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Sample records for central sleep apnea

  1. Central sleep apnea: does stabilizing sleep improve it?

    PubMed

    Jain, Sejal V; Simakajornboon, Narong; Arthur, Todd M

    2014-01-01

    Central sleep apnea is not uncommon in children with neurologic disorders. The mechanisms include increased ventilatory chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide level. Conventional treatments include oxygen, noninvasive ventilation, and in patients with heart failure, improving cardiac output. Here, we present a case of a 9-year-old male with Angelman syndrome, epilepsy, insomnia, and central sleep apnea. The patient was initially evaluated for nighttime awakenings and pauses in breathing. Sustained-release melatonin was used to improve his nighttime awakenings. A polysomnography confirmed central sleep apnea. We saw a reduction in arousals and improvement in insomnia with sustained-release melatonin. On a repeat study, central sleep apnea was improved. We hypothesize that sustained-release melatonin, by improving sleep continuity and reducing arousals, might improve central sleep apnea. Studies are needed to test the hypothesis. PMID:23220792

  2. Sodium oxybate-induced central sleep apneas.

    PubMed

    Frase, Lukas; Schupp, Jonas; Sorichter, Stephan; Randelshofer, Wolfgang; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Sodium oxybate (?-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) is a neurotransmitter in the human brain which exerts sedative effects and is used therapeutically in the treatment of narcolepsy. Current safety recommendations have been formulated for the use of GHB in patients with preexisting breathing disorders. We report the case of a 39-year-old female with narcolepsy and cataplexy revealing the de novo emergence of central sleep apneas in a Cheyne-Stokes pattern under constant treatment with GHB. After discontinuation of GHB, polysomnographic re-evaluation demonstrated the disappearance of central sleep apneas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of de novo central sleep apneas induced by GHB in a patient without pre-existing sleep-disordered breathing, suggesting that there is a need for further investigation and potentially an extension of the safety guidelines to patients without a pre-existing breathing disorder. PMID:23834969

  3. Severe Central Sleep Apnea in Vici Syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Kersh, Karim; Jungbluth, Heinz; Gringras, Paul; Senthilvel, Egambaram

    2015-11-01

    Vici syndrome is a rare congenital multisystem disorder due to recessive mutations in the key autophagy regulator EPG5. Vici syndrome is characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, hypopigmentation, immunodeficiency, cataracts, and cardiomyopathy, with variable additional multisystem involvement. Here we report on a 5-year-old girl who presented with global developmental delay, seizures, callosal agenesis, cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, hypopigmentation, and immunodeficiency with a low CD4 count and recurrent infections. EPG5 sequencing (prompted by suggestive clinical features) revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.1007A>G (p.Gln336Arg). The patient was referred to our center for evaluation of nocturnal apnea. Overnight polysomnography showed severe central sleep apnea (CSA) with an overall apnea-hypopnea index of 100.5 events per hour of sleep (central apnea index of 97.5, mixed apnea index of 2, and obstructive hypopnea index of 1). The patient responded to bilevel positive airway pressure therapy with a backup rate with normalization of the apnea-hypopnea index and maintenance of oxygen saturation >90%. Despite successful control of the severe CSA, the patient was eventually started on nocturnal oxygen therapy due to excessive upper airway secretions and the high risk of possible aspiration with positive airway pressure therapy. This is the first report of EPG5-related Vici syndrome associated with CSA. We discuss the polysomnographic findings in our patient in the context of a brief literature review of the reported sleep abnormalities in Vici syndrome. PMID:26482670

  4. Behavioral Hyperventilation and Central Sleep Apnea in Two Children

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Thomas P.; Tam-Williams, Jade; Schmandt, Margaret; Patel, Anand C.; Cleveland, Claudia; Coste, Ferdinand; Kemp, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral hyperventilation is a rarely recognized cause of central sleep apnea (CSA) among children. We report two pediatric patients who presented with prolonged central sleep apnea secondary to behavioral hyperventilation. One patient also had a prolonged corrected QT (QTC) interval resulting from hyperventilation. Citation: Johnston TP, Tam-Williams J, Schmandt M, Patel AC, Cleveland C, Coste F, Kemp JS. Behavioral hyperventilation and central sleep apnea in two children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):487–489. PMID:26106657

  5. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is sleep apnea? Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder. People who have sleep apnea stop breathing for ... doctor may ask you to go to a sleep disorder center for a sleep study. Tests done at ...

  6. Central Sleep Apnea in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Dharia, Sushma M; Unruh, Mark L; Brown, Lee K

    2015-07-01

    Sleep is an essential function of life and serves a crucial role in the promotion of health and performance. Poor sleep quality and sleep disorders have been a recurrent finding in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can contribute to hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and worsen obesity, all of which are implicated in the etiology of CKD, but CKD itself may lead to OSA. Relationships between CKD/end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and OSA have been the subject of numerous investigations, but central sleep apnea (CSA) also is highly prevalent in CKD/ESRD but remains poorly understood, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in these patients. Emerging literature has implicated CSA as another contributor to morbidity and mortality in CKD/ESRD, and several studies have suggested that CSA treatment is beneficial in improving these outcomes. Patients with CKD/ESRD co-existing with congestive heart failure are particularly prone to CSA, and studies focused on managing CSA in congestive heart failure patients have provided important information concerning how best to manage CSA in kidney disease as well. Adaptive servo-ventilation ultimately may represent the treatment of choice in these patients, although a stepped approach using a variety of therapeutic modalities is recommended. PMID:26355252

  7. Reversal of Central Sleep Apnea following Discontinuation of Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew J.; Livingston, Marian; Scharf, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    This case report including polysomnography shows reversal of central sleep apnea after opioid withdrawal. A patient using opioids for pain was diagnosed with central sleep apnea (CSA), but was not compliant with therapy. Five years later he underwent detoxification. Subsequent polysomnography showed no sleep disordered breathing. This is the first report of correction of CSA following opioid withdrawal confirmed by polysomnogram. Citation: Davis MJ; Livingston M; Scharf SM. Reversal of central sleep apnea following discontinuation of opioids. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):579-580. PMID:23066372

  8. Behavioral Hyperventilation and Central Sleep Apnea in Two Children.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Thomas P; Tam-Williams, Jade; Schmandt, Margaret; Patel, Anand C; Cleveland, Claudia; Coste, Ferdinand; Kemp, James S

    2015-04-01

    Behavioral hyperventilation is a rarely recognized cause of central sleep apnea (CSA) among children. We report two pediatric patients who presented with prolonged central sleep apnea secondary to behavioral hyperventilation. One patient also had a prolonged corrected QT (QT(C)) interval resulting from hyperventilation PMID:26106657

  9. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  10. Alternative approaches to treatment of Central Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Divergent approaches to treatment of hypocapnic central sleep apnea syndromes reflect the difficulties in taming a hyperactive respiratory chemoreflex. As both sleep fragmentation and a narrow CO2 reserve or increased loop gain drive the disease, sedatives (to induce longer periods of stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and reduce the destabilizing effects of arousals in NREM sleep) and CO2-based stabilization approaches are logical. Adaptive ventilation reduces mean hyperventilation yet can induce ventilator-patient dyssynchrony, while enhanced expiratory rebreathing space (EERS, dead space during positive pressure therapy) and CO2 manipulation directly stabilize respiratory control by moving CO2 above the apnea threshold. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition can provide further adjunctive benefits. Provent and Winx may be less likely to trigger central apneas or periodic breathing in those with a narrow CO2 reserve. An oral appliance can meaningfully reduce positive pressure requirements and thus enable treatment of complex apnea. Novel pharmacological approaches may target mediators of carotid body glomus cell excitation, such as the balance between gas neurotransmitters. In complex apnea patients, single mode therapy is not always successful, and multi-modality therapy might need to be considered. Phenotyping of sleep apnea beyond conventional scoring approaches is the key to optimal management. PMID:24772053

  11. Central and Peripheral factors contributing to Obstructive Sleep Apneas

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Garcia, Alfredo J.; Anderson, Tatiana M.; Koschnitzky, Jenna E.; Peng, Ying-Jie; Kumar, Ganesh; Prabhakar, Nanduri

    2013-01-01

    Apnea, the cessation of breathing, is a common physiological and pathophysiological phenomenon with many basic scientific and clinical implications. Among the different forms of apnea, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is clinically the most prominent manifestation. OSA is characterized by repetitive airway occlusions that are typically associated with peripheral airway obstructions. However, it would be a gross oversimplification to conclude that OSA is caused by peripheral obstructions. OSA is the result of a dynamic interplay between chemo- and mechanosensory reflexes, neuromodulation, behavioral state and the differential activation of the central respiratory network and its motor outputs. This interplay has numerous neuronal and cardiovascular consequences that are initially adaptive but in the long-term become major contributors to the morbidity and mortality associated with OSA. However, not only OSA, but all forms of apnea have multiple, and partly overlapping mechanisms. In all cases the underlying mechanisms are neither exclusively peripheral nor exclusively central in origin. While the emphasis has long been on the role of peripheral reflex pathways in the case of OSA, and central mechanisms in the case of central apneas, we are learning that such a separation is inconsistent with the integration of these mechanisms in all cases of apneas. This review discusses the complex interplay of peripheral and central nervous components that characterizes the cessation of breathing. PMID:23770311

  12. Tetraplegia is a risk factor for central sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Sankari, Abdulghani; Bascom, Amy T; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Badr, M Safwan

    2014-02-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI); the exact mechanism(s) or the predictors of disease are unknown. We hypothesized that patients with cervical SCI (C-SCI) are more susceptible to central apnea than patients with thoracic SCI (T-SCI) or able-bodied controls. Sixteen patients with chronic SCI, level T6 or above (8 C-SCI, 8 T-SCI; age 42.5 ± 15.5 years; body mass index 25.9 ± 4.9 kg/m(2)) and 16 matched controls were studied. The hypocapnic apneic threshold and CO2 reserve were determined using noninvasive ventilation. For participants with spontaneous central apnea, CO2 was administered until central apnea was abolished, and CO2 reserve was measured as the difference in end-tidal CO2 (PetCO2) before and after. Steady-state plant gain (PG) was calculated from PetCO2 and VE ratio during stable sleep. Controller gain (CG) was defined as the ratio of change in VE between control and hypopnea or apnea to the ΔPetCO2. Central SDB was more common in C-SCI than T-SCI (63% vs. 13%, respectively; P < 0.05). Mean CO2 reserve for all participants was narrower in C-SCI than in T-SCI or control group (-0.4 ± 2.9 vs.-2.9 ± 3.3 vs. -3.0 ± 1.2 l·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). PG was higher in C-SCI than in T-SCI or control groups (10.5 ± 2.4 vs. 5.9 ± 2.4 vs. 6.3 ± 1.6 mmHg·l(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) and CG was not significantly different. The CO2 reserve was an independent predictor of apnea-hypopnea index. In conclusion, C-SCI had higher rates of central SDB, indicating that tetraplegia is a risk factor for central sleep apnea. Sleep-related hypoventilation may play a significant role in the mechanism of SDB in higher SCI levels. PMID:24114704

  13. [Central sleep apnea (Ondine's curse syndrome) in medullary infarction].

    PubMed

    Planjar-Prvan, Miljenka; Krmpoti?, Pavao; Jergovi?, Ilija; Bielen, Ivan

    2010-10-01

    Ondine's curse syndrome primarily refers to cases with congenital central alveolar hypoventilation, but the term can also be used for acquired cases and implies central sleep apnea that occurs as a manifestation or complication of focal lesion in the area of the dorsolateral segment of medulla oblongata. It occurs rarely, but can lead to fatal outcome. Based on our own case report, the aim of this article is to review its clinical symptoms, and appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. We present a patient who had symptoms of vascular lesion of the dorsolateral segment of the medulla, which was verified by magnetic resonance imaging. On day 12 of his hospital stay, in the early morning, rapid development of coma was observed, which was an expression of serious respiratory failure with dominant hypercapnia. In the beginning, urgent intubation and mechanical ventilation were necessary, while in the later course of the disease breathing was assisted by noninvasive methods of Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). Throughout the night, polygraph recording confirmed the diagnosis of the central sleep apnea syndrome. The course of the disease was favorable, with a very slow but constant improvement of respiratory function. According to literature data, the disease course is not always favorable. There are published cases where it was concluded that ventilatory support was no longer needed but after a long period of normal breathing hypoventilation and death occurred suddenly during sleep. The treatment of central hypoventilation consists of ventilatory support, but there were also attempts of medicamentous treatment with the common aim of raising alertness and reactibility of the automatic breathing center. It is important to emphasize that patients with the risk of central sleep apnea should not be supplied with oxygen without arterial blood gas monitoring because of the possibility of delaying the right diagnosis. The use of oxygen in patients who already have hypercapnia due to hypoventilation could further intensify hyporeactivity of the breathing center and lead to respiratory arrest. PMID:21688613

  14. Radiation necrosis causing failure of automatic ventilation during sleep with central sleep apnea

    SciTech Connect

    Udwadia, Z.F.; Athale, S.; Misra, V.P.; Wadia, N.H.

    1987-09-01

    A patient operated upon for a midline cerebellar hemangioblastoma developed failure of automatic respiration during sleep, together with central sleep apnea syndrome, approximately two years after receiving radiation therapy to the brain. Clinical and CT scan findings were compatible with a diagnosis of radiation necrosis as the cause of his abnormal respiratory control.

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  16. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Sleep Apnea Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Sleep Apnea? Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder ...

  17. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  18. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  19. Chiari malformation and central sleep apnea syndrome: efficacy of treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation*

    PubMed Central

    do Vale, Jorge Marques; Silva, Elosa; Pereira, Isabel Gil; Marques, Catarina; Sanchez-Serrano, Amparo; Torres, Antnio Simes

    2014-01-01

    The Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) has been associated with sleep-disordered breathing, especially central sleep apnea syndrome. We report the case of a 44-year-old female with CM-I who was referred to our sleep laboratory for suspected sleep apnea. The patient had undergone decompressive surgery 3 years prior. An arterial blood gas analysis showed hypercapnia. Polysomnography showed a respiratory disturbance index of 108 events/h, and all were central apnea events. Treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation was initiated, and central apnea was resolved. This report demonstrates the efficacy of servo-ventilation in the treatment of central sleep apnea syndrome associated with alveolar hypoventilation in a CM-I patient with a history of decompressive surgery. PMID:25410846

  20. Differentiating Obstructive from Central and Complex Sleep Apnea Using an Automated Electrocardiogram-Based Method

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Robert Joseph; Mietus, Joseph E.; Peng, Chung-Kang; Gilmartin, Geoffrey; Daly, Robert W.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Complex sleep apnea is defined as sleep disordered breathing secondary to simultaneous upper airway obstruction and respiratory control dysfunction. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of an electrocardiogram (ECG)-based cardiopulmonary coupling technique to distinguish obstructive from central or complex sleep apnea. Design: Analysis of archived polysomnographic datasets. Setting: A laboratory for computational signal analysis. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: The PhysioNet Sleep Apnea Database, consisting of 70 polysomnograms including single-lead ECG signals of approximately 8 hours duration, was used to train an ECG-based measure of autonomic and respiratory interactions (cardiopulmonary coupling) to detect periods of apnea and hypopnea, based on the presence of elevated low-frequency coupling (e-LFC). In the PhysioNet BIDMC Congestive Heart Failure Database (ECGs of 15 subjects), a pattern of narrow spectral band e-LFC was especially common. The algorithm was then applied to the Sleep Heart Health StudyI dataset, to select the 15 records with the highest amounts of broad and narrow spectral band e-LFC. The latter spectral characteristic seemed to detect not only periods of central apnea, but also obstructive hypopneas with a periodic breathing pattern. Applying the algorithm to 77 sleep laboratory split-night studies showed that the presence of narrow band e-LFC predicted an increased sensitivity to induction of central apneas by positive airway pressure. Conclusions: ECG-based spectral analysis allows automated, operator-independent characterization of probable interactions between respiratory dyscontrol and upper airway anatomical obstruction. The clinical utility of spectrographic phenotyping, especially in predicting failure of positive airway pressure therapy, remains to be more thoroughly tested. Citation: Thomas RJ; Mietus JE; Peng CK; Gilmartin G; Daly RW; Goldberger AL; Gottlieb DJ. Differentiating obstructive from central and complex sleep apnea using an automated electrocardiogram-based method. SLEEP 2007;30(12):1756-1769. PMID:18246985

  1. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Sleep Structure in Heart Failure Patients with Central Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ruttanaumpawan, Pimon; Logan, Alexander G.; Floras, John S.; Bradley, T. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: At termination of obstructive apneas, arousal is a protective mechanism that facilitates restoration of upper airway patency and airflow. Treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces arousal frequency indicating that such arousals are caused by OSA. In heart failure (HF) patients with central sleep apnea (CSA), however, arousals frequently occur several breaths after apnea termination, and there is uncertainty as to whether arousals from sleep are a consequence of CSA. If so, they should diminish in frequency when CSA is attenuated. We therefore sought to determine whether attenuation of CSA by CPAP reduces arousal frequency. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients and Setting: We examined data from 205 HF patients with CSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ? 15, > 50% were central) randomized to CPAP or control who had polysomnograms performed at baseline and 3 months later. Measurements and Results: In the control group, there was no change in AHI or frequency of arousals. In the CPAP-treated group, the AHI decreased significantly (from [mean SD] 38.9 15.0 to 17.6 16.3, P < 0.001) but neither the frequency of arousals nor sleep structure changed significantly. Conclusion: These data suggest that attenuation of CSA by CPAP does not reduce arousal frequency in HF patients. We conclude that arousals were not mainly a consequence of CSA, and may not have been acting as a defense mechanism to terminate apneas in the same way they do in OSA. Citation: Ruttanaumpawan P; Logan AG; Floras JS; Bradley TD. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Sleep Structure in Heart Failure Patients with Central Sleep Apnea. SLEEP 2009;32(1):91-98. PMID:19189783

  2. What Is Sleep Apnea?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... deaths from heart attacks and strokes. Living With and Managing Sleep Apnea 05/18/2011 This video—presented by ... NIH) supported research is shedding light on how sleep and lack of sleep affect the human body. The ...

  3. Adaptive Servoventilation for Treatment of Opioid-Associated Central Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri, Shahrokh; Harris, Nicholas; Howard, Joseph; Chung, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Opioids have become part of contemporary treatment in the management of chronic pain. Although severe daytime ventilatory depression is uncommon, chronic use of opioids could be associated with severe central and obstructive sleep apnea. Objectives: To determine the acute efficacy, and prolonged use of adaptive servoventilation (ASV) to treat central sleep apnea in patients on chronic opioids. Methods: Twenty patients on opioid therapy referred for evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were found to have central sleep apnea (CSA). The first 16 patients underwent continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration, which showed persistent CSA. With the notion that CSA will be eliminated with continued use of CPAP, 4 weeks later, 9 of the 16 patients underwent a second CPAP titration which proved equally ineffective. Therefore, therapy with CPAP was abandoned. All patients underwent ASV titration. Main Results: Diagnostic polysomnography showed an average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 61/h and a central-apnea index (CAI) of 32/h. On CPAP 1, AHI was 34/h and CAI was 20/h. Respective indices on CPAP 2 were AHI 33/h and CAI 19/h. During titration with ASV, CAI was 0/h and the average HI was 11/h on final pressures. With a reduction in AHI, oxyhemoglobin saturation nadir increased from 83% to 90%, and arousal index decreased from 29/h of sleep to 12/h on final ASV pressures. Seventeen patients were followed for a minimum of 9 months and up to 6 years. The mean long-term adherence was 5.1 2.5 hours. Conclusions: Chronic use of opioids could be associated with severe CSA which remains resistant to CPAP therapy. ASV device is effective in the treatment of CSA and over the long run, most patients remain compliant with the device. Randomized long-term studies are necessary to determine if treatment of sleep apnea with ASV improves quality of life and the known mortality associated with opioids. Citation: Javaheri S, Harris N, Howard J, Chung E. Adaptive servoventilation for treatment of opioid-associated central sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(6):637-643. PMID:24932143

  4. Complex sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yan; Feng, Jing; Chen, Bao-yuan; Cao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS) is a distinct form of sleep-disordered breathing characterized as central sleep apnea (CSA), and presents in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients during initial treatment with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. The mechanisms of why CompSAS occurs are not well understood, though we have a high loop gain theory that may help to explain it. It is still controversial regarding the prevalence and the clinical significance of CompSAS. Patients with CompSAS have clinical features similar to OSA, but they do exhibit breathing patterns like CSA. In most CompSAS cases, CSA events during initial CPAP titration are transient and they may disappear after continued CPAP use for 4~8 weeks or even longer. However, the poor initial experience of CompSAS patients with CPAP may not be avoided, and nonadherence with continued therapy may often result. Treatment options like adaptive servo-ventilation are available now that may rapidly resolve the disorder and relieve the symptoms of this disease with the potential of increasing early adherence to therapy. But these approaches are associated with more expensive and complicated devices. In this review, the definition, potential plausible mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and treatment approaches of CompSAS will be summarized. PMID:23861580

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Shakir M.; Bhatia, Subhash; Hurwitz, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder associated with several medical conditions, increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, and overall healthcare expenditure. There is higher prevalence of depression in people with obstructive sleep apnea in both clinical and community samples. Many symptoms of depression and obstructive sleep apnea overlap causing under-diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in depressed patients. Sleep problems, including obstructive sleep apnea, are rarely assessed on a regular basis in patients with depressive disorders, but they may be responsible for antidepressant treatment failure. The mechanism of the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and depression is complex and remains unclear. Though some studies suggest a mutual relationship, the relationship remains unclear. Several possible pathophysiological mechanisms could explain how obstructive sleep apnea can cause or worsen depression. Increased knowledge of the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and depression might significantly improve diagnostic accuracy as well as treatment outcomes for both obstructive sleep apnea and depression. PMID:21922066

  6. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5 Ways to Prepare for an Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth > ... certain medical conditions, such as Down syndrome or cerebral palsy defects in the structures of the mouth, jaw, ...

  7. Adaptive Servo-Ventilation for Central Sleep Apnea in Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Martin R.; Woehrle, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Angermann, Christiane; d’Ortho, Marie-Pia; Erdmann, Erland; Levy, Patrick; Simonds, Anita K.; Somers, Virend K.; Zannad, Faiez; Teschler, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Central sleep apnea is associated with poor prognosis and death in patients with heart failure. Adaptive servo-ventilation is a therapy that uses a noninvasive ventilator to treat central sleep apnea by delivering servo-controlled inspiratory pressure support on top of expiratory positive airway pressure. We investigated the effects of adaptive servo-ventilation in patients who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and predominantly central sleep apnea. METHODS We randomly assigned 1325 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 45% or less, an apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) of 15 or more events (occurrences of apnea or hypopnea) per hour, and a predominance of central events to receive guideline-based medical treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation or guideline-based medical treatment alone (control). The primary end point in the time-to-event analysis was the first event of death from any cause, lifesaving cardiovascular intervention (cardiac transplantation, implantation of a ventricular assist device, resuscitation after sudden cardiac arrest, or appropriate lifesaving shock), or unplanned hospitalization for worsening heart failure. RESULTS In the adaptive servo-ventilation group, the mean AHI at 12 months was 6.6 events per hour. The incidence of the primary end point did not differ significantly between the adaptive servo-ventilation group and the control group (54.1% and 50.8%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.31; P = 0.10). All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were significantly higher in the adaptive servo-ventilation group than in the control group (hazard ratio for death from any cause, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.55; P = 0.01; and hazard ratio for cardiovascular death, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.65; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Adaptive servo-ventilation had no significant effect on the primary end point in patients who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and predominantly central sleep apnea, but all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were both increased with this therapy. PMID:26323938

  8. Sleep apnea awakens cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gozal, David; Almendros, Isaac; Hakim, Fahed

    2014-01-01

    The presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with cancer appears to be accompanied by poorer outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying such association are unknown. We hypothesize that the constitutive characteristics of OSA, namely, intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, promote changes in the tumor microenvironment that ultimately lead to a disadvantageous immunosurveillance, thereby accelerating tumor proliferation and enhancing its invasiveness. PMID:25050203

  9. [Diagnosis of sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Kesper, Karl; Cassel, Werner; Hildebrandt, Olaf; Koehler, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a clinically significant condition associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk, daytime sleepiness and in risk of accidents. Diagnosis usually relies on a detailed anamnesis and an ambulatory nocturnal polygraphy. Suspecting the presence of OSA or a persisting unclear daytime sleepiness in need of treatment further polysomnographic diagnosis should be performed in a specialized sleep center. Cardiorespiratory polysomnography is the diagnostic gold standard in differentiating sleep-related breathing and movement disorders. PMID:26710202

  10. Influence of Cerebral Blood Flow on Central Sleep Apnea at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Keith R.; Lucas, Samuel J.E.; Shepherd, Kelly; Dawson, Andrew; Swart, Marianne; Thomas, Kate N.; Lucas, Rebekah A.I.; Donnelly, Joseph; Peebles, Karen C.; Basnyat, Rishi; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To further our understanding of central sleep apnea (CSA) at high altitude during acclimatization, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically altering cerebral blood flow (CBF) would alter the severity of CSA at high altitude. Design: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled single-blind study. Setting: A field study at 5,050 m in Nepal. Patients or Participants: We studied 12 normal volunteers. Interventions: Between days 5 to10 at high altitude, CBF velocity (CBFv) was increased by intravenous (IV) acetazolamide (10 mg/kg) and reduced by oral indomethacin (100 mg). Measurements and Results: Arterial blood gases, hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and CBFv and its reactivity to carbon dioxide were measured awake. Overnight polysomnography was performed. The central apnea-hypopnea index was elevated following administration of indomethacin (89.2 43.7 to 112.5 32.9 events/h; mean standard deviation; P < 0.05) and was reduced following IV acetazolamide (89.2 43.7 to 47.1 48.1 events/h; P < 0.001). Intravenous acetazolamide elevated CBFv at high altitude by 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22-34%) but did not affect ventilatory responses. The elevation in CBFv was partly mediated via a selective rise in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) (28 4 to 31 3 mm Hg) and an associated fall in pH (P < 0.01). Oral indomethacin reduced CBFv by 23% (95% CI: 16-30%), blunted CBFv reactivity, and increased the hypercapnic ventilatory response by 66% (95% CI: 30-102%) but had no effect on PaCO2 or pH. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an important role for cerebral blood flow regulation in the pathophysiology of central sleep apnea at high altitude. Citation: Burgess KR, Lucas SJE, Shepherd K, Dawson A, Swart M, Thomas KN, Lucas RAI, Donnelly J, Peebles KC, Basnyat R, Ainslie PN. Influence of cerebral blood flow on central sleep apnea at high altitude. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1679-1687. PMID:25197804

  11. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 293-3650 Click Here to Contact Us This web site is made possible through the support of our Industry Roundtable/Friends and membership/contributions from individuals like YOU - Please donate Privacy - View Forum - How we share - Donate now 2015 American Sleep Apnea Association

  12. Contemporary Insights and Novel Treatment Approaches to Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Grayburn, Ryan L.; Kaka, Yaquta; Wilson Tang, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion Statement Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a common and under-diagnosed condition commonly associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. It is particularly prevalent in the heart failure population affecting up to 40% of all patients with heart failure. The pathophysiology associated with CSA is based on the underlying effects of hypoventilation and hyperventilation, with neurologic dysregulation of respiratory control as the primary defect. However, therapeutic options are limited due to the prevailing perception that CSA is a consequence, rather than cause of morbidity and mortality. At present, the main focus remains treating the underlying problem (ie intensifying heart failure therapeutics, decongestion), while additional suggestions of using acetazolamide, progesterone, nocturnal oxygen, and theophylline have not been validated with contemporary clinical trials. Positive pressure ventilation is currently the primary recommendation for all patients with sleep-disordered breathing (CSA included), and in some patients may effectively reduce the apnea-hypopnea index. However, significant research is ongoing to determine how to treat this complex patient population. PMID:24874028

  13. [Obstructive sleep apnea in women].

    PubMed

    Turnyi, Csilla Zita; Pintr, Nra; Dunai, Andrea; Novk, Mrta

    2014-12-28

    The prevalence of sleep disturbances and their symptomatic manifestations may be different in men and women. Women with obstructive sleep apnea are less likely to be diagnosed with sleep apnea compared to men, probably due to atypical symptoms such as morning headaches, symptoms of depression and daytime fatigue. There is a great importance of diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders regarding quality of life, co-morbidity and mortality in both genders. PMID:25528319

  14. Always Tired? You May Have Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Always Tired? You May Have Sleep Apnea Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Stimulation (UAS) System. back to top What is Sleep Apnea? The Greek word "apnea" literally means "without ...

  15. Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Morgan, Barbara J.; O'Donnell, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep-induced apnea and disordered breathing refers to intermittent, cyclical cessations or reductions of airflow, with or without obstructions of the upper airway (OSA). In the presence of an anatomically compromised, collapsible airway, the sleep-induced loss of compensatory tonic input to the upper airway dilator muscle motor neurons leads to collapse of the pharyngeal airway. In turn, the ability of the sleeping subject to compensate for this airway obstruction will determine the degree of cycling of these events. Several of the classic neurotransmitters and a growing list of neuromodulators have now been identified that contribute to neurochemical regulation of pharyngeal motor neuron activity and airway patency. Limited progress has been made in developing pharmacotherapies with acceptable specificity for the treatment of sleep-induced airway obstruction. We review three types of major long-term sequelae to severe OSA that have been assessed in humans through use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and in animal models via long-term intermittent hypoxemia (IH): 1) cardiovascular. The evidence is strongest to support daytime systemic hypertension as a consequence of severe OSA, with less conclusive effects on pulmonary hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. The underlying mechanisms mediating hypertension include enhanced chemoreceptor sensitivity causing excessive daytime sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, combined with overproduction of superoxide ion and inflammatory effects on resistance vessels. 2) Insulin sensitivity and homeostasis of glucose regulation are negatively impacted by both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep disruption, but whether these influences of OSA are sufficient, independent of obesity, to contribute significantly to the “metabolic syndrome” remains unsettled. 3) Neurocognitive effects include daytime sleepiness and impaired memory and concentration. These effects reflect hypoxic-induced “neural injury.” We discuss future research into understanding the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as a basis for uncovering newer forms of treatment of both the ventilatory disorder and its multiple sequelae. PMID:20086074

  16. CPAP Devices for Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to go to a sleep center for a sleep study. During your sleep study, you may try different levels of air pressure with a CPAP device to see which level helps. In general, heavier people and ... people who have sleep apnea. The following are some common problems you ...

  17. Sleep Apnea Devices Lower Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155984.html Sleep Apnea Devices Lower Blood Pressure Researchers find both ... 1, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For those suffering from sleep apnea, the disrupted sleep and reduction of oxygen ...

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep-related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Teresa; Attarian, Hrayr

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of breathing cessation due to complete or partial collapse of the upper airway therefore affecting ventilation. It is quite common, with a prevalence of about 2-4%, has a strong genetic component, and creates a proinflammatory state with elevated TNFα and other cytokines. If untreated, OSA can lead to significant neurological problems that include stroke, cognitive decline, depression, headaches, peripheral neuropathy, and nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Treatment reverses some of these neurological problems. Treatment includes continuous positive airway pressure and its variants, oral appliances, weight loss, upper airway surgery, and rarely maxillofacial procedures. Other sleep breathing disorders such as hypoventilation, central sleep apnea, complex sleep apnea, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration are less common and are sometimes associated with neuromuscular disorders causing diaphragmatic paralysis, but can also be seen in opiate exposure and severe obesity. PMID:24365301

  19. A Novel Adaptive Servoventilation (ASVAuto) for the Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Associated with Chronic Use of Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Michelle; Cardell, Chia-Yu; Willes, Leslee; Mendoza, June; Benjafield, Adam; Kushida, Clete

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the efficacy and patient comfort of a new mode of minute ventilation-targeted adaptive servoventilation (ASVAuto) with auto-titrating expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) versus bilevel with back-up respiratory rate (bilevel-ST) in patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) associated with chronic use of opioid medications. Methods: Prospective, randomized, crossover polysomnography (PSG) study. Eighteen consecutive patients (age ? 18 years) who had been receiving opioid therapy (? 6 months), and had sleep disordered breathing with CSA (central apnea index [CAI] ? 5) diagnosed during an overnight sleep study or positive airway pressure (PAP) titration were enrolled to undergo 2 PSG studiesone with ASVAuto and one with bilevel-ST. Patients completed 2 questionnaires after each PSG; Morning After Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire and PAP Comfort Questionnaire. Results: Patients had a mean age of 52.9 15.3 years. PSG prior to randomization showed an apnea hypopnea index (AHI) of 50.3 22.2 and CAI of 13.0 18.7. Titration with ASVAuto versus bilevel-ST showed that there were significant differences with respect to AHI and CAI. The AHI and CAI were significantly lower on ASVAuto than bilevel-ST (2.5 3.5 versus 16.3 20.9 [p = 0.0005], and 0.4 0.8 versus 9.4 18.8 [p = 0.0002], respectively). Respiratory parameters were normalized in 83.3% of patients on ASVAuto versus 33.3% on bilevel-ST. Patients felt more awake and alert on ASVAuto than bilevel-ST based on scores from Morning After Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (p = 0.0337). Conclusions: The ASVAuto was significantly more effective than bilevel-ST for the treatment of CSA associated with chronic opioid use. Citation: Cao M, Cardell CY, Willes L, Mendoza J, Benjafield A, Kushida C. A novel adaptive servoventilation (ASVAuto) for the treatment of central sleep apnea associated with chronic use of opioids. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):855-861. PMID:25126031

  20. Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea at Altitude.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konrad E; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Bloch, Konrad E., Tsogyal D. Latshang, and Silvia Ulrich. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea at altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:110-116, 2015.--Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the general population, in particular in men and women of older age. In OSA patients sleeping near sea level, the apneas/hypopneas associated with intermittent hypoxemia are predominantly due to upper airway collapse. When OSA patients stay at altitudes above 1600?m, corresponding to that of many tourist destinations, hypobaric hypoxia promotes frequent central apneas in addition to obstructive events, resulting in combined intermittent and sustained hypoxia. This induces strong sympathetic activation with elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, and systemic hypertension. There are concerns that these changes expose susceptible OSA patients, in particular those with advanced age and co-morbidities, to an excessive risk of cardiovascular and other adverse events during a stay at altitude. Based on data from randomized trials, it seems advisable for OSA patients to use continuous positive airway pressure treatment with computer controlled mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in combination with acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn. If CPAP therapy is not feasible, acetazolamide alone is better than no treatment at all, as it improves oxygenation and sleep apnea and prevents excessive blood pressure rises of OSA patients at altitude. PMID:25973669

  1. Getting a Diagnosis for Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sleep apnea can be made only with a sleep study conducted during a visit to a sleep lab, ... be in the process of obtaining it. A sleep study generates several records of activity during several hours ...

  2. Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other heart problems. Several types of studies, called sleep studies, are now available to evaluate patients suspected of having sleep apnea. During a sleep study, the patient sleeps either at a specialized laboratory ( ...

  3. Comorbidities in Infants with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Qubty, William F.; Mrelashvili, Anna; Kotagal, Suresh; Lloyd, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: The clinical characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in infants have been insufficiently characterized. Our aim was to describe identifiable comorbidities in infants with obstructive sleep apnea, which may assist in recognizing these patients earlier in their disease course and help improve management. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study involving infants 0-17 months of age with a diagnosis of OSA on the basis of clinical features and nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) at the Mayo Clinic Center for Sleep Medicine between 2000 and 2011. Patients were excluded if they had central apnea accounting for greater than 50% of respiratory events. OSA severity was determined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results: One hundred thirty-nine patients were included. Based upon the AHI, they were subdivided into mild (AHI < 5; 30%), moderate (AHI 5-9; 30%), or severe (AHI > 10; 40%) categories. Comorbidities included gastroesophageal reflux in 95/139 (68%), periodic limb movements in sleep in 59/139 (42%), craniofacial abnormalities in 52/139 (37%), neuromuscular abnormalities in 47/139 (34%), prematurity in 41/139 (29%), genetic syndromes in 41/139 (29%), laryngomalacia/tracheomalacia in 38/139 (27%), and epilepsy in 23/139 (17%) of subjects. Severity of OSA correlated with prematurity, having a genetic syndrome, or neuromuscular abnormality. Multispecialty evaluation was needed for 119/139 (86%). Conclusion: Comorbidities in infants with OSA differ from those of older children. Based upon the comorbidities identified in our study population, it appears that appropriate management of infants with OSA requires a multidisciplinary approach involving genetics, gastroenterology, pulmonology, otolaryngology, neurology, and general pediatrics. Citation: Qubty WF, Mrelashvili A, Kotagal S, Lloyd RM. Comorbidities in infants with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1213-1216. PMID:25325583

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Cristina; Terse-Ramos, Regina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Álvaro A

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worsening of asthma symptoms, OSAS being one of the most important factors. In patients with asthma, OSAS should be investigated whenever there is inadequate control of symptoms of nocturnal asthma despite the treatment recommended by guidelines having been administered. There is evidence in the literature that the use of continuous positive airway pressure contributes to asthma control in asthma patients with obstructive sleep apnea and uncontrolled asthma. PMID:24310634

  5. Sleep Apnea Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Sleep > ...

  6. Sleep apnea syndrome after irradiation of the neck

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, J.P.; Whitlock, W.L.; Dietrich, R.A.; Shaw, T. )

    1989-12-01

    After irradiation of the neck for a squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar pillar and vocal cord, a 71-year-old man presented with a rapidly progressive sleep apnea syndrome. Previous reports describe the condition of patients with obstructive sleep apnea that developed after neck irradiation and secondary to supraglottic edema. Our patient had an obstructive component to his apnea similar to that described in previous cases, but, in addition, he had hypothyroidism. Myxedema is a well-described cause of both obstructive and central apnea. We believe both contributed to his condition. He was successfully treated by placement of a tracheostomy and by thyroid supplementation. In patients who present with sleep apnea after neck irradiation, especially with acute or severe symptoms, the differential diagnosis should include both a central cause from hypothyroidism as well as a peripheral obstructive cause from laryngeal edema.

  7. Sleep Apnea and Risk of Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Chen, Yung-Tai; Lin, Wei-Chen; Wu, Li-An; Chang, Shi-Chuan; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Su, Wei-Juin; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lee, Yu-Chin; Chou, Kun-Ta

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Epidemiological studies have identified a trend in the development of depressive and anxiety disorders following a diagnosis of sleep apnea. The relationship between sleep apnea and subsequent panic disorder, however, remains unclear. METHODS Using a nationwide database, the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, patients with sleep apnea and age-, sex-, income-, and urbanization-matched control patients who did not have sleep apnea were enrolled between 2000 and 2010. Patients with a prior diagnosis of panic disorder before enrollment were excluded. The 2 cohorts were observed until December 31, 2010. The primary endpoint was occurrence of newly diagnosed panic disorder. RESULTS A total of 8,704 sleep apnea patients and 34,792 control patients were enrolled. Of the 43,496 patients, 263 (0.60%) suffered from panic disorder during a mean follow-up period of 3.92 years, including 117 (1.34%) from the sleep apnea cohort and 146 (0.42%) from the control group. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a predisposition of patients with sleep apnea to develop panic disorder (log-rank test, P <.001). After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratio for subsequent panic disorder among the sleep apnea patients was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.682.81; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS Sleep apnea appears to confer a higher risk for future development of panic disorder. PMID:26195676

  8. Wireless remote monitoring system for sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Sleep plays the important role of rejuvenating the body, especially the central nervous system. However, more than thirty million people suffer from sleep disorders and sleep deprivation. That can cause serious health consequences by increasing the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart attack and so on. Apart from the physical health risk, sleep disorders can lead to social problems when sleep disorders are not diagnosed and treated. Currently, sleep disorders are diagnosed through sleep study in a sleep laboratory overnight. This involves large expenses in addition to the inconvenience of overnight hospitalization and disruption of daily life activities. Although some systems provide home based diagnosis, most of systems record the sleep data in a memory card, the patient has to face the inconvenience of sending the memory card to a doctor for diagnosis. To solve the problem, we propose a wireless sensor system for sleep apnea, which enables remote monitoring while the patient is at home. The system has 5 channels to measure ECG, Nasal airflow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation. A wireless transmitter unit transmits signals with Zigbee and a receiver unit which has two RF modules, Zigbee and Wi-Fi, receives signals from the transmitter unit and retransmits signals to the remote monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve a low power consumption and wide range coverage. The system's features are presented, as well as continuous monitoring results of vital signals.

  9. Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, Emilia; Roche, Frdric

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of airflow cessation resulting in brief arousals and intermittent hypoxemia. Several studies have documented significant daytime cognitive and behavioral dysfunction that seems to extend beyond that associated with simple sleepiness and that persists in some patients after therapeutic intervention. A still unanswered question is whether cognitive symptoms in OSA are primarily a consequence of sleep fragmentation and hypoxemia, or whether they coexist independently from OSA. Moreover, very little is known about OSA effects on cognitive performances in the elderly in whom an increased prevalence of OSA is present. In this review we will consider recent reports in the association between sleep apnea and cognition, with specific interest in elderly subjects, in whom sleep disturbances and age-related cognitive decline naturally occur. This will allow us to elucidate the behavioral and cognitive functions in OSA patients and to gain insight into age differences in the cognitive impairment. Clinically, these outcomes will aid clinicians in the evaluation of diurnal consequences of OSA and the need to propose early treatment. PMID:22661967

  10. Perianesthesia implications of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Penelope Z

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex medical condition that affects not only the airway but also the cardiopulmonary, endocrine, and central nervous systems. Obstructive sleep apnea can usually be identified with a focused history and physical examination and is commonly associated with obese, middle-aged men with hypertension and glucose intolerance. A high index of suspicion for OSA should arise when reports of loud snoring, nighttime arousal, and acid reflux accompanied by a history of stroke, atrial fibrillation, or congestive heart failure are elicited during a perianesthesia evaluation. Perianesthesia risk in OSA patients includes the potential for difficult airway management, cardiovascular instability, and abnormal sensitivity to sedation and analgesia. Typical doses of respiratory depressants may cause profound hypoventilation, apnea, or cardiopulmonary arrest in OSA patients. Central axial opioids and continuous intravenous opioid infusions should be avoided while nonopioid and non-centrally acting analgesics are recommended. Careful postoperative monitoring is important to preventing serious morbidity. Early identification of OSA and its comorbidities is key to developing a safe anesthesia and postoperative treatment plan. PMID:25463010

  11. Treatment of sleep central apnea with non-invasive mechanical ventilation with 2 levels of positive pressure (bilevel) in a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Akamine, Ricardo Tera; Grossklauss, Lus Fernando; Moreira, Gustavo Antonio; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Chiia, Marco Antnio; Mesquita, Denis; Bulle Oliveira, Acary Souza; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    We are reporting a case of a 29 year-old female with diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (Steinert's disease) with excessive daytime sleepiness, muscle fatigue, snoring, frequent arousals, non-restorative sleep, and witnessed apneas. Pulmonary function tests revealed a mild decrease of forced vital capacity. Nocturnal polysomnography showed an increase of apnea/hypopnea index (85.9 events/h), mainly of central type (236), minimal oxygen saturation of 72%, and end-tidal carbon dioxide values that varied from 45 to 53 mmHg. Bi-level positive airway pressure titration was initiated at an inspiratory pressure (IPAP) of 8 and an expiratory pressure (EPAP) of 4 cm H2O. IPAP was then gradually increased to eliminate respiratory events and improve oxygen saturation. An IPAP of 12cm H20 and an EPAP of 4cm H2O eliminated all respiratory events, and the oxygen saturation remained above 90%. Bi-level positive airway pressure treatment at spontaneous/timed mode showed an improvement in snoring, apneas, and Epworth sleepiness scale decreased from 20 to 10. This case illustrates the beneficial effects of Bi-level positive airway pressure support in central sleep apnea syndrome of a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1. PMID:26483914

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea management update

    PubMed Central

    Hukins, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly significant condition based both on the high prevalence in community and significant consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), OSA together with hypersomnolence, is seen in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women. OSA is associated with impaired quality of life and increased risks of motor vehicle accidents, cardiovascular disease (including hypertension and coronary artery disease), and metabolic syndrome. There is some evidence for the use of conservative interventions such as weight loss and position modification. CPAP remains the mainstay of treatment in this condition with high-level evidence supporting its efficacy. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an intrusive therapy, with long-term adherence rates of less than 70%. Dental appliances have been shown to be effective therapy in some subjects but are limited by the inability to predict treatment responders. Alternative treatments are discussed but there is little role for upper airway surgery (except in a select few experienced institutions) or pharmacological treatment. The current levels of evidence for the different treatment regimens are reviewed. PMID:19412478

  13. Clinical manifestations of sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may manifest in a number of ways from subtle intrusion into daily life to profound sleepiness, snoring, witnessed apneas and other classic symptoms. Although there is increasing evidence suggesting OSA can adversely affect health in a variety of ways, this disorder remains underdiagnosed. The most well-escribed health consequences of OSA relate to the cardiovascular system. Hypertension and arrhythmias have a strong association with OSA, and evidence suggests that treatment of OSA in patients with refractory hypertension and in patients planning cardioversion for atrial fibrillation may be of particularly importance. Significant associations between heart failure and OSA as well as complex sleep apnea have also been well-described. Cerebrovascular insult, impaired neurocognition, and poorly controlled mood disorder are also associated with in OSA. Therapy for OSA may ameliorate atherosclerotic progression and improve outcomes post-cerebrovascular accident (CVA). OSA should be considered in patients complaining of poor concentration at work, actual or near-miss motor vehicle accidents, and patients with severe sleepiness as a component of their co-morbid mood disorders. The metabolic impact of OSA has also been studied, particularly in relation to glucose homeostasis. Also of interest is the potential impact OSA has on lipid metabolism. The adverse effect untreated OSA has on glucose tolerance and lipid levels has led to the suggestion that OSA is yet another constituent of the metabolic syndrome. Some of these metabolic derangements may be related to the adverse effects untreated OSA has on hepatic health. The cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and metabolic manifestations of OSA can have a significant impact on patient health and quality of life. In many instances, evidence exists that therapy not only improves outcomes in general, but also modifies the severity of co-morbid disease. To mitigate the long-term sequela of this disease, providers should be aware of the subtle manifestations of OSA and order appropriate testing as necessary. PMID:26543619

  14. Effects of nocturnal oxygen therapy in patients with chronic heart failure and central sleep apnea: CHF-HOT study.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Yoko M; Ueshima, Kenji; Yasuno, Shinji; Sasayama, Shigetake

    2016-02-01

    It was previously reported that nocturnal home oxygen therapy (HOT) significantly improved not only sleep disordered breathing (SDB), but also quality of life (QOL) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in two trials. To strengthen the statistical reliability of the above efficacies of HOT and to assess the effects of 12-week nocturnal HOT on suppression of ventricular arrhythmias, we combined the two trials and undertook a post hoc analysis. Ninety-seven patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and central sleep apnea were assigned to receive HOT (45 patients) or not (52 patients). HOT resulted in greater reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (-11.4 ± 11.0 vs. -0.2 ± 7.6 events/h, p < 0.01), which is associated with greater improvement in the Specific Activity Scale (0.8 ± 1.2 vs. 0.0 ± 0.6, p < 0.01), New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (p < 0.01), and LVEF (p = 0.06). Median number of premature ventricular contraction (PVC) at baseline was 17 beats per hour in both the HOT and the control groups. Overall improvements of PVCs were not different either in the HOT group or in the control. However, in 12 patients with NYHA >III and AHI >20 events/h, PVC was significantly improved by HOT with a marked reduction in AHI and a substantial increase in LVEF. In conclusion, among patients with CHF and CSA, HOT improves SDB, QOL, and cardiac function. The effectiveness of HOT for ventricular arrhythmias was not observed in the overall analysis, but only in a limited number of patients with severe CHF and SDB. To clarify the effects of HOT on ventricular arrhythmias in patients with CHF and SDB, a further study is needed. PMID:25348726

  15. Sympathetic neural mechanisms in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, V K; Dyken, M E; Clary, M P; Abboud, F M

    1995-01-01

    Blood pressure, heart rate, sympathetic nerve activity, and polysomnography were recorded during wakefulness and sleep in 10 patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Measurements were also obtained after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in four patients. Awake sympathetic activity was also measured in 10 age- and sex-matched control subjects and in 5 obese subjects without a history of sleep apnea. Patients with sleep apnea had high levels of nerve activity even when awake (P < 0.001). Blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity did not fall during any stage of sleep. Mean blood pressure was 92 +/- 4.5 mmHg when awake and reached peak levels of 116 +/- 5 and 127 +/- 7 mmHg during stage II sleep (n = 10) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (n = 5), respectively (P < 0.001). Sympathetic activity increased during sleep (P = 0.01) especially during stage II (133 +/- 9% above wakefulness; P = 0.006) and REM (141 +/- 13%; P = 0.007). Peak sympathetic activity (measured over the last 10 s of each apneic event) increased to 299 +/- 96% during stage II sleep and to 246 +/- 36% during REM sleep (both P < 0.001). CPAP decreased sympathetic activity and blood pressure during sleep (P < 0.03). We conclude that patients with obstructive sleep apnea have high sympathetic activity when awake, with further increases in blood pressure and sympathetic activity during sleep. These increases are attenuated by treatment with CPAP. PMID:7560081

  16. Sleep apnea syndrome and its complications.

    PubMed

    Jurkovicov, Ingrid; Celec, Peter

    2004-05-01

    In this article we summarize the available information regarding the epidemiology, the pathophysiology as well as the risk factors and complications of the sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Central, obstructive and mixed forms of SAS are known, however, the obstructive form is (resulting from the actual high prevalence of obesity) definitely the most frequent. Latest years of experimental and clinical research have pointed towards the clinical importance of this sleep related breathing disorder. High prevalence in the population and especially the cardiovascular complications (e. g. systemic and pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias) have contributed to the recent increase in knowledge about SAS. Nevertheless, there are numerous unsolved problems and unanswered questions in the pathophysiology of SAS. Future studies should, thus, provide us with more information and shed light on regarding the hidden mysteries of SAS. PMID:15359982

  17. Increased Vagal Tone and Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tosaddak

    2016-01-01

    It has been observed that atrial overdrive pacing abolishes sleep apnea syndrome, but how it does so has not been explained. There is a possibility that it sends a retrograde inhibitory impulse to the vagal center in the brainstem, which in turn reduces the vagal tone, and thus prevents sleep apnea. Therefore, medical vagolytics such as atropine type of drugs should have the same effect. This is a case report of such an attempt. PMID:25933142

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Due To Extrathoracic Tracheomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Muzumdar, Hiren; Nandalike, K.; Bent, J.; Arens, Raanan

    2013-01-01

    We report obstructive sleep apnea in a 3-year-old boy with tracheomalacia secondary to tracheotomy that resolved after placement of a metallic stent in the region of tracheomalacia. The tracheal location of obstruction during sleep in this case contrasts with the usual location in the pharynx or, less often, the larynx. This case also demonstrates the utility of polysomnography in managing decannulation of tracheostomies. Citation: Muzumdar H; Nandalike K; Bent J; Arens R. Obstructive sleep apnea due to extrathoracic tracheomalacia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):163–164. PMID:23372471

  19. Sleep Apnea May Raise Women's Heart Risk, but Not Men's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in women. "Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder characterized by heavy snoring, airway blockage during sleep ... Greenberg, medical director of the North Shore LIJ Sleep Disorders Center in Great Neck, N.Y. "While sleep ...

  20. Sleep apnea in patients with hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Mohsenin, V; Valor, R

    1995-01-01

    Sleep pattern and breathing in humans are altered following cerebrovascular accidents involving the brainstem. Sleep apnea is a well-established complication of stroke involving the brainstem. On the other hand, the effect of cerebral stroke on sleep and breathing has not been well defined. The diffuse cerebral symptoms such as cognitive deficits, depression or fatigue, after hemispheric stroke mimic those present in patients with sleep apnea. To define the breathing pattern in patients with stroke involving cerebral hemispheres without brainstem lesion and without the prior history of sleep-disordered breathing, we studied 10 patients within 1 year of their stroke. The data collected during polysomnography from the stroke patients were compared with a group of subjects matched for age, body mass index, presence of hypertension, and smoking history without stroke. Patients with stroke had an abnormal sleep architecture with significantly lower slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when compared with controls. Sleep was fragmented because of the presence of increased respiratory disturbances. Stroke patients had a respiratory disturbance index of 52 +/- 10 events per hour when compared with 3 +/- 1 in controls (p < .05). Majorities of respiratory events were obstructive apneas and were associated with arterial oxygen desaturations and arousals. The pathogenic mechanism of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with hemispheric stroke seems to be related to the physiological effect of sleep on already compromised upper airway muscle control. Patients with stroke and diffuse cerebral symptoms should be investigated for the possibility of sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:7811179

  1. Headache in sleep apnea syndrome: epidemiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael B; Kristiansen, Hvard A; Kvrner, Kari J

    2014-09-01

    This review investigates the relation between obstructive sleep apnea and sleep apnea headache, migraine and tension-type headache. Focus is made on studies from the general population with interviews conducted by a physician and obstructive sleep apnea confirmed by polysomnography. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is observed in 3% of the middle-aged population. The prevalence of sleep apnea headache in this population is 12%-18%, while morning headache with similar symptomatology as sleep apnea headache occur in 5%-8% of the general population. People with sleep apnea headache did have significantly more minutes below 90% oxygen saturation (23.1 min vs. 1.9 min, p = 0.002), higher level of average oxygen desaturation (5.9% vs. 4.5%, p < 0.001) and lower average of the lowest oxygen saturation (80.9% vs. 88.5%, p < 0.001) than people with morning headache. A comparison of those with obstructive sleep apnea with or without sleep apnea headache showed no significant differences. Thus, oxygen desaturation alone cannot explain the pathophysiology of sleep apnea headache. Obstructive sleep apnea and migraine, and obstructive sleep apnea and tension-type headache are not related in the general population. The cause of sleep apnea headache remains to be elucidated. PMID:24928423

  2. Chemoreflexes, Sleep Apnea, and Sympathetic Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Mansukhani, Meghna P.; Kara, Tomas; Caples, Sean; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypertension are closely linked conditions. Disordered breathing events in OSA are characterized by increasing efforts against an occluded airway whilst asleep, resulting in a marked sympathetic response. This is predominantly due to hypoxemia activating the chemoreflexes, resulting in reflex increases in sympathetic neural outflow. In addition, apnea, and the consequent lack of inhibition of the sympathetic system that occurs with lung inflation during normal breathing, potentiates central sympathetic outflow. Sympathetic activation persists into the daytime, and is thought to contribute to hypertension and other adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This review discusses chemoreflex physiology and sympathetic modulation during normal sleep, as well as the sympathetic dysregulation seen in OSA, its extension into wakefulness, and changes after treatment. Evidence supporting the role of the peripheral chemoreflex in the sympathetic dysregulation seen in OSA, including in the context of co-morbid obesity, metabolic syndrome and systemic hypertension is reviewed. Finally, alterations in cardiovascular variability and other potential mechanisms that might play a role in the autonomic imbalance seen in OSA are also discussed. PMID:25097113

  3. Sleep Quality and Risk for Sleep Apnea in Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Harner, Holly M.; Budescu, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about characteristics of women's sleep during incarceration. Objectives The study objectives were to: describe incarcerated women's sleep quality; document incarcerated women's risk for sleep apnea; and identify other factors that contribute to poor sleep quality during incarceration. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive exploratory investigation was conducted in a maximum security women's prison in the United States. Incarcerated women's sleep quality and their risk for sleep apnea was assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Multivariable Apnea Prediction Score (MAPS), respectively. Results Four hundred thirty-eight incarcerated women participated in this investigation. Results indicate that 72% of the sample met the PSQI criteria for poor sleepers. Poor sleepers were significantly more likely to report sleep disturbances, and scored significantly higher on the risk for sleep apnea scale compared to women who did not meet the poor sleep threshold. Approximately 10% of the sample had a probability for sleep apnea higher than .50. Factors that contributed to poor sleep included: (a) racing thoughts/worry/thinking about things; (b) environmental noise and other factors; (c) physical health conditions/pain; (d) nightmares and flashbacks; and (e) not taking sleep medication. Discussion Most participants reported poor sleep quality during incarceration. Poor sleep might exacerbate existing health conditions and contribute to the development of new health problems for incarcerated women. Furthermore, poor sleep quality may reduce a woman's ability to fully participate in beneficial prison programming. This investigation provides a first look at how women sleep in prison and offers recommendations for future research. PMID:24785244

  4. Sleep Apnea Treatment May Reverse Unhealthy Brain Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 154616.html Sleep Apnea Treatment May Reverse Unhealthy Brain Changes In small study, continuous positive airway pressure ... News) -- Sleep apnea treatment may reverse changes in brain stem activity associated with increased risk of heart ...

  5. Too Often, CPAP Is Only Sleep Apnea Treatment Offered

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_156479.html Too Often, CPAP Is Only Sleep Apnea Treatment Offered Many patients can't tolerate ... News) -- More than half of those diagnosed with sleep apnea fail to stick with the standard treatment ...

  6. Modeling sleep apnea severity using bioimpedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Gavrilovic, Bojan; Popovic, Milos R; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder in adults characterized by repetitive collapse of the pharynx. OSA prevalence increases in fluid retaining patients such as those with heart or renal failure, and worsens with overnight fluid accumulation in the neck. The objective of this study was to develop a new method of measuring changes in intracellular water (ICW) in the neck, and investigate metrics that represent total neck impedance and their relationship to sleep apnea severity. In 18 non-obese men, neck fluid volume (NFV) was measured before and after sleep using bioelectrical impedance at 50 kHz. For each participant, resistance and reactance was extracted from the impedance measurements. A model was developed to estimate the cell membrane capacitance which could represent changes in intracellular fluid in the neck. OSA severity was assessed using polysomnography to estimate the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as well as the obstructive AHI (OAHI). Our results showed a strong correlation between the changes in NFV from before to after sleep with the changes in cell membrane capacitance from before to after sleep, indicating an increase in ICW in the neck during sleep. Using linear stepwise regression we were also able to develop models to accurately predict AHI and OAHI using baseline anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. These promising results demonstrate that non-invasive measurements of bioimpedance can be used to develop a novel biomarker to model sleep apnea severity, and assess patients at high risk of OSA. PMID:26737658

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea. Trends in therapy.

    PubMed

    Riley, R W; Powell, N B; Guilleminault, C; Clerk, A; Troell, R

    1995-02-01

    The National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research, in its report to Congress, concluded that the primary care community generally does not understand sleep disorders. Obstructive sleep apnea carries a risk of substantial morbidity and mortality. Excessive daytime sleepiness results from fragmented sleep and microarousals associated with apneic events. It causes poor work performance and increases the incidence of automobile accidents due to driving while drowsy. The commission estimates that the loss of productivity in the United States from excessive daytime sleepiness is more than $20 billion per year. Obstructive sleep apnea is strongly associated with hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea include male sex, obesity, older age, craniofacial anomalies, and familial risk. Treatment is based on documenting the disorder by polysomnography. Medical management of the syndrome includes weight loss and nasal continuous positive airway pressure. A network of follow-up and support is necessary to maintain compliance. Surgical treatment is reserved for those for whom nasal airway pressure treatment fails. A surgical protocol is presented that demonstrates efficacy equal to nasal airway pressure treatment. Primary care physicians should assume the responsibility of identifying patients at risk for obstructive sleep apnea and refer them appropriately. PMID:7725686

  8. White Matter Damage and Systemic Inflammation in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Lin, Hsin-Ching; Chen, Pei-Chin; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Lin, Wei-Ming; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Su, Yu-Jih; Friedman, Michael; Lin, Ching-Po; Lin, Wei-Che

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate white matter integrity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to assess its relationship with systemic inflammation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: One tertiary medical center research institute. Patients or Participants: Twenty patients with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 30, 18 men and 2 women) and 14 healthy volunteers (AHI < 5, 11 men and 3 women). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Patients with severe OSA and healthy volunteers underwent polysomnography to determine the severity of sleep apnea, and DTI scanning to determine fiber integrity. Early or late phase changes in leukocyte apoptosis and its subsets were determined by flow cytometry. DTI-related indices (including fractional anisotropy [FA], axial diffusivity [AD], radial diffusivity [RD], and mean diffusivity [MD]) were derived from DTI. The FA maps were compared using voxel-based statistics to determine differences between the severe OSA and control groups. The differences in DTI indices, clinical severity, and leukocyte apoptosis were correlated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Exploratory group-wise comparison between the two groups revealed that patients with OSA exhibited low FA accomplished by high RD in several brain locations, without any differences in AD and MD. The FA values were negatively correlated with clinical disease severity and leukocyte early apoptosis. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea impairs white matter integrity in vulnerable regions, and this impairment is associated with increased disease severity. The possible interactions between systemic inflammation and central nervous system microstructural damage may represent variant hypoxic patterns and their consequent processes in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Chen HL, Lu CH, Lin HC, Chen PC, Chou KH, Lin WM, Tsai NW, Su YJ, Friedman M, Lin CP, Lin WC. White matter damage and systemic inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(3):361–370. PMID:25325459

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): A prosthodontic perspective.

    PubMed

    Murali Mohan, S; Gowda, E Mahesh; Banari, A S

    2015-12-01

    The subject of sleep medicine, for dental profession in general and prosthodontists in particular, continue to offer great challenges and opportunities in terms of diagnosis, treatment planning and treatment based on qualitative evidence. Although the role played by the prosthodontists is still in its infancy, there is much to learn and understand in the rapidly evolving field of sleep medicine as the recognition of co-managing patients with sleep disorders by the prosthodontists is fast becoming a reality. This article discusses at length the prosthodontic perspectives of the research in the field of sleep medicine, particularly on obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:26843756

  10. Obesity accentuates circadian variability in breathing during sleep in mice but does not predispose to apnea

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Landon W.; McDowell, Angela L.; Strollo, Patrick J.; O'Donnell, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a primary risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea in humans, but the impact of obesity on central sleep apnea is less clear. Given the comorbidities associated with obesity in humans, we developed techniques for long-term recording of diaphragmatic EMG activity and polysomnography in obese mice to assess breathing patterns during sleep and to determine the effect of obesity on apnea generation. We hypothesized that genetically obese ob/ob mice would exhibit less variability in breathing across the 24-h circadian cycle, be more prone to central apneas, and be more likely to exhibit patterns of increased diaphragm muscle activity consistent with obstructive apneas compared with lean mice. Unexpectedly, we found that obese mice exhibited a greater circadian impact on respiratory rate and diaphragmatic burst amplitude than lean mice, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Central apneas were more common in REM sleep (42 17 h?1) than non-REM (NREM) sleep (14 5 h?1) in obese mice (P < 0.05), but rates were not different between lean and obese mice in either sleep state. Even after experimentally enhancing central apnea generation by acute withdrawal of hypoxic chemoreceptor activation during sleep, central apnea rates remained comparable between lean and obese mice. Last, we were unable to detect patterns of diaphragmatic burst activity suggestive of obstructive apnea events in obese mice. In summary, obesity does not predispose mice to increased occurrence of central or obstructive apneas during sleep, but does lead to a more pronounced circadian variability in respiration. PMID:23722707

  11. Central sleep apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... affect the brainstem (the brainstem controls breathing) including brain infection, stroke, or conditions of the cervical spine (neck) Parkinson disease Obesity Certain medicines, such as narcotic ...

  12. Antrochoanal polyp presenting as obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Veerappan, Ilamaran; Ramar, Rathisharmila; Navaneethan, Nagendran; Dharmapuri Yaadhavakrishnan, Raj Prakash

    2013-11-01

    Antrochoanal polyps (ACPS) are uncommon in children presenting to the pediatric clinic. They commonly present with unilateral nasal obstruction. ACPS presenting as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a young child is an uncommon initial presentation. A high level of suspicion is needed to diagnose OSA in young children as the presenting symptoms may be nonspecific and sometimes misleading. PMID:22983926

  13. Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Clinical TrialsCurrent Status and Steps Forward: The International Collaboration of Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Trialists

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Craig, Sonya E.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Heeley, Emma; Redline, Susan; McEvoy, R. Doug; Durn-Cantolla, Joaqun

    2013-01-01

    Sleep apnea is a common chronic disease that is associated with coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and mortality, although the ability of sleep apnea treatment to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been demonstrated. In contrast to patients seeking treatment in sleep disorders centers, as many as half of individuals with moderate to severe sleep apnea in the general population do not report excessive sleepiness; however, if treatment of sleep apnea were shown to reduce cardiovascular disease risk, this would provide a strong rationale for treatment of sleep apnea even in the absence of daytime sleepiness. This article summarizes the status of clinical trials evaluating the potential cardiovascular benefits of sleep apnea treatment and discusses the challenges of conducting such trials, and introduces the International Collaboration of Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Trialists (INCOSACT), a clinical research collaboration formed to foster cardiovascular sleep research. Citation: Gottlieb DJ; Craig SE; Lorenzi-Filho G; Heeley E; Redline S; McEvoy RD; Durn-Cantolla J. Sleep apnea cardiovascular clinical trials current status and steps forward: the International Collaboration of Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Trialists. SLEEP 2013;36(7):975-980. PMID:23814333

  14. How Is Sleep Apnea Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and his inability to stick with the treatment led to more symptoms. However, after using the CPAP ... Institutes of Health- (NIH) supported research is shedding light on how sleep and lack of sleep affect ...

  15. Health Promotion in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which is commonly underdiagnosed, has a high occurrence in the world population. Health education concerning sleep disorders and OSAS should be implemented. Objectives The objective was to identify studies related to preventive actions on sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS. Data Synthesis A literature review was conducted using Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus by combining the following keywords: “Health Promotion,” “Sleep Disorders,” “Primary Prevention,” “Health Education,” and “Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes.” Initially, 1,055 papers, from 1968 to 2013, were located, with the majority from the Scopus database. The inclusion criteria were applied, and four articles published between 2006 and 2012 were included in the present study. Conclusions The studies on preventive actions in sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS, involved the general population and professionals and students in the health field and led to increased knowledge on sleep disorders and more appropriate practices. PMID:25992174

  16. Effects of Exercise Training in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Linda M.; Drager, Luciano F.; Rodrigues, Ana C. T.; Rondon, Maria U. P. B.; Braga, Ana M. F. W.; Mathias, Wilson; Krieger, Eduardo M.; Barretto, Antonio C. P.; Middlekauff, Holly R.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Negrão, Carlos E.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test the effects of exercise training on sleep and neurovascular control in patients with systolic heart failure with and without sleep disordered breathing. Design: Prospective interventional study. Setting: Cardiac rehabilitation and exercise physiology unit and sleep laboratory. Patients: Twenty-five patients with heart failure, aged 42 to 70 years, and New York Heart Association Functional Class I-III were divided into 1 of 3 groups: obstructive sleep apnea (n = 8), central sleep apnea (n = 9) and no sleep apnea (n = 7). Interventions: Four months of no-training (control) followed by 4 months of an exercise training program (three 60-minute, supervised, exercise sessions per week). Measures and Results: Sleep (polysomnography), microneurography, forearm blood flow (plethysmography), peak VO2, and quality of life were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the control and trained periods. No significant changes occurred in the control period. Exercise training reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (P < 0.001) and increased forearm blood flow (P < 0.01), peak VO2(P < 0.01), and quality of life (P < 0.01) in all groups, independent of the presence of sleep apnea. Exercise training improved the apnea-hypopnea index, minimum O2 saturation, and amount stage 3-4 sleep (P < 0.05) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea but had no significant effects in patients with central sleep apnea. Conclusions. The beneficial effects of exercise training on neurovascular function, functional capacity, and quality of life in patients with systolic dysfunction and heart failure occurs independently of sleep disordered breathing. Exercise training lessens the severity of obstructive sleep apnea but does not affect central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure and sleep disordered breathing. Citation: Ueno LM; Drager LF; Rodrigues ACT; Rondon MUPB; Braga AMFW; Mathias W; Krieger EM; Barretto ACP; Middlekauff HR; Lorenzi-Filho G; Negrão CE. Effects of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure and sleep apnea. SLEEP 2009;32(5):637-647. PMID:19480231

  17. Treatment of Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with a Chinstrap

    PubMed Central

    Vorona, Robert D.; Ware, J. Catesby; Sinacori, John T.; Ford, Melvin L.; Cross, J. Parker

    2007-01-01

    A chinstrap alone improved severe obstructive sleep apnea as well as or better than the use of CPAP. Citation: Vorona RD; Ware JC; Sinacori JT; Ford ML; Cross JP. Treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with a chinstrap. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):729730. PMID:18198808

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Gilat, Hanna; Vinker, Shlomo; Buda, Inon; Soudry, Ethan; Shani, Michal; Bachar, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, characterized by cyclic cessation of airflow for 10 seconds or more. There is growing awareness that OSA is related to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, only a few studies have associated OSA directly to major cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OSA and cardiovascular morbidity in a well defined population of patients. The electronic database of the central district of a major health management organization was searched for all patients diagnosed with OSA in 20022010. For each patient identified, an age- and sex-matched patient was randomly selected from the members of the same health management organization who did not have OSA. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and relevant medical parameters were collected as well. The study population included 2797 patients, average age 58.1, in which 76.6% were males. There was a significant correlation between OSA and the presence of ischemic heart disease (P?sleep disordered breathing should be routinely assessed in patients with cardiovascular problems. An earnosethroat evaluation may also be important to rule out anatomic disorders that cause upper airway obstruction. PMID:25144324

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Chervin, R D; Guilleminault, C

    1996-08-01

    OSAS, a common cause of disrupted sleep and EDS, result from repetitive closure of the upper airway during sleep. It probably represents the most severe syndrome related to obstruction of the upper airway; less severe forms include UARS, a syndrome characterized by the need for increased effort to breath but no prominent apneas or hypopneas, and primary snoring. Initial clues to the presence of OSAS and related disorders are derived from the history and include loud snoring, EDS or insomnia, and witnessed apneas. Some patients, especially women, may complain mostly of tiredness or fatigue, and children may present with behavioral abnormalities. Obesity, a large neck circumference, and a crowded oropharynx are common on physical examination. Nonobese patients, in particular, often have retrognathia, a high-arched narrow palate, macroglossia, enlarged tonsils, temporomandibular joint abnormalities, or chronic nasal obstruction. The clinical suspicion of obstructed nocturnal breathing is confirmed by overnight polysomnography, and an MSLT may be used to assess sleepiness. Esophageal manometry during polysomnography facilitates diagnosis of UARS. Treatment most commonly consists of nasal CPAP or BPAP, although problems with compliance make surgical treatment preferable in some cases. Although UPPP eliminates sleep apnea only in a minority of patients, combining UPPP with maxillofacial procedures appears to improve outcomes. Other treatments such as the use of dental appliances or medications, weight loss, and positional therapy may be useful as adjunctive therapy for moderate to severe OSAS or as primary treatments for UARS or mild OSAS. PMID:8871978

  20. Ondansetron and fluoxetine reduce sleep apnea in mice lacking monoamine oxidase A.

    PubMed

    Real, C; Seif, I; Adrien, J; Escourrou, P

    2009-09-30

    Prospective clinical trials addressing the role of serotonin (5-HT) in sleep apnea have indicated that the 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine is beneficial to some patients with obstructive apnea, whereas the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron seems of little value despite its efficacy in rat and dog models of sleep apnea (central and obstructive). Here, we examined the effect of these drugs in transgenic mice lacking monoamine oxidase A (Tg8), which exhibit approximately 3-fold higher rates of central sleep apnea than their wild-type counterparts (C3H), linked to their enhanced 5-HT levels. Acute ondansetron (2 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneal), acute fluoxetine (16 mg kg(-1)) and 13-day chronic fluoxetine (1 or 16 mg kg(-1)) decreased by approximately 80% the total (spontaneous and post-sigh) apnea index in Tg8 mice during non-rapid eye movement sleep, with no statistically significant effect on apnea in C3H mice. Our study shows that both drugs reduce the frequency of apneic episodes attributable to increased monoamine levels in this model of MAOA deficiency, and suggests that both may be effective in some patients with central sleep apneas. PMID:19615472

  1. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Aubertin, G

    2013-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in school-aged children. Tonsillar and/or adenoids hypertrophy is the most common etiology of OSA in children. OSA has been associated with sleep quality disturbance (frequent arousals) and nocturnal gas-exchange abnormalities (hypoxemia and sometimes hypercapnia), complicated with a large array of negative health outcomes. The clinical symptoms are not able to distinguish primary snoring from OSA. Polysomnography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing, but the demand is increasing for this highly technical sleep test. So, some other simpler diagnostic methods are available, as respiratory polygraphy, but need to be validated in children. Treatment of OSA in children must be based on a mutlidisciplinary approach with pediatricians, ENT surgeons and orthodontists. PMID:23870386

  2. Mallampati Score and Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Harsha Vardhan Madan; Schroeder, James W.; Gang, Zhang; Sheldon, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common, and a delay in diagnosis can lead to significant morbidity. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of OSA. However, difficulty accessing PSG due to the relative shortage of sleep centers with pediatric expertise can lead to a delay in the diagnosis and management of OSA. Objectives: To assess the utility of Mallampati score (sitting and supine) in predicting the presence and severity of OSA in children. Methods: A retrospective study of 158 children from a single pediatric sleep center. All patients had a PSG and a physical examination documenting Mallampati score. The Mallampati score, tonsillar size, age, sex, and apnea hypopnea index (AHI) were analyzed. Odds ratio of having pediatric OSA (AHI > 1) with increase in Mallampati score and tonsillar size were calculated. Measurements and Main Results: A significant correlation was found between Mallampati score, tonsillar size, and AHI. For every point increase in the Mallampati score, the odds ratio of having OSA increased by more than 6-fold. For every point increase in tonsillar size, the odds ratio of having OSA increased by more than 2-fold. Conclusions: Mallampati score and tonsillar size are independent predictors of OSA. Oral examination including Mallampati score and tonsillar size should be considered when evaluating a patient for OSA. They can be used to prioritize children who may need PSG. Citation: Kumar HVM, Schroeder JW Jr, Gang Z, Sheldon SH. Mallampati score and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(9):985-990. PMID:25142764

  3. The Relationship between High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea and General and Central Obesity: Findings from a Sample of Chilean College Students

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Clarita; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and extent to which high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with general obesity and central obesity among college students in Punta Arenas, Chile. Risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire and trained research nurses measured anthropometric indices. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) of 25–29.9 kg/m2 and general obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 centimeters (cm) for males and ≥80 cm for females. Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to obtain adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Prevalence of high risk for OSA, general obesity, and central obesity were 7.8%, 12.8%, and 42.7%, respectively. Students at high risk for OSA had greater odds of general obesity (OR 9.96; 95% CI: 4.42–22.45) and central obesity (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.43–5.40). Findings support a strong positive association of high risk for OSA with obesity. PMID:24944841

  4. The Relationship between High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea and General and Central Obesity: Findings from a Sample of Chilean College Students.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and extent to which high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with general obesity and central obesity among college students in Punta Arenas, Chile. Risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire and trained research nurses measured anthropometric indices. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) of 25-29.9 kg/m(2) and general obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 centimeters (cm) for males and ≥80 cm for females. Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to obtain adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Prevalence of high risk for OSA, general obesity, and central obesity were 7.8%, 12.8%, and 42.7%, respectively. Students at high risk for OSA had greater odds of general obesity (OR 9.96; 95% CI: 4.42-22.45) and central obesity (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.43-5.40). Findings support a strong positive association of high risk for OSA with obesity. PMID:24944841

  5. Nocturnal oxygen therapy in patients with chronic heart failure and sleep apnea: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bordier, Philippe; Lataste, Aurelia; Hofmann, Pauline; Robert, Frederic; Bourenane, Ghalia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a public health problem which affects?>2% of the adult population, with high morbidity, mortality, and financial cost. Sleep apnea, prevalent in?>50% of patients with CHF, can aggravate vital prognosis due to worsening of heart failure. It is considered that a decrease in the apnea-hypopnea load may improve outcomes for those patients. Nocturnal non invasive ventilation can be proposed to treat sleep apnea in this situation, there being few alternatives. The present review concerns the use of nocturnal oxygen therapy (NOT) in patients suffering from both CHF and sleep apnea. The interest of NOT in this situation lies in its ability to reduce the central apnea-hypopnea index and to improve nocturnal oximetry disorders related to sleep apnea. Impact on cardiac contractility, patient tolerance, side effects, and costs of NOT are also approached as well as the underlying mechanisms of NOT. In addition, the results of the SERVE-HF trial have shown an increased death rate in patients with CHF and central sleep apnea and who were treated with adaptive servo-ventilation versus control patients. This may lead to renewed interest in NOT in those patients. PMID:26847991

  6. 77 FR 25226 - Proposed Recommendations on Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... was published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23794) announcing proposed regulatory... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Proposed Recommendations on Obstructive Sleep Apnea AGENCY... withdrawing its proposed regulatory guidance for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and request for comment...

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Debaun, Michael R.; Strunk, Robert C.; Redline, Susan; Seicean, Sinziana; Craven, Daniel I.; Gavlak, Johanna C.D.; Wilkey, Olu; Inusa, Baba; Roberts, Irene; Goodpaster, R. Lucas; Malow, Beth; Rodeghier, Mark; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). METHODS: Cross-sectional baseline data were analyzed from the Sleep and Asthma Cohort Study, a multicenter prospective study designed to evaluate the contribution of sleep and breathing abnormalities to SCA-related morbidity in children ages 4 to 18 years, unselected for OSAS symptoms or asthma. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the relationships between OSAS status on the basis of overnight in-laboratory polysomnography and putative risk factors obtained from questionnaires and direct measurements. RESULTS: Participants included 243 children with a median age of 10 years; 50% were boys, 99% were of African heritage, and 95% were homozygous for βS hemoglobin. OSAS, defined by obstructive apnea hypopnea indices, was present in 100 (41%) or 25 (10%) children at cutpoints of ≥1 or ≥5, respectively. In univariate analyses, OSAS was associated with higher levels of habitual snoring, lower waking pulse oxygen saturation (Spo2), reduced lung function, less caretaker education, and non–preterm birth. Lower sleep-related Spo2 metrics were also associated with higher obstructive apnea hypopnea indices. In multivariable analyses, habitual snoring and lower waking Spo2 remained risk factors for OSAS in children with SCA. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of OSAS in children with SCA is higher than in the general pediatric population. Habitual snoring and lower waking Spo2 values, data easily obtained in routine care, were the strongest OSAS risk factors. Because OSAS is a treatable condition with adverse health outcomes, greater efforts are needed to screen, diagnose, and treat OSAS in this high-risk, vulnerable population. PMID:25022740

  8. Effectiveness of Three Sleep Apnea Management Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Masa, Juan F.; Corral, Jaime; Sanchez de Cos, Julio; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Cabello, Marta; Hernndez-Blasco, Luis; Monasterio, Carmen; Alonso, Alberto; Chiner, Eusebi; Aizpuru, Felipe; Vzquez-Polo, Francisco-Jos; Zamorano, Jose; Montserrat, Jose M.; Garcia-Ledesma, Estefania; Pereira, Ricardo; Cancelo, Laura; Martinez, Angeles; Sacristan, Lirios; Salord, Neus; Carrera, Miguel; Sancho-Chust, Jos N.; Negrn, Miguel A.; Embid, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Home respiratory polygraphy (HRP) may be a cost-effective alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for diagnosis and treatment election in patients with high clinical probability of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but there is conflicting evidence on its use for a wider spectrum of patients. Objectives: To determine the efficacy and cost of OSA management (diagnosis and therapeutic decision making) using (1) PSG for all patients (PSG arm); (2) HRP for all patients (HRP arm); and (3) HRP for a subsample of patients with high clinical probability of being treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and PSG for the remainder (elective HRP arm). Methods: Multicentric study of 366 patients with intermediate-high clinical probability of OSA, randomly subjected to HRP and PSG. We explored the diagnostic and therapeutic decision agreements between the PSG and both HRP arms for several HRP cutoff points and calculated costs for equal diagnostic and/or therapeutic decision efficacy. Results: For equal diagnostic and therapeutic decision efficacy, PSG arm costs were 18% higher than HRP arm costs and 20% higher than elective HRP arm costs. HRP arm costs tended to be lower than elective HRP arm costs, and both tended to be lower than PSG arm costs if patient costs were omitted. Conclusion: Home respiratory polygraphy is a less costly alternative than polysomnography for the diagnosis and therapeutic decision making for patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea. We found no advantage in cost terms, however, in using home respiratory polygraphy for all patients or home respiratory polygraphy for the most symptomatic patients and polysomnography for the rest. Citation: Masa JF; Corral J; Sanchez de Cos J; Duran-Cantolla J; Cabello M; Hernndez-Blasco L; Monasterio C; Alonso A; Chiner E; Aizpuru F; Vzquez-Polo FJ; Zamorano J; Montserrat JM. Effectiveness of three sleep apnea management alternatives. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1799-1807. PMID:24293754

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea in Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akre, Harriet; verland, Britt; sten, Pamela; Skogedal, Nina; Heimdal, Ketil

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) among the Norwegian population with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). A secondary aim was to establish whether TCS phenotype severity is associated with OSAS severity. A prospective case study design was used. Individuals who were 5 years old and above with a known diagnosis of TCS in Norway were invited to participate in a study. The study included genetic testing, medical and dental examinations and polysomnography. All participants demonstrated disturbed respiration during sleep; 18/19 met the diagnostic criteria for OSAS. Subjectively evaluated snoring was not a reliable predictor of OSAS. We found no significant association between TCS phenotype severity and the severity of OSAS. OSAS is common in TCS, but there is no association with the phenotype severity. Individuals diagnosed with TCS must undergo sleep studies to identify the presence of OSAS. PMID:21626120

  10. The pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Pham, Luu V; Schwartz, Alan R

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major source of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and represents an increasing burden on health care resources. Understanding underlying pathogenic mechanisms of OSA will ultimately allow for the development of rational therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review current concepts about the pathogenesis of OSA. Specifically, we consider the evidence that the upper airway plays a primary role in OSA pathogenesis and provide a framework for modelling its biomechanical properties and propensity to collapse during sleep. Anatomical and neuromuscular factors that modulate upper airway obstruction are also discussed. Finally, we consider models of periodic breathing, and elaborate generalizable mechanisms by which upper airway obstruction destabilizes respiratory patterns during sleep. In our model, upper airway obstruction triggers a mismatch between ventilatory supply and demand. In this model, trade-offs between maintaining sleep stability or ventilation can account for a full range of OSA disease severity and expression. Recurrent arousals and transient increases in airway patency may restore ventilation between periods of sleep, while alterations in neuromuscular and arousal responses to upper airway obstruction may improve sleep stability at still suboptimal levels of ventilation. PMID:26380762

  11. The pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major source of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and represents an increasing burden on health care resources. Understanding underlying pathogenic mechanisms of OSA will ultimately allow for the development of rational therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review current concepts about the pathogenesis of OSA. Specifically, we consider the evidence that the upper airway plays a primary role in OSA pathogenesis and provide a framework for modelling its biomechanical properties and propensity to collapse during sleep. Anatomical and neuromuscular factors that modulate upper airway obstruction are also discussed. Finally, we consider models of periodic breathing, and elaborate generalizable mechanisms by which upper airway obstruction destabilizes respiratory patterns during sleep. In our model, upper airway obstruction triggers a mismatch between ventilatory supply and demand. In this model, trade-offs between maintaining sleep stability or ventilation can account for a full range of OSA disease severity and expression. Recurrent arousals and transient increases in airway patency may restore ventilation between periods of sleep, while alterations in neuromuscular and arousal responses to upper airway obstruction may improve sleep stability at still suboptimal levels of ventilation. PMID:26380762

  12. Contemporary surgery for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Powell, Nelson B

    2009-09-01

    Surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been available in some form for greater than three decades. Early management for airway obstruction during sleep relied on tracheotomy which although life saving was not well accepted by patients. In the early eighties two new forms of treatment for OSAS were developed. Surgically a technique described as a uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) was used to treat the retropalatal region for snoring and sleep apnea. Concurrently sleep medicine developed a nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device to manage nocturnal airway obstruction. Both of these measures were used to expand and stabilize the pharyngeal airway space during sleep. The goal for each technique was to limit or alleviate OSAS. Almost 30 yr later these two treatment modalities continue to be the mainstay of contemporary treatment. As expected, CPAP device technology improved over time along with durable goods. Surgery followed suit and additional techniques were developed to treat soft and bony structures of the entire upper airway (nose, palate and tongue base). This review will only focus on the contemporary surgical methods that have demonstrated relatively consistent positive clinical outcomes. Not all surgical and medical treatment modalities are successful or even partially successful for every patient. Advances in the treatment of OSAS are hindered by the fact that the primary etiology is still unknown. However, both medicine and surgery continue to improve diagnostic and treatment methods. Methods of diagnosis as well as treatment regimens should always include both medical and surgical collaborations so the health and quality of life of our patients can best be served. PMID:19784401

  13. Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children.

    PubMed

    Blechner, Michael; Williamson, Ariel A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has various negative health and behavioral consequences in the pediatric population. As shown in adults, there are metabolic derangements such as obesity, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, as well as cardiovascular derangements like hypertension, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, ventricular size/function abnormalities, and even elevated pulmonary arterial pressures, that can be seen in children with OSAS. The first two sections will discuss the metabolic and cardiovascular consequences on OSAS in children. The last section summarizes selected studies and reviews on the behavioral, neurocognitive and academic consequences of OSAS in children. PMID:26631839

  14. The Relationship between Metformin and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Deborah; Rein, Lisa; Tarima, Sergey; Woodson, B. Tucker; Meurer, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess if metformin had any associations with the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in an adult type 2 diabetes population in the Midwest. Hypothesis Use of metformin is associated with decreased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in a adult type 2 diabetes population. Methods A retrospective secondary database analysis was carried out with metformin use by patients with type 2 diabetes as the primary variable of interest and obstructive sleep apnea status as the primary outcome. A sample population of 9,853 type 2 diabetes patients with one year of follow-up was used. Other variables that were analyzed included age, gender, race, hypertension, Congestive Heart Failure, Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and Body Mass Index. A p-value of <0.01 was considered significant. Results Metformin usage was not significantly associated with obstructive sleep apnea prevalence (Odds Ratio: 1.17, Confidence Interval: 1.001.36, p = 0.049), but trended in the direction where metformin usage was associated with having obstructive sleep apnea. Lower HbA1c was found to be significantly associated with lower prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (p <0.001). The rest of the variables followed previously published associations. Conclusions Metformin therapy may improve sleep quality, but it may not be through methods that reduce the likelihood of developing obstructive sleep apnea. Future studies that can prove causation about this association should be considered. PMID:26900606

  15. Automated sleep scoring and sleep apnea detection in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraglia, David P.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Martin, A. James; Abbott, Derek

    2005-12-01

    This paper investigates the automated detection of a patient's breathing rate and heart rate from their skin conductivity as well as sleep stage scoring and breathing event detection from their EEG. The software developed for these tasks is tested on data sets obtained from the sleep disorders unit at the Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital. The sleep scoring and breathing event detection tasks used neural networks to achieve signal classification. The Fourier transform and the Higuchi fractal dimension were used to extract features for input to the neural network. The filtered skin conductivity appeared visually to bear a similarity to the breathing and heart rate signal, but a more detailed evaluation showed the relation was not consistent. Sleep stage classification was achieved with and accuracy of around 65% with some stages being accurately scored and others poorly scored. The two breathing events hypopnea and apnea were scored with varying degrees of accuracy with the highest scores being around 75% and 30%.

  16. Non-contact screening system with two microwave radars in the diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Ueki, Katsuhiko; Kurita, Akira; Tojima, Hirokazu; Matsui, Takemi

    2013-01-01

    There are two key problems in applying Doppler radar to a diagnosis system for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. The first is noise associated with body movement and the second is the body position in bed and the change of the sleeping posture. We propose a new automatic gain control and a real-time radar-output channel selection method which is based on a spectrum shape analysis. There are three types of sleep apnea: central sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea and mixed sleep apnea. In this paper we paid attention to the obstructive sleep apnea and attempted to detect the disorder of corrugated shape compared with usual breathing or the paradoxical movement of the reversed phase with chest and abdominal radar signals. A prototype of the system was set up at a sleep disorder center in a hospital and field tests were carried out with eight subjects. Despite the subjects engaging in frequent body movements while sleeping, the system was quite effective in the diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (r=0.98). PMID:23920557

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Tasali, Esra; Van Cauter, Eve; Ehrmann, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder of pre-menopausal women, is characterized by chronic hyperandrogenism, oligoanovulation, obesity and insulin resistance. Importantly, PCOS women are at increased risk for glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Recent reports indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in PCOS. Alterations in sex steroids (i.e. high androgen and low estrogen levels) and increased visceral adiposity in PCOS could potentially contribute to the increased prevalence of OSA in this disorder. There is some evidence to suggest that there may be strong associations between the presence and severity of OSA and the metabolic disturbances that characterize PCOS. Causal mechanisms in the link between PCOS and OSA remain to be elucidated. Clinicians who manage PCOS patients should be aware of the high prevalence of OSA in these patients and systematically evaluate these women for sleep disturbances. PMID:19255602

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Mimics Attention Deficit Disorder.

    PubMed

    Blesch, Lauri; Breese McCoy, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity are known possible symptoms or correlates of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, these associations may be missed in children, because children often fail to report excessive daytime sleepiness, and attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common primary diagnoses in themselves. We report on a 17-year-old, slender, non-snoring male who presented to his pediatrician with a prolonged history of four complaints: inattention, fidgeting, frequent sinusitis, and somnolence. He was diagnosed with ADHD, while the somnolence, which often abated somewhat upon use of antibiotics for sinusitis, was attributed to the sinus infections. A later sleep study revealed OSA, and thorough additional testing proved that the original ADHD diagnosis was in error. All four conditions were allayed with proper use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine. PMID:23529886

  19. Inflammation in Sleep Apnea: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, Dileep; Jun, Jonathan; Polotsky, Vsevolod

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). One theory to explain this relationship proposes that OSA can induce systemic inflammation, thereby inducing CVD. This theory is based on the premise that obesity is a pro-inflammatory state, and that physiological derangements during sleep in subjects with OSA further aggravate inflammation. In support of this theory, some clinical studies have shown elevated inflammatory biomarkers in OSA subjects, or improvement in these markers following treatment of OSA. However, the data are inconsistent and often confounded by the effects of comorbid obesity. Animal models of OSA have been developed, which involve exposure of rodents or cells to intermittent hypoxia, a hallmark feature of OSA. Several of these experiments demonstrate that intermittent hypoxia can stimulate inflammatory pathways and lead to cardiovascular or metabolic pathology. In this review, we review relationships between OSA and inflammation, with particular attention to studies published within the last year. PMID:25502450

  20. A Respiratory Movement Monitoring System Using Fiber-Grating Vision Sensor for Diagnosing Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Yasuhiro; Sato, Jun-Ya; Nakajima, Masato

    2005-01-01

    A non-restrictive and non-contact respiratory movement monitoring system that finds the boundary between chest and abdomen automatically and detects the vertical movement of each part of the body separately is proposed. The system uses a fiber-grating vision sensor technique and the boundary position detection is carried out by calculating the centers of gravity of upward moving and downward moving sampling points, respectively. In the experiment to evaluate the ability to detect the respiratory movement signals of each part and to discriminate between obstructive and central apneas, detected signals of the two parts and their total clearly showed the peculiarities of obstructive and central apnea. The cross talk between the two categories classified automatically according to several rules that reflect the peculiarities was ≤ 15%. This result is sufficient for discriminating central sleep apnea syndrome from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and indicates that the system is promising as screening equipment. Society of Japan

  1. New therapies for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    White, David P

    2014-10-01

    A strong demand for new obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) therapies exists and several are emerging. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is designed to activate upper airway muscles. The initial study from Inspire (Maple Grove, MN) suggests that the device will work well in a very selective group of OSA patients. However, it is likely to be quite expensive. The Winx device (ApniCure, Redwood City, CA) works by establishing a vacuum in the oral cavity, which pulls the uvula and soft palate forward and stabilizes the tongue position. The current device works in approximately 40% of patients and the early data suggest adherence may be quite good. The Provent device( Theravent, San Jose, CA) has been available for several years and is disposable. It is to be attached to the nares nightly and establishes substantial expiratory resistance. Multiple studies suggest that Provent can successfully treat OSA in about 35 to 50% of the patients. However, acceptance and adherence may be a problem. OSA phenotyping is not a therapy, but a way to determine exactly what causes airway collapse in each patient, which can vary substantially. This may allow for individualization of apnea therapy. New methods to prevent supine sleep and surgically implantable devices to treat OSA are also evolving. PMID:25353107

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, C; Bertolami, A; Bertolami, M; Amodeo, C; Calhoun, D

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial (hypopnea) or complete interruption (apnea) in breathing during sleep due to airway collapse in the pharyngeal region. OSA and its cardiovascular consequences have been widely explored in observational and prospective studies. Most evidence verifies the positive relationship between OSA and hypertension, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, stroke and heart failure. However, more studies are needed to better assess the impact of OSA, and possible benefit of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and cardiovascular mortality. The leading pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the changes triggered by OSA, include intermittent hypoxemia and re-oxygenation, arousals and changes in intrathoracic pressure. Hypertension is strongly related with activation of the sympathetic nervous system, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and impairment of endothelial function. The high prevalence of OSA in the general population, hypertensive patients and especially obese individuals and patients resistant to antihypertensive therapy, highlights the need for effective screening, diagnosis and treatment of OSA to decrease cardiovascular risk. PMID:25761667

  3. Cardiovascular and respiratory regulation during sleep in patients with sleep apnea with and without hypertension.

    PubMed

    Penzel, Thomas; Suhrbier, Alexander; Bretthauer, G; Riedl, Maik; Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jrgen; Malberg, Hagen; Fietze, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is a physiological process with an internal program of a number of well defined sleep stages and intermediate wakefulness periods. The sleep stages do modulate the autonomous nervous system and thereby the sleep stages are accompanied by different regulation regimes for the cardiovascular and respiratory system. The differences in regulation can be distinguished by new analysis techniques on the recorded signals. In addition to normal sleep regulation some sleep disorders affect the cardiovascular and respiratory regulation. The most prevalent disorder linked to sleep and changes in the autonomous system is obstructive sleep apnea. In patients with obstructive sleep apnea marked short term changes in cardiovascular and respiratory regulation are observed during sleep. These abnormalities in regulation are further differentiated between the sleep stages. For long term changes obstructive sleep apnea is recognized as a major risk factor for arterial hypertension. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea lowers blood pressure during the night and over time also lowers blood pressure during daytime. In this study we investigated 18 patients with sleep apnea and normal blood pressure, 10 patients with sleep apnea and arterial hypertension and 10 normal subjects as controls. Both patient groups were tested with cardiorespiratory polysomnography before and under CPAP therapy. The effects on cardiovascular and respiratory regulation during sleep and daytime are investigated in the three groups. PMID:22254598

  4. Worsening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Associated with Catheter-Related Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jouvenot, Marie; Willoteaux, Serge; Meslier, Nicole; Gagnadoux, Frdric

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that fluid accumulation in the neck contributes to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We describe a case of catheter-related superior v ena cava (SVC) thrombosis revealed by rapid onset of typical symptoms of OSA. A marked improvement in OSA severity was observed after central venous catheter removal, anticoagulant therapy, and SVC angioplasty Citation: Jouvenot M, Willoteaux S, Meslier N, Gagnadoux F. Worsening of obstructive sleep apnea associated with catheter-related superior vena cava syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):681682. PMID:25766698

  5. [Indications in sleep-apnea syndrome. When and why is further assessment meaningful?].

    PubMed

    Bloch, K E; Russi, E W

    1997-03-11

    Forms of sleep apnea syndrome: Interrupted breathing and hypoventilation during sleep lead to sleep disorders and to cardiovascular sequelae. In the common obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) apneas are related to intermittent obstruction of the upper airways. In the rarer central sleep apnea syndrome certain cardiovascular or central nervous system disorders lead to disturbed regulation of respiration connected with periodic breathing. Signs indicating OSAS: Loud, cyclic snoring, interrupted by cessation of breathing during sleep observed by relatives and excessive daytime to diurnal sleepiness indicate OSAS. Furthermore alteration of personality, headache in the morning, non-refreshing sleep and nocturnal choking sensations may indicate OSAS. When is evaluation necessary? Patients with complaints possibly induced by OSAS should be further evaluated since nocturnal application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by means of a nose mask and other treatment forms often lead to significant improvement of OSAS. In addition patients with untreated OSAS have an increased risk for car accidents and premature death as consequence of cardiovascular diseases. The type and extent of a supposed respiratory disorder is evaluated by means of a sleep study. PMID:9190646

  6. Delirium after cardiac surgery: have we overlooked obstructive sleep apnea?

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Yen, Timothy; Kwatra, Madan M.

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is common in patients with cardiovascular disease. It is well known that cardiac surgery is a risk factor for delirium. Researchers have shown that obstructive sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of delirium. In this manuscript we speculate on how obstructive sleep apnea may increase the risk of delirium in patients with cardiac surgery. If this is found to be confirmed, we would have another target through which we can decrease the risk of delirium in this population. PMID:23618612

  7. [Diagnostic criteria for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Beydon, N; Aubertin, G

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is 1-4 % in school-aged children. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common etiology of OSAS in children. Other causes are obesity; facial or skeletal malformations; and neuromuscular, respiratory, or metabolic diseases. OSAS has been associated with sleep quality disturbance (frequent arousals) and nocturnal gas exchange abnormalities (hypoxemia and sometimes hypercapnia), which can both result in negative health outcomes. The analysis of clinical symptoms and physical examination cannot always distinguish between children with primary snoring and children with OSAS. However, the association of at least one sign of nocturnal upper airway obstruction with other diurnal or nocturnal symptoms can be sufficient to establish OSAS diagnosis in a child more than 3 years of age with clear enlarged tonsils but who is otherwise healthy. In all other cases, polysomnography (the gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing) must be performed either to declare the diagnosis when clinical assessment is not conclusive or when risk factors are present, or to follow up children with an associated health condition or initial severe OSAS. The equipment used to record sleep and the interpretation criteria are all pediatric-specific. Other methods, such as respiratory polygraphy, are simpler to implement, but further studies are warranted to validate the interpretation criteria of these methods in children. However, in centers with experienced personnel, polygraphy can be used in place of polysomnography. In all cases, the analysis of sleep traces must be manual and performed by personnel under the supervision of medical staff trained to interpret pediatric sleep studies. PMID:26968302

  8. Respiratory sound recordings for detection of sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldemark, Karina E.; Agehed, Kenneth I.; Lindblad, Thomas

    1999-03-01

    Sleep apnea is characterized by frequent prolonged interruptions of breathing during sleep. This syndrome causes severe sleep disorders and is often responsible for development of other diseases such as heart problems, high blood pressure and daytime fatigue, etc. After diagnosis, sleep apnea is often successfully treated by applying positive air pressure (CPAP) to the mouth and nose. Although effective, the (CPAP) equipment takes up a lot of space and the connected mask causes a lot of inconvenience for the patients. This raised interest in developing new techniques for treatment of sleep apnea syndrome. Several studies indicated that electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve and muscle in the tongue may be a useful method for treating patients with severe sleep apnea. In order to be able to successfully prevent the occurrence of apnea it is necessary to have some technique for early and fast on-line detection or prediction of the apnea events. This paper suggests using measurements of respiratory airflow (mouth temperature). The signal processing for this task includes the use of a window short-FFT technique and uses an artificial back propagation neural net to model or predict the occurrence of apneas. The results show that early detection of respiratory interruption is possible and that the delay time for this is small.

  9. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; Paola, Angelo de

    2014-11-01

    Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

  10. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study

    PubMed Central

    Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; de Paola, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of So Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart) system. Results A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

  11. Obstructive apnea during sleep is associated with peripheral vasoconstriction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imadojemu, Virginia A.; Gleeson, Kevin; Gray, Kristen S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.; Leuenberger, Urs A.

    2002-01-01

    Obstructive apnea during sleep is associated with a substantial transient blood pressure elevation. The mechanism of this pressor response is unclear. In this study we measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (Psa), and mean limb blood velocity as an index of blood flow (MBV, Doppler) and calculated changes in limb vascular resistance during and after apneas during both wakefulness and sleep in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Immediately postapnea during sleep Psa increased significantly compared with the earlier stages of apnea and this was preceded by a rise of MSNA (n = 5). In contrast to blood pressure, MBV remained unchanged. Because resistance = blood pressure/blood flow, limb vascular resistance increased by 29 +/- 8% from late apnea to postapnea (n = 7, p < 0.002). Voluntary breathhold maneuvers during room air exposure evoked similar responses (n = 10). Supplemental oxygen administered via nonrebreather face mask attenuated the MSNA and vasoconstrictor responses to obstructive (n = 2) and voluntary apneas (n = 10). Our data suggest that obstructive apneas in patients with the obstructive apnea syndrome are accompanied by transient limb vasoconstriction. This vasoconstrictor response appears to be, at least in part, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and may be linked to hypoxia.

  12. CT demonstration of pharyngeal narrowing in adult obstructive sleep apnea

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlman, M.E.; Haponik, E.F.; Smith, P.L.; Allen, R.P.; Bleecker, E.R.; Goldman, S.M.

    1983-03-01

    Sleep apnea is a major cause of daytime hypersomnolence. Among the proposed etiologies, focal obstruction of the airways at the level of the pharynx has been suggested but not proven. Using computed tomography, the cross-sectional area of the airway can be readily assessed. Thirty-three adults with clinically proven sleep apnea and 12 normal adults underwent systematic computed tomography of the neck. Significant airway narrowing was demonstrated in all the patients with obstructive sleep apnea, whereas no such narrowing was seen in the controls. In 11, the narrowing was at a single level, whereas in 22 patients two or more levels were affected. This study has shown that a structurally abnormal airway may serve as an anatomic substrate for the development of sleep apnea. On the basis of this evidence, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty has been performed in two patients with relief of symptoms in one.

  13. Tonsillectomy for Sleep Apnea Carries Risks for Some Kids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tonsillectomy for Sleep Apnea Carries Risks for Some Kids: Study Though the surgery is a primary treatment ... are more likely to suffer breathing complications than kids who have the procedure for other reasons, a ...

  14. Sleep apnea and cognitive function in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Krysten M; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Raz, Naftali; Sweet, Lawrence; Colbert, Lisa H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Background. Prior research indicates that heart failure (HF) patients exhibit significant cognitive deficits on neuropsychological testing. Sleep apnea is associated with both HF and reduced cognitive function, but the combined impact of these conditions on cognitive function is unknown. Methods. In the current study, 172 older adults with a dual diagnosis of HF and sleep apnea or HF alone completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring attention, executive functioning, and memory. Results. Relative to patients with HF alone, persons with both HF and sleep apnea performed worse on measures of attention after adjusting for demographic and medical variables. Conclusions. The current findings suggest that HF patients with comorbid sleep apnea may be at greater risk for cognitive impairment relative to HF patient without such history. Further work is needed to clarify mechanisms for these findings and to determine whether the interactive effects on cognitive function lead to poorer patient outcomes. PMID:22745901

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asad; Raymond, Neil T.; Begum, Safia; Dubb, Kiran; Mughal, Shanaz; Jose, Biju; Piya, Milan K.; Barnett, Anthony H.; Stevens, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is common and causes significant morbidity. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is also common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Because OSA is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that OSA is associated with peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes. Objectives: To assess the relationship between OSA and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study of adults with type 2 diabetes recruited randomly from the diabetes clinic of two UK hospitals. Measurements and Main Results: Peripheral neuropathy was diagnosed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 events/h) was assessed using home-based, multichannel respiratory monitoring. Serum nitrotyrosine was measured by ELISA, lipid peroxide by spectrophotometer, and microvascular function by laser speckle contrast imaging. Two hundred thirty-four patients (mean [SD] age, 57 [12] yr) were analyzed. OSA prevalence was 65% (median apnea-hypopnea index, 7.2; range, 0–93), 40% of which were moderate to severe. Neuropathy prevalence was higher in patients with OSA than those without (60% vs. 27%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for possible confounders, OSA remained independently associated with diabetic neuropathy (odds ratio, 2.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.44–5.52; P = 0.0034). Nitrotyrosine and lipid peroxide levels (n = 102, 74 with OSA) were higher in OSA and correlated with hypoxemia severity. Cutaneous microvascular function (n = 71, 47 with OSA) was impaired in OSA. Conclusions: We describe a novel independent association between diabetic peripheral neuropathy and OSA. We identified increased nitrosative/oxidative stress and impaired microvascular regulation as potential mechanisms. Prospective and interventional studies are needed to assess the impact of OSA and its treatment on peripheral neuropathy development and progression in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22723291

  16. Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of oral appliances compared to no treatment, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The condition leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of Oral Appliances Oral appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to oral appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are oral appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with oral appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for oral appliances? If effective, are oral appliances cost effective? Literature Search A literature search was conducted up to February 2009. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with more than 20 adults with OSA were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcomes of interest were the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), measures of daytime sleepiness, patient preference, compliance, and adverse events. Summary of Findings Five systematic reviews and 16 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were identified. The systematic reviews consistently concluded that CPAP was more effective than oral appliances at improving sleep disordered breathing, although there may be a niche area for the latter, especially among those with mild OSA as CPAP is difficult to tolerate by some users. Based on the results of the RCTs analyzed for this review, MAS devices are less effective than CPAP when AHI is used as the outcome of interest. MAS devices were shown to decrease AHI levels, but whether this reduction is clinically meaningful is uncertain. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was not able to achieve statistical significance in comparisons of MAS versus CPAP and MAS versus placebo. Nonetheless, after treatment with either MAS or CPAP, patients seem to be able to achieve normal ESS levels. The ESS has substantial limitations including its subjective nature and low construct validity (i.e. it is unclear if the scale is an accurate measure of sleepiness). Adverse events among patients with MAS devices in the RCTs were common, but mostly mild and transient. Jaw discomfort was the most commonly reported adverse event. Based on the results of the RCTs, compliance does not seem to be better or worse with MAS or CPAP. Similarly, there is no clear patient preference for MAS or CPAP among the studies reporting preference and satisfaction. Keywords Obstructive sleep apnea, oral appliances, mandibular advancement splints, tongue repositioning devices PMID:23074535

  17. Epidemiological aspects of obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, John F.; Pengo, Martino F.; Drakatos, Panagis

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is probably the most common respiratory disorder, with recent data from the United States and Europe suggesting that between 14% and 49% of middle-aged men have clinically significant OSA. The intimate relationship between OSA and obesity means that its prevalence will only increase as the global obesity epidemic evolves. At an individual level, OSA leads to a significant decrease in quality of life (QOL) and functional capacity, alongside a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Emerging data also suggest that the presence and severity of OSA and associated nocturnal hypoxemia are associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cancer. At a societal level, OSA not only leads to reduced economic productivity, but also constitutes a major treatable risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. This article addresses OSA from an epidemiological perspective, from prevalence studies to economic aspects to co-morbidity. PMID:26101650

  18. Treatment Options for Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Cielo, Christopher M; Gungor, Anil

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of therapies available for the treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In children with enlarged adenoids or tonsils, adenotonsillectomy (AT) is the preferred treatment, but other surgical options include partial tonsillectomy and lingual tonsillectomy. In specific populations, craniofacial or bariatric surgery may be indicated, and tracheostomy should be reserved for cases where there is no other therapeutic option. Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the most effective non-surgical therapy for OSAS as it can be successfully used in even cases of severe OSAS. Nasal steroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists may be used in the treatment of mild or moderate OSAS. Rapid maxillary expansion and dental appliances may be effective in select populations with dental problems. Other non-surgical therapies, such as positional therapy, supplemental oxygen, and weight loss have not been shown to be effective in most pediatric populations. PMID:26597557

  19. Chemoreflex Physiology and Implications for Sleep Apnea Insights from Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mansukhani, Meghna P.; Wang, Shihan; Somers, Virend K.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the chemoreflex in response to hypoxemia results in an increase in sympathetic neural outflow. This process is predominantly mediated by the peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and is potentiated by the absence of the sympatho-inhibitory influence of ventilation during apnea, as is seen in patients with sleep apnea. In these patients, repetitive nocturnal hyoxemia and apnea elicit sympathetic activation, which may persist into wakefulness, and is thought to contribute to the development of systemic hypertension, and cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Chemoreflex activation could possibly lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes such as nocturnal myocardial infarction, systolic and/or diastolic heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with sleep apnea. This review summarizes chemoreflex physiology in health and disease, with specific focus on chemoreflex-mediated pathophysiology in obstructive and central sleep apnea. Measurement of the chemoreflex response may serve as a potential avenue for individualized screening for cardiovascular disease. Whether modulation of this response in sleep apnea may aid in the prevention and treatment of adverse cardiovascular consequences will require further study. PMID:25398715

  20. One Year Outcome of Acute Stroke Patients with Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kojic, Biljana; Burina, Adnan; Sinanovic, Osman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze one year outcome of the acute stroke patients with sleep apnea in order to gender and age. Methods: It was analyzed 110 patients with acute stroke and sleep apnea. Among them 65(59%) were men. Average age of all participant was 65.139.27 years. The same number and gender distribution of participants with stroke and without apnea were in control group. Evaluation of sleep apnea has been done with: The Sleep Disorders Questionnaire, Berlin Questionnaire to identify patients at risk for the sleep apnea syndrome and The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results: One year after stroke onset survived 91 (82.7%) out of 110 patients with apnea. Average age of survived patients was 63.668.78 years. Among them 52(80%) were men. In control group, without apnea survived 104 (94.5%) patients with average age of 65.008.62 years. Among them 62 (95.4%) were men. In men with apnea there is significantly lower survival range in order to patients without apnea (X2=8.22, p=0.004). In women there is no difference. Survival of both gender in patients with apnea (22; 64.7%) was the lowest in group older than 70 years of age. Sex ratio (men : women) was 15 (68.2%):7(58.3%). Survival in both gender in patients without apnea was the same in group older than 70 years of age: 27 (81.2%) out of 33. Average age of patients who died with apnea was significantly higher in order to patients without (t=1.97, p=0.03). Conclusion: One year after stroke, significantly more patients survived without (94.5%) than with apnea (82.7%) (p=0.01). In order to sex survived range was significantly (p=0.004) lover in men with apnea than without but in women there is no difference. Survival range of both gender in patients with apnea was the lowest in group older than 70 years (p=0.03). PMID:26261380

  1. Low-grade albuminuria in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Varlami, Vasiliki; Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Theologi, Vasiliki; Theophanous, Eleni; Liakos, Nikolaos; Daskalopoulou, Euphemia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2013-06-01

    Small urinary protein loss (low-grade albuminuria or microalbuminuria) may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. In the present study, it was hypothesized that children with obstructive sleep apnea have an increased risk of microalbuminuria compared with control subjects without sleep-disordered breathing. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured in morning spot urine specimens collected from consecutive children with or without snoring who were referred for polysomnography. Three groups were studied: (i) control subjects (no snoring, apnea-hypopnea index < 1 episode h(-1) ; n = 31); (ii) mild obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index = 1-5 episodes h(-1) ; n = 71); and (iii) moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index > 5 episodes∙h(-1) ; n = 27). Indications for polysomnography in control subjects included nightmares, somnambulism and morning headaches. An albumin-to-creatinine ratio > median value in the control group (1.85 mg of albumin per g of creatinine) was defined as elevated. Logistic regression analysis revealed that children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, but not those with mild obstructive sleep apnea, had increased risk of elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio relative to controls (reference) after adjustment for age, gender and presence of obesity: odds ratio 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-12.6); P = 0.04 and 1.5 (0.6-3.7); P > 0.05, respectively. Oxygen desaturation of hemoglobin and respiratory arousal indices were significant predictors of albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r = 0.31, P = 0.01; and r = 0.43, P < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea are at significantly higher risk of increased low-grade excretion of albumin in the morning urine as compared with control subjects without obstructive sleep apnea. These findings may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier related to nocturnal hypoxemia and sympathetic activation which are induced by obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:23228180

  2. Classifying obstructive sleep apnea using smartphones.

    PubMed

    Al-Mardini, Mamoun; Aloul, Fadi; Sagahyroon, Assim; Al-Husseini, Luai

    2014-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious sleep disorder which is characterized by frequent obstruction of the upper airway, often resulting in oxygen desaturation. The serious negative impact of OSA on human health makes monitoring and diagnosing it a necessity. Currently, polysomnography is considered the gold standard for diagnosing OSA, which requires an expensive attended overnight stay at a hospital with considerable wiring between the human body and the system. In this paper, we implement a reliable, comfortable, inexpensive, and easily available portable device that allows users to apply the OSA test at home without the need for attended overnight tests. The design takes advantage of a smatrphone's built-in sensors, pervasiveness, computational capabilities, and user-friendly interface to screen OSA. We use three main sensors to extract physiological signals from patients which are (1) an oximeter to measure the oxygen level, (2) a microphone to record the respiratory effort, and (3) an accelerometer to detect the body's movement. Finally, we examine our system's ability to screen the disease as compared to the gold standard by testing it on 15 samples. The results showed that 100% of patients were correctly identified as having the disease, and 85.7% of patients were correctly identified as not having the disease. These preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed system when compared to the gold standard and emphasize the important role of smartphones in healthcare. PMID:25038556

  3. Prosthodontic Approach to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Annapurna, K; Suganya, S; Vasanth, R; Kumar, P Ranjith

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing represents a continuum, ranging from simple snoring sans sleepiness, upper-airway resistance syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, to hypercapnic respiratory failure. Fifty seven articles formed the initial database and a final total of 50 articles were selected to form this review report. Four months were spent on the collection and retrieval of the articles. Articles were selected based on accuracy and evidence in the scientific literature. Oral appliances (OAs) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer them to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for those who do not respond to, are not appropriate candidates for, or for those who have failed treatment attempts with CPAP. OAs protrude the mandible and hold it in a forward and downward position. As a consequence, the upper airway enlarges antero-posteriorly and laterally, improving its stability. Although OA are effective in some patients with OSA, they are not universally suitable. Compliance with OAs depends mainly on the balance between the perception of benefit and the side effects. In conclusion, marked variability is illustrated in the individual response to OA therapy and hence the treatment outcome is subjective. PMID:25221691

  4. Depression and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

    PubMed Central

    Schrder, Carmen M; O'Hara, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades clinical studies have been conducted which suggest the existence of a relationship between depression and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Recently, Ohayon underscored the evidence for a link between these two disorders in the general population, showing that 800 out of 100,000 individuals had both, a breathing-related sleep disorder and a major depressive disorder, with up to 20% of the subjects presenting with one of these disorders also having the other. In some populations, depending on age, gender and other demographic and health characteristics, the prevalence of both disorders may be even higher: OSA may affect more than 50% of individuals over the age of 65, and significant depressive symptoms may be present in as many as 26% of a community-dwelling population of older adults. In clinical practice, the presence of depressive symptomatology is often considered in patients with OSA, and may be accounted for and followed-up when considering treatment approaches and response to treatment. On the other hand, sleep problems and specifically OSA are rarely assessed on a regular basis in patients with a depressive disorder. However, OSA might not only be associated with a depressive syndrome, but its presence may also be responsible for failure to respond to appropriate pharmacological treatment. Furthermore, an undiagnosed OSA might be exacerbated by adjunct treatments to antidepressant medications, such as benzodiazepines. Increased awareness of the relationship between depression and OSA might significantly improve diagnostic accuracy as well as treatment outcome for both disorders. In this review, we will summarize important findings in the current literature regarding the association between depression and OSA, and the possible mechanisms by which both disorders interact. Implications for clinical practice will be discussed. PMID:15982424

  5. Towards a genioglossus surface EMG model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Chua, Eric C-P; McSharry, David G; McNicholas, Walter T; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour and activity of the genioglossus muscle during sleep is of considerable interest to investigators of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, we contribute an model of genioglossus EMG activity during breathing, based on recent physiological findings. We present the modelling techniques and simulation results. The model incorporates new data on fibre type, motor unit type and motor unit firing characteristics. Although we report its use for modelling genioglossus surface EMG, this model can be used to simulate both genioglossus surface and intramuscular EMGs of various electrode configurations. We also discuss the simulation results in the context of the limited experimental data available for surface genioglossus EMG in obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:19963551

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence and incidence of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kendzerska, Tetyana; Leung, Richard S.; Hawker, Gillian; Tomlinson, George; Gershon, Andrea S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A link between obstructive sleep apnea and cancer development or progression has been suggested, possibly through chronic hypoxemia, but supporting evidence is limited. We examined the association between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and prevalent and incident cancer, controlling for known risk factors for cancer development. Methods: We included all adults referred with possible obstructive sleep apnea who underwent a first diagnostic sleep study at a single large academic hospital between 1994 and 2010. We linked patient data with data from Ontario health administrative databases from 1991 to 2013. Cancer diagnosis was derived from the Ontario Cancer Registry. We assessed the cross-sectional association between obstructive sleep apnea and prevalent cancer at the time of the sleep study (baseline) using logistic regression analysis. Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between obstructive sleep apnea and incident cancer among patients free of cancer at baseline. Results: Of 10 149 patients who underwent a sleep study, 520 (5.1%) had a cancer diagnosis at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 627 (6.5%) of the 9629 patients who were free of cancer at baseline had incident cancer. In multivariable regression models, the severity of sleep apnea was not significantly associated with either prevalent or incident cancer after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status at baseline (apneahypopnea index > 30 v. < 5: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.711.30, for prevalent cancer, and adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.02, 95% CI 0.801.31, for incident cancer; sleep time spent with oxygen saturation < 90%, per 10-minute increase: adjusted OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.001.03, for prevalent cancer, and adjusted HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.991.02, for incident cancer). Interpretation: In a large cohort, the severity of obstructive sleep apnea was not independently associated with either prevalent or incident cancer. Additional studies are needed to elucidate whether there is an independent association with specific types of cancer. PMID:25096668

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea and endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Wu, Qi; Feng, Jing; Sun, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women in the general population, and the prevalence is even higher in specific patient groups. OSA is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial injury could be the pivotal determinant in the development of cardiovascular pathology in OSA. Endothelial damage ultimately represents a dynamic balance between the magnitude of injury and the capacity for repair. Bone marrowderived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) within adult peripheral blood present a possible means of vascular maintenance that could home to sites of injury and restore endothelial integrity and normal function. Methods We summarized pathogenetic mechanisms of OSA and searched for available studies on numbers and functions of EPCs in patients with OSA to explore the potential links between the numbers and functions of EPCs and OSA. In particular, we tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the effects of OSA on EPCs. Conclusion Intermittent hypoxia cycles and sleep fragmentation are major pathophysiologic characters of OSA. Intermittent hypoxia acts as a trigger of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and sympathetic activation. Sleep fragmentation is associated with a burst of sympathetic activation and systemic inflammation. In most studies, a reduction in circulating EPCs has emerged. The possible mechanisms underlying the decrease in the number or function of EPCs include prolonged inflammation response, oxidative stress, increased sympathetic activation, physiological adaptive responses of tissue to hypoxia, reduced EPC mobilization, EPC apoptosis, and functional impairment in untreated OSA. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for OSA affects the mobilization, apoptosis, and function of EPCs through preventing intermittent hypoxia episodes, improving sleep quality, and reducing systemic inflammation, oxidative stress levels, and sympathetic overactivation. To improve CPAP adherence, the medical staff should pay attention to making the titration trial a comfortable first CPAP experience for the patients; for example, using the most appropriate ventilators or proper humidification. It is also important to give the patients education and support about CPAP use in the follow-up, especially in the early stage of the treatment. PMID:24204127

  8. Classification algorithms for predicting sleepiness and sleep apnea severity.

    PubMed

    Eiseman, Nathaniel A; Westover, M Brandon; Mietus, Joseph E; Thomas, Robert J; Bianchi, Matt T

    2012-02-01

    Identifying predictors of subjective sleepiness and severity of sleep apnea are important yet challenging goals in sleep medicine. Classification algorithms may provide insights, especially when large data sets are available. We analyzed polysomnography and clinical features available from the Sleep Heart Health Study. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the apnea-hypopnea index were the targets of three classifiers: k-nearest neighbor, naive Bayes and support vector machine algorithms. Classification was based on up to 26 features including demographics, polysomnogram, and electrocardiogram (spectrogram). Naive Bayes was best for predicting abnormal Epworth class (0-10 versus 11-24), although prediction was weak: polysomnogram features had 16.7% sensitivity and 88.8% specificity; spectrogram features had 5.3% sensitivity and 96.5% specificity. The support vector machine performed similarly to naive Bayes for predicting sleep apnea class (0-5 versus >5): 59.0% sensitivity and 74.5% specificity using clinical features and 43.4% sensitivity and 83.5% specificity using spectrographic features compared with the naive Bayes classifier, which had 57.5% sensitivity and 73.7% specificity (clinical), and 39.0% sensitivity and 82.7% specificity (spectrogram). Mutual information analysis confirmed the minimal dependency of the Epworth score on any feature, while the apnea-hypopnea index showed modest dependency on body mass index, arousal index, oxygenation and spectrogram features. Apnea classification was modestly accurate, using either clinical or spectrogram features, and showed lower sensitivity and higher specificity than common sleep apnea screening tools. Thus, clinical prediction of sleep apnea may be feasible with easily obtained demographic and electrocardiographic analysis, but the utility of the Epworth is questioned by its minimal relation to clinical, electrocardiographic, or polysomnographic features. PMID:21752133

  9. Pathogenic Roles of the Carotid Body Inflammation in Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Breathing difficulties in sleep are a hallmark of sleep-disordered breathing commonly observed in patients with sleep disorders. The pathophysiology of sleep apnea is in part due to an augmented activity of the carotid body chemoreflex. Arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body are sensitive to inflammatory cytokines and immunogenic molecules in the circulation, because cytokine receptors are expressed in the carotid body in experimental animals and human. Intriguingly, proinflammatory cytokines are also locally produced and released in the carotid body. Also, there are significant increases in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, cytokine receptors, and inflammatory mediators in the carotid body under hypoxic conditions, suggesting an inflammatory response of the carotid body. These upregulated cytokine signaling pathways could enhance the carotid chemoreceptor activity, leading to an overactivity of the chemoreflex adversely effecting breathing instability and autonomic imbalance. This review aims to summarize findings of the literature relevant to inflammation in the carotid body, with highlights on the pathophysiological impact in sleep apnea. It is concluded that local inflammation in the carotid body plays a pathogenic role in sleep apnea, which could potentially be a therapeutic target for the treatment of the pathophysiological consequence of sleep apnea. PMID:25276055

  10. Cognitive complaints in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Tim J A; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

    2015-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with impairments in cognitive functioning. Although cognitive complaints are related to quality of life, work productivity and health care expenditures, most research and all reviews have focused exclusively on objective cognitive functioning so far. In this systematic review, we assessed the available literature on subjective measures of cognition in adult OSA patients. Concentration complaints were consistently found to be more severe in untreated OSA patients as compared to primary snorers and healthy controls. The same seems to be true for memory and executive function problems, but firm conclusions cannot be made as of yet, due to methodological limitations of the available studies. Cognitive complaints appear to be at least partially related to subjective sleepiness. Importantly, they are not necessarily a sign of objective cognitive impairment. Additional research is needed to explore the relation between cognitive complaints, sleepiness and mood problems using validated and norm-referenced questionnaires for cognitive complaints. In addition, the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on cognitive complaints in OSA warrants further study. PMID:24846772

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea screening by NIRS imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashefi, Feraydune; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Liu, Hanli

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed at determining cerebral hemodynamic parameters in human subjects during breath holding using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Breath holding serves as a method of simulation OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea). Data was acquired non-invasively from 40 subjects, twenty OSA sufferers (10 females, 10 males, age 20-70 years), and twenty normal volunteers (10 females, 10 males, age 20-65 years). Measurements were conducted using a LED Imager (LEDI) during breath holding. In comparing OSA subjects with controls during breath holding, a consistent increase or even a decrease in oxy- ([O IIHb]), deoxy- ([HHb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentrations, and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO II) in the regional brain tissue were observed. The LEDI probe consists of 4 sources and 10 detectors serving as 4 sets of 1 source and 4 detectors each. A three wavelength (730, 805, and 850 nm) LED was used and the wavelengths were switched sequentially. The distance between sources and the source-detector separation were 2.5 cm. Data acquisition consisted of three segments, baseline for one minute, followed by a period of breath holding, and then 2 minutes of recovery time. The duration of the breath holding was subject-dependent. Our investigation proves that NIR spectroscopy could be used as a tool for detecting cerebral hemodynamics and also serves as a method of screening patients with OSA.

  12. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children is a frequent disease for which optimal diagnostic methods are still being defined. Treatment of OSA in children should include providing space, improving craniofacial growth, resolving all symptoms, and preventing the development of the disease in the adult years. Adenotonsillectomy (T&A) has been the treatment of choice and thought to solve young patient's OSA problem, which is not the case for most adults. Recent reports showed success rates that vary from 27.2% to 82.9%. Children snoring regularly generally have a narrow maxilla compared to children who do not snore. The impairment of nasal breathing with increased nasal resistance has a well-documented negative impact on early childhood maxilla-mandibular development, making the upper airway smaller and might lead to adult OSA. Surgery in young children should be performed as early as possible to prevent the resulting morphologic changes and neurobehavioral, cardiovascular, endocrine, and metabolic complications. Close postoperative follow-up to monitor for residual disease is equally important. As the proportion of obese children has been increasing recently, parents should be informed about the weight gain after T&A. Multidisciplinary evaluation of the anatomic abnormalities in children with OSA leads to better overall treatment outcome. PMID:21189957

  13. A Retrospective Case Series of Adaptive Servoventilation for Complex Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen E.; Mosko, Sarah S.; Davis, James A.; Pierce, R. Ander; Godfrey-Pixton, Tamera V.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Central sleep apnea can be refractory to traditional positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy (CPAP or bilevel PAP), whether appearing first as a feature of baseline polysomnography or only later once PAP is applied in what is termed “complex sleep apnea” (CompSA). This retrospective study examined the efficacy of adaptive servoventilation (ASV) in 25 consecutive patients with PAP-refractory central sleep apnea, most exhibiting predominantly obstructive apnea during baseline polysomnography. Methods: Patient characteristics were: age = 59.8 ± 16.5 yr; BMI = 30.4 ± 6.1 kg/m2; apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) = 48.5 ± 30.2/h; and central apnea index (CAI) = 10.8 ± 16.0/h. Following unsuccessful PAP titrations, patients underwent ASV titration. Eighteen met established criteria for CompSA. Results: On traditional PAP, AHI did not improve significantly compared to baseline, whether based on the entire titration (38.5 ± 23.4/h, p = 0.10) or the final PAP pressure(s) (44.4 ± 25.9/h, p = 0.54); CAI tripled across the titration (27.4 ± 23.5/h, p = 0.001) and at the final pressure(s) (34.8 ± 24.2/h, p < 0.001). On ASV, AHI fell to 11.4 ± 8.2/h across the titration (p < 0.001) and decreased further to 3.6 ± 4.2/h at the optimal end expiratory pressure (p < 0.001). AHI was ≤ 5/h in 80% of patients and < 10/h in 92%. ASV virtually eliminated central apneas at optimal end expiratory pressure (0.7 ± 2.2/h, p < 0.001). Respiratory arousals showed parallel improvements on ASV but not PAP. Conclusions: ASV proved superior to traditional PAP in reducing the AHI, CAI, and respiratory arousals in a heterogeneous patient group with sleep disordered breathing in whom central apneas emerged or persisted on PAP. Citation: Brown SE; Mosko SS; Davis JA; Pierce RA; Godfrey-Pixton TV. A retrospective case series of adaptive servoventilation for complex sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(2):187-195. PMID:21509335

  14. Cardiac autonomic control in the obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Gammoudi, Nouha; Ben Cheikh, Ridha; Saafi, Mohamed Ali; Sakly, Ghazi; Dogui, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sympathetic activation is considered to be the main mechanism involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The heart rate variability (HRV) analysis represents a non-invasive tool allowing the study of the autonomic nervous system. The impairment of HRV parameters in OSA has been documented. However, only a few studies tackled the dynamics of the autonomic nervous system during sleep in patients having OSA. Aims To analyze the HRV over sleep stages and across sleep periods in order to clarify the impact of OSA on cardiac autonomic modulation. The second objective is to examine the nocturnal HRV of OSA patients to find out which HRV parameter is the best to reflect the symptoms severity. Methods The study was retrospective. We have included 30 patients undergoing overnight polysomnography. Subjects were categorized into two groups according to apneahypopnea index (AHI): mild-to-moderate OSAS group (AHI: 530) and severe OSAS group (AHI>30). The HRV measures for participants with low apneahypopnea indices were compared to those of patients with high rates of apneahypopnea across the sleep period and sleep stages. Results HRV measures during sleep stages for the group with low rates of apneahypopnea have indicated a parasympathetic activation during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, no significant difference has been observed in the high AHI group except for the mean of RR intervals (mean RR). The parasympathetic activity tended to increase across the night but without a statistical difference. After control of age and body mass index, the most significant correlation found was for the mean RR (p=0.0001, r=?0.248). Conclusion OSA affects sympathovagal modulation during sleep, and this impact has been correlated to the severity of the disease. The mean RR seemed to be a better index allowing the sympathovagal balance appreciation during the night in OSA. PMID:25861821

  15. Brain Structure Network Analysis in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yun-gang; Wang, Defeng; Liu, Kai; Weng, Jian; Guan, Yuefeng; Chan, Kate C. C.; Chu, Winnie C. W.; Shi, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleeping disorder commonly affecting school-aged children and is characterized by repeated episodes of blockage of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, we performed a graph theoretical analysis on the brain morphometric correlation network in 25 OSA patients (OSA group; 5 female; mean age, 10.1 ± 1.8 years) and investigated the topological alterations in global and regional properties compared with 20 healthy control individuals (CON group; 6 females; mean age, 10.4 ± 1.8 years). A structural correlation network based on regional gray matter volume was constructed respectively for each group. Our results revealed a significantly decreased mean local efficiency in the OSA group over the density range of 0.32–0.44 (p < 0.05). Regionally, the OSAs showed a tendency of decreased betweenness centrality in the left angular gyrus, and a tendency of decreased degree in the right lingual and inferior frontal (orbital part) gyrus (p < 0.005, uncorrected). We also found that the network hubs in OSA and controls were distributed differently. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that characterizes the brain structure network in OSA patients and invests the alteration of topological properties of gray matter volume structural network. This study may help to provide new evidence for understanding the neuropathophysiology of OSA from a topological perspective. PMID:26413809

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tahrani, Abd A.; Ali, Asad; Raymond, Neil T.; Begum, Safia; Dubb, Kiran; Altaf, Quratul-ain; Piya, Milan K.; Barnett, Anthony H.; Stevens, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in type 2 diabetes and increases oxidative stress. Hence, OSA could promote the development and progression of DN. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cohort study in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients with known OSA or ESRD were excluded. DN was defined as the presence of albuminuria or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. DN progression was based on eGFR measurements. OSA was defined as apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5 events/h. Serum nitrotyrosine abundance (a marker of nitrosative stress) was measured by ELISA. RESULTS A total of 224 patients were included. OSA and DN prevalence was 64.3 and 40.2, respectively. DN prevalence was higher in patients with OSA (OSA+) compared with those without OSA (OSA−) (49.3% vs. 23.8%, P < 0.001). After adjustment, OSA (odds ratio 2.64 [95% CI 1.13–6.16], P = 0.02) remained independently associated with DN. After an average follow-up of 2.5 (0.7) years, eGFR decline was greater in OSA+ compared with OSA− patients (median −6.8% [interquartile range −16.1 to 2.2] vs. −1.6% [−7.7 to 5.3%], P = 0.002). After adjusting, both baseline OSA (B = −3.8, P = 0.044) and AHI (B = −4.6, P = 0.02) remained independent predictors of study-end eGFR. Baseline serum nitrotyrosine abundance (B = −0.24, P = 0.015) was an independent predictor of study-end eGFR after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS OSA is independently associated with DN in type 2 diabetes. eGFR declined faster in patients with OSA. Nitrosative stress may provide a pathogenetic link between OSA and DN. Interventional studies assessing the impact of OSA treatment on DN are needed. PMID:24062320

  17. Tongue Fat and its Relationship to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andrew M.; Keenan, Brendan T.; Jackson, Nicholas; Chan, Eugenia L.; Staley, Bethany; Poptani, Harish; Torigian, Drew A.; Pack, Allan I.; Schwab, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether tongue fat is increased in obese sleep apneics compared to obese subjects without sleep apnea. We hypothesized that excess fat is deposited in the tongue in obese patients with sleep apnea. Design: Case-control design. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients: We examined tongue fat in 31 obese controls (apnea-hypopnea index, 4.1 2.7 events/h) and 90 obese apneics (apnea-hypopnea index, 43.2 27.3 events/h). Analyses were repeated in a subsample of 18 gender-, race-, age-, and BMI-matched case-control pairs. Interventions: All subjects underwent a MRI with three-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging. We used sophisticated volumetric reconstruction algorithms to study the size and distribution of upper airway fat deposits in the tongue and masseter muscles within apneics and obese controls. Measurements and Results: The data supported our a priori hypotheses that after adjustment for age, BMI, gender, and race, the tongue in apneics was significantly larger (P = 0.001) and had an increased amount of fat (P = 0.002) compared to controls. Similar results were seen in our matched sample. Our data also demonstrate that within the apneic and normal tongue, there are regional differences in fat distribution, with larger fat deposits at the base of the tongue. Conclusions: There is increased tongue volume and deposition of fat at the base of tongue in apneics compared to controls. Increased tongue fat may begin to explain the relationship between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Kim AM, Keenan BT, Jackson N, Chan EL, Staley B, Poptani H, Torigian DA, Pack AI, Schwab RJ. Tongue fat and its relationship to obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1639-1648. PMID:25197815

  18. Association between Occupational Accidents and Sleep Apnea in Hospital Staff

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Somayeh; Rahnama, Nooshin; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Roozbahani, Rahim; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Adimi Naghan, Parisa; Jamaati, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder in which instability of the upper airways leads to a reduction or cessation of airflow during sleep. Sleep disorders such as OSAS increase the risk of occupational accidents and impaired work performance. Sleep deprivation during shift increases the risk of occupational accidents among health care employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between occupational injuries in hospital staff and the risk of sleep apnea. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on hospital staff of Masih Daneshvari Hospital in 2012. In this study, the hospital staffs (715) response to the Berlin questionnaire plus additional information including a history of an occupational accident, night shifts, less than four hours of night sleep, history of smoking, chronic disease and quality of sleep were assessed. Information obtained was analyzed using SPSS 15. Results: In general, 27.6% reported a history of occupational accidents. The incidence of occupational accidents in the high-risk group for sleep apnea was significantly higher than the low-risk group (OR=2.736, CI=1.5224.917, P=0.001). The results of logistic regression analysis also showed a statistically significant association between occupational accidents and risk of sleep apnea (OR = 2.247, CI = 1.1944.231, P= 0.012). Conclusion: This study showed that the incidence of occupational accidents in the hospital employees is strongly related to the probability of OSA. Therefore, special attention should be directed to respiratory sleep disorders in order to reduce occupational injuries at hospitals. PMID:26858766

  19. Mandibular Movements Identify Respiratory Effort in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Martinot, Jean-Benoît; Senny, Fréderic; Denison, Stéphane; Cuthbert, Valérie; Gueulette, Emmanuelle; Guénard, Hervé; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OAH) diagnosis in children is based on the quantification of flow and respiratory effort (RE). Pulse transit time (PTT) is one validated tool to recognize RE. Pattern analysis of mandibular movements (MM) might be an alternative method to detect RE. We compared several patterns of MM to concomittant changes in PTT during OAH in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Methods: Participants: 33 consecutive children with snoring and symptoms/signs of OAH. Measurements: MMs were measured during polysomnography with a magnetometer device (Brizzy Nomics, Liege, Belgium) placed on the chin and forehead. Patterns of MM were evaluated representing peak to peak fluctuations > 0.3 mm in mandibular excursion (MML), mandibular opening (MMO), and sharp MM (MMS), which closed the mouth on cortical arousal (CAr). Results: The median (95% CI) hourly rate of at least 1 MM (MML, or MMO, or MMS) was 18.1 (13.2–36.3) and strongly correlated with OAHI (p = 0.003) but not with central apnea-hypopnea index (CAHI; p = 0.292). The durations when the MM amplitude was > 0.4 mm and PTT > 15 ms were strongly correlated (p < 0.001). The mean (SD) of MM peak to peak amplitude was larger during OAH than CAH (0.9 ± 0.7 mm and 0.2 ± 0.3 mm; p < 0.001, respectively). MMS at the termination of OAH had larger amplitude compared to MMS with CAH (1.5 ± 0.9 mm and 0.5 ± 0.7 mm, respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions: MM > 0.4 mm occurred frequently during periods of OAH and were frequently terminated by MMS corresponding to mouth closure on CAr. The MM findings strongly correlated with changes in PTT. MM analysis could be a simple and accurate promising tool for RE characterization and optimization of OAH diagnosis in children. Citation: Martinot JB, Senny F, Denison S, Cuthbert V, Gueulette E, Guénard H, Pépin JL. Mandibular movements identify respiratory effort in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):567–574. PMID:25766710

  20. Atrial arrhythmogenesis in obstructive sleep apnea: Therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Linz, Dominik; Linz, Benedikt; Hohl, Mathias; Böhm, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of sleep disordered breathing like obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is 40-50%. OSA reduces success rate of catheter based and pharmacological antiarrhythmic treatment. Additionally, efficient treatment of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (CPAP), the first line therapy of OSA, has been shown to improve catheter ablation success rates in AF-patients. A systematic literature search using several databases was performed to review the pathophysiology of obstructive apneas in OSA potentially leading to the development of a substrate for AF and to explain potential mechanisms involved in the clinically observed atrial antiarrhythmic effect of effective CPAP therapy. PMID:26186892

  1. Lack of Regular Exercise, Depression, and Degree of Apnea are Predictors of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Patients with Sleep Apnea: Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Basta, Maria; Lin, Hung-Mo; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Sarrigiannidis, Alexios; Bixler, Edward O.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Apnea, depression, and metabolic abnormalities are independent predictors of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in patients with sleep apnea. Exercise is beneficial for apnea, depression, and metabolic abnormalities; however, its association with EDS is not known. Study Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of lack of regular exercise, depression, and apnea severity on daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea. Participants and Design: One thousand one hundred six consecutive patients (741 men and 365 women) referred to the sleep disorders clinic for symptoms consistent with sleep apnea. Daytime sleepiness was assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and activity was evaluated with a quantifiable Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: Compared with women, men had a higher apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (40.4 1.2 vs 31.0 1.8), lower body mass index (BMI) (35.3 0.3 kg/m2 vs 39.6 0.5 kg/m2), and higher rate of regular exercise (39.1% vs 28.8%) (p < 0.05). Linear regression analysis of the total sample after adjusting for age, BMI, sex, central nervous system medication, and diabetes showed that logAHI, depression, and lack of regular exercise were significant predictors of sleepiness. Predictors of mild or moderate sleepiness for both sexes were depression and logAHI, whereas predictors of severe sleepiness for men were lack of regular exercise, depression, and minimum SaO2 and, for women, logAHI. Conclusions: In obese apneic patients, lack of regular exercise (only in men), depression, and degree of apnea are significant predictors of EDS. This association is modified by sex and degree of sleepiness. Assessment and management of depression and physical exercise should be part of a thorough evaluation of patients with sleep apnea. Citation: Basta M; Lin HM; Pejovic S; Sarrigiannidis A; Bixler EO; Vgontzas AN. Lack of regular exercise, depression, and degree of apnea are predictors of excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea: sex differences. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(1):1925. PMID:18350958

  2. Dead space mask eliminates central apnea at altitude.

    PubMed

    Patz, David S; Patz, Michael D; Hackett, Peter H

    2013-06-01

    Travelers to high altitude may have disturbed sleep due to periodic breathing with frequent central apneas. We tested whether a mask with added dead space could reduce the central apneas of altitude. 16 subjects were recruited, age 18-35, residing at 4600 ft (1400 m). They each slept one night with full polysomnographic monitoring, including end tidal CO2, in a normobaric hypoxia tent simulating 12,000 ft. (3658 m) altitude. Those who had a central apnea index (CAI) >20/h returned for a night in the tent for dead space titration, during which they slept with increasing amounts of dead space, aiming for a CAI <5/h or <10% of baseline. Then each subject slept another night with the titrated amount of dead space. Of the 16 subjects, 5 had a central apnea index >20/h mean 49.1, range 21.4-131.5/hr. In each of the 5, the dead space mask reduced the CAI by at least 88% to a mean of 3.1, range 0.9-7.1/h, (p=0.04). Hypopnea index was unchanged. Three subjects required 500 cc of dead space or less. One subject required 860 cc, and one required 2.1 L. Morning symptoms and arousal index were not significantly affected by the dead space mask. Dead space did not appear to increase the CO2 reserve. At 12,000 ft., central apneas can be effectively reduced with a dead space mask, but clinical utility will require further evaluation. PMID:23795738

  3. Neurocognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Lal, Chitra; Strange, Charlie; Bachman, David

    2012-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder with far-reaching health implications. One of the major consequences of OSAS is an impact on neurocognitive functioning. Several studies have shown that OSAS has an adverse effect on inductive and deductive reasoning, attention, vigilance, learning, and memory. Neurocognitive impairment can be measured objectively with tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, the Steer Clear Performance Test, and tests of repetitive finger tapping. In children, OSAS may cause attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in addition to behavioral problems and learning disabilities. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include increasing age, male sex, apolipoprotein E ?4 allele positivity, current cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, Down syndrome, hypothyroidism, significant alcohol consumption, stroke, and the use of psychoactive medications. At a cellular level, OSAS likely causes cognitive impairment through intermittent hypoxia, hormonal imbalance, and/or systemic inflammation, either independently or via the resultant endothelial dysfunction that occurs. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be measured and minimized in all studies of neurocognitive impairment. Recent studies have used functional and structural neuroimaging to delineate the brain areas affected in patients with OSAS with neurocognitive dysfunction. A common finding in several of these studies is decreased hippocampal volume. Other affected brain areas include the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain, which show focal reductions in gray matter. These changes can be reversed at least partially with the use of CPAP, which highlights the importance of early recognition and treatment of OSAS. The currently available data in this field are quite limited, and more research is needed. PMID:22670023

  4. Single-Unit Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Reflects Sleep Apnea Severity, Especially in Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hamaoka, Takuto; Murai, Hisayoshi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Usui, Soichiro; Okabe, Yoshitaka; Tokuhisa, Hideki; Kato, Takeshi; Furusho, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Yu; Nakatsumi, Yasuto; Takata, Shigeo; Takamura, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with augmented sympathetic nerve activity, as assessed by multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). However, it is still unclear whether single-unit MSNA is a better reflection of sleep apnea severity according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). One hundred and two OSAS patients underwent full polysomnography and single- and multi-unit MSNA measurements. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed to determine which parameters correlated with OSAS severity, which was defined by the AHI. Single- and multi-unit MSNA were significantly and positively correlated with AHI severity. The AHI was also significantly correlated with multi-unit MSNA burst frequency (r = 0.437, p < 0.0001) and single-unit MSNA spike frequency (r = 0.632, p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis revealed that SF was correlated most significantly with AHI (T = 7.27, p < 0.0001). The distributions of multiple single-unit spikes per one cardiac interval did not differ between patients with an AHI of <30 and those with and AHI of 30–55 events/h; however, the pattern of each multiple spike firing were significantly higher in patients with an AHI of >55. These results suggest that sympathetic nerve activity is associated with sleep apnea severity. In addition, single-unit MSNA is a more accurate reflection of sleep apnea severity with alternation of the firing pattern, especially in patients with very severe OSAS. PMID:26973534

  5. Sleep Disruption in Patients with Sleep Apnea and End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Andrea; Siemens, AnDrea; Hanly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep apnea (SA) is common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and such patients are likely to suffer additional sleep disruption associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movements (PLM). Our objective was to evaluate sleep quality in ESRD patients who are newly diagnosed with SA and determine the additional contribution of PLM to sleep disruption. Methods: Two groups of patients with SA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 15) were compared, one with ESRD (n = 12) and the other with normal renal function (n = 18), using a sleep history questionnaire, sleep diary, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, polysomnography (1 night) and actigraphy (6 nights). Results: The prevalence of RLS was higher in ESRD patients (60% vs 6%, p < 0.001). ESRD patients had shorter total sleep time (TST) (264 78 vs 330 46 min, p = 0.01), lower sleep efficiency (68 20 % vs 81 11 %, p = 0.03), and more stage 1 NREM sleep (23 18 vs 8 5 % TST, p = 0.002). ESRD patients had a higher frequency of PLM (31 37 hr-1 vs 8.0 16 hr-1, p = 0.02) and PLM-related arousals (15 18 hr-1 vs 1 2 hr-1, p = 0.003). Actigraphy demonstrated a higher movement and fragmentation index in ESRD patients (23 10 % sleep time vs 17 6 % sleep time, p = 0.04). Conclusions: The co-existence of PLM is an additional source of sleep disruption in patients with ESRD and SA. Treatment of PLM, in addition to treatment of sleep apnea, may be required to improve sleep quality in this patient population. Citation: Loewen A; Siemens A; Hanly P. Sleep disruption in patients with sleep apnea and end-stage renal disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(4):324-329. PMID:19968009

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: natural history, diagnosis, and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Gharibeh, Tarek; Mehra, Reena

    2010-01-01

    Sleep apnea is an entity characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction resulting in nocturnal hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. It is estimated that 2%–4% of the middle-aged population has sleep apnea with a predilection in men relative to women. Risk factors of sleep apnea include obesity, gender, age, menopause, familial factors, craniofacial abnormalities, and alcohol. Sleep apnea has been increasingly recognized as a major health burden associated with hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Increased airway collapsibility and derangement in ventilatory control responses are the major pathological features of this disorder. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold-standard method for diagnosis of sleep apnea and assessment of sleep apnea severity; however, portable sleep monitoring has a diagnostic role in the setting of high pretest probability sleep apnea in the absence of significant comorbidity. Positive pressure therapy is the mainstay therapy of sleep apnea. Other treatment modalities, such as upper airway surgery or oral appliances, may be used for the treatment of sleep apnea in select cases. In this review, we focus on describing the sleep apnea definition, risk factor profile, underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, associated adverse consequences, diagnostic modalities, and treatment strategies. PMID:23616712

  7. Central sleep related breathing disorders - diagnostic and therapeutic features

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Heinrich F.

    2006-01-01

    Three classes of central SRBD are distinguished: 1. Central sleep apnea (CSA), 2. Cheyne-Stokes Respiration as a subgroup of CSA and 3. central hypoventilation syndromes. Reduced or completely absent central respiratory drive without upper airway obstruction is the common feature of central SRBD. Hypoventilation syndromes most often occur secondary in patients with neuromuscular, pulmonary or sceletal diseases or in patients with massive obesity. In patients with hypoventilation during sleep nocturnal and exertional dyspnea and headaches are frequently reported symptoms. Excessive daytime sleepiness is the key symptom in patients with central sleep apnea syndrome. Cheyne-Stokes Respiration is frequent in heart failure patients but in many cases does not cause symptoms specific for the breathing disorder. If there are symptoms or if ambulatory recording of breathing during sleep suggests a sleep related breathing disorder, polysomnography is then performed to definitively rule out or confirm the diagnosis and to initiate treatment, if needed. The indication for treatment in asymptomatic patients with central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes Respiration may be difficult, as there are very little data concerning the long-term benefit in these patients. Symptomatic patients and those with severe central sleep apnea should be treated. Oxygen and CPAP may be effective in 20-30% of patients each. If these treatment options are ineffective, non-invasive pressure support ventilaiton can be used. In patients suffering from hypoventilation syndromes the treatment of choice is non-invasive pressure support ventilaiton combined with supplemental oxygen, if required. PMID:22073076

  8. Degeneration in Arousal Neurons in Chronic Sleep Disruption Modeling Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Fenik, Polina; Zhan, Guanxia; Xin, Ryan; Veasey, Sigrid C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sleep disruption (CSD) is a cardinal feature of sleep apnea that predicts impaired wakefulness. Despite effective treatment of apneas and sleep disruption, patients with sleep apnea may have persistent somnolence. Lasting wake disturbances in treated sleep apnea raise the possibility that CSD may induce sufficient degeneration in wake-activated neurons (WAN) to cause irreversible wake impairments. Implementing a stereological approach in a murine model of CSD, we found reduced neuronal counts in representative WAN groups, locus coeruleus (LC) and orexinergic neurons, reduced by 50 and 25%, respectively. Mice exposed to CSD showed shortened sleep latencies lasting at least 4 weeks into recovery from CSD. As CSD results in frequent activation of WAN, we hypothesized that CSD promotes mitochondrial metabolic stress in WAN. In support, CSD increased lipofuscin within select WAN. Further, examining the LC as a representative WAN nucleus, we observed increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and down-regulation of anti-oxidant enzyme and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. Remarkably, CSD markedly increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha within WAN, and not in adjacent neurons or glia. Thus, CSD, as observed in sleep apnea, results in a composite of lasting wake impairments, loss of select neurons, a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative mitochondrial stress response in WAN, consistent with a degenerative process with behavioral consequences. PMID:26074865

  9. Degeneration in Arousal Neurons in Chronic Sleep Disruption Modeling Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Fenik, Polina; Zhan, Guanxia; Xin, Ryan; Veasey, Sigrid C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sleep disruption (CSD) is a cardinal feature of sleep apnea that predicts impaired wakefulness. Despite effective treatment of apneas and sleep disruption, patients with sleep apnea may have persistent somnolence. Lasting wake disturbances in treated sleep apnea raise the possibility that CSD may induce sufficient degeneration in wake-activated neurons (WAN) to cause irreversible wake impairments. Implementing a stereological approach in a murine model of CSD, we found reduced neuronal counts in representative WAN groups, locus coeruleus (LC) and orexinergic neurons, reduced by 50 and 25%, respectively. Mice exposed to CSD showed shortened sleep latencies lasting at least 4 weeks into recovery from CSD. As CSD results in frequent activation of WAN, we hypothesized that CSD promotes mitochondrial metabolic stress in WAN. In support, CSD increased lipofuscin within select WAN. Further, examining the LC as a representative WAN nucleus, we observed increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and down-regulation of anti-oxidant enzyme and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. Remarkably, CSD markedly increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha within WAN, and not in adjacent neurons or glia. Thus, CSD, as observed in sleep apnea, results in a composite of lasting wake impairments, loss of select neurons, a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative mitochondrial stress response in WAN, consistent with a degenerative process with behavioral consequences. PMID:26074865

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in a Railroad Controller Worker.

    PubMed

    Raşcu, Agripina; Moise, Laura; Naghi, Eugenia; Handra, Claudia; Oţelea, Marina; Raşcu, Alexandra; Lăcătuşu, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) constitutes a healthcare issue of major importance at international level with a prevalence of 5% in the active population. Consequentially to the induced co-morbidities, the mortality reaches as high as 39% at eight years time lapse from the initial diagnostic. Seldom undiagnosed, the severity spectrum of SAS, in the absence of therapy, only continues to amplify. Here below, we are presenting the case of a 49 years old patient, railroad controller worker, non-smoker and occasionally alcohol user, who was hospitalized in our Clinic for Occupational Medicine. During last year, the patient was accusing excessive daytime somnolence, breath arrests during sleep, intense snoring, morning headaches, morning oral dryness, pin point chest pain, nocturia (4-5 nocturnal urination), concentration difficulties and an overall reduced work capacity. The presumptive diagnostic of Obstructive Sleep Apnea is being considered based on the correlation between the clinical presentation and the Epworth, Stanford and Berlin questionnaire results. The key diagnostic element was the polygraph recording over an 8 hours sleep period. Positive Diagnosis: Obstructive Sleep Apnea severe form. Management and recommendations: (1) Behavioral therapy (weight loss) and (2) CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) therapy which was instituted immediately after the positive diagnosis was made. As a consequence, the respiratory symptoms, the frequent episodes of daytime snoozing and the concentration difficulties at work place diminished considerably. PMID:26076566

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Adult Perioperative Patient.

    PubMed

    Spence, Dennis L; Han, Tony; McGuire, Jason; Couture, Darren

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic condition of upper airway obstruction during sleep. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and increases the perioperative risks of surgical patients. Thus, it is essential that perianesthesia nurses understand how to identify and manage patients with known or suspected OSA. This continuing education article will review the pathophysiology of OSA, discuss the effects of anesthesia and opioids on the sleep architecture of the OSA patients, describe the effects of OSA on postoperative complications, review the latest evidence on screening for undiagnosed OSA in the adult surgical patient, and review the perioperative management principles for patients with OSA. PMID:26596388

  12. The Influence of a Mandibular Advancement Plate on Polysomnography in Different Grades of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Pauli; Huuskonen, Usko; Oikarinen, Kysti; Sndor, George K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a mandibular advancement device on different grades of obstructive sleep apnea using a relatively simple test for the apnea-hypopnea index to determine if a mandibular device will be effective. Material and Methods A total of 68 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) including, 31 with mild, 23 with moderate and 14 with severe OSAS were treated with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) and monitored with polysomnography. Results 25 of the 31 mild, 15 of the 23 moderate and 2 of the 14 severe OSAS patients were cured of their OSAS if a post treatment apnea-hypopnea index of less than 5 is regarded as cured. The odds ratios for success with MAD therapy are 3 for women over men, 14.9 for mild obstructive sleep apnea, 5.42 for moderate obstructive sleep apnea if severe obstructive sleep apnea is assigned an odds ratio of 1. Conclusions The use of the apnea-hypopnea index alone is useful in mild and moderate disease to predict the effectiveness of mandibular advancement device. Treatment with a mandibular advancement device is very effective in treating mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Conservative treatment with a mandibular advancement device can be successful in less severe grades of sleep apnea and may be an alternative for non-surgical patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea intolerant of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure management. PMID:25937875

  13. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential responses in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Murad; Bay?r, mer; Yceege, Melike B; Karagz, Tu?ba; F?rat, Hikmet; zdek, Ali; Ak?n, ?stemihan; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2015-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) provokes oxidative stress and ischemia, which affects the central nervous system. The degeneration of neurons in the brainstem due to periodic hypoxia can be evaluated by vestibular and audiologic tests. The objective of this study is to determine brainstem damage in severe OSAS patients with the help of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses. Prospective, randomize, double-blind. Research-training hospital. We compared cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) responses between severe OSAS patients and a control group. 54 patients were included and divided into the OSAS group, with severe OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI >70), and a control group with snoring without OSAS (AHI <5). Both groups underwent cVEMP. Bilateral recordings with simultaneous binaural logon stimulations were used during VEMP recordings. The existing p1n1 and n2p2 responses, p1, n1, n2, and p2 latencies and amplitudes, and p1n1 and n2p2 intervals were measured. Statistically significant differences were revealed between patients and controls for the response rate of the p1n1, n2p2 and p1n1, n2p2 amplitudes. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the latencies of p1, n1, n2 and p2, or the p1n1 and n2p2 intervals. The VEMP response rate was lower in severe OSAS patients, and all amplitudes were shorter than in healthy subjects. VEMP recordings in severe OSAS subjects demonstrates abnormalities in brainstem pathways. It appears that brainstem damage in severe OSAS can be detected by cVEMP recordings. PMID:25288372

  14. Bench Test Evaluation of Adaptive Servoventilation Devices for Sleep Apnea Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kaixian; Kharboutly, Haissam; Ma, Jianting; Bouzit, Mourad; Escourrou, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Adaptive servoventilation devices are marketed to overcome sleep disordered breathing with apneas and hypopneas of both central and obstructive mechanisms often experienced by patients with chronic heart failure. The clinical efficacy of these devices is still questioned. Study Objectives: This study challenged the detection and treatment capabilities of the three commercially available adaptive servoventilation devices in response to sleep disordered breathing events reproduced on an innovative bench test. Methods: The bench test consisted of a computer-controlled piston and a Starling resistor. The three devices were subjected to a flow sequence composed of central and obstructive apneas and hypopneas including Cheyne-Stokes respiration derived from a patient. The responses of the devices were separately evaluated with the maximum and the clinical settings (titrated expiratory positive airway pressure), and the detected events were compared to the bench-scored values. Results: The three devices responded similarly to central events, by increasing pressure support to raise airflow. All central apneas were eliminated, whereas hypopneas remained. The three devices responded differently to the obstructive events with the maximum settings. These obstructive events could be normalized with clinical settings. The residual events of all the devices were scored lower than bench test values with the maximum settings, but were in agreement with the clinical settings. However, their mechanisms were misclassified. Conclusion: The tested devices reacted as expected to the disordered breathing events, but not sufficiently to normalize the breathing flow. The device-scored results should be used with caution to judge efficacy, as their validity depends upon the initial settings. Citation: Zhu K; Kharboutly H; Ma J; Bouzit M; Escourrou P. Bench test evaluation of adaptive servoventilation devices for sleep apnea treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):861-871. PMID:23997698

  15. Physiological Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Muzumdar, Hiren; Arens, Raanan

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing in children refers to a group of respiratory disorders that occur or are exacerbated during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the most significant disorders in this group. OSAS can present in all age groups from early infancy to adolescent years. The cardinal feature of OSAS is limitation of inspiratory flow and volume during sleep resulting in abnormal gas exchange and/or alteration of sleep patterns. When OSAS is a chronic condition it often results in adverse physiological effects that impact on health and development. The present review discusses genesis of OSAS in children and consequent end organ injury with special emphasis on behavior and cognition, cardiovascular function, autonomic regulation, inflammation, endothelial function and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23707879

  16. Evaluation of Anthropometric and Metabolic Parameters in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Süreyya; Güven, Mehmet; Kılınç, Faruk; Kara, Ali Veysel; Yilmaz, Zülfükar; Kırbaş, Gökhan; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal; Yılmaz Aydın, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Sleep disorders have recently become a significant public health problem worldwide and have deleterious health consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep-related breathing disorders. We aimed to evaluate anthropometric measurements, glucose metabolism, and cortisol levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods. A total of 50 patients with a body mass index ≥30 and major OSA symptoms were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements of the patients were recorded and blood samples were drawn for laboratory analysis. A 24-hour urine sample was also collected from each subject for measurement of 24-hour cortisol excretion. Patients were divided equally into 2 groups according to polysomnography results: control group with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <5 (n = 25) and OSA group with an AHI ≥5 (n = 25). Results. Neck and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, late-night serum cortisol, morning serum cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test, and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels were significantly higher in OSA patients compared to control subjects. Newly diagnosed DM was more frequent in patients with OSA than control subjects (32% versus 8%, p = 0.034). There was a significant positive correlation between AHI and neck circumference, glucose, and late-night serum cortisol. Conclusions. Our study indicates that increased waist and neck circumferences constitute a risk for OSA regardless of obesity status. In addition, OSA has adverse effects on endocrine function and glucose metabolism. PMID:26257957

  17. Localized Cortical Thinning in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Jeon, Seun; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jong-Min; Hong, Seung Bong

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate differences in cortical thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome and healthy controls. Design: Cortical thickness was measured using a three-dimensional surface-based method that enabled more accurate measurement in deep sulci and localized regional mapping. Setting: University hospital. Patients: Thirty-eight male patients with severe OSA (mean apnea-hypopnea index > 30/h) and 36 age-matched male healthy controls were enrolled. Interventions: Cortical thickness was obtained at 81,924 vertices across the entire brain by reconstructing inner and outer cortical surfaces using an automated anatomical pipeline. Measurements: Group difference in cortical thickness and correlation between patients' data and thickness were analyzed by a general linear model. Results: Localized cortical thinning in patients was found in the orbitorectal gyri, dorsolateral/ventromedial prefrontal regions, pericentral gyri, anterior cingulate, insula, inferior parietal lobule, uncus, and basolateral temporal regions at corrected P < 0.05. Patients with OSA showed impaired attention and learning difficulty in memory tests compared to healthy controls. Higher number of respiratory arousals was related to cortical thinning of the anterior cingulate and inferior parietal lobule. A significant correlation was observed between the longer apnea maximum duration and the cortical thinning of the dorsolateral prefrontal regions, pericentral gyri, and insula. Retention scores in visual memory tests were associated with cortical thickness of parahippocampal gyrus and uncus. Conclusions: Brain regions with cortical thinning may provide elucidations for prefrontal cognitive dysfunction, upper airway sensorimotor dysregulation, and cardiovascular disturbances in OSA patients, that experience sleep disruption including sleep fragmentation and oxygen desaturation. Citation: Joo EY; Jeon S; Kim ST; Lee JM; Hong SB. Localized cortical thinning in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1153-1162. PMID:23904675

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder in the population—a review on the epidemiology of sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) defined at an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5 was a mean of 22% (range, 9-37%) in men and 17% (range, 4-50%) in women in eleven published epidemiological studies published between 1993 and 2013. OSA with excessive daytime sleepiness occurred in 6% (range, 3-18%) of men and in 4% (range, 1-17%) of women. The prevalence increased with time and OSA was reported in 37% of men and in 50% of women in studies from 2008 and 2013 respectively. OSA is more prevalent in men than in women and increases with age and obesity. Smoking and alcohol consumption are also suggested as risk factors, but the results are conflicting. Excessive daytime sleepiness is suggested as the most important symptom of OSA, but only a fraction of subjects with AHI >5 report daytime sleepiness and one study did not find any relationship between daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea in women. Stroke and hypertension and coronary artery disease are associated with sleep apnea. Cross-sectional studies indicate an association between OSA and diabetes mellitus. Patients younger than 70 years run an increased risk of early death if they suffer from OSA. It is concluded that OSA is highly prevalent in the population. It is related to age and obesity. Only a part of subjects with OSA in the population have symptoms of daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of OSA has increased in epidemiological studies over time. Differences and the increase in prevalence of sleep apnea are probably due to different diagnostic equipment, definitions, study design and characteristics of included subjects including effects of the obesity epidemic. Cardiovascular disease, especially stroke is related to OSA, and subjects under the age of 70 run an increased risk of early death if they suffer from OSA. PMID:26380759

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder in the population-a review on the epidemiology of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Karl A; Lindberg, Eva

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) defined at an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ?5 was a mean of 22% (range, 9-37%) in men and 17% (range, 4-50%) in women in eleven published epidemiological studies published between 1993 and 2013. OSA with excessive daytime sleepiness occurred in 6% (range, 3-18%) of men and in 4% (range, 1-17%) of women. The prevalence increased with time and OSA was reported in 37% of men and in 50% of women in studies from 2008 and 2013 respectively. OSA is more prevalent in men than in women and increases with age and obesity. Smoking and alcohol consumption are also suggested as risk factors, but the results are conflicting. Excessive daytime sleepiness is suggested as the most important symptom of OSA, but only a fraction of subjects with AHI >5 report daytime sleepiness and one study did not find any relationship between daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea in women. Stroke and hypertension and coronary artery disease are associated with sleep apnea. Cross-sectional studies indicate an association between OSA and diabetes mellitus. Patients younger than 70 years run an increased risk of early death if they suffer from OSA. It is concluded that OSA is highly prevalent in the population. It is related to age and obesity. Only a part of subjects with OSA in the population have symptoms of daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of OSA has increased in epidemiological studies over time. Differences and the increase in prevalence of sleep apnea are probably due to different diagnostic equipment, definitions, study design and characteristics of included subjects including effects of the obesity epidemic. Cardiovascular disease, especially stroke is related to OSA, and subjects under the age of 70 run an increased risk of early death if they suffer from OSA. PMID:26380759

  20. American Thoracic Society patient information series. Other therapies for sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    2015-01-15

    Treatment is needed for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) because untreated OSA can result in serious health problems. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is the most common treatment used for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). (see ATS Patient Series http://patients.thoracic.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2014/03/obstructive-sleep-apnea.pdf) For those who cannot use CPAP or want to try another option, there are other therapies that can work for people with OSA. PMID:25590163

  1. Sympathoexcitation and arterial hypertension associated with obstructive sleep apnea and cyclic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J Woodrow; Tamisier, Renaud; Liu, Yuzhen

    2015-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. These obstructive episodes are characterized by cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), by sleep fragmentation, and by hemodynamic instability, and they result in sustained sympathoexcitation and elevated arterial pressure that persist during waking, after restoration of normoxia. Early studies established that 1) CIH, rather than sleep disruption, accounts for the increase in arterial pressure; 2) the increase in arterial pressure is a consequence of the sympathoactivation; and 3) arterial hypertension after CIH exposure requires an intact peripheral chemoreflex. More recently, however, evidence has accumulated that sympathoactivation and hypertension after CIH are also dependent on altered central sympathoregulation. Furthermore, although many molecular pathways are activated in both the carotid chemoreceptor and in the central nervous system by CIH exposure, two specific neuromodulators-endothelin-1 and angiotensin II-appear to play crucial roles in mediating the sympathetic and hemodynamic response to intermittent hypoxia. PMID:26251511

  2. Assessing severity of obstructive sleep apnea by fractal dimension sequence analysis of sleep EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, X. C.; Luo, L.; Shao, J.; Zhang, C.; Ma, J.; Wang, G. F.; Liu, Y.; Peng, C.-K.; Fang, J.

    2009-10-01

    Different sleep stages are associated with distinct dynamical patterns in EEG signals. In this article, we explored the relationship between the sleep architecture and fractal dimension (FD) of sleep EEG. In particular, we applied the FD analysis to the sleep EEG of patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), which is characterized by recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturation and arousals from sleep, a disease which received increasing public attention due to its significant potential impact on health. We showed that the variation of FD reflects the macrostructure of sleep. Furthermore, the fast fluctuation of FD, as measured by the zero-crossing rate of detrended FD (zDFD), is a useful indicator of sleep disturbance, and therefore, correlates with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and hourly number of blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2) decreases greater than 4%, as obstructive apnea/hypopnea disturbs sleep architecture. For practical purpose, a modified index combining zDFD of EEG and body mass index (BMI) may be useful for evaluating the severity of OSAHS symptoms.

  3. The deterioration of driving performance over time in drivers with untreated sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    May, Jennifer F; Porter, Bryan E; Ware, J Catesby

    2016-04-01

    Sleep apnea increases risk of driving crashes when left untreated. This study examined the driving performance decrements of untreated, undiagnosed sleep apnea drivers compared with healthy controls in a monotonous highway driving simulator task. It was hypothesized that the sleep apnea group would perform worse during a driving simulator test compared with the control group. A significant group by time interaction occurred indicating that sleep apnea participants' performance degraded more quickly over the course of the drive. In contrast with previous studies, this sleep apnea group did not include sleep disorder center patients, but rather community volunteers whose screening indicated a significant apnea/hypopnea index of 15 or greater. There may be inherent differences between patients and nonpatients with sleep apnea, as patients may have a more significant impact on their quality of life, causing them to seek treatment. Still, the results are clear that although the sleep apnea group drove similarly to the control group at the start of the drive, they are sensitive to time on task effects. These results support the need to diagnose and treat sleep apnea. PMID:26851617

  4. Quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: Relationship with daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, depression, and apnea severity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonhee; Lee, Sang-Ahm; Ryu, Han Uk; Chung, Yoo-Sam; Kim, Woo Sung

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, depression, and apnea severity to mental and physical quality of life (QoL) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were adults diagnosed with OSA. Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form 36 (SF-36), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used. The factors predicting the physical and mental QoL were evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis. Seven hundred ninety three OSA patients participated in the study. The average age was 48.9 years (SD = 11.7 years). The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 29.5 hour(-1) (SD = 20.6 hour(-1)). The SF-36 scores were 72.6 (SD = 18.5). The BDI, sleep quality, and age were related to both mental and physical QoL. However, ESS, minimal arterial oxygen saturation, gender, and body mass index were associated with the physical but not mental QoL. The BDI was the strongest predictor of both physical and mental QoL. AHI was related to neither physical nor mental QoL. The potential factors affecting QoL are different between physical and mental dimensions of QoL. Depressive mood was the strongest predictor of both the physical and mental QoL. PMID:26396158

  5. Taft and Pickwick: sleep apnea in the White House.

    PubMed

    Sotos, John G

    2003-09-01

    As President of the United States from 1909 to 1913, William Howard Taft's minimum body mass index was 42 kg/m(2). This article presents evidence that he suffered from obstructive sleep apnea, manifested by excessive daytime somnolence, snoring, systemic hypertension and, perhaps, cognitive and psychosocial impairment. As president, Taft's hypersomnolence was severe and obvious, but never prompted official discussion of his fitness to govern. Within 12 months of leaving office, Taft permanently lost over 60 pounds. His somnolence resolved. As Chief Justice of the United States from 1921 to 1930, he was not somnolent. President Taft's case illuminates historical puzzles of his performance as President, raises public awareness of sleep apnea, and informs discussions of presidential disability and the 25th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. PMID:12970047

  6. Cardiovascular Complications of Sleep Apnea: Role of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ayas, Najib

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in 2% of middle-aged women and 4% of middle-aged men with a higher prevalence among obese subjects. This condition is considered as an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. One of the major pathophysiological characteristics of OSA is intermittent hypoxia. Hypoxia can lead to oxidative stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of atherosclerosis. Many animal models, such as the rodent model of intermittent hypoxia, mimic obstructive sleep apnea in human patients and allow more in-depth investigation of biological and cellular mechanisms of this condition. This review discusses the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease resulting from OSA in humans and animal models. PMID:24734153

  7. Role of Sensory Stimulation in Amelioration of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Daulatzai, Mak Adam

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by recurrent upper airway (UA) collapse during sleep, is associated with significant morbidity and disorders. Polysomnogram is employed in the evaluation of OSA and apnea-hypopnea number per hour reflects severity. For normal breathing, it is essential that the collapsible UA is patent. However, obstruction of the UA is quite common in adults and infants. Normally, important reflex mechanisms defend against the UA collapse. The muscle activity of UA dilators, including the genioglossus, tensor palatini (TP), and pharyngeal constrictors, is due to the integrated mechanism of afferent sensory input ? to motor function. Snoring is harsh breathing to prevent UA obstruction. Unfortunately, snoring vibrations, pharyngeal suction collapse, negative pressure, and hypoxia cause pathological perturbations including dysfunctional UA afferent sensory activity. The current paper posits that peripheral sensory stimulation paradigm, which has been shown to be efficacious in improving several neurological conditions, could be an important therapeutic strategy in OSA also. PMID:23470957

  8. Fatal Consequences: Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Train Engineer.

    PubMed

    McKay, Mary Pat

    2015-11-01

    This special report describes the findings of the National Transportation Safety Board's investigation into the probable cause of the derailment of a Metro-North passenger train in the Bronx, New York on December 1, 2013, that resulted in 4 deaths and injuries to 59 additional persons. A key finding in the medical investigation was the engineer's post-accident diagnosis of severe, obstructive sleep apnea, and the probable cause of the accident was determined to be the result of the engineer having fallen asleep while operating the train. This accident highlights the importance of screening, evaluating, and ensuring adequate treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly among patients working in positions where impairment of physical or cognitive function or sudden incapacitation may result in serious harm to the public. PMID:26553898

  9. Sleep Apnea - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Center French (français) Common Sleep Problem Problèmes de sommeil courants - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations ... PDF Health Information Translations Sleep Study Examen du sommeil - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi ( ...

  10. Oral Appliance Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... right provider? Many dentists with specialized training in dental sleep medicine and oral appliance therapy are also members of the American Academy ... dentist search feature on the American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine Web ... oral appliance therapy. This project is a collaboration between the ...

  11. [Orthodontic treatment in children suffering from obstructive sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Huet, A P; Paulus, C

    2015-09-01

    The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may affect children, especially those with dentofacial disharmonies. Dentofacial orthopedic (DFO) treatments carried out in those patients must take this condition into account and can, in selected cases, improve or even treat the OSAS. The goal of our work was to report our experience about DFO treatments of children affected by OSAS in the department of maxillofacial surgery of Femme-Mère-Enfant hospital of university hospitals of Lyon, France. PMID:26255231

  12. Relationship Between Snoring Intensity and Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Whun; Lee, Chul Hee; Rhee, Chae Seo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the intensity of snoring and severity of sleep apnea using Watch-PAT (peripheral arterial tone) 100. Methods A total of 404 patients (338 males and 66 females) who underwent home-based portable sleep study using Watch-PAT 100 for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from January 2009 through December 2011 were included in this study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups; no OSA (PAT apnea hypopnea index [pAHI]<5/hour), mild OSA (5≤pAHI<15/hour), moderate OSA (15≤pAHI<30/hour), or severe OSA groups (pAHI≥30/hour). Mean snoring intensity and percent sleep time with snoring intensity greater than 40, 50, and 60 dB were measured by Watch-PAT 100. Correlations of these parameters with apnea hypopnea index (AHI), respiratory disturbance index (RDI), and oxygen desaturation index were assessed. Results The mean age and body mass index were 46.5±14.8 years and 24.7±3.4 kg/m2, respectively. Mean AHI and RDI were 16.5±15.3/hour and 20.8±14.3/hour, respectively. The mean snoring intensity in the no, mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups was 44.0±2.7, 45.4±6.0, 47.7±5.0, and 50.5±5.6 dB, respectively (P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between snoring intensity and pAHI or PAT RDI (pRDI) (r=0.391 and r=0.385, respectively, both P<0.001). There was also a positive correlation between percent sleep time with the snoring intensity greater than 50 dB and pAHI or pRDI (r=0.423 and r=0.411, respectively, both P<0.001). Conclusion This study revealed that the intensity of snoring increased with the severity of sleep apnea, which suggests that the loudness of snoring might be an indicator of the severity of OSA. PMID:26622957

  13. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a cause of cognitive disorders in the elderly?].

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, K; Nguyen-Michel, V H; Mariani, J

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a chronic disease characterized by repeated upper airway obstructions during sleep, resulting in fragmented sleep with arousals, nocturnal intermittent hypoxemia and diurnal dysfunctions. Despite its high prevalence in elderly, sleep apnea syndrome seems to be underestimated and difficult to be recognized because of the lack of clinical symptoms specificity in this population. Among the numerous consequences of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, cognitive impairment prevails on the attention, executive functions and memory. Neuroimaging studies in human and experimental models allowed to highlight neural correlates of these cognitive dysfunctions in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with cognitive impairment shares some features with Alzheimer's disease, involving genetic predisposition ApoE4, hippocampus and synaptic plasticity abnormalities. In this context, the question arises whether obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a possible etiological or aggravating factor of cognitive decline in elderly with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Although there are conflicting results in studies evaluating therapeutic efficiency of continuous positive air pressure, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome seems nevertheless as a correctable factor, at least for its impact on some cognitive consequences. Looking for sleep apnea syndrome in elderly with cognitive decline should be considered in a global, diagnosis and therapeutic management. PMID:24630586

  14. Anesthetic considerations of parturients with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ankichetty, Saravanan P; Angle, Pam; Joselyn, Anita Shirley; Chinnappa, Vinod; Halpern, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. It is estimated to affect nearly 5% of the general female population. Obesity is often associated with OSA. The physiological changes associated with pregnancy may increase the severity of OSA with a higher risk of maternal and fetal morbidity. However, very few parturients are diagnosed during pregnancy. These undiagnosed parturients pose great challenge to the attending anaesthesiologist during the perioperative period. Parturients at risk should be screened for OSA, and if diagnosed, treated. This review describes the anaesthetic concerns in obese parturients at risk for OSA presenting to the labor and delivery unit. PMID:23225920

  15. Risk of Sleep Apnea in Hospitalized Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shear, Talia C.; Balachandran, Jay S.; Mokhlesi, Babak; Spampinato, Lisa M.; Knutson, Kristen L.; Meltzer, David O.; Arora, Vineet M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To assess the prevalence of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among general medical inpatients and to investigate whether OSA risk is associated with in-hospital sleep quantity and quality. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: General medicine ward in academic medical center Participants: 424 hospitalized adult patients ≥ 50 years old without a sleep disorder diagnosis (mean age 65 years, 57% female, 72% African American). Main Measures: The Berlin questionnaire, a validated screen for determining risk of OSA, was administered to hospitalized medical patients. Sleep duration and efficiency were measured via wrist actigraphy. Self-reported sleep quality was evaluated using Karolinska Sleep Quality Index (KSQI). Key Results: Two of every 5 inpatients ≥ 50 years old (39.5%, n = 168) were found to be at high risk for OSA. Mean in-hospital sleep duration was ∼ 5 h and mean sleep efficiency was 70%. Using random effects linear regression models, we found that patients who screened at high risk for OSA obtained ∼ 40 min less sleep per night (-39.6 min [-66.5, -12.8], p = 0.004). These findings remained significant after controlling for African American race, sex, and age quartiles. In similar models, those patients who screened at high risk had ∼ 5.5% less sleep efficiency per night (-5.50 [-9.96, -1.05], p = 0.015). In multivariate analysis, patients at high risk for OSA also had lower self-reported sleep quality on KSQI (-0.101 [-0.164, -0.037], p = 0.002). Conclusion: Two of every 5 inpatients older than 50 years screened at high risk for OSA. Those screening at high risk have worse in-hospital sleep quantity and quality. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1067. Citation: Shear TC, Balachandran JS, Mokhlesi B, Spampinato LM, Knutson KL, Meltzer DO, Arora VM. Risk of sleep apnea in hospitalized older patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1061-1066. PMID:25317085

  16. Sinus Surgery May Also Ease Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgeon at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. According to Dr. Jordan Josephson, an ear, ... assistant professor, otolaryngology-rhinology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Peter Fotinakes, M.D., medical director, Sleep ...

  17. Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Buerger's Disease: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosein; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Navvabi, Iman; Ahmadi Hoseini, Seyed Hosein; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar

    2015-10-01

    In this study we evaluated the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in patients with thromboangiitis obliterans for reduction of crisis. In 40 patients with Buerger's disease daily sleepiness and risk of Obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated using the Epworth sleeping scale (ESS) and the Stop-Bang score. An Apnea-link device was used for evaluation of chest motion, peripheral oxygenation, and nasal airflow during night-time sleep. The apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and respiratory disurbance index were used for Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnosis. All subjects were cigarette smokers and 80% were opium addicted. The prevalence of Obstructive sleep apnea (AHI>5) was 80%, but incidence of Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (AHI>5 + ESS≥10) was 5% (2/40). There was no association between duration or frequency of hospitalization and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (P=0.74 and 0.86, respectively). In addition, no correlation between ESS and Stop-Bang scores and AHI was observed (P=0.58 and 0.41, respectively). There was an inverse correlation between smoking rate and AHI (P=0.032, r = -0.48). We did not find an association between Buerger's disease and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the AHI was high (80%) and daily sleepiness was low. The negative correlation of smoking with AHI and on the other hand daily napping in addiction may be caused by the absence of a clear relationship between Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and Buerger's disease. PMID:26615374

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Risk Factor for Work Disability

    PubMed Central

    Omachi, Theodore A.; Claman, David M.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To examine obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a risk factor for work disability. Patients and Setting: Consecutive patients referred to the University of California San Francisco Sleep Disorders Center with suspected OSA (n = 183). Design: All patients underwent overnight polysomnography after completing a written survey which assessed work disability due to sleep problems, occupational characteristics and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 10. Results: Among 150 currently employed patients, 83 had OSA on polysomnography (apnea-hypopnea index ? 5). Compared with patients in whom both OSA and EDS were absent, patients with the combination of OSA and EDS were at higher risk of both recent work disability (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 13.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.948) and longer-term work duty modification (OR, 3.6; CI, 1.112). When either OSA or EDS were absent, the strength of the association with work disability was less than when both OSA and EDS were present. When OSA was examined without respect to EDS, patients with OSA were at increased risk of recent work disability relative to patients without OSA (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.25.8), but the association of OSA with longer-term work duty modification did not meet standard criteria for statistical significance (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 0.85.0). Conclusions: The combination of OSA and EDS contributes to work disability, and OSA by itself contributes to recent work disability. These findings should highlight to employers and clinicians the importance of OSA in the workplace to encourage patients to be screened for OSA, particularly in situations of decreased productivity associated with EDS. Citation: Omachi TA; Claman DM; Blanc PD; Eisner MD. Obstructive sleep apnea: a risk factor for work disability. SLEEP 2009;32(6):791-798. PMID:19544756

  19. Sleep apnea syndrome in the morbidly obese as an indication for weight reduction surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Peiser, J; Lavie, P; Ovnat, A; Charuzi, I

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen morbidly obese patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) were studied during nocturnal sleep before and between 2 to 4 months after a weight reduction surgery. Six patients were also recorded between 4 to 8 months after surgery. Postoperative recordings revealed a dramatic reduction in the sleep apnea index and an improvement in sleep motility and daytime vigilance levels. A further decrease in apneas and sleep motility was seen in the late post-treatment recording. These results indicate that weight reduction surgery is an effective definitive treatment for obesity associated SAS. PMID:6691724

  20. [Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea--an orthodontic perspective].

    PubMed

    Tzur-Gadassi, L; Hevroni, A; Gross, M; Davidovich, E

    2014-07-01

    Sleep disturbed breathing in children, is a general term describing a wide range of respiratory disorders that occur during sleep, ranging from snoring to Obstructive Sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In recent years, the role of OSAS in a vast range of morbidities has been recognized, namely metabolic, neuro-cognitive and cardio-vascular disorders, thus emphasizing the importance of early detection. The recommended initial treatment for pediatric OSAS consists of surgical removal of adenoids and tonsils. However, today it is clear that there are other factors involved in the etiology of the syndrome. An association is believed to exist between the airway and craniofacial development and vice versa. The structure of the face and jaws has been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiology of OSAS, thus, the orthodontist plays a substantial role in the diagnosis and treatment of these children. Moreover, OSAS is believed to have a direct and indirect effect on oral health. Obstructive Sleep apnea syndrome is also common in adults, but is defined as a separate entity being different in terms of pathophysiology, clinical presentation and treatment. This paper reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical implications and available treatment options for pediatric OSAS. Moreover, we will review the impact of the condition on the structures of the face, jaws, mouth and teeth and discuss the dentist's critical role in identifying and treating these problems. PMID:25219101

  1. Intention to Exercise in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Simon S.; Doyle, Geoffrey; Pascoe, Thomas; Douglas, James A; Jorgensen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common and serious health issue that is strongly associated with excess weight. Exercise may be an effective mechanism for reducing the severity of OSA both in association with, and independent of, reduction in body weight. As such, increased exercise has been suggested as a potential intervention for OSA, particularly for patients with mild to moderate clinical severity. However, it is unknown how ready to engage in exercise patients with OSA are. Self-reported exercise intention was assessed in 206 consecutive patients attending a large tertiary sleep disorders service in Australia. Classification of the patients by Stage of Change, a construct of the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change, was supported by differences between the groups in level of habitual self-reported exercise. Cluster analysis identified 4 potential patient types, with differing profiles in perceived costs and benefits of exercise, and exercise-related self-efficacy. The validity of these patient clusters was also supported by differences between the groups in current self-reported exercise levels. The results may help to identify patients who are more likely to engage in increased exercise, and to identify barriers to exercise in patients less inclined to increase their exercise. Citation: Smith SS; Doyle G; Pascoe T et al. Intention to exercise in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):689694. PMID:18198801

  2. Insular Cortex Metabolite Changes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Santosh K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Yan-Go, Frisca L.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: Adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show significant autonomic and neuropsychologic deficits, which may derive from damage to insular regions that serve those functions. The aim was to assess glial and neuronal status from anterior insular metabolites in OSA versus controls, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PMRS), and thus to provide insights for neuroprotection against tissue changes, and to reduce injury consequences. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University-based medical center. Participants: Thirty-six patients with OSA, 53 controls. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: We performed PMRS in bilateral anterior insulae using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner, calculated N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr), choline/creatine (Cho/Cr), myo-inositol/creatine (MI/Cr), and MI/NAA metabolite ratios, and examined daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI), and neuropsychologic status (Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II] and Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI]). Body mass index, BAI, BDI-II, PSQI, and ESS significantly differed between groups. NAA/ Cr ratios were significantly reduced bilaterally, and left-sided MI/Cr and MI/NAA ratios were increased in OSA over controls. Significant positive correlations emerged between left insular MI/Cr ratios and apnea-hypopnea index values, right insular Cho/Cr ratios and BDI-II and BAI scores, and negative correlations appeared between left insular NAA/Cr ratios and PSQI scores and between right-side MI/Cr ratios and baseline and nadir change in O2 saturation. Conclusions: Adults with obstructive sleep apnea showed bilaterally reduced N-acetylaspartate and left-side increased myo-inositol anterior insular metabolites, indicating neuronal damage and increased glial activation, respectively, which may contribute to abnormal autonomic and neuropsychologic functions in the condition. The activated glial status likely indicates increased inflammatory action that may induce more neuronal injury, and suggests separate approaches for glial and neuronal protection. Citation: Yadav SK, Kumar R, Macey PM, Woo MA, Yan-Go FL, Harper RM. Insular cortex metabolite changes in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(5):951-958. PMID:24790274

  3. The Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Neurocognitive PerformanceThe Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES)

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Stuart F.; Chan, Cynthia S.; Dement, William C.; Gevins, Alan; Goodwin, James L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Green, Sylvan; Guilleminault, Christian; Hirshkowitz, Max; Hyde, Pamela R.; Kay, Gary G.; Leary, Eileen B.; Nichols, Deborah A.; Schweitzer, Paula K.; Simon, Richard D.; Walsh, James K.; Kushida, Clete A.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and neurocognitive performance in a large cohort of adults. Study Design: Cross-sectional analyses of polysomnographic and neurocognitive data from 1204 adult participants with a clinical diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES), assessed at baseline before randomization to either continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or sham CPAP. Measurements: Sleep and respiratory indices obtained by laboratory polysomnography and several measures of neurocognitive performance. Results: Weak correlations were found for both the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and several indices of oxygen desaturation and neurocognitive performance in unadjusted analyses. After adjustment for level of education, ethnicity, and gender, there was no association between the AHI and neurocognitive performance. However, severity of oxygen desaturation was weakly associated with worse neurocognitive performance on some measures of intelligence, attention, and processing speed. Conclusions: The impact of OSA on neurocognitive performance is small for many individuals with this condition and is most related to the severity of hypoxemia. Citation: Quan SF; Chan CS; Dement WC; Gevins A; Goodwin JL; Gottlieb DJ; Green S; Guilleminault C; Hirshkowitz M; Hype PR; Kay GG; Leary EB; Nichols DA; Schweitzer PK; Simon RD; Walsh JK; Kushida CA. The association between obstructive sleep apnea and neurocognitive performancethe Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES). SLEEP 2011;34(3):303-314. PMID:21358847

  4. Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity with Exercise Capacity and Health-related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Butner, Katrina L; Hargens, Trent A; Kaleth, Anthony S; Miller, Larry E; Zedalis, Donald; Herbert, William G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current research is inconclusive as to whether obstructive sleep apnea severity directly limits exercise capacity and lowers health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of obstructive sleep apnea severity with determinants of exercise capacity and HRQoL. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were evaluated by home somnography and classified as no obstructive sleep apnea (n = 43) or as having mild (n = 27), moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea (n = 21). Exercise capacity was assessed by a ramping cycle ergometer test, and HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: Greater obstructive sleep apnea severity was associated with older age, higher body weight, higher body mass index, lower peak aerobic capacity, a higher percentage of peak aerobic capacity at a submaximal exercise intensity of 55 watts, and lower physical component summary score from the SF-36. None of these variables were statistically different among obstructive sleep apnea severity groups after controlling for age and body weight. Obstructive sleep apnea severity was not associated with any cardiorespiratory fitness or HRQoL parameter. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea severity has no independent association with exercise capacity or HRQoL. PMID:23923110

  5. Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Slaats, Monique A; Van Hoorenbeeck, Kim; Van Eyck, Annelies; Vos, Wim G; De Backer, Jan W; Boudewyns, An; De Backer, Wilfried; Verhulst, Stijn L

    2015-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children is a manifestation of sleep-disordered breathing and associated with a number of complications. Structural narrowing of the upper airway in combination with inadequate compensation for a decrease in neuromuscular tone is an important factor in the pathogenesis. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most important predisposing factor. However, many other causes of craniofacial defects may coexist. Additionally, the pathogenesis of narrowing is more complex in certain subgroups such as children with obesity, craniofacial malformations, Down syndrome or neuromuscular disorders. The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea is based on an overnight polysomnography. This investigation is expensive, time consuming and not widely available. In view of the major role of structural narrowing, upper airway imaging could be a useful tool for investigating obstructive sleep apnea and in establishing the site(s) of obstruction. Several radiological techniques (lateral neck radiography, cephalometry, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and post-processing of these images using computational fluid dynamics) have been used to investigate the role of structural alterations in the pathogenesis. We reviewed the literature to examine if upper airway imaging could replace polysomnography in making the diagnosis and if imaging could predict the effect of treatment with a focus on adenotonsillectomy. There is a limited number of high quality studies of imaging predicting the effect of treatment. To avoid unnecessary risks and ineffective surgeries, it seems crucial to couple the exact individual anatomical risk factor with the most appropriate treatment. We conclude that imaging could be a non-invasive tool that could assist in selection of treatment. PMID:25438733

  6. The potential benefits of treatment of sleep apnea in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Stephan; Schueller, Per O; Hennersdorf, Marcus G; Strauer, Bodo E

    2008-01-01

    At least half of patients with heart failure (HF) suffer from sleep apnea. Growing evidence suggests that there may be a strong pathophysiological link between chronic HF and sleep apnea due to nocturnal oxygen desaturation and sympathetic activation. It seems that sleep apnea contributes to systolic and diastolic HF, reduced left and right ventricular function, and arrhythmia (e.g. atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, or ventricular ectopy). Therefore, treatment of sleep apnea might alleviate cardiac symptoms and improve cardiac function. Nevertheless, the exact role of long-term treatment of sleep apnea in HF patients remains to be elucidated, as important clinical endpoints (e.g mortality) have been assessed in only a few studies. Heart Fail Monit 2008;5(4):106-11. PMID:18273493

  7. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, endothelial dysfunction and coronary atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Dursuno?lu, Ne?e; Dursuno?lu, Dursun

    2005-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), repetitive episodes of apnea cause increased sympathetic nerve activity, increased surges in arterial blood pressure, swings in intrathoracic pressure, oxidative stres, hypoxia and hypercapnia. The association of OSAS with some diseases, having endothelial dysfunction in their physiopathology, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, coronary artery diseases, stroke and heart failure is common. Increased sympathetic nerve activity and also endothelial dysfunction which are the results of hypoxia, have important roles in vascular complications of OSAS. When compared with healthy population, an important endothelial dysfunction in OSAS patients and relationship between OSAS severity and endothelial dysfunction have been shown. In this review, the relationship between OSAS and endothelial dysfunction was overviewed. PMID:16258893

  8. Reduced innervation in the human pharynx in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    de Carlos, Félix; Cobo, Juan; Macías, Emilio; Feito, Jorge; González, Mónica; Cobo, Teresa; Fernández-Mondragón, María P; García-Suárez, Olivia; Vega, José A

    2015-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a disease characterized by repetitive breathing during sleep that lead to reduced oxygen saturation and sleep disturbance among other symptoms. Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by blockade of the upper respiratory airway, although the pathogenic mechanism underlying this occlusion remains unknown. In these studies we explored the hypothesis that alterations in the innervation, especially mechanosensory innervation, of the pharynx may contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the innervation of the human pharynx in normal individuals and in subjects clinically diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. Using immunohistochemistry for axon and Schwann cells, as well as for two putative mechanoproteins (ASIC2 and TRPV4), we observed a significant reduction in the density of nerve fibers in the submucosa of patients with obstructive sleep apnea as well as morphological abnormalities in mechanosensory corpuscles. Importantly, while ASIC2 and TRPV4 expression was regularly found in the axons of mechanosensory corpuscles distributed throughout the muscular layer in the control subjects, it was absent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. These findings support that neurological alterations are important contributors to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:25663466

  9. A Case of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Assessments of Fitness for Work

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder that can cause excessive daytime sleepiness and impairment of cognition. These symptoms may lead to the occurrence of occupational accidents in workers with obstructive sleep apnea. Case presentation A 36-year-old man who worked as a dimensional control surveyor caused a vehicle accident while he was driving at the work site. Although he experienced loss of consciousness at the time of the accident, he had no other symptoms. His brain computed tomography and laboratory test did not show any specific findings. Medical tests were conducted to evaluate his fitness for work. Decreased sleep latency was observed on the electroencephalography image, which is suggestive of a sleep disorder. He frequently experienced daytime sleepiness and his Epworth sleepiness score was 13. The polysomnography showed a markedly increased apnea-hypopnea index of 84.3, which led to a diagnosis of severe obstructive sleep apnea. The patient was advised to return to work only when his obstructive sleep apnea improved through proper treatment. Conclusion Proper screening for obstructive sleep apnea among workers is important for preventing workplace accidents caused by this disorder, but screening guidelines have not yet been established in Korea. An effort toward preparing practical guidelines for obstructive sleep apnea is needed. PMID:24822091

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms in Japanese people with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ono, Junji; Chishaki, Akiko; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Sawatari, Hiroyuki; Nishizaka, Mari; Ando, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms and assessed the relationship with obesity or unusual sleep postures in Down syndrome patients in Japan. We obtained the demographic characteristics, sleep postures, and obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms experienced by 90 people as reported by their caregivers. Although 71% reported snoring and 59% arousals, obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms were not significantly different between obese and non-obese participants. The youngest age group had the fewest obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms, especially symptoms of snoring. The odds for arousal, nocturia, and apnea tended to be higher in the unusual sleep-postures group. Unusual sleep postures were most frequent in the group 6-15 years of age. People with Down syndrome might sleep in unusual postures to avoid upper airway obstruction caused by other anatomical factors. For nurses and other health professionals working in mainstream service, it is important to screen all persons with Down syndrome for symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly those six years of age and older, and to refer them for further evaluation for sleep disorders. PMID:26198646

  11. Investigating relative respiratory effort signals during mixed sleep apnea using photoplethysmogram.

    PubMed

    Khandoker, A H; Karmakar, C K; Penzel, T; Glos, M; Palaniswami, M

    2013-10-01

    Sleep disordered breathing does show different types of events. These are obstructive apnea events, central apnea events and mixed sleep apnea (MSA) which have a central component with a pause in airflow without respiratory effort followed by an obstructive component with respiratory effort. The esophageal pressure (Pes) is the accurate method to assess respiratory effort. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the features extracted from photo-plethysmogram (PPG) could relate with the changes in Pes during MSA. Therefore, Pes and PPG signals during 65 pre-scored MSA events and 10s preceding the events were collected from 8 patients. Pulse intervals (PPI), Pulse wave amplitudes (PWA) and wavelet decomposition (Wv) of PPG signals at level 8 (0.15-0.32Hz) were derived from PPG signals. Results show that significant correlations (r=0.63, p<0.01; r=0.42, p<0.05; r=0.8, p<0.01 for OSA part) were found between reductions in Pes and that in PPG based surrogate respiratory signals PPI, PWA and Wv. Results suggest that PPG based relative respiratory effort signal can be considered as an alternative to Pes as a means of measuring changes in inspiratory effort when scoring OSA and CSA parts of MSA events. PMID:23695488

  12. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Kidney Disease: A Potential Bidirectional Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Sharma, Kumar; Ayas, Najib T.; Laher, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high mortality rates and heavy economic and social burdens. Nearly 10% of the United States population suffer from CKD, with fatal outcomes increased by 1640 times even before reaching end-stage renal disease. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is between 3% and 7% in the general population, and has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades along with increased rates of obesity. However, the prevalence of OSA is much greater in patients with CKD. In addition, aggressive dialysis improves OSA. The current literature suggests a bidirectional association between CKD and OSA through a number of potential pathological mechanisms, which increase the possibility of both diseases being possible risk factors for each other. CKD may lead to OSA through a variety of mechanisms, including alterations in chemoreflex responsiveness, pharyngeal narrowing due to fluid overload, and accumulation of uremic toxins. It is also being increasingly recognized that OSA can also accelerate loss of kidney function. Moreover, animals exposed to intermittent hypoxia suffer histopathological renal damage. Potential mechanisms of OSA-associated renal dysfunction include renal hypoxia, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and increased oxidative stress. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 845. Citation: Abuvassin B, Sharma K, Ayas NT, Laher I. Obstructive sleep apnea and kidney disease: a potential bidirectional relationship? J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):915924. PMID:25845900

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea and driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society position paper.

    PubMed

    Ayas, Najib; Skomro, Robert; Blackman, Adam; Curren, Kristen; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Fleetham, John; George, Charles; Hakemi, Tom; Hanly, Patrick; Li, Christopher; Morrison, Debra; Series, Frdric

    2014-01-01

    Untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk for motor vehicle collisions; however, it is unclear how this should be translated into fitness-to-drive recommendations. Accordingly, the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) Sleep Disordered Breathing Clinical Assembly and the Canadian Sleep Society (CSS) assembled a CTS-CSS working group to propose recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA. Recommendations for assessing fitness to drive in noncommercial drivers: 1. Severity of OSA alone is not a reliable predictor of collision risk and, therefore, should not be used in isolation to assess fitness to drive; 2. The severity of sleep apnea should be considered in the context of other factors to assess fitness to drive; 3. The decision to restrict driving is ultimately made by the motor vehicle licensing authority; however, they should take into account the information and recommendations provided by the sleep medicine physician and should follow provincial guidelines; 4. For patients prescribed continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, objective CPAP compliance should be documented. Efficacy should also be documented in terms of reversing the symptoms and improvement in sleep apnea based on physiological monitoring; 5. For patients treated with surgery or an oral appliance, verification of adequate sleep apnea treatment should be obtained; and 6. A driver diagnosed with OSA may be recertified as fit to drive based on assessment of symptoms and demonstrating compliance with treatment. The assessment should be aligned with the provincial driver's license renewal period. Commercial vehicles: Assessment of fitness to drive should be more stringent for patients operating commercial vehicles. In general, the CTS-CSS working group was in agreement with the Medical Expert Panel recommendations to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration in the United States; these recommendations were adapted for Canadian practitioners. PMID:24724150

  14. Probabilistic cardiac and respiratory based classification of sleep and apneic events in subjects with sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Willemen, T; Varon, C; Dorado, A Caicedo; Haex, B; Vander Sloten, J; Van Huffel, S

    2015-10-01

    Current clinical standards to assess sleep and its disorders lack either accuracy or user-friendliness. They are therefore difficult to use in cost-effective population-wide screening or long-term objective follow-up after diagnosis. In order to fill this gap, the use of cardiac and respiratory information was evaluated for discrimination between different sleep stages, and for detection of apneic breathing. Alternative probabilistic visual representations were also presented, referred to as the hypnocorrogram and apneacorrogram. Analysis was performed on the UCD sleep apnea database, available on Physionet. The presence of apneic events proved to have a significant impact on the performance of a cardiac and respiratory based algorithm for sleep stage classification. WAKE versus SLEEP discrimination resulted in a kappa value of ? = 0.0439, while REM versus NREM resulted in ? = 0.298 and light sleep (N1N2) versus deep sleep (N3) in ? = 0.339. The high proportion of hypopneic events led to poor detection of apneic breathing, resulting in a kappa value of ? = 0.272. While the probabilistic representations allow to put classifier output in perspective, further improvements would be necessary to make the classifier reliable for use on patients with sleep apnea. PMID:26290159

  15. Innovative treatments for adults with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri E; Calik, Michael W; Farabi, Sarah S; Fink, Anne M; Galang-Boquiren, Maria T; Kapella, Mary C; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects one in five adult males and is associated with significant comorbidity, cognitive impairment, excessive daytime sleepiness, and reduced quality of life. For over 25 years, the primary treatment has been continuous positive airway pressure, which introduces a column of air that serves as a pneumatic splint for the upper airway, preventing the airway collapse that is the physiologic definition of this syndrome. However, issues with patient tolerance and unacceptable levels of treatment adherence motivated the exploration of other potential treatments. With greater understanding of the physiologic mechanisms associated with OSA, novel interventions have emerged in the last 5 years. The purpose of this article is to describe new treatments for OSA and associated complex sleep apnea. New approaches to complex sleep apnea have included adaptive servoventilation. There is increased literature on the contribution of behavioral interventions to improve adherence with continuous positive airway pressure that have proven quite effective. New non-surgical treatments include oral pressure devices, improved mandibular advancement devices, nasal expiratory positive airway pressure, and newer approaches to positional therapy. Recent innovations in surgical interventions have included laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty, radiofrequency ablation, palatal implants, and electrical stimulation of the upper airway muscles. No drugs have been approved to treat OSA, but potential drug therapies have centered on increasing ventilatory drive, altering the arousal threshold, modifying loop gain (a dimensionless value quantifying the stability of the ventilatory control system), or preventing airway collapse by affecting the surface tension. An emerging approach is the application of cannabinoids to increase upper airway tone. PMID:25429246

  16. Pediatric Home Sleep Apnea Testing: Slowly Getting There!

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui-Leng; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric OSA can result in significant neurocognitive, behavioral, cardiovascular, and metabolic morbidities. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are, therefore, of paramount importance. The current gold standard for diagnosis of OSA in children is in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG). Home sleep apnea testing has been considered as an alternative as it is potentially more cost effective, convenient, and accessible. This review concentrates mainly on the use of type 2 and 3 portable monitoring devices. The current evidence on the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of home testing in the diagnosis of pediatric OSA was examined. Overall, the evidence in children is limited. Feasibility studies that have been performed have on the whole shown good results, with several reporting > 90% of their home recordings as meeting predetermined quality criteria regarding signal artifact and minimum recording time. The limited data comparing type 2 studies with in-laboratory PSG have shown no significant differences in respiratory parameters. The results pertaining to diagnostic accuracy of type 3 home sleep apnea testing devices are conflicting. Although more research is needed, home testing with at least a type 3 portable monitor offers a viable alternative in the diagnosis of otherwise healthy children with moderate to severe OSA, particularly in settings where access to polysomnography is scarce or unavailable. Of note, since most studies have been performed in habitually snoring healthy children, home sleep apnea testing may not be applicable to children with other comorbid conditions. In particular, CO2 monitoring is important in children in whom there is concern regarding nocturnal hypoventilation, such as children with neuromuscular disease, underlying lung disease, or obesity hypoventilation, and most home testing devices do not include a transcutaneous or end-tidal CO2 channel. PMID:26270608

  17. Innovative treatments for adults with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Terri E; Calik, Michael W; Farabi, Sarah S; Fink, Anne M; Galang-Boquiren, Maria T; Kapella, Mary C; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects one in five adult males and is associated with significant comorbidity, cognitive impairment, excessive daytime sleepiness, and reduced quality of life. For over 25 years, the primary treatment has been continuous positive airway pressure, which introduces a column of air that serves as a pneumatic splint for the upper airway, preventing the airway collapse that is the physiologic definition of this syndrome. However, issues with patient tolerance and unacceptable levels of treatment adherence motivated the exploration of other potential treatments. With greater understanding of the physiologic mechanisms associated with OSA, novel interventions have emerged in the last 5 years. The purpose of this article is to describe new treatments for OSA and associated complex sleep apnea. New approaches to complex sleep apnea have included adaptive servoventilation. There is increased literature on the contribution of behavioral interventions to improve adherence with continuous positive airway pressure that have proven quite effective. New non-surgical treatments include oral pressure devices, improved mandibular advancement devices, nasal expiratory positive airway pressure, and newer approaches to positional therapy. Recent innovations in surgical interventions have included laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty, radiofrequency ablation, palatal implants, and electrical stimulation of the upper airway muscles. No drugs have been approved to treat OSA, but potential drug therapies have centered on increasing ventilatory drive, altering the arousal threshold, modifying loop gain (a dimensionless value quantifying the stability of the ventilatory control system), or preventing airway collapse by affecting the surface tension. An emerging approach is the application of cannabinoids to increase upper airway tone. PMID:25429246

  18. Overview of proteomics studies in obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Amlia; Torres, Vukosava Milic; Vaz, Ftima; Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Matthiesen, Rune; Pinto, Paula; Malhotra, Atul; Brbara, Cristina; Penque, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underdiagnosed common public health concern causing deleterious effects on metabolic and cardiovascular health. Although much has been learned regarding the pathophysiology and consequences of OSA in the past decades, the molecular mechanisms associated with such processes remain poorly defined. The advanced high-throughput proteomics-based technologies have become a fundamental approach for identifying novel disease mediators as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for many diseases, including OSA. Here, we briefly review OSA pathophysiology and the technological advances in proteomics and the first results of its application to address critical issues in the OSA field. PMID:25770042

  19. A home sleep apnea screening device with time-domain signal processing and autonomous scoring capability.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiayi; Sánchez-Sinencio, Edgar

    2015-02-01

    Current solutions of sleep apnea diagnosis require the patient to undergo overnight studies at a specialized sleep laboratory. Due to such inconvenience and high cost, millions of sleep apnea patients remain undiagnosed and thus untreated. Based on a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensor and an effective apnea detection algorithm, we propose a low-cost single-channel apnea screening solution applicable in the comfort of patients' homes. A prototype device was designed and assembled including a MEMS sensor for measuring the patient's nasal air flows, and a time-domain signal processing IC for apnea detection and autonomous scoring. The IC chip was fabricated in standard 0.5- μm CMOS technology. The proposed device was tested for both respiratory rhythm detection and sleep apnea screening under clinical environment. Apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI) were scored to indicate severity of sleep apnea conditions. Test results suggest that the proposed device can be a valuable screening solution for the broader public with undiagnosed apnea conditions. PMID:25486649

  20. The bidirectional interactions between psoriasis and obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Hirotsu, Camila; Nogueira, Heloisa; Albuquerque, Rachel G; Tomimori, Jane; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder which can impair general routine activities and has been closely related to poor quality of life. Pruritus and scratching are frequently observed, occurring mainly during sleep and precipitating nighttime arousals. Indeed, sleep quality has been shown to be negatively affected in psoriatic patients, in a close relationship with stress exposure and immune response. Although psoriasis is known to impair sleep, leading to insomnia, its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is controversial. Similarly, OSA is considered a multifactorial inflammatory disease, characterized by intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysfunction, with important outcomes on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, immunological activities and pro-inflammatory cytokines play a prominent role in both OSA and psoriasis. Currently it is not clear whether OSA is a risk factor for psoriasis development or if psoriasis is a possible predictor of OSA. Thus, our main purpose is to provide an overview of this intriguing relationship and show the current link between psoriasis and OSA in a bidirectional relationship. PMID:26220730

  1. Feasibility of Portable Sleep Monitors to Detect Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in a Vulnerable Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Jillian; Lee, Euny; Nedelman, Michael; Aurora, R. Nisha; Krieger, Ana; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Portable sleep monitors may offer a convenient method to expand detection of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), yet few studies have evaluated this technology in vulnerable populations. We therefore aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of portable sleep monitors for detection of OSA in a prediabetic, urban minority population. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of participants at their 12-month follow-up for a community-partnered, peer-led lifestyle intervention aimed to prevent diabetes in prediabetic and overweight patients in this prospective mixed-methods pilot study. All participants wore portable sleep monitors overnight at home. We qualitatively explored perceptions about OSA and portable monitors in a subset of participants. Results We tested 72 people, predominantly non-White, female, Spanish speaking, uninsured, and of low income. Use of portable sleep monitors was feasible: 100% of the monitors were returned and all participants received results. We detected OSA in 49% (defined as an Apnea-Hypopnea Index [AHI] >5) and moderate-severe OSA in 14% (AHI >15) requiring treatment in 14%. In 21 qualitative interviews, participants supported increased use of portable sleep monitors in their community, were appropriately concerned that OSA could cause progression to diabetes, and thought weight loss could prevent or improve OSA. Conclusions Portable sleep monitors may represent a feasible method for detecting OSA in high-risk urban minority populations. PMID:25748767

  2. Clinical foundation for efficient treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, Richard M; Finn, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Only a few decades ago, the entity known as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was unknown and untreated. Now, there is a rush to put literally millions of Americans on continuous positive airway pressure devices. Community practice standards are changing yearly under pressure from strong forces based on economic incentives for industry, government, and physicians, independent of the actual medical evidence supporting treatment and efficacy. Medicare has lowered the diagnostic threshold for diagnosis and reimbursement; the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revision 2 (2005) has allowed OSA to be diagnosed exclusively by a laboratory test without the patient having clinical symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness; and industry is poised to have the public buy computer-assisted continuous positive airway pressure machines without need of a physician prescription. Because of this paradigm shift away from physician-directed diagnosis and treatment, this article will critically evaluate the present state of medical evidence regarding the clinical foundation for treatment of OSA. PMID:19761911

  3. Real-time sleep apnea detection by classifier combination.

    PubMed

    Xie, Baile; Minn, Hlaing

    2012-05-01

    To find an efficient and valid alternative of polysomnography (PSG), this paper investigates real-time sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) detection based on electrocardiograph (ECG) and saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO(2)) signals, individually and in combination. We include ten machine-learning algorithms in our classification experiment. It is shown that our proposed SpO (2) features outperform the ECG features in terms of diagnostic ability. More importantly, we propose classifier combination to further enhance the classification performance by harnessing the complementary information provided by individual classifiers. With our selected SpO(2) and ECG features, the classifier combination using AdaBoost with Decision Stump, Bagging with REPTree, and either kNN or Decision Table achieves sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all around 82% for a minute-based real-time SAHS detection over 25 sleep-disordered-breathing suspects' full overnight recordings. PMID:22353404

  4. Severe onychophagia and finger mutilation associated with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Nino, Gustavo; Singareddy, Ravi

    2013-04-15

    Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can lead to important neurobehavioral consequences including cognitive deficits, hyperactivity/inattention, daytime sleepiness, and mood disturbances. Interestingly, the potential role of OSA in the pathogenesis of impulse-control disorders such as nail biting (onychophagia) is currently unknown. We present a case of a man with severe onychophagia and biting-induced finger mutilation that was completely resolved after diagnosis and treatment of severe OSA. Accordingly, this report represents an important clinical observation that suggests a connection between sleep physiology and the neurobiological circuits implicated in the regulation of impulse-control behaviors. Further research in this area may improve our current understanding of the neurobehavioral consequences of untreated OSA. PMID:23585754

  5. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  6. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  7. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  8. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  9. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  10. Probabilistic sleep architecture models in patients with and without sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Matt T.; Eiseman, Nathaniel A.; Cash, Sydney S.; Mietus, Joseph; Peng, Chung-Kang; Thomas, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sleep fragmentation of any cause is disruptive to the rejuvenating value of sleep. However, methods to quantify sleep architecture remain limited. We have previously shown that human sleepwake stage distributions exhibit multi-exponential dynamics, which are fragmented by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), suggesting that Markov models may be a useful method to quantify architecture in health and disease. Sleep stage data were obtained from two subsets of the Sleep Heart Health Study database: control subjects with no medications, no OSA, no medical co-morbidities and no sleepiness (n = 374); and subjects with severe OSA (n = 338). Sleep architecture was simplified into three stages: wake after sleep onset (WASO); non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The connectivity and transition rates among eight generator states of a first-order continuous-time Markov model were inferred from the observed (phenotypic) distributions: three exponentials each of NREM sleep and WASO; and two exponentials of REM sleep. Ultradian REM cycling was accomplished by imposing time-variation to REM state entry rates. Fragmentation in subjects with severe OSA involved faster transition probabilities as well as additional state transition paths within the model. The Markov models exhibit two important features of human sleep architecture: multi-exponential stage dynamics (accounting for observed bout distributions); and probabilistic transitions (an inherent source of variability). In addition, the model quantifies the fragmentation associated with severe OSA. Markov sleep models may prove important for quantifying sleep disruption to provide objective metrics to correlate with endpoints ranging from sleepiness to cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:21955148

  11. Significance of vaspin in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    PAN, ZHE; ZHUANG, XIANGHUA; LI, XIAOBO; HUANG, SHAOYI; ZHANG, LIANG; LOU, FUCHEN; CHEN, SHIHONG; NI, YIHONG

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a commonly-diagnosed chronic sleep disorder. It is considered to be an important independent risk factor in the development of insulin resistance (IR). Patients with OSAHS exhibit a variety of metabolic disorders, including obesity and metabolic syndrome. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin) is an adipokine that is considered to be a link between obesity and IR. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of plasma vaspin in patients with OSAHS and examine their potential correlation with sleep characteristics. A total of 20 healthy male subjects and 42 male patients with OSAHS were selected, and patients were divided into mild (n=22) and severe (n=20) OSAHS groups. The 20 patients in the severe OSAHS group received nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment for 2 months. Venous blood samples were drawn from all patients in a fasting state prior to and subsequent to nCPAP treatment, which were used to measure the levels of biochemical indicators. The sleep parameters and serologic index changes were compared prior to and following treatment. The values of contractive pressure (SBP), neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and hip circumference (HC) in the two OSAHS groups were significantly increased compared with those in the control group. In addition, the levels of vaspin in OSAHS patients were markedly increased and vaspin was revealed to be positively associated with fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment-IR, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), NC, WC, BMI and WHR (P<0.05). After 2 months of nCPAP treatment, the SBP and AHI were significantly reduced. In conclusion, vaspin may have an important role in OSAHS patients with IR and treatment using nCPAP may improve the condition of OSAHS patients.

  12. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Preoperative Screening and Postoperative Care.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Robert M; Pomerantz, Jonathan; Miller, Deborah E; Weiss-Coleman, Rebecca; Solomonides, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has reached epidemic proportions, and it is an often unrecognized cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Profound hypoxic injury from apnea during the postoperative period is often misdiagnosed as cardiac arrest due to other causes. Almost a quarter of patients entering a hospital for elective surgery have OSA, and >80% of these cases are undiagnosed at the time of surgery. The perioperative period puts patients at high risk of apneic episodes because of drug effects from sedatives, narcotics, and general anesthesia, as well as from the effects of postoperative rapid eye movement sleep changes and postoperative positioning in the hospital bed. For adults, preoperative screening using the STOP or STOP-Bang questionnaires can help to identify adult patients at increased risk of OSA. In the pediatric setting, a question about snoring should be part of every preoperative examination. For patients with known OSA, continuous positive airway pressure should be continued postoperatively. Continuous pulse oximetry monitoring with an alarm system can help to prevent apneic catastrophes caused by OSA in the postoperative period. PMID:26957384

  13. Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.; Sofer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4% (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.

  14. Alternatives to positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Randerath, Winfried J

    2009-06-01

    Owing to the prevalence, the considerable risk of accidents and cardiovascular consequences, optimal treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is of crucial importance. However, many patients look for alternative conservative or surgical therapies to continuous positive airway pressure to avoid discomfort and local side-effects owing to the mask. Scientific data are lacking for most of the alternative methods. However, it has been proven that intra-oral appliances can reduce mild-to-moderate respiratory disturbances; the maxillo-mandibular osteotomy is efficient in the short- and long-term but is preferred in special situations such as craniofacial dysmorphias. Weight reduction and body positioning cannot be recommended as a single treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Resections of muscular tissue within the soft palate have to be strictly avoided. Efficacy of gentle soft palate procedures is difficult to predict and often decreases in the years following this treatment. Multilevel surgery concepts are of increasing interest, although more data from prospective, controlled studies are needed. PMID:20477320

  15. Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lee, Li-Ang; Kezirian, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study was a retrospective case series in a tertiary referral sleep center. Twenty-five adults with moderate to severe OSA and determined to have retropalatal and tongue base obstruction based on Friedman tongue position III and fiberoptic endoscopy underwent CELL in combination with modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, known as relocation pharyngoplasty. CELL involves transoral resection of tongue base muscle tissue and lingual tonsil using Coblation under endoscopic guidance. The mean operation time for CELL was 42.613.7min. Total blood loss for CELL plus relocation pharyngoplasty was <50ml in all patients. Mean postoperative pain score (sum of total pain scores/sum of total hospitalization day, visual analog scale, 0-10) was 2.60.6. Postoperative bleeding and taste disturbance extending beyond 3months occurred in one patient (4%) individually. No patients reported tongue weakness or speech dysfunction. Epworth sleepiness scale improved from 9.64.9 to 7.54.3 (p=0.023). Apnea-hypopnea index decreased from 45.721.7 to 12.88.2 events/hour (p<0.001) 6months after surgery. The overall response rate was 80%. CELL is feasible, safe and effective in treating tongue base obstruction in OSA patients who underwent simultaneous relocation pharyngoplasty. PMID:25577994

  16. Systolic pressure response to voluntary apnea predicts sympathetic tone in obstructive sleep apnea as a clinically useful index.

    PubMed

    Jouett, Noah P; Hardisty, Janelle M; Mason, J Ryan; Niv, Dorene; Romano, James J; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Burk, John R; Smith, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation tested the hypotheses that systolic arterial pressure (SAP) responses to voluntary apnea (a) serve as a surrogate of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), (b) can distinguish Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) patients from control subjects and (c) can document autonomic effects of treatment. 9 OSA and 10 control subjects were recruited in a laboratory study; 44 OSA subjects and 78 control subjects were recruited in a clinical study; and 21 untreated OSA subjects and 14 well-treated OSA subjects were recruited into a treatment study. Each subject performed hypoxic and room air voluntary apneas in triplicate. Muscle SNA (MSNA) and continuous AP were measured during each apnea in the laboratory study, while systolic arterial pressure (SAP) responses were measured continuously and by standard auscultation in the clinical and treatment studies. OSA subjects exhibited increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), SAP and MSNA responses to hypoxic apnea (all P<0.01) and the SAP response highly correlated with the MSNA response (R(2)=0.72, P<0.001). Clinical assessment confirmed that OSA subjects exhibited markedly elevated SAP responses (P<0.01), while treated OSA subjects had a decreased SAP response to apnea (P<0.04) compared to poorly treated subjects. These data indicate that (a) OSA subjects exhibit increased pressor and MSNA responses to apnea, and that (b) voluntary apnea may be a clinically useful assessment tool of autonomic dysregulation and treatment efficacy in OSA. PMID:26774324

  17. Perioperative sleep apnea: a real problem or did we invent a new disease?

    PubMed Central

    Zaremba, Sebastian; Mojica, James E.; Eikermann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Depending on the subpopulation, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can affect more than 75% of surgical patients. An increasing body of evidence supports the association between OSA  and perioperative complications, but some data indicate important perioperative outcomes do not differ between patients with and without OSA. In this review we will provide an overview of the pathophysiology of sleep apnea and the risk factors for perioperative complications related to sleep apnea. We also discuss a clinical algorithm for the identification and management of OSA patients facing surgery. PMID:27006758

  18. Severity of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias correlates with intensity of sleep apnea in men.

    PubMed

    Szaboova, E; Holoubek, D; Tomori, Z; Szabo, P; Donic, V; Stancak, B

    2013-01-01

    Various cardiac arrhythmias frequently occur in patients with sleep apnea, but complex analysis of the relationship between their severity and the probable arrhythmogenic risk factors is conflicting. The question is what cardiovascular risk factors and how strongly they are associated with the severity of cardiac arrhythmias in sleep apnea. Adult males (33 with and 16 without sleep apnea), matched for cardiovascular co-morbidity were studied by polysomnography with simultaneous ECG monitoring. Arrhythmia severity was evaluated for each subject by a special 7-degree scoring system. Laboratory, clinical, echocardiographic, carotid ultrasonographic, ambulatory blood pressure, and baroreflex sensitivity values were also assessed. Moderate sleep apnea patients had benign, but more exaggerated cardiac arrhythmias than control subjects (2.53 2.49 vs. 1.13 1.64 degrees of cumulative severity, p < 0.05). We confirmed strong correlations between the arrhythmia severity and known arrhythmogenic risk factors (left ventricular ejection fraction and dimensions, right ventricular diameter, baroreflex sensitivity, carotid intima-media thickness, age, previous myocardial infarction, and also apnea-hypopnea index). In multivariate modelling only the apnea-hypopnea index indicating the sleep apnea intensity remained highly significantly correlated with the cumulative arrhythmia severity (beta = 0.548, p < 0.005). In conclusion, sleep apnea modifying cardiovascular risk factors and structures or functions provoked various nocturnal arrhythmias. The proposed scoring system allowed a complex analysis of the contribution of various triggers to arrhythmogenesis and confirmed the apnea-hypopnea index as an independent risk for nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia severity in sleep apnea. PMID:22826063

  19. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in Asian adults: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease, affecting approximately 2% of women and 4% of men residing in Western communities. No systematically reviewed data are available about the prevalence of this disease in Asia, the most heavily populated continent. Methods PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched for articles published from 1993 to May 2012 that reported the prevalence of OSA diagnosed via sleep monitoring and the prevalence of patients at risk for OSA as assessed by symptomatology and/or sleep questionnaires. We have also searched abstract database of major pulmonary and sleep scientific societies for relevant abstracts presented from 2010 to 2012. The following inclusion criteria were used: articles published in English, age???18 years, ??100 participants in studies using sleep monitoring for the diagnosis of OSA, ??300 participants in studies using questionnaires to detect patients at high risk for OSA. Exclusion criteria: duplicate publications, studies reporting the prevalence of central sleep apnea only, hospital based studies as well as studies assessing OSA prevalence among patients with resistant arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure and in patients with concomitant neurological disease. Results Twenty four articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria, covering 47,957 subjects (26,042 men and 21,915 women) and four relevant abstracts were noted. OSA prevalence ranged from 3.7% to 97.3%. Male gender, older age, a higher BMI and waist to hip ratio, greater neck circumference, arterial hypertension, smoking, snoring and daytime sleepiness were associated with OSA. Sample size, difference between the populations studied and the fact that some works included patients with a high pre-test probability of OSA explain the difference in prevalence rates. Conclusion This systematic review highlights the lack of data regarding the prevalence of OSA in Asians. Only a few studies provide an approximate estimate of the OSA burden in some Asian communities. PMID:23433391

  20. Oral Appliance Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Kate; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Tsuda, Hiroko; Marklund, Marie; Gagnadoux, Frederic; Kushida, Clete A.; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Oral appliances (OA) have emerged as an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment. The most commonly used OA reduces upper airway collapse by advancing the mandible (OAm). There is a strong evidence base demonstrating OAm improve OSA in the majority of patients, including some with more severe disease. However OAm are not efficacious for all, with approximately one-third of patients experiencing no therapeutic benefit. OAm are generally well tolerated, although short-term adverse effects during acclimatization are common. Long-term dental changes do occur, but these are for the most part subclinical and do not preclude continued use. Patients often prefer OAm to gold-standard CPAP treatment. Head-to-head trials confirm CPAP is superior in reducing OSA parameters on polysomnography; however, this greater efficacy does not necessarily translate into better health outcomes in clinical practice. Comparable effectiveness of OAm and CPAP has been attributed to higher reported nightly use of OAm, suggesting that inferiority in reducing apneic events may be counteracted by greater treatment adherence. Recently, significant advances in commercially available OAm technologies have been made. Remotely controlled mandibular positioners have the potential to identify treatment responders and the level of therapeutic advancement required in single night titration polysomnography. Objective monitoring of OAm adherence using small embedded temperature sensing data loggers is now available and will enhance clinical practice and research. These technologies will further enhance efficacy and effectiveness of OAm treatment for OSA. Citation: Sutherland K; Vanderveken OM; Tsuda H; Marklund M; Gagnadoux F; Kushida CA; Cistulli PA; on behalf of the ORANGE-Registry. Oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: an update. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(2):215-227. PMID:24533007

  1. Using the Pathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea to Teach Cardiopulmonary Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The effects of intermittent upper airway obstruction include alveolar hypoventilation, altered arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors, which leads to frequent arousals. These arousals disturb sleep

  2. Clinical Presentation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, David D. M.; Ahmed, Sofia B.; Loewen, Andrea H. S.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Sola, Darlene Y.; Beecroft, Jaime M.; Turin, Tanvir C.; Hanly, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important and common comorbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have addressed how OSA presents in this patient population and whether it is clinically apparent. Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine if the prevalence and severity of sleep related symptoms distinguished CKD patients with OSA from those without apnea, and whether the clinical presentation of OSA in CKD patients differed from the general OSA population. Methods: One hundred nineteen patients were recruited from outpatient nephrology clinics. All patients completed a sleep history questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness, ESS > 10), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (poor sleep quality, PSQI > 5), and underwent overnight cardiopulmonary monitoring for determination of sleep apnea (respiratory disturbance index ? 15). CKD patients with OSA (n = 46) were compared to (1) CKD patients without OSA (n = 73) and (2) OSA patients without CKD (n = 230) who were referred to the sleep centre. Results: The prevalence of OSA symptoms and PSQI scores did not differ between CKD patients with OSA and CKD patients without apnea. Although the prevalence of daytime sleepiness was higher in CKD patients with OSA compared to CKD patients without apnea (39% vs. 19%, p = 0.033), both daytime sleepiness and other symptoms of sleep apnea were considerably less frequent than in OSA patients without a history of kidney disease. Conclusions: The presence of OSA in patients with CKD is unlikely to be clinically apparent. Consequently, objective cardiopulmonary monitoring during sleep is required to reliably identify this comorbidity. Citation: Nicholl DDM; Ahmed SB; Loewen AHS; Hemmelgarn BR; Sola DY; Beecroft JM; Turin TC; Hanly PJ. Clinical presentation of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(4):381-387. PMID:22893768

  3. CPAP, Weight Loss, or Both for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chirinos, Julio A.; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Teff, Karen; Rader, Daniel J.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Townsend, Raymond; Foster, Gary D.; Maislin, Greg; Saif, Hassam; Broderick, Preston; Chittams, Jesse; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Pack, Allan I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea tend to coexist and are associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure, but their causal relation to these abnormalities is unclear. METHODS We randomly assigned 181 patients with obesity, moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) greater than 1.0 mg per liter to receive treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a weight-loss intervention, or CPAP plus a weight-loss intervention for 24 weeks. We assessed the incremental effect of the combined interventions over each one alone on the CRP level (the primary end point), insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, and blood pressure. RESULTS Among the 146 participants for whom there were follow-up data, those assigned to weight loss only and those assigned to the combined interventions had reductions in CRP levels, insulin resistance, and serum triglyceride levels. None of these changes were observed in the group receiving CPAP alone. Blood pressure was reduced in all three groups. No significant incremental effect on CRP levels was found for the combined interventions as compared with either weight loss or CPAP alone. Reductions in insulin resistance and serum triglyceride levels were greater in the combined-intervention group than in the group receiving CPAP only, but there were no significant differences in these values between the combined-intervention group and the weight-loss group. In per-protocol analyses, which included 90 participants who met prespecified criteria for adherence, the combined interventions resulted in a larger reduction in systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure than did either CPAP or weight loss alone. CONCLUSIONS In adults with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea, CPAP combined with a weight-loss intervention did not reduce CRP levels more than either intervention alone. In secondary analyses, weight loss provided an incremental reduction in insulin resistance and serum triglyceride levels when combined with CPAP. In addition, adherence to a regimen of weight loss and CPAP may result in incremental reductions in blood pressure as compared with either intervention alone. PMID:24918371

  4. Prevalence of major obstructive sleep apnea syndrome symptoms in coal miners and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kart, Levent; Dutkun, Yal?n; Alt?n, Remzi; Ornek, Tacettin; K?ran, Sibel

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with symptoms including habitual snoring, witness apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Also obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is related to some occupations which are needed attention for work accident. We aimed to determine the prevalence of snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness in coal workers and healthy adults in Zonguldak city center, and also evaluate the differences between these groups. This study consisted of 423 underground coal workers and 355 individuals living in centre of Zonguldak. Study and comparison group were chosen by nonstratified randomized sampling method. Data were collected by a questionnaire that included information regarding snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Mean age was 43.3 6.05 years in miners and 44.3 11.8 years in comparison group. In miners, snoring frequency was determined as 42.6%, witnessed apneas were 4.0%, and daytime sleepiness were 4.7%. In comparison group, these symptoms were 38.6%, 4.8% and 2.8% respectively. There were no statistical differences between coal workers and comparison group in these symptoms. Also snoring prevalence was higher in smoker miners. We found that major symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in coal workers are similar to general population in Zonguldak. Further studies that constucted higher populations and with polysomnography are needed to evaluate these findings. PMID:21038136

  5. Correlation of Lateral Cephalogram and Flexible Laryngoscopy with Sleep Study in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Anila; Faizal, Bini

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the correlation between lateral cephalogram, flexible laryngoscopy, and sleep study in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Background. Screening tools should be devised for predicting OSA which could be performed on an outpatient basis. With this aim we studied the skeletal and soft tissue characteristics of proven OSA patients. Methods. A prospective study was performed in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by sleep study. They were evaluated clinically and subjected to lateral cephalometry and nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. The findings were matched to see if they corresponded to AHI of sleep study in severity. An attempt was made to see whether the data predicted the patients who would benefit from oral appliance or surgery as the definitive treatment in indicated cases. Results. A retropalatal collapse seen on endoscopy could be equated to the distance from mandibular plane to hyoid (MP-H) of lateral cephalometry and both corresponded to severity of AHI. At the retroglossal region, there was a significant correlation with MP-H, length of the soft palate, and AHI. Conclusion. There is significant correlation of lateral cephalogram and awake flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy with AHI in OSA. In unison they form an excellent screening tool for snorers. PMID:26689652

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic bone disease: Insights in to the relationship between bone and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Christine M.; Shea, Steven A.; Stone, Katie L.; Cauley, Jane A.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Redline, Susan; Karsenty, Gerard; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and low bone mass are two prevalent conditions, particularly among older adults, a section of the U.S. population that is expected to grow dramatically over the coming years. OSA, the most common form of sleep disordered breathing, has been linked to multiple cardiovascular, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory derangements and may have adverse effects on bone. However, little is known about how OSA (including the associated hypoxia and sleep loss) affects bone metabolism. In order to gain insight into the relationship between sleep and bone, we review the growing information on OSA and metabolic bone disease and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms by which OSA may affect bone metabolism/architecture. PMID:25639209

  7. A telemedicine program for diagnosis and management of sleep-disordered breathing: the fast-track for sleep apnea tele-sleep program.

    PubMed

    Hirshkowitz, Max; Sharafkhaneh, Amir

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to facilitate access to sleep health care for veterans. We designed and implemented a Telehealth program for diagnosing and treating sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs). Building on our ongoing out-of-laboratory "Fast Track for Sleep Apnea" program, procedures were modified to accommodate remote operations. This Tele-sleep program was set up at the medical center's community-based outpatient clinics. Home sleep testing and positive airway pressure device technological advances enabled realizing this application for Telehealth. In addition to obtaining appropriated teleconferencing equipment, the program involved implementing systematic processes for (1) six types of clinic visits, (2) training remote-site personnel, (3) making recommendations for inventory management, and (4) evaluating patient satisfaction. Over the past year, we have updated and refined our procedures to optimize program performance and efficiency. To achieve the next step, that is, increasing program scale beyond its current state (e.g., to region-wide), we will need to further develop and formalize quality control indicators to more efficiently monitor operations. The program has helped relieve clinical load at the central sleep program, improved local access to sleep care for veterans, and improved patient satisfaction with health care for SRBDs. PMID:25353101

  8. Patient and Partner Experiences With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and CPAP Treatment: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Faith S; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Aloia, Mark S; Martire, Lynn M; Buysse, Daniel J; Strollo, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated factors associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for sleep apnea from the patients' and their partners' perspective. This qualitative research study explored patients' and partners' experiences of CPAP and facilitators and barriers to CPAP use, and elicited suggestions for a first-time CPAP user program. Data from 27 participants were collected via four sleep apnea patient and four partner focus groups. Qualitative content analysis identified five themes: knowledge of sleep apnea, effects of sleep apnea, effects of CPAP, barriers and facilitators of CPAP, and ideas for a new user support program. Patients and partners emphasized the importance of partner involvement in the early CPAP treatment period. These data suggest consideration of a couple-oriented approach to improving CPAP adherence. PMID:25203283

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea, immuno-inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Claire; Dematteis, Maurice; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Lvy, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent sleep disorder leading to cardiovascular and metabolic complications. OSA is also a multicomponent disorder, with intermittent hypoxia (IH) as the main trigger for the associated cardiovascular and metabolic alterations. Indeed, recurrent pharyngeal collapses during sleep lead to repetitive sequences of hypoxia-reoxygenation. This IH induces several consequences such as hemodynamic, hormonometabolic, oxidative, and immuno-inflammatory alterations that may interact and aggravate each other, resulting in artery changes, from adaptive to degenerative atherosclerotic remodeling. Atherosclerosis has been found in OSA patients free of other cardiovascular risk factors and is related to the severity of nocturnal hypoxia. Early stages of artery alteration, including functional and structural changes, have been evidenced in both OSA patients and rodents experimentally exposed to IH. Impaired vasoreactivity with endothelial dysfunction and/or increased vasoconstrictive responses due to sympathetic, endothelin, and renin-angiotensin systems have been reported and also contribute to vascular remodeling and inflammation. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular remodeling can be directly triggered by IH, further aggravated by the OSA-associated hormonometabolic alterations, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and adipokine imbalance. As shown in OSA patients and in the animal model, genetic susceptibility, comorbidities (obesity), and life habits (high fat diet) may aggravate atherosclerosis development or progression. The intimate molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown, and their understanding may contribute to delineate new targets for prevention strategies and/or development of new treatment of OSA-related atherosclerosis, especially in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:19404644

  10. Vaspin and lipocalin-2 levels in severe obsructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Zorlu, Mehmet; Akkoyunlu, Muhammed Emin; Kilic, Elif; Karatoprak, Cumali; Cakirca, Mustafa; Yavuz, Erdinc; Ardic, Cuneyt; Camli, Ahmet Adil; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmetali; Kart, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaspin and lipocalin-2 are less-known recent members of adipocytokine family. There are ongoing studies investigating the role of vaspin ve lipocalin-2 in metabolic syndrome (MS). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is independently associated with an increased prevalence of MS. We aimed to measure the levels of vaspin and lipocalin-2 which are secreted from adipocytes in patients with severe OSAS and examine the relationship between these two adipocytokines and OSAS. Methods The study consisted of two groups: severe OSAS patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >30/h (OSAS group, 34 subjects) and age-matched healthy volunteers with a AHI <5/h (control group, 25 subjects) Serum levels of vaspin and lipocalin-2 in these two groups were compared. Results Serum levels of vaspin were significantly lower in OSAS group; patients with severe OSAS compared with control group; healthy volunteers (OSAS group: 0.690.5 vs. control group: 1.241.13; P=0.034). The difference between the two groups in terms of serum levels of lipocalin-2 has not reached statistical significance (OSAS group: 61.618.2 vs. control group: 68.520.1; P=0.17). Conclusions We found that serum vaspin levels were significantly lower in patients with severe OSAS compared with healthy controls. Lipocalin-2 levels were similar. The decrease in serum vaspin levels in severe OSAS patients may be important in diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. PMID:24976995

  11. Ambulatory management of patients with sleep apnea: is there a place for portable monitor testing?

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Bernie; Kuna, Samuel T

    2010-06-01

    Portable monitor testing is being increasingly used as an alternative strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Portable monitors have become progressively sophisticated but lack standardization. Recent studies comparing clinical outcomes of ambulatory management pathways using portable monitor testing support their use in patients with a high pretest probability for obstructive sleep apnea. Whether ambulatory management is cost-effective and will improve patient access to diagnosis and treatment requires further investigation. PMID:20488288

  12. Association of sleep apnea with clinically silent microvascular brain tissue changes in acute cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kepplinger, Jessica; Barlinn, Kristian; Boehme, Amelia K; Gerber, Johannes; Puetz, Volker; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Schrempf, Wiebke; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Albright, Karen C; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Reichmann, Heinz; von Kummer, Ruediger; Bodechtel, Ulf

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the importance of sleep apnea in relation to clinically silent microvascular brain tissue changes in patients with acute cerebral ischemia. Patients with acute cerebral ischemia prospectively underwent nocturnal respiratory polygraphy within 5days from symptom-onset. Sleep apnea was defined as apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI) ?5/h. Experienced readers blinded to clinical and sleep-related data reviewed brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans for leukoaraiosis and chronic lacunar infarctions. Ischemic lesions were considered clinically silent when patients did not recall associated stroke-like symptoms. Functional outcome was assessed with modified Rankin Scale at discharge, 6 and 12months. Fifty-one of 56 (91%) patients had sleep apnea of any degree. Patients with moderate-to-severe leukoaraiosis (Wahlund score ?5) were found to have higher mean AHI than those with none or mild leukoaraiosis (34.4 vs. 12.8/h, p<0.001). Moderate-to-severe sleep apnea (AHI ?15/h) was found to be an independent predictor of moderate-to-severe leukoaraiosis (adjusted OR 6.03, 95% CI 1.76-20.6, p=0.0042) and of moderate-to-severe leukoaraiosis associated with clinically silent chronic lacunar infarctions (adjusted OR 10.5, 95% CI 2.19-50.6, p=0.003). The higher the Wahlund score and the AHI, the more likely unfavorable functional outcome resulted over time (p=0.0373). In acute cerebral ischemia, sleep apnea is associated with clinically silent microvascular brain tissue changes and may negatively influence functional outcome. Routine sleep apnea screening and further investigation of possible long-term effects of non-invasive ventilatory treatment of sleep apnea appear warranted in this at-risk population. PMID:24292644

  13. [Implantable nerve stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Afonso Delgado, Lidia; Micoulaud Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Monteyrol, Pierre-Jean; Philip, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common disorder that has been identified as a contributor to cardiovascular disease making it a major public health problem. Continuous positive airway pressure is the standard treatment but compliance is suboptimal. Mandibular advancement devices and surgery have limited indications, inconstant efficiency and potential irreversible side effects. Stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve, that innervates the genioglossus, a protrusor muscle of the tongue, is now a new treatment option for moderate and severe cases of OSAHS. Two types of stimulation are currently available: stimulation synchronous with inspiration and continuous stimulation. The indication of each type of stimulation and long-term effects still need to be assessed but the implantable nerve stimulation is a promising treatment for patients without a therapy solution so far. PMID:26796478

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in North American Commercial Drivers

    PubMed Central

    KALES, Stefanos N.; STRAUBEL, Madeleine G.

    2013-01-01

    The most common medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Specifically, among an estimated 14 million US commercial drivers, 17–28% or 2.4 to 3.9 million are expected to have OSA. Based on existing epidemiologic evidence, most of these drivers are undiagnosed and not adequately treated. Untreated OSA increases the risk of vehicular crashes as documented in multiple independent studies and by meta-analysis. Therefore, identifying commercial drivers with OSA and having them effectively treated should decrease crash-related fatalities and injuries. Several strategies are available for screening and identifying drivers with OSA. The simplest and most effective objective strategies use body mass index (BMI) cutoffs for obesity. Functional screens are promising adjuncts to other objective tests. The most effective approach will likely be a combination of a good questionnaire; BMI measures; and a careful physician-obtained history complemented by a functional screen. PMID:24317450

  15. Implications of Renal Denervation Therapy in Patients with Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Jan-guila, Fernando; Vargas-Hitos, Jos Antonio; Mediavilla-Garca, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is a prevalent condition characterized by repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airway, leading to intermittent hypoxemia and important endothelial and anatomical dysfunctions that cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. The finding of the relationship between OSA and hypertension, especially resistant hypertension (RHT), has increased the interest in therapeutic strategies that affect renal sympathetic activity in these patients. The observational studies published until now demonstrated that renal denervation therapy can reduce the severity of OSA syndrome. Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) could be a future therapeutic possibility for conditions other than RHT, such as atrial fibrillation, heart failure, obesity, and OSA syndrome, where renal sympathetic system plays an important physiological role. The aim of this review was to elucidate the implications of renal sympathetic activity in OSA syndrome. PMID:26491559

  16. The Link Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Bauters, Fr; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Hertegonne, Katrien B C; Chirinos, Julio A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in the general population and highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we review (1) the pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA that may causally contribute to cardiovascular disease; (2) current evidence regarding the association between OSA and hypertension, stroke, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and cardiovascular mortality; and (3) the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes. We emphasize the importance of obesity as a comorbidity of OSA and a confounder in the association between OSA and cardiovascular disease. We also discuss the importance of addressing obesity in patients with OSA, as a strategy to reduce the burden of cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Implications for the approach of patients' OSA in clinical practice and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26710793

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a publicly funded healthcare system.

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Dana; Wallace, Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite its current recognition as a major health concern, little has been published about obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as a health problem in public healthcare systems where limited resources, language and cultural differences may present barriers to detection and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe patients referred for suspected OSAS in a large county-funded healthcare system. METHOD: A retrospective, descriptive observational study that included all patients referred for an OSAS evaluation between September 2000 and September 2002. RESULTS: Only 123 patients were referred and 115 completed an evaluation during the two-year period: 99% met OSAS diagnostic criteria, which was severe in 79% and frequently complicated by related comorbid conditions. CPAP acceptance was lower than in the previous series, especially among Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that referral for OSAS evaluation was limited to those most severely affected and raise the possibility of underdetection and undertreatment in the ublic sector. PMID:15779501

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea in North American commercial drivers.

    PubMed

    Kales, Stefanos N; Straubel, Madeleine G

    2014-01-01

    The most common medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Specifically, among an estimated 14 million US commercial drivers, 17-28% or 2.4 to 3.9 million are expected to have OSA. Based on existing epidemiologic evidence, most of these drivers are undiagnosed and not adequately treated. Untreated OSA increases the risk of vehicular crashes as documented in multiple independent studies and by meta-analysis. Therefore, identifying commercial drivers with OSA and having them effectively treated should decrease crash-related fatalities and injuries. Several strategies are available for screening and identifying drivers with OSA. The simplest and most effective objective strategies use body mass index (BMI) cutoffs for obesity. Functional screens are promising adjuncts to other objective tests. The most effective approach will likely be a combination of a good questionnaire; BMI measures; and a careful physician-obtained history complemented by a functional screen. PMID:24317450

  19. Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leão, Sílvia; Conde, Bebiana; Fontes, Paulo; Calvo, Teresa; Afonso, Abel; Moreira, Ilídio

    2016-04-01

    The effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on clinical outcomes after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is incompletely defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of OSA in patients with ACS and evaluate prognostic impact of OSA and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in these patients. This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 73 patients admitted on cardiac intensive care unit for ACS. Cardiorespiratory sleep study and/or polysomnography were performed in all patients. CPAP was recommended if Apnea-Hypopnea Index ≥5. The main study outcome was a composite of death for any cause, myocardial infarction, and myocardial revascularization. OSA was diagnosed in 46 patients (63%). Age and cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly different between groups. OSA was classified as mild (m-OSA) in 14 patients (30%) and as moderate-to-severe (s-OSA) in 32 patients (70%). After a median follow-up of 75 months (interquartile range 71 to 79), patients with s-OSA had lower event-free survival rate. After adjustment for gender, patients with s-OSA showed a significantly higher incidence of the composite end point (hazard ratio 3.58, 95% CI 1.09 to 17.73, p = 0.035). Adherence to CPAP occurred in 19 patients (41%), but compliance to CPAP therapy did not reduce the risk of composite end point (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.46, p = 0.798). In conclusion, OSA is an underdiagnosed disease with high prevalence in patients with ACS. It is urgent to establish screening protocols because those have high diagnostic yield and allow identifying a group of patients with manifestly unfavorable prognosis. PMID:26857162

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Metabolic Syndrome in Spanish Population

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro, Bienvenido; Garcia, Luis; Lozano, Lourdes; Almagro, Pere; Quintana, Salvador; Alsina, Monserrat; Heredia, Jose Luis

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a clinical picture characterized by repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airway. OSA is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, some of which are components of metabolic syndrome (MS). Objectives: First, determine the prevalence of MS in patients with OSA visited in sleep clinic. Second, evaluate whether there is an independent association between MS components and the severity of OSA. Methods: Patients with clinical suspicion of OSA were evaluated by polysomnography. Three groups were defined according to apnea hypoapnea index (AHI): no OSA (AHI <5), mild-moderate (AHI? 5 ?30), and severe (AHI> 30). All patients were determined in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin. MS was defined according to criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Results: A total of 141 patients (mean age 54 11 years) were evaluated. According to AIH, 25 subjects had no OSA and 116 had OSA (41mild-moderate and 75 severe). MS prevalence ranged from 43-81% in OSA group. Also, a significant increase in waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure levels, and a decrease in HDL cholesterol levels was observed in more severe OSA patients. All polysomnographic parameters correlated significantly with metabolic abnormalities. After a multiple regression analysis, abdominal obesity (p <0.02), glucose (p <0.01) and HDL cholesterol (p <0.001) were independently associated with OSA. Conclusions: Our findings show high prevalence of MS in OSA, especially in severe group. A significant association between OSA and some of the components of MS was found in Spanish population. PMID:24222804

  1. Biomarkers associated with obstructive sleep apnea: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Canto, Graziela De Luca; Pachco-Pereira, Camila; Aydinoz, Secil; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Gozal, David

    2015-10-01

    The overall validity of biomarkers in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains unclear. We conducted a scoping review to provide assessments of biomarkers characteristics in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to identify gaps in the literature. A scoping review of studies in humans without age restriction that evaluated the potential diagnostic value of biological markers (blood, exhaled breath condensate, salivary, and urinary) in the OSA diagnosis was undertaken. Retained articles were those focused on the identification of biomarkers in subjects with OSA, the latter being confirmed with a full overnight or home-based polysomnography (PSG). Search strategies for six different databases were developed. The methodology of selected studies was classified using an adaptation of the evidence quality criteria from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Additionally the biomarkers were classified according to their potential clinical application. We identified 572 relevant studies, of which 117 met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-two studies were conducted in adults, 34 studies involved children, and one study had a sample composed of both adults and children. Most of the studies evaluated blood biomarkers. Potential diagnostic biomarkers were found in nine pediatric studies and in 58 adults studies. Only nine studies reported sensitivity and specificity, which varied substantially from 43% to 100%, and from 45% to 100%, respectively. Studies in adults have focused on the investigation of IL-6, TNF-? and hsCRP. There was no specific biomarker that was tested by a majority of authors in pediatric studies, and combinatorial urine biomarker approaches have shown preliminary promising results. In adults IL-6 and IL-10 seem to have a favorable potential to become a good biomarker to identify OSA. PMID:25645128

  2. Sleep Architecture Following a Weight Loss Intervention in Overweight and Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes: Relationship to Apnea-Hypopnea Index

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Kuna, Samuel T.; Zammit, Gary; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Newman, Anne B.; Millman, Richard P.; Reboussin, David M.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Jakicic, John M.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Wing, Rena R.; Foster, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine if weight loss and/or changes in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) improve sleep architecture in overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial including 264 overweight/obese adults with T2D and OSA. Participants were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a diabetes and support education (DSE) control group. Measures included anthropometry, AHI, and sleep at baseline and year-1, year-2, and year-4 follow-ups. Results: Changes in sleep duration (total sleep time [TST]), continuity [wake after sleep onset (WASO)], and architecture stage 1, stage 2, slow wave sleep, and REM sleep) from baseline to year 1, 2, and 4 did not differ between ILI and DSE. Repeated-measure mixed-model analyses including data from baseline through year-4 for all participants demonstrated a significant positive association between AHI and stage 1 sleep (p < 0.001), and a significant negative association between AHI and stage 2 (p = 0.01) and REM sleep (p < 0.001), whereas changes in body weight had no relation to any sleep stages or TST. WASO had a significant positive association with change in body weight (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Compared to control, the ILI did not induce significant changes in sleep across the 4-year follow-up. In participants overall, reduced AHI in overweight/obese adults with T2D and OSA was associated with decreased stage 1, and increased stage 2 and REM sleep. These sleep architecture changes are more strongly related to reductions in AHI than body weight, whereas WASO may be more influenced by weight than AHI. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00194259 Citation: Shechter A, St-Onge MP, Kuna ST, Zammit G, RoyChoudhury A, Newman AB, Millman RP, Reboussin DM, Wadden TA, Jakicic JM, Pi-Sunyer FX, Wing RR, Foster GD, Sleep AHEAD Research Group of the Look AHEAD Research Group. Sleep architecture following a weight loss intervention in overweight and obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes: relationship to apnea-hypopnea index. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1205-1211. PMID:25325608

  3. Cumulative Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Short Sleep Duration with the Risk for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Priou, Pascaline; Le Vaillant, Marc; Meslier, Nicole; Paris, Audrey; Pigeanne, Thierry; Nguyen, Xuan-Lan; Alizon, Claire; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Leclair-Visonneau, Laurene; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and short sleep duration are individually associated with an increased risk for hypertension (HTN). The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis of a cumulative association of OSA severity and short sleep duration with the risk for prevalent HTN. Among 1,499 patients undergoing polysomnography for suspected OSA, 410 (27.3%) previously diagnosed as hypertensive and taking antihypertensive medication were considered as having HTN. Patients with total sleep time (TST) <6 h were considered to be short sleepers. Logistic regression procedures were performed to determine the independent association of HTN with OSA and sleep duration. Considering normal sleepers (TST ≥6 h) without OSA as the reference group, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals) for having HTN was 2.51 (1.35–4.68) in normal sleepers with OSA and 4.37 (2.18–8.78) in short sleepers with OSA after adjustment for age, gender, obesity, diabetes, depression, current smoking, use of thyroid hormones, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep complaint, time in bed, sleep architecture and fragmentation, and study site. The risk for HTN appeared to present a cumulative association with OSA severity and short sleep duration (p<0.0001 for linear trend). The higher risk for HTN was observed in short sleepers with severe OSA (AHI ≥30) (OR, 4.29 [2.03–9.07]). In patients investigated for suspected OSA, sleep-disordered breathing severity and short sleep duration have a cumulative association with the risk for prevalent HTN. Further studies are required to determine whether interventions to optimize sleep may contribute to lower BP in patients with OSA. PMID:25531468

  4. Association between Asthma and Risk of Developing Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Teodorescu, Mihaela; Barnet, Jodi H.; Hagen, Erika W.; Palta, Mari; Young, Terry B.; Peppard, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common among patients with asthma; whether asthma is associated with the development of OSA is unknown. Objective To examine the prospective relationship of asthma with incident OSA. Design Population-based prospective epidemiology study (the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort). Setting Beginning in 1988, adult participants were recruited from a random sample of Wisconsin state employees to attend overnight polysomnography studies at 4-year intervals. Asthma and covariate information were assessed during polysomnography studies through March 2013. Participants Participants identified as free of OSA (apnea-hypopnea index<5 events/hr and not treated) by two baseline polysomnography studies and that had at least one additional polysomnography study were included. 547 participants (52% women; mean [SD] baseline age = 50 [8] years) provided 1105 4-year follow-up intervals. Exposure Questionnaire-assessed presence and duration of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Main Outcome The associations of presence and duration of asthma with 4-year incidences of both OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ? 5 or positive airway pressure treatment) and OSA concomitant with habitual daytime sleepiness were estimated using repeated-measures Poisson regression, adjusting for confounders. Results Twenty-two out of 81 (27% [95% CI=17%37%]) participants with asthma experienced incident OSA over their first observed 4-year follow-up interval compared to 75 incident cases of OSA among 466 participants without asthma (16% [95% CI, 13%19%]). Using all 4-year intervals, participants with asthma experienced 45 incident OSA cases during 167 4-year intervals (27% [95% CI, 20%34%]) and participants without asthma experienced 160 incident OSA cases during 938 4-year intervals (17% [95% CI, 15%19%]); the corresponding adjusted relative risk was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.061.82), controlling for sex, age, baseline and change in body mass index, and other factors. Asthma was also associated with new-onset OSA with habitual sleepiness (relative risk: 2.72 [95% CI, 1.265.89], p=0.04). Asthma duration was related to both incident OSA (relative risk: 1.07 per 5-year increment in asthma duration [95% CI, 1.021.13], p=0.01) and incident OSA with habitual sleepiness (relative risk: 1.18 [95% CI, 1.071.31], p=0.02). Conclusions and Relevance Asthma was associated with increased risk of new-onset OSA. Studies investigating the value of periodic OSA evaluation in patients with asthma are warranted. PMID:25585327

  5. Association between obstructive sleep apnea severity and glucose control in patients with untreated versus treated diabetes.

    PubMed

    Priou, Pascaline; Le Vaillant, Marc; Meslier, Nicole; Chollet, Sylvaine; Pigeanne, Thierry; Masson, Philippe; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Goupil, Franois; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Gagnadoux, Frdric

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the association between obstructive sleep apnea severity and glucose control differs between patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes, and patients with known and treated type 2 diabetes. This multicentre cross-sectional study included 762 patients investigated by sleep recording for suspected obstructive sleep apnea, 497 of whom were previously diagnosed and treated for type 2 diabetes (treated diabetic patients), while 265 had no medical history of diabetes but had fasting blood glucose ?126mg dL(-1) and/or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) ?6.5% consistent with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (untreated diabetic patients). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate the independent association between HbA1c and obstructive sleep apnea severity in treated and untreated patients with diabetes. In untreated diabetic patients, HbA1c was positively associated with apnea-hypopnea index (P=0.0007) and 3% oxygen desaturation index (P=0.0016) after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, alcohol habits, metabolic dyslipidaemia, hypertension, statin use and study site. The adjusted mean value of HbA1c increased from 6.68% in the lowest quartile of the apnea-hypopnea index (<17) to 7.20% in the highest quartile of the apnea-hypopnea index (>61; P=0.033 for linear trend). In treated patients with diabetes, HbA1c was associated with non-sleep variables, including age, metabolic dyslipidaemia and insulin use, but not with obstructive sleep apnea severity. Obstructive sleep apnea may adversely affect glucose control in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes, but may have a limited impact in patients with overt type 2 diabetes receiving anti-diabetic medications. PMID:25703309

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea presenting during infantry field exercises: does the Army Weight Control Program protect soldiers from obstructive sleep apnea?

    PubMed

    Sonna, L A; Smith, P L; Schwartz, A R

    1996-06-01

    We report two cases of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that presented during infantry field exercises as snoring so loud as to risk betraying the unit's position. Both patients exceeded the height-weight standards of the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP). Since high body mass is a strong risk factor for OSA, we asked whether the AWCP reduces the risk of OSA. We found that it should for women in all age groups and for men over 40, but it is less protective for younger men (who constitute a large portion of Army personnel). In light of this and of previous estimates that up to 1.5% of all Army personnel exceed the AWCP standards, we conclude that there may be a significant number of unrecognized cases of OSA in the Army. Additionally, tightening of the AWCP standards may be warranted for women under 30 and men under 50, who currently are permitted to significantly exceed ideal body weight. PMID:8700336

  7. Sleep Apnea Prevalence in Acute Myocardial Infarction - the Sleep Apnea in Post Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients (SAPAMI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ludka, Ondrej; Stepanova, Radka; Vyskocilova, Martina; Galkova, Lujza; Mikolaskova, Monika; Belehrad, Milos; Kostalova, Jana; Mihalova, Zuzana; Drozdova, Adela; Hlasensky, Jiri; Gacik, Michal; Pudilova, Lucie; Mikusova, Tereza; Fischerova, Blanka; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima; Kara, Tomas; Spinar, Jindrich; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Background While sleep apnea (SA) might be a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, recent data suggest that SA is severely underdiagnosed in patients after acute myocardial infarction (MI). There is limited evidence about day-night variation of onset of MI on dependence of having SA. We therefore investigated the prevalence of SA and examined the day-night variation of onset of MI in acute MI patients. Methods We prospectively studied 782 consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of acute MI. All subjects underwent sleep evaluations using a portable device after at least 48 hours post-admission. Using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), groups were defined as patients without SA (<5 events/hour), mild SA (515 events/hour), moderate SA (1530 events/hour), and severe SA (?30 events/hour). Results Almost all patients (98%) underwent urgent coronary angiography and 91% of patients underwent primary PCI. Using a threshold of AHI ? 5 events/hour, SA was present in 65.7% of patients after acute MI. Mild SA was present in 32.6%, moderate in 20.4% and severe in 12.7%. The day-night variation in the onset of MI in all groups of SA patients was similar to that observed in non-SA patients. From 6AM12PM, the frequency of MI was higher in both SA and non-SA patients, as compared to the interval from 12AM6AM (all p<0.05). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of SA in patients presenting with acute MI. Peak time of MI onset in SA patients was between 6AMnoon, similar to that in the general population. Whether diagnosis and treatment of SA after MI will significantly improve outcomes in these patients remains to be determined. PMID:25064202

  8. Medical devices for the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Cistulli, Peter A; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2005-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is increasingly being recognized as a serious public health problem, and is characterized by repetitive, complete or partial closure of the upper airway during sleep, resulting in sleep fragmentation and oxygen desaturation. The key symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea are snoring, witnessed apneas, excessive daytime sleepiness and deficits in neurocognitive function, adversely impacting on quality of life. The last 10 years have seen a steady increase in evidence linking obstructive sleep apnea to long-term cardiovascular morbidity, including hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke, and an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents. The discovery of continuous positive airway pressure treatment, and the resultant recognition of the high prevalence of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, and their impact on health, has spawned a new and rapidly growing global industry. Whilst diagnostic technologic advancements have evolved relatively rapidly, many questions relating to the use of such devices in clinical practice remain unresolved. Similarly, on the therapeutic front, advances in continuous positive airway pressure technology have broadened the use of such treatment, although compliance remains an important impediment to widespread treatment of this common disorder. This has prompted a search for simpler treatment alternatives, ranging from surgical, medical and dental therapies, although none have matched the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure. Advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of sleep and respiration herald the prospect of pharmacologic treatment in the longer term. PMID:16293102

  9. Abdominal fat and sleep apnea: the chicken or the egg?

    PubMed

    Pillar, Giora; Shehadeh, Naim

    2008-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is a disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction that occur during sleep. Associated features include loud snoring, fragmented sleep, repetitive hypoxemia/hypercapnia, daytime sleepiness, and cardiovascular complications. The prevalence of OSA is 2-3% and 4-5% in middle-aged women and men, respectively. The prevalence of OSA among obese patients exceeds 30%, reaching as high as 50-98% in the morbidly obese population. Obesity is probably the most important risk factor for the development of OSA. Some 60-90% of adults with OSA are overweight, and the relative risk of OSA in obesity (BMI >29 kg/m(2)) is >or=10. Numerous studies have shown the development or worsening of OSA with increasing weight, as opposed to substantial improvement with weight reduction. There are several mechanisms responsible for the increased risk of OSA with obesity. These include reduced pharyngeal lumen size due to fatty tissue within the airway or in its lateral walls, decreased upper airway muscle protective force due to fatty deposits in the muscle, and reduced upper airway size secondary to mass effect of the large abdomen on the chest wall and tracheal traction. These mechanisms emphasize the great importance of fat accumulated in the abdomen and neck regions compared with the peripheral one. It is the abdomen much more than the thighs that affect the upper airway size and function. Hence, obesity is associated with increased upper airway collapsibility (even in nonapneic subjects), with dramatic improvement after weight reduction. Conversely, OSA may itself predispose individuals to worsening obesity because of sleep deprivation, daytime somnolence, and disrupted metabolism. OSA is associated with increased sympathetic activation, sleep fragmentation, ineffective sleep, and insulin resistance, potentially leading to diabetes and aggravation of obesity. Furthermore, OSA may be associated with changes in leptin, ghrelin, and orexin levels; increased appetite and caloric intake; and again exacerbating obesity. Thus, it appears that obesity and OSA form a vicious cycle where each results in worsening of the other. PMID:18227501

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea and dyslipidemia: evidence and underlying mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Adedayo, Ajibola Monsur; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Smith, David; Hill, Alethea; Zizi, Ferdinand; Brown, Clinton; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the past half century, evidence has been accumulating on the emergence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the most prevalent sleep-disordered breathing, as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A significant body of research has been focused on elucidating the complex interplay between OSA and cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus that portend increased morbidity and mortality in susceptible individuals. Conclusion Although a clear causal relationship of OSA and dyslipidemia is yet to be demonstrated, there is increasing evidence that chronic intermittent hypoxia, a major component of OSA, is independently associated and possibly the root cause of the dyslipidemia via the generation of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 and reactive oxygen species, peroxidation of lipids, and sympathetic system dysfunction. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship between OSA and dyslipidemia in the development of atherosclerosis and present the pathophysiologic mechanisms linking its association to clinical disease. Issues relating to epidemiology, confounding factors, significant gaps in research and future directions are also discussed. PMID:22903801

  11. Peripheral arterial tonometry, oximetry and actigraphy for ambulatory recording of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Penzel, Thomas; Kesper, Karl; Pinnow, Iris; Becker, Heinrich F; Vogelmeier, Claus

    2004-08-01

    Autonomous nervous functions change with sleep stages and show characteristic changes associated with sleep disorders. Therefore, continuous monitoring of autonomous nervous functions during sleep can be used for diagnostic purposes. Recently, the peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) has been introduced to determine peripheral arterial vascular tone on the finger being determined by sympathetic activity. We investigate a new ambulatory recording system which uses PAT, oximetry and actigraphy (Watch-PAT) in order to detect sleep apnea and arousal. The Watch-PAT is battery operated and attached to the wrist and has two finger sensors. Twenty-one patients with suspected sleep apnea were recorded with cardiorespiratory polysomnography and the new system in parallel. Seventeen recordings could be evaluated. The correlation for the apnea/hypopnea index derived from the sleep laboratory and the respiratory disturbance index derived from the Watch-PAT was r = 0.89 (p < 0.01) and between arousals and the respiratory disturbance index was r = 0.77 (p < 0.01). The correlation for the total sleep time compared between the two systems was r = 0.15 (n.s.). The Watch-PAT detects apneas and hypopneas with a reasonable reliability and it is very sensitive to arousals. The number of Watch-PAT events lies between the sum of apneas plus hypopneas and arousals. Arousals are not unique to apnea events and therefore the specifity of the Watch-PAT is limited. In conclusion, the Watch-PAT is well suited to perform therapy control studies in patients suffering from sleep apnea and being treated. PMID:15382839

  12. Usage of Positional Therapy in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Grietje E.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Doff, Michiel H.J.; Kerstjens, Huib A.M.; Meijer, Petra M.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Wijkstra, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Many positional therapy (PT) strategies are available for treating positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). PT is primarily supplied to selected patients as a secondary treatment option when other therapies have failed. To our knowledge this is the largest study to date to assess effectiveness and long-term compliance of PT (both commercial waistband and self-made constructions, mimicking the tennis ball technique) as primary treatment in patients with different positional OSA severities. Methods: PT was used by 53 patients, of which 40 patients underwent a follow-up polygraphic evaluation under treatment after a median time interval of 12 weeks. Patients were routinely contacted regarding their clinical status and treatment compliance. Results: PT was successful in 27 out of 40 patients (68%). Overall AHI reduced significantly from a median (interquartile range [IQR]) AHI of 14.5 (10.719.6) to 5.9 (3.18.5), p < 0.001. The commercial waistband and self-made constructions were equally effective (median (IQR) reduction in overall AHI (?9.6 (5.511.9) and ?6.8 (3.211.3) respectively), p = 0.22). Short-term compliance was good as most patients used PT more than 7 hours/night (mean 7.2 SD 1.4) and more than 6 days/week (mean 6.5 SD 1.3). However, after mean 13 5 months, 26 patients (65%) reported they no longer used PT, especially patients with moderate positional OSA (89%). Conclusions: On the short-term, PT using the tennis ball technique, is an easy method to treat most patients with positional OSA, showing significant reductions in AHI. Unfortunately, long-term compliance is low and close follow-up of patients on PT with regard to their compliance is necessary. Citation: de Vries GE, Hoekema A, Doff MH, Kerstjens HA, Meijer PM, van der Hoeven JH, Wijkstra PJ. Usage of positional therapy in adults with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):131137. PMID:25406271

  13. Piezoelectric belts as a method for measuring chest and abdominal movement for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Courtney M; Clemmons, Pamela

    2012-09-01

    Distinguishing obstructive sleep apnea from central apnea depends upon accurate measure of chest and abdominal movement. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) polysomnography guidelines recommend the use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) belts but not piezoelectrode (PE) belts for measuring chest and abdominal movements. To compare these two sensors, we measured the signal amplitude for 10 RIP belts and 10 PE belts stretched by mechanical distraction across six distances (2.5 to 15.0 centimeters) and replicated 10 times for each belt. Amplitudes were measured using the Stellate Harmonie (Stellate Systems, Inc., Natus Medical, Inc., San Carlos, California, USA) recording system. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was calculated. All RIP belts performed well at all distraction lengths and demonstrated linear performance. Eight of 10 PE belts performed well through all measures whereas, two showed nonlinear increase in signal on stretch of greater than 12.5 centimeters. Signals from PE belts highly correlated with the distance of distraction (r = 0.96 to 0.99) and the RIP belts (r = 0.98 to 0.99). These results suggest that PE belts perform similarly to RIP belts at distraction distances up to 10.0 centimeters. Further testing on biological models is needed to determine if PE belts are a suitable alternative for RIP belts in polysomnography. PMID:23019764

  14. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Improves Sleep and Daytime Sleepiness in Patients with Parkinson Disease and Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Neikrug, Ariel B.; Liu, Lianqi; Avanzino, Julie A.; Maglione, Jeanne E.; Natarajan, Loki; Bradley, Lenette; Maugeri, Alex; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Palmer, Barton W.; Loredo, Jose S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), common in Parkinson disease (PD), contributes to sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness. We assessed the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on OSA, sleep, and daytime sleepiness in patients with PD. Design: This was a randomized placebo-controlled, crossover design. Patients with PD and OSA were randomized into 6 w of therapeutic treatment or 3 w of placebo followed by 3 w of therapeutic treatment. Patients were evaluated by polysomnography (PSG) and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) pretreatment (baseline), after 3 w, and after 6 w of CPAP treatment. Analyses included mixed models, paired analysis, and within-group analyses comparing 3 w to 6 w of treatment. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Thirty-eight patients with PD (mean age = 67.2 9.2 y; 12 females). Intervention: Continuous positive airway pressure. Measurements: PSG outcome measures: sleep efficiency, %sleep stages (N1, N2, N3, R), arousal index, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and % time oxygen saturation < 90% (%time SaO2 < 90%). MSLT outcome measures: mean sleep-onset latency (MSL). Results: There were significant group-by-time interactions for AHI (P < 0.001), % time SaO2 < 90% (P = 0.02), %N2 (P = 0.015) and %N3 (P = 0.014). Subjects receiving therapeutic CPAP showed significant decrease in AHI, %time SaO2 < 90%, %N2, and significant increase in %N3 indicating effectiveness of CPAP in the treatment of OSA, improvement in nighttime oxygenation, and in deepening sleep. The paired sample analyses revealed that 3 w of therapeutic treatment resulted in significant decreases in arousal index (t = 3.4, P = 0.002). All improvements after 3 w were maintained at 6 w. Finally, 3 w of therapeutic CPAP also resulted in overall decreases in daytime sleepiness (P = 0.011). Conclusions: Therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure versus placebo was effective in reducing apnea events, improving oxygen saturation, and deepening sleep in patients with Parkinson disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Additionally, arousal index was reduced and effects were maintained at 6 weeks. Finally, 3 weeks of continuous positive airway pressure treatment resulted in reduced daytime sleepiness measured by multiple sleep latency test. These results emphasize the importance of identifying and treating obstructive sleep apnea in patients with Parkinson disease. Citation: Neikrug AB; Liu L; Avanzino JA; Maglione JE; Natarajan L; Bradley L; Maugeri A; Corey-Bloom J; Palmer BW; Loredo JS; Ancoli-Israel S. Continuous positive airway pressure improves sleep and daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson disease and sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(1):177-185. PMID:24470706

  15. Sleep Position Trainer versus Tennis Ball Technique in Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eijsvogel, Michiel M.; Ubbink, Rinse; Dekker, Janita; Oppersma, Eline; de Jongh, Frans H.; van der Palen, Job; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein G.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Positional therapy (PT) is an effective therapy in positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (POSAS) when used, but the compliance of PT is low. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a new kind of PT is effective and can improve compliance. Methods: 29 patients were treated with the sleep position trainer (SPT), 26 patients with the tennis ball technique (TBT). At baseline and 1 month polysomnography, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Quebec Sleep Questionnaire (QSQ) were taken. Daily compliance was objectively measured in both groups. Results: Both therapies prevent supine sleep position to a median of 0% (min-max: SPT 0.0% to 67%, TBT 0.0% to 38.9%), resulting in a treatment success (AHI < 5) in 68.0% of the SPT and 42.9% of the TBT patients. The ESS at baseline was < 10 in both groups. Sleep quality parameters, such as wake after sleep onset (WASO; p = 0.001) and awakenings (p = 0.006), improved more in the SPT group. Total QSQ scores (0.4 ± 0.2, p = 0.03), the QSQ domains nocturnal symptoms (0.7 ± 0.2, p = 0.01), and social interactions (0.8 ± 0.3, p = 0.02) changed in favor of the SPT group. Effective compliance (≥ 4 h/night + ≥ 5 days/week) was 75.9% for the SPT and 42.3% for the TBT users (p = 0.01). Conclusion: In mild POSAS with normal EES the new SPT device and the standard TBT are equally effective in reducing respiratory indices. However, compared to the TBT, sleep quality, quality of life, and compliance improved significantly more in the SPT group. Citation: Eijsvogel MM, Ubbink R, Dekker J, Oppersma E, de Jongh FH, van der Palen J, Brusse-Keizer MG. Sleep position trainer versus tennis ball technique in positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):139–147. PMID:25515276

  16. Selected surgical managements in snoring and obstructive sleep apnea patients

    PubMed Central

    Olszewska, Ewa; Rutkowska, Justyna; Czajkowska, Aneta; Rogowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The diagnostic process and the surgical procedures in patients with snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of surgical treatment in snoring and OSAS patients. Material/Methods A precise laryngological examination and screening polysomnography (Poly-Mesam) were performed in all patients with mild, moderate and severe OSAS before and 6 months after surgery. The patients completed questionnaires concerning their complaints. We included patients qualified to septoplasty, laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP), uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) and radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of the tongue base (RITT). Outcome evaluation of surgery was performed on the basis of data received from follow-up laryngological examinations, selected parameters obtained from the Poly-Mesam test and follow-up questionnaires. Results In most cases we observed improvement, defined as decreasing some sleep parameters, such as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI), by more than 50%, decreasing the loudness of snoring, decreasing the number of hypopneas, and obtaining better blood saturation values. After UPPP we noticed changes in retropalatal space, soft palate dimensions and uvula-posterior pharyngeal wall distance. In the postoperative period we did not observe severe complications. In some cases we found short-lived palatal deficiency after UPPP. Patients after RITT experienced discomfort and throat pain lasting from 2 to 4 days. In 2 patients we observed swelling of the tongue base, which decreased after few days. Conclusions Surgery in OSAS contributes to normalization of some sleep parameters. The majority of patients experienced improvement after surgery. PMID:22207114

  17. Overnight Pulse Oximetry for Evaluation of Sleep Apnea among Children with Trisomy 21

    PubMed Central

    Coverstone, Andrea M.; Bird, Merielle; Sicard, Melissa; Tao, Yu; Grange, Dorothy K.; Cleveland, Claudia; Molter, David; Kemp, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: For children with trisomy 21, polysomnography at age 4 to assess obstructive sleep disordered breathing (OSDB) is the standard of care. Oximetry alone has been used to screen for disease among children without trisomy 21. This study evaluates the potential usefulness of oximetry scoring in diagnosing OSDB among children with trisomy 21. Methods: A McGill oximetry score from 1 to 4 was derived from a full overnight PSG done on 119 consecutive pediatric subjects with trisomy 21. Most were referred to the sleep laboratory because of suspicion for OSDB. Oximetry scorers were blinded to the child's full PSG and clinical course. Results of the complete PSG were then compared to oximetry scores. Results: Obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) was ? 2.5 for 50% of all subjects. Fifty-nine subjects (49.6%) had McGill Score 1 (inconclusive); median OAHI was 1.0 (IQR 0.43.3). McGill Score was 2 for 43 subjects (36.1%); median OAHI was 4.5 (IQR 1.3-8.8). Seventeen subjects (14.3%) had McGill Scores of 3 or 4; median OAHI was 16.1 (IQR 9.345.5, range 2.1 to 101.1). Ten percent of subjects had a considerable number of central events (? 2.5 respiratory events/h but OAHI < 2.5), including 7 with McGill Score 2. Conclusions: In a retrospective cohort of children with trisomy 21, McGill oximetry scores of 3 or 4 reliably identified patients with marked OSDB. The possibility of central apneas causing hypoxemia must be considered in those with McGill Score 2. With these caveats, oximetry screening should be considered when developing streamlined protocols for early intervention to treat OSDB in this population. Citation: Coverstone AM, Bird M, Sicard M, Tao Y, Grange DK, Cleveland C, Molter D, Kemp JS. Overnight pulse oximetry for evaluation of sleep apnea among children with trisomy 21. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(12):1309-1315. PMID:25325597

  18. Does Neck-to-Waist Ratio Predict Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Sherri Lynne; Vaccani, Jean-Philippe; Barrowman, Nick; Momoli, Franco; Bradbury, Carol L.; Murto, Kimmo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Central adiposity and large neck circumference are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults but have not been evaluated in children as predictors of OSA. Study objectives were to determine whether (1) anthropometric measures including neck-to-waist ratio are associated with OSA in older children; (2) body fat distribution, measured by neck-to-waist ratio, is predictive of OSA in overweight/obese children. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving children 7-18 years scheduled to undergo polysomnography at a tertiary care children's hospital. OSA was defined as total apnea-hypopnea index > 5 events/h and/or obstructive apnea index > 1 event/h. Recursive partitioning was used to select candidate predictors of OSA from: age, sex, height and weight percentile, body mass index (BMI) z-score, neck-to-waist ratio, tonsil size, and Mallampati score. These were then evaluated using log binomial models and receiver operator characteristic analysis. Results: Two hundred twenty-two participants were included; 133 (60%) were overweight/obese, 121 (55%) male,47 (21%) had OSA. Neck-to-waist ratio (relative risk [RR] 1.97 per 0.1 units, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.84) and BMI z-score (RR 1.63 per unit, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.05) were identified as independent predictors of OSA. Considering only overweight/obese children, neck-to-waist ratio (RR 2.16 per 0.1 units, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.59) and BMI z-score (RR 2.02 per unit, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.26) also independently predicted OSA. However, in children not overweight/obese, these variables were not predictive of OSA. Conclusions: Neck-to-waist ratio, an index of body fat distribution, predicts OSA in older children and youth, especially in those who were overweight/obese. Citation: Katz SL, Vaccani JP, Barrowman N, Momoli F, Bradbury CL, Murto K. Does neck-to-waist ratio predict obstructive sleep apnea in children? J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(12):1303-1308. PMID:25325606

  19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Associated with Increased Chemoreflex Sensitivity in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Trombetta, Ivani C.; Maki-Nunes, Cristiane; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Alves, Maria-Janieire N. N.; Rondon, Maria Urbana P. B.; Cepeda, Felipe X.; Drager, Luciano F.; Braga, Ana Maria F. W.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Negrao, Carlos E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often observed in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, the association of MetS and OSA substantially increases sympathetic nerve activity. However, the mechanisms involved in sympathetic hyperactivation in patients with MetS + OSA remain to be clarified. We tested the hypothesis that chemoreflex sensitivity is heightened in patients with MetS and OSA. Design: Prospective clinical study. Participants: Forty-six patients in whom MetS was newly diagnosed (ATP-III) were allocated into: (1) MetS + OSA (n = 24, 48 ± 1.8 yr); and (2) MetS – OSA (n = 22, 44 ± 1.7 yr). Eleven normal control subjects were also studied (C, 47 ± 2.3 yr). Measurements: OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/hr (polysomnography). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was measured by microneurography technique. Peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity was assessed by inhalation of 10% oxygen and 90% nitrogen (carbon dioxide titrated), and central chemoreflex sensitivity by 7% carbon dioxide and 93% oxygen. Results: Physical characteristics and MetS measures were similar between MetS + OSA and MetS – OSA. MSNA was higher in MetS + OSA patients compared with MetS – OSA and C (33 ± 1.3 versus 28 ± 1.2 and 18 ± 2.2 bursts/min, P < 0.05). Isocapnic hypoxia caused a greater increase in MSNA in MetS + OSA than MetS – OSA and C (P = 0.03). MSNA in response to hyperoxic hypercapnia was greater in MetS + OSA compared with C (P = 0.005). Further analysis showed a significant association between baseline MSNA and peripheral (P < 0.01) and central (P < 0.01) chemoreflex sensitivity. Min ventilation in response to hyperoxic hypercapnia was greater in MetS + OSA compared with C (P = 0.001). Conclusion: OSA increases sympathetic peripheral and central chemoreflex response in patients with MetS, which seems to explain, at least in part, the increase in sympathetic nerve activity in these patients. In addition, OSA increases ventilatory central chemoreflex response in patients with MetS. Citation: Trombetta IC; Maki-Nunes C; Toschi-Dias E; Alves MJNN; Rondon MUPB; Cepeda FX; Drager LF; Braga AMFW; Lorenzi-Filho G; Negrao CE. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased chemoreflex sensitivity in patients with metabolic syndrome. SLEEP 2013;36(1):41-49. PMID:23288970

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea in Prader-Willi syndrome: risks and advantages of adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Leone; Toma, Salvatore; Palonta, Francesca; Teggi, Roberto; Zucconi, Marco; Di Candia, Stefania; Bussi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a well-known clinical manifestation of Prader-Willi syndrome. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of adenotonsillectomy for the treatment of the disorder as well as the improvement of their post-operative quality of life. Five patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apneas and adenotonsillar hypertrophy of grade III-IV underwent adenotonsillectomy. Pre- and postoperative apneas and Quality of Life were assessed respectively with a polysomnography with multi-sleep latency test and with the pediatric Quality of Life questionnaire, performed before and 6 months after surgery. A decrease of apnea/hypopnea index values has been detected between pre- and post-surgery (t=2.64, P=0.005), as well as oxygen desaturation index values (t=5.51, P=0.005), multi-sleep latency test (t=4.54, P=0.01), and of the values of pediatric Quality of Life questionnaire. No correlation has been detected between body mass index and apnea/hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index and multi-sleep latency test values pre- and post-adenotonsillectomy. A correlation has been found between multi-sleep latency test and oxygen desaturation index values post-surgery (P=0.04). No post-operative complications were observed. Our data underline the efficacy of surgery in Prader-Willi patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy in order to improve their quality of life. PMID:26429118

  1. Using the Pathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea to Teach Cardiopulmonary Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The effects of intermittent upper airway obstruction include alveolar hypoventilation, altered arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors, which leads to frequent arousals. These arousals disturb sleep…

  2. Effect of obstructive sleep apnea on mitral valve tenting.

    PubMed

    Pressman, Gregg S; Figueredo, Vincent M; Romero-Corral, Abel; Murali, Ganesan; Kotler, Morris N

    2012-04-01

    Obstructive apneas produce high negative intrathoracic pressure that imposes an afterload burden on the left ventricle. Such episodes might produce structural changes in the left ventricle over time. Doppler echocardiograms were obtained within 2 months of attended polysomnography. Patients were grouped according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): mild/no obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; AHI <15) and moderate/severe OSA (AHI ≥15). Mitral valve tenting height and area, left ventricular (LV) long and short axes, and LV end-diastolic volume were measured in addition to tissue Doppler parameters. Comparisons of measurements at baseline and follow-up between and within groups were obtained; correlations between absolute changes (Δ) in echocardiographic parameters were also performed. After a mean follow-up of 240 days mitral valve tenting height increased significantly (1.17 ± 0.12 to 1.28 ± 0.17 cm, p = 0.001) in moderate/severe OSA as did tenting area (2.30 ± 0.41 to 2.66 ± 0.60 cm(2), p = 0.0002); Δtenting height correlated with ΔLV end-diastolic volume (rho 0.43, p = 0.01) and Δtenting area (rho 0.35, p = 0.04). In patients with mild/no OSA there was no significant change in tenting height; there was a borderline significant increase in tenting area (2.20 ± 0.44 to 2.31 ± 0.43 cm(2), p = 0.05). Septal tissue Doppler early diastolic wave decreased (8.04 ± 2.49 to 7.10 ± 1.83 cm/s, p = 0.005) in subjects with moderate/severe OSA but not in in those with mild/no OSA. In conclusion, in patients with moderate/severe OSA, mitral valve tenting height and tenting area increase significantly over time. This appears to be related, at least in part, to changes in LV geometry. PMID:22264596

  3. Sleep apnea and nocturnal myoclonus in elderly persons in Vilcabamba, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Okudaira, N; Fukuda, H; Nishihara, K; Ohtani, K; Endo, S; Torii, S

    1983-07-01

    Four men (M age 90.5 years) and four women (M age 91.2 years) in Vilcabamba, Ecuador (a community noted for people with extreme longevity) volunteered for sleep recordings using four-channel Medilog portable cassette recorder. Of the eight physically healthy persons recorded, only one man displayed sleep apnea syndrome. No nocturnal myoclonus was observed. Low incidence of sleep apnea of elderly persons in Vilcabamba may be due to a low barometric pressure and/or lack of drug abuse. PMID:6863855

  4. Sleep disruption increases seizure susceptibility: Behavioral and EEG evaluation of an experimental model of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Hrnčić, Dragan; Grubač, Željko; Rašić-Marković, Aleksandra; Šutulović, Nikola; Šušić, Veselinka; Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Stanojlović, Olivera

    2016-03-01

    Sleep disruption accompanies sleep apnea as one of its major symptoms. Obstructive sleep apnea is particularly common in patients with refractory epilepsy, but causing factors underlying this are far from being resolved. Therefore, translational studies regarding this issue are important. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sleep disruption on seizure susceptibility of rats using experimental model of lindane-induced refractory seizures. Sleep disruption in male Wistar rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by treadmill method (belt speed set on 0.02m/s for working and 0.00m/s for stop mode, respectively). Animals were assigned to experimental conditions lasting 6h: 1) sleep disruption (sleep interrupted, SI; 30s working and 90s stop mode every 2min; 180cycles in total); 2) activity control (AC, 10min working and 30min stop mode, 9cycles in total); 3) treadmill chamber control (TC, only stop mode). Afterwards, the animals were intraperitoneally treated with lindane (L, 4mg/kg, SI+L, AC+L and TC+L groups) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, SIc, ACc and TCc groups). Convulsive behavior was assessed by seizure incidence, latency time to first seizure, and its severity during 30min after drug administration. Number and duration of ictal periods were determined in recorded EEGs. Incidence and severity of lindane-induced seizures were significantly increased, latency time significantly decreased in animals undergoing sleep disruption (SI+L group) compared with the animals from TC+L. Seizure latency was also significantly decreased in SI+L compared to AC+L groups. Number of ictal periods were increased and duration of it presented tendency to increase in SI+L comparing to AC+L. No convulsive signs were observed in TCc, ACc and SIc groups, as well as no ictal periods in EEG. These results indicate sleep disruption facilitates induction of epileptic activity in rodent model of lindane-epilepsy enabling translational research of this phenomenon. PMID:26705666

  5. Auto-adjusting Positive Airway Pressure Treatment for Sleep Apnea Diagnosed by Home Sleep Testing

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Richard B.; Sriram, Peruvemba

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Compare auto-adjusting positive airway pressure (APAP) treatment with positive airway pressure (PAP) titration by polysomnography (PSG) followed by CPAP treatment in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by home sleep apnea testing (HSAT). Design: Prospective randomized treatment study. Setting: Tertiary Veterans Administration Medical Center. Participants: 156 patients diagnosed with OSA by HSAT (apneahypopnea index [AHI] ? 10/h) suitable for APAP treatment. Interventions: APAP arm: Treatment with an APAP device, CPAP arm: PSG PAP titration followed by CPAP treatment. Measurements: Mean PAP adherence, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ). Results: The mean ( SD) age, BMI, and diagnostic AHI (APAP: 28.6 18.5, CPAP: 28.3 16.0/h, p = NS) did not differ between the study arms. After 6 weeks of treatment, 84.6% of 78 patients started on APAP and 84.3% of 70 patients started on CPAP (8 declined treatment after the titration) were using PAP, p = NS. The 90% APAP and level of CPAP were similar (10.8 3.1, 11.7 2.5 cm H2O, p = 0.07). The average nightly PAP use did not differ (APAP: 4.45 2.3, CPAP: 4.0 2.3 h, p = NS). The improvements in the ESS (APAP: ?4.2 4.7, CPAP: ?3.7 4.8, p = NS) and in the FOSQ (APAP: 2.6 3.5, CPAP: 2.2 3.7, p = NS) were not different. Conclusions: Following diagnosis of OSA by HSAT, treatment with APAP results in equivalent PAP adherence and improvement in sleepiness compared to a PSG titration and CPAP treatment. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1277. Citation: Berry RB, Sriram P. Auto-adjusting positive airway pressure treatment for sleep apnea diagnosed by home sleep testing. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(12):1269-1275. PMID:25348244

  6. Nonrapid Eye Movement-Predominant Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Detection and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Motoo; Fujita, Yukio; Kumamoto, Makiko; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Ohnishi, Yoshinobu; Nakano, Hiroshi; Strohl, Kingman P.; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be severe and present in higher numbers during rapid eye movement (REM) than nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; however, OSA occurs in NREM sleep and can be predominant. In general, ventilation decreases an average 10% to 15% during transition from wakefulness to sleep, and there is variability in just how much ventilation decreases. As dynamic changes in ventilation contribute to irregular breathing and breathing during NREM sleep is mainly under chemical control, our hypothesis is that patients with a more pronounced reduction in ventilation during the transition from wakefulness to NREM sleep will have NREM- predominant rather than REM-predominant OSA. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 451 consecutive patients (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5) undergoing diagnostic polysomnography was performed, and breath-to-breath analysis of the respiratory cycle duration, tidal volume, and estimated minute ventilation before and after sleep onset were examined. Values were calculated using respiratory inductance plethysmography. The correlation between the percent change in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions and the percentage of apnea-hypopneas in NREM sleep (%AHI in NREM; defined as (AHI-NREM) / [(AHI-NREM) + (AHI-REM)] × 100) was the primary outcome. Results: The decrease in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions was 15.0 ± 16.6% (mean ± standard deviation), due to a decrease in relative tidal volume. This decrease in estimated minute ventilation was significantly correlated with %AHI in NREM (r = −0.222, p < 0.01). Conclusions: A greater dynamic reduction in ventilation back and forth from wakefulness to sleep contributes to the NREM predominant OSA phenotype via induced ventilatory instability. Citation: Yamauchi M, Fujita Y, Kumamoto M, Yoshikawa M, Ohnishi Y, Nakano H, Strohl KP, Kimura H. Nonrapid eye movement-predominant obstructive sleep apnea: detection and mechanism. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(9):987–993. PMID:25845901

  7. Automatic detection of sleep apnea based on EEG detrended fluctuation analysis and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Wu, Xiao-ming; Zeng, Wei-jie

    2015-12-01

    Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is prevalent in individuals and recently, there are many studies focus on using simple and efficient methods for SAS detection instead of polysomnography. However, not much work has been done on using nonlinear behavior of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The purpose of this study is to find a novel and simpler method for detecting apnea patients and to quantify nonlinear characteristics of the sleep apnea. 30 min EEG scaling exponents that quantify power-law correlations were computed using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and compared between six SAS and six healthy subjects during sleep. The mean scaling exponents were calculated every 30 s and 360 control values and 360 apnea values were obtained. These values were compared between the two groups and support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify apnea patients. Significant difference was found between EEG scaling exponents of the two groups (p < 0.001). SVM was used and obtained high and consistent recognition rate: average classification accuracy reached 95.1% corresponding to the sensitivity 93.2% and specificity 98.6%. DFA of EEG is an efficient and practicable method and is helpful clinically in diagnosis of sleep apnea. PMID:25663167

  8. Dynamics of snoring sounds and its connection with obstructive sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencar, Adriano M.; da Silva, Diego Greatti Vaz; Oliveira, Carolina Beatriz; Vieira, Andr P.; Moriya, Henrique T.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2013-01-01

    Snoring is extremely common in the general population and when irregular may indicate the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. We analyze the overnight sequence of wave packets - the snore sound - recorded during full polysomnography in patients referred to the Sleep Laboratory due to suspected obstructive sleep apnea. We hypothesize that irregular snore, with duration in the range between 10 and 100 s, correlates with respiratory obstructive events. We find that the number of irregular snores - easily accessible, and quantified by what we call the snore time interval index (STII) - is in good agreement with the well-known apnea-hypopnea index, which expresses the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and is extracted only from polysomnography. In addition, the Hurst analysis of the snore sound itself, which calculates the fluctuations in the signal as a function of time interval, is used to build a classifier that is able to distinguish between patients with no or mild apnea and patients with moderate or severe apnea.

  9. Sleep-Related Painful Erections in a Patient With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abouda, Maher; Jomni, Taieb; Yangui, Ferdaws; Charfi, Mohamed Ridha; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Sleep-related painful erection (SRPE) is a rare sleep disorder characterized by recurrent, painful penile erections occurring when awakening from rapid eye movement sleep, while erections are painless during wakefulness. Almost 35 cases have been reported worldwide, and only two of them had an associated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We report a new case of a 61-year-old man suffering from SRPE associated with OSAS. The adequate treatment of respiratory events with continuous positive airway pressure did not alleviate the SRPE symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness. The SRPE diagnosis was made by polysomnography coupled with video surveillance when the patient was referred to the sleep laboratory for residual excessive daytime sleepiness. The patient had 2-4 episodes of SRPE/night. Beta-blocker did not alleviate the SRPE, but a transient improvement was noted when the patient was treated with paroxetine. In contrast with the two previously published cases of SRPE plus OSAS, continuous positive airway treatment did not improve SRPE symptoms in our patient. PMID:26392186

  10. Sleep Apnea Determines Soluble TNF-? Receptor 2 Response to Massive Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pallayova, Maria; Steele, Kimberley E.; Magnuson, Thomas H.; Schweitzer, Michael A.; Smith, Philip L.; Patil, Susheel P.; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of surgical weight loss (WL) on inflammatory biomarkers associated with sleep apnea remain unknown. We sought to determine if any bio-markers can predict amelioration of sleep apnea achieved by bariatric surgery. We hypothesized that surgical WL would substantially reduce severity of sleep apnea and levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Methods Twenty-three morbidly obese adults underwent anthropometric measurements, polysomnography, and serum biomarker profiling prior to and 1 year following bariatric surgery. We examined the effect of WL and amelioration of sleep apnea on metabolic and inflammatory markers. Results Surgical WL resulted in significant decreases in BMI (16.75.97 kg/m2/median 365 days), apneahypopnea index (AHI), CRP, IL-6, sTNF?R1, sTNF?R2, and leptin levels, while ghrelin, adiponectin, and soluble leptin receptor concentrations increased significantly. Utilizing an AHI cutoff of 15 events/h, we found significantly elevated levels of baseline sTNF?R2 and greater post-WL sTNF?R2 decreases in subjects with baseline AHI ?15 events/h compared to those with AHI <15 events/h despite no significant differences in baseline BMI, age, and ?BMI. In a multivariable linear regression model adjusting for sex, age, impaired glucose metabolism, ?BMI, and follow-up period, the post-WL decreases in AHI were an independent predictor of the decreases in sTNF?R2 and altogether accounted for 46% of the variance of ?sTNF?R2 (P=0.011) in the entire cohort. Conclusions Of all the biomarkers, the decrease in sTNF?R2 was independently determined by the amelioration of sleep apnea achieved by bariatric surgery. The results suggest that sTNF?R2 may be a specific sleep apnea biomarker across a wide range of body weight. PMID:21298510

  11. Acute Exacerbation of Sleep Apnea by Hyperoxia Impairs Cognitive Flexibility in Brown-Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Topchiy, Irina; Amodeo, Dionisio A.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Waxman, Jonathan; Radulovacki, Miodrag; Carley, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether learning deficits occur during acute exacerbation of spontaneous sleep related breathing disorder (SRBD) in rats with high (Brown Norway; BN) and low (Zucker Lean; ZL) apnea propensity. Design: Spatial acquisition (3 days) and reversal learning (3 days) in the Morris water maze (MWM) with polysomnography (12:0008:00): (1) with acute SRBD exacerbation (by 20-h hyperoxia immediately preceding reversal learning) or (2) without SRBD exacerbation (room air throughout). Setting: Randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures design. Participants: 14 BN rats; 16 ZL rats. Interventions: 20-h hyperoxia. Measurements and Results: Apneas were detected as cessation of respiration ? 2 sec. Swim latency in MWM, apnea indices (AI; apneas/hour of sleep) and percentages of recording time for nonrapid eye movement (NREM), rapid eye movement (REM), and total sleep were assessed. Baseline AI in BN rats was more than double that of ZL rats (22.46 2.27 versus 10.7 0.9, P = 0.005). Hyperoxia increased AI in both BN (34.3 7.4 versus 22.46 2.27) and ZL rats (15.4 2.7 versus 10.7 0.9) without changes in sleep stage percentages. Control (room air) BN and ZL rats exhibited equivalent acquisition and reversal learning. Acute exacerbation of AI by hyperoxia produced a reversal learning performance deficit in BN but not ZL rats. In addition, the percentage of REM sleep and REM apnea index in BN rats during hyperoxia negatively correlated with reversal learning performance. Conclusions: Acute exacerbation of sleep related breathing disorder by hyperoxia impairs reversal learning in a rat strain with high apnea propensity, but not a strain with a low apnea propensity. This suggests a non-linear threshold effect may contribute to the relationships between sleep apnea and cognitive dysfunctions, but strain-specific differences also may be important. Citation: Topchiy I, Amodeo DA, Ragozzino ME, Waxman J, Radulovacki M, Carley DW. Acute exacerbation of sleep apnea by hyperoxia impairs cognitive flexibility in brown-norway rats. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1851-1861. PMID:25364080

  12. Mean platelet volume is associated with disease severity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Selahattin; rtk, Mustafa; Baykan, Ahmet Oytun; Kiraz, Kemal; Breki, Abdurrezzak; ?eker, Taner; Gr, Mustafa; ayli, Murat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with cardiovascular diseases and thromboembolic events. The mean platelet volume (MPV) is a predictor of cardiovascular thromboembolic events. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between the MPV and disease severity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. METHODS: We prospectively included 194 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular disease (mean age 56.512.5 years) who were undergoing sleep tests. An overnight full laboratory polisomnography examination was conducted on each patient. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): (1) AHIlow group: 5?AHI<15, (2) AHImid group: 1530. RESULTS: The highest MPV values were found in the AHIhigh group compared with other groups (p<0.05 for all). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the MPV was associated with the AHI (?=0.500, p<0.001) and the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level (?=0.194, p=0.010). CONCLUSION: The MPV is independently associated with both disease severity and inflammation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. PMID:26222817

  13. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Disturbance, and Fasting Glucose Variability: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tatti, Patrizio; Strollo, Felice; Passali, Desiderio

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbed sleep and nocturnal altered breathing are related to disturbances of glucose metabolism. The present uncontrolled observational study explores the role of these factors on the variability of fasting glycemia. Methods The number and duration of nocturnal awakenings and the fasting glycemia of 97 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet, metformin, or gliptins were recorded over seven consecutive days. During the same time period, the main respiratory indexesoxygen disturbance index, apnea/hypopnea index, and respiratory disturbance indexwere recorded for one night. Results The three respiratory indexes and the number of nocturnal awakenings are highly correlated with the coefficient of variation of the fasting blood glucose recorded over the 7-day period at p <.005 level. A multiple regression analysis showed that the variables in the model explained 86% of the variability. Results Respiratory/sleep disturbances appear to be modulators superimposed on blood glucose levels determined by other factors. PMID:23759408

  14. Circulation Time Measurement from Sleep Studies in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Younghoon; Khan, Talha; Pritzker, Marc; Iber, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Lung to finger circulation time (LFCT) can be estimated from polysomnography (PSG) in the presence of an apneic event by using oxygen as an indicator and a finger as the site of detection. The purpose of this study was to refine the methodology of LFCT measurement and to compare LFCT in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with and without heart failure (HF). Methods: In a retrospective manner, 10 LFCT measurements per patient were made from the PSG in 171 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of OSA who were divided into two groups: (a) those with a clinical history of underlying HF (N = 42) and (b) those without HF (N = 129). Mean values were compared between the two groups. We also examined associations of LFCT with various factors in each group and the combined group separately using multiple regression analysis. Results: Gender and age were significantly associated with LFCT in patients with OSA alone. Use of ?-blockers was associated with LFCT in the group with OSA with HF. Among the entire cohort, HF, ?-blocker, gender, and age were found to be significantly associated with LFCT. The presence of HF was the strongest predictor of a prolonged LFCT (adjusted mean LFCT: OSA only = 18.5 [95% CI: 17.2-19.7 sec] vs. OSA with HF = 26.1 [95% CI: 24.3-28.0 sec], p < 0.0001). Conclusion: LFCT can be reliably measured and is prolonged in patients with OSA and underlying HF. LFCT based on PSG may be a useful marker for detection of coexisting HF in patients with OSA. Citation: Kwon Y, Khan T, Pritzker M, Iber C. Circulation time measurement from sleep studies in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):759-765. PMID:25024653

  15. Mini Tracheostomy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Evidence Based Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Macario; Zaghi, Soroush; Chang, Edward T.; Song, Sungjin A.; Szelestey, Blake; Certal, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To search for articles evaluating the use of tracheostomies (either permanent stomas or tracheostomy tubes) in adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and to evaluate the potential for the use of mini tracheostomies as treatment for OSA. Study Design. Systematic review. Methods. Nine databases were searched from inception through July 21, 2015. Results. The overall tracheostomy search yielded 516 articles, of which eighteen studies provided polysomnographic data. No study was identified (empty review) for the use of mini tracheostomies for treating OSA. The mini tracheostomy search yielded ninety-five articles which describe findings for either mini tracheostomy kits (inner cannula diameter of 4 mm) or the performance of mini tracheotomies. Six articles described the use of mini tracheostomies as a temporary procedure to relieve acute upper airway obstruction and none described the use for OSA. For tracheostomy stomal sites, suturing the skin directly to the tracheal rings with defatting can minimize stomal site collapse. The smallest tracheostomy stomal size that can successfully treat OSA has not been described. Conclusion. Mini tracheostomies as small as 4 mm have been successfully used in the short term to relieve upper airway obstruction. Given that polysomnography data are lacking, additional research is needed. PMID:26925105

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow alterations in obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Santosh K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Richardson, Heidi L.; Wang, Danny J.J.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition characterized by upper airway muscle atonia with continued diaphragmatic efforts, resulting in repeated airway obstructions, periods of intermittent hypoxia, large thoracic pressure changes, and substantial shifts in arterial pressure with breathing cessation and resumption. The hypoxic exposure and hemodynamic changes likely induce the structural and functional deficits found in multiple brain areas, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures. Altered cerebral blood flow (CBF) may contribute to these localized deficits; thus, we examined regional CBF, using arterial spin labeling procedures, in 11 OSA (age, 49.112.2 years; 7 male) and 16 control subjects (42.310.2 years; 6 male) with a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. CBF maps were calculated, normalized to a common space, and regional CBF values across the brain quantified. Lowered CBF values emerged near multiple bilateral brain sites in OSA, including the corticospinal tracts, superior cerebellar peduncles, and pontocerebellar fibers. Lateralized, decreased CBF appeared near the left inferior cerebellar peduncles, left tapetum, left dorsal fornix/stria terminalis, right medial lemniscus, right red nucleus, right midbrain, and midline pons. Regional CBF values in OSA are significantly reduced in major sensory and motor fiber systems and motor regulatory sites, especially in structures mediating motor coordination; those reductions are often lateralized. The asymmetric CBF declines in motor regulatory areas may contribute to loss of coordination between upper airway and diaphragmatic musculature, and lead to further damage in the syndrome. PMID:24076138

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Surgery: Quality Improvement Imperatives and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in surgical candidates than in the general population and may increase susceptibility to perioperative complications that range from transient desaturation to catastrophic injuries. Understanding the potential impact of OSA on patients surgical risk profile is of particular interest to otolaryngologists, who routinely perform airway proceduresincluding surgical procedures for treatment of OSA. Whereas the effects of OSA on long-term health outcomes are well documented, the relationship between OSA and surgical risk is not collinear, and clear consensus on the nature of the association is lacking. Better guidelines for optimization of pain control, perioperative monitoring, and surgical decision making are potential areas for quality improvement efforts. Many interventions have been suggested to mitigate the risk of adverse events in surgical patients with OSA, but wide variations in clinical practice remain. We review the current literature, emphasizing recent progress in understanding the complex pathophysiologic interactions noted in OSA patients undergoing surgery and outlining potential strategies to decrease perioperative risks. PMID:25013745

  18. Upper airway collapsibility in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marcus, C L; McColley, S A; Carroll, J L; Loughlin, G M; Smith, P L; Schwartz, A R

    1994-08-01

    In adults, the critical nasal pressure (Pcrit) at which the upper airway collapses is higher in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) than in those with primary snoring. Pediatric OSAS differs clinically from adult OSAS. We therefore compared Pcrit between prepubertal children with OSAS and primary snoring. Pcrit was determined by correlating the maximal inspiratory airflow with the level of positive or negative nasal pressure applied via a nasal mask. As in adults, we found that the maximal inspiratory airflow varied in proportion to the upstream (nasal) rather than the downstream (esophageal) pressure changes. Pcrit was 1 +/- 3 cmH2O in OSAS compared with -20 +/- 9 cmH2O in primary snorers (P < 0.002). In three OSAS patients reevaluated after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, Pcrit declined to -7.2 +/- 4.0 cmH2O. We conclude that the pediatric airway behaved as predicted by the Starling resistor model and that Pcrit, a measure of airway collapsibility, correlated with the degree of upper airway obstruction and was reduced postoperatively, consistent with increased upper airway stability. PMID:8002548

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species and the Brain in Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Shelley XL; Gozal, David

    2010-01-01

    Rodents exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH), a model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifest impaired learning and memory and somnolence. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative tissue damage, and apoptotic neuronal cell death are associated with the presence of IH-induced CNS dysfunction. Furthermore, treatment with antioxidants or overexpression of antioxidant enzymes is neuroprotective during IH. These findings mimic clinical cases of OSA and suggest that ROS may play a key causal role in OSA-induced neuropathology. Controlled production of ROS occurs in multiple subcellular compartments of normal cells and de-regulation of such processes may result in excessive ROS production. The mitochondrial electron transport chain, especially complexes I and III, and the NADPH oxidase in the cellular membrane are the two main sources of ROS in brain cells, although other systems, including xanthine oxidase, phospholipase A2, lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450, may all play a role. The initial evidence for NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial involvement in IH-induced ROS production and neuronal injury unquestionably warrants future research efforts. PMID:20833273

  20. Cognitive profile and brain morphological changes in obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Torelli, Federico; Moscufo, Nicola; Garreffa, Girolamo; Placidi, Fabio; Romigi, Andrea; Zannino, Silvana; Bozzali, Marco; Fasano, Fabrizio; Giulietti, Giovanni; Djonlagic, Ina; Malhotra, Atul; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Guttmann, Charles RG

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by neurocognitive impairment, likely mediated by injury to various brain regions. We evaluated brain morphological changes in patients with OSA and their relationship to neuropsychological and oximetric data. Sixteen patients affected by moderate-severe OSA (age: 55.86.7 years, 13 males) and fourteen control subjects (age: 57.65.1 years, 9 males) underwent 3.0 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing evaluating short and long-term memory, executive functions, language, attention, praxia and non-verbal learning. Volumetric segmentation of cortical and subcortical structures and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were performed. Patients and controls differed significantly in Rey Auditory- Verbal Learning test (immediate and delayed recall), Stroop test and Digit span backward scores. Volumes of cortical gray matter (GM), right hippocampus, right and left caudate were smaller in patients compared to controls, with also brain parenchymal fraction (a normalized measure of cerebral atrophy) approaching statistical significance. Differences remained significant after controlling for comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, smoking, hypercholesterolemia). VBM analysis showed regions of decreased GM volume in right and left hippocampus and within more lateral temporal areas in patients with OSA. Our findings indicate that the significant cognitive impairment seen in patients with moderate-severe OSA is associated with brain tissue damage in regions involved in several cognitive tasks. We conclude that OSA can increase brain susceptibility to the effects of aging and other clinical and pathological occurrences. PMID:20888921

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea: management considerations in psychiatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Taryn; Zolezzi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are often comorbid. However, there is limited information on the impact of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms, on how to manage psychiatric pharmacotherapy in patients presenting with OSA, or on the effectiveness and challenges of OSA treatments in patients with comorbid mental illness. As such, the objective of this article is to provide an overview of some epidemiological aspects of OSA and treatment considerations in the management of OSA in individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Predefined keywords were used to search for relevant literature in electronic databases. Data show that OSA is particularly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. The medical care that patients with these comorbidities require can be challenging, as some of the psychiatric medications used by these patients may exacerbate OSA symptoms. As such, continuous positive airway pressure continues to be the first-line treatment, even in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. However, more controlled studies are required, particularly to determine continuous positive airway pressure compliance in patients with mental illness, the impact of treating OSA on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of the use of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms. PMID:26508864

  2. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo Guimares, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents. PMID:25568596

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Hypertension, and Their Additive Effects on Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Mario Francesco; Zito, Annapaola; Carrat, Pierluigi; Falcone, Vito Antonio; Bega, Elioda; Scicchitano, Pietro; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Resta, Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. It is widely accepted that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is independently associated with atherosclerosis. Similar to OSA, hypertension (HTN) is a condition associated with atherosclerosis. However, to date, the impact of the simultaneous presence of OSA and HTN on the risk of atherosclerosis has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of the coexistence of OSA and HTN on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and on inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis (such as interleukin- [IL-] 6 and pentraxin- [PTX-] 3). Methods. The study design allowed us to define 4 groups: (1) controls (n = 30); (2) OSA patients without HTN (n = 30); (3) HTN patients without OSA (n = 30); (4) patients with OSA and HTN (n = 30). In the morning after portable monitoring (between 7 am and 8 am), blood samples were collected, and carotid IMT was measured. Results. Carotid IMT, IL-6, and PTX-3 in OSA normotensive patients and in non-OSA HTN subjects were significantly higher compared to control subjects; in addition, in OSA hypertensive patients they were significantly increased compared to OSA normotensive, non-OSA HTN, or control subjects. Conclusions. OSA and HTN have an additive role in the progression of carotid atherosclerosis and in blood levels of inflammatory markers for atherosclerosis, such as interleukin-6 and pentraxin-3. PMID:26697221

  4. Is Mixed Apnea Associated with Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep a Reversible Compensatory Sign of Heart Failure?

    PubMed

    Korostovtseva, Lyudmila; Sazonova, Yulia; Zvartau, Nadezhda; Semenov, Andrey; Nepran, Viktoriya; Bochkarev, Mikhail; Nikolaev, German; Mitrofanova, Lyubov; Sviryaev, Yurii; Gordeev, Mikhail; Konradi, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sleep-disordered breathing is common in heart failure (HF), and prolonged circulation time and diminished pulmonary volume are considered the main possible causes of sleep apnea in these patients. However, the impact and interrelation between sleep apnea and HF development are unclear. We report the case of a patient with complete elimination of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep-associated mixed apnea in HF after heart transplantation. CASE REPORT After unsuccessful 12-month conventional treatment with abrupt exacerbation of biventricular HF IV class (according to New York Heart Association Functional Classification), a 26-year-old man was admitted to the hospital. Based on a comprehensive examination including endomyocardial biopsy, dilated cardiomyopathy was diagnosed. Heart transplantation was considered the only possible treatment strategy. Polysomnography showed severe NREM sleep-associated mixed sleep apnea [apnea-hypopnea index 43/h, in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep 3.7/h, in NREM sleep 56.4/h, mean SatO2 93.9%], and periodic breathing. One-month post-transplantation polysomnography did not show sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index 1.0/h; in REM sleep - 2.8/h, in NREM sleep 0.5/h, mean SatO2 97.5%). The patient was discharged from the hospital in improved condition. CONCLUSIONS NREM sleep-associated mixed apnea occurring in severe systolic HF due to dilated cardiomyopathy might be reversible in case of successful HF treatment. We suggest that mixed sleep apnea strongly associated with NREM sleep occurs in HF, when the brain centers regulating ventilation are intact, and successful HF compensation might be highly effective regarding sleep-breathing disorders without non-invasive ventilation. This is important to know, especially with regard to the recently published data of potentially unfavorable effects of adaptive servoventilation in systolic HF, and the lack of other treatment options. PMID:26681187

  5. The Relationship of Daytime Hypoxemia and Nocturnal Hypoxia in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fanfulla, Francesco; Grassi, Mario; Taurino, Anna Eugenia; Lupo, Nadia D'Artavilla; Trentin, Rossella

    2008-01-01

    Question of the study: Prevalence and determinants of daytime hypoxemia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome are not well established. The aims of this study, conducted in a large series of OSA patients, were to estimate the prevalence of daytime hypoxemia, to assess the reciprocal effects between daytime PaO2 and nocturnal SpO2, and to investigate the direct and indirect role of sleep apnea severity in determining feedback gas exchange abnormalities. Materials and methods: In 456 patients a daytime hypoxemia-nocturnal hypoxia feedback structural equations model was designed. PaO2 adjusted for age (% of predicted), percent sleep time spent with SpO2 <90% (TST90), oxygen desaturation index and the apnea-hypopnea index, were determined as the measures of daytime hypoxemia, nocturnal hypoxia, and sleep apnea severity, respectively, after adjusting for the severity of obesity and lung volumes. Results: The TST90-PaO2 feed-back structural equations modeling showed that daytime PaO2 was inversely related (P<0.001) to nocturnal hypoxia (−4.0% of PaO2 per 1 SD of TST90). The severity of OSA (−1.0%) was an indirect determinant of daytime PaO2 via the TST90 pathway. In contrast, daytime PaO2 did not influence (P>0.05) the extent of nocturnal hypoxia. Conclusions: In OSA patients, the extent of nocturnal hypoxia seems to be both a direct determinant and a mediator of the indirect effect of sleep apnea on the development of daytime hypoxemia. Citation: Fanfulla F; Grassi M; Taurino AE; Lupo ND; Trentin R. The relationship of daytime hypoxemia and nocturnal hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2008;31(2):249–255. PMID:18274273

  6. Resolution of obstructive sleep apnea with epilepsy surgery? Expanding the relationship between sleep and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Stephenson, Lisa; Bingaman, William

    2008-08-01

    Recent studies suggest a higher than expected prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with refractory epilepsy. In some cases, treatment of OSA improves seizure control. We report a case in which clinically significant OSA disappeared after left frontal lobe resection that produced a near seizure free state. This occurred in the absence of the usual factors, such as weight or medication change or variation in polysomnography (PSG) recording methodology, that often confound the comparison of sequential PSGs over time. Our patient underwent PSG with 18-channel EEG recording pre- and postoperatively using standardized scoring techniques. Baseline testing revealed an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 24 with severe oxygen desaturations reaching a nadir of 62%. Postoperative testing found both the AHI and oxygen saturation normalized as well as a marked reduction in spike rate. We hypothesize that the pathophysiology of OSA in patients with epilepsy may be impacted by frequent, extensive interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and/or seizures altering upper airway control during sleep. PMID:18503557

  7. Ocular blood flow in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Sertan; Aksu, Murat; Erdogan, Nuri; Demirci, Sevda; Oner, Ayse; Arda, Hatice; Gumus, Koray

    2007-01-01

    Background Sleep-related disorders are among the important risk factors for neurovascular diseases. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia. Our aim was to investigate the presence of glaucoma in patients with OSAS and to reveal vascular pathology related to the pathogenesis of glaucoma in those patients. Patients and methods The study included 31 patients with OSAS and 25 control subjects. Orbital Doppler ultrasonography was used to determine the resistivity index (RI) in the ophthalmic artery and central retinal artery. All patients and controls underwent perimetric examination. Results The prevalence of glaucoma in the group of patients with OSAS was 12.9% (4/31); all of these 4 patients with glaucoma were in the severe OSAS group. No statistically significant difference was found between ophthalmic artery resistivity index (OARI), central retinal artery resistivity index (CRARI), and intraocular pressure (IOP) between patients and controls (p?>?0.05). There was a positive correlation between OARI and mean defect (MD), CRARI and MD, and CRARI and loss variance (LV) values (p?apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (p?=?0.001). Conclusions In patients with OSAS, a high prevalence was found and it is interesting to note that all of the four glaucoma patients were in the severe OSAS group. The positive correlation observed between IOP and AHI suggests that increased IOP values may reflect the severity of OSAS. The positive correlation between OARI and MD and also between CRARI and MD as well as LV suggests that visual field defects may be due to optic nerve perfusion defects and these field defects also increase as the RI increases. PMID:17676331

  8. Interrelationships between obesity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and cardiovascular risk in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Dorit; Chirinos, Julio A.; Levitt Katz, Lorraine E.; Mohler, Emile R.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may be a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor independently of obesity in adults. Pediatric studies have associated OSAS with endothelial dysfunction, but few studies have examined relationships between OSAS and macrovascular sequelae. Our objective was to examine OSASs independent contribution to macrovascular CVD risk measures in obese adolescents. Subjects/Methods This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia Clinical Research and Academic Sleep Centers, and University of Pennsylvania Vascular Research Unit. 31 obese non-diabetic adolescents underwent anthropometric measurements, overnight polysomnography, fasting laboratory draw, and cardiovascular imaging. Cardiovascular outcome measures included maximal carotid intima-media thickness (cIMTmax), a measure of carotid structural changes, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV), an aortic stiffness measure whose relationship vis--vis OSAS in children has not been previously examined. Carotid diameter and augmentation index (AIx, measuring central pressure augmentation from wave reflections) were assessed. Potential confounding variables examined included blood pressure, lipoproteins, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, insulin and glucose. Results The apnea hypopnea index, a primary OSAS measure, was not associated with cIMTmax, carotid diameter, CFPWV or AIx. BMI associated positively with cIMTmax (r=0.52, p=0.006) and CFPWV (r=0.45, p=0.01). Mean asleep end-tidal CO2 was negatively associated with carotid diameter (r=?0.63, p<0.0005). Insulin levels were negatively associated with AIx (r=?0.53, p=0.02). Conclusions OSAS did not predict carotid structural changes or arterial stiffness independently of BMI in obese adolescents. Higher insulin levels associated with lower central pressure wave augmentation. Finally, long-term hypercapnia may predispose to carotid narrowing. PMID:25913504

  9. Evidence of neurodegeneration in obstructive sleep apnea: Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Daulatzai, Mak Adam

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of dementia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases with age. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease of the elderly characterized by amyloid ? (A?) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The disease involves widespread synaptic loss in the neocortex and the hippocampus. Rodent and clinical studies suggest that OSA impairs the structural integrity of several brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe. Indeed, hypoxia, hypertension, hypoperfusion, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress noted in OSA patients also occur in AD patients. This Review highlights pathological commonality, showing that OSA upregulates A?, tau hyperphosphorylation, and synaptic dysfunction. Indeed, OSA and hypertension trigger hypoperfusion and hypometabolism of brain regions, including cortex and hippocampus. Several studies show that hypertension-driven brain damage and pathogenic mechanisms lead to an A? increase. The pathophysiological mechanism by which OSA enhances hypertension may be linked to sympathoexcitation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Strong pathophysiological similarities that exist between OSA and AD are underscored here. For example, the hippocampus is negatively impacted in both OSA and AD. OSA promotes hippocampal atrophy, which is associated with memory impairment. Cognitive impairment, even in the absence of manifest dementia, is an important independent predictor of mortality. However, several pathophysiological mechanisms in OSA are reversible with appropriate therapy. OSA, therefore, is a modifiable risk factor of cognitive dysfunction, and treating OSA prior to mild cognitive impairment may be an effective prevention strategy to reduce risk for cognitive decline and AD in middle-aged persons and the elderly. PMID:26301370

  10. Sleep apnea syndrome: experience of the pulmonology department in Ibn Sina Hospital, Rabat, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Jniene, Asmaa; el Ftouh, Mustapha; Fihry, Mohamed Tawfiq el Fassy

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sleep apnea syndrome is a highly prevalent disorder that is still underdiagnosed and undertreated and whose obstructive form is the most common. The diagnosis is suspected on clinical signs collected by interrogation and questionnaires (Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale), then confirmed by objective sleep study findings (polygraphy or polysomnography). It is necessary to conduct studies in each context on the characteristics and management of sleep apnea syndrome comprising the testing of reliability of the questionnaires. Methods Prospective and descriptive study of 104 patients addressed to sleep consultation at pulmononology Department of Ibn Sina Hospital, Morocco over a period of 5 years (January 2006 to December 2010), agreed to participate in the study, responded to a predetermined questionnaire, and benefited from clinical examination and paraclinical tests including a polygraphy or a polysomnography Results 59(56.7%) patients had an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome with a similar prevalence in both sexes. 32.2% of patients were obese and 28,8% had cardio-vascular diseases. Snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and witnessed apnea were found in respectively 79.7%, 50.8% and 16.9%. Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale had an acceptable internal consistency against apnea hypopnea index with a Cronbachs alpha coefficient respectively 0.79 and 0.78. Depending on severity, clinical impact and results of investigations, the adequate treatment has been proposed based on the 2010 recommendations for clinical practice. Conclusion This study has provided an idea about the profile and the management of patients having an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and showed that both Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale are two simple and reliable methods in our context. A larger and further study across the country should be considered. PMID:23308333

  11. Basal sympathetic predominance in periodic limb movements in sleep with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng-Ni; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Yen, Chen-Wen; Liou, Li-Min; Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Chen, Sharon C-J; Hsu, Chung-Yao

    2015-12-01

    Because the impact of periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) is controversial, no consensus has been reached on the therapeutic strategy for PLMS in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To verify the hypothesis that PLMS is related to a negative impact on the cardiovascular system in OSA patients, this study investigated the basal autonomic regulation by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Sixty patients with mild-to-moderate OSA who underwent polysomnography (PSG) and completed sleep questionnaires were analysed retrospectively and divided into the PLMS group (n=30) and the non-PLMS group (n=30). Epochs without any sleep events or continuous effects were evaluated using HRV analysis. No significant difference was observed in the demographic data, PSG parameters or sleep questionnaires between the PLMS and non-PLMS groups, except for age. Patients in the PLMS group had significantly lower normalized high frequency (n-HF), high frequency (HF), square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of difference between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD) and standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals index (SDNN-I), but had a higher normalized low frequency (n-LF) and LF/HF ratio. There was no significant difference in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Short-Form 36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale between the two groups. After adjustment for confounding variables, PLMS remained an independent predictor of n-LF (?=0.0901, P=0.0081), LF/HF ratio (?=0.5351, P=0.0361), RMSSD (?=-20.1620, P=0.0455) and n-HF (?=-0.0886, P=0.0134). In conclusion, PLMS is related independently to basal sympathetic predominance and has a potentially negative impact on the cardiovascular system of OSA patients. PMID:26118626

  12. Assessment of a Neck-Based Treatment and Monitoring Device for Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Levendowski, Daniel J.; Seagraves, Sean; Popovic, Djordje; Westbrook, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: A majority of patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea are position dependent whereby they are at least twice as severe when sleeping supine (POSA). This study evaluated the accuracy and efficacy of a neck-worn device designed to limit supine sleep. The study included nightly measurements of snoring, sleep/wake, time supine, and the frequency and duration of feedback to monitor compliance. Methods: Thirty patients between ages 18 and 75 years, BMI ? 35 with an overall apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ? 5 and an overall AHI ? 1.5 times the non-supine AHI, and an Epworth score ? 5 were prospectively studied. Subjective reports and polysomnography were used to assess efficacy resulting from 4 weeks of in-home supine-avoidance therapy and to measure device accuracy. From 363 polysomnography reports, 209 provided sufficient positional data to estimate one site's prevalence of positional OSA. Results: In 83% of participants exhibiting > 50% reduction in overall AHI, the mean and median reductions were 69% and 79%. Significant reductions in the overall and supine AHI, apnea index, percent time SpO2 < 90%, and snoring contributed to significant improvements in stage N1 and N2 sleep, reductions in cortical arousals and awakenings, and improved depression scores. Supine position was under-detected by > 5% in 3% of cases. Sleep efficiency by neck actigraphy was within 10% of polysomnography in 87% of the studies when position feedback was delivered. The prevalence of POSA was consistently > 70% when the overall AHI was < 60. Conclusions: The neck position therapy device is accurate and effective in restricting supine sleep, improving AHI, sleep architecture and continuity, and monitoring treatment outcomes. Citation: Levendowski DJ, Seagraves S, Popovic D, Westbrook PR. Assessment of a neck-based treatment and monitoring device for positional obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):863-871. PMID:25126032

  13. Anesthesia in multiple sclerosis and obstructive sleep apnea: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ceyhan, Aysegul; Uyar, Esra Turkyilmaz; Gencay, Isin Yazici; Gunal, Solmaz Eruyar

    2011-01-01

    While patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or multiple sclerosis (MS) are at high risk of developing postoperative complications, both of them have special anesthetic considerations in intraoperative and postoperative periods. A careful preoperative evaluation, use of the optimal anesthetic regimen and close postoperative care is essential for these patients. Rarity of coexistence of both obstructive sleep apnea and multiple sclerosis in a surgical patient necessitates careful anesthetic management. We here report anesthetic management of a female patient with OSA and MS who underwent anesthesia three times for surgery and review the literature. PMID:22091314

  14. Congestive Heart Failure and Central Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Sands, Scott A; Owens, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is among the most common causes of admission to hospitals in the United States, especially in those over age 65. Few data exist regarding the prevalence CHF of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) owing to congestive heart failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). Nevertheless, CSR is expected to be highly prevalent among those with CHF. Treatment should focus on the underlying mechanisms by which CHF increases loop gain and promotes unstable breathing. Few data are available to determine prevalence of CSR in the ICU, or how CSR might affect clinical management and weaning from mechanical ventilation. PMID:26972039

  15. Visual Vigilance in Drivers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Tippin, Jon; Sparks, JonDavid; Rizzo, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on visual vigilance during simulated automobile driving. Methods Twenty-five drivers with OSA and 41 comparison drivers participated in an hour-long drive in a high fidelity driving simulator. Drivers responded to light targets flashed at seven locations across the forward horizon. Dependent measures were percent correct (hit rate, HR), and reaction time (RT). Self-assessment of sleepiness used the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) before and after the drive and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results OSA drivers showed reduced vigilance based on lower HR than comparison drivers, especially for peripheral targets (80.7 +/? 14.8% vs. 86.7 +/? 8.8%, p = 0.03). OSAS drivers were sleepier at the end of the drive than comparison drivers (SSS = 4.2 +/? 1.2 vs. 3.6 +/? 1.2, p = 0.03), and increased sleepiness correlated with decreased HR only in those with OSA (r = ?0.49, p = 0.01). Lower HR and higher post-drive SSS predicted greater numbers of driving errors in all subjects. Yet, ESS, pre-drive SSS, and most objective measures of disease severity failed to predict driving and vigilance performance in OSA. Conclusions Reduced vigilance for peripheral visual targets indicates that OSA drivers have restriction of their effective field of view, which may partly explain their increased crash risk. This fatigue-related decline in attention is predicted by increased subjective sleepiness during driving. These findings may suggest a means of identifying and counseling high-risk drivers, and aid in the development of in-vehicle alerting and warning devices. PMID:19616141

  16. The Dimension of Hyoid Bone Is Independently Associated with the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang Hyeon; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Cho, Hyung-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that the size of the hyoid bone itself may affect the severity of sleep apnea. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between hyoid bone dimensions and the severity of sleep apnea using computerized tomography (CT) axial images. Methods We retrospectively measured the hyoid bone in axial images of neck CTs and correlated these measurements with results of polysomnography in a total of 106 male patients. The new hyoid bone parameters studied in this study were as follows: distance between bilateral lesser horns (LH-d), distance between bilateral greater horns (GH-d), distance from the most anterior end of the hyoid arch to GH-d (AP), distance from the greater to the lesser horn on right and left sides (GH-LH), and the anterior angle between bilateral extensive lines from the greater to the lesser horn (H-angle). Data was analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, and Pearson correlation tests. Results We found a significant inverse correlation between the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and GH-d or AP. Neither the LH-d, GH-LH, nor H-angle were associated with the AHI. The patient group that met the criteria of both GH-d<45.4 and AP<33.4 demonstrated the most severe AHI. Conclusion The lateral width or antero-posterior length of hyoid bone was associated with AHI and predicted the severity of sleep apnea in male patients. This finding supports the role of expansion hyoidplasty for treatment of sleep apnea. Pre-operative consideration of these parameters may improve surgical outcomes in male patients with sleep apnea. PMID:24312562

  17. Sleep apnea termination decreases cerebral blood volume: a near-infrared spectroscopy case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Merilinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.

  18. Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in an Edentulous Lower Jaw Patient with a Mandibular Advancement Device

    PubMed Central

    Keyf, Filiz; iftci, Blent; F?rat Gven, Selma

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder with periodic reduction or cessation of airflow during sleep. It is associated with loud snoring, disrupted sleep, and witnessed apneas. Treatment of OSA varies from simple measures such as oral appliances and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to surgical procedures like uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and tracheostomy. Oral appliances are a viable nonsurgical treatment alternative in patients with OSA, of which mandibular advancement devices are most common. Edentulism which contributes to the worsening of OSA reduces the number of available therapeutic strategies and is considered a contraindication to oral appliance therapy. This clinical report describes the treatment of a 63-year-old edentulous OSA patient for whom a mandibular advancement device was designed. PMID:24551463

  19. Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Che; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Lin, Chi-Wei; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Chen, Shih-Wei; Chang, Min-Yu; Ho, Li-Chun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan; Tseng, Shih-Hann; Wang, Wei-Ming; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chiou, Yuan-Yow

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep apnea (SA) is characterized by apnea during sleep and is associated with cardiovascular diseases and an increase in all-cause mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem that has placed a substantial burden on healthcare resources. However, the relationship between SA and the incidence of CKD is not clear. This study aimed to determine whether SA is an independent risk factor for the development of CKD. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Patients or Participants: A total of 4,674 adult patients (age ? 30 y) in whom SA was newly diagnosed from 2000 to 2010 were included, together with 23,370 non-SA patients as the comparison group. The two groups were frequency-matched for sex, age, and year of receiving medical service. Each individual was followed until 2011. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: These two groups were monitored and observed for the occurrence of CKD. Patients with SA experienced a 1.94-fold increase (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.522.46; P < 0.001) in the incidence of CKD, which was independent of sex, age, and comorbid medical conditions. Additionally, they showed a 2.2-fold increase (95% CI, 1.313.69; P < 0.01) in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Conclusions: Patients with sleep apnea are at increased risk for chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease compared with the general population. As such, screening renal function and treatment of chronic kidney disease is an important issue in patients with sleep apnea. Citation: Lee YC, Hung SY, Wang HK, Lin CW, Wang HH, Chen SW, Chang MY, Ho LC, Chen YT, Liou HH, Tsai TC, Tseng SH, Wang WM, Lin SH, Chiou YY. Sleep apnea and the risk of chronic kidney disease: a nationwide population-based cohort study. SLEEP 2015;38(2):213221. PMID:25409108

  20. Increased Carbonic Anhydrase Activity is Associated with Sleep Apnea Severity and Related Hypoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tengyu; Eskandari, Davoud; Zou, Ding; Grote, Ludger; Hedner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The catalytic function of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a fundamental role in carbon dioxide (CO2), proton (H+), and bicarbonate (HCO3-) homeostasis. Hypoxia and tissue acidosis have been proposed to increase physiological CA activity in various compartments of the body. We hypothesized that CA activity in blood is upregulated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design: Cross-sectional analysis of a sleep clinic cohort. Settings: Sleep laboratory at a university hospital. Participants: Seventy referred patients with suspected OSA (48 males, age 54 13 y, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) median [interquartile range] 21 [841] n/h). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: In-laboratory cardiorespiratory polygraphy was used to assess OSA. CA activity was determined by an in vitro assay that quantifies the pH change reflecting the conversion of CO2 and H2O to HCO3- and H+. CA activity was positively associated with AHI and 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI4) (Spearman correlation r = 0.44 and 0.47, both P < 0.001). The associations (CA activity versus logAHI and CA versus logODI4) were independent of sex, age, body mass index, presleep oxygen saturation, nocturnal oxygen saturation, hypertension status, and use of diuretic medication in two generalized linear models (P = 0.007 and 0.011, respectively). Sitting diastolic blood pressure was associated with CA activity after adjustment of sex, age, body mass index, mean oxygen saturation, and AHI (P = 0.046). Conclusions: Carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity increased with apnea-hypopnea index and related nocturnal hypoxemia measures in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Altered CA activity may constitute a component that modulates respiratory control and hemodynamic regulation in patients with OSA. Citation: Wang T, Eskandari D, Zou D, Grote L, Hedner J. Increased carbonic anhydrase activity is associated with sleep apnea severity and related hypoxemia. SLEEP 2015;38(7):10671073. PMID:25845687

  1. The Face of Sleepiness: Improvement in Appearance after Treatment of Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chervin, Ronald D.; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Vahabzadeh, Arshia; Burns, Margaret C.; Burns, Joseph W.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Anecdote but no formal evidence suggests that facial appearance improves after hypersomnolent patients with obstructive sleep apnea are treated. We investigated whether masked volunteer raters can identify post- rather than pre-treatment images as looking more alert, and whether impressions are predicted by any objective changes on highly precise 3-dimensional digital photogrammetry. Methods: Participants included 20 adults with obstructive sleep apnea on polysomnography and excessive sleepiness on Epworth Sleepiness Scales. Photogrammetry was performed before and after ≥ 2 months of adherent use of positive airway pressure. Twenty-two raters then assessed pre- and post-treatment facial images, paired side-by-side in random order. Results: Subjects included 14 men and 6 women, with mean age 45 ± 11 (SD) years and mean baseline apnea/hypopnea index of 26 ± 21. The 22 raters twice as often identified post-treatment rather than pre-treatment images to look more alert (p = 0.0053), more youthful (p = 0.026), more attractive (p = 0.0068), and more likely to reflect the treated state (p = 0.015). Photogrammetry documented post-treatment decreases in forehead surface volume and decreased infraorbital and cheek redness, but no narrowing of the interpalpebral fissure. Decreased deep NREM sleep at baseline, and pre- to post-treatment decrements in facial redness showed promise as predictors of improved subjective ratings for alertness. Conclusions: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea are perceived to appear more alert, more youthful, and more attractive after adherent use of positive airway pressure. Objective changes in facial surface volume and color were identified. Post-treatment decrements in redness may inform subjective impressions of improved alertness. Citation: Chervin RD; Ruzicka DL; Vahabzadeh A; Burns MC; Burns JW; Buchman SR. The face of sleepiness: improvement in appearance after treatment of sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):845-852. PMID:23997695

  2. Brainstem infarction and sleep-disordered breathing in the BASIC Sleep Apnea Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Devin L.; McDermott, Mollie; Mowla, Ashkan; De Lott, Lindsey; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Kerber, Kevin A.; Hegeman, Garnett; Smith, Melinda A.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Association between cerebral infarction site and post-stroke sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has important implications for SDB screening and the pathophysiology of post-stroke SDB. Within a large, population-based study, we assessed whether brainstem infarction location is associated with SDB presence and severity. Methods Cross-sectional study of ischemic stroke patients in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. Subjects underwent SDB screening (median 13 days after stroke) with a well-validated cardiopulmonary sleep apnea testing device (n=355). Acute infarction location was determined based on review of radiology reports and dichotomized into brainstem involvement or none. Logistic and linear regression models were used to test the associations between brainstem involvement and SDB or apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) in unadjusted and adjusted models. Results Thirty-eight (11%) had acute infarction involving the brainstem. Of those without brainstem infarction, 59% had significant SDB (AHI?10); the median AHI was 13 (interquartile range (IQR) 6, 26). Of those with brainstem infarction, 84% had SDB; median AHI was 20 (IQR 11, 38). In unadjusted analysis, brainstem involvement was associated with over three times the odds of SDB (OR 3.71 (95% CI: 1.52, 9.13)). In a multivariable model, adjusted for demographics, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, prior stroke/TIA, and stroke severity, results were similar (OR 3.76 (95% CI: 1.44, 9.81)). Brainstem infarction was also associated with AHI (continuous) in unadjusted (p=0.004) and adjusted models (p=0.004). Conclusions Data from this population-based stroke study show that acute infarction involving the brainstem is associated with both presence and severity of SDB. PMID:24916097

  3. Acoustic-integrated dynamic MR imaging for a patient with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunn-Jy; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Chang, Yi-Chung; Hsu, Ying-Chieh; Huon, Leh-Kiong; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pham, Van-Truong; Lin, Chen; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is caused by multi-level upper airway obstruction. Anatomic changes at the sites of obstruction may modify the physical or acoustic properties of snores. The surgical success of OSA depends upon precise localization of obstructed levels. We present a case of OSAS who received simultaneous dynamic MRI and snore acoustic recordings. The synchronized image and acoustic information successfully characterize the sites of temporal obstruction during sleep-disordered breathing events. PMID:26278970

  4. Management of Sleep Apnea without High Pretest Probability or with Comorbidities by Three Nights of Portable Sleep Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Arnoldo; Embid, Cristina; Isetta, Valentina; Farre, Ramn; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Parra, Olga; Barb, Ferran; Montserrat, Josep M.; Masa, Juan F.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) diagnosis using simplified methods such as portable sleep monitoring (PM) is only recommended in patients with a high pretest probability. The aim is to determine the diagnostic efficacy, consequent therapeutic decision-making, and costs of OSA diagnosis using polysomnography (PSG) versus three consecutive studies of PM in patients with mild to moderate suspicion of sleep apnea or with comorbidity that can mask OSA symptoms. Design and Setting: Randomized, blinded, crossover study of 3 nights of PM (3N-PM) versus PSG. The diagnostic efficacy was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Therapeutic decisions to assess concordance between the two different approaches were performed by sleep physicians and respiratory physicians (staff and residents) using agreement level and kappa coefficient. The costs of each diagnostic strategy were considered. Patients and Results: Fifty-six patients were selected. Epworth Sleepiness Scale was 10.1 (5.3) points. Bland-Altman plot for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) showed good agreement. ROC curves showed the best area under the curve in patients with PSG AHI ? 5 [0.955 (confidence interval = 0.8620.993)]. For a PSG AHI ? 5, a PM AHI of 5 would effectively exclude and confirm OSA diagnosis. For a PSG AHI ? 15, a PM AHI ? 22 would confirm and PM AHI < 7 would exclude OSA. The best agreement of therapeutic decisions was achieved by the sleep medicine specialists (81.8%). The best cost-diagnostic efficacy was obtained by the 3N-PM. Conclusions: Three consecutive nights of portable monitoring at home evaluated by a qualified sleep specialist is useful for the management of patients without high pretest probability of obstructive sleep apnea or with comorbidities. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, registration number: NCT01820156 Citation: Guerrero A, Embid C, Isetta V, Farre R, Duran-Cantolla J, Parra O, Barb F, Montserrat JM, Masa JF. Management of sleep apnea without high pretest probability or with comorbidities by three nights of portable sleep monitoring. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1363-1373. PMID:25083017

  5. Measurement properties of a screening questionnaire of obstructive sleep apnea risk: Little information, great prediction???

    PubMed Central

    Sargento, Paulo; Perea, Victoria; Ladera, Valentina; Lopes, Paulo; Oliveira, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous research had shown the suitability of several questionnaires predicting the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Measurement properties of an online screening questionnaire were studied. Methods The sample consisted of 184 Portuguese adults (89 men and 95 women); 46 of them were polysomnographically diagnosed with the untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The participants were assessed with an online questionnaire of sleep apnea risk, from University of Maryland. Results A principal component factor analysis was performed, revealing a single factor (49.24% of the total variance). Internal consistency was minimally adequate (?=0.74). The mean of inter-item correlation was of 0.35 (0.120.61), whereas the item-total correlations were considered good (0.520.81). The total score for patients was significantly higher than for healthy participants (p<0.000), but no significant statistical differences between severity groups of patients were found (p>0.05). Furthermore, the ability of the measure in discriminating between healthy subjects and OSA subjects was good. Overall data from the Rasch analysis was consistent with the guidelines of Linacre, scores show good model fit and psychometric adequacy. Conclusions The measure showed an adequate structural, internal and criterion validity, suggesting this as a useful and effective screening for sleep apnea risk in Portuguese adults. PMID:26483909

  6. Still Tired After Getting Your Zzz's? You Might Have Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 40, smoking, having a family history of the disorder, and having a nasal obstruction due to a deviated septum, allergies or sinus problems. Sleep apnea can also affect children, with the most common cause being enlarged tonsils and adenoids. Losing weight ...

  7. DSM-IV DIAGNOSES AND OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA IN CHILDREN BEFORE AND 1 YEAR AFTER ADENOTONSILLECTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, James E.; Blunden, Sarah; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Guire, Kenneth E.; Champine, Donna; Weatherly, Robert A.; Hodges, Elise K.; Giordani, Bruno J.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea, a common indication for adenotonsillectomy in children, has been linked to behavioral morbidity. We assessed psychiatric diagnoses in children before and after adenotonsillectomy and examined whether baseline sleep apnea predicted improvement after surgery. Method Subjects of this prospective cohort study were children aged 5.012.9 years-old who had been scheduled for adenotonsillectomy (n = 79), or care for unrelated surgical conditions (n=27, among whom 13 had surgery after baseline assessment). Prior to intervention and one year later, subjects underwent structured diagnostic interviews and polysomnography. The main outcome measure was frequency of DSM-IV attention and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses (A&DBDs) at baseline and follow-up. Results At baseline, A&DBDs were diagnosed in 36.7% of adenotonsillectomy subjects and 11.1% of controls (p<.05); attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was found in 27.8% and 7.4%, respectively (p<.05). One year later, group differences were non-significant, A&DBDs were diagnosed in only 23.1% (p<.01), and 50% of subjects with baseline attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders no longer met diagnostic criteria. Obstructive sleep apnea on polysomnography at baseline did not predict concurrent psychiatric morbidity or later improvement. Conclusions Attention and disruptive behavior disorders, diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria, were more common before clinically-indicated adenotonsillectomy than one year later. Surgery may be associated with reduced morbidity even among subjects lacking polysomnographic evidence of obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:18049292

  8. Stability analysis of sleep apnea time series using identified models: a case study.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio; Souza, Alvaro V P

    2004-04-01

    This paper investigates the use of identified nonlinear multivariable autonomous models in the classification of breathing patterns of a patient with sleep apnea. Details about the identification procedure are provided and the results reported for the case study at hand suggest that identified models could be useful in computer-based monitoring. PMID:15047435

  9. Consensus and evidence-based Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea guidelines 2014 (first edition).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surendra K; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Mohan, Alladi; Kadhiravan, T; Elavarasi, A; Ragesh, R; Nischal, Neeraj; Sethi, Prayas; Behera, D; Bhatia, Manvir; Ghoshal, A G; Gothi, Dipti; Joshi, Jyotsna; Kanwar, M S; Kharbanda, O P; Kumar, Suresh; Mohapatra, P R; Mallick, B N; Mehta, Ravindra; Prasad, Rajendra; Sharma, S C; Sikka, Kapil; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Shukla, Garima; Suri, J C; Vengamma, B; Grover, Ashoo; Vijayan, V K; Ramakrishnan, N; Gupta, Rasik

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are subsets of sleep-disordered breathing. Awareness about OSA and its consequences among the general public as well as the majority of primary care physicians across India is poor. This necessitated the development of the Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea (INOSA) guidelines under the auspices of Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. OSA is the occurrence of an average five or more episodes of obstructive respiratory events per hour of sleep with either sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities or ?15 such episodes without any sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities. OSAS is defined as OSA associated with daytime symptoms, most often excessive sleepiness. Patients undergoing routine health check-up with snoring, daytime sleepiness, obesity, hypertension, motor vehicular accidents, and high-risk cases should undergo a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Medical examiners evaluating drivers, air pilots, railway drivers, and heavy machinery workers should be educated about OSA and should comprehensively evaluate applicants for OSA. Those suspected to have OSA on comprehensive sleep evaluation should be referred for a sleep study. Supervised overnight polysomnography is the "gold standard" for evaluation of OSA. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the mainstay of treatment of OSA. Oral appliances (OA) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer OA to PAP, or who do not respond to PAP or who fail treatment attempts with PAP or behavioral measures. Surgical treatment is recommended in patients who have failed or are intolerant to PAP therapy. PMID:26180408

  10. Consensus and evidence-based Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea guidelines 2014 (first edition)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Mohan, Alladi; Kadhiravan, T.; Elavarasi, A.; Ragesh, R.; Nischal, Neeraj; Sethi, Prayas; Behera, D.; Bhatia, Manvir; Ghoshal, A. G.; Gothi, Dipti; Joshi, Jyotsna; Kanwar, M. S.; Kharbanda, O. P.; Kumar, Suresh; Mohapatra, P. R.; Mallick, B. N.; Mehta, Ravindra; Prasad, Rajendra; Sharma, S. C.; Sikka, Kapil; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Shukla, Garima; Suri, J. C.; Vengamma, B.; Grover, Ashoo; Vijayan, V. K.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Gupta, Rasik

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are subsets of sleep-disordered breathing. Awareness about OSA and its consequences among the general public as well as the majority of primary care physicians across India is poor. This necessitated the development of the Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea (INOSA) guidelines under the auspices of Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. OSA is the occurrence of an average five or more episodes of obstructive respiratory events per hour of sleep with either sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities or ≥15 such episodes without any sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities. OSAS is defined as OSA associated with daytime symptoms, most often excessive sleepiness. Patients undergoing routine health check-up with snoring, daytime sleepiness, obesity, hypertension, motor vehicular accidents, and high-risk cases should undergo a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Medical examiners evaluating drivers, air pilots, railway drivers, and heavy machinery workers should be educated about OSA and should comprehensively evaluate applicants for OSA. Those suspected to have OSA on comprehensive sleep evaluation should be referred for a sleep study. Supervised overnight polysomnography is the “gold standard” for evaluation of OSA. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the mainstay of treatment of OSA. Oral appliances (OA) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer OA to PAP, or who do not respond to PAP or who fail treatment attempts with PAP or behavioral measures. Surgical treatment is recommended in patients who have failed or are intolerant to PAP therapy. PMID:26180408

  11. Heritability of Abnormalities in Cardiopulmonary Coupling in Sleep Apnea: Use of an Electrocardiogram-based Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Lamia H.; Jacono, Frank J.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Thomas, Robert J.; Larkin, Emma K.; Mietus, Joseph E.; Peng, Chung-Kang; Goldberger, Ary L.; Redline, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Studies of the genetics of obstructive sleep apnea may be facilitated by identifying intermediate traits with high heritability that quantify etiological pathways, such as those related to respiratory control. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-based sleep spectrograms, measuring the coupling between respiratory modulation of ECG QRS-wave amplitude and heart rate variability, may provide measures of sleep state and ventilatory dynamics during sleep. We evaluated the familial aggregation of distinctive spectrographic biomarkers of unstable sleep, related to elevated-low frequency cardiopulmonary coupling (e-LFC), to assess their utility in genetic studies. Methods: 622 participants from 137 families from the Cleveland Family Study underwent standardized polysomnography (PSG). From the ECG signal on the PSG, the interbeat interval time series and the corresponding ECG-derived respiratory signal were extracted, and the low frequency (0.01-0.1 Hz) component of their coupling was computed using a fully automated method. Narrow sense heritability of e-LFC was calculated using variance component methods. Results: A spectral marker of abnormal low frequency cardiopulmonary coupling (e-LFC) demonstrated moderate correlation with apnea hypopnea index (AHI; r = 0.35, P < 0.0001). The heritability estimate for e-LFC, after adjusting for age and sex was 0.32 (P < 10-5) and remained unchanged after additionally adjusting for body mass index or AHI. In biological relatives of those with sleep apnea, a related marker of e-LFC was more prevalent than in controls (P = 0.05). Conclusions: Approximately 30% of the variability of e-LFC, measured from a continuous ECG during sleep, is explained by familial factors other than BMI. ECG-based spectrographic measures of cardiopulmonary coupling may provide novel phenotypes for characterizing subgroups of individuals with different propensities and genetic etiologies for sleep apnea or for other conditions associated with sleep fragmentation. Citation: Ibrahim LH; Jacono FJ; Patel SR; Thomas RJ; Larkin EK; Mietus JE; Peng CK; Goldberger AL; Redline S. Heritability of abnormalities in cardiopulmonary coupling in sleep apnea: use of an electrocardiogram-based technique. SLEEP 2010;33(5):643-646. PMID:20469806

  12. Quality Measures for the Care of Pediatric Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kothare, Sanjeev V.; Rosen, Carol L.; Lloyd, Robin M.; Paruthi, Shalini; Thomas, Sherene M.; Troester, Matthew M.; Carden, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    The Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a Task Force to develop quality measures as part of its strategic plan to promote high quality patient-centered care. Among many potential dimensions of quality, the AASM requested Workgroups to develop outcome and process measures to aid in evaluating the quality of care of five common sleep disorders: insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea in adults, obstructive sleep apnea in children, restless legs syndrome, and narcolepsy. This paper describes the rationale, background, general methods development, and considerations in implementation of these quality measures in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. This document describes measurement methods for five desirable process measures: assessment of symptoms and risk factors of OSA, initiation of an evidence-based action plan, objective evaluation of high-risk children with OSA by obtaining a polysomnogram (PSG), reassessment of signs and symptoms of OSA within 12 months, and documentation of objective assessment of positive airway pressure adherence. When these five process measures are met, clinicians should be able to achieve the two defined outcomes: improve detection of childhood OSA and reduce signs and symptoms of OSA after initiation of a management plan. The AASM recommends the use of these measures as part of quality improvement programs that will enhance the ability to improve care for patients with childhood OSA. Citation: Kothare SV, Rosen CL, Lloyd RM, Paruthi S, Thomas SM, Troester MM, Carden KA. Quality measures for the care of pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):385–404. PMID:25700879

  13. Associations of Allostatic Load with Sleep Apnea, Insomnia, Short Sleep Duration, and Other Sleep Disturbances: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Redline, Susan; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether allostatic load (AL), a measure of cumulative physiologic dysregulation across biological systems, was associated with sleep apnea, insomnia, and other sleep disturbances. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008 were used. AL was measured using nine biomarkers representing cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic system functioning. A total of 7,726 US adults aged 18 years and older were included in this study. Results The prevalence of high AL (AL score ?3) was the highest among African Americans (25.2%), followed by Hispanic Americans (21.0%), Whites (18.8%), and other racial/ethnic group (16.5%). After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and depression status, high AL was significantly associated with sleep apnea (odds ratio (OR)=1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.95), snoring (1.65, 95% CI: 1.41-1.93), snorting/stop breathing (OR=1.62, 95% CI: 1.25-2.10), prolonged sleep latency (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.13-1.56), short sleep duration (<6 hours) (OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.04-1.61), and diagnosed sleep disorder (OR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.53-2.24). There was no clear evidence that observed associations varied by sociodemographic characteristics or depression status. Conclusions This study suggests significant associations of high AL with sleep apnea, sleep apnea symptoms, insomnia component, short sleep duration, and diagnosed sleep disorder among US adults. PMID:24985316

  14. The effect of adding gender item to Berlin Questionnaire in determining obstructive sleep apnea in sleep clinics

    PubMed Central

    Yceege, Melike; F?rat, Hikmet; Sever, zlem; Demir, Ahmet; Ard?, Sad?k

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: We aimed to validate the Turkish version of Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) and developped a BQ-gender (BQ-G) form by adding gender component. We aimed to compare the two forms in defining patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in sleep clinics. METHODS: Four hundred and eighty five consecutive patients, refered to our sleep clinic for snoring, witnessed apnea and/or excessive daytime sleepiness were enrolled to the study. All patients underwent in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG). Patients with sleep efficiency less than 40% and total sleep time less than 4 hours, chronic anxiolitic/sedative drug usage, respiratory tract infection within past two weeks were excluded from the study. All the patients fulfilled BQ. The test and retest for BQ were applied in 15-day interval in 30 patients. RESULTS: Totally 433 patients were enrolled to the study (285 male, 148 female). The mean age of the patients was 47,5 10.5 (21-79). 180 patients (41.6%) had apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ? 15, while 253 patients (58,4%) had AHI > 15. The ? value was 4894 and the the truth value was 69-94% for the test-retest procedure. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), and area under the curve AUC were 84.2%, 31.7%, 48.7%, 63.4%, and 0.579 in order for BQ and 79.9 %, 51.7%, 63.2% , 69.6%, and 0.652 for BQ-G. CONCLUSION: The results showed that BQ-G is relatively better than BQ in determining moderate to severe OSA in sleep clinics where most of the patients are sleep apneic but both of the tests were found to have insufficient validities in defining moderate to severe OSA in sleep clinics. PMID:25593603

  15. Narcolepsy with obstructive sleep apnea in a 4-year-old Korean girl: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soonhak; Jang, Kyungmi; Hwang, Sukyung; Cho, Minhyun; Seo, Hyeeun

    2013-05-01

    A 4-yr-old girl has exhibited severe snoring, restless sleep and increasing daytime sleepiness over the last 3 months. The physical examination showed that she was not obese but had kissing tonsils. Polysomnography demonstrated increased apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 5.2, and multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) showed shortened mean sleep latency and one sleep-onset REM period (SOREMP). She was diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and underwent tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. After the surgery, her sleep became much calmer, but she was still sleepy. Another sleep test showed normal AHI of 0.2, the mean sleep latency of 8 min, and two SOREMPs. Diagnosis of OSA to be effectively treated by surgery and narcolepsy without cataplexy was confirmed. Since young children exhibiting both OSA and narcolepsy can fail to be diagnosed with the latter, it's desirable to conduct MSLT when they have severe daytime sleepiness or fail to get better even with good treatment. PMID:23678276

  16. Sympathetic and Catecholaminergic Alterations in Sleep Apnea with Particular Emphasis on Children

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is involved in the regulation of major organ functions in the human body, and disruption of sleep potentially can elicit organ dysfunction. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most prevalent sleep disorder of breathing in adults and children, and its manifestations reflect the interactions between intermittent hypoxia, intermittent hypercapnia, increased intra-thoracic pressure swings, and sleep fragmentation, as elicited by the episodic changes in upper airway resistance during sleep. The sympathetic nervous system is an important modulator of the cardiovascular, immune, endocrine and metabolic systems, and alterations in autonomic activity may lead to metabolic imbalance and organ dysfunction. Here we review how OSA and its constitutive components can lead to perturbation of the autonomic nervous system in general, and to altered regulation of catecholamines, both of which then playing an important role in some of the mechanisms underlying OSA-induced morbidities. PMID:22319509

  17. Is Mixed Apnea Associated with Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep a Reversible Compensatory Sign of Heart Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Korostovtseva, Lyudmila; Sazonova, Yulia; Zvartau, Nadezhda; Semenov, Andrew; Nepran, Viktoriya; Bochkarev, Mikhail; Nikolaev, German; Mitrofanova, Lyubov; Sviryaev, Yurii; Gordeev, Mikhail; Konradi, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 24 Final Diagnosis: Dilated cardiomyopathy Symptoms: Biventricular heart failure sleep apnea Medication: Clinical Procedure: Heart transplantation Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Sleep-disordered breathing is common in heart failure (HF), and prolonged circulation time and diminished pulmonary volume are considered the main possible causes of sleep apnea in these patients. However, the impact and interrelation between sleep apnea and HF development are unclear. We report the case of a patient with complete elimination of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep-associated mixed apnea in HF after heart transplantation. Case Report: After unsuccessful 12-month conventional treatment with abrupt exacerbation of biventricular HF IV class (according to New York Heart Association Functional Classification), a 26-year-old man was admitted to the hospital. Based on a comprehensive examination including endomyocardial biopsy, dilated cardiomyopathy was diagnosed. Heart transplantation was considered the only possible treatment strategy. Polysomnography showed severe NREM sleep-associated mixed sleep apnea [apnea-hypopnea index 43/h, in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep 3.7/h, in NREM sleep 56.4/h, mean SatO2 93.9%], and periodic breathing. One-month post-transplantation polysomnography did not show sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index 1.0/h; in REM sleep ? 2.8/h, in NREM sleep 0.5/h, mean SatO2 97.5%). The patient was discharged from the hospital in improved condition. Conclusions: NREM sleep-associated mixed apnea occurring in severe systolic HF due to dilated cardiomyopathy might be reversible in case of successful HF treatment. We suggest that mixed sleep apnea strongly associated with NREM sleep occurs in HF, when the brain centers regulating ventilation are intact, and successful HF compensation might be highly effective regarding sleep-breathing disorders without non-invasive ventilation. This is important to know, especially with regard to the recently published data of potentially unfavorable effects of adaptive servoventilation in systolic HF, and the lack of other treatment options. PMID:26681187

  18. Bone Loss in Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chakhtoura, Marlene; Nasrallah, Mona; Chami, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep-related respiratory disorder. It is associated with many endocrinopathies including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolism, and glucose intolerance that may lead to bone loss with secondary osteoporosis. Methods: We report the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with bilateral 9th rib fractures and was found to have obstructive sleep apnea and osteoporosis. We also present a literature review on this topic. Results: OSA can lead to bone loss through various mechanisms. Some are shared with obesity, including hypogonadism, altered adrenergic tone, inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency and diabetes mellitus; others are specific to OSA, such as hypoxia and altered glucocorticoids regulation. Conclusion: There are no guidelines on screening for osteoporosis in OSA. Further research is needed to assess the incidence of bone loss and fractures in OSA. Citation: Chakhtoura M, Nasrallah M, Chami H. Bone loss in obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: a review of literature. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):575580. PMID:25580607

  19. Noncontact screening system with two microwave radars for the diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Ueki, Katsuhiko; Tojima, Hirokazu; Matsui, Takemi

    2013-01-01

    There were two key problems in applying Doppler radar to a diagnosis system for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. The first is noise associated with body movements and the second is the body positions in bed and the changes of the sleeping posture. We focused on the changes of the amplitude of the radar output signal corresponding to the changes in the tidal volume, and proposed a method of detecting the change of the respiratory amplitude value without the influence of body position in bed. In addition, we challenged the detection of the apnea-hypopnea event confirmed by accompanied rise of heart rates. To increase the accuracy of heart rate measurement, we propose a new automatic gain control and a real-time radar-output channel selection method based on a spectrum shape analysis. A prototype of the system was set up at a sleep disorder center in a hospital and field tests were carried out with eight subjects. Despite the subjects engaging in frequent body movements while sleeping, the system was quite effective in the diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (the correlation coefficient r = 0.98). PMID:24110122

  20. Respiratory Sound Analysis for Flow Estimation During Wakefulness and Sleep, and its Applications for Sleep Apnea Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadollahi, Azadeh

    Tracheal respiratory sounds analysis has been investigated as a non--invasive method to estimate respiratory flow and upper airway obstruction. However, the flow--sound relationship is highly variable among subjects which makes it challenging to estimate flow in general applications. Therefore, a robust model for acoustical flow estimation in a large group of individuals did not exist before. On the other hand, a major application of acoustical flow estimation is to detect flow limitations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during sleep. However, previously the flow--sound relationship was only investigated during wakefulness among healthy individuals. Therefore, it was necessary to examine the flow--sound relationship during sleep in OSA patients. This thesis takes the above challenges and offers innovative solutions. First, a modified linear flow--sound model was proposed to estimate respiratory flow from tracheal sounds. To remove the individual based calibration process, the statistical correlation between the model parameters and anthropometric features of 93 healthy volunteers was investigated. The results show that gender, height and smoking are the most significant factors that affect the model parameters. Hence, a general acoustical flow estimation model was proposed for people with similar height and gender. Second, flow--sound relationship during sleep and wakefulness was studied among 13 OSA patients. The results show that during sleep and wakefulness, flow--sound relation- ship follows a power law, but with different parameters. Therefore, for acoustical flow estimation during sleep, the model parameters should be extracted from sleep data to have small errors. The results confirm reliability of the acoustical flow estimation for investigating flow variations during both sleep and wakefulness. Finally, a new method for sleep apnea detection and monitoring was developed, which only requires recording the tracheal sounds and the blood's oxygen saturation level (SaO2) data. It automatically classifies the sound segments into breath, snore and noise. A weighted average of features extracted from sound segments and SaO2 signal was used to detect apnea and hypopnea events. The performance of the proposed approach was evaluated on the data of 66 patients. The results show high correlation (0.96, p < 0.0001) between the outcomes of our system and those of the polysomnography. Also, sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method in differentiating simple snorers from OSA patients were found to be more than 91%. These results are superior or comparable with the existing commercialized sleep apnea portable monitors.

  1. Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.

    PubMed

    Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-10-29

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. PMID:25355211

  2. Apnea-Induced Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Disruption Impairs Human Spatial Navigational Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. PMID:25355211

  3. Complications of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea in school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinopoulou, Sofia; Gallagher, Paul; Elden, Lisa; Garetz, Susan L.; Mitchell, Ron B.; Redline, Susan; Rosen, Carol L.; Katz, Eliot S.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Amin, Raouf; Arens, Raanan; Paruthi, Shalini; Marcus, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adenotonsillectomy is the treatment of choice for most children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but can lead to complications. Current guidelines recommend that high-risk children be hospitalized after adenotonsillectomy, but it is unclear which otherwise-healthy children will develop post-operative complications. We hypothesized that polysomnographic parameters would predict post-operative complications in children who participated in the Childhood AdenoTonsillectomy (CHAT) study. Methods Children in the CHAT study aged 59 years with apnea hypopnea index 230/hr or obstructive apnea index 120/hr without comorbidities other than obesity/asthma underwent adenotonsillectomy. Associations between demographic variables and surgical complications were examined with Chi square and Fishers exact tests. Polysomnographic parameters between subjects with/without complications were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Results Of the 221 children (median apnea hypopnea index 4.7/hr, range 1.227.7/hr; 31% obese), 16 (7%) children experienced complications. 3 (1.4%) children had respiratory complications including pulmonary edema, hypoxemia and bronchospasm. Thirteen (5.9%) had non-respiratory complications, including dehydration (4.5%), hemorrhage (2.3%) and fever (0.5%). There were no statistically significant associations between demographic parameters (gender, race, and obesity) or polysomnographic parameters (apnea hypopnea index, % total sleep time with SpO2<92%, SpO2 nadir, % sleep time with end-tidal CO2>50 Torr) and complications. Conclusions This study showed a low risk of post-adenotonsillectomy complications in school-aged healthy children with obstructive apnea although many children met published criteria for admission due to obesity, or polysomnographic severity. In this specific population, none of the polysomnographic or demographic parameters predicted post-operative complications. Further research could identify the patients at greatest risk of post-operative complications. PMID:25575425

  4. Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Obstructive Sleep Apnea Evaluation and Treatment Among Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Raphael; McKenzie, Sharon; Taylor, Tonya; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although blacks are at higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), they are not as likely as their white counterparts to receive OSA evaluation and treatment. This study assessed knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards OSA evaluation and treatment among blacks residing in Brooklyn, New York. Methods Five focus groups involving 39 black men and women (aged ?18 years) were conducted at the State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn to ascertain barriers preventing or delaying OSA evaluation and treatment. Results Misconceptions about sleep apnea were a common theme that emerged from participants responses. Obstructive sleep apnea was often viewed as a type of insomnia, an age-related phenomenon, and as being caused by certain bedtime activities. The major theme that emerged about barriers to OSA evaluation was unfamiliarity with the study environment. Barriers were categorized as: problems sleeping in a strange and unfamiliar environment, unfamiliarity with the study protocol, and fear of being watched while sleeping. Barriers to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment adoption were related to the confining nature of the device, discomfort wearing a mask while they slept, and concerns about their partners perceptions of treatment. Conclusion Results of this study suggest potential avenues for interventions to increase adherence to recommended evaluation and treatment of OSA. Potential strategies include reducing misconceptions about OSA, increasing awareness of OSA in vulnerable communities, familiarizing patients and their partners with laboratory procedures used to diagnose and treat OSA. We propose that these strategies should be used to inform the development of culturally and linguistically tailored sleep apnea interventions to increase awareness of OSA among blacks who are at risk for OSA and associated comorbidities. PMID:23560353

  5. The Sleep Apnea cardioVascular Endpoints (SAVE) Trial: Rationale, Ethics, Design, and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Antic, Nick A.; Heeley, Emma; Anderson, Craig S.; Luo, Yuanming; Wang, Jiguang; Neal, Bruce; Grunstein, Ron; Barbe, Ferran; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Huang, Shaoguang; Redline, Susan; Zhong, Nanshan; McEvoy, R. Doug

    2015-01-01

    The Sleep Apnea cardioVascular Endpoints (SAVE) study is an ongoing investigator-initiated and conducted, international, multicenter, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial that was designed to determine whether treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) can reduce the risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with established CV disease (clinical trial registration NCT00738179). The results of this study will have important implications for the provision of health care to patients with sleep apnea around the world. The SAVE study has brought together respiratory, sleep, CV and stroke clinicians-scientists in an interdisciplinary collaboration with industry and government sponsorship to conduct an ambitious clinical trial. Following its launch in Australia and China in late 2008, the recruitment network expanded across 89 sites that included New Zealand, India, Spain, USA, and Brazil for a total of 2,717 patients randomized by December 2013. These patients are being followed until December 2015 so that the average length of follow-up of the cohort will be over 4 y. This article describes the rationale for the SAVE study, considerations given to the design including how various cultural and ethical challenges were addressed, and progress in establishing and maintaining the recruitment network, patient follow-up, and adherence to CPAP and procedures. The assumptions underlying the original trial sample size calculation and why this was revised downward in 2012 are also discussed. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00738179. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12608000409370. Citation: Antic NA, Heeley E, Anderson CS, Luo Y, Wang J, Neal B, Grunstein R, Barbe F, Lorenzi-Filho G, Huang S, Redline S, Zhong N, McEvoy RD. The sleep apnea cardiovascular endpoints (SAVE) trial: rationale, ethics, design, and progress. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1247–1257. PMID:25669180

  6. [The usefulness of an alternative EEG scoring system in obstructive sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Verbraecken, J; De Backer, W; De Cock, W; Wittesaele, W; Van de Heyning, P

    1994-01-01

    Careful analysis of the EEG in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients according to the Rechtschaffen and Kales (R & K) criteria indicates that obstructive apneas (OA) are more frequently observed during stage 1 and 2 sleep than during slow wave sleep. However it is also obvious that OA can be recognised during R & K wakefulness stage (St W). The purpose of the present study was to see whether further partition of R & K St W could define a wakefulness stage during which no apneas occur. Ten patients with predominantly OSA were studied (OA-Index 20 +/- 5). Patients EEG were scored according to classic R & K and to modified criteria which further divided R & K St W. Three additional stages were defined (STW-a, STW-b, STW-c). The partitioning of STW of R & K allowed us to define a W-stage (STW-a) during which no apneas occur, and to identify alpha (STW-b) and drowsiness (STW-c) during which OA occur frequently. PMID:8171998

  7. The incidence and severity of pulmonary hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea with hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Araz, Omer; Ucar, Elif Yilmazel; Yalcin, Asl?han; Pulur, Didem; Acemoglu, Hamit; Tas, Hakan; Saglam, Leyla; Akgun, Metin; Mirici, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are both common health problems and can be seen together. Each of these 2 diseases can cause pulmonary hypertension (PH). We aimed to determine whether hypothyroidism with OSA has a significant effect on the frequency and severity of PH. Material/Methods A total of 236 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group I, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (n=149); Group II, Hypothyroidism (n=56); and Group III, Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypothyroidism (n=31). All patients underwent polysomnography and echocardiography and serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine 4 (FT4) were analyzed. Results There were 167 male and 69 female participants, and the mean age was 47.811.5 (Group I: 81.9% male, 18.1% female; Group II: 44.6% male, 55.4% female; Group III: 64.6% male, 35.4% female). Distribution of mean pulmonary arterial pressure on echocardiography was statistically different among the 3 groups (x2=14.99, p=0.006). When adjusted according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), age, and body mass index (BMI), a significant relation with PH was determined (p=0.002). Conclusions The combination of hypothyroidism with OSA is associated with an increased frequency and severity of PH. When PH is found out of line with the severity of OSA, thyroid dysfunction should be investigated. PMID:24149072

  8. Noninvasive Determination of Brain Tissue Oxygenation during Sleep in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Olopade, Christopher O.; Mensah, Edward; Gupta, Rajarsi; Huo, Dezheng; Picchietti, Daniel L.; Gratton, Enrico; Michalos, Antonios

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recurrent apneas and hypoxemia during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are associated with profound changes in cerebral blood flow to the extent that cerebral autoregulation may be insufficient to protect the brain. Since the brain is sensitive to hypoxia, the cerebrovascular morbidity seen in OSA could be due to chronic, cumulative effects of intermittent hypoxia. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has the potential to noninvasively monitor brain tissue oxygen saturation (SO2), and changes in concentration of oxyhemoglobin [O2Hb], deoxyhemoglobin [HHb] and total hemoglobin [tHb] with real-time resolution. We hypothesized that brain tissue oxygenation would be worse during sleep in OSA relative to controls and sought to determine the practical use of NIRS in the sleep laboratory. Design: We evaluated changes in brain tissue oxygenation using NIRS during overnight polysomnography. Setting: Studies were conducted at University of Illinois, Chicago and Carle Hospital, Urbana, Illinois. Patients: Nineteen subjects with OSA and 14 healthy controls underwent continuous NIRS monitoring during polysomnography. Measurements and Results: We observed significantly lower indexes of brain tissue oxygenation (SO2: 57.1 4.9 vs. 61.5 6.1), [O2Hb]: 22.8 7.7 vs. 31.5 9.1, and [tHb]: 38.6 11.2 vs. 48.6 11.4 ?mol/L) in OSA than controls (all P <0.05). However, multivariate analysis showed that the differences might be due to age disparity between the two groups. Conclusions: NIRS is an effective tool to evaluate brain tissue oxygenation in OSA. It provides valuable data in OSA assessment and has the potential to bridge current knowledge gap in OSA. Citation: Olopade CO; Mensah E; Gupta R; Huo D; Picchietti DL; Gratton E; Michalos A. Noninvasive determination of brain tissue oxygenation during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea: a near-infrared spectroscopic approach. SLEEP 2007;30(12):1747-1755. PMID:18246984

  9. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with mandibular advancement appliance over prostheses: A case report.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Thais Moura; Colen, Sâmia; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Rossi, Rowdley; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Ferraz, Otávio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) is recommended for mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), primary snoring and as a secondary option for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, because it has better adherence and acceptance. However, edentulous patients do not have supports to hold the MAD. This study aimed to present a possible to OSA treatment with MAD in over complete upper and partial lower dentures. The patient, a 38-year-old female with mild OSA, was treated with a MAD. The respiratory parameter, such as apnea-hypopnea index, arousal index and oxyhemoglobin saturation was improved after treatment. PMID:26483952

  10. Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Apnea in Patients' Homes: The Rationale and Methods of the GoToSleep Randomized-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bravata, Dawn M.; Ferguson, Jared; Miech, Edward J.; Agarwal, Rajiv; McClain, Vincent; Austin, Charles; Struve, Frederick; Foresman, Brian; Li, Xinli; Wang, Zhu; Williams, Linda S.; Dallas, Mary I.; Couch, Cody D.; Sico, Jason; Fragoso, Carlos; Matthias, Marianne S.; Chumbler, Neale; Myers, Jennifer; Burrus, Nicholas; Dube, Archana; French, Dustin D.; Schmid, Arlene A.; Concato, John; Yaggi, H. Klar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Apnea in Cerebrovascular Disease (GoToSleep) study is evaluating a strategy to improve the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea among veterans with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) who also have hypertension. Specifically, the GoToSleep study was designed to overcome some of the barriers that exist within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to the timely diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea by using ambulatory home-based polysomnography and auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to reduce the reliance on laboratory-based sleep studies. Methods: The GoToSleep study is a prospective, multi-site, randomized, controlled strategy trial among an expected 318 veterans with cerebrovascular disease and hypertension who are assigned to an intervention group or a control group. Patients in the intervention group receive unattended polysomnography at baseline, and those with sleep apnea receive auto-titrating CPAP therapy for up to one year. Patients in the control group receive usual care and unattended polysomnography at the end of the study to identify the rate of undiagnosed sleep apnea. The primary objectives of the GoToSleep study are to determine whether a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategy among veterans with cerebrovascular disease and hypertension improves: (1) detection of sleep apnea; (2) appropriate treatment for sleep apnea; and (3) control of hypertension. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure assessments are made at baseline and at the end of the one-year study period for both groups. Antihypertensive medications and their doses are recorded at the time of the 24-hour blood pressure measurements. Discussion: This manuscript provides the rationale for 4 key components of the design of the GoToSleep trial: the inclusion of patients with cerebrovascular disease and hypertension without the use of a measure of daytime sleepiness as an eligibility criterion; the use of portable polysomnography and auto-titrating CPAP in patients' homes rather than using sleep laboratory polysomnography with fixed pressure CPAP; the analytic approach to evaluating change in blood pressure in the context of change in antihypertensive medications; and the use of a usual care control group. Citation: Bravata DM; Ferguson J; Miech EJ; Agarwal R; McClain V; Austin C; Struve F; Foresman B; Li X; Wang Z; Williams LS; Dallas MI; Couch CD; Sico J; Fragoso C; Matthias MS; Chumbler N; Myers J; Burrus N; Dube A; French DD; Schmid AA; Concato J; Yaggi HK. Diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea in patients' homes: the rationale and methods of the GoToSleep randomized-controlled trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(1):2735. PMID:22334806

  11. A Robust Apnea Period Detection Method in Changing Sleep Posture by Average Mutual Information of Heartbeat and Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kajiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tanaka

    Sleep disorders disturb the recovery from mental and physical fatigues, one of the functions of the sleep. The majority of those who with the disorders are suffering from Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS). Continuous Hypoxia during sleep due to SAS cause Circulatory Disturbances, such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease, and Malfunction of Autonomic Nervous System, and other severe complications, often times bringing the suffers to death. In order to prevent these from happening, it is important to detect the SAS in its early stage by monitoring the daily respirations during sleep, and to provide appropriate treatments at medical institutions. In this paper, the Pneumatic Method to detect the Apnea period during sleep is proposed. Pneumatic method can measure heartbeat and respiration signal. Respiration signal can be considered as noise against heartbeat signal, and the decrease in the respiration signal due to Apnea increases the Average Mutual Information of heartbeat. The result of scaling analysis of the average mutual information is defined as threshold to detect the apnea period. The root mean square error between the lengths of Apnea measured by Strain Gauge using for reference and those measured by using the proposed method was 3.1 seconds. And, error of the number of apnea times judged by doctor and proposal method in OSAS patients was 3.3 times.

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea: a new preventive and therapeutic target for stroke: a new kid on the block.

    PubMed

    Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and a major cause of mental and physical impairment. Numerous studies have identified risk factors for stroke, including hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, and smoking. However, even after considering these well-recognized risk factors, there is substantial variation in stroke rates and stroke-related outcomes. There is emerging evidence that obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of stroke independently of traditional risk factors. Obstructive sleep apnea is present in the majority of patients with stroke and contributes to persistent neurologic impairment. Early recognition and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea during the post-stroke period lead to better neurologic outcome. Healthcare providers should be aware of the strong association of obstructive sleep apnea as a riskfactor for stroke and its effect on neurologic recovery. The presence of hypertension and diabetes-the 2 most common comorbid conditions in obstructive sleep apnea-should prompt diagnostic workup for and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea as a way of primary and secondary prevention of stroke. PMID:25731137

  13. Toward numerical simulations of fluid-structure interactions for investigation of obstructive sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Jung; Huang, Shao-Ching; White, Susan M.; Mallya, Sanjay M.; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a medical condition characterized by repetitive partial or complete occlusion of the airway during sleep. The soft tissues in the airway of OSA patients are prone to collapse under the low-pressure loads incurred during breathing. This paper describes efforts toward the development of a numerical tool for simulation of air-tissue interactions in the upper airway of patients with sleep apnea. A procedure by which patient-specific airway geometries are segmented and processed from dental cone-beam CT scans into signed distance fields is presented. A sharp-interface embedded boundary method based on the signed distance field is used on Cartesian grids for resolving the airflow in the airway geometries. For simulation of structure mechanics with large expected displacements, a cut-cell finite element method with nonlinear Green strains is used. The fluid and structure solvers are strongly coupled with a partitioned iterative algorithm. Preliminary results are shown for flow simulation inside the three-dimensional rigid upper airway of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Two validation cases for the fluid-structure coupling problem are also presented.

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleh Bandi, Mir Farhad; Naserbakht, Morteza; Tabasi, Abdolreza; Marghaiezadeh, Azin; Riazee Esfahani, Mohammad; Golzarian, Zohre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep apnea is temporary cessation or absence of breathing during sleep. Significant increase in blood pressure is clinically seen in apneic episodes. The aim of this study was to examine sleep apnea syndrome as a risk factor for non- arthritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in a case control study. Methods: Nineteen NAION patients (9 men and 10 women) and 31 age and sex matched control participants (18 men and 13 women) were evaluated for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Full night polysomnography was performed and proportion of OSAS was compared between the NAION patients and the control group. Other risk factors for NAION such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease and tobacco consumption were also evaluated. Chi square test and independent samples t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: OF the 19 NAION patients, 18 (95%) had OSAS, and of the control group 13 (41.9%) had OSAS. The frequency of OSAS was significantly higher among NAION patients compared to the controls (p< 0.001). The Mean Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) was 37.65/h SD= 37.61/h in NAION patients and it was 15.05/h SD= 11.97/h (p= 0.018) in controls. The frequency of diabetes and hypertension was significantly higher in the NAION patients than in controls. Conclusion: based on the results of this study, it seems that there is an association between NAION and OSAS.

  15. Toward numerical simulations of fluid-structure interactions for investigation of obstructive sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Jung; Huang, Shao-Ching; White, Susan M.; Mallya, Sanjay M.; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2015-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a medical condition characterized by repetitive partial or complete occlusion of the airway during sleep. The soft tissues in the airway of OSA patients are prone to collapse under the low-pressure loads incurred during breathing. This paper describes efforts toward the development of a numerical tool for simulation of air-tissue interactions in the upper airway of patients with sleep apnea. A procedure by which patient-specific airway geometries are segmented and processed from dental cone-beam CT scans into signed distance fields is presented. A sharp-interface embedded boundary method based on the signed distance field is used on Cartesian grids for resolving the airflow in the airway geometries. For simulation of structure mechanics with large expected displacements, a cut-cell finite element method with nonlinear Green strains is used. The fluid and structure solvers are strongly coupled with a partitioned iterative algorithm. Preliminary results are shown for flow simulation inside the three-dimensional rigid upper airway of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Two validation cases for the fluid-structure coupling problem are also presented.

  16. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring with Oral Appliance Therapy: An Update for 2015

    PubMed Central

    Ramar, Kannan; Dort, Leslie C.; Katz, Sheri G.; Lettieri, Christopher J.; Harrod, Christopher G.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since the previous parameter and review paper publication on oral appliances (OAs) in 2006, the relevant scientific literature has grown considerably, particularly in relation to clinical outcomes. The purpose of this new guideline is to replace the previous and update recommendations for the use of OAs in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring. Methods: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine (AADSM) commissioned a seven-member task force. A systematic review of the literature was performed and a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to assess the quality of evidence. The task force developed recommendations and assigned strengths based on the quality of the evidence counterbalanced by an assessment of the relative benefit of the treatment versus the potential harms. The AASM and AADSM Board of Directors approved the final guideline recommendations. Recommendations: We recommend that sleep physicians prescribe oral appliances, rather than no therapy, for adult patients who request treatment of primary snoring (without obstructive sleep apnea). (STANDARD) When oral appliance therapy is prescribed by a sleep physician for an adult patient with obstructive sleep apnea, we suggest that a qualified dentist use a custom, titratable appliance over non-custom oral devices. (GUIDELINE) We recommend that sleep physicians consider prescription of oral appliances, rather than no treatment, for adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea who are intolerant of CPAP therapy or prefer alternate therapy. (STANDARD) We suggest that qualified dentists provide oversight rather than no follow-upof oral appliance therapy in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea, to survey for dental-related side effects or occlusal changes and reduce their incidence. (GUIDELINE) We suggest that sleep physicians conduct follow-up sleep testing to improve or confirm treatment efficacy, rather than conduct follow-up without sleep testing, for patients fitted with oral appliances. (GUIDELINE) We suggest that sleep physicians and qualified dentists instruct adult patients treated with oral appliances for obstructive sleep apnea to return for periodic office visits as opposed to no follow-upwith a qualified dentist and a sleep physician. (GUIDELINE) Conclusions: The AASM and AADSM expect these guidelines to have a positive impact on professional behavior, patient outcomes, and, possibly, health care costs. This guideline reflects the state of knowledge at the time of publication and will require updates if new evidence warrants significant changes to the current recommendations. Citation: Ramar K, Dort LC, Katz SG, Lettieri CJ, Harrod CG, Thomas SM, Chervin RD. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliance therapy: an update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):773827. PMID:26094920

  17. Monocarboxylate Transporter 2 and Stroke Severity in a Rodent Model of Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Guo, Shang-Z; Bonen, Arend; Li, Richard C.; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Zhang, Shelley X.L.; Brittian, Kenneth R.; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is not only more prevalent but is also associated with more severe adverse functional outcomes among patients with sleep apnea. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) are important regulators of cellular bioenergetics, have been implicated in brain susceptibility to acute severe hypoxia (ASH), and could underlie the unfavorable prognosis of cerebrovascular accidents in sleep apnea patients. Rodents were exposed to either intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, a characteristic feature of sleep apnea, or to sustained hypoxia (SH), and expression of MCT1 and MCT2 was assessed. In addition, the functional recovery to MCAO in rats and hMCT2 transgenic mice and of hippocampal slices subjected to ASH was assessed, as well as the effects of MCT blocker and MCT2 antisense oligonucleotides and siRNAs. IH, but not SH, induced significant reductions in MCT2 expression over time at both the mRNA and protein levels, and in the functional recovery of hippocampal slices subjected to ASH. Similarly, MCAO-induced infarcts were significantly greater in IH-exposed rats and mice, and over-expression of hMCT2 in mice markedly attenuated the adverse effects of IH. Exogenous pyruvate treatment reduced infarct volumes in normoxic rats but not in IH-exposed rats. Administration of he MCT2 blocker 4CN, but not the MCT1 antagonist pCMBS, increased infarct size. Thus, prolonged exposures to IH mimicking sleep apnea are associated with increased CNS vulnerability to ischemia that is mediated, at least in part, by concomitant decreases in the expression and function of MCT2. Efforts to develop agonists of MCT2 should provide opportunities to ameliorate the overall outcome of stroke. PMID:21753001

  18. [An algorithm based on ECG signal for sleep apnea syndrome detection].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaomin; Tu, Yuewen; Huang, Chao; Ye, Shuming; Chen, Hang

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) has a significant importance in clinic for preventing diseases of hypertention, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia and cerebrovascular disorder, etc. This study presents a novel method for SAS detection based on single-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The method preprocessed ECG and detected QRS waves to get RR signal and ECG-derived respiratory (EDR) signal. Then 40 time- and spectral-domain features were extracted to normalize the signals. After that support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify the signals as "apnea" or "normal". Finally, the performance of the method was evaluated by the MIT-BIH Apnea-ECG database, and an accuracy of 95% in train sets and an accuracy of 88% in test sets were achieved. PMID:24459959

  19. Sleep apnea and oxygen saturation in adults at 2640m above sea level?

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto Zapata, Maria Angelica; Dueas Meza, Elida; Jaramillo, Claudia; Maldonado Gomez, Dario; Torres Duque, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the SpO2 in wakefulness, sleep and during the apneahypopnea in adults living in Bogot, located at 2640m above sea level. Methods Descriptive observational study in adults referred for polysomnogram (PSG). A normal Apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was defined as ?5 and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was classified as mild (AHI 515), moderate (AHI 1530), and severe (AHI >30). T-test or ANOVA test for SpO2 differences between groups was used. Results 1799 patients, 33% women. 222 (12.8%) did not have OSA (normal IAH), 268 (14.9%) mild OSA, 315 (17.5%) moderate ,and 993 (55.2%) severe. In all cases a low SpO2 (SpO2<90%) was found. The SpO2 was lower when the AHI was higher, in wakefulness, in non-REM and in REM (p<0.001). For all grades of severity, SpO2 decreased significantly from wakefulness to non-REM sleep and to REM sleep (p<0.001). Patients with severe OSA had higher desaturation during wakefulness (85.26.6%), non-REM sleep (83.17.7%), REM sleep (78.810.2), and during events (75.19.1%). Conclusions Patients with OSA at 2640m have nocturnal desaturation lower than 88%, which decreases with higher severity of OSA. The clinical impact of sleep disorders at this point may be greater than at sea level and should be studied. PMID:26483911

  20. Quality of Life and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Symptoms After Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ron B.; Parker, Portia D.; Moore, Rene H.; Rosen, Carol L.; Giordani, Bruno; Muzumdar, Hiren; Paruthi, Shalini; Elden, Lisa; Willging, Paul; Beebe, Dean W.; Marcus, Carole L.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data from a randomized, controlled study of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were used to test the hypothesis that children undergoing surgery had greater quality of life (QoL) and symptom improvement than control subjects. The objectives were to compare changes in validated QoL and symptom measurements among children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting; to determine whether race, weight, or baseline OSAS severity influenced changes in QoL and symptoms; and to evaluate associations between changes in QoL or symptoms and OSAS severity. METHODS: Children aged 5 to 9.9 years with OSAS (N = 453) were randomly assigned to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting with supportive care. Polysomnography, the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument, and the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale were completed at baseline and 7 months. Changes in the QoL and symptom surveys were compared between arms. Effect modification according to race and obesity and associations between changes in polysomnographic measures and QoL or symptoms were examined. RESULTS: Greater improvements in most QoL and symptom severity measurements were observed in children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy, including the parent-completed Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (effect size [ES]: 0.37), the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument (ES: 0.93), the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (ES: 0.42), and the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (ES: 1.35). Effect modification was not observed by obesity or baseline severity but was noted for race in some symptom measures. Improvements in OSAS severity explained only a small portion of the observed changes. CONCLUSIONS: Adenotonsillectomy compared with watchful waiting resulted in significantly more improvements in parent-rated generic and OSAS-specific QoL measures and OSAS symptoms. PMID:25601979

  1. The effect of polysomnography on sleep position: possible implications on the diagnosis of positional obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Metersky, M L; Castriotta, R J

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to determine if physical constraint due to the polysomnography (PSG) apparatus affects PSG results by inducing subjects to sleep in the supine position. Twelve patients found to have positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during standard PSG returned for two additional nights of study during which no PSG leads were attached. The time spent supine was 56% greater during the PSG night than the non-PSG nights, 195 +/- 88.6 min during the baseline PSG and 125 +/- 84.6 min during the non-PSG nights (p < 0.05). Therefore, PSG may overestimate the severity of OSA in some patients with positional OSA. PMID:8885000

  2. Correlation between hippocampal sulcus width and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akhan, Galip; Songu, Murat; Ayik, Sibel Oktem; Altay, Canan; Kalemci, Serdar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) severity and the hippocampal sulcus width in a cohort of subjects with OSAS and controls. A total of 149 OSAS patients and 60 nonapneic controls were included in the study. Overnight polysomnograpy was performed in all patients. Hippocampal sulcus width of the patients was measured by a radiologist blinded to the diagnosis of the patients. Other variables noted for each patient were as follows: gender, age, body mass index, apnea hypopnea index, Epworth sleepiness scale, sleep efficacy, mean saturation, lowest O2 saturation, longest apnea duration, neck circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference. A total of 149 OSAS patients were divided into three groups: mild OSAS (n=54), moderate OSAS (n=40), severe OSAS (n=55) groups. The control group consisted of patients with AHI <5 (n=60). Hippocampal sulcus width was 1.60.83mm in the control group; while 1.90.81mm in mild OSAS, 2.10.60mm in moderate OSAS, and 2.90.58mm in severe OSAS groups (p<0.001). Correlation analysis of variables revealed that apnea hypopnea index (rs=0.483, p<0.001) was positively correlated with hippocampal sulcus width. Our findings demonstrated that severity of OSAS might be associated with various pathologic mechanisms including increased hippocampal sulcus width. PMID:25502740

  3. The Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Banu; Kerimo?lu, Hrkan; Turan, Meydan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Method. We studied 43 new diagnosed OSAS patients and 40 healthy volunteers. Patients underwent an overnight sleep study in an effort to diagnose and determine the severity of OSAS. RNFL analyses were performed using Stratus OCT. The average and the four-quadrant RNFL thickness were evaluated. Results. There was no difference between the average and the four-quadrant RNFL thickness in OSAS and control groups. There was no correlation between apnea-hypopnea index and intraocular pressure. Body mass index of patients with moderate and severe OSAS was significantly higher in patients with mild OSAS. Conclusion. Mean RNFL thickness did not differ between the healthy and the OSAS subjects, however, the parameters were more variable, with a larger range in OSAS patients compared to controls. PMID:24369492

  4. Compliance and side effects in sleep apnea patients treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Nino-Murcia, G; McCann, C C; Bliwise, D L; Guilleminault, C; Dement, W C

    1989-01-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective therapy for sleep apnea. We treated 144 patients with nasal CPAP and observed them for periods of as long as 25 months. No pneumothoraces occurred in any patient. Compliance rates were between 65% (90/139) and 83% (90/108), depending on the patient population considered. Demographic factors unrelated to discontinuing using CPAP included age, sex, and the presence of a housemate. Better-educated patients were less able to tolerate the equipment. Dry throat and nose and sore eyes were the most common side effects, but only sore eyes related to the amount of pressure. Side effects were unrelated to the number of months on the treatment, and obesity was related to higher pressures. Our study provides optimistic intermediate-term follow-up observations of patients on nasal CPAP therapy for sleep apnea. Whether adverse consequences occur over longer periods of time remains to be seen. PMID:2658326

  5. High altitude, continuous positive airway pressure, and obstructive sleep apnea: subjective observations and objective data.

    PubMed

    Ginosar, Yehuda; Malhotra, Atul; Schwartz, Eli

    2013-06-01

    We report observations made by one of the authors who ascended to the Thorang La pass (5416?m) in the Nepal Himalaya in October 2010, despite moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea. We report the first recorded use of nasal CPAP to treat high altitude pulmonary edema (progressively severe dyspnea at rest and severe orthopnea, with tachycardia and tachypnea) that occurred at 4400 meters, when snow and darkness made safe evacuation difficult. We also present objective longitudinal data of the effects of altitude on auto-adjusting CPAP delivered via a portable nasal CPAP device, and on the apnea hypopnea index measured during sleep while using the device. OSA may be a risk factor for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema and we suggest that a nasal CPAP device located in high altitude trekking stations may provide an additional or alternative treatment option for managing high altitude pulmonary edema until evacuation is possible. PMID:23795742

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: An important piece in the puzzle of cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ctia; Santos, Beatriz; Severino, Davide; Cabanelas, Nuno; Peres, Marisa; Monteiro, Isabel; Leal, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a clinical entity characterized by recurring episodes of apnea and/or hypopnea during sleep, due to a total or partial collapse, respectively, of the upper airway. This collapse originates a set of pathophysiological changes that determine the appearance of several cardiovascular complications. OSA contributes for the development of hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias and coronary heart disease. Nowadays it is recognized to be an important public health problem, taking into account not just its repercussions but also its prevalence, since the main risk factor for the disease is obesity, a growing problem worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about OSA, as regards its definition, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, cardiovascular effects and treatment. PMID:25496654

  7. [Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children: beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Esteller, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in the general childhood population is 1-2% and the most common cause is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy, there are other highly prevalent causes of this syndrome in children. The causes are often multifactorial and include muscular hypotonia, dentofacial abnormalities, soft tissue hypertrophy of the airway, and neurological disorders). Collaboration between different specialties involved in the care of these children is essential, given the wide variability of conditions and how frequently different factors are involved in their genesis, as well as the different treatments to be applied. We carried out a wide literature review of other causes of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy. We organised the prevalence of this syndrome in each pathology and the reasons that cause it, as well as their interactions and management, in a consistent manner. PMID:25107357

  8. [Desflurane Anesthesia in a Morbidly Obese Patient with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yuichi; Kinomoto, Masashi; Fujii, Aya; Hara, Yuko

    2015-04-01

    A 33-year-old morbidly obese patient (body mass index = 59.5 kg x m(-2)) with severe obstructive sleep apnea was scheduled to undergo osteosynthesis of right radial, ulnar and femoral fractures under general anesthesia. Awake intubation under conscious sedation using fantanyl and midazolam was performed by the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope. By using desflurane under continuous infusion of remifentanil 0.2-0.5 ?g x kg(-1) x min(-1), BIS values were maintained between 40 and 60 during the surgery. Although duration of surgery was long (430 minutes), the times from discontinuation of the anesthetic drug to eye opening and extubation were 82 seconds and 8.5 minutes, respectively. Respiratory depression was minimal during postoperative period. In this case desflurane was safely used in a morbidly obese patient with severe obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:26419105

  9. Processing and representation of meta-data for sleep apnea diagnosis with an artificial intelligence approach.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, D; Muiz, J

    2001-09-01

    In this article, we revise and try to resolve some of the problems inherent in questionnaire screening of sleep apnea cases and apnea diagnosis based on attributes which are relevant and reliable. We present a way of learning information about the relevance of the data, comparing this with the definition of the information by the medical expert. We generate a predictive data model using a data aggregation operator which takes relevance and reliability information about the data into account to produce a diagnosis for each case. We also introduce a grade of membership for each question response which allows the patient to indicate a level of confidence or doubt in their own judgement. The method is tested with data collected from patients in a Sleep Clinic using questionnaires specially designed for the study. Other artificial intelligence predictive modeling algorithms are also tested on the same data and their predictive accuracy compared to that of the aggregation operator. PMID:11518667

  10. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the relationship between sleep disorder and pain level, quality of life, and disability

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, Ebru; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Komut, Ece Akyol; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Demiryontar, Dilay Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to assess the relationship between sleep disorder and pain, quality of life, and disability. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four patients were included in the study and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. Chronic widespread pain, quality of life, and disability were evaluated. [Results] Forty-one patients (55.4%) had chronic widespread pain. Female patients had a higher incidence of chronic pain, and female patients with chronic pain had higher body mass indexes, pain levels, and disability scores than did male patients. Physical component scores of female patients with chronic pain were lower than those of male patients. No correlation was observed between the degree of sleep disorder and severity of pain, pain duration, disability, or quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea patients with pain. [Conclusion] This study showed a 55.4% prevalence of chronic widespread pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a greater risk of chronic pain in female than in male patients. Female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic pain have higher pain and disability levels and a lower quality of life. PMID:26504332

  11. High Priority Future Research Needs for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kamal; Moorthy, Denish; Chan, Jeffrey A.; Concannon, Thomas W.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify and prioritize future research needs (FRN) topics for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty-one panel members represented six stake-holder categories: patients and the public, providers; purchasers of health care, payers, policymakers, and principal investigators. Building on a recently completed comparative effectiveness review, stakeholders nominated and discussed potential FRN topics. Stakeholders then nominated their top priority FRN topics based on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program Selection Criteria. From these nominations, the highest priority FRN topics were determined and were elaborated upon to include possible study designs to address the topics. Results: Thirty-seven topics were discussed and prioritized. The nine highest priority FRN topics included: cost-effectiveness of management strategies, defining age- and sex-specific criteria for OSA, evaluating routine preoperative screening for OSA, evaluating involvement of a sleep medicine specialist in diagnosis of OSA, evaluating clinical prediction rules, assessing the effect of treating sleep disordered breathing and long-term clinical outcomes, comparing treatments for patients who do not tolerate positive airway pressure, evaluating strategies to improve treatment compliance, and evaluating the association between sleep apnea severity and long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions: While there are numerous specific research questions with low or insufficient strength of evidence for OSA management, OSA patients, their healthcare providers, and society at large would benefit from refocusing research efforts into the prioritized research questions and away from simple comparisons of short-term outcomes between specific interventions. Citation: Patel K; Moorthy D; Chan JA; Concannon TW. High priority future research needs for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):395-402. PMID:23585757

  12. Frequency of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Dental Patients with Tooth Wear

    PubMed Central

    Durn-Cantolla, Joaqun; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Martnez-Null, Cristina; Aguirre, Jose Javier; Guinea, Elena Rubio; Anitua, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in dental patients with tooth wear, and to assess the role of dentists in the identification of patients at risk of OSAS. Methods: Dental patients with tooth wear and treated with occlusal splint were prospectively recruited to perform sleep study. The severity of tooth wear was established by the treating dentist before patient referral to sleep disorders unit. Sleep questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and validated respiratory polygraphy were performed. Results: All patients with dental wear were offered a sleepiness analysis. Of 31 recruited patients, 30 (77% males) participated in this study. Patients' mean age was 58.5 10.7 years (range: 3590 years) and the body mass index was 27.9 3.4 kg/m2. Tooth wear was mild in 13 patients, moderate in 8 and severe in 9. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 32.4 24.9. AHI < 5 was reported in 2 patients, AHI of 529 in 17, and AHI ? 30 in 11. A statistically significant association was found between AHI severity and tooth wear severity (Spearman R = 0.505; p = 0.004). Conclusions: Tooth wear could be a tool to identify those patients at risk of having OSAS. This highlights the importance of dental professionals to identify and refer patients with OSAS. Citation: Durn-Cantolla J, Alkhraisat MH, Martnez-Null C, Aguirre JJ, Guinea ER, Anitua E. Frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in dental patients with tooth wear. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):445450. PMID:25665693

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Impaired Cognitive and Functional Status after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A.M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Case-control study. Setting and Patients: 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. Results: We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. Citation: Aaronson JA, van Bennekom CA, Hofman WF, van Bezeij T, van den Aardweg JG, Groet E, Kylstra WA, Schmand B. Obstructive sleep apnea is related to impaired cognitive and functional status after stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1431–1437. PMID:25669178

  14. Reliability of Telemedicine in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Coma-del-Corral, Mara Jess; Alonso-lvarez, Mara Luz; Allende, Marta; Cordero, Jos; Ordax, Estrella; Masa, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Advances in information technology and telecommunications have provided the option of making it easier to diagnose and treat obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) using telemedicine techniques. This study assessed the feasibility and reliability of respiratory polygraphy and prescription of treatment by pressure adjustment with auto-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) systems, both being transmitted telematically to the Sleep Unit, with teleconsultation as a support method. Subjects and Methods: Forty patients were studied from a population 80?km from the Sleep Unit using respiratory polygraphy transmitted in real time. They were divided into two groups: one was seen by conventional consultation, and the other was seen using teleconsultation. We also estimated satisfaction with this system and its costs. Results: The mean patient age was 5310.3 years, with a body mass index of 316.2?kg/m2 and an Epworth score of 125.3. In total, 35 patients were diagnosed with OSAS, with an Apnea-Hypopnea Index of ?10, and CPAP treatment was started in 16 of them. The agreement in the Apnea-Hypopnea Index, total apneas and hypopneas, mean oxygen saturation, and time with an oxygen saturation <90% was greater than 90% between the studies transmitted in real time and those stored in the polygraph. The level of compliance with CPAP treatment was 85% for the patients who were seen in a conventional clinic and 75% in those seen by teleconsultation. Conclusions: The use of telematic techniques is useful to establish a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for OSAS with the creation of a Wide Core Sleep Laboratory as a process controller. PMID:23186084

  15. Remission and Incidence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Spilsbury, James C.; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Rosen, Carol L.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: To study the incidence, remission, and prediction of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from middle childhood to late adolescence. Design: Longitudinal analysis. Setting: The Cleveland Children's Sleep and Health Study, an ethnically mixed, urban, community-based cohort, followed 8 y. Participants: There were 490 participants with overnight polysomnography data available at ages 8–11 and 16–19 y. Measurements and Results: Baseline participant characteristics and health history were ascertained from parent report and US census data. OSA was defined as an obstructive apnea- hypopnea index ≥ 5 or an obstructive apnea index ≥ 1. OSA prevalence was approximately 4% at each examination, but OSA largely did not persist from middle childhood to late adolescence. Habitual snoring and obesity predicted OSA in cross-sectional analyses at each time point. Residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood, African-American race, and premature birth also predicted OSA in middle childhood, whereas male sex, high body mass index, and history of tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy were risk factors among adolescents. Obesity, but not habitual snoring, in middle childhood predicted adolescent OSA. Conclusions: Because OSA in middle childhood usually remitted by adolescence and most adolescent cases were incident cases, criteria other than concern alone over OSA persistence or incidence should be used when making treatment decisions for pediatric OSA. Moreover, OSA's distinct risk factors at each time point underscore the need for alternative risk-factor assessments across pediatric ages. The greater importance of middle childhood obesity compared to snoring in predicting adolescent OSA provides support for screening, preventing, and treating obesity in childhood. Citation: Spilsbury JC, Storfer-Isser A, Rosen CL, Redline S. Remission and incidence of obstructive sleep apnea from middle childhood to late adolescence. SLEEP 2015;38(1):23–29. PMID:25325456

  16. USING FEEDBACK FROM NATURALISTIC DRIVING TO IMPROVE TREATMENT ADHERENCE IN DRIVERS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA.

    PubMed

    Krone, J Tucker; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Anderson, Steven W; Aksan, Nazan S; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We are studying the effects of individualized feedback upon adherence with therapy (CPAP) in ongoing research aimed at improving driving safety in at-risk individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The feedback includes specific samples of the individual's own naturalistic driving record, both alert and drowsy, and record of CPAP adherence. We report on this methodology, provide data examples of CPAP usage, and show preliminary data on the results in the first eleven drivers who received this intervention. PMID:24525915

  17. Cost Minimization Using an Artificial Neural Network Sleep Apnea Prediction Tool for Sleep Studies

    PubMed Central

    Teferra, Rahel A.; Grant, Brydon J. B.; Mindel, Jesse W.; Siddiqi, Tauseef A.; Iftikhar, Imran H.; Ajaz, Fatima; Aliling, Jose P.; Khan, Meena S.; Hoffmann, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: More than a million polysomnograms (PSGs) are performed annually in the United States to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Third-party payers now advocate a home sleep test (HST), rather than an in-laboratory PSG, as the diagnostic study for OSA regardless of clinical probability, but the economic benefit of this approach is not known. Objectives: We determined the diagnostic performance of OSA prediction tools including the newly developed OSUNet, based on an artificial neural network, and performed a cost-minimization analysis when the prediction tools are used to identify patients who should undergo HST. Methods: The OSUNet was trained to predict the presence of OSA in a derivation group of patients who underwent an in-laboratory PSG (n = 383). Validation group 1 consisted of in-laboratory PSG patients (n = 149). The network was trained further in 33 patients who underwent HST and then was validated in a separate group of 100 HST patients (validation group 2). Likelihood ratios (LRs) were compared with two previously published prediction tools. The total costs from the use of the three prediction tools and the third-party approach within a clinical algorithm were compared. Measurements and Main Results: The OSUNet had a higher +LR in all groups compared with the STOP-BANG and the modified neck circumference (MNC) prediction tools. The +LRs for STOP-BANG, MNC, and OSUNet in validation group 1 were 1.1 (1.01.2), 1.3 (1.11.5), and 2.1 (1.43.1); and in validation group 2 they were 1.4 (1.11.7), 1.7 (1.32.2), and 3.4 (1.86.1), respectively. With an OSA prevalence less than 52%, the use of all three clinical prediction tools resulted in cost savings compared with the third-party approach. Conclusions: The routine requirement of an HST to diagnose OSA regardless of clinical probability is more costly compared with the use of OSA clinical prediction tools that identify patients who should undergo this procedure when OSA is expected to be present in less than half of the population. With OSA prevalence less than 40%, the OSUNet offers the greatest savings, which are substantial when the number of sleep studies done annually is considered. PMID:25068704

  18. Distraction osteogenesis for management of obstructive sleep apnea secondary to TMJ ankylosis.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Amit; Singh, Gaurav; Mishra, Madan; Srivatsan, K S; Sachdev, Vaibhav

    2013-01-01

    Mandibular retrognathism due to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is one of the important contributing factors to the obstructive sleep apnea(OSA). Such patients suffer from number of apneic or hyponeic events during sleep, snoring, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, inability to concentrate, irritability. At the same time facial asymmetry due TMJ ankylosis lead to a progressive lack of confidence. Distraction osteogenesis is a less invasive surgical technique in the management of OSA, secondary to TMJ ankylosis. This modality not only treats the OSA but also corrects the facial asymmetry at the same time, and the results have been gratifying. PMID:24163564

  19. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Durability of the Treatment Effect at 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Strollo, Patrick J.; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Soose, Ryan J.; Maurer, Joachim T.; de Vries, Nico; Cornelius, Jason; Hanson, Ronald D.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Steward, David L.; Woodson, B. Tucker; Verbraecken, Johan; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Goetting, Mark G.; Feldman, Neil; Chabolle, Frédéric; Badr, M. Safwan; Randerath, Winfried; Strohl, Kingman P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the stability of improvement in polysomnographic measures of sleep disordered breathing, patient reported outcomes, the durability of hypoglossal nerve recruitment and safety at 18 months in the Stimulation Treatment for Apnea Reduction (STAR) trial participants. Design: Prospective multicenter single group trial with participants serving as their own controls. Setting: Twenty-two community and academic sleep medicine and otolaryngology practices. Measurements: Primary outcome measures were the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Secondary outcome measures were the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and oxygen saturation percent time < 90% during sleep. Stimulation level for each participant was collected at three predefined thresholds during awake testing. Procedure- and/or device-related adverse events were reviewed and coded by the Clinical Events Committee Results: The median AHI was reduced by 67.4% from the baseline of 29.3 to 9.7/h at 18 mo. The median ODI was reduced by 67.5% from 25.4 to 8.6/h at 18 mo. The FOSQ and ESS improved significantly at 18 mo compared to baseline values. The functional threshold was unchanged from baseline at 18 mo. Two participants experienced a serious device-related adverse event requiring neurostimulator repositioning and fixation. No tongue weakness reported at 18 mo. Conclusion: Upper airway stimulation via the hypoglossal nerve maintained a durable effect of improving airway stability during sleep and improved patient reported outcomes (Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire) without an increase of the stimulation thresholds or tongue injury at 18 mo of follow-up. Citation: Strollo PJ, Gillespie MB, Soose RJ, Maurer JT, de Vries N, Cornelius J, Hanson RD, Padhya TA, Steward DL, Woodson BT, Verbraecken J, Vanderveken OM, Goetting MG, Feldman N, Chabolle F, Badr MS, Randerath W, Strohl KP, Stimulation Therapy for Apnea Reduction Trial Group. Upper airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea: durability of the treatment effect at 18 months. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1593–1598. PMID:26158895

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Hypoxia, and Metabolic Syndrome in Psychiatric and Nonpsychiatric Settings

    PubMed Central

    Yarlagadda, Atmaram; Kaushik, Shaifali; Clayton, Anita H.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality globally and particularly in North America. Primary manifestations of obesity include obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and depression associated with a decrease in immune defense mechanisms, possibly related to increased cytokine levels. Secondary manisfestations of obesity possibly result from a cascade of events and include insulin resistance/ hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertensionall of which comprise metabolic syndrome. This paper reviews sleep disturbances in general and OSA in psychiatric patients, particularly those who are obese. PMID:19727276

  1. [Residual excessive daytime sleepiness in CPAP-treated obstructive sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Buffle, C; Gex, G; Cervena K; Younossian, A B; Adler, D

    2014-11-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition most often characterized by daytime sleepiness. cPAP therapy is very effective in reversing symptoms. However, some patients still complain of excessive daytime sleepiness despite treatment, It is essential to document sufficient use of CPAP and to rule out the presence of residual respiratory events. Search for other underlying causes of sleepiness are then to be investigated by a detailed history together with a sleep night recording. The purpose of this article is to guide the clinician in providing comprehensive medical care for those patients. PMID:25603569

  2. High risk for obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acute myocardial infarction1

    PubMed Central

    Andrechuk, Carla Renata Silva; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to stratify the risk for obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acute myocardial infarction, treated at a public, tertiary, teaching hospital of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify related sociodemographic and clinical factors. Method: cross-sectional analytical study with 113 patients (mean age 59.57 years, 70.8% male). A specific questionnaire was used for the sociodemographic and clinical characterization and the Berlin Questionnaire for the stratification of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Results: the prevalence of high risk was 60.2% and the outcome of clinical worsening during hospitalization was more frequent among these patients. The factors related to high risk were body mass index over 30 kg/m2, arterial hypertension and waist circumference indicative of cardiovascular risk, while older age (60 years and over) constituted a protective factor. Conclusion: considering the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to clinical worsening, it is suggested that nurses should monitor, in their clinical practice, people at high risk for this syndrome, guiding control measures of modifiable factors and aiming to prevent the associated complications, including worsening of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26487128

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Is Associated with Overactive Bladder and Urgency Incontinence in Men

    PubMed Central

    Kemmer, Helene; Mathes, Alexander M.; Dilk, Olaf; Grschel, Andreas; Grass, Christian; Stckle, Micheal

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the incidence of overactive bladder (OAB) and urgency incontinence (UI) in men with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Design: Prospective questionnaire study Setting: Saarland University Hospital Patients: All male patients who underwent full-night in-laboratory polysomnography between November 2006 and April 2007. Interventions: Overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire, Short-Form (ICIQ-SF). Measurements and Results: OSAS severity was assessed according to the apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI). Return rate of questionnaires was 100% (n = 100). Patients with upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) served as controls. Evaluation of OABSS revealed that patients with moderate and severe OSAS presented with a significantly higher incidence of symptoms of OAB than patients with mild OSAS and UARS (P < 0.05). Further, the ICIQ-SF revealed a higher occurrence of UI in patients with severe OSAS than in those with mild OSAS and UARS (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Increasing severity of OSAS appears to be associated with an increasing occurrence of overactive bladder and urgency incontinence in men. This relationship may have clinical implications for the treatment of affected patients. Citation: Kemmer H; Mathes AM; Dilk O; Grschel A; Grass C; Stckle M. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Is Associated with Overactive Bladder and Urgency Incontinence in Men. SLEEP 2009;32(2):271-275. PMID:19238815

  4. Markers of Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Valo, Misa; Wons, Annette; Moeller, Albert; Teupe, Claudius

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia during sleep. We tested the hypothesis that nocturnal myocardial ischemia is detectable by ST segment depression and elevation of high sensitive troponin T (hsTrop T) and B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with OSA and coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty-one patients with OSA and CAD and 20 patients with OSA alone underwent in-hospital polysomnography. Blood samples for hsTrop T and NT-proBNP measurements were drawn before and after sleep. ST segment depression was measured at the time of maximum oxygen desaturation during sleep. The apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI), oxygen saturation nadir, and time in bed with oxygen saturation of ≤80% were similar in both groups. Levels of hsTrop T and NT-proBNP did not differ significantly before and after sleep but NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in patients suffering from OSA and CAD compared to patients with OSA alone. No significant ST depression was found at the time of oxygen saturation nadir in either group. Despite the fact that patients with untreated OSA and coexisting CAD experienced severe nocturnal hypoxemia, we were unable to detect myocardial ischemia or myocyte necrosis based on significant ST segment depression or elevation of hsTrop T and NT-proBNP, respectively. PMID:26090222

  5. The Development of a Screening Questionnaire for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Emma; Hill, Catherine Mary; Evans, Hazel Jean; Tuffrey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition which affects an estimated 50% of children with Down syndrome, particularly in their early years. It can cause serious sequelae in affected children but may not be recognized by parents or health professionals. Routine screening has been recommended in some countries, but is not standard practice. There are no validated questionnaire-based tools available to screen this population of children for this particular sleep-related disorder. Using existing validated sleep questionnaire items, we have developed a questionnaire to screen children with Down syndrome up to 6?years of age for obstructive sleep apnea, which corresponds with the recommendations made in UK national guidelines. This paper describes these first steps in demonstrating content validity for a new questionnaire, which will be subject to further in-depth psychometric analysis. Relevance, clarity, and age appropriateness were rated for 33 items using a content review questionnaire by a group of 18 health professionals with expertise in respiratory pediatrics, neurodevelopmental pediatrics, and sleep physiology. The content validity index was calculated for individual items and contributed to decisions about item inclusion. Scale level content validity index for the modified questionnaire of 14 items was at an accepted level of 0.78. Two parents of children with Down syndrome took part in cognitive interviews after completing the modified questionnaire. We describe the development of this 14 item questionnaire to screen for OSA in children with DS from infancy to 6?years. PMID:26539127

  6. Effects of central apnea on cerebral blood flow velocity in healthy term infants.

    PubMed

    Rehan, V K; Alvaro, R E; Belik, J; Allen, D W; Kwiatkowski, K; Fajardo, C A

    1995-06-01

    We evaluated a new method of monitoring cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and described changes in CBFV in relation to central apnea in 17 healthy term infants. The area under the velocity curve during apnea did not change, whereas area under the velocity curve per the waveform showed a significant difference, suggesting that stability is maintained through an increase in CBFV with each heartbeat. The maintenance of cerebral hemodynamics during isolated central apnea supports the assumption that these episodes are benign. PMID:7776111

  7. Treatment of Insomnia, Insomnia Symptoms, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea During and After Menopause: Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Joshua Z.; Suh, Sooyeon A.; Dowdle, Claire L.; Nowakowski, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Understanding sleep complaints among menopausal women is an emerging area of clinical and research interest. Several recent reviews have focused on mechanisms of menopausal insomnia and symptoms. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on the treatment of sleep disorders for menopausal women, with a focus on menopause-related insomnia, insomnia symptoms, and obstructive sleep apnea. We discuss both nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), complementary and alternative medicine, hormone replacement therapy, sedative hypnotics, antidepressants, and continuous positive airway pressure. In addition, we briefly discuss methods and considerations of assessment of sleep disorders in menopausal women. PMID:26478725

  8. Automatic classification of apnea/hypopnea events through sleep/wake states and severity of SDB from a pulse oximeter.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Uk; Lee, Hyo-Ki; Lee, Junghun; Urtnasan, Erdenebayar; Kim, Hojoong; Lee, Kyoung-Joung

    2015-09-01

    This study proposes a method of automatically classifying sleep apnea/hypopnea events based on sleep states and the severity of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) using photoplethysmogram (PPG) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) signals acquired from a pulse oximeter. The PPG was used to classify sleep state, while the severity of SDB was estimated by detecting events of SpO2 oxygen desaturation. Furthermore, we classified sleep apnea/hypopnea events by applying different categorisations according to the severity of SDB based on a support vector machine. The classification results showed sensitivity performances and positivity predictive values of 74.2% and 87.5% for apnea, 87.5% and 63.4% for hypopnea, and 92.4% and 92.8% for apnea + hypopnea, respectively. These results represent better or comparable outcomes compared to those of previous studies. In addition, our classification method reliably detected sleep apnea/hypopnea events in all patient groups without bias in particular patient groups when our algorithm was applied to a variety of patient groups. Therefore, this method has the potential to diagnose SDB more reliably and conveniently using a pulse oximeter. PMID:26261097

  9. Molecular Signatures of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: A Review and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Arnardottir, Erna S.; Mackiewicz, Miroslaw; Gislason, Thorarinn; Teff, Karen L.; Pack, Allan I.

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are largely mediated by chronic intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. The primary molecular domains affected are sympathetic activity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Other affected domains include adipokines, adhesion molecules and molecules that respond to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Changes in molecular domains affected by OSA, assessed in blood and/or urine, can provide a molecular signature for OSA that could potentially be used diagnostically and to predict who is likely to develop different OSA-related comorbidities. High-throughput discovery strategies such as microarrays, assessing changes in gene expression in circulating blood cells, have the potential to find new candidates and pathways thereby expanding the molecular signatures for OSA. More research is needed to fully understand the pathophysiological significance of these molecular signatures and their relationship with OSA comorbidities. Many OSA subjects are obese, and obesity is an independent risk factor for many comorbidities associated with OSA. Moreover, obesity affects the same molecular pathways as OSA. Thus, a challenge to establishing a molecular signature for OSA is to separate the effects of OSA from obesity. We propose that the optimal strategy is to evaluate the temporal changes in relevant molecular pathways during sleep and, in particular, the alterations from before to after sleep when assessed in blood and/or urine. Such changes will be at least partly a consequence of chronic intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation that occurs during sleep. Citation: Arnardottir ES; Mackiewicz M; Gislason T; Teff KL; Pack AI. Molecular signatures of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: A review and perspective. SLEEP 2009;32(4):447–470. PMID:19413140

  10. The STOP-Bang Equivalent Model and Prediction of Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Relation to Polysomnographic Measurements of the Apnea/Hypopnea Index

    PubMed Central

    Farney, Robert J.; Walker, Brandon S.; Farney, Robert M.; Snow, Gregory L.; Walker, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various models and questionnaires have been developed for screening specific populations for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as defined by the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI); however, almost every method is based upon dichotomizing a population, and none function ideally. We evaluated the possibility of using the STOP-Bang model (SBM) to classify severity of OSA into 4 categories ranging from none to severe. Methods: Anthropomorphic data and the presence of snoring, tiredness/sleepiness, observed apneas, and hypertension were collected from 1426 patients who underwent diagnostic polysomnography. Questionnaire data for each patient was converted to the STOP-Bang equivalent with an ordinal rating of 0 to 8. Proportional odds logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict severity of sleep apnea based upon the AHI: none (AHI < 5/h), mild (AHI ? 5 to < 15/h), moderate (? 15 to < 30/h), and severe (AHI ? 30/h). Results: Linear, curvilinear, and weighted models (R2 = 0.245, 0.251, and 0.269, respectively) were developed that predicted AHI severity. The linear model showed a progressive increase in the probability of severe (4.4% to 81.9%) and progressive decrease in the probability of none (52.5% to 1.1%). The probability of mild or moderate OSA initially increased from 32.9% and 10.3% respectively (SBM score 0) to 39.3% (SBM score 2) and 31.8% (SBM score 4), after which there was a progressive decrease in probabilities as more patients fell into the severe category. Conclusions: The STOP-Bang model may be useful to categorize OSA severity, triage patients for diagnostic evaluation or exclude from harm. Citation: Farney RJ; Walker BS; Farney RM; Snow GL; Walker JM. The STOP-Bang equivalent model and prediction of severity of obstructive sleep apnea: relation to polysomnographic measurements of the apnea/hypopnea index. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(5):459-465. PMID:22003340

  11. The Role of Daytime Sleepiness in Psychosocial Outcomes after Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Eskes, Gail A.; Morrison, Debra L.; Rajda, Malgorzata; Spurr, Kathleen F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of daytime sleepiness and sleep quality in psychosocial outcomes of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Thirty-seven individuals with moderate to severe OSA and compliant with CPAP treatment for at least 3 months were compared to 27 age- and education-matched healthy controls. The OSA group and the control group were studied with overnight polysomnography (PSG) and compared on measures of daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index), mood (Beck Depression Inventory, Profile of Mood States), and functional outcomes (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire). After CPAP treatment, the OSA group improved on sleep quality and sleepiness. As a group, they did not differ from controls on sleep architecture after CPAP. The OSA group also showed significant improvements in functional outcomes and was comparable to controls on mood and functional outcomes. Persistent difficulties included lowered activity level and residual sleepiness in some individuals. Sleepiness was found to be a significant predictor of mood and affective states, while both sleepiness and sleep quality predicted functional outcomes. These results highlight the importance of assessment and intervention targeting psychosocial functioning and sleepiness in individuals with OSA after treatment. PMID:23766914

  12. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Community-Dwelling Children: The NANOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-lvarez, Mara Luz; Cordero-Guevara, Jos Aurelio; Tern-Santos, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Martinez, Mnica; Jurado-Luque, Mara Jos; Corral-Peafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity in children is assumed to serve as a major risk factor in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, the prevalence of OSAS in otherwise healthy obese children from the community is unknown. Aim: To determine the prevalence of OSAS in obese children identified and recruited from primary care centers. Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective, multicenter study. Spanish children ages 314 y with a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for age and sex were randomly selected, and underwent medical history, snoring, and Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) assessments, as well as physical examination, nasopharyngoscopy, and nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) recordings. Results: Two hundred forty-eight children (54.4% males) with mean age of 10.8 2.6 y were studied with a BMI of 28.0 4.7 kg/m2 corresponding to 96.8 0.6 percentile when adjusted for age and sex. The mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI), obstructive RDI (ORDI), and obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) were 5.58 9.90, 5.06 9.57, and 3.39 8.78/h total sleep time (TST), respectively. Using ? 3/h TST as the cutoff for the presence of OSAS, the prevalence of OSAS ranged from 21.5% to 39.5% depending on whether OAHI, ORDI, or RDI were used. Conclusions: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in obese children from the general population is high. Obese children should be screened for the presence of OSAS. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01322763. Citation: Alonso-lvarez ML, Cordero-Guevara JA, Tern-Santos J, Gonzalez-Martinez M, Jurado-Luque MJ, Corral-Peafiel J, Duran-Cantolla J, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Gozal D, for the Spanish Sleep Network. Obstructive sleep apnea in obese community-dwelling children: the NANOS study. SLEEP 2014;37(5):943-949. PMID:24790273

  13. Oral Appliance Treatment Response and Polysomnographic Phenotypes of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Kate; Takaya, Hisashi; Qian, Jin; Petocz, Peter; Ng, Andrew T.; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Mandibular advancement splints (MAS) are an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); however, therapeutic response is variable. Younger age, female gender, less obesity, and milder and supine-dependent OSA have variably been associated with treatment success in relatively small samples. Our objective was to utilize a large cohort of MAS treated patients (1) to compare efficacy across patients with different phenotypes of OSA and (2) to assess demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnography variables as treatment response predictors. Methods: Retrospective analysis of MAS-treated patients participating in clinical trials in sleep centers in Sydney, Australia between years 20002013. All studies used equivalent customized two-piece MAS devices and treatment protocols. Treatment response was defined as (1) apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) < 5/h, (2) AHI < 10/h and ? 50% reduction, and (3) ? 50% AHI reduction. Results: A total of 425 patients (109 female) were included (age 51.2 10.9 years, BMI 29.2 5.0 kg/m2). MAS reduced AHI by 50.3% 50.7% across the group. Supine-predominant OSA patients had lower treatment response rates than non-positional OSA (e.g., 36% vs. 59% for AHI < 10/h). REM-predominant OSA showed a lower response rate than either NREM or non-stage dependent OSA. In prediction modelling, age, baseline AHI, and anthropometric variables were predictive of MAS treatment outcome but not OSA phenotype. Gender was not associated with treatment outcome. Conclusions: Lower MAS treatment response rates were observed in supine and REM sleep. In a large sample, we confirm that demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnographic data only weakly inform about MAS efficacy, supporting the need for alternative objective prediction methods to reliably select patients for MAS treatment. Citation: Sutherland K, Takaya H, Qian J, Petocz P, Ng AT, Cistulli PA. Oral appliance treatment response and polysomnographic phenotypes of obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):861868. PMID:25845897

  14. Neurobehavioral Functioning in Adolescents With and Without Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa S.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Bradford, Ruth; Marcus, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Children and adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) exhibit neurobehavioral abnormalities, but few studies have evaluated the transitional stage of adolescence. Obesity is also associated with neurobehavioral abnormalities, and many patients with OSAS are obese. However, the confounding effect of obesity on neurobehavioral abnormalities in adolescents with OSAS has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that obese adolescents with OSAS would exhibit more neurobehavioral abnormalities than obese and lean adolescents without OSAS. Design: Cross-sectional, case control. Setting: Sleep Center and community. Participants: Obese adolescents with OSAS compared to (1) nonsnoring, obese controls without OSAS, and (2) nonobese, nonsnoring controls. Interventions: Neurobehavioral evaluation. Measurements and Results: Obese adolescents with OSAS had significantly worse executive function and attention compared to both obese (P < 0.001) and lean (P < 0.001) controls, and more depression (P = 0.004) and externalizing symptoms than lean controls (P = 0.008). A higher percentage of participants in the OSAS group scored in the clinically abnormal range on executive functioning, attention, sleepiness, and behavioral functioning than lean controls. Mediation analyses indicated that level of sleep apnea significantly mediated the effect of body mass on executive functioning, attention, and behavior. Conclusions: Obese adolescents with OSAS show impaired executive and behavioral function compared to obese and lean controls, and are more likely to score in the clinically abnormal range on measures of neurobehavioral functioning. These results are especially concerning given that the frontal lobe is still developing during this critical age period. We speculate that untreated OSAS during adolescence may lead to significant neurobehavioral deficits in adulthood. Citation: Xanthopoulos MS, Gallagher PR, Berkowitz RI, Radcliffe J, Bradford R, Marcus CL. Neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents with and without obesity and obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(3):401–410. PMID:25325469

  15. Rules for scoring respiratory events in sleep: update of the 2007 AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events. Deliberations of the Sleep Apnea Definitions Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Berry, Richard B; Budhiraja, Rohit; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Gozal, David; Iber, Conrad; Kapur, Vishesh K; Marcus, Carole L; Mehra, Reena; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Quan, Stuart F; Redline, Susan; Strohl, Kingman P; Davidson Ward, Sally L; Tangredi, Michelle M

    2012-10-15

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Sleep Apnea Definitions Task Force reviewed the current rules for scoring respiratory events in the 2007 AASM Manual for the Scoring and Sleep and Associated Events to determine if revision was indicated. The goals of the task force were (1) to clarify and simplify the current scoring rules, (2) to review evidence for new monitoring technologies relevant to the scoring rules, and (3) to strive for greater concordance between adult and pediatric rules. The task force reviewed the evidence cited by the AASM systematic review of the reliability and validity of scoring respiratory events published in 2007 and relevant studies that have appeared in the literature since that publication. Given the limitations of the published evidence, a consensus process was used to formulate the majority of the task force recommendations concerning revisions.The task force made recommendations concerning recommended and alternative sensors for the detection of apnea and hypopnea to be used during diagnostic and positive airway pressure (PAP) titration polysomnography. An alternative sensor is used if the recommended sensor fails or the signal is inaccurate. The PAP device flow signal is the recommended sensor for the detection of apnea, hypopnea, and respiratory effort related arousals (RERAs) during PAP titration studies. Appropriate filter settings for recording (display) of the nasal pressure signal to facilitate visualization of inspiratory flattening are also specified. The respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) signals to be used as alternative sensors for apnea and hypopnea detection are specified. The task force reached consensus on use of the same sensors for adult and pediatric patients except for the following: (1) the end-tidal PCO(2) signal can be used as an alternative sensor for apnea detection in children only, and (2) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) belts can be used to monitor respiratory effort (thoracoabdominal belts) and as an alternative sensor for detection of apnea and hypopnea (PVDFsum) only in adults.The task force recommends the following changes to the 2007 respiratory scoring rules. Apnea in adults is scored when there is a drop in the peak signal excursion by ? 90% of pre-event baseline using an oronasal thermal sensor (diagnostic study), PAP device flow (titration study), or an alternative apnea sensor, for ? 10 seconds. Hypopnea in adults is scored when the peak signal excursions drop by ? 30% of pre-event baseline using nasal pressure (diagnostic study), PAP device flow (titration study), or an alternative sensor, for ? 10 seconds in association with either ? 3% arterial oxygen desaturation or an arousal. Scoring a hypopnea as either obstructive or central is now listed as optional, and the recommended scoring rules are presented. In children an apnea is scored when peak signal excursions drop by ? 90% of pre-event baseline using an oronasal thermal sensor (diagnostic study), PAP device flow (titration study), or an alternative sensor; and the event meets duration and respiratory effort criteria for an obstructive, mixed, or central apnea. A central apnea is scored in children when the event meets criteria for an apnea, there is an absence of inspiratory effort throughout the event, and at least one of the following is met: (1) the event is ? 20 seconds in duration, (2) the event is associated with an arousal or ? 3% oxygen desaturation, (3) (infants under 1 year of age only) the event is associated with a decrease in heart rate to less than 50 beats per minute for at least 5 seconds or less than 60 beats per minute for 15 seconds. A hypopnea is scored in children when the peak signal excursions drop is ? 30% of pre-event baseline using nasal pressure (diagnostic study), PAP device flow (titration study), or an alternative sensor, for ? the duration of 2 breaths in association with either ? 3% oxygen desaturation or an arousal. In children and adults, surrogates of the arterial PCO(2) are the end-tidal PCO(2) or transcutaneous PCO(2) (di

  16. Effectiveness of Home Single-Channel Nasal Pressure for Sleep Apnea Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Masa, Juan F.; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Capote, Francisco; Cabello, Marta; Abad, Jorge; Garcia-Rio, Francisco; Ferrer, Antoni; Mayos, Merche; Gonzalez-Mangado, Nicolas; de la Pea, Monica; Aizpuru, Felipe; Barbe, Ferran; Montserrat, Jose M.; Larrateguy, Luis D.; de Castro, Jorge Rey; Garcia-Ledesma, Estefania; Utrabo, Isabel; Corral, Jaime; Martinez-Null, Cristina; Egea, Carlos; Cancelo, Laura; Garca-Daz, Emilio; Carmona-Bernal, Carmen; Snchez-Armengol, ngeles; Fortuna, Ana M.; Miralda, Rosa M.; Troncoso, Maria F.; Gonzalez, Monica; Martinez-Martinez, Marian; Cantalejo, Olga; Pirola, Javier; Vigil, Laura; Embid, Cristina; del Mar Centelles, Mireia; Prieto, Teresa Ramrez; Rojo, Blas; Lores, Vanesa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Home single-channel nasal pressure (HNP) may be an alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) diagnosis, but no cost studies have yet been carried out. Automatic scoring is simpler but generally less effective than manual scoring. Objectives: To determine the diagnostic efficacy and cost of both scorings (automatic and manual) compared with PSG, taking as a polysomnographic OSA diagnosis several apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) cutoff points. Methods: We included suspected OSA patients in a multicenter study. They were randomized to home and hospital protocols. We constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for both scorings. Diagnostic efficacy was explored for several HNP AHI cutoff points, and costs were calculated for equally effective alternatives. Results: Of 787 randomized patients, 752 underwent HNP. Manual scoring produced better ROC curves than automatic for AHI < 15; similar curves were obtained for AHI ? 15. A valid HNP with manual scoring would determine the presence of OSA (or otherwise) in 90% of patients with a polysomnographic AHI ? 5 cutoff point, in 74% of patients with a polysomnographic AHI ? 10 cutoff point, and in 61% of patients with a polysomnographic AHI ? 15 cutoff point. In the same way, a valid HNP with automatic scoring would determine the presence of OSA (or otherwise) in 73% of patients with a polysomnographic AHI ? 5 cutoff point, in 64% of patients with a polysomnographic AHI ? 10 cutoff point, and in 57% of patients with a polysomnographic AHI ? 15 cutoff point. The costs of either HNP approaches were 40% to 70% lower than those of PSG at the same level of diagnostic efficacy. Manual HNP had the lowest cost for low polysomnographic AHI levels (? 5 and ? 10), and manual and automatic scorings had similar costs for higher polysomnographic cutoff points (AHI ? 15) of diagnosis. Conclusion: Home single-channel nasal pressure (HNP) is a cheaper alternative than polysomnography for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis. HNP with manual scoring seems to have better diagnostic accuracy and a lower cost than automatic scoring for patients with low apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) levels, although automatic scoring has similar diagnostic accuracy and cost as manual scoring for intermediate and high AHI levels. Therefore, automatic scoring can be appropriately used, although diagnostic efficacy could improve if we carried out manual scoring on patients with AHI < 15. Clinical Trials Information: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01347398. Citation: Masa JF, Duran-Cantolla J, Capote F, Cabello M, Abad J, Garcia-Rio F, Ferrer A, Mayos M, Gonzalez-Mangado N, de la Pea M, Aizpuru F, Barbe F, Montserrat JM, Spanish Sleep Network. Effectiveness of home single-channel nasal pressure for sleep apnea diagnosis. SLEEP 2014;37(12):1953-1961. PMID:25325484

  17. Impact of Treatment with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) on Weight in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Stuart F.; Budhiraja, Rohit; Clarke, Denise P.; Goodwin, James L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Nichols, Deborah A.; Simon, Richard D.; Smith, Terry W.; Walsh, James K.; Kushida, Clete A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on weight change in persons with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design, Setting, and Participants: The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES) was a 6-month, randomized, double-blinded sham-controlled multicenter clinical trial conducted at 5 sites in the United States. Of 1,105 participants with an apnea hypopnea index ? 10 events/ hour initially randomized, 812 had body weight measured at baseline and after 6 months of study. Intervention: CPAP or Sham CPAP. Measurements: Body weight, height, hours of CPAP or Sham CPAP use, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score. Results: Participants randomized to CPAP gained 0.35 5.01 kg, whereas those on Sham CPAP lost 0.70 4.03 kg (mean SD, p = 0.001). Amount of weight gain with CPAP was related to hours of device adherence, with each hour per night of use predicting a 0.42 kg increase in weight. This association was not noted in the Sham CPAP group. CPAP participants who used their device ? 4 h per night on ? 70% of nights gained the most weight over 6 months in comparison to non-adherent CPAP participants (1.0 5.3 vs. -0.3 5.0 kg, p = 0.014). Conclusions: OSA patients using CPAP may gain a modest amount of weight with the greatest weight gain found in those most compliant with CPAP. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 995. Citation: Quan SF; Budhiraja R; Clarke DP; Goodwin JL; Gottlieb DJ; Nichols DA; Simon RD; Smith TW; Walsh JK; Kushida CA. Impact of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on weight in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):989-993. PMID:24127141

  18. Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Aldosterone Status in Subjects with Resistant Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Carolina C.; Gaddam, Krishna K.; Ahmed, Mustafa I.; Pimenta, Eduardo; Thomas, S. Justin; Harding, Susan M.; Oparil, Suzanne; Cofield, Stacey S.; Calhoun, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We previously described a significant correlation between plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with resistant hypertension. This investigation examines the relationship between aldosterone status and OSA in patients with resistant hypertensivewith and without hyperaldosteronism. Methods and Results: One hundred and nine consecutive patients with resistant hypertension were prospectively evaluated with plasma renin activity (PRA), PAC, 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion (UAldo), and polysomnography. Hyperaldosteronism (PRA < 1 ngmL-1h-1 and UAldo ? 12 ?g/24-h) prevalence was 28% and OSA prevalence was 77%. In patients with hyperaldosteronism, OSA prevalence was 84%, compared with 74% in hypertensive patients with normal aldosterone levels. There were no significant differences in body mass index or neck circumference between aldosterone groups. PAC and UAldo were both significantly correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in the high-aldosterone group (? = 0.568, p = 0.0009; ? = 0.533, p = 0.002, respectively). UAldo correlated weakly with apnea-hypopnea index in the normal-aldosterone group, but there was no significant correlation between PAC and AHI in the normal-aldosterone group (? = 0.224, p = 0.049; ? = 0.015, p = 0.898, respectively). Conclusions: Our analysis of patients with resistant hypertension confirms a markedly high prevalence of OSA in this group. Furthermore, severity of OSA was greater in those patients with hyperaldosteronism and related to the degree of aldosterone excess. The correlation between OSA severity and aldosterone supports the hypothesis that aldosterone excess contributes to greater severity of OSA. Citation: Gonzaga CC; Gaddam KK; Ahmed MI; Pimenta E; Thomas SJ; Harding SM; Oparil S; Cofield SS; Calhoun DA. Severity of obstructive sleep apnea is related to aldosterone status in subjects with resistant hypertension. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(4):363-368. PMID:20726285

  19. Sleep Apnea Symptoms as a Predictor of Fatigue in an Urban HIV Clinic.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Umesh; Baker, Jason V; Wang, Qi; Khalil, Wajahat; Kunisaki, Ken M

    2015-11-01

    Fatigue is common among persons living with HIV (PLWH), and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) such as older age and obesity are increasingly prevalent. Studies of OSA among PLWH are lacking, so we aimed to characterize OSA symptoms and associated clinical consequences (e.g., fatigue) among a contemporary population of PLWH. Self-administered surveys containing 23 items that included self-reported snoring, witnessed apneas, estimated sleep duration, the Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS), and the FACIT-Fatigue score were mailed to PLWH receiving care at an urban HIV clinic. Clinical/demographic data were collected from the medical record. Multivariable linear regression models were created to study relationships between fatigue, clinical variables, and OSA symptoms. Of 535 surveys, 203 (38%) responded. Eight patients (3.9%) had known OSA. Among those without known OSA, mean respondent characteristics included: age 47 years; 80% male, 41% African American, 48% Caucasian, BMI 26.4?kg/m(2), duration of HIV diagnosis 12 years, 93% on antiretroviral therapy, and 81% with <50 HIV RNA copies/mL. 27% reported snoring, 24% reported witnessed apneas, and 38% had excessive daytime sleepiness. Witnessed apnea was the strongest independent predictor of fatigue (lower FACIT-Fatigue score; ??=?-6.49; p?sleep duration?

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Hospitalized Patients: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Mather, Paul J.; Efird, Jimmy T.; Kahn, Daron; Shiue, Kristin Y.; Cheema, Mohammed; Malloy, Raymond; Quan, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This condition often is underrecognized in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to conduct a clinical pathway evaluation (CPE) among obese patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital. We also assessed oxygen desaturation index (ODI, measured by overnight pulse oximetry) as a potential low-cost screening tool for identifying OSA. Methods: This was a prospective study of 754 patients admitted to an academic medical center between February 2013 and February 2014. Consecutive obese patients (body mass index ≥ 30) admitted to the hospital (medical services) were screened and evaluated for OSA with the snoring, tiredness during daytime, observed apnea, high blood pressure (STOP) questionnaire. The admitting team was advised to perform follow-up evaluation, including polysomnography, if the test was positive. Results: A total of 636 patients were classified as high risk and 118 as low risk for OSA. Within 4 w of discharge, 149 patients underwent polysomnography, and of these, 87% (129) were shown to have OSA. An optimal screening cutoff point for OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 10/h) was determined to be ODI ≥ 10/h [Matthews correlation coefficient = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.24–0.47]. Significantly more hospitalized patients were identified and underwent polysomnography compared with the year prior to introduction of the CPE. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the CPE increased the identification of OSA in this population. Furthermore, ODI derived from overnight pulse oximetry may be a cost-effective strategy to screen for OSA in hospitalized patients. Citation: Sharma S, Mather PJ, Efird JT, Kahn D, Shiue KY, Cheema M, Malloy R, Quan SF. Obstructive sleep apnea in obese hospitalized patients: a single center experience. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):717–723. PMID:25766715

  1. Comparison of clinical features and polysomnographic findings between men and women with sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Takatoshi; Tomita, Yasuhiro; Takaya, Hisashi; Kasagi, Satoshi; Kawabata, Masateru; Narui, Koji; Setoguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a scarcity of reports comparing gender differences in polysomnographic findings among Asian patients with sleep apnea (SA). In this study, we elucidated gender differences in the clinical features and polysomnographic findings of SA patients in Japan. Methods We conducted a case-matched control study to compare the gender differences. A total of 4,714 patients (4,127 men; 587 women) were matched for age, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and body mass index (BMI). The criteria used for sex matching were (I) age ±4 years, (II) AHI ± 4 h of sleep, and (III) BMI ±2 kg/m2. This facilitated the comparison of polysomnography sleep variables in 296 men and 296 women with SA. Results Compared with their male counterparts, female SA patients had a significantly higher rapid eye movement AHI [men: 27.7 (IQR, 14.3-45.2); women: 43.3 (IQR, 25.5-56.6); P<0.001], lower supine AHI [men: 29.7 (IQR, 16.8-49.5); women: 25.0 (IQR, 14.7-39.3); P=0.004], longer total sleep time (TST), and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stage 3 (N3), %TST [TST in men: 356.3 (IQR, 319.5-392.3); women: 372.0 (IQR, 327.8-404.5); P=0.007; N3, %TST in men: 8.8 (IQR, 3.0-14.6); women: 14.4 (IQR, 8.3-20.4); P<0.001], and better sleep efficiency [men: 80.9 (IQR, 71.0-88.0); women: 83.2 (IQR, 74.5-90.0); P=0.011]. Conclusions This study revealed that women with SA had a significantly longer TST and N3, %TST, which represents deep sleep. Future prospective studies must be conducted together with polysomnography tests including electromyography of pharyngeal muscle expansion and electroencephalography. PMID:26904223

  2. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Dedhia, Raj C.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Soose, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly prevalent clinical problem with significant effects on both personal and public health. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has demonstrated excellent efficacy and low morbidity; long-term adherence rates approach 50%. Although traditional upper airway surgical procedures target the anatomic component of obstruction, upper airway stimulation tackles the twin goals of improving anatomic and neuromuscular pathology. After decades of trials demonstrating proof of concept of hypoglossal nerve stimulation in animal and human subjects, the results of a large multicenter, prospective trial were recently published. The trial demonstrated that hypoglossal nerve stimulation led to significant improvements in objective and subjective measurements of the severity of OSA. This novel approach is the first to combine sleep surgery techniques with a titratable medical device for the treatment of OSA. Further research is required to define optimal patient selection and device performance and to demonstrate long-term effectiveness. Citation: Dedhia RC, Strollo PJ, Soose RJ. Upper airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea: past, present, and future. SLEEP 2015;38(6):899 906. PMID:25409109

  3. Speech Signal and Facial Image Processing for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Assessment.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Cuadros, Fernando; Fernndez-Pozo, Rubn; Toledano, Doroteo T; Alczar-Ramrez, Jos D; Lpez-Gonzalo, Eduardo; Hernndez-Gmez, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by recurring breathing pauses during sleep caused by a blockage of the upper airway (UA). OSA is generally diagnosed through a costly procedure requiring an overnight stay of the patient at the hospital. This has led to proposing less costly procedures based on the analysis of patients' facial images and voice recordings to help in OSA detection and severity assessment. In this paper we investigate the use of both image and speech processing to estimate the apnea-hypopnea index, AHI (which describes the severity of the condition), over a population of 285 male Spanish subjects suspected to suffer from OSA and referred to a Sleep Disorders Unit. Photographs and voice recordings were collected in a supervised but not highly controlled way trying to test a scenario close to an OSA assessment application running on a mobile device (i.e., smartphones or tablets). Spectral information in speech utterances is modeled by a state-of-the-art low-dimensional acoustic representation, called i-vector. A set of local craniofacial features related to OSA are extracted from images after detecting facial landmarks using Active Appearance Models (AAMs). Support vector regression (SVR) is applied on facial features and i-vectors to estimate the AHI. PMID:26664493

  4. Speech Signal and Facial Image Processing for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza-Cuadros, Fernando; Fernández-Pozo, Rubén; Toledano, Doroteo T.; Alcázar-Ramírez, José D.; López-Gonzalo, Eduardo; Hernández-Gómez, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by recurring breathing pauses during sleep caused by a blockage of the upper airway (UA). OSA is generally diagnosed through a costly procedure requiring an overnight stay of the patient at the hospital. This has led to proposing less costly procedures based on the analysis of patients' facial images and voice recordings to help in OSA detection and severity assessment. In this paper we investigate the use of both image and speech processing to estimate the apnea-hypopnea index, AHI (which describes the severity of the condition), over a population of 285 male Spanish subjects suspected to suffer from OSA and referred to a Sleep Disorders Unit. Photographs and voice recordings were collected in a supervised but not highly controlled way trying to test a scenario close to an OSA assessment application running on a mobile device (i.e., smartphones or tablets). Spectral information in speech utterances is modeled by a state-of-the-art low-dimensional acoustic representation, called i-vector. A set of local craniofacial features related to OSA are extracted from images after detecting facial landmarks using Active Appearance Models (AAMs). Support vector regression (SVR) is applied on facial features and i-vectors to estimate the AHI. PMID:26664493

  5. Ambulatory treatment of sleep apnea syndrome with CO2 laser: laser-assisted UPPP (LAUP), results on 70 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamami, Yves-Victor

    1995-05-01

    The pharyngeal airway obstruction during sleep in the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) can be improved after treatment by LAUP (Laser Assisted Uvulopalatoplasty). This new technique, performed under local anesthesia, permits the snoring treatment without any hospitalization, or general anesthetic; like an ordinary dental visit. This is done by reducing the amount of tissue in the uvula, the velum, and the upper part of the posterior pillars. Our experience with the LAUP in Sleep Apnea Syndrome is described, from December 1988 to May 1994, in 70 patients. Among 62 patients classified as successful `responders', the respiratory disturbance index was reduced more than 50%. Among all the 70 patients: in 51.4 % of cases (36 patients), there's a healing of snoring and Sleep Apnea Syndrome. In 37.2% of cases (26 patients), there's an improvement reduction of length and number of apneas and a significant improvement in nocturnal oxygen saturation. 11.4% (8 patients), are relative failures, with always decrease of snoring, but still Sleep Apnea Syndrome, (with a higher B.M.I.). There were no important complications reported. Patients withstand it well and there's had a better tolerance of the C.P.A.P. in the cases of OSAS LRPP failures. Popularization of LAUP will require serious training of surgeon and further long-term studies.

  6. Monitoring respiration during sleep.

    PubMed

    Lee-Chiong, Teofilo L

    2003-06-01

    The sleep-related breathing disorders have been categorized in various ways. The most basic schema divides them into obstructive or central apneic events. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Task Force Report published in 1999 defined four separate syndromes associated with abnormal respiratory events during sleep among adults, namely, obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), central sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome, Cheyne-Stokes breathing syndrome, and sleep hypoventilation syndrome. In this classification, the upper airway resistance syndrome was not regarded as a distinct syndrome; instead, respiratory event-related arousals (RERAs) were considered part of the syndrome of OSAHS. PMID:12800785

  7. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on glucose metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Ceron, Elisabet; Fernndez-Navarro, Isabel; Garcia-Rio, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    A possible association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has been suggested. OSA could alter glucose metabolism, generating insulin resistance and favoring the development of T2DM. In addition, our greater understanding of intermediate disorders produced by intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, such as sympathetic activation, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and alterations in appetite-regulating hormones, provides biological plausibility to this possible association. Nevertheless, there are still few data available about the consequences of suppressing apnea. Therefore, the objective of this review was to analyze current knowledge about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on glucose metabolism. A global interpretation of the studies evaluated shows that CPAP could improve insulin resistance, and perhaps also glycemic control, in OSA patients who still have not developed diabetes. In addition, it seems possible that the effect of CPAP is still greater in patients with OSA and T2DM, particularly in those patients with more severe and symptomatic OSA, in those with poorer baseline glycemic control and with greater compliance and duration of CPAP treatment. In conclusion, although the current information available is limited, it suggests that apnea reversion by means of CPAP could improve the control of glucose metabolism. PMID:26146025

  8. The diagnostic method has a strong influence on classification of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Escourrou, Pierre; Grote, Ludger; Penzel, Thomas; Mcnicholas, Walter T; Verbraecken, Johan; Tkacova, Rosa; Riha, Renata L; Hedner, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Polygraphy (PG) and polysomnography (PSG) are used in clinical settings in Europe for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but their equivalence in unselected clinical cohorts is unknown. We hypothesized that the method would affect both diagnostic outcomes and disease severity stratification. Data from 11 049 patients in the multi-centre European Sleep Apnea Cohort (ESADA) with suspected OSA (male and female, aged 18-80 years) were used in two groups of patients to compare PG (n = 5745) and PSG (n = 5304). Respiratory events were scored using the 2007 American Association of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria. In subjects who underwent PSG, mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) using sleep time (AHIPSG 31.0 ± 26.1 h(-1) ) and total analysed time (TAT) (AHITAT 24.7 ± 22.0 h(-1) ) were higher than in subjects who underwent PG (AHIPG 22.0 ± 23.5 h(-1) ) (P < 0.0001). The oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was lower in subjects investigated with PG (ODIPG 18.4 ± 21.7 h(-1) ) compared to subjects investigated with PSG (ODIPSG 23.0 ± 25.3 h(-1) ) but not different when the PSG was indexed by TAT (ODITAT 18.6 ± 21.4 h(-1) , P < 0.65). The proportion of patients with an AHI ≥ 15 was 64% in the subjects who underwent PSG and 47% in the subjects who underwent PG (P < 0.001). Overall, patients investigated using PG are likely to have a 30% lower AHI on average, compared to patients investigated by PSG. This study suggests that PG interpreted using standard guidelines results in underdiagnosis and misclassification of OSA. We advocate the development of PG-specific guidelines for the management of OSA patients. PMID:26511017

  9. Symbolic dynamics marker of heart rate variability combined with clinical variables enhance obstructive sleep apnea screening.

    PubMed

    Ravelo-Garca, A G; Saavedra-Santana, P; Juli-Serd, G; Navarro-Mesa, J L; Navarro-Esteva, J; lvarez-Lpez, X; Gapelyuk, A; Penzel, T; Wessel, N

    2014-06-01

    Many sleep centres try to perform a reduced portable test in order to decrease the number of overnight polysomnographies that are expensive, time-consuming, and disturbing. With some limitations, heart rate variability (HRV) has been useful in this task. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate if inclusion of symbolic dynamics variables to a logistic regression model integrating clinical and physical variables, can improve the detection of subjects for further polysomnographies. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution that innovates in that strategy. A group of 133 patients has been referred to the sleep center for suspected sleep apnea. Clinical assessment of the patients consisted of a sleep related questionnaire and a physical examination. The clinical variables related to apnea and selected in the statistical model were age (p?apnea. In addition, the processing of the HRV is a well established low cost and robust technique. PMID:24985458

  10. Model-Based Assessment of Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chaicharn, Jarree; Lin, Zheng; Chen, Maida L.; Ward, Sally L.D.; Keens, Thomas; Khoo, Michael C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To quantitatively assess daytime autonomic cardiovascular control in pediatric subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Design: Respiration, R-R intervals, and noninvasive continuous blood pressure were monitored in awake subjects in the supine and standing postures, as well as during cold face stimulation. Setting: Sleep disorders laboratory in a hospital setting. Participants: Ten pediatric patients (age 11.4 3.6 years) with moderate to severe OSAS (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index = 21.0 6.6/ h) before treatment and 10 age-matched normal control subjects (age 11.5 3.7 years). Measurements and Results: Spectral analysis of heart rate variability revealed that high-frequency power was similar and the ratio of low- to high-frequency power was lower in subjects with OSAS vs control subjects. The closed-loop minimal model allowed heart rate variability to be partitioned into a component mediated by respiratory-cardiac coupling and a baroreflex component, whereas blood pressure variability was assumed to result from the direct effects of respiration and fluctuations in cardiac output. Baroreflex gain was lower in subjects with OSAS vs control subjects. Under orthostatic stress, respiratory-cardiac coupling gain decreased in both subject groups, but baroreflex gain decreased only in controls. The model was extended to incorporate time-varying parameter changes for analysis of the data collected during cold face stimulation: cardiac output gain increased in controls but remained unchanged in OSAS. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that vagal modulation of the heart remains relatively normal in pediatric subjects with OSAS. However, baseline cardiovascular sympathetic activity is elevated, and reactivity to autonomic challenges is impaired. Citation: Chaicharn J; Lin Z; Chen ML; Ward SLD; Keens T; Khoo MCK. Model-based assessment of cardiovascular autonomic control in children with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2009;32(7):927-938. PMID:19639756

  11. Symbolic dynamics marker of heart rate variability combined with clinical variables enhance obstructive sleep apnea screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo-García, A. G.; Saavedra-Santana, P.; Juliá-Serdá, G.; Navarro-Mesa, J. L.; Navarro-Esteva, J.; Álvarez-López, X.; Gapelyuk, A.; Penzel, T.; Wessel, N.

    2014-06-01

    Many sleep centres try to perform a reduced portable test in order to decrease the number of overnight polysomnographies that are expensive, time-consuming, and disturbing. With some limitations, heart rate variability (HRV) has been useful in this task. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate if inclusion of symbolic dynamics variables to a logistic regression model integrating clinical and physical variables, can improve the detection of subjects for further polysomnographies. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution that innovates in that strategy. A group of 133 patients has been referred to the sleep center for suspected sleep apnea. Clinical assessment of the patients consisted of a sleep related questionnaire and a physical examination. The clinical variables related to apnea and selected in the statistical model were age (p < 10-3), neck circumference (p < 10-3), score on a questionnaire scale intended to quantify daytime sleepiness (p < 10-3), and intensity of snoring (p < 10-3). The validation of this model demonstrated an increase in classification performance when a variable based on non-linear dynamics of HRV (p < 0.01) was used additionally to the other variables. For diagnostic rule based only on clinical and physical variables, the corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.907 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.848, 0.967), (sensitivity 87.10% and specificity 80%). For the model including the average of a symbolic dynamic variable, the area under the ROC curve was increased to 0.941 (95% = 0.897, 0.985), (sensitivity 88.71% and specificity 82.86%). In conclusion, symbolic dynamics, coupled with significant clinical and physical variables can help to prioritize polysomnographies in patients with a high probability of apnea. In addition, the processing of the HRV is a well established low cost and robust technique.

  12. Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Veterans Seeking Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Forbus, Lauren; Kelly, Ursula A

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is an often intractable symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, non-PTSD-related causes of disrupted sleep are rarely considered in clinical practice. Study objectives were to determine obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk among veterans seeking PTSD treatment and to investigate the relationship between OSA risk and PTSD symptom severity. Veterans (N = 264; 25.8% female) completed measures of PTSD symptoms and OSA risk factors. The rate of OSA risk was 72.7% for the whole sample, 77.2% among men, and 59.7% among women. OSA risk was not significantly correlated with PTSD symptom severity. Detection and treatment of OSA in veterans with PTSD may result in decreased insomnia in affected individuals. PMID:26517341

  13. Biomarkers to Improve Diagnosis and Monitoring of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Archontogeorgis, Konstantinos; Nena, Evangelia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Steiropoulos, Paschalis

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse associated with oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. It is proposed that these periodic changes lead to molecular variations that can be detected by assessing serum biomarkers. Studies have identified inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic perturbations attributable to sleep-disordered breathing. Given that OSAS is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, the ideal biomarker should enable timely recognition with the possibility of intervention. There is accumulating data on the utility of serum biomarkers for the evaluation of disease severity, prognosis, and response to treatment. However, current knowledge is limited by data collection techniques, disease complexity, and potential confounding factors. The current paper reviews the literature on the use of serum biomarkers in OSAS. It is concluded that the ideal serum biomarker still needs to be discovered, while caution is needed in the interpretation of hitherto available results. PMID:25538852

  14. Is treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with auto-CPAP useful?

    PubMed

    Sris, F

    2000-06-15

    Automatic CPAP therapy has been developed to constantly adapt the positive pressure level to the required needs. The automatic devices have been used in two different ways, one being to determine the pressure level to be prescribed at home for fixed CPAP therapy, and the other one to replace fixed CPAP as an home treatment. This last application should alleviate the need for a titration study. The benefits reported up to now in the literature vary from one machine to another, but usually these machine are effective in abolishing obstructive breathing disturbances and the consecutive sleep fragmentation. The mean positive pressure level applied during automatic CPAP treatment is usually less than the effective pressure level measured during a conventional titration sleep study. Some results suggest that automatic CPAP therapy may improve compliance to CPAP therapy. There is a need to better define if automatic CPAP therapy may benefit to specific groups of sleep apnea patients. PMID:10893094

  15. A gender-aware framework for the daytime detection of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Samy, Lauren; Macey, Paul M; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Sleep is an activity that is necessary for our survival. While the body may be still during sleep, the brain is actively progressing through repeating cycles of light and deep sleep whose purpose is physical and mental recovery and regeneration. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder in which breathing is frequently and repeatedly stopped during sleep. OSA severely interrupts the normal sleep cycle and the regeneration work associated with it and can thus result in detrimental health consequences. OSA, with all the adverse health effects associated with it, places a significant burden on the US healthcare system. Polysomnography (PSG) - the gold standard OSA diagnostic test - is an overnight sleep test that monitors the biophysiological changes that occur during sleep. The test is notorious for its intrusiveness, discomfort, prohibitive cost, and scarcity - all reasons contributing to OSA being a severely underdiagnosed sleep disorder. In this paper, we propose a system that can serve as an early-stage OSA diagnostic tool that can non-intrusively, affordably and accurately screen patients for the disorder before proceeding with a full-night PSG. Unlike existing tools, our solution is gender-aware and does not rely on detecting apneic events in the data to make a diagnosis; rather, it is designed to trigger brain responses that are indicative of the disorder. Our tool can therefore make diagnoses even while patients are awake and breathing normally. The system was tested in a pilot study of 21 patients and our preliminary results show an average accuracy of 96.25%. PMID:26738072

  16. Novel Approach to Simulate Sleep Apnea Patients for Evaluating Positive Pressure Therapy Devices

    PubMed Central

    Isetta, Valentina; Montserrat, Josep M.; Santano, Raquel; Wimms, Alison J.; Ramanan, Dinesh; Woehrle, Holger; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Bench testing is a useful method to characterize the response of different automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) devices under well-controlled conditions. However, previous models did not consider the diversity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients’ characteristics and phenotypes. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to design a new bench test for realistically simulating an OSA patient’s night, and to implement a one-night example of a typical female phenotype for comparing responses to several currently-available APAP devices. We developed a novel approach aimed at replicating a typical night of sleep which includes different disturbed breathing events, disease severities, sleep/wake phases, body postures and respiratory artefacts. The simulated female OSA patient example that we implemented included periods of wake, light sleep and deep sleep with positional changes and was connected to ten different APAP devices. Flow and pressure readings were recorded; each device was tested twice. The new approach for simulating female OSA patients effectively combined a wide variety of disturbed breathing patterns to mimic the response of a predefined patient type. There were marked differences in response between devices; only three were able to overcome flow limitation to normalize breathing, and only five devices were associated with a residual apnea-hypopnea index of <5/h. In conclusion, bench tests can be designed to simulate specific patient characteristics, and typical stages of sleep, body position, and wake. Each APAP device behaved differently when exposed to this controlled model of a female OSA patient, and should lead to further understanding of OSA treatment. PMID:26978077

  17. Overnight Polysomnography versus Respiratory Polygraphy in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Leng; Gozal, David; Ramirez, Helena Molero; Bandla, Hari P. R.; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Substantial discrepancies exist in the type of sleep studies performed to diagnose pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in different countries. Respiratory polygraphic (RP) recordings are primarily performed in sleep laboratories in Europe, whereas polysomnography (PSG) constitutes the majority in the US and Australia. Home RP show consistent apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) underscoring, primarily because the total recording time is used as the denominator when calculating the AHI compared to total sleep time (TST). However, laboratory-based RP are less likely affected, since the presence of sleep technicians and video monitoring may enable more accurate TST estimates. We therefore examined differences in AHI in PSG and in-lab RP, and whether RP-based AHI may impact clinical decision making. Methods: Of all the children assessed for possible OSA who underwent PSG evaluation, 100 were identified and divided into 4 groups: (A) those with AHI < 1/h TST (n = 20), (B) 1 ≤ AHI < 5/h TST (n = 40), (C) 5 ≤ AHI < 10/h TST (n = 20), and (D) AHI ≥ 10/h TST (n = 20). Electroencephalography, electrooculography, and electromyography channels were deleted from the original unscored recordings to transform them into RP, and then rescored in random sequence. AHI-RP were compared to AHI-PSG, and therapeutic decisions based on AHI-RP and AHI-PSG were formulated and analyzed using clinical details derived from the patient's clinic letter. Results: Bland Altman analysis showed that in lab RP underestimated the AHI despite more accurate estimates of TST. This underestimation was due to missed hypopneas causing arousals without desaturation. Basing the therapeutic management decision on RP instead of PSG results changed the clinical management in 23% of all patients. The clinical management for patients in groups A and D was unaffected. However, 27.5% of patients in group B would have been given no treatment, as they would be diagnosed as having no OSA (AHI < 1/h TST) when they should have received a trial of anti-inflammatory therapy or been referred for ear, nose, and throat (ENT) review. Sixty percent of patients in group C would have received either a trial of medical treatment to treat mild OSA or no treatment, instead of referral to ENT services or commencement of continuous positive airway pressure. Conclusion: Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is underestimated in respiratory polygraphy (RP), and the disparity in AHI-RP and AHI-polysomnography can significantly affect clinical management decisions, particularly in children with mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea (1 < AHI < 10/h total sleep time). Citation: Tan HL; Gozal D; Ramirez HM; Bandla HPR; Kheirandish-Gozal L. Overnight polysomnography versus respiratory polygraphy in the diagnosis of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(2):255-260. PMID:24497654

  18. Sleep and Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper ... Work SIDS Sleep apnea Sleep Debt Sleep Deprivation Sleep Disorders Sleep history Sleep hygiene sleep length Sleep Need ...

  19. Myofunctional Therapy to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Macario; Certal, Victor; Abdullatif, Jose; Zaghi, Soroush; Ruoff, Chad M.; Capasso, Robson; Kushida, Clete A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the literature for articles evaluating myofunctional therapy (MT) as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children and adults and to perform a meta-analysis on the polysomnographic, snoring, and sleepiness data. Data Sources: Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, and The Cochrane Library. Review Methods: The searches were performed through June 18, 2014. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement was followed. Results: Nine adult studies (120 patients) reported polysomnography, snoring, and/or sleepiness outcomes. The pre- and post-MT apneahypopnea indices (AHI) decreased from a mean standard deviation (M SD) of 24.5 14.3/h to 12.3 11.8/h, mean difference (MD) ?14.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) ?20.98, ?7.54], P < 0.0001. Lowest oxygen saturations improved from 83.9 6.0% to 86.6 7.3%, MD 4.19 (95% CI 1.85, 6.54), P = 0.0005. Polysomnography snoring decreased from 14.05 4.89% to 3.87 4.12% of total sleep time, P < 0.001, and snoring decreased in all three studies reporting subjective outcomes. Epworth Sleepiness Scale decreased from 14.8 3.5 to 8.2 4.1. Two pediatric studies (25 patients) reported outcomes. In the first study of 14 children, the AHI decreased from 4.87 3.0/h to 1.84 3.2/h, P = 0.004. The second study evaluated children who were cured of OSA after adenotonsillectomy and palatal expansion, and found that 11 patients who continued MT remained cured (AHI 0.5 0.4/h), whereas 13 controls had recurrent OSA (AHI 5.3 1.5/h) after 4 y. Conclusion: Current literature demonstrates that myofunctional therapy decreases apnea-hypopnea index by approximately 50% in adults and 62% in children. Lowest oxygen saturations, snoring, and sleepiness outcomes improve in adults. Myofunctional therapy could serve as an adjunct to other obstructive sleep apnea treatments. Citation: Camacho M, Certal V, Abdullatif J, Zaghi S, Ruoff CM, Capasso R, Kushida CA. Myofunctional therapy to treat obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. SLEEP 2015;38(5):669675. PMID:25348130

  20. The Effect of Adenotonsillectomy for Childhood Sleep Apnea on Cardiometabolic Measures

    PubMed Central

    Quante, Mirja; Wang, Rui; Weng, Jia; Rosen, Carol L.; Amin, Raouf; Garetz, Susan L.; Katz, Eliot; Paruthi, Shalini; Arens, Raanan; Muzumdar, Hiren; Marcus, Carole L.; Ellenberg, Susan; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been associated with cardiometabolic disease in adults. In children, this association is unclear. We evaluated the effect of early adenotonsillectomy (eAT) for treatment of OSAS on blood pressure, heart rate, lipids, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein. We also analyzed whether these parameters at baseline and changes at follow-up correlated with polysomnographic indices. Design: Data collected at baseline and 7-mo follow-up were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial, the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT). Setting: Clinical referral setting from multiple centers. Participants: There were 464 children, ages 5 to 9.9 y with OSAS without severe hypoxemia. Interventions: Randomization to eAT or Watchful Waiting with Supportive Care (WWSC). Measurements and Results: There was no significant change of cardiometabolic parameters over the 7-mo interval in the eAT group compared to WWSC group. However, overnight heart rate was incrementally higher in association with baseline OSAS severity (average heart rate increase of 3 beats per minute [bpm] for apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] of 2 versus 10; [standard error = 0.60]). Each 5-unit improvement in AHI and 5 mmHg improvement in peak end-tidal CO2 were estimated to reduce heart rate by 1 and 1.5 bpm, respectively. An increase in N3 sleep also was associated with small reductions in systolic blood pressure percentile. Conclusions: There is little variation in standard cardiometabolic parameters in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) but without severe hypoxemia at baseline or after intervention. Of all measures, overnight heart rate emerged as the most sensitive parameter of pediatric OSAS severity. Clinical Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov (#NCT00560859) Citation: Quante M, Wang R, Weng J, Rosen CL, Amin R, Garetz SL, Katz E, Paruthi S, Arens R, Muzumdar H, Marcus CL, Ellenberg S, Redline S. The effect of adenotonsillectomy for childhood sleep apnea on cardiometabolic measures. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1395–1403. PMID:25669177

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pretreatment and Posttreatment in Symptomatic Children with Congenital Craniofacial Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Moraleda-Cibrin, Marta; Edwards, Sean P.; Kasten, Steven J.; Buchman, Steven R.; Berger, Mary; O'Brien, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep symptoms are common in children with craniofacial malformations (CFM). However objective data about obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is still limited. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of OSA in symptomatic children with CFM and to determine improvement in severity of OSA after treatment. Methods: Symptomatic children with CFM referred for a diagnostic polysomnogram (PSG) were identified. Obstructive sleep apnea was defined as an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ? 1, with moderate/severe OSA as an AHI ? 5. Results: Overall, 151 symptomatic children were identified; 87% were diagnosed with OSA, of whom 24% had moderate-to-severe OSA. Children with syndromic CFM, compared to non-syndromic CFM, were more likely to have an AHI ? 5 (syndromic 33% vs. non-syndromic 15%, p = 0.02). Of the 131 children with OSA, 64 were treated and 32 returned for a posttreatment PSG, with 22 treated with either positive airway pressure (PAP) or adenotonsillectomy (AT). Children treated with PAP demonstrated a decrease in AHI from 6.2 to 3.5 (p = 0.057) and an increase in SpO2 from 89.1% to 91.1% (p = 0.091). There were no significant improvements for those in the AT group for either AHI (2.5 to 1.8, p = 0.19) or SpO2 (90.4% to 91.3%, p = 0.46). Normalization of the AHI (AHI < 1) occurred in only one child in each group (7% and 14% of the PAP and AT groups, respectively). Conclusions: The vast majority of children with CFM referred for OSA evaluation are found to have objective evidence of OSA and a quarter of children have moderate-to-severe OSA. It is likely that many children with underlying OSA are not identified and referred for evaluation. Residual OSA after treatment is common in children with CFM. Citation: Moraleda-Cibrin M, Edwards SP, Kasten SJ, Buchman SR, Berger M, O'Brien LM. Obstructive sleep apnea pre and posttreatment in symptomatic children with congenital craniofacial malformations. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(1):3743. PMID:25515281

  2. Modified STOP-Bang Tool for Stratifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk in Adolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in children and diagnostic polysomnography is costly and not readily available in all areas. We developed a pediatric modification of a commonly used adult clinical prediction tool for stratifying the risk of OSA and the need for polysomnography. Methods A total of 312 children (age 9–17 years) from phase 2 of the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea cohort study, with complete anthropomorphic data, parent questionnaires, and home polysomnograms were included. An adolescent modification of STOP-Bang (teen STOP-Bang) was developed and included snoring, tired, observed apnea, blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile, BMI > 95th percentile, academic problems, neck circumference >95th percentile for age, and male gender. An apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 1.5 events/hour was considered diagnostic of OSA. Results Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves for parent-reported STOP-Bang scores were generated for teenage and pre-teen children. A STOP-Bang score of < 3 in teenagers was associated with a negative predictive value of 0.96. ROC curves were also generated based upon child-reported sexual maturity rating (SMR; n = 291). The ability of teen STOP-Bang to discriminate the presence or absence of OSA as measured by the AUC for children with SMR ≥ 4 (0.83; 95%CI 0.71–0.95) was better than children with SMR < 4 (0.63; 95%CI 0.46–0.81; p = 0.048). Conclusions In community dwelling adolescents, teen STOP-Bang may be useful in stratifying the risk of OSA. PMID:26581088

  3. Lack of Impact of Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Sleepiness, Mood and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Stuart F.; Budhiraja, Rohit; Batool-Anwar, Salma; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Eichling, Phillip; Patel, Sanjay; Shen, Wei; Walsh, James K.; Kushida, Clete A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with sleepiness, depression and reduced quality of life. However, it is unclear whether mild OSA has these negative impacts. Using data from the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES), this study determined whether participants with mild OSA had greater sleepiness, more depressive symptoms and poorer quality of life in comparison to those without OSA. Methods 239 individuals evaluated for participation in APPLES with a baseline apnea hypopnea index (AHI) < 15 /hour were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: No OSA (N=40, AHI < 5 /hour) or Mild OSA (N=199, 5 to <15 /hour) based on their screening polysomnogram. Scores on their Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) were compared between groups. Results There were no significant differences between the No OSA and Mild OSA groups on any of the 5 measures: ESS (No OSA, 9.8 3.5 vs Mild OSA, 10.6 4.3, p=0.26), SSS,(2.8 0.9 vs. 2.9 1.0, p=0.52), HAM-D (4.6 3.0 vs. 4.9 4.7, p=0.27), POMS (33.5 22.3 vs. 28.7 22.0, p=0.70), SAQLI (4.5 0.8 vs. 4.7 0.7, p=0.39). Conclusion Individuals with mild OSA in this cohort do not have worse sleepiness, mood or quality of life in comparison to those without OSA. PMID:25232509

  4. Incidence of hypothyroidism and its correlation with polysomnography findings in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, K Murat; Selcuk, Adin; Ozcan, Ibrahim; Ozdas, Talih; Ozdogan, Fatih; Acar, Mustafa; Dere, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the thyroid functions and its correlation with polysomnography findings in obstructive sleep apnea patients. This study was conducted on 203 patients evaluated with the complaints of snoring, witnessed apnea and daytime sleepiness and established polysomnography (PSG) indication between May 2008 and August 2011. All patients' nocturnal PSG recordings were carried out. The thyroid function was classified as euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroidism and clinical hypothyroidism after analyzing serum TSH and free T4 values. The correlation between the data obtained from PSG records and thyroid function values was statistically compared. Apnea hypopnea index obtained from PSG was in the range of 5.4-132.9/h, and mean value was 32.7/h. The lowest oxygen saturation level was in the range of 20-92 %, and the mean value was 76.4 %. According to PSG results, 55 patients (27.09 %) had mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), 48 patients (23.65 %) had moderate OSAS and 100 patients (49.26 %) had severe OSAS. On evaluation of the thyroid function test results, 10.8 % (n = 22) of the patients were defined to have subclinical hypothyroidism and 1.97 % (n = 4) clinical hypothyroidism. We found a total of 12.77 % subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism in patients with OSAS. Though the incidence of hypothyroidism was pretty high in patients with OSA, there was no statistically significant correlation between thyroid functions and polysomnography findings. We suggest that evaluation of the thyroid functions is important and necessary in patients with OSAS. Polysomnography findings do not correlate statistically with thyroid function tests, addressing the need for thyroid screening for all OSAS patients. PMID:24609648

  5. Efficacy of custom made oral appliance for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Cilil, V. R.; Sapana Varma, N. K.; Gopinath, Siby; Ajith, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: oral appliance for the treatment of OSA is considered as an effective, low-risk alternative to CPAP. Demand for oral appliance increases as an alternative for those who cannot tolerate CPAP and refuse surgery. Oral appliances uses the traditional methods to advance the mandible thus modify the posture and their by enlarge the airway or otherwise reduce the collapsibility. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of custom made oral appliance on sleep characteristics of OSA patients. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on 15 patients of 24-60 years of age before (T1), and after the delivery of the custom made oral appliance (T2). Statistical Analysis: Paired t tests were performed to determine the significance of change in the polysomnographic and cephalometric variables. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: All patients with oral appliance showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, and desaturation index with the use of oral appliance. ESS and cephalometric findings showed improvement in the sleep apnea in concordance with the sleep parameters. Conclusions: Custom made oral appliance is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep and can be considered as an alternative treatment modality. PMID:26321833

  6. The Prioritization of Clinical Risk Factors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    PubMed Central

    Maranate, Thaya; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Ruttanaumpawan, Pimon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a problem of shortage of sleep laboratories that can accommodate the patients in a timely manner. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to worse outcomes particularly in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For this reason, the prioritization in polysomnography (PSG) queueing should be endorsed based on disease severity. To date, there have been conflicting data whether clinical information can predict OSA severity. The 1,042 suspected OSA patients underwent diagnostic PSG study at Siriraj Sleep Center during 2010-2011. A total of 113 variables were obtained from sleep questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The 19 groups of clinical risk factors consisting of 42 variables were categorized into each OSA severity. This study aimed to array these factors by employing Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach based on normalized weight vector. The results revealed that the first rank of clinical risk factors in Severe, Moderate, Mild, and No OSA was nighttime symptoms. The overall sensitivity/specificity of the approach to these groups was 92.32%/91.76%, 89.52%/88.18%, 91.08%/84.58%, and 96.49%/81.23%, respectively. We propose that the urgent PSG appointment should include clinical risk factors of Severe OSA group. In addition, the screening for Mild from No OSA patients in sleep center setting using symptoms during sleep is also recommended (sensitivity = 87.12% and specificity = 72.22%). PMID:26221183

  7. The Prioritization of Clinical Risk Factors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    PubMed

    Maranate, Thaya; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Ruttanaumpawan, Pimon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a problem of shortage of sleep laboratories that can accommodate the patients in a timely manner. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to worse outcomes particularly in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For this reason, the prioritization in polysomnography (PSG) queueing should be endorsed based on disease severity. To date, there have been conflicting data whether clinical information can predict OSA severity. The 1,042 suspected OSA patients underwent diagnostic PSG study at Siriraj Sleep Center during 2010-2011. A total of 113 variables were obtained from sleep questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The 19 groups of clinical risk factors consisting of 42 variables were categorized into each OSA severity. This study aimed to array these factors by employing Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach based on normalized weight vector. The results revealed that the first rank of clinical risk factors in Severe, Moderate, Mild, and No OSA was nighttime symptoms. The overall sensitivity/specificity of the approach to these groups was 92.32%/91.76%, 89.52%/88.18%, 91.08%/84.58%, and 96.49%/81.23%, respectively. We propose that the urgent PSG appointment should include clinical risk factors of Severe OSA group. In addition, the screening for Mild from No OSA patients in sleep center setting using symptoms during sleep is also recommended (sensitivity = 87.12% and specificity = 72.22%). PMID:26221183

  8. Reducing cardiovascular risk through treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: 2 methodological approaches.

    PubMed

    Yaggi, Henry Klar; Mittleman, Murray A; Bravata, Dawn M; Concato, John; Ware, James; Stoney, Catherine M; Redline, Susan

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) significantly impacts cardiovascular health, demonstrated by observational investigations showing an independently increased risk of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. Positive airway pressure (PAP), a medical therapy for sleep apnea, reverses airway obstruction and may help reduce cardiovascular risk. Prior to planning large phase III randomized controlled trials to test the impact of PAP on cardiovascular outcomes, several gaps in knowledge need to be addressed. This article describes 2 independent studies that worked collaboratively to fill these gaps. The populations, design features, and relative benefits/challenges of the 2 studies (SleepTight and BestAIR) are described. Both studies were encouraged to have multidisciplinary teams with expertise in behavioral interventions to improve PAP compliance. Both studies provide key information that will be useful to the research community in future large-scale, event-driven, randomized trials to evaluate the efficacy and/or effectiveness of strategies to identify and treat significant OSA for decreasing risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. PMID:26856225

  9. Model-based studies of autonomic and metabolic dysfunction in sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Michael C K

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are highly prevalent in subjects diagnosed with sleep apnea. One factor common to obesity, sleep and insulin resistance is autonomic nervous system dysfunction, in particular, sympathetic overactivity. Although the causal links among these factors are not well understood, it is likely that the vicious cycle of interplay among these factors predisposes to the emergence of "metabolic syndrome", a convergence of obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia that is appearing in epidemic proportions in the United States and other countries. This chapter provides an overview of the ongoing experimental and modeling studies in my laboratory aimed at elucidating and quantifying the relationships among autonomic dysfunction, insulin resistance and severity of sleep apnea in overweight subjects. These studies employ a "minimal modeling" approach to extract information characterizing autonomic function from noninvasive cardiorespiratory measurements. We subsequently determine the relationship of these model parameters to the parameters estimated from the Bergman minimal insulin-glucose model using data obtained from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test performed on the same individuals. PMID:20217365

  10. Model-Based Studies of Autonomic and Metabolic Dysfunction in Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Michael C.K.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are highly prevalent in subjects diagnosed with sleep apnea. One factor common to obesity, sleep and insulin resistance is autonomic nervous system dysfunction, in particular, sympathetic overactivity. Although the causal links among these factors are not well understood, it is likely that the vicious cycle of interplay among these factors predisposes to the emergence of metabolic syndrome, a convergence of obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia that is appearing in epidemic proportions in the United States and other countries. This chapter provides an overview of the ongoing experimental and modeling studies in my laboratory aimed at elucidating and quantifying the relationships among autonomic dysfunction, insulin resistance and severity of sleep apnea in overweight subjects. These studies employ a minimal modeling approach to extract information characterizing autonomic function from noninvasive cardiorespiratory measurements. We subsequently determine the relationship of these model parameters to the parameters estimated from the Bergman minimal insulin-glucose model using data obtained from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test performed on the same individuals. PMID:20217365

  11. Effects of pathological respiratory pattern on heart rate turbulence in sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    D'Addio, Giovanni; De Felice, Alberto; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Romano, Maria; Cesarelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper-airway obstruction during sleep. Although cardiac autonomic impairment is involved in the development of cardiovascular disease in OSAS, the mechanism underlying this derangement is rather unknown. It can be assessed by a recently introduced analysis of the heart rate turbulence (HRT). The aim of the paper is to describe the effects of pathological respiratory pattern on HRT in OSAS. HRT has been assessed by turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) indexes in 20 polysomnographic recordings of severe OSAS patients, and separately calculated during both normal (NR) and obstructive apnea (OA) respiratory pattern. Results showed that, although there is an overall depressed HRT for both indexes, while the TO during OA phases is not significantly different from those of NR epochs, the TS during OA phases is very significantly higher than in NR phases. This novel finding shows a previously unknown paradoxical increase of TS during OA episodes, followed by a marked decrease during subsequent NR phases, where OSAS patient show higher sympathetic tone. Such deeper understanding of the integrated autonomic response in different OSAS pathophysiological conditions could be useful to address an overall cardiorespiratory assessment and treatment in sleep-related breathing disorders. PMID:25160236

  12. Robust spectral analysis of thoraco-abdominal motion and oxymetry in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Nino, Cesar L; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Gutierrez, Maria J; Singareddi, Ravi; Nino, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) relies on polysomnography (PSG), a multidimensional biosignal recording that is conducted in sleep laboratories. Standard PSG montage involves the use of nasal-oral airflow sensors to visualize cyclic episodes of upper airflow interruption, which are considered diagnostic of sleep apnea. Given the high-cost and discomfort associated with in-laboratory PSG, there is an emergent need for novel technology that simplifies OSA screening and diagnosis with less expensive methods. The main goal of this project was to identify novel OSA signatures based on the spectral analysis of thoraco-abdominal motion channels. Our main hypothesis was that proper spectral analysis can detect OSA cycles in adults using simultaneous recording of oxygen saturation (SaO2) and either, chest or abdominal motion. A sample study on 35 individuals was conducted with statistically significant results that suggest a strong relationship between airflow-independent signals and oxygen saturation. The impact of this new approach is that it may allow the design of more comfortable and reliable portable devices for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of OSA, functioning only with oximetry and airflow-independent (abdominal or chest) breathing sensors. PMID:24110335

  13. Highway Healthcare: How Naturalistic Driving Data Index Adherence to CPAP Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Anthony D.; Lee, John D.; Aksan, Nazan S.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Drowsy driving is a major factor in many vehicle crashes around the world. Sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), underpin many of these crashes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is an effective treatment for sleep apnea but it requires consistent use and is often rejected by OSA patients. Rejection of CPAP treatment creates a dangerous on-road environment for both OSA sufferers and the general public. Algorithms capable of detecting CPAP use and its effects on driving are integral to identifying and mitigating this danger. This work uses naturalistic kinematic driving data to develop an algorithm which can detect nightly CPAP abstinence and adequate CPAP use. Speed and lateral acceleration data were collected using a data recorder in participant's primary vehicle and CPAP data were collected by downloading adherence data from participant CPAP machines. The speed and acceleration data were reduced to a set of symbols using Symbolic Aggregate approximation (SAX) time-series analysis. The symbols were converted into a sequence frequency dataset using sliding windows of size 1 to 10 s with a 1 Hz sampling rate. A Random Forest classifier was trained on the data to create a classification algorithm. On a held aside testing set, the Random Forest algorithm correctly identified 71% of the instances and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76. The variable importance of the algorithm suggested that kinematic patterns associated with common drowsy driver crash types were key features in the algorithm's prediction performance. PMID:26500422

  14. Meta-analysis of the effect of proton pump inhibitors on obstructive sleep apnea symptoms and indices in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Klomjit, Saranapoom; Hosiriluck, Nattamol; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess evidence for an association between the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and improvement in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies to evaluate the treatment effect of PPIs on OSA symptoms and indices in patients with GERD. EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov were reviewed up to October 2014. From 238 articles, two randomized trials and four prospective cohort studies were selected. In four cohort studies there were no differences in the apnea-hypopnea indices before and after treatment with PPIs (standard mean difference, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, ?0.11 to 0.54). There was moderate heterogeneity among these studies. Two cohort studies revealed significantly decreased apnea indices after treatment (percent change, 31% and 35%), but one showed no significant difference. A significant improvement in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was observed in three cohort studies and one trial. The frequency of apnea attacks recorded in diaries was decreased by 73% in one trial. In conclusion, available studies do not provide enough evidence to make firm conclusions about the effects of PPI treatment on OSA symptoms and indices in patients with concomitant GERD. Controlled clinical trials with larger sample sizes are needed to evaluate these associations. We recommend PPIs in OSA patients with concomitant GERD to treat reflux symptoms. This treatment may improve the quality of sleep without any effect on apnea-hypopnea indices. PMID:26722154

  15. Meta-analysis of the effect of proton pump inhibitors on obstructive sleep apnea symptoms and indices in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Rassameehiran, Supannee; Klomjit, Saranapoom; Hosiriluck, Nattamol; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess evidence for an association between the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and improvement in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies to evaluate the treatment effect of PPIs on OSA symptoms and indices in patients with GERD. EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov were reviewed up to October 2014. From 238 articles, two randomized trials and four prospective cohort studies were selected. In four cohort studies there were no differences in the apnea-hypopnea indices before and after treatment with PPIs (standard mean difference, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, -0.11 to 0.54). There was moderate heterogeneity among these studies. Two cohort studies revealed significantly decreased apnea indices after treatment (percent change, 31% and 35%), but one showed no significant difference. A significant improvement in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was observed in three cohort studies and one trial. The frequency of apnea attacks recorded in diaries was decreased by 73% in one trial. In conclusion, available studies do not provide enough evidence to make firm conclusions about the effects of PPI treatment on OSA symptoms and indices in patients with concomitant GERD. Controlled clinical trials with larger sample sizes are needed to evaluate these associations. We recommend PPIs in OSA patients with concomitant GERD to treat reflux symptoms. This treatment may improve the quality of sleep without any effect on apnea-hypopnea indices. PMID:26722154

  16. Effectiveness of Ramelteon for Insomnia Symptoms in Older Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Gehrman, Philip; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Al-Shehabi, Erica; Marie, Elisabeth; Schwab, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of ramelteon, a melatonin receptor agonist, for the treatment of insomnia in older adults starting auto-titrating positive airway pressure (APAP) therapy for sleep apnea. Methods: A parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot effectiveness clinical trial. The study enrolled 21 research study participants who were ≥ 60 years old and had obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5 events/h, with complaints of insomnia. The primary outcome measure was change in sleep onset latency determined from polysomnography at 4 weeks. Research study participants, all of whom were starting on APAP, were randomized to ramelteon 8 mg (n = 8) or placebo (n = 13). Results: Ramelteon treatment was associated with a statistically significant difference in sleep onset latency (SOL) as measured by polysomnography of 28.5 min (± 16.2 min) compared to placebo (95% C.I. 8.5 min to 48.6 min, effect size 1.35, p = 0.008). This was due to a 10.7 (± 17.0) min SOL reduction in the ramelteon arm and a 17.8 (± 23.5) min SOL increase in the placebo arm. No change was noted in subjective sleep onset latency (−1.3 min, ± 19.3 min, 95% C.I.: −21.4 min to 18.7 min). No statistically significant changes were noted in the AHI, sleep efficiency (polysomnography and self-report), APAP adherence, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score, or Epworth Sleepiness Scale score when comparing ramelteon vs. placebo. Four adverse events occurred in the ramelteon arm and 2 in the placebo arm; none were considered to be related to treatment. Conclusions: Ramelteon was effective in improving objective, but not subjective, sleep onset latency even in older adults who were starting APAP therapy for sleep apnea. Further research is warranted in examining the role of ramelteon in the care of older adults with insomnia symptoms and sleep apnea. Citation: Gooneratne NS; Gehrman P; Gurubhagavatula I; Al-Shehabi E; Marie E; Schwab R. Effectiveness of ramelteon for insomnia symptoms in older adults with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized placebo-controlled pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):572-580. PMID:21206546

  17. Craniofacial Contribution to Residual Obstructive Sleep Apnea after Adenotonsillectomy in Children: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Keiko; Tsuiki, Satoru; Nakata, Seiichi; Suzuki, Kenji; Itoh, Eiki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequently associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and the fact that about 30% of affected children continue to show OSA after adenotonsillectomy (AT) suggests the presence of some other predisposing factor(s). We hypothesized that abnormal maxillofacial morphology may be a predisposing factor for residual OSA in pediatric patients. Methods: A total of 13 pediatric OSA patients (9 boys and 4 girls, age [median (interquartile range)] = 4.7 (4.0, 6.4) y, body mass index (BMI) z score = -0.3 (-0.8, 0.5)) who had undergone AT were recruited for this study. Maxillomandibular size was measured using an upright lateral cephalogram, and correlations between size and the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) values obtained before (pre AT AHI) and about 6 months after AT (post AT AHI) were analyzed. Results: AHI decreased from 12.3 (8.9, 26.5)/h to 3.0 (1.5, 4.6)/h after AT (p < 0.05). Residual OSA was seen in 11 of the 13 patients (84.6%) and their AHI after AT was 3.1 (2.7, 4.7)/h. The mandible was smaller than the Japanese standard value, and a significant negative correlation was seen between maxillomandibular size and post AT AHI (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the persistence of OSA after AT may be partly due to the smaller sizes of the mandible in pediatric patients. We propose that the maxillomandibular morphology should be carefully examined when a treatment plan is developed for OSA children. Citation: Maeda K, Tsuiki S, Nakata S, Suzuki K, Itoh E, Inoue Y. Craniofacial contribution to residual obstructive sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy in children: a preliminary study. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(9):973-977. PMID:25142774

  18. Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Using Pulse Oximeter Derived Photoplethysmographic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Romem, Ayal; Romem, Anat; Koldobskiy, Dafna; Scharf, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Increasing awareness of the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its impact on health in conjunction with high cost, inconvenience, and short supply of in-lab polysomnography (PSG) has led to the development of more convenient, affordable, and accessible diagnostic devices. We evaluated the reliability and accuracy of a single-channel (finger pulse-oximetry) photoplethysmography (PPG)-based device for detection of OSA (Morpheus Ox). Methods: Among a cohort of 73 patients referred for in-laboratory evaluation of OSA, 65 were simultaneously monitored with the PPG based device while undergoing PSG. Among these, 19 had significant cardiopulmonary comorbidities. Using the PSG as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), as well as the positive likelihood ratio (+LR) for an apnea hypopnea index (AHI)PSG > 5/h and AHIPSG > 15/h were calculated for the PPG. Results: Valid results were available for 65 subjects. Mean age: 52.1 14.2, Male: 52%, and BMI: 36.3 9.7 kg/m2. Positive correlation was found between PPG-derived and PSG-derived AHI (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). For AHIPSG > 5/h, sensitivity was 80%, specificity 86%, PPV 93%, NPV 68%, and +LR was 5.9. For AHIPSG > 15/h, sensitivity was 70%, specificity 91%, PPV 80%, NPV 85%, and +LR was 7.83. The corresponding areas under the receiver operator curves were 0.91 and 0.9. Conclusions: PPG-derived data compare well with simultaneous in-lab PSG in the diagnosis of suspected OSA among patients with and without cardiopulmonary comorbidities. Citation: Romem A; Romem A; Koldobskiy D; Scharf SM. Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea using pulse oximeter derived photoplethysmographic signals. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):285-290. PMID:24634626

  19. Evaluation of a Decision Support System for Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Nonlinear Analysis of Respiratory Signals

    PubMed Central

    Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Tsara, Venetia; Bratsas, Charalambos; Sichletidis, Lazaros; Karvounis, Charalambos; Maglaveras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder requiring the time/money consuming polysomnography for diagnosis. Alternative methods for initial evaluation are sought. Our aim was the prediction of Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) in patients potentially suffering from OSA based on nonlinear analysis of respiratory biosignals during sleep, a method that is related to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Materials and Methods Patients referred to a Sleep Unit (135) underwent full polysomnography. Three nonlinear indices (Largest Lyapunov Exponent, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Approximate Entropy) extracted from two biosignals (airflow from a nasal cannula, thoracic movement) and one linear derived from Oxygen saturation provided input to a data mining application with contemporary classification algorithms for the creation of predictive models for AHI. Results A linear regression model presented a correlation coefficient of 0.77 in predicting AHI. With a cutoff value of AHI = 8, the sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 71.4% in discrimination between patients and normal subjects. The decision tree for the discrimination between patients and normal had sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 60%, respectively. Certain obtained nonlinear values correlated significantly with commonly accepted physiological parameters of people suffering from OSA. Discussion We developed a predictive model for the presence/severity of OSA using a simple linear equation and additional decision trees with nonlinear features extracted from 3 respiratory recordings. The accuracy of the methodology is high and the findings provide insight to the underlying pathophysiology of the syndrome. Conclusions Reliable predictions of OSA are possible using linear and nonlinear indices from only 3 respiratory signals during sleep. The proposed models could lead to a better study of the pathophysiology of OSA and facilitate initial evaluation/follow up of suspected patients OSA utilizing a practical low cost methodology. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01161381 PMID:26937681

  20. An Economic Evaluation of Home Versus Laboratory-Based Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Richard D.; Kapur, Vishesh K.; Redline-Bruch, Julie; Rueschman, Michael; Auckley, Dennis H.; Benca, Ruth M.; Foldvary-Schafer, Nancy R.; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis C.; Rosen, Carol L.; Redline, Susan; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We conducted an economic analysis of the HomePAP study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial that compared home-based versus laboratory-based testing for the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design: A cost-minimization analysis from the payer and provider perspectives was performed, given that 3-mo clinical outcomes were equivalent. Setting: Seven academic sleep centers. Participants: There were 373 subjects at high risk for moderate to severe OSA. Interventions: Subjects were randomized to either home-based limited channel portable monitoring followed by unattended autotitration with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), versus a traditional pathway of in-laboratory sleep study and CPAP titration. Measurements and Results: From the payer perspective, per subject costs for the laboratory-based pathway were $1,840 (95% confidence interval [CI] $1,660, $2,015) compared to $1,575 (95% CI $1,439, $1,716) for the home-based pathway under the base case. Costs were $264 (95% CI $39, $496, P = 0.02) in favor of the home arm. From the provider perspective, per subject costs for the laboratory arm were $1,697 (95% CI $1,566, $1,826) compared to $1,736 (95% CI $1,621, $1,857) in the home arm, for a difference of $40 (95% CI ?$213, $142, P = 0.66) in favor of the laboratory arm under the base case. The provider operating margin was $142 (95% CI $85, $202,P < 0.01) in the laboratory arm, compared to a loss of ?$161 (95% CI ?$202, ?$120, P < 0.01) in the home arm. Conclusions: For payers, a home-based diagnostic pathway for obstructive sleep apnea with robust patient support incurs fewer costs than a laboratory-based pathway. For providers, costs are comparable if not higher, resulting in a negative operating margin. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00642486. Citation: Kim RD, Kapur VK, Redline-Bruch J, Rueschman M, Auckley DH, Benca RM, Foldvary-Schafer NR, Iber C, Zee PC, Rosen CL, Redline S, Ramsey SD. An economic evaluation of home versus laboratory-based diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(7):10271037. PMID:26118558

  1. Abnormalities of Lipoprotein Concentrations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Are Related to Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alice; Cardell, James; Ariel, Danit; Lamendola, Cindy; Abbasi, Fahim; Kim, Sun H.; Holmes, Tyson H.; Tomasso, Vanessa; Mojaddidi, Hafasa; Grove, Kaylene; Kushida, Clete A.; Reaven, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), possibly related to dyslipidemia in these individuals. Insulin resistance is also common in OSA, but its contribution to dyslipidemia of OSA is unclear. The study's aim was to define the relationships among abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism, clinical measures of OSA, and insulin resistance. Design: Cross-sectional study. OSA severity was defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during polysomnography. Hypoxia measures were expressed as minimum and mean oxygen saturation, and the oxygen desaturation index. Insulin resistance was quantified by determining steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test. Fasting plasma lipid/lipoprotein evaluation was performed by vertical auto profile methodology. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: 107 nondiabetic, overweight/obese adults. Measurements and Results: Lipoprotein particles did not correlate with AHI or any hypoxia measures, nor were there differences noted by categories of OSA severity. By contrast, even after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, SSPG was positively correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.30, P < 0.01), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and its subclasses (VLDL1+2) (r = 0.210.23, P < 0.05), and low density lipoprotein subclass 4 (LDL4) (r = 0.30, P < 0.01). SSPG was negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL) (r = ?0.38, P < 0.001) and its subclasses (HDL2 and HDL3) (r = ?0.32, ?0.43, P < 0.01), and apolipoprotein A1 (r = ?0.33, P < 0.01). Linear trends of these lipoprotein concentrations across SSPG tertiles were also significant. Conclusions: Pro-atherogenic lipoprotein abnormalities in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are related to insulin resistance, but not to OSA severity or degree of hypoxia. Insulin resistance may represent the link between OSA-related dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Citation: Liu A, Cardell J, Ariel D, Lamendola C, Abbasi F, Kim SH, Holmes TH, Tomasso V, Mojaddidi H, Grove K, Kushida CA, Reaven GM. Abnormalities of lipoprotein concentrations in obstructive sleep apnea are related to insulin resistance. SLEEP 2015;38(5):793799. PMID:25348129

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea: an unexpected cause of insulin resistance and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Michael; Wang, Janice; Beatty, Norman; Batemarco, Tom; Sica, Anthony L; Greenberg, Harly

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent with type 2 diabetes. Conversely, nondiabetic patients with OSA are at increased risk of developing insulin resistance and diabetes. These disorders independently contribute to increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of OSA may help explain these associations. Evidence demonstrates that treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure may lead to improvement in insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c, systemic hypertension, and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Recognizing and treating OSA in patients with insulin resistance or diabetes ameliorates OSA-related symptoms and improves cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24582098

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Impairs Postexercise Sympathovagal Balance in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Felipe X.; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Maki-Nunes, Cristiane; Rondon, Maria Urbana P.B.; Alves, Maria Janieire N.N.; Braga, Ana Maria F.W.; Martinez, Daniel G.; Drager, Luciano F.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Negrao, Carlos E.; Trombetta, Ivani C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The attenuation of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise (ΔHRR) is independently impaired by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, we tested the hypotheses: (1) MetS + OSA restrains ΔHRR; and (2) Sympathetic hyperactivation is involved in this impairment. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: We studied 60 outpatients in whom MetS had been newly diagnosed (ATP III), divided according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h in MetS + OSA (n = 30, 49 ± 1.7 y) and AHI < 15 events/h in MetS - OSA (n = 30, 46 ± 1.4 y). Normal age-matched healthy control subjects (C) without MetS and OSA were also enrolled (n = 16, 46 ± 1.7 y). Interventions: Polysomnography, microneurography, cardiopulmonary exercise test. Measurements and Results: We evaluated OSA (AHI - polysomnography), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA - microneurography) and cardiac autonomic activity (LF = low frequency, HF = high frequency, LF/HF = sympathovagal balance) based on spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) variability. ΔHRR was calculated (peak HR minus HR at first, second, and fourth minute of recovery) after cardiopulmonary exercise test. MetS + OSA had higher MSNA and LF, and lower HF than MetS - OSA and C. Similar impairment occurred in MetS - OSA versus C (interaction, P < 0.01). MetS + OSA had attenuated ΔHRR at first, second, and at fourth minute than did C, and attenuated ΔHRR at fourth minute than did MetS - OSA (interaction, P < 0.001). Compared with C, MetS - OSA had attenuated ΔHRR at second and fourth min (interaction, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed association of the ΔHRR (first, second, and fourth minute) and AHI, MSNA, LF and HF components (P < 0.05 for all associations). Conclusions: The attenuation of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise is impaired to a greater degree where metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) than by MetS with no or mild or no OSA. This is at least partly explained by sympathetic hyperactivity. Citation: Cepeda FX, Toschi-Dias E, Maki-Nunes C, Rondon MU, Alves MJ, Braga AM, Martinez DG, Drager LF, Lorenzi-Filho G, Negrao CE, Trombetta IC. Obstructive sleep apnea impairs postexercise sympathovagal balance in patients with metabolic syndrome. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1059–1066. PMID:25669187

  4. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with mandibular advancement appliance over prostheses: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Thais Moura; Colen, Sâmia; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Rossi, Rowdley; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Ferraz, Otávio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) is recommended for mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), primary snoring and as a secondary option for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, because it has better adherence and acceptance. However, edentulous patients do not have supports to hold the MAD. This study aimed to present a possible to OSA treatment with MAD in over complete upper and partial lower dentures. The patient, a 38-year-old female with mild OSA, was treated with a MAD. The respiratory parameter, such as apnea–hypopnea index, arousal index and oxyhemoglobin saturation was improved after treatment. PMID:26483952

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and sequelae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Jung; Chae, Kyu Young

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is approximately 3% in children. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common cause of OSAS in children, and obesity, hypotonic neuromuscular diseases, and craniofacial anomalies are other major risk factors. Snoring is the most common presenting complaint in children with OSAS, but the clinical presentation varies according to age. Agitated sleep with frequent postural changes, excessive sweating, or abnormal sleep positions such as hyperextension of neck or abnormal prone position may suggest a sleep-disordered breathing. Night terror, sleepwalking, and enuresis are frequently associated, during slow-wave sleep, with sleep-disordered breathing. Excessive daytime sleepiness becomes apparent in older children, whereas hyperactivity or inattention is usually predominant in younger children. Morning headache and poor appetite may also be present. As the cortical arousal threshold is higher in children, arousals are not easily developed and their sleep architectures are usually more conserved than those of adults. Untreated OSAS in children may result in various problems such as cognitive deficits, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and emotional instability. Mild pulmonary hypertension is not uncommon. Rarely, cardiovascular complications such as cor pulmonale, heart failure, and systemic hypertension may develop in untreated cases. Failure to thrive and delayed development are serious problems in younger children with OSAS. Diagnosis of pediatric OSAS should be based on snoring, relevant history of sleep disruption, findings of any narrow or collapsible portions of upper airway, and confirmed by polysomnography. Early diagnosis of pediatric OSAS is critical to prevent complications with appropriate interventions. PMID:21189956

  6. Orthodontics treatments for managing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Nelly T; Desplats, Eve; Almeida, Fernanda R

    2016-02-01

    A small maxilla and/or mandible may predispose children to sleep-disordered breathing, which is a continuum of severity from snoring to obstructive sleep apnea. Preliminary studies have suggested that orthodontic treatments, such as orthopedic mandibular advancement or rapid maxillary expansion, may be effective treatments. The aim is to investigate the efficacy of orthopedic mandibular advancement and/or rapid maxillary expansion in the treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Internet were searched for eligible studies published until April 2014. Articles with adequate data were selected for the meta-analysis; other articles were reported in the qualitative assessment. Data extraction was conducted by two independent authors. A total of 58 studies were identified. Only eight studies were included in the review; of these, six were included in the meta-analysis. The research yielded only a small number of studies. Consequently, any conclusions from the pooled diagnostic parameters and their interpretation should be treated carefully. Although the included studies were limited, these orthodontic treatments may be effective in managing pediatric snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Other related health outcomes, such as neurocognitive and cardiovascular functions have not yet been systematically addressed. More studies are needed with larger sample size, specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and standardized data reporting to help establish guidelines for the orthodontic treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:26164371

  7. Practice Parameters for the Use of Autotitrating Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Devices for Titrating Pressures and Treating Adult Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: An Update for 2007

    PubMed Central

    Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Aurora, R. Nisha; Brown, Terry; Zak, Rochelle; Alessi, Cathy; Boehlecke, Brian; Chesson, Andrew L.; Friedman, Leah; Kapur, Vishesh; Maganti, Rama; Owens, Judith; Pancer, Jeffrey; Swick, Todd J.

    2008-01-01

    These practice parameters are an update of the previously published recommendations regarding the use of autotitrating positive airway pressure (APAP) devices for titrating pressures and treating adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at an effective setting verified by attended polysomnography is a standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). APAP devices change the treatment pressure based on feedback from various patient measures such as airflow, pressure fluctuations, or measures of airway resistance. These devices may aid in the pressure titration process, address possible changes in pressure requirements throughout a given night and from night to night, aid in treatment of OSA when attended CPAP titration has not or cannot be accomplished, or improve patient comfort. A task force of the Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine has reviewed the literature published since the 2002 practice parameter on the use of APAP. Current recommendations follow: (1) APAP devices are not recommended to diagnose OSA; (2) patients with congestive heart failure, patients with significant lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; patients expected to have nocturnal arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation due to conditions other than OSA (e.g., obesity hypoventilation syndrome); patients who do not snore (either naturally or as a result of palate surgery); and patients who have central sleep apnea syndromes are not currently candidates for APAP titration or treatment; (3) APAP devices are not currently recommended for split-night titration; (4) certain APAP devices may be used during attended titration with polysomnography to identify a single pressure for use with standard CPAP for treatment of moderate to severe OSA; (5) certain APAP devices may be initiated and used in the self-adjusting mode for unattended treatment of patients with moderate to severe OSA without significant comorbidities (CHF, COPD, central sleep apnea syndromes, or hypoventilation syndromes); (6) certain APAP devices may be used in an unattended way to determine a fixed CPAP treatment pressure for patients with moderate to severe OSA without significant comorbidities (CHF, COPD, central sleep apnea syndromes, or hypoventilation syndromes); (7) patients being treated with fixed CPAP on the basis of APAP titration or being treated with APAP must have close clinical follow-up to determine treatment effectiveness and safety; and (8) a reevaluation and, if necessary, a standard attended CPAP titration should be performed if symptoms do not resolve or the APAP treatment otherwise appears to lack efficacy. Citation: Morgenthaler TI; Aurora RN; Brown T; Zak R; Alessi C; Boehlecke B; Chesson AL; Friedman L; Kapur V; Maganti R; Owens J; Pancer J; Swick TJ; Standards of Practice Committee of the AASM. Practice parameters for the use of autotitrating continuous positive airway pressure devices for titrating pressures and treating adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: An update for 2007. SLEEP 2008;31(1):141-147. PMID:18220088

  8. Evidence of a critical period of airway instability during central apneas in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Lemke, R P; Idiong, N; Al-Saedi, S; Kwiatkowski, K; Cates, D B; Rigatto, H

    1998-02-01

    The timing and magnitude of airway narrowing in central apneas is unknown. We have developed a method of apnea classification that relies on the transmission of cardiac airflow oscillation to indicate airway patency. Using a theoretical model, we showed that the amplitude of the cardiac airflow oscillation is proportional to airway diameter for small lumens. While in the majority of central apneas the amplitude of the cardiac airflow oscillation remains nearly constant, in a subset of events the waveform decreases with time, suggesting airway narrowing. We hypothesized that this is not a random occurrence but reflects a critical period of airway instability during central apnea. To test this hypothesis we studied 41 preterm infants. Of 4,456 central apneas, 585 had a decrease in the amplitude of the cardiac oscillation. The amplitude of the cardiac airflow oscillation during an apnea was recorded to provide a dynamic measure of changes in airway diameter with time. To allow for comparisons between patients the amplitude of each cardiac airflow oscillation was expressed as a proportion of the maximum amplitude observed in each infant. We then compared the amplitude at multiple successive 0.5 s intervals with the amplitude of the cardiac airflow oscillation observed at the apnea outset using ANOVA. We found a significant decrease in cardiac airflow oscillation after only 1 s irrespective of the apnea duration (3 to 16 s). We conclude that airway narrowing during central apnea is not a random occurrence but appears shortly after the onset of the apnea. We speculate that the phenomenon is secondary to passive airway relaxation. PMID:9476860

  9. Comparison of pulse rate variability with heart rate variability during obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Khandoker, Ahsan H; Karmakar, Chandan K; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2011-03-01

    We investigate whether pulse rate variability (PRV) extracted from finger photo-plethysmography (Pleth) waveforms can be the substitute of heart rate variability (HRV) from RR intervals of ECG signals during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Simultaneous measurements (ECG and Pleth) were taken from 29 healthy subjects during normal (undisturbed sleep) breathing and 22 patients with OSA during OSA events. Highly significant (p<0.01) correlations (1.0>r>0.95) were found between heart rate (HR) and pulse rate (PR). Bland-Altman plot of HR and PR shows good agreement (<5% difference). Comparison of 2 min recording epochs demonstrated significant differences (p<0.01) in time, frequency domains and complexity analysis, between normal and OSA events using PRV as well as HRV measures. Results suggest that both HRV and PRV indices could be used to distinguish OSA events from normal breathing during sleep. However, several variability measures (SDNN, RMSSD, HF power, LF/HF and sample entropy) of PR and HR were found to be significantly (p<0.01) different during OSA events. Therefore, we conclude that PRV provides accurate inter-pulse variability to measure heart rate variability under normal breathing in sleep but does not precisely reflect HRV in sleep disordered breathing. PMID:20980188

  10. Impact of Acetazolamide and CPAP on Cortical Activity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Tarokh, Leila; Ulrich, Silvia; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E.; Achermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives 1) To investigate the impact of acetazolamide, a drug commonly prescribed for altitude sickness, on cortical oscillations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). 2) To examine alterations in the sleep EEG after short-term discontinuation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Design Data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized cross-over design studies were analyzed. Setting Polysomnographic recordings in sleep laboratory at 490 m and at moderate altitudes in the Swiss Alps: 1630 or 1860 m and 2590 m. Patients Study 1: 39 OSAS patients. Study 2: 41 OSAS patients. Interventions Study 1: OSAS patients withdrawn from treatment with CPAP. Study 2: OSAS patients treated with autoCPAP. Treatment with acetazolamide (500750 mg) or placebo at moderate altitudes. Measurements and Results An evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide reduced slow-wave activity (SWA; approximately 10%) and increased spindle activity (approximately 10%) during non-REM sleep. In addition, alpha activity during wake after lights out was increased. An evening dose of 250 mg did not affect these cortical oscillations. Discontinuation of CPAP therapy revealed a reduction in SWA (510%) and increase in beta activity (approximately 25%). Conclusions The higher evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide showed the spectral fingerprint of Benzodiazepines, while 250 mg acetazolamide had no impact on cortical oscillations. However, both doses had beneficial effects on oxygen saturation and sleep quality. PMID:24710341

  11. Primary Sleep Disorders.

    PubMed

    Khoury, John; Doghramji, Karl

    2015-12-01

    Primary sleep disorders include those not attributable to another medical or psychiatric condition: insomnia disorder, hypersomnolence disorder, narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome, central sleep apnea syndrome, and the parasomnias. They are commonly encountered and are comorbid with many psychiatric disorders. It is important to recognize these disorders and be comfortable treating them or to know when to refer to a sleep disorders center and sleep specialist. Treatment of a comorbid sleep disorder can improve the overall quality of life, symptoms in mood disorders, and symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness, and decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26600103

  12. Where There Is Smoke…There Is Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Williams, Sherrie; Thornton, J. Daryl

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and OSA are widely prevalent and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It has been hypothesized that each of these conditions adversely affects the other, leading to increased comorbidity while altering the efficacy of existing therapies. However, while the association between smoking and OSA is plausible, the evidence is less than conclusive. Cigarette smoking may increase the severity of OSA through alterations in sleep architecture, upper airway neuromuscular function, arousal mechanisms, and upper airway inflammation. Conversely, some evidence links untreated OSA with smoking addiction. Smoking cessation should improve OSA, but the evidence to support this is also limited. This article reviews the current evidence linking both conditions and the efficacy of various treatments. Limitations of the current evidence and areas in need of future investigation are also addressed. PMID:25451354

  13. The Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Metabolic Markers and Lipid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Te; Tsai, Su-Shan; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Ting, Hua; Wu, Trong-Neng; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and metabolic markers and whether the elevated risk of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is related to Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 246 male bus drivers from one transportation company in Taiwan. Each participant was evaluated by a polysomnography (PSG) test and by blood lipids examination. Severity of OSA was categorized according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results The results showed that a 73.3% prevalence of MetS in OSA (AHI > 15) and a 80.0% prevalence of MetS in severe OSA (AHI > 30) were found. After adjusting for confounding variables, an increased level of Body-Mass Index (BMI) and two non-MetS cardiovascular risk factors, total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with AHI in subjects with severe OSA. MetS was about three times to be present in subjects with severe OSA, even adjusted for BMI. Conclusions The findings showed a high prevalence of MetS in OSA among professional drivers, especially in the severe group category. BMI was the major contributing factor to OSA. However, the present study did not find a sensitive clinical marker of a detrimental metabolic profile in OSA patients. PMID:26115005

  14. [Perioperative management in children with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) undergoing adenoidotonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Nemoto, Mikiko; Sato, Tomoko; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    We should take care of the occurrences of apnea and hypopnea after emergence from general anesthesia in the children with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) due to an increase in sensitivity to opioid agonists given for previous recurrent hypoxia. Preoperative assessment for SAS with apnea hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and minimum artery oxygen saturation by pulse oxymetry (lowest SpO2) obtained from polysomnography (PSG) test could help to predict the postoperative respiratory depression. In perioperative management in the children with SAS who are candidates for adenotonsillectomy, the dose of opioid agonists during anesthesia maintenance for purpose of postoperative analgesia and sedation should be reduced; postoperative respiratory and circulatory management with monitoring of respiratory movement of the thoracoabdominal part, and electrographic (ECG) and SpO2 monitoring should be continued intensively under long-term oxygen administration; and airway management, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), and artificial ventilation should be prepared for the occurrence of postoperative respiratory depression. PMID:23479914

  15. A wearable, mobile phone-based respiration monitoring system for sleep apnea syndrome detection.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Ryoichi; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton

    2005-01-01

    A new wearable respiration monitoring system has been developed for non-invasive detection of sleep apnea syndrome. The system, which is attached to a shirt, consists of a piezoelectric sensor, a low-power 8-bit single chip microcontroller, EEPROM and a 2.4 GHz low-power transmitting mobile phone (PHS). The piezoelectric sensor, whose electrical polarization voltage is produced by body movements, is installed inside the shirt and closely contacts the patient's chest. The low frequency components of body movements recorded by the sensor are mainly generated by respiration. The microcontroller sequentially stores the movement signal to the EEPROM for 5 minutes and detects, by time-frequency analysis, whether the patient has breathed during that time. When the patient is apneic for 10 sseconds, the microcontroller sends the recorded respiration waveform during and one minute before and after the apnea directly to the hospital server computer via the mobile phone. The server computer then creates apnea "filings" automatically for every patient. The system can be used at home and be self-applied by patients. Moreover, the system does not require any extra equipment such as a personal computer, PDA, or Internet connection. PMID:15850120

  16. Improvement in obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and management wait times: A retrospective analysis of a home management pathway for obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Samuel Alan; Skomro, Robert; Reid, John; Penz, Erika; Fenton, Mark; Gjevre, John; Cotton, David

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common condition within the Canadian population. The current gold standard for diagnosis and management of patients is in-laboratory (in-lab) polysomnography; however, the limited availability of testing options for patients has led to long wait times and increased disease burden within the population. The Sleep Research Laboratory in Saskatoon (Saskatchewan) implemented a home management program to run in parallel with the in-lab system several years ago in an effort to increase their capacity and reduce wait times. The present study was a retrospective analysis of all patients referred to the program between 2009 and 2012. The home management system has improved wait times by diagnosing and managing up to one-half of the referred patient population, reducing the wait for in-lab treatment from a median of 152 days in 2009 to 92 days in 2012 (P<0.0001). Moving forward, home management can provide a viable alternative to in-lab testing for patients who meet strict entry criteria, reducing the in-lab workload and, ultimately, reducing wait times. PMID:25751031

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Preethi; Greenberg, Harly

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is independently associated with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic risk in several large epidemiologic studies. OSA leads to several physiologic disturbances such as intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, and increase in autonomic tone. These disturbances have been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in animal and human studies. Studies also suggest a bidirectional relationship between OSA and T2DM whereby T2DM itself might contribute to the features of OSA. Moreover, successful treatment of OSA may reduce these risks, although this is controversial. The purpose of this article is to review 1) the links and bidirectional associations between OSA and T2DM; 2) the pathogenic mechanisms that might link these two disease states; 3) the role of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in improving glucose tolerance, sensitivity, and resistance; and 4) the implications for clinical practice. PMID:26491377

  18. The Relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Atrial Fibrillation: A Complex Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Latina, Jacqueline M.; Estes, N. A. Mark; Garlitski, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, growing evidence suggests an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common sleep breathing disorder which is increasing in prevalence as the obesity epidemic surges, and atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia. AF is a costly public health problem increasing a patient's risk of stroke, heart failure, and all-cause mortality. It remains unclear whether the association is based on mutual risk factors, such as obesity and hypertension, or whether OSA is an independent risk factor and causative in nature. This paper explores the pathophysiology of OSA which may predispose to AF, clinical implications of stroke risk in this cohort who display overlapping disease processes, and targeted treatment strategies such as continuous positive airway pressure and AF ablation. PMID:23533751

  19. Prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults with obstructive sleep apnea symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Grønli, Janne; Sivertsen, Børge; Lehmann, Sverre

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults presenting symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the general population. Randomly selected participants (N = 1,502; 50.7% men, 49.3% women), ages 40 to 70 yr. (M = 53.6, SD = 8.5) were interviewed over the telephone. Insomnia and excessive sleepiness (hypersomnia) were assessed with the Bergen Insomnia Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. OSA symptoms were identified by self- or spouse reports on snoring, breathing cessations during sleep, and being tired or sleepy. The prevalence of OSA was 6.2%. Among these participants with OSA, 57.6% reported insomnia and 30.1% reported excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, OSA symptoms were associated with self-reported obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and depression, but only in participants with comorbid insomnia or excessive sleepiness. PMID:24897888

  20. Computer-Assisted Diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome: A Review.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Estevez, Diego; Moret-Bonillo, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Automatic diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS) has become an important area of research due to the growing interest in the field of sleep medicine and the costs associated with its manual diagnosis. The increment and heterogeneity of the different techniques, however, make it somewhat difficult to adequately follow the recent developments. A literature review within the area of computer-assisted diagnosis of SAHS has been performed comprising the last 15 years of research in the field. Screening approaches, methods for the detection and classification of respiratory events, comprehensive diagnostic systems, and an outline of current commercial approaches are reviewed. An overview of the different methods is presented together with validation analysis and critical discussion of the current state of the art. PMID:26266052

  1. Computer-Assisted Diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Estevez, Diego; Moret-Bonillo, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Automatic diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS) has become an important area of research due to the growing interest in the field of sleep medicine and the costs associated with its manual diagnosis. The increment and heterogeneity of the different techniques, however, make it somewhat difficult to adequately follow the recent developments. A literature review within the area of computer-assisted diagnosis of SAHS has been performed comprising the last 15 years of research in the field. Screening approaches, methods for the detection and classification of respiratory events, comprehensive diagnostic systems, and an outline of current commercial approaches are reviewed. An overview of the different methods is presented together with validation analysis and critical discussion of the current state of the art. PMID:26266052

  2. Male Fertility Is Reduced by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Mimicking Sleep Apnea in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Marta; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Dalmases, Mireia; Calle, Alexandra; Pericuesta, Eva; Montserrat, Josep M.; Navajas, Daniel; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Farré, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia and oxidative stress. However, it is unknown whether intermittent hypoxia mimicking OSA modifies male fertility. We tested the hypothesis that male fertility is reduced by chronic intermittent hypoxia mimicking OSA in a mouse model. Design: Case-control comparison in a murine model. Setting: University research laboratory. Participants: Eighteen F1 (C57BL/6xCBA) male mice. Interventions: Mice were subjected to a pattern of periodic hypoxia (20 sec at 5% O2 followed by 40 sec of room air) 6 h/day for 60 days or normoxia. After this period, mice performed a mating trial to determine effective fertility by assessing the number of pregnant females and fetuses. Measurements and Results: After euthanasia, oxidative stress in testes was assessed by measuring the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) and superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sperm motility was determined by Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS). Intermittent hypoxia significantly increased testicular oxidative stress, showing a reduction in the expression of Gpx1 and Sod1 by 38.9% and 34.4%, respectively, as compared with normoxia (P < 0.05). Progressive sperm motility was significantly reduced from 27.0 ± 6.4% in normoxia to 12.8 ± 1.8% in the intermittent hypoxia group (P = 0.04). The proportion of pregnant females and number of fetuses per mating was significantly lower in the intermittent hypoxia group (0.33 ± 0.10 and 2.45 ± 0.73, respectively) than in normoxic controls (0.72 ± 0.16 and 5.80 ± 1.24, respectively). Conclusions: These results suggest that the intermittent hypoxia associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) could induce fertility reduction in male patients with this sleep breathing disorder. Citation: Torres M, Laguna-Barraza R, Dalmases M, Calle A, Pericuesta E, Montserrat JM, Navajas D, Gutierrez-Adan A, Farré R. Male fertility is reduced by chronic intermittent hypoxia mimicking sleep apnea in mice. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1757-1765. PMID:25364071

  3. Epigenetics modifications and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The EPIOSA study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological and animal models studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in OSA management by interfering intermediates mechanisms associated with cardiovascular complications. We have thus initiated the Epigenetics modification in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (EPIOSA) study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02131610). Methods/design EPIOSA is a prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 350 participants of caucasian ethnicity and free of other chronic or inflammatory diseases: 300 patients with prevalent OSA and 50 non-OSA subjects. All of them will be follow-up for at least 5 years. Recruitment and study visits are performed in single University-based sleep clinic using standard operating procedures. At baseline and at each one year follow-up examination, patients are subjected to a core phenotyping protocol. This includes a standardized questionnaire and physical examination to determine incident comorbidities and health resources utilization, with a primary focus on cardiovascular events. Confirmatory outcomes information is requested from patient records and the regional Department of Health Services. Every year, OSA status will be assessed by full sleep study and blood samples will be obtained for immediate standard biochemistry, hematology, inflammatory cytokines and cytometry analysis. For biobanking, aliquots of serum, plasma, urine, mRNA and DNA are also obtained. Bilateral carotid echography will be performed to assess subclinical atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis progression. OSA patients are treated according with national guidelines. Discussion EPIOSA will enable the prospective evaluation of inflammatory and epigenetics mechanism involved in cardiovascular complication of treated and non-treated patients with OSA compared with non OSA subjects. PMID:25016368

  4. Choroidal Blood-Flow Responses to Hyperoxia and Hypercapnia in Men with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Tonini, Matthieu; Khayi, Hafid; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Renard, Elisabeth; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Lvy, Patrick; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Geiser, Martial H.; Chiquet, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) impacts on macrovasculature and autonomic function and may therefore interfere with ocular microvascular regulation. We hypothesized that choroidal vascular reactivity to hyperoxia and hypercapnia was altered in patients with OSA compared with matched control subjects and would improve after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods: Sixteen healthy men were matched 1:1 for body mass index, sex, and age with 16 men with newly diagnosed OSA without comorbidities. Subjects underwent sleep studies, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, arterial stiffness measurements, and cardiac and carotid echography. Overall, patients were middle-aged, lean, and otherwise healthy except for having OSA with a limited amount of desaturation, with, at most, subclinical lesions of the cardiovascular system, stage 1 hypertension, or both. Choroidal laser Doppler flowmetry provides a unique opportunity to assess microvascular function by measuring velocity, (ChBVel), volume (ChBVol), and relative subfoveal choroidal blood flow (ChBF). Vascular choroidal reactivity was studied during hyperoxia and hypercapnia (8% CO2) challenges before and after treatment with nasal CPAP. Results: Patients with OSA and control subjects exhibited similar choroidal reactivity during hyperoxia (stability of choroidal blood flow) and hypercapnia (significant increases in ChBVel of 13.5% and in ChBF of 16%). Choroidal vasoreactivity to CO2 was positively associated with arterial stiffness in patients with OSA. Gas choroidal vasoreactivity was unchanged after 6 to 9 months of CPAP treatment. Conclusion: This study showed unimpaired choroidal vascular reactivity in otherwise healthy men with OSA. This suggests that patients with OSA, without comorbidities, have long-term adaptive mechanisms active in ocular microcirculation. Citation: Tonini M; Khayi H; Pepin JL; Renard E; Baguet JP; Lvy P; Romanet JP; Geiser MH; Chiquet C. Choroidal blood-flow responses to hyperoxia and hypercapnia in men with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2010;33(6):811-818. PMID:20550022

  5. Time-on-task decrements in "steer clear" performance of patients with sleep apnea and narcolepsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findley, L. J.; Suratt, P. M.; Dinges, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of attention with time-on-task reflects the increasing instability of the waking state during performance in experimentally induced sleepiness. To determine whether patients with disorders of excessive sleepiness also displayed time-on-task decrements indicative of wake state instability, visual sustained attention performance on "Steer Clear," a computerized simple RT driving simulation task, was compared among 31 patients with untreated sleep apnea, 16 patients with narcolepsy, and 14 healthy control subjects. Vigilance decrement functions were generated by analyzing the number of collisions in each of six four-minute periods of Steer Clear task performance in a mixed-model analysis of variance and linear regression equations. As expected, patients had more Steer Clear collisions than control subjects (p=0.006). However, the inter-subject variability in errors among the narcoleptic patients was four-fold that of the apnea patients, and 100-fold that of the controls volunteers; the variance in errors among untreated apnea patients was 27-times that of controls. The results of transformed collision data revealed main effects for group (p=0.006), time-on-task (p=0.001), and a significant interaction (p=0.022). Control subjects showed no clear evidence of increasing collision errors with time-on-task (adjusted R2=0.22), while apnea patients showed a trend toward vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.42, p=0.097), and narcolepsy patients evidenced a robust linear vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.87, p=0.004). The association of disorders of excessive somnolence with escalating time-on-task decrements makes it imperative that when assessment of neurobehavioral performance is conducted in patients, it involves task durations and analyses that will evaluate the underlying vulnerability of potentially sleepy patients to decrements over time in