 Oklahoma earthquakes and a 1982-2012 ANSS catalog of M?2.2 Arkansas earthquakes. To determine whether a rate increase is due to a change in background seismicity rate, aftershock productivity, or some combination of the two, we do the following: 1) fit the model parameters to the data, 2) convert origin times to transformed times (Ogata, JGR, 1992), and 3) use Runs and autocorrelation function tests to test the null hypothesis that the transformed times are drawn from a Poisson distribution with constant rate (as expected when no external processes trigger earthquakes besides a constant tectonic loading rate). In both cases a single set of parameters cannot fit the entire time period, suggesting that significant changes in the underlying process occurred. The null hypothesis is rejected in both Oklahoma (p<0.001) and Arkansas (p=0.015). Then, given a change point in 2009 (Ellsworth et al., SSA abs, 2012; Horton, SRL, 2012), we estimate ETAS parameters for both time periods to determine which parameters must vary. Space-time models are unstable due to the low number of events and large location error in the earlier catalogs, but likelihood tests of the temporal models indicate the data are better fit when both background rate and productivity increase.

Llenos, A. L.; Michael, A. J.

2012-12-01

292

Evidence of paleokarstic phenomena and burial diagenesis in Ordovician Arbuckle group of Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cores from various localities in south-central and north-central Oklahoma display surprisingly similar suites of karstic and diagenetic phenomena. Vadose dissolution tubes, solution-enlarged fractures, collapse breccias, and vugular porosity, where present are considered evidence of karstification. Primary speleothemic precipitates were not readily observed; either they were not present or were obscured by later hydrothermal dolomitization. A complex history of exposure and

M. Lynch; Z. Al-Shaieb

1989-01-01

293

Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

1982-01-01

294

Measurements Inside Oklahoma Thunderstorms during Project SESAME.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the state parameter and hydrometeor measurements obtained with the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) T-28 aircraft within Oklahoma convective clouds during the Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (SE...

A. J. Heymsfield M. R. Hjelmfelt

1984-01-01

295

77 FR 26598 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00059  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes and Hail. DATES: Effective April 26, 2012. Incident Period: April 13, 2012 through April 15, 2012. Physical Loan...

2012-05-04

296

76 FR 31670 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00048  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1970-DR), dated 05/06/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 04/14/2011. Effective Date: 05/06/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-06-01

297

75 FR 35103 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00040  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance Only for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA- 1917-DR), dated 06/11/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-line winds. Incident Period: 05/10/2010 through 05/13/2010. Effective Date:...

2010-06-21

298

75 FR 30871 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00038  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1917-DR), dated 05/24/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-line winds. Incident Period: 05/10/2010 through 05/13/2010. Effective Date:...

2010-06-02

299

Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer--predevelopment to 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in water levels in the High Plains aquifet underlying parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming result from the variability of precipitation, land use, and ground-water withdrawals. From the beginning of development of the High Plains aquifer to 1980, water levels declined throughout much of the area; the declines exceeded 100 feet in parts of the central and southern High Plains. From 1980 to 1992, water levels continued to decline in these same areas, but at a slightly slower overall annual rate. This slower rate of decline was associated, in part, with a decrease in ground-water application for irrigated agriculture and above normal precipitation throughout the High Plains during 1980-91. Declines exceeding 20 feet were common from 1980 to 1992 in areas of intense irrigation development in Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. In the northern High Plains, declines of 10 to 20 feet from 1980 to 1992 were widespread in northeastern Colorado, southwestern Nebraska, and the Nebraska Panhandle. Water levels were generally stable from 1980 to 1992 in most other areas of the High Plains. In a large area in the southern High Plains of Texas, however, water-level rises exceeded 20 feet. Also, scattered rises of 5 to 10 feet occurred in eastern Nebraska. The estimated average area-weighted water-level change, from 1991 to 1992 was -0.55, even though precipitation was well-above normal in 1991 in the High Plains. Water- level declines of 3 to 5 feet were widespread in the intensively irrigated areas of southwestern Kansas and the northern part of the Southern High Plains of Texas. These large declines were not closely related to 1991 precipitation patterns in those areas. Declines of 1 to 3 feet were common throughout the intensively irrigated areas of the Northern High Plains and the less intensively irrigated areas of the Central and Southern High Plains. Water levels continued to rise, generally 1 to 3 feet in the extxeme Southern High Plains of Texas. Rises of 1 to 3 feet also occurred in parts of northeastern and central Nebraska.

Dugan, J. T.; McGrath, T. J.; Zelt, R. B.

1994-01-01

300

Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and surrounding the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water, the transition zone. As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), San Antonio Water System (SAWS), and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone. During 2010 and 2011, the USGS, in cooperation with SAWS, conducted a study to further assess the potential for movement of the transition zone in part of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Equivalent freshwater heads were computed to investigate the transition from saline to freshwater zones in the San Antonio segment and evaluate the potential for lateral flow at the freshwater/saline-water interface. Data were collected within and surrounding the transition zone from 13 wells in four transects (East Uvalde, Tri-County, Fish Hatchery, and Kyle). Hydraulic head and geophysical log data were used to calculate equivalent freshwater heads and then analyzed to identify possible horizontal gradients across the transition zone and thus flow. Unlike previous studies that used indirect methods to calculate fluid conductivity from fluid resistivity, in this study geophysical tools that directly measured fluid conductivity were used. Electromagnetic (EM) flowmeter logs were collected under both ambient and stressed (pumping) conditions and were processed to identify vertical flow zones within the borehole. The San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer (the study area) is about 175 miles long and extends from the western groundwater divide near Brackettville in Kinney County to the eastern groundwater divide near Kyle in Hays County. The four transects consist of two to five wells per transect and were configured approximately perpendicular to and across the expected trace of the freshwater/saline-water interface. The deep flow zone indicated by the EM flowmeter data for East Uvalde transect well EU2 corresponds directly with a large, negative deflection of the fluid logs, indicating an inflow of fresher water from the Devils River Limestone. To the southwest, towards the freshwater/saline-water interface, this same flow zone was observed in well EU1, but with a reduction of flow, and displayed no apparent fluid curve deflections. The highest observed transmissivity of the study area was observed in the saline zone of the Tri-County transect, at well TC3, which had a total transmissivity of 24,900 square feet per day. Zones of high transmissivity throughout the study site were observed to not be continuous and are likely caused by localized secondary porosity such as intersecting faults or karst features. Although analyses of daily mean equivalent freshwater heads for the East Uvalde transect indicated that the gradient across the freshwater/saline-water interface varied between into and out of the freshwater zone, the data indicate that there was a slightly longer period during which the gradient was out of the freshwater zone. Analyses of all daily mean equivalent freshwater heads for the Tri-County transect indicated that the lateral-head gradients across the freshwater/saline-water interface were typically mixed (not indicative of flow into or out of freshwater zone). Assessment of the daily mean equivalent freshwater heads indicated that, although the lateral-head gradient at the Kyle transect varied between into and out of the freshwater zone, the lateral-head gradient was typically from the transition zone into the freshwater zone.

Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

2012-01-01

301

Epidemiology of homicide-suicide events: Oklahoma, 1994-2001.  

PubMed

In Oklahoma, all nonnatural deaths must be reported to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (ME), whose trained investigators report cause of death using a centralized, statewide, standardized reporting system. The purpose of this study was to determine temporal trends of Oklahoma homicide-suicide events and characterize the epidemiology of these events. By reviewing all ME reports of homicides and suicides from 1994 through 2001, we identified 73 homicide-suicide events resulting in 73 suicides and 89 homicides. Suicidal perpetrators of homicide-suicide events were most often white men aged >or=30 years who killed a current or ex-spouse or intimate partner. Homicide victims tended to be younger women the same race as their killer. Firearms were the predominant method of death in both homicides and suicides, with handguns used most frequently. Divorce/estrangement was the main contributing factor to these events, and the most common relationship type was possessive. The existence of a statewide, centralized, and computerized ME system and the ability to access the detailed information in the ME narratives were critical to identifying homicide-suicide events and obtaining the type of detailed information necessary to fully investigate these events. PMID:16121077

Comstock, R Dawn; Mallonee, Sue; Kruger, Elizabeth; Rayno, Kim; Vance, April; Jordan, Fred

2005-09-01

302

Hydrochemical characteristics and seasonal variations in groundwater quality of an alluvial aquifer in parts of Central Ganga Plain, Western Uttar Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was undertaken to assess major ion chemistry of groundwater in parts of the Central Ganga Plain and observe seasonal variations in its chemical quality. Systematic sampling was carried out during November 2005 and June 2006. The major ion chemistry of groundwater shows large variations, so much so that at times the meteoric signature seems to be completely obliterated. In many samples the concentrations of SO4, NO3 and F are above the permissible limit for human consumption. The graphical treatment of major ion chemistry helps in identifying four types of groundwater. All possible ionic species such as NaCl, KCl, NaHCO3, NaSO4, KNO3, NaNO3, CaHCO3, MgHCO3, MgSO4 are likely to occur in groundwater system. The observed chemical variations may be attributed to sediment water interaction, ion exchange, dissolution mechanisms and anthropogenic influences such as application of fertilizers and effluents from sugar factories and paper mills. A general increase in TDS is observed in samples during June 2006. The increase in salinity is attributed to evaporation from water table, irrigation return flows, anthropogenic activities and below average rainfall in 2005 and 2006.

Umar, Rashid; Ahmed, Izrar; Alam, Fakhre; Khan, Mohammad Muqtada

2009-09-01

303

What Works in Oklahoma Schools: A Comprehensive Needs Assessment of Oklahoma Schools. Phase III Action Steps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the Phase III report from the "What Works in Oklahoma Schools" study. As opposed to describing the findings from the study that was conducted, it provides a tool-kit that can be used by Oklahoma principals and teachers to determine the best courses of action for their schools and classrooms. The tools provided in this report…

Marzano Research Laboratory, 2011

2011-01-01

304

Biscayne aquifer, southeast Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peak daily pumpage from the highly permeable, unconfined Biscayne aquifer for public water-supply systems in southeast Florida in 1975 was about 500 million gallons. Another 165 million gallons was withdrawn daily for irrigation. Recharge to the aquifer is primarily by local rainfall. Discharge is by evapotranspiration, canal drainage, coastal seepage, and pumping. Pollutants can enter the aquifer by direct infiltration from land surface or controlled canals, septic-tank and other drainfields, drainage wells, and solid-waste dumps. Most of the pollutants are concentrated in the upper 20 to 30 feet of the aquifer; public supply wells generally range in depth from about 75 to 150 feet. Dilution, dispersion, and adsorption tend to reduce the concentrations. Seasonal heavy rainfall and canal discharge accelerate ground-water circulation, thereby tending to dilute and flush upper zones of the aquifer. The ultimate fate of pollutants in the aquifer is the ocean, although some may be adsorbed by the aquifer materials en route to the ocean, and some are diverted to pumping wells. (Woodard-USGS)

Klein, Howard; Hull, John E.

1978-01-01

305

Petroleum production and exploration in Ouachita region of Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum production in the Ouachita region of southeastern Oklahoma occurs in three geographic areas parallel to regional structure. The frontal gas, central oil, and central gas belts are distinguished by differences in structural setting, reservoir strata, and types of hydrocarbons. In the frontal belt, nearly 1 trillion ft/sup 3/ of dry gas has been produced from thrusted and subthrust Morrowan and Atokan sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Over 8000 bbl of oil have been produced in the central oil belt, southeast of the Ti Valley fault. Structures consist of imbricate thrusts and isoclinal to overturned folds. The fields are typically small, associated with asphaltite or tar sands, and produce from Carboniferous sandstone reservoirs. Farther southeast, small fields within the central gas belt have produced minor gas from Ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian reservoirs. Six Ordovician through Mississippian Ouachita-facies shales are potential petroleum source rocks and occur in the middle to lower part of the oil window. However, Devonian and Mississippian strata are composed primarily of terrestrial organic matter and are probably gas prone. Oil in Carboniferous reservoirs probably migrated upward stratigraphically from older sources. Recent exploration has focused on extending production from Pennsylvanian reservoirs in the frontal gas belt. However, a significant Arbuckle discovery (ARCO 2 Yourman) and a Broken Bow uplift test (Sohio 1-22 Weyerhauser) in 1987 indicate that Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group carbonates may be prospective beneath all of the Oklahoma Ouachitas. Near-future rank-wildcat exploration will probably focus on subthrust, structurally and stratigraphically favorable Arbuckle plays.

Suneson, N.H.; Campbell, J.A.

1989-03-01

306

Feasibility of a Theme Park in Fort Gibson, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a feasibility study for a potential 'Theme Park' in Eastern Oklahoma on the Grand River near Fort Gibson. The Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company, the Ozarks Regional Commission and the Three Forks Company have asked Economics Research ...

1972-01-01

307

76 FR 44030 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2011-0001] Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1988-DR...2011, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of...

2011-07-22

308

40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from the Underground Storage Tank Program, Oklahoma Corporation Commission, Jim Thorpe Building, Room 238, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (1) State statutes and regulations . (i) The provisions cited in this paragraph are incorporated by...

2013-07-01

309

76 FR 27076 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emergency Management Agency [Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-1970-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] Oklahoma; Major Disaster...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1970-DR), dated April 22, 2011, and related...

2011-05-10

310

Geodatabase Compilation of Hydrogeologic, Remote Sensing, and Water-Budget-Component Data for the High Plains Aquifer, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Plains aquifer underlies almost 112 million acres in the central United States. It is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation in terms of annual groundwater withdrawals and provides drinking water for 2.3 million people. The High Plains aquifer...

2013-01-01

311

Distribution patterns of interstitial freshwater meiofauna over a range of spatial scales, with emphasis on alluvial river-aquifer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial distribution patterns of the interstitial meiobenthos are examined across a range of scales. A global interstitial highway model is presented with the alluvial aquifer system as its central core. Spatially discontinuous hypogean entities, such as karstic aquifers, springs, anchialine waters and the psammolittoral, have limited interconnections except through the alluvial aquifer system and are contiguous with epigean waters. The

J. V. Ward; M. A. Palmer

1994-01-01

312

Geohydrology of the Lloyd Aquifer, Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lloyd aquifer contains only about 9% of the water stored in Long Island 's groundwater system but is the only source of potable water for several communities near the north and south shores. The Lloyd aquifer is virtually untapped throughout most of central Long Island because current legal restrictions permit its use only in coastal areas. The upper surface of the Lloyd aquifer ranges in depth from 100 ft below land surface on the north shore to more than 1,500 ft on the south shore. Aquifer thickness increases southward from 50 ft to about 500 ft. Transmissivity ranges from 1,500 to 19,000 sq ft/day. All recharge (35 to 40 mil gal/day) and nearly all discharge is through the overlying confining unit. Nearly all of the pumpage (approximately 20 mil gal/day) is in Queens and along the north and south shores of Nassau County. Potable water can be obtained on most of Long Island in larger quantities and at shallower depths from other aquifers than from the Lloyd. Local contamination of these other aquifers, however, may require at least temporary withdrawals from the Lloyd in noncoastal areas. Significant withdrawals from the Lloyd aquifer may lower the potentiometric surface and thereby induce landward movement of sea water into the aquifer in coastal areas. (Author 's abstract)

Garber, M. S.

1986-01-01

313

77 FR 74689 - Land Acquisitions; Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...127.65 acres of land in trust for the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma on December 6, 2012...65 acres of land into trust for the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma under the...

2012-12-17

314

East Lawn Site and Planting Plan with Section Oklahoma ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East Lawn Site and Planting Plan with Section - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

315

76 FR 42723 - Land Acquisitions; Osage Nation of Oklahoma  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Acquisitions; Osage Nation of Oklahoma AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...known as ``OMDE Ponca City,'' into trust for the Osage Nation of Oklahoma on July 8, 2011. FOR FURTHER...trust for the Osage Nation of Oklahoma under the authority of...

2011-07-19

316

Social and Economic Consequences of Indian Gaming in Oklahoma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The balancing framework of Indian gaming as it operates in Oklahoma constrains Oklahoma Indian nations from operating facilities according to the dictates of the marketplace on a large-scale Class III basis. Indian gaming actually brings substantial net economic benefits to the state, contrary to claims that Oklahoma Indian gaming benefits come at…

Grant, Kenneth W., II; Spilde, Katherine A.; Taylor, Jonathan B.

2004-01-01

317

Conodont biostratigraphy of lower Ordovician rocks, Arbuckle Group, southern Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Arbuckle Group of southern Oklahoma displays the only complete exposure of the shallow-water carbonates that characterize the Lower Ordovician of interior North America. Trilobites have been described from some parts of this sequence and sporadic occurrences of other invertebrates are known, but much of the sequence is sparingly fossiliferous. As a consequence, these magnificent exposures have not contributed notably to continuing efforts toward development of a comprehensive biostratigraphic scheme for the Lower Ordovician of the North American platform. Samples collected at 25-ft intervals through the Arbuckle Group along and adjacent to Interstate Highway 35 on the south flank of the Arbuckle anticline near Ardmore, Oklahoma, produced conodonts in abundances ranging from a few tens to over a thousand elements per kilogram and displaying good to excellent preservation with low CAI. These conodonts document a biostratigraphic continuum that provides a standard for correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks in the subsurface of central US and of the many localized and incomplete outcrops of generally equivalent strata in the Ozark and Upper Mississippi Valley regions. The stratigraphic continuity of the collections makes the I-35 section an ideal standard reference section for graphic correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks containing conodonts of the Mid-Continent Province.

Dresbach, R.I.; Ethington, R.L. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (USA))

1989-08-01

318

Patterns of contaminant transport in a layered fractured aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated patterns of contaminant transport within the layered and fractured aquifer of a 7.3-km2 upland agricultural watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Geometry and hydraulic properties of the aquifer had been characterized by field testing and model calibration. These results were extended to simulate flow pathways and patterns of contaminant transport in both areal and cross-section formats within the watershed.

William J Gburek; Gordon J Folmar

1999-01-01

319

Report for Consultation on the Metropolitan Oklahoma City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Oklahoma).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is intended to provide the basic background information to provide a basis for the adoption of regional air quality standards and the implementation of those standards. It proposes boundaries for the Oklahoma City Intrastate Air Quality Control...

1970-01-01

320

Seasonal distribution of pathogenic free-living amebae in Oklahoma waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic free-living amebae cause serious human disease, including infection of the eye and the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to sample aquatic environments in the Tulsa, Oklahoma, area year-round for the presence of these disease-causing amebae. A total of 34 pathogenic isolates were obtained from 2,016 processed water and swab samples. Pathogenicity was determined by the

David T. John; Marsha J. Howard

1995-01-01

321

Oklahoma Pre-Kindergarten Curriculum Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents curriculum guidelines intended for use as a recommended curriculum for children attending early childhood programs in Oklahoma. The introductory section describes critical characteristics of quality early childhood programs, noting that early childhood programs should be appropriate for the age, developmental level, and…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

322

Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators Journal 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oklahoma Association of Teacher Educators 2009 Journal includes the following four peer reviewed articles: (1) The Changing Role of Grandparents (Fred D. Hammond, III, Terry E. Spigner, Charolette Myles-Nixon, and Pauline Holloway); (2) Pedagogical Agent Instructional Design Challenges (Jon Martens); (3) Differences in Relatedness across…

Green, Malinda Hendricks, Ed.

2009-01-01

323

Career Education: A Model for Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet for implementing career education is one of the products of the career education project at Sand Springs Public Schools, Oklahoma. Areas of concern are: selection of staff, orienting the community, planning inservice training, developing goals and objectives, organizing an advisory council, establishing a placement function, using…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

324

Oklahoma Curriculum Guide for Teaching Safety Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by classroom teachers, university professors, and personnel from the Oklahoma State Department of Education, this guide is an effort to assist teachers in locating and utilizing safety materials as well as to assist them in developing well-balanced safety programs for the children and young people in the state. The preschool and…

Oklahoma Curriculum Improvement Commission, Oklahoma City.

325

DISTRIBUTION OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN OKLAHOMA LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a data report presenting the species and abundance of phytoplankton in the 15 lakes sampled by the National Eutrophication Survey in the State of Oklahoma. Results from the calculation of several water quality indices are also included (Nygaard's Trophic State Index, Palm...

326

The Internship Program at Oklahoma State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The internship program in technical communications at Oklahoma State University is a 3-credit-hour course that offers students an opportunity to apply the principles of technical communication learned in the classroom to an on-the-job situation. The prerequisites for the course are 9 hours of English and a course on intermediate…

Southard, Sherry G.

327

Did the Oklahoma City Bombers Succeed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worst case of domestic terrorism in our country's history, the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, led to the enactment of a landmark antiterrorism statute. Not surprisingly, several of the statute's provisions strengthen federal power in extraordinary and unprecedented ways to counter the threat of terrorism. But other provisions radically restrict the ability of

Jordan Steiker

2001-01-01

328

Seismogram offers insight into Oklahoma City bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, generated seismic waves that were recorded on two permanent seismographs about 7 and 26 km away from the bombing. The seismogram recorded at 26 km shows two low-frequency wave trains, discrete sets of oscillatory signals, that begin about 10 s apart. Public release

Thomas L. Holzer; Joe B. Fletcher; Gary S. Fuis; Trond Ryberg; Thomas M. Brocher; Christopher M. Dietel

1996-01-01

329

Disaster nursing in the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

The Oklahoma City Federal Building disaster quickly changed a routine day of eye surgical procedures into a chaotic trauma center for the victims with not only eye injuries, but multiple deep lacerations and other injuries. The devastating and disruptive effect of the bombing was stressful for the nursing staff who became disaster survivors of the emotional trauma involved. PMID:7594916

Atkinson, R; Keylon, K; Odor, P S; Walker, G; Hunt, L

1995-10-01

330

Ethnicity and Identity in Northeastern Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origins of the Oklahoma Delaware reflect a complex history of migration, forced relocation, and punitive concentration. Though 36 tribal identities survive today, they are not of equal cultural coherence. Among the Delaware, there is no simple relation between socioeconomic status, level of acculturation, and factional membership. Rather, the…

Roark, Sue N.

331

The Oklahoma Indian and Nature Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The product of a Title IX Ethnic Heritage Grant, this teaching-resource guide has been designed and evaluated by teams of Native American adults, teachers, and Indian and non-Indian students from three Oklahoma schools selected as project sites: Anadarko Public Schools; Muskogee Public Schools; and Sapula Public Schools. The guide is divided into…

Eyster, Ira; Chisholm, Anita

332

ASPECTS OF COWBIRD PARASITISM IN SOUTHERN OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPECTS of the parasitic breedin, u habits of the Brown-headed Cowbird (IMoZothrus ater) have been documented extensively by Friedmann (1929)) Laskey (1950)) Berger (1951)) Norris (1947), and others. It was the purpose of this study to investigate some of the major aspects of such parasitism in the breeding avifauna of southern Oklahoma. Particular em- phasis was placed on observation of

JOHN A. WIENS

333

Funding Equity in Oklahoma: The Extremes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report attempts to answer the question of whether or not there are school districts that are perennial to the extremes in the funding of Oklahoma Schools from SY-99 to SY-08. Using data collected from these years, calculations of fiscal neutrality were made and a rank ordering of districts was performed and then collated over the ten year…

Hancock, Kenneth; Schwab, Steve

2009-01-01

334

75 FR 42173 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00041  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Oklahoma dated 07/13/2010. Incident: Tornadoes, Severe Storms, Straight Line Winds and Flooding. Incident Period: 06/13/2010 through 06/15/2010. DATES:...

2010-07-20

335

Aquifer stability investigations  

SciTech Connect

The study of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous rock reservoirs is carried out within the Reservoir Stability Studies Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal of the study is to establish criteria for long-term stability of aquifer CAES reservoirs. These criteria are intended to be guidelines and check lists that utilities and architect-engineering firms may use to evaluate reservoir stability at candidate CAES sites. These criteria will be quantitative where possible, qualitative where necessary, and will provide a focal point for CAES relevant geotechnical knowledge, whether developed within this study or available from petroleum, mining or other geotechnical practices using rock materials. The Reservoir Stability Studies Program had four major activities: a state-of-the-art survey to establish preliminary stability criteria and identify areas requiring research and development; numerical modeling; laboratory testing to provide data for use in numerical models and to investigate fundamental rock mechanics, thermal, fluid, and geochemical response of aquifer materials; and field studies to verify the feasibility of air injection and recovery under CAES conditions in an aquifer, to validate and refine the stability criteria, and to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of the numerical and experimental methodologies developed in previous work. Three phases of study, including preliminary criteria formulation, numerical model development, and experimental assessment of CAES reservoir materials have been completed. Present activity consists of construction and operation of the aquifer field test, and associated numerical and experimental work in support of that activity. Work is presently planned to be complete by 1983 at the end of the field test. At that time the final stability criteria for aquifers will be issued. Attached here also are preliminary criteria for aquifers.

Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.

1981-09-01

336

Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply.  

PubMed

To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (~70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <9.51 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 ?g/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84×10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65×10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 ?g/L and 1mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8×10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines. PMID:24704952

Biswas, Ashis; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Nath, Bibhash; Alexanderson, Helena; Kundu, Amit K; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

2014-07-01

337

IDAHO AQUIFER TYPES  

EPA Science Inventory

Five aquifer types are presented: Unconsolidated alluvium, Snake River Plain alluvium, Snake River Plain basalt, Columbia River basalt, Sedimentary / volcanic rock. Should only be used for page-sized maps of state, due to the very generalized source materials & digitizing proce...

338

Ground-water Aquifers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This description of a ground-water aquifer has a graphic representation to accompany it. It is part of the U.S. Geologic Survey's Water Science for Schools website. Links to other parts of the site, such as definitions and types of wells, are included.

339

Aquifers of Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an update to the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) Report 345, Major and Minor Aquifers of Texas, published in 1995 and coauthored by John B. Ashworth and Janie Hopkins. Since the publication of that report more than 15 years ago, a grea...

P. G. George R. Petrossian R. E. Mace

2011-01-01

340

Redox Conditions in Selected Principal Aquifers of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reduction/oxidation (redox) processes affect the quality of groundwater in all aquifer systems. Redox processes can alternately mobilize or immobilize potentially toxic metals associated with naturally occurring aquifer materials, contribute to the degradation or preservation of anthropogenic contami-nants, and generate undesirable byproducts, such as dissolved manganese (Mn2+), ferrous iron (Fe2+), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Determining the kinds of redox processes that occur in an aquifer system, documenting their spatial distribution, and understanding how they affect concentrations of natural or anthropogenic contaminants are central to assessing and predicting the chemical quality of groundwater. This Fact Sheet extends the analysis of U.S. Geological Survey authors to additional principal aquifer systems by applying a framework developed by the USGS to a larger set of water-quality data from the USGS national water databases. For a detailed explanation, see the 'Introduction' in the Fact Sheet.

McMahon, P. B.; Cowdery, T. K.; Chapelle, F. H.; Jurgens, B. C.

2009-01-01

341

Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1: Regions 1 through 6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the western mountains, alluvial basins, Columbia LAVA plateau, Colorado plateau, high plains, and glaciated central region are discussed.

1981-06-01

342

Potential for Siting New Water Wells and Restoring Existing Wells in Arsenic-Impacted Aquifers  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (ug/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central ...

343

Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2. Regions 7 through 12  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: Unglaciated Central Region; Glaciated Appalachians, Unglaciated Appalachians; Coastal Plain; Hawaii; and Alaska. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-06-01

344

Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14.0 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Civil War Cave ranged from 0.13 to 2.5 square miles using the water-balance equation to 3.80 square miles using a normalized base-flow method. Tracer tests indicated a portion of the water within Civil War Cave was from across a major topographic divide located to the southwest. January-Stansbury Cave is located in Delaware County in northeastern Oklahoma, and provides habitat for the Oklahoma cave crayfish and the Ozark cavefish. January-Stansbury Cave is developed in the St. Joe Limestone member of the Boone Formation. The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 1.0 cubic foot per second and ranged from 0.35 to 8.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for January-Stansbury Cave was 14.3 degrees. The calculated recharge area for January-Stansbury Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from approximately 0.04 to 0.83 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed water discharging from January-Stansbury Cave during high flow originates from within the topographic drainage area and from an area outside the topographic drainage area to the southwest. Nesbitt Spring Cave is located near the city of Mountain View in north-central Arkansas and provides habitat for the Hell Creek cave crayfish. Nesbitt Spring Cave is developed in the Plattin Limestone (Ozark aquifer) and is recharged through the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The mean daily discharge for the period of study was 4.5 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.39 to 70.7 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Nesbitt Spring Cave was 14.2 degrees Celsius. The calculated recharge area for Nesbitt Spring Cave using the water-balance equation ranged from 0.49 square mile to 4.0 square miles. Tracer tests generally showed a portion of water discharging from Nesbitt Spring during high flow originates from outside the topographic drainage area. Wasson's Mud Cave is located near the city of Springtown

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

2009-01-01

345

Subsurface imaging of an abandoned solid waste landfill site in Norman, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Leachate plume emanating from an old unlined municipal landfill site near the city of Norman, Oklahoma, is discharging into the underlying alluvial aquifer. Subsurface imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and electrical conductivity (EC) logging, were used on the site to detect and map the position of the leachate plume. Anomalous EC zones, delineated with the two methods, correlated with the occurrence of the plume detected by water chemistry analyses from multilevel monitoring wells. Specific conductance, a potential indicator of leachate contamination, ranged from 1861 to 7710 ??S/cm in contaminated zones and from 465 to 2180 ??S/cm in uncontaminated ground water. Results are in agreement with those from earlier studies that the leachate plume emerges from the landfill along preferential pathways. Additionally, there are indications that the leading edge of the plume has migrated, at least, 200 m away from the landfill in the direction of ground water flow. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

Zume, J. T.; Tarhule, A.; Christenson, S.

2006-01-01

346

40 CFR 81.126 - Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.126 Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

347

40 CFR 81.65 - Joplin (Missouri)-Northeast Oklahoma Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Joplin (Missouri)-Northeast Oklahoma Interstate Air Quality Control Region... Joplin (Missouri)-Northeast Oklahoma Interstate Air Quality Control Region...The Joplin (Missouri)-Northeast Oklahoma Interstate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

348

30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The Secretary approved the Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation...plan are available at: (a) Oklahoma Conservation Commission, 2800 N. Lincoln Blvd., Suite 160, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (b) Office...

2010-07-01

349

30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The Secretary approved the Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation...plan are available at: (a) Oklahoma Conservation Commission, 2800 N. Lincoln Blvd., Suite 160, Oklahoma City, OK 73105. (b) Office...

2009-07-01

350

40 CFR 272.1851 - Oklahoma State-administered program: Final authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Statutes and Regulations. (1) The Oklahoma statutes and regulations cited...You may obtain copies of the Oklahoma regulations that are incorporated...of State, P.O. Box 53390, Oklahoma City, OK 73152-3390; Phone...

2010-07-01

351

78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma...improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along an 850-mile corridor...Level EIS, the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study (Study) also includes...

2013-03-13

352

Hydrologic data for the alluvium and terrace deposits of the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water in the Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits associated with the Cimarron River in northwestern Oklahoma is used extensively for irrigation, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The data in this report were collected as part of an investigation to provide State water managers with the quantitative knowledge necessary to manage the ground-water resource effectively. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey. The information presented in this report include data collected in the field from 1985 through 1989, and unpublished data compiled from files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Data include well and test-bole records, consisting of ground-water levels, depth of wells, principal aquifer, and primary use of water. Water levels include continuous, daily, monthly, and periodic measure- ments for selected wells. Concentrations of common chemical constituents, selected trace elements, organic analyses, and tritium analyses of water samples from wells completed in the Cimarron River alluvium and terrace deposits and Permian geologic units are reported. Winter and summer base-flow discharge measurements of the Cimarron River and its Tributaries are presented together with water-quality data from the measuring sites. Continuous water-level and precipitation-gage data are presented graphically. Locations of data- collection sites are shown on plates.

Adams, Gregory P.; Bergman, D. L.; Pruitt, D. J.; May, J. E.; Kurklin, J. K.

1994-01-01

353

A digital geologic map database for the state of Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This dataset is a composite of part or all of the 12 1:250,000 scale quadrangles that make up Oklahoma. The result looks like a geologic map of the State of Oklahoma. But it is only an Oklahoma shaped map clipped from the 1:250,000 geologic maps. This is not a new geologic map. No new mapping took place. The geologic information from each quadrangle is available within the composite dataset.

compiled by Heran, William D.; Green, Gregory N.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

2003-01-01

354

Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of HydroSOLVE, Inc. These best fit theoretical response curves are based on a transmissivity of 24,000 ft2/d or a hydraulic conductivity of about 600 ft/d, a storage coefficient of 0.05, a specific yield of 0.42, and vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The theoretical type curves match the observed data fairly closely at Wells A and B until about 2,500 minutes and 1,000 minutes, respectively, after pumping began. The increasing rate of drawdown after these breaks is an indication that a no-flow boundary (an area with much lower hydraulic conductivity) likely was encountered and that Wells A and B may be completed in a part of the Elm aquifer with limited hydraulic connection to the rest of the aquifer. Additional analysis indicates that if different assumptions regarding the screened interval for Well B and aquifer anisotropy are used, type curves can be calculated that fit the observed data using a lower specific yield that is within the commonly accepted range. When the screened interval for Well B was reduced to 5 ft near the top of the aquifer and horizontal hydraulic conductivity was set to 20 times vertical hydraulic conductivity, the type curves calculated using a specific yield of 0.1 and a transmissivity of 30,200 ft2/d also matched the observed data from Wells A and B fairly well. A version of the Theim equilibrium equation was used to calculate the theoretical drawdown in an idealized unconfined aquifer when a perfectly efficient well is being pumped at a constant rate. These calculations were performed for a range of pumping rates, drawdowns at the wells, and distances between wells that might be found in a production well field in the Elm aquifer. Although the aquifer test indicates that hydraulic conductivity near the well may be adequate to support a production well, the comparison of drawdown and recovery curves indicates the possibility that heterogeneities may limit the productive capacity of specific loca

Schaap, Bryan D.

2000-01-01

355

RAPTOR REHABILITATION AT THE OKLAHOMA CITY ZOO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program of raptor rehabilitation has been conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in an effort to conserve wildlife, to assist the publid, and to gain knowledge about the care and treatment of injured birds. From October 1973 through December 1974 Red-tailed Hawks and Great Horned Owls constituted 45.3 percent of all birds donated. Donations from the public comprised 89.0

John C. Snelling

1975-01-01

356

Geohydrology and susceptibility of major aquifers to surface contamination in Alabama; area 6  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report delineates and describes the geohyrology and susceptibility of the major aquifers to contamination in Area 6, Greene, Marengo, Pickens, Sumter, and Tuscaloosa Counties in west-central Alabama. The major aquifers in the study area are the Nanafalia, Eutaw, Gordo, and Coker aquifers of Tertiary and Cretaceous age. The recharge areas for one or more of these aquifers are in each of the five counties. East aquifer is a source of public water supply in one or more of the five counties. All recharge areas for the major aquifers are susceptible to contamination from the surface. However, large parts of the recharge areas are in rural settings that are used for timberlands, farms, and pastures, and are several miles from pumping centers; therefore, these areas are not highly susceptible to contamination. (USGS)

DeJarnette, S. S.; Crownover, J. E.

1987-01-01

357

Law of international aquifers  

SciTech Connect

This study presents an accounting of the efforts made to date at the international level, both intergovernmental and nongovernmental, that may be bringing us closer to the time when transnational groundwater consideration can be studied and acted upon in conjunction with surface water and within intergovernmental institutions tailored to the purpose. A review of the Helsinki Rules and international developments since 1966 is followed by a summary of trends at the municipal level of separating water rights from the property law concept of ownership. The transboundary nature of frontier aquifers is still resisted by many at the political level, but the steadily growing demand for water and the heightened threats to groundwater quality are making it more difficult to avoid the issue. Until the day when an international aquifer receives the same attention as surface waters, water-resource specialists must continue to study the conditions of aquifers, to probe for the most-appropriate management techniques, and to promote optimum utilization and protection. 65 references.

Hayton, R.D.

1982-01-01

358

Hydrogeology and leachate plume delineation at a closed municipal landfill, Norman, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The City of Norman operated a solid-waste municipal landfill at two sites on the Canadian River alluvium in Cleveland County, Oklahoma from 1970 to 1985. The sites, referred to as the west and east cells of the landfill, were originally excavations in the unconsolidated alluvial deposits and were not lined. Analysis of ground-water samples indicate that leachate from the west cell is discharging into an adjacent abandoned river channel, referred to as the slough, and is migrating downgradient in ground water toward the Canadian River. The report describes the hydrogeologic features at the landfill, including the topography of the bedrock, water-level changes in the alluvial aquifer, and delineates the leachate plume using specific conductance data. The leading edge of the leachate plume along the 35-80 transect extended over 250 meters downgradient of the west cell. The leading edge of the leachate plume along the 40-SOUTH transect had moved about 60 meters from the west cell in a south-southwesterly direction and had not moved past the slough as of 1997. Specific conductance measurements exceeding 7,000 microsiemens per centimeter at site 40 indicate the most concentrated part of the plume remained in the upper half of the alluvial aquifer adjacent to the west cell. The direction of ground-water flow in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the landfill was generally north-northeast to south-southwest toward the river. However, between the west cell and the slough along the 40-SOUTH transect, head measurements indicate a directional change to the east and southeast toward a channel referred to as the sewage outfall. Near the 35-80 transect, at 0.5 meter below the water table and at the base of the aquifer, the direction of ground-water flow was south-southeast with a gradient of about 30 centimeters per 100 meters. Generally, ground-water levels in the alluvial aquifer were higher during the winter months and lower during summer months, due to a normal decrease in precipitation and increased evapotranspiration in the summer. Hydrographs show temporal water-level changes in ground water and the slough, indicating a hydrologic connection between the alluvial aquifer and the slough.

Becker, Carol J.

2002-01-01

359

Water-Level Changes in Aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Predevelopment to 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, which underlies a large part of the east coast of the United States, is an important source of water for more than 20 million people. As the population of the region increases, further demand is being placed on those ground-water resources. To define areas of past and current declines in ground-water levels, as well as to document changes in those levels, historical water-level data from more than 4,000 wells completed in 13 regional aquifers in the Atlantic Coastal Plain were examined. From predevelopment to 1980, substantial water-level declines occurred in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Regional variability in water-level change in the confined aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain resulted from regional differences in aquifer properties and patterns of ground-water withdrawals. Within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, declines of more than 100 ft were observed in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Regional declines in water levels were most widespread in the deeper aquifers that were most effectively confined?the Upper, Middle, and Lower Potomac aquifers. Within these aquifers, water levels had declined up to 200 ft in southern Virginia and to more than 100 ft in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and North Carolina. Substantial water-level declines were also evident in the regional Lower Chesapeake aquifer in southeastern New Jersey; in the Castle Hayne-Piney Point aquifer in Delaware, Maryland, southern Virginia and east-central North Carolina; in the Peedee-Severn aquifer in east-central New Jersey and southeastern North Carolina; and in the Black Creek-Matawan aquifer in east-central New Jersey and east-central North Carolina. Conversely, declines were least severe in the regional Upper Chesapeake aquifer during this period. In the Southeastern Coastal Plain, declines of more than 100 ft in the Chattahoochee River aquifer occurred in eastern South Carolina and in southwestern Georgia, where water levels had declined approximately 140 and 200 ft from prepumping conditions, respectively. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, decline was most pronounced in the coastal areas of Georgia and northern Florida where ground-water withdrawals were at their highest. These areas included Savannah, Jesup, and Brunswick, Ga., as well as the St. Marys, Ga. and Fernandina Beach, Fla., area. Regional water levels had declined by 80 ft near Brunswick and Fernandina Beach to as much as 160 ft near Savannah. Since 1980, water levels in many areas have continued to fall; however, in some places the rate at which levels declined has slowed. Conservation measures have served to limit withdrawals in affected areas, moderating or stabilizing water-level decline, and in some cases, resulting in substantial recovery. In other cases, increases in ground-water pumpage have resulted in continued rapid decline in water levels. From 1980 to 2000, water levels across the regional Upper, Middle, and Lower Potomac aquifers continued to decline across large parts of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina, and water levels had stabilized or recovered throughout much of Long Island and New Jersey. Substantial water-level recovery had also occurred in east-central New Jersey in the Peedee-Severn and Black Creek-Matawan aquifers and in east-central North Carolina in the Castle Hayne-Piney Point aquifer. Substantial declines from about 1980 to about 2000 occurred in the Peedee-Severn aquifer in southern New Jersey, the Beaufort-Aquia aquifer in southern Maryland, and the Black Creek-Matawan and Upper Potomac aquifers in central and southern parts of the coastal plain in North Carolina. From 1980 to about 2000, water levels within the regional Upper Floridan aquifer had generally stabilized in response to shifting withdrawal patterns and reductions in pumpage at many places within the coastal region. Ground-water levels had stabilized and recovered at the ma

dePaul, Vincent T.; Rice, Donald E.; Zapecza, Otto S.

2008-01-01

360

Ground-water ages in confined and unconfined aquifers beneath the High Plains, U. S. A  

SciTech Connect

Ages of confined and unconfined ground waters beneath the High Plains must be better known to evaluate water resources, explain differences in delta D and delta O-18 between the unconfined and confined aquifers, and help interpret Pleistocene and Holocene hydrologic history of the continental interior. Eighteen water samples were collected from a confined aquifer in Dockum Group (Triassic) sandstones beneath the southern High Plains in TX and NM from a confined aquifer in Dakota Formation (Cretaceous) sandstones beneath the central High Plains in southwestern KS, and from a sequence of confined aquifers in Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary rocks beneath the northern Great Plains in eastern WY and western NE. Seven samples were collected from the unconfined High Plains aquifer in the Ogallala Formation (Neogene) beneath the central and northern High Plains. Preliminary calculated ages suggest that waters in the High Plains aquifer are very young, probably less than 1,000 yr, and locally as young as 25 yr. Age of ground water in the deep confined aquifers appears to be 20,000 to 32,000 yr in the different study areas. Age of confined ground water appears to increase with predominant direction of ground-water flow beneath the central and northern High Plains but not beneath the southern High Plains, possibly reflecting greater downward leakage from the unconfined aquifer in the latter area.

Dutton, A.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology)

1992-01-01

361

Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)  

SciTech Connect

The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma�¢����s impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging from the search for new phenomena at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider to theoretical modeling, computer simulation, detector development and testing, and physics analysis. OCHEP faculty members participating on the D0 collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron and on the ATLAS collaboration at the CERN LHC have made major impact on the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson search, top quark studies, B physics studies, and measurements of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) phenomena. The OCHEP Grid computing facility consists of a large computer cluster which is playing a major role in data analysis and Monte Carlo productions for both the D0 and ATLAS experiments. Theoretical efforts are devoted to new ideas in Higgs bosons physics, extra dimensions, neutrino masses and oscillations, Grand Unified Theories, supersymmetric models, dark matter, and nonperturbative quantum field theory. Theory members are making major contributions to the understanding of phenomena being explored at the Tevatron and the LHC. They have proposed new models for Higgs bosons, and have suggested new signals for extra dimensions, and for the search of supersymmetric particles. During the seven year period when OCHEP was partially funded through the DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, OCHEP members published over 500 refereed journal articles and made over 200 invited presentations at major conferences. The Center is also involved in education and outreach activities by offering summer research programs for high school teachers and college students, and organizing summer workshops for high school teachers, sometimes coordinating with the Quarknet programs at OSU and OU. The details of the Center can be found in http://ochep.phy.okstate.edu.

S. Nandi; M.J. Strauss; J. Snow; F. Rizatdinova; B. Abbott; K. Babu; P. Gutierrez; C. Kao; A. Khanov; K.A. Milton; H. Neaman; H. Severini, P. Skubic

2012-02-29

362

INFILTRATION OF ATRAZINE AND METABOLOTES FROM A STREAM TO AN ALLUVIAL AQUIFER  

EPA Science Inventory

The infiltration of atrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine from Walnut Creek, a tributary stream, to the alluvial valley aquifer along the South Skunk River in central Iowa occurred where the stream transects the river's flood plain. A preliminary estimate indicated t...

363

Aquifer Model in a Tank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students participating in this lab activity will construct a simulated aquifer in the classroom. The aquifer is constructed from readily available materials, and instructions, data sheets, vocabulary, and diagrams are provided. This simple model is intended for student inquiry into groundwater systems. Students are instructed to try things (within the context of the model), observe what happens, and record and interpret their observations. After this inquiry they will better understand aquifers and the issues of climate, spring flow, environmental protection, and water use.

364

Denitrification in a deep basalt aquifer: implications for aquifer storage and recovery.  

PubMed

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) can provide a means of storing water for irrigation in agricultural areas where water availability is limited. A concern, however, is that the injected water may lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. In many agricultural areas, nitrate is a limiting factor. In the Umatilla Basin in north central Oregon, shallow alluvial groundwater with elevated nitrate-nitrogen of <3?mg/L to >9?mg/L is injected into the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), a transmissive confined aquifer(s) with low natural recharge rates. Once recovery of the injected water begins, however, NO3 -N in the recovered water decreases quickly to <3?mg/L (Eaton et al. 2009), suggesting that NO3 -N may not persist within the CRBG during ASR storage. In contrast to NO3 -N, other constituents in the recovered water show little variation, inconsistent with migration or simple mixing as an explanation of the NO3 -N decrease. Nitrogen isotopic ratios (?(15) N) increase markedly, ranging from +3.5 to >?+50, and correlate inversely with NO3 -N concentrations. This variation occurs in <3?weeks and recovery of <10% of the originally injected volume. TOC is low in the basalt aquifer, averaging <1.5?mg/L, but high in the injected source water, averaging >3.0?mg/L. Similar to nitrate concentrations, TOC drops in the recovered water, consistent with this component contributing to the denitrification of nitrate during storage. PMID:23837490

Nelson, Dennis; Melady, Jason

2014-01-01

365

Hydrogeology and water quality of the Tug Hill glacial aquifer in northern New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tug Hill aquifer, in northern New York, is a 47-mile-long, 0.25-to-3.5-mile-wide, crescent-shaped Pleistocene sand and\\/or gravel deposit. The northern and central parts of the aquifer are under water-table conditions; the southern part has both water-table and discontinuous confined conditions. Groundwater and streams in the northern and central parts flow westward; those in the southern part flow from the edges

T. S. Miller; D. A. Sherwood; M. M. Krebs

1989-01-01

366

Developing Methods For Linking Surficial Aquifers With Localized Rainfall Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level hydrographs of the surficial aquifer can be evaluated to identify both the cause and consequence of water supply development. Rainfall, as a source of direct recharge and as a source of delayed or compounded recharge, is often the largest influence on surficial aquifer water level responses. It is clear that proximity of the rain gauge to the observation well is a factor in the degree of correlation, but in central Florida, USA, rainfall patterns change seasonally, with latitude, and with distance from the coast . Thus, for a location in central Florida, correlation of rain events with observed hydrograph responses depends on both distance and direction from an observation well to a rain gauge. In this study, we examine the use of extreme value analysis as a method of selecting the best rainfall data set for describing a given surficial aquifer monitor well. A surficial aquifer monitor well with a substantial suite of data is compared to a series of rainfall data sets from gauges ranging from meters to tens of kilometers in distance from the monitor well. The gauges vary in a wide range of directions from the monitor well in an attempt to identify both a method for rainfall gauge selection to be associated with the monitor well. Each rainfall gauge is described by a correlation coefficient with respect to the surficial aquifer water level data.

Lafrenz, W. B.; van Gaalen, J. F.

2008-12-01

367

DISABILITIES IN OKLAHOMA--ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS, REPORT OF THE OKLAHOMA SURVEY OF DISABILITIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO PROVIDE REASONABLY ACCURATE ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBER AND TYPES OF DISABLED PERSONS AND THEIR NEEDS AS A BASIS FOR BOTH PRESENT AND FUTURE PLANNING. PERSONAL INTERVIEWS WERE CONDUCTED WITH ADULT RESPONDENTS IN 3,000 HOUSEHOLDS IN OKLAHOMA, A RANDOM SAMPLE STATIFIED ON THE RURAL-URBAN DIMENSION. DATA FROM 2,058…

BOHLEBER, MICHAEL E.

368

Ground water in the Beggs area, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This memorandum discusses the geology of the Beggs area in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma, as it is related to the availability of ground water. Geological reports and unpublished data from the files of the Oklahoma Geological Survey, together with local information furnished by R.W. Steinman, Beggs Water Superintendent, are the basis for the statements that follow.

Schoff, Stuart L.

1948-01-01

369

Literacy and Education among Adult Indians in Oklahoma. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Office of Education funded the Adult Indian Education Project (AIEP) for 15 months to identify literacy levels and educational needs of adult American Indians in Oklahoma. Using Native American field interviewers, the AIEP surveyed a 1.8% random sample of adults from 19 tribal groups representing 70% of the Indian population of Oklahoma.…

Hall, Paul R.; And Others

370

Forensic Seismology and the 1995 Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995, was recorded on 2 permanent seismographs, 7 and 26 km away. The more distant seismograph recorded 2 low-frequency wave trains separated by about 10 s. Militia groups speculated that the 2 wave trains were caused by separate explosions and hinted at a

T. L. Holzer

2002-01-01

371

Oklahoma's Indian People: Images of Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to be combined with the social studies curriculum, this guide promotes awareness of American Indian contributions to Oklahoma's development and cultural heritage. Lessons help students in grades 6 through 9 strengthen powers of critical thinking, practice writing skills, and develop creative expression, while learning about Oklahoma's 34…

Chisholm, Anita, Ed.

372

Evidence of long-distance transport of mountain cedar pollen into Tulsa, Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous study of Cupressaceae pollen in the Tulsa atmosphere during December and January suggested that the source of this pollen is the Juniperus ashei (mountain cedar) populations that occur mainly in southern Oklahoma and central Texas. The present investigation examined the evidence of long-distance transport of pollen from these populations during the 1996/1997 season at three sites in Oklahoma using Burkard traps. Two of the pollen-monitoring stations were operated in conjunction with Mesonet meteorological stations. It was found that the December and January Cupressaceae pollen occurs outside of the local season at Tulsa. Pollen concentrations are intermittent and correspond to days of peak concentrations at sites nearer the mountain cedar populations. Peak concentrations are associated with winds coming from the south over the mountain cedar areas. Diurnal rhythms show night-time peaks with a delay in timing at the northern-most site. These results are all consistent with the hypothesis that pollen is being transported over long distances from the mountain cedar populations to Tulsa, Oklahoma. These findings are important as they represent one of the few incidences of long-distance transport of pollen in significant concentrations to an area where the source vegetation is not present. Pollen-monitoring sites located in conjunction with Mesonet meteorological stations provide a unique opportunity to further examine atmospheric conditions during long-distance transport events. This will aid future studies of the spatial modeling of long-distance dispersal of pollen.

Rogers, C. A.; Levetin, E.

373

Characterizing contaminant concentrations with depth by using the USGS well profiler in Oklahoma, 2003-9  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the USGS well profiler was used to investigate saline water intrusion in a deep public-supply well completed in the Ozark (Roubidoux) aquifer. In northeast Oklahoma, where the Ozark aquifer is known to be susceptible to contamination from mining activities, the well profiler also could be used to investigate sources (depths) of metals contamination and to identify routes of entry of metals to production wells.Water suppliers can consider well rehabilitation as a potential remediation strategy because of the ability to identify changes in contaminant concentrations with depth in individual wells with the USGS well profiler. Well rehabilitation methods, which are relatively inexpensive compared to drilling and completing new wells, involve modifying the construction or operation of a well to enhance the production of water from zones with lesser concentrations of a contaminant or to limit the production of water from zones with greater concentrations of a contaminant. One of the most effective well rehabilitation methods is zonal isolation, in which water from contaminated zones is excluded from production through installation of cement plugs or packers. By using relatively simple and inexpensive well rehabilitation methods, water suppliers may be able to decrease exposure of customers to contaminants and avoid costly installation of additional wells, conveyance infrastructure, and treatment technologies.

Smith, S. Jerrod; Becker, Carol J.

2011-01-01

374

Appraisal of water in bedrock aquifers, northern Cascade County, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suburban residential expansion of the city of Great Falls has resulted in an increased demand on water supplies from bedrock aquifers in northern Cascade County. The unconsolidated deposits aquifer of Quaternary age, including alluvium and glacial lake deposits, also is an important source of water in the area. Water levels in the Madison-Swift aquifer and all overlying aquifers, including the Quaternary deposits aquifer, reflect unconfined (water-table) conditions in the Great Falls vicinity. This interconnected hydrologic system is the result of breaching of the major anticlinal structure, by ancestral and present day erosion of drainage channels by the Missouri River and its tributaries. Significant vertical inter-aquifer mixing of water, as well as surface water/groundwater interchange, probably occurs in the central part of the study area. Characterization of the chemical composition of water in individual aquifers based on samples from wells in this area probably is unreliable because of this mixing. Quality of water from two wells in the Madison-Swift aquifer near Giant Springs is similar to water from the springs. Water from these three samples is less mineralized than most groundwater in the study area; dissolved solids concentrations for the three samples range from 516 to 550 mg/L. The quality of water varies among aquifers and throughout the study area. The ranges of dissolved solids concentrations determined by chemical analysis are Madison-Swift aquifer, about 520 to 1,570 mg/L; Morrison Formation, 908 to 1 ,480 mg/L; Kootenai Formation, 558 to 1,550 mg/L; Colorado Group , 2,690 and 2,740 mg/L (two samples); and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits, 383 to 2,060 mg/L. The chemical quality of water from the Colorado Group in the western one-third of the area generally is more mineralized than water from aquifers in the rest of the area. Specific conductance of water from eight wells completed in the Colorado Group averages 4,440 micromhos at 25 C. (Author 's abstract)

Wilke, K. R.

1982-01-01

375

Oklahoma administrators' perceptions of applied science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of Oklahoma Public School Superintendents when applied science courses such as Applied Biology/Chemistry and Applied Physics (Principles of Technology) are compared to traditional science courses such as Biology, Chemistry, and Physics. The study was conducted with a population of 69 Oklahoma comprehensive school superintendents who were under contract during the 1997/98 school year. Each participant was employed by a school district that offered either Applied Biology/Chemistry, Applied Physics (also known as Principles of Technology) or both. All participants completed an 18-question telephone survey. Combined means and percentages of participants responses to the survey were recorded to draw conclusions about the study. Findings and conclusions. Superintendents perceive teachers and students as having good acceptance of applied science courses. Superintendents believe students think of applied science courses as excellent hands-on science, and teachers think of them as acceptable alternative science. Superintendents are somewhat satisfied with applied science courses. They believe it makes no difference if a student is college bound, non-college bound, more motivated or less motivated as to whom benefits from applied science courses. Superintendents feel there is no difference in applied science courses and traditional science courses when teaching science concepts of "PASS Skills," or preparing students for college or work. They perceive the cost of applied science courses to be somewhat greater than traditional science courses. They also think additional training for applied science teachers should be in the form of a seminar. Superintendents feel full credit toward high school graduation and college entrance requirements should be given to the students of applied science courses. Superintendents believe there is no difference as to which course, applied science or