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1

Central sleep apnea  

MedlinePLUS

... in someone who has a problem with the brainstem, which controls breathing. Conditions that can cause or ... central sleep apnea include: Problems that affect the brainstem (the brainstem controls breathing) including brain infection, stroke, ...

2

Central sleep apnea: does stabilizing sleep improve it?  

PubMed

Central sleep apnea is not uncommon in children with neurologic disorders. The mechanisms include increased ventilatory chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide level. Conventional treatments include oxygen, noninvasive ventilation, and in patients with heart failure, improving cardiac output. Here, we present a case of a 9-year-old male with Angelman syndrome, epilepsy, insomnia, and central sleep apnea. The patient was initially evaluated for nighttime awakenings and pauses in breathing. Sustained-release melatonin was used to improve his nighttime awakenings. A polysomnography confirmed central sleep apnea. We saw a reduction in arousals and improvement in insomnia with sustained-release melatonin. On a repeat study, central sleep apnea was improved. We hypothesize that sustained-release melatonin, by improving sleep continuity and reducing arousals, might improve central sleep apnea. Studies are needed to test the hypothesis. PMID:23220792

Jain, Sejal V; Simakajornboon, Narong; Arthur, Todd M

2014-01-01

3

Central sleep apnea detection and stimulation.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a system to detect and intervene in instances of central sleep apnea. The system is composed of a detection module and a stimulation module, which provides sensory stimulation to the patient when an apnea event has occurred. The system is currently in prototype and has not yet undergone patient trials. PMID:22256104

Kinio, Steven; Islam, Mohammed; Qasim, Taimur

2011-01-01

4

Sodium oxybate-induced central sleep apneas.  

PubMed

Sodium oxybate (?-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) is a neurotransmitter in the human brain which exerts sedative effects and is used therapeutically in the treatment of narcolepsy. Current safety recommendations have been formulated for the use of GHB in patients with preexisting breathing disorders. We report the case of a 39-year-old female with narcolepsy and cataplexy revealing the de novo emergence of central sleep apneas in a Cheyne-Stokes pattern under constant treatment with GHB. After discontinuation of GHB, polysomnographic re-evaluation demonstrated the disappearance of central sleep apneas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of de novo central sleep apneas induced by GHB in a patient without pre-existing sleep-disordered breathing, suggesting that there is a need for further investigation and potentially an extension of the safety guidelines to patients without a pre-existing breathing disorder. PMID:23834969

Frase, Lukas; Schupp, Jonas; Sorichter, Stephan; Randelshofer, Wolfgang; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

2013-09-01

5

Obstructive sleep apnea is more common than central sleep apnea in methadone maintenance patients with subjective sleep complaints  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesOpioid-dependent patients treated with methadone have subjective sleep complaints and disrupted sleep on polysomnography (PSG). Previous studies of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in this population have focused on central sleep apnea (CSA). Our objectives were to: (1) characterize obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and CSA in patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid dependence; (2) examine factors associated with SDB in

Katherine M. Sharkey; Megan E. Kurth; Bradley J. Anderson; Richard P. Corso; Richard P. Millman; Michael D. Stein

2010-01-01

6

Central and Peripheral factors contributing to Obstructive Sleep Apneas  

PubMed Central

Apnea, the cessation of breathing, is a common physiological and pathophysiological phenomenon with many basic scientific and clinical implications. Among the different forms of apnea, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is clinically the most prominent manifestation. OSA is characterized by repetitive airway occlusions that are typically associated with peripheral airway obstructions. However, it would be a gross oversimplification to conclude that OSA is caused by peripheral obstructions. OSA is the result of a dynamic interplay between chemo- and mechanosensory reflexes, neuromodulation, behavioral state and the differential activation of the central respiratory network and its motor outputs. This interplay has numerous neuronal and cardiovascular consequences that are initially adaptive but in the long-term become major contributors to the morbidity and mortality associated with OSA. However, not only OSA, but all forms of apnea have multiple, and partly overlapping mechanisms. In all cases the underlying mechanisms are neither “exclusively peripheral” nor “exclusively central” in origin. While the emphasis has long been on the role of peripheral reflex pathways in the case of OSA, and central mechanisms in the case of central apneas, we are learning that such a separation is inconsistent with the integration of these mechanisms in all cases of apneas. This review discusses the complex interplay of peripheral and central nervous components that characterizes the cessation of breathing. PMID:23770311

Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Garcia, Alfredo J.; Anderson, Tatiana M.; Koschnitzky, Jenna E.; Peng, Ying-Jie; Kumar, Ganesh; Prabhakar, Nanduri

2013-01-01

7

Sleep Apnea Detection  

MedlinePLUS

... Sleep Apnea Detection Ages & Stages Listen Sleep Apnea Detection Article Body Sleep apnea is a common problem ... Prevent SIDS Infant Sleep Training is Effective and Safe, Study Finds Healthy Children Radio: Safe Sleep for ...

8

Effects of inhaled CO2 and added dead space on idiopathic central sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglas Bradley. Effects of inhaled CO2 and added dead space on idiopathic central sleep apnea. J. Appl. Physiol. 82(3): 918-926, 1997.—We hypothesized that reductions in arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) below the apnea threshold play a key role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic central sleep apnea syndrome (ICSAS). If so, we reasoned that raising PaCO2 would abolish apneas in these patients. Accordingly,

AILIANG XIE; FIONA RANKIN; RUTH RUTHERFORD; T. DOUGLAS BRADLEY

9

Chiari malformation and central sleep apnea syndrome: efficacy of treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation*  

PubMed Central

The Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) has been associated with sleep-disordered breathing, especially central sleep apnea syndrome. We report the case of a 44-year-old female with CM-I who was referred to our sleep laboratory for suspected sleep apnea. The patient had undergone decompressive surgery 3 years prior. An arterial blood gas analysis showed hypercapnia. Polysomnography showed a respiratory disturbance index of 108 events/h, and all were central apnea events. Treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation was initiated, and central apnea was resolved. This report demonstrates the efficacy of servo-ventilation in the treatment of central sleep apnea syndrome associated with alveolar hypoventilation in a CM-I patient with a history of decompressive surgery. PMID:25410846

do Vale, Jorge Marques; Silva, Eloísa; Pereira, Isabel Gil; Marques, Catarina; Sanchez-Serrano, Amparo; Torres, António Simões

2014-01-01

10

Acetazolamide Improves Central Sleep Apnea in Heart Failure A Double-Blind, Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Acetazolamide is a mild diuretic and a respiratory stimu- lant. It is used to treat periodic breathing at high altitude. Objectives: To determine the therapeutic efficacy of acetazolamide on central sleep apnea associated with heart failure. Methods: Twelve male patients with stable systolic heart failure whose initial polysomnograms showed more than 15 episodes per hour of apnea and hypopnea

Shahrokh Javaheri

11

Sleep Apnea and Anesthesia  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... high blood pressure, and can cause complications during surgery. You might have sleep apnea if you: Are ... have obstructive sleep apnea if you’re having surgery. Anesthesia also can cause the throat to relax ...

12

Differential Timing of Arousals in Obstructive and Central Sleep Apnea in Patients with Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), arousals generally occur at apnea termination and help restore airflow. However, timing of arousals in central sleep apnea (CSA) has not been objectively quantified, and since arousals can persist even when CSA is alleviated, may not play the same defensive role as they do in OSA. We hypothesized that arousals following central events would occur longer after event termination than following obstructive events and would be related to circulation time. Methods: We examined polysomnograms from 20 patients with heart failure (HF) (left ventricular ejection fraction ? 45%): 10 with OSA and 10 with CSA (apneahypopnea index ? 15). Twenty central or obstructive apneas or hypopneas were analyzed in each patient. Results: Compared to the OSA group in whom arousals generally occurred at obstructive event termination, in the CSA group they occurred longer after central event termination (0.9 ± 1.1 versus 8.0 ± 4.1 s, p < 0.0001), but before peak hyperpnea. Time from arousal to peak hyperpnea did not differ between groups (4.3 ± 1.1 vs 4.8 ± 1.6 s, p = 0.416). Unlike the OSA group, latency from apnea termination to arousal correlated with circulation time in the CSA group (r = 0.793, p = 0.006). Conclusions: In HF patients with CSA, apnea-to-arousal latency is longer than in those with OSA, and arousals usually follow resumption of airflow. These observations provide evidence that arousals are less likely to act as a protective mechanism to facilitate resumption of airflow following apneas in CSA than in OSA. Citation: Simms T; Brijbassi M; Montemurro LT; Bradley TD. Differential timing of arousals in obstructive and central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(8):773-779. PMID:23946707

Simms, Taryn; Brijbassi, Melissa; Montemurro, Luigi Taranto; Bradley, T. Douglas

2013-01-01

13

Sleep apnea and stroke.  

PubMed

Clinical evidence has established that sleep apnea is a risk factor for stroke. Patients with stroke have a high prevalence of sleep apnea that may have preceded or developed as a result of the stroke. Well-established concurrent stroke risk factors for stroke like hypertension and atrial fibrillation respond favorably to the successful treatment of sleep apnea. The gold standard diagnosis of sleep apnea is obtained in the sleep laboratory, but unattended polysomnography is gaining acceptance. Positive airway pressure (PAP) (continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] or bilevel positive airway pressure [BiPAP]) applications are the gold-standard treatment of sleep apnea. Suggestive evidence indicates that stroke occurrence or recurrence may be reduced with treatment of sleep apnea. PMID:25407131

Culebras, Antonio

2015-01-01

14

Randomized Controlled Trial of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV) Versus Servoventilation in Patients with CPAP-Induced Central Sleep Apnea (Complex Sleep Apnea)  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To compare the treatment effect of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) and anticyclic servoventilation in patients with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-induced central sleep apnea (complex sleep apnea). Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Sleep center. Patients: Thirty patients who developed complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS) during CPAP treatment. Interventions: NPPV or servoventilation. Measurements and Results: Patients were randomized to NPPV or servo-ventilation. Full polysomnography (PSG) was performed after 6 weeks. On CPAP prior to randomization, patients in the NPPV and servoventilator arm had comparable apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI, 28.6 ± 6.5 versus 27.7 ± 9.7 events/h (mean ± standard deviation [SD])), apnea indices (AI,19 ± 5.6 versus 21.1 ± 8.6 events/h), central apnea indices (CAI, 16.7 ± 5.4 versus 18.2 ± 7.1 events/h), oxygen desaturation indices (ODI,17.5 ± 13.1 versus 24.3 ± 11.9 events/h). During initial titration NPPV and servoventilation significantly improved the AHI (9.1 ± 4.3 versus 9 ± 6.4 events/h), AI (2 ± 3.1 versus 3.5 ± 4.5 events/h) CAI (2 ± 3.1 versus 2.5 ± 3.9 events/h) and ODI (10.1 ± 4.5 versus 8.9 ± 8.4 events/h) when compared to CPAP treatment (all P < 0.05). After 6 weeks we observed the following differences: AHI (16.5 ± 8 versus 7.4 ± 4.2 events/h, P = 0.027), AI (10.4 ± 5.9 versus 1.7 ± 1.9 events/h, P = 0.001), CAI (10.2 ± 5.1 versus 1.5 ± 1.7 events/h, P < 0.0001)) and ODI (21.1 ± 9.2 versus 4.8 ± 3.4 events/h, P < 0.0001) for NPPV and servoventilation, respectively. Other sleep parameters were unaffected by any form of treatment. Conclusions: After 6 weeks, servoventilation treated respiratory events more effectively than NPPV in patients with complex sleep apnea syndrome. Citation: Dellweg D; Kerl J; Hoehn E; Wenzel M; Koehler D. Randomized controlled trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) versus servoventilation in patients with CPAP-induced central sleep apnea (complex sleep apnea). SLEEP 2013;36(8):1163-1171. PMID:23904676

Dellweg, Dominic; Kerl, Jens; Hoehn, Ekkehard; Wenzel, Markus; Koehler, Dieter

2013-01-01

15

Adaptive Servoventilation for Treatment of Opioid-Associated Central Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Opioids have become part of contemporary treatment in the management of chronic pain. Although severe daytime ventilatory depression is uncommon, chronic use of opioids could be associated with severe central and obstructive sleep apnea. Objectives: To determine the acute efficacy, and prolonged use of adaptive servoventilation (ASV) to treat central sleep apnea in patients on chronic opioids. Methods: Twenty patients on opioid therapy referred for evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were found to have central sleep apnea (CSA). The first 16 patients underwent continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration, which showed persistent CSA. With the notion that CSA will be eliminated with continued use of CPAP, 4 weeks later, 9 of the 16 patients underwent a second CPAP titration which proved equally ineffective. Therefore, therapy with CPAP was abandoned. All patients underwent ASV titration. Main Results: Diagnostic polysomnography showed an average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 61/h and a central-apnea index (CAI) of 32/h. On CPAP 1, AHI was 34/h and CAI was 20/h. Respective indices on CPAP 2 were AHI 33/h and CAI 19/h. During titration with ASV, CAI was 0/h and the average HI was 11/h on final pressures. With a reduction in AHI, oxyhemoglobin saturation nadir increased from 83% to 90%, and arousal index decreased from 29/h of sleep to 12/h on final ASV pressures. Seventeen patients were followed for a minimum of 9 months and up to 6 years. The mean long-term adherence was 5.1 ± 2.5 hours. Conclusions: Chronic use of opioids could be associated with severe CSA which remains resistant to CPAP therapy. ASV device is effective in the treatment of CSA and over the long run, most patients remain compliant with the device. Randomized long-term studies are necessary to determine if treatment of sleep apnea with ASV improves quality of life and the known mortality associated with opioids. Citation: Javaheri S, Harris N, Howard J, Chung E. Adaptive servoventilation for treatment of opioid-associated central sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(6):637-643. PMID:24932143

Javaheri, Shahrokh; Harris, Nicholas; Howard, Joseph; Chung, Eugene

2014-01-01

16

Sleep, sleep apnea, and epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Sleep disorders occur commonly in patients with epilepsy, and can be responsible for symptoms of daytime somnolence and also\\u000a can contribute to the intractability of epilepsy. The most important aspect of treating sleep disorders, especially sleep\\u000a apnea, is the recognition of the problem. In a busy clinical practice, symptoms of sleep disorders are frequently overlooked\\u000a or mistaken. Whenever sleep

Carl W. Bazil

2004-01-01

17

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Depression  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder associated with several medical conditions, increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, and overall healthcare expenditure. There is higher prevalence of depression in people with obstructive sleep apnea in both clinical and community samples. Many symptoms of depression and obstructive sleep apnea overlap causing under-diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in depressed patients. Sleep problems, including obstructive sleep apnea, are rarely assessed on a regular basis in patients with depressive disorders, but they may be responsible for antidepressant treatment failure. The mechanism of the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and depression is complex and remains unclear. Though some studies suggest a mutual relationship, the relationship remains unclear. Several possible pathophysiological mechanisms could explain how obstructive sleep apnea can cause or worsen depression. Increased knowledge of the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and depression might significantly improve diagnostic accuracy as well as treatment outcomes for both obstructive sleep apnea and depression. PMID:21922066

Ejaz, Shakir M.; Bhatia, Subhash; Hurwitz, Thomas D.

2011-01-01

18

Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physiology in Medicine review article Obstructive sleep apnea is an increasingly common disorder that is strongly linked to obesity. Neurocognitive sequelae, such as daytime sleepiness and impaired executive function, are important factors in motor vehicle accidents and probably contribute to loss of work-related productivity. Metabolic abnormalities in obstructive sleep apnea appear to be mediated in part by insulin resistance, which may be independent of body weight, and by the dysregulation of leptin.

DDS/DO Sean M. Caples (Mayo Clinic Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine); Dr. Apoor S. Gami (Mayo Clinic); MD/PhD Virend K. Somers (Mayo Clinic Dept of Internal Medicine)

2005-02-01

19

Pulse rate analysis in case of central sleep apnea: a new algorithm for cardiac rate estimation.  

PubMed

This paper first describes the AM-FM demodulation of an arterial pressure signal. Although it is known to be efficient on signals modulated by breathing, we demonstrate that in case of lack of respiratory modulation (real or simulated central sleep apnea), the AM-FM algorithm doesn't perform well in heart rate extraction. We introduce then a new algorithm based on Singular Spectrum Analysis eigenvalues which performs better cardiac frequency estimation in this context. Respiratory estimation is possible but is beyond the scope of this paper. The error for cardiac frequency estimation is around 0.2 BPM (Beats Per Minute) versus 5.5 BPM for the AM-FM demodulation. Further experimentations will be performed (with this time both cardiac and respiratory assessments) and will deal with real sleep apnea cases. PMID:19965048

Nguyen, Quang-Vinh; Le Page, Ronan; Goujon, Jean-Marc; Guyader, Patrick; Billon, Michel

2009-01-01

20

Dreams in Sleep Apnea Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of apneas on REM-elicited dream reports, and to examine the influence of clinically successful treatment of the apneas on dreaming. Thirty-three volunteers suffering from sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) slept during two nights in the sleep laboratory. Sixteen were treated with nasal continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) during the first night and

M. Gross; P. Lavie

1994-01-01

21

Relation of Central Fat Mass to Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Obesity is a recognized risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We evaluated whether total trunk and central fat mass (CFM) is associated with OSAS in elderly subjects. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorbsiometry (DEXA). Participants: 749 volunteers aged 67.2 ± 0.8 years (59.4% women). Intervention: All participants underwent evaluation of their body composition by DEXA in parallel with clinical and polygraphic assessments. The presence of OSAS was defined by an apnea plus hypopnea index (AHI) ? 15. Measurements and Results: A total of 44.8% of the population had an AHI < 15, and 55.2% presented OSAS. OSAS subjects were more frequently overweight and had a higher total trunk fat mass and central fat mass (CFM). Correlation analyses revealed that body mass index (r = 0.27, P < 0.001), neck circumference (r = 0.35, P < 0.001), and CFM (r = 0.23, P < 0.001) were significantly related to AHI. Logistic regression analysis indicated that in mild OSAS cases (> 15AHI < 30), BMI (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03-1.18; P = 0.008), and male gender (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.05-2.12, P = 0.03) were key factors explaining an AHI between 15 and 30. In severe cases (AHI > 30), male gender (OR: 3.65; 95% CI: 2.40-5.55; P < 0.001) and CFM (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03-1.19; P = 0.009) were significant independent predictors of OSAS. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT 00759304 and NCT 00766584. Conclusions: Although central fat mass plays a role in the occurrence of severe OSAS in men older than 65 years of age, its low discriminative sensitivity in mild OSAS cases does not warrant systematic use of DEXA for the diagnosis of OSAS. Citation: Degache F; Sforza E; Dauphinot V; Celle S; Garcin A; Collet P; Pichot V; Barthélémy JC; Roche F. Relation of central fat mass to obstructive sleep apnea in the elderly. SLEEP 2013;36(4):501-507. PMID:23564997

Degache, Francis; Sforza, Emilia; Dauphinot, Virginie; Celle, Sébastien; Garcin, Arnauld; Collet, Philippe; Pichot, Vincent; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Roche, Frédéric

2013-01-01

22

Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a disorder of airway obstruction with multisystem implications and associated complications. OSAS affects children from infancy to adulthood and is responsible for behavioral, cognitive, and growth impairment as well as cardiovascular and perioperative respiratory morbidity and mortality. OSAS is associated commonly with comorbid conditions, including obesity and asthma. Adenotonsillectomy is the most commonly used treatment option for OSAS in childhood, but efforts are underway to identify medical treatment options. PMID:24491659

Schwengel, Deborah A; Dalesio, Nicholas M; Stierer, Tracey L

2014-03-01

23

[Obstructive sleep apnea in women].  

PubMed

The prevalence of sleep disturbances and their symptomatic manifestations may be different in men and women. Women with obstructive sleep apnea are less likely to be diagnosed with sleep apnea compared to men, probably due to atypical symptoms such as morning headaches, symptoms of depression and daytime fatigue. There is a great importance of diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders regarding quality of life, co-morbidity and mortality in both genders. PMID:25528319

Turányi, Csilla Zita; Pintér, Nóra; Dunai, Andrea; Novák, Márta

2014-12-28

24

Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Sleep-induced apnea and disordered breathing refers to intermittent, cyclical cessations or reductions of airflow, with or without obstructions of the upper airway (OSA). In the presence of an anatomically compromised, collapsible airway, the sleep-induced loss of compensatory tonic input to the upper airway dilator muscle motor neurons leads to collapse of the pharyngeal airway. In turn, the ability of the sleeping subject to compensate for this airway obstruction will determine the degree of cycling of these events. Several of the classic neurotransmitters and a growing list of neuromodulators have now been identified that contribute to neurochemical regulation of pharyngeal motor neuron activity and airway patency. Limited progress has been made in developing pharmacotherapies with acceptable specificity for the treatment of sleep-induced airway obstruction. We review three types of major long-term sequelae to severe OSA that have been assessed in humans through use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and in animal models via long-term intermittent hypoxemia (IH): 1) cardiovascular. The evidence is strongest to support daytime systemic hypertension as a consequence of severe OSA, with less conclusive effects on pulmonary hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. The underlying mechanisms mediating hypertension include enhanced chemoreceptor sensitivity causing excessive daytime sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, combined with overproduction of superoxide ion and inflammatory effects on resistance vessels. 2) Insulin sensitivity and homeostasis of glucose regulation are negatively impacted by both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep disruption, but whether these influences of OSA are sufficient, independent of obesity, to contribute significantly to the “metabolic syndrome” remains unsettled. 3) Neurocognitive effects include daytime sleepiness and impaired memory and concentration. These effects reflect hypoxic-induced “neural injury.” We discuss future research into understanding the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as a basis for uncovering newer forms of treatment of both the ventilatory disorder and its multiple sequelae. PMID:20086074

Veasey, Sigrid C.; Morgan, Barbara J.; O'Donnell, Christopher P.

2010-01-01

25

Relation of Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations to Central Sleep Apnea in Patients With Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background: Central sleep apnea (CSA) is frequent among patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Elevated cardiac filling pressures promote CSA and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) secretion. We hypothesized that circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations predict CSA. Methods: Consecutive patients with HF (n = 44) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ? 35% underwent polysomnography for detection of CSA. CSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ? 15 with ? 50% central apneic events. The relation of natriuretic peptide concentrations to CSA was evaluated by estimation of ORs and receiver operator characteristics (ROCs). Results: Twenty-seven subjects (61%) had CSA, with men more frequently affected than women (73% vs 27%; OR, 7.1; P = .01); given that only three women had CSA, further analysis was restricted to men. Subjects with CSA had higher mean ANP (4,336 pg/mL vs 2,510 pg/mL, P = .03) and BNP concentrations (746 pg/mL vs 379 pg/mL, P = .05). ANP and BNP concentrations were significantly related to CSA (OR, 3.7 per 3,000 pg/mL, P = .03 and OR, 1.5 per 200 pg/mL, P = .04, respectively), whereas age, LVEF, and New York Heart Association functional class were not. Concentrations of ANP and BNP were predictive of CSA as ROC demonstrated areas under the curve of 0.75 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusions: Risk of CSA is related to severity of HF. ANP and BNP concentrations performed similarly for detection of CSA; low concentrations appear associated with low risk for CSA in men. PMID:21636668

Calvin, Andrew D.; Somers, Virend K.; van der Walt, Christelle; Scott, Christopher G.

2011-01-01

26

Biomarkers of Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition of repetitive upper airway collapse, which occurs during sleep. Recent literature has emphasized the role of OSA in contributing to glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. OSA is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, although definitive data are sparse with regard to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and CPAP therapy. CPAP provides effective treatment for OSA, but patient adherence remains challenging. Aside from daytime symptom improvement, it is difficult to monitor the adequacy of treatment response. Thus, the search for a biomarker becomes critical. The discovery of an ideal biomarker for OSA has the potential to provide information related to diagnosis, severity, prognosis, and response to treatment. In addition, because large-scale randomized controlled trials are both ethically and logistically challenging in assessing hard cardiovascular outcomes, certain biomarkers may be reasonable surrogate outcome measures. This article reviews the literature related to potential biomarkers of OSA with the recognition that an ideal biomarker does not exist at this time. PMID:22796846

Bajwa, Ednan K.; Malhotra, Atul

2012-01-01

27

Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk for Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk for Dementia Study suggests low oxygen levels, less time in ... 2015) Wednesday, December 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dementia Men's Health Sleep Apnea WEDNESDAY, Dec. 10, 2014 ( ...

28

Oral Appliance Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

MedlinePLUS

... Also, criteria developed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) de ne obstructive sleep apnea as a ... dental professionals who have advanced training in dental sleep medicine. Patients are referred for this treatment by their ...

29

Central Sleep Apnea Indicates Autonomic Dysfunction in Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis: A Potential Marker of Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Arteriosclerosis related stenosis in the carotid bulb causes autonomic imbalance, likely due to carotid chemoreceptor and baroreceptor dysfunction. The latter are associated with increased cerebrovascular and cardiovascular mortality. Chemoreceptor and baroreceptor dysfunction is also involved in the origin of central sleep apnea syndrome (CSA) in different clinical entities. We hypothesized that CSA is associated with stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The mechanism of this association is an autonomic imbalance induced by stenosis-mediated chemoreceptor and baroreceptor dysfunction. Design: Cross-sectional prospective study. Setting: University-based tertiary referral sleep clinic and research center. Patients: Fifty-nine patients with various degrees of asymptomatic extracranial ICA (eICA) (n = 49) and intracranial ICA (iICA) stenosis (n = 10) were investigated. Interventions: Polysomnography to detect CSA and analysis of spontaneous heart rate variability (HRV) to detect autonomic imbalance. Measurements and Results: CSA occurred in 39% of the patients with eICA stenosis but was absent in patients with iICA stenosis. CSA was present in patients with severe eICA stenosis of ? 70% on one side. Independent predictors for CSA were severity of stenosis, asymmetric distribution of stenosis between both eICA and autonomic imbalance, namely a decrease of parasympathetic tone. The specific constellation of HRV-parameters indicated increased chemoreceptor sensitivity and impaired baroreflex sensitivity. Conclusions: CSA indicates autonomic dysfunction in patients with asymptomatic eICA stenosis. Detection of CSA may help to identify asymptomatic patients with an increased risk of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events who particularly benefit from carotid revascularization. Citation: Rupprecht S; Hoyer D; Hagemann G; Witte OW; Schwab M. Central sleep apnea indicates autonomic dysfunction in asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a potential marker of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular risk. SLEEP 2010;33(3):327-333. PMID:20337190

Rupprecht, Sven; Hoyer, Dirk; Hagemann, Georg; Witte, Otto W.; Schwab, Matthias

2010-01-01

30

Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*  

PubMed Central

Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worsening of asthma symptoms, OSAS being one of the most important factors. In patients with asthma, OSAS should be investigated whenever there is inadequate control of symptoms of nocturnal asthma despite the treatment recommended by guidelines having been administered. There is evidence in the literature that the use of continuous positive airway pressure contributes to asthma control in asthma patients with obstructive sleep apnea and uncontrolled asthma. PMID:24310634

Salles, Cristina; Terse-Ramos, Regina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Álvaro A

2013-01-01

31

Brainstem Involvement as a Cause of Central Sleep Apnea: Pattern of Microstructural Cerebral Damage in Patients with Cerebral Microangiopathy  

PubMed Central

Background The exact underlying pathomechanism of central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR) is still unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between cerebral white matter changes and CSA. A dysfunction of central respiratory control centers in the brainstem was suggested by some authors. Novel MR-imaging analysis tools now allow far more subtle assessment of microstructural cerebral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and what severity of subtle structural cerebral changes could lead to CSA-CSR, and whether there is a specific pattern of neurodegenerative changes that cause CSR. Therefore, we examined patients with Fabry disease (FD), an inherited, lysosomal storage disease. White matter lesions are early and frequent findings in FD. Thus, FD can serve as a "model disease" of cerebral microangiopathy to study in more detail the impact of cerebral lesions on central sleep apnea. Patients and Methods Genetically proven FD patients (n?=?23) and age-matched healthy controls (n?=?44) underwent a cardio-respiratory polysomnography and brain MRI at 3.0 Tesla. We applied different MR-imaging techniques, ranging from semiquantitative measurement of white matter lesion (WML) volumes and automated calculation of brain tissue volumes to VBM of gray matter and voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis. Results In 5 of 23 Fabry patients (22%) CSA-CSR was detected. Voxel-based DTI analysis revealed widespread structural changes in FD patients when compared to the healthy controls. When calculated as a separate group, DTI changes of CSA-CSR patients were most prominent in the brainstem. Voxel-based regression analysis revealed a significant association between CSR severity and microstructural DTI changes within the brainstem. Conclusion Subtle microstructural changes in the brainstem might be a neuroanatomical correlate of CSA-CSR in patients at risk of WML. DTI is more sensitive and specific than conventional structural MRI and other advanced MR analyses tools in demonstrating these abnormalities. PMID:23637744

Duning, Thomas; Deppe, Michael; Brand, Eva; Stypmann, Jörg; Becht, Charlotte; Heidbreder, Anna; Young, Peter

2013-01-01

32

Sleep Apnea and Dementia  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... disorder, may be more likely to have tiny brain abnormalities associated with the development of dementia. A ... have what are called microinfarcts… small changes in brain tissue. The researchers conducted sleep tests on 167 ...

33

Effects of nocturnal oxygen therapy in patients with chronic heart failure and central sleep apnea: CHF-HOT study.  

PubMed

It was previously reported that nocturnal home oxygen therapy (HOT) significantly improved not only sleep disordered breathing (SDB), but also quality of life (QOL) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in two trials. To strengthen the statistical reliability of the above efficacies of HOT and to assess the effects of 12-week nocturnal HOT on suppression of ventricular arrhythmias, we combined the two trials and undertook a post hoc analysis. Ninety-seven patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and central sleep apnea were assigned to receive HOT (45 patients) or not (52 patients). HOT resulted in greater reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (-11.4 ± 11.0 vs. -0.2 ± 7.6 events/h, p < 0.01), which is associated with greater improvement in the Specific Activity Scale (0.8 ± 1.2 vs. 0.0 ± 0.6, p < 0.01), New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (p < 0.01), and LVEF (p = 0.06). Median number of premature ventricular contraction (PVC) at baseline was 17 beats per hour in both the HOT and the control groups. Overall improvements of PVCs were not different either in the HOT group or in the control. However, in 12 patients with NYHA >III and AHI >20 events/h, PVC was significantly improved by HOT with a marked reduction in AHI and a substantial increase in LVEF. In conclusion, among patients with CHF and CSA, HOT improves SDB, QOL, and cardiac function. The effectiveness of HOT for ventricular arrhythmias was not observed in the overall analysis, but only in a limited number of patients with severe CHF and SDB. To clarify the effects of HOT on ventricular arrhythmias in patients with CHF and SDB, a further study is needed. PMID:25348726

Nakao, Yoko M; Ueshima, Kenji; Yasuno, Shinji; Sasayama, Shigetake

2014-10-28

34

Chiari 1 Malformation Presenting as Central Sleep Apnea during Pregnancy: A Case Report, Treatment Considerations, and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Chiari malformation (CM) type-1 frequently causes obstructive or central sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in both adults and children, although SDB is relatively rare as a presenting manifestation in the absence of other neurological symptoms. The definitive treatment of symptomatic CM is surgical decompression. We report a case that is, to our knowledge, a novel manifestation of central sleep apnea (CSA) due to CM type-1 with severe exacerbation and initial clinical presentation during pregnancy. Methods: Case report from tertiary care comprehensive sleep medicine center with literature review of SDB manifestations associated with CM type-1. PubMed search was conducted between January 1982 and October 2013. Results: We report a 25-year-old woman with severe CSA initially presenting during her first pregnancy that eventually proved to be caused by CM type-1. The patient was successfully treated preoperatively by adaptive servoventilation (ASV), with effective resolution of SDB following surgical decompression, and without recurrence in a subsequent pregnancy. Our literature review found that 58% of CM patients with SDB had OSA alone, 28% had CSA alone, 8 (10%) had mixed OSA/CSA, and 6 (8%) had hypoventilation. Of CM patients presenting with SDB, 50% had OSA, 42% had CSA, 8% had mixed OSA/CSA, and 10.4% had hypoventilation. We speculate that CSA may develop in CM patients in whom brainstem compression results in excessive central chemoreflex sensitivity with consequent hypocapnic CSA. Conclusion: Chiari malformation type-1 may present with a diversity of SDB manifestations, and timely recognition and surgical referral are necessary to prevent further neurological deficits. ASV therapy can effectively manage CSA caused by CM type-1, which may initially present during pregnancy. PMID:25386156

St. Louis, Erik K.; Jinnur, Praveen; McCarter, Stuart J.; Duwell, Ethan J.; Benarroch, Eduardo E.; Kantarci, Kejal; Pichelmann, Mark A.; Silber, Michael H.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Olson, Eric J.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Somers, Virend K.

2014-01-01

35

Pathophysiology of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential feature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in chil- dren is increased upper airway resistance during sleep. Airway narrowing may be due to craniofacial abnormalities and\\/or soft tissue hypertrophy. The resultant breathing patterns during sleep are highly variable, but include obstructive cycling, in- creased respiratory effort, flow limitation, tachypnea, and\\/or gas exchange abnormalities. Consequently, sleep disruption occurs, ranging from

Eliot S. Katz; Carolyn M. D'Ambrosio

2008-01-01

36

Combined adaptive servo-ventilation and automatic positive airway pressure (anticyclic modulated ventilation) in co-existing obstructive and central sleep apnea syndrome and periodic breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe co-existence of obstructive and central sleep apnea\\/hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) and periodic breathing is common in patients with and without underlying heart diseases. While automatic continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) has proven to effectively treat OSAS, the adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) sufficiently improves periodic breathing. This is the first trial on a device which combines both treatment modes.

Winfried J. Randerath; Wolfgang Galetke; Marlene Kenter; Kerstin Richter; Thorsten Schäfer

2009-01-01

37

Detection of obstructive sleep apnea through ECG signal features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder in which individuals stop breathing during their sleep. Most of sleep apnea cases are currently undiagnosed because of expenses and practicality limitations of overnight polysomnography (PSG) at sleep labs, where an expert human observer is needed to work over night. New techniques for sleep apnea classification are being developed by bioengineers for

Laiali Almazaydeh; Khaled Elleithy; Miad Faezipour

2012-01-01

38

Obstructive sleep apnea - management update.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly significant condition based both on the high prevalence in community and significant consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), OSA together with hypersomnolence, is seen in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women. OSA is associated with impaired quality of life and increased risks of motor vehicle accidents, cardiovascular disease (including hypertension and coronary artery disease), and metabolic syndrome. There is some evidence for the use of conservative interventions such as weight loss and position modification. CPAP remains the mainstay of treatment in this condition with high-level evidence supporting its efficacy. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an intrusive therapy, with long-term adherence rates of less than 70%. Dental appliances have been shown to be effective therapy in some subjects but are limited by the inability to predict treatment responders. Alternative treatments are discussed but there is little role for upper airway surgery (except in a select few experienced institutions) or pharmacological treatment. The current levels of evidence for the different treatment regimens are reviewed. PMID:19412478

Hukins, Craig A

2006-09-01

39

Sleep apnea and epilepsy: who's at risk?  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent, affecting 25% of men and 10% of women. Treatment reduces seizures in some patients. Awareness of the comorbidity of sleep disturbances in epilepsy has been increasing. No study has explored OSA predictors in patients unselected for epilepsy severity and sleep disorder symptoms. We assessed cross-sectional OSA prevalence and predictors (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ?10) in 130 consecutive adults using structured interview, subjective assessments, and polysomnography. Obstructive sleep apnea prevalence was 30%, 16% having moderate-severe disease, rates that markedly exceed general population estimates. Obstructive sleep apnea predictors in multivariate modeling included age, dental problems, and standardized AED dose. Male gender, older age, higher BMI, hypertension, and dental problems were associated with higher AHI. Adults with epilepsy appear at increased risk for OSA, increasing with age and AED load, regardless of gender, BMI, and seizure frequency. These findings support the implementation of routine OSA screening in adult epilepsy clinics. PMID:23103311

Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Andrews, Noah D; Pornsriniyom, Darakul; Moul, Douglas E; Sun, Zhiyuan; Bena, James

2012-11-01

40

Electrocardiographic changes in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

The acute electrocardiographic changes during apneic episodes in patients with sleep apnea are well known. Long-term electro-cardiographic changes in these patients are not well studied. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to assess the electrocardiographic changes in African-American patients with established obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). A significant percentage of patients with OSA had abnormal EKGs as compared to the control group. The effect of sleep apnea on the cardiovascular system is more complex in African-Americans due to higher prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Seventy-three percent of our patients with OSA had metabolic syndrome. PMID:16355642

Prakasa, Kalpana; Ahmed, Jehanara; Hasan, Syed; Yousef, Mahmoud; Shridharani, Sachin

2005-01-01

41

Rapid eye movement dependent central apnea with periodic leg movements  

PubMed Central

Central sleep apnea is a period of at least 10 s without airflow, during which no ventilatory effort is present. Most of the central apneas occur in Non-Rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Central apnea occuring in Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is extremely rare. We present our patient who had a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in another sleep center since 2003. His Auto Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) machine was disrupted so he admitted to our center to renew his machine and for daytime sleepiness while using his machine. The polysomnography revealed central apneas ending with respiratory arousals and periodic leg movements in rapid eye movement (REM) stage. We found no cause for central apneas. The patient benefited from servo ventilator therapy. We present this case as an unusual form of central apnea with the review of the literatures. Even the patients diagnosed as obstructive sleep apnea should be analyzed carefully. The diagnosis and the therapeutic approach may change in the favor of the patient. PMID:23956554

Yüceege, Melike; F?rat, Hikmet; Kuyucu, Mutlu; Ard?ç, Sad?k

2013-01-01

42

Impaired cerebral autoregulation in obstructive sleep apnea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of stroke independent of known vascular and metabolic risk factors. Although patients with OSA have higher prevalence of hypertension and evidence of hypercoagulability, the mechanism of this increased risk is unknown. Obstructive apnea events are associated with surges in blood pressure, hypercapnia, and fluctuations in cerebral blood flow. These perturbations can adversely affect the cerebral circulation.

Fred Urbano (Yale University School of Medicine and Center for Sleep Center)

2008-10-08

43

Sleep and Quality of Life in Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly recognized as an important parameter in the assessment of the morbidity\\u000a associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Generic and sleep disorder-specific instruments consistently demonstrate impairment\\u000a in multiple domains of HRQOL in OSA, particularly in the domains of sleep, energy, fatigue, and vigilance. Sleep disorder-specific\\u000a tools are potentially more sensitive than generic tools in

Amy D. Atkeson; Robert C. Basner

44

Intact implicit probabilistic sequence learning in obstructive sleep apnea  

E-print Network

is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, resulting in hypoxia which leadsIntact implicit probabilistic sequence learning in obstructive sleep apnea D E Z S O N E M E T H 1, obstructive sleep apnea, sequence learning, sleep Correspondence Dezso Nemeth, PhD, Institute of Psychology

Nemeth, Dezso

45

Epidemiology of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has become widely recog- nized only in the last few decades as a likely cause of significant morbidity among children. Many of the clinical characteristics of pediatricOSA,andthedeterminantsofitsepidemiology,differfrom those of adult OSA. We systematically reviewed studies on the epidemiology of conditions considered part of a pediatric sleep- disordered breathing (SDB) continuum, ranging from primary snoringtoOSA.Wehighlightanumberofmethodologicchallenges, including

Julie C. Lumeng; Ronald D. Chervin

2008-01-01

46

Obstructive sleep apnea: awakening the hidden truth.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common type of sleep apnea and is caused by obstruction of upper airway. Sleep apnea is clinically defined as frequent episodes of apnea, hypopnea and symptoms of functional impairment, which could be life-threatening and associated with extreme daytime hyper somnolence, dysfunction, discrements in health-related quality of life, automobile accidents, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Etiopathogenic factors that contribute to OSA include reduced upper-airway dilator muscle activity during sleep, upper-airway anatomical features, ventilatory control insufficiency, lung volume, and rostral fluid shifts. The presence of risk factors such as age, gender and obesity increases the incidence of OSA. The repetitive nocturnal hypoxemia experienced by patients with OSA is associated with activation of a number of neural, humoral, thrombotic, metabolic, and inflammatory disease mechanisms, all of which have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of various systemic diseases. This article summarizes the etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, associated systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and dental diseases with OSA and the influence of tongue on oropharyngeal airway in OSA patients. PMID:25511335

Viswanath, A; Ramamurthy, J; Dinesh, S P S; Srinivas, A

2015-01-01

47

Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Clinical Trials—Current Status and Steps Forward: The International Collaboration of Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Trialists  

PubMed Central

Sleep apnea is a common chronic disease that is associated with coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and mortality, although the ability of sleep apnea treatment to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been demonstrated. In contrast to patients seeking treatment in sleep disorders centers, as many as half of individuals with moderate to severe sleep apnea in the general population do not report excessive sleepiness; however, if treatment of sleep apnea were shown to reduce cardiovascular disease risk, this would provide a strong rationale for treatment of sleep apnea even in the absence of daytime sleepiness. This article summarizes the status of clinical trials evaluating the potential cardiovascular benefits of sleep apnea treatment and discusses the challenges of conducting such trials, and introduces the International Collaboration of Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Trialists (INCOSACT), a clinical research collaboration formed to foster cardiovascular sleep research. Citation: Gottlieb DJ; Craig SE; Lorenzi-Filho G; Heeley E; Redline S; McEvoy RD; Durán-Cantolla J. Sleep apnea cardiovascular clinical trials— current status and steps forward: the International Collaboration of Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Trialists. SLEEP 2013;36(7):975-980. PMID:23814333

Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Craig, Sonya E.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Heeley, Emma; Redline, Susan; McEvoy, R. Doug; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín

2013-01-01

48

Thermal Vision for Sleep Apnea Monitoring , Ioannis Pavlidis1  

E-print Network

Thermal Vision for Sleep Apnea Monitoring Jin Fei1 , Ioannis Pavlidis1 , and Jayasimha Murthy2 1- itor sleep apnea through thermal imaging. First, the nostril region is segmented and it is tracked over of the proposed approach, and brings non-obtrusive clinical monitoring of sleep disorders within reach. 1

49

Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Immuno-Inflammation and Atherosclerosis  

E-print Network

pharyngeal collapses occurring during sleep [1]. The upper airway closure could be complete, leadingObstructive Sleep Apnea, Immuno-Inflammation and Atherosclerosis Claire Arnaud1,2 , Maurice;31(1):113-25" DOI : 10.1007/s00281-009-0148-5 #12;2 ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Therapeutic Strategies for Sleep Apnea in Hypertension and Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes hypoxemia, negative intrathoracic pressure, and frequent arousal, contributing to increased cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is linked to hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. Successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment has a beneficial effect on hypertension and improves the survival rate of patients with cardiovascular disease. Thus, long-term compliance with CPAP treatment may result in substantial blood pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension suffering from OSAS. Central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration occur in 30–50% of patients with heart failure (HF). Intermittent hypoxemia, nocturnal surges in sympathetic activity, and increased left ventricular preload and afterload due to negative intrathoracic pressure all lead to impaired cardiac function and poor life prognosis. SDB-related HF has been considered the potential therapeutic target. CPAP, nocturnal O2 therapy, and adaptive servoventilation minimize the effects of sleep apnea, thereby improving cardiac function, prognosis, and quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment of SDB will yield better therapeutic outcomes for hypertension and HF. PMID:23509623

Noda, Akiko; Miyata, Seiko; Yasuda, Yoshinari

2013-01-01

51

The linkage of allergic rhinitis and obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Rhinitis can be divided into allergic and non-allergic rhinitis. Rhinitis, particularly allergic rhinitis, has been shown to be associated with obstructive sleep apnea; a condition characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction during sleep. Allergic rhinitis increases the risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea by two major mechanisms: 1) increase in airway resistance due to higher nasal resistance and 2) reduction in pharyngeal diameter from mouth breathing that moves the mandible inferiorly. Other inflammatory mediators including histamine, CysLTs, IL 1? and IL-4 found in high levels in allergic rhinitis, have also been shown to worsen sleep quality in obstructive sleep apnea. Prior studies have shown that treatment of allergic rhinitis, particularly when intranasal steroid are used, improved obstructive sleep apnea. Leukotriene receptor antagonists were also associated with positive results on obstructive sleep apnea in adult patients with concomitant allergic rhinitis but current data are limited in the case of children. PMID:25543037

Chirakalwasan, Naricha; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

2014-12-01

52

[Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is one of the most common respiratory disorders in humans. There is emerging evidence linking OSA to vascular disease, particularly hypertension. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that link OSA to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation are not entirely understood, although they certainly include mechanical events, increased sympathetic activity and oxidative stress. This review will examine the evidence and mechanisms linking OSA syndrome to cardiovascular disease. PMID:18678213

Bentivoglio, Maurizio; Bergamini, Eva; Fabbri, Marta; Andreoli, Chiara; Bartolini, Claudia; Cosmi, Deborah; Capasso, Vincenzo; Bottini, Paolo; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

2008-07-01

53

Endothelial Function in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The repetitive hypoxia/reoxygenation and sleep fragmentation associated with OSA impair endothelial function. Endothelial dysfunction, in turn, may mediate increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Specifically, in OSA, endothelial nitric oxide availability and repair capacity are reduced, whereas oxidative stress and inflammation are enhanced. Treatment of OSA improves endothelial vasomotor tone and reduces inflammation. We review the evidence and possible mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction as well as the effect of treatment on endothelial function in OSA. PMID:19249441

Atkeson, Amy; Yeh, Susie Yim; Malhotra, Atul; Jelic, Sanja

2015-01-01

54

[Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children].  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in school-aged children. Tonsillar and/or adenoids hypertrophy is the most common etiology of OSA in children. OSA has been associated with sleep quality disturbance (frequent arousals) and nocturnal gas-exchange abnormalities (hypoxemia and sometimes hypercapnia), complicated with a large array of negative health outcomes. The clinical symptoms are not able to distinguish primary snoring from OSA. Polysomnography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing, but the demand is increasing for this highly technical sleep test. So, some other simpler diagnostic methods are available, as respiratory polygraphy, but need to be validated in children. Treatment of OSA in children must be based on a mutlidisciplinary approach with pediatricians, ENT surgeons and orthodontists. PMID:23870386

Aubertin, G

2013-08-01

55

Sleep Architecture and Respiratory Disturbances in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known regarding sleep architecture in children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We hypothesized that sleep architecture was normal, and that apnea increased over the course of the night, in children with OSAS. We analyzed polysom- nographic studies from 20 children with OSAS and 10 control sub- jects. Sleep architecture was similar between the groups. Of ob-

DANIEL Y. T. GOH; PATRICIA GALSTER; CAROLE L. MARCUS

56

Complex Sleep Apnea Associated with Use of Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway (nEPAP) Device  

PubMed Central

Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS) is characterized by predominant obstructive sleep disordered breathing with evolution of central disordered breathing following exposure to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. We report a case of CompSAS associated with use of a nasal expiratory positive airway (nEPAP, Provent) device. We therefore recommend obtaining objective sleep data to confirm treatment effectiveness of the nEPAP device for OSA prior to long-term prescription. Further research is warranted to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors associated with CompSAS. Citation: Chopra A, Das P, Ramar K, Staats B, St Louis EK. Complex sleep apnea associated with use of nasal expiratory positive airway (nEPAP) device. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):577-579. PMID:24812544

Chopra, Amit; Das, Piyush; Ramar, Kannan; Staats, Bruce; St. Louis, Erik K.

2014-01-01

57

Obstructive sleep apnea: role of intermittent hypoxia and inflammation.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea results in intermittent hypoxia via repetitive upper airway obstruction leading to partial or complete upper airway closure, apneas and hypopneas, respectively. Intermittent hypoxia leads to sympathetic nervous system activation and oxidative stress with a resultant systemic inflammatory cascade. The putative mechanism by which obstructive sleep apnea has been linked to numerous pathologic conditions including stoke, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and metabolic derangements is through these systemic effects. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea appears to reduce systemic markers of inflammation and ameliorates the adverse sequelae of this disease. PMID:25333334

May, Anna M; Mehra, Reena

2014-10-01

58

Gender Differences in the Polysomnographic Features of Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of gender on the polysomnographic features of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a retrospective study of 830 patients with OSA diagnosed by overnight polysomnogra- phy (PSG). The severity of OSA was determined from the apnea- hypopnea index (AHI) for total sleep time (AHI TST ), and was clas- sified as mild (5 to 25 events\\/h), moderate

KRISTINE S. THORNLEY; PATRICK J. HANLY

59

[Diagnosis and therapy of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children with premature craniosynostosis syndromes].  

PubMed

Sleep related breathing disorders are a common symptom in children with craniosynostosis syndromes, as upper airways may be narrowed by midfacial hypoplasia.To better characterize the sleep related apneas, 24 children with syndromal craniofacial dysplasia underwent 68 poly-somnographies. 9 patients had reexaminations after therapeutic procedures. 4 patients had severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrom (OSAS), 8 patients had moderate and 11 patients mild obstructive sleep apnea respectivly. Only one child had no obstructive sleep apnea. Children with Morbus Crouzon tended to have moderate to severe breathing disorders (9/14) whereas Apert patients mostly had no or light breathing disorders (6/7). Number of central apneas was increased as well. Sleep architecture was not significantly impaired. Apneas were more frequent during REM-sleep. Nasal CPAP, BiPAP and adenotonsillectomy improved respiratory parameters.Pulse oxymetry can be used as a screening method because of the good correla-tion of oxygen desaturation index with severity of OSAS. Frequent examinations and, if necessary, adaptation of therapy is indicated as OSAS in -these children may be rapidly changing. We suggest a guideline for diagnostics and therapy. PMID:22131155

Hein, A; Schweitzer, T; Strabburg, H-M; Wurm, M

2011-12-01

60

Emerging therapies for obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder often associated with daytime sleepiness, cognitive dysfunction, and adverse cardiovascular consequences. Available therapies are limited by either lack of long-term adherence or low response rates. Two emerging therapies hold promise in providing alternatives to patients with OSA. The first stems from the importance of the upper-airway dilator muscles in maintaining pharyngeal stability. Electrical stimulation of the genioglossus muscle improves both upper-airway diameter and ameliorates pharyngeal obstruction. The results of phase I and II clinical trials hold promise, but the reported improvements in the apnea-hypopnea index vary between subjects and concerns about long-term safety await long-term studies. The second technology relies on creating an increased expiratory nasal resistance via a bidirectional valve designed to be worn just inside the nostrils. Initial findings of clinical trials suggest reduction in severity of sleep apnea and subjective daytime sleepiness. Considerable heterogeneity in response to the nasal device was noted despite the high adherence rates. It remains unclear which patients will likely benefit a priori from these devices. PMID:22366855

Akinnusi, Morohunfolu; Saliba, Ranime; El-Solh, Ali A

2012-08-01

61

Effectiveness of Three Sleep Apnea Management Alternatives  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Home respiratory polygraphy (HRP) may be a cost-effective alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for diagnosis and treatment election in patients with high clinical probability of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but there is conflicting evidence on its use for a wider spectrum of patients. Objectives: To determine the efficacy and cost of OSA management (diagnosis and therapeutic decision making) using (1) PSG for all patients (PSG arm); (2) HRP for all patients (HRP arm); and (3) HRP for a subsample of patients with high clinical probability of being treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and PSG for the remainder (elective HRP arm). Methods: Multicentric study of 366 patients with intermediate-high clinical probability of OSA, randomly subjected to HRP and PSG. We explored the diagnostic and therapeutic decision agreements between the PSG and both HRP arms for several HRP cutoff points and calculated costs for equal diagnostic and/or therapeutic decision efficacy. Results: For equal diagnostic and therapeutic decision efficacy, PSG arm costs were 18% higher than HRP arm costs and 20% higher than elective HRP arm costs. HRP arm costs tended to be lower than elective HRP arm costs, and both tended to be lower than PSG arm costs if patient costs were omitted. Conclusion: Home respiratory polygraphy is a less costly alternative than polysomnography for the diagnosis and therapeutic decision making for patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea. We found no advantage in cost terms, however, in using home respiratory polygraphy for all patients or home respiratory polygraphy for the most symptomatic patients and polysomnography for the rest. Citation: Masa JF; Corral J; Sanchez de Cos J; Duran-Cantolla J; Cabello M; Hernández-Blasco L; Monasterio C; Alonso A; Chiner E; Aizpuru F; Vázquez-Polo FJ; Zamorano J; Montserrat JM. Effectiveness of three sleep apnea management alternatives. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1799-1807. PMID:24293754

Masa, Juan F.; Corral, Jaime; Sanchez de Cos, Julio; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Cabello, Marta; Hernández-Blasco, Luis; Monasterio, Carmen; Alonso, Alberto; Chiner, Eusebi; Aizpuru, Felipe; Vázquez-Polo, Francisco-José; Zamorano, Jose; Montserrat, Jose M.; Garcia-Ledesma, Estefania; Pereira, Ricardo; Cancelo, Laura; Martinez, Angeles; Sacristan, Lirios; Salord, Neus; Carrera, Miguel; Sancho-Chust, José N.; Negrín, Miguel A.; Embid, Cristina

2013-01-01

62

Early diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea after stroke  

PubMed Central

Summary Sleep-disordered breathing is an increasingly recognized disorder that is particularly prevalent among stroke patients. Obstructive sleep apnea, a form of sleep-disordered breathing, is associated with multiple major stroke risk factors but is also an independent risk factor for stroke. In addition, untreated sleep apnea is associated with poor functional outcome after stroke. Sleep apnea is amenable to treatment and should be considered a modifiable stroke risk factor, though long-term compliance remains a major barrier. A better understanding of the relationship between sleep apnea and stroke may prompt providers to pursue the early diagnosis and treatment of underlying sleep-disordered breathing to both improve the chance of recovery from stroke in the short term and to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke in the long term. PMID:23914326

Davis, Arielle P.; Billings, Martha E.; Longstreth, W.T.; Khot, Sandeep P.

2013-01-01

63

The Relationship between High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea and General and Central Obesity: Findings from a Sample of Chilean College Students  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and extent to which high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with general obesity and central obesity among college students in Punta Arenas, Chile. Risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire and trained research nurses measured anthropometric indices. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) of 25–29.9?kg/m2 and general obesity was defined as BMI ? 30?kg/m2. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ?90 centimeters (cm) for males and ?80?cm for females. Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to obtain adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Prevalence of high risk for OSA, general obesity, and central obesity were 7.8%, 12.8%, and 42.7%, respectively. Students at high risk for OSA had greater odds of general obesity (OR 9.96; 95% CI: 4.42–22.45) and central obesity (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.43–5.40). Findings support a strong positive association of high risk for OSA with obesity. PMID:24944841

Barbosa, Clarita; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Williams, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

64

Upper Airway Collapsibility During REM Sleep in Children with the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: In children, most obstructive events occur during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We hypothesized that children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), in contrast to age-matched control subjects, would not maintain airflow in the face of an upper airway inspiratory pressure drop during REM sleep. Design: During slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep, we measured airflow, inspiratory time, inspiratory time/total respiratory cycle time, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation at a holding pressure at which flow limitation occurred and at 5 cm H2O below the holding pressure in children with OSAS and in control subjects. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen children with OSAS and 23 normal control subjects. Results: In both sleep states, control subjects were able to maintain airflow, whereas subjects with OSAS preserved airflow in SWS but had a significant decrease in airflow during REM sleep (change in airflow of 18.58 ± 12.41 mL/s for control subjects vs ?44.33 ± 14.09 mL/s for children with OSAS, P = 0.002). Although tidal volume decreased, patients with OSAS were able to maintain minute ventilation by increasing the respiratory rate and also had an increase in inspiratory time and inspiratory time per total respiratory cycle time Conclusion: Children with OSAS do not maintain airflow in the face of upper-airway inspiratory-pressure drops during REM sleep, indicating a more collapsible upper airway, compared with that of control subjects during REM sleep. However, compensatory mechanisms exist to maintain minute ventilation. Local reflexes, central control mechanisms, or both reflexes and control mechanisms need to be further explored to better understand the pathophysiology of this abnormality and the compensation mechanism. Citation: Huang J; Karamessinis LR; Pepe ME; Glinka SM; Samuel JM; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Upper airway collapsibility during REM sleep in children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2009;32(9):1173-1181. PMID:19750922

Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie R.; Pepe, Michelle E.; Glinka, Stephen M.; Samuel, John M.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.

2009-01-01

65

Nasal Involvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological treatment presents some beneficial effects on the frequency of respiratory events and sleep architecture. Nonetheless, objective data assessing snoring and daytime sleepiness are still necessary. Nasal surgery can improve the quality of life and snoring in a select group of patients with mild OSAS and septal deviation but is not an effective treatment for OSA as such. Despite the conflicting results in the literature, it is important that patients who are not perfectly adapted to CPAP are evaluated in detail, in order to identify whether there are obstructive factors that could be surgically corrected. PMID:25548569

Michels, Daniel de Sousa; Rodrigues, Amanda da Mota Silveira; Nakanishi, Márcio; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos

2014-01-01

66

Obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal reflux.  

PubMed

A number of recent studies have described the presence of significant gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aims of our studies were to determine the prevalence of this in a controlled population and to investigate the potential for a causal relationship between the two entities by determining whether therapy of OSA altered GER parameters, and vice versa. All patients presenting to our sleep laboratory for screening polysomnography underwent distal esophageal pH monitoring simultaneously with polysomnography. Control subjects were selected if the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was <5.0, and patients were selected if AHI was >15.0. Fourteen subjects with OSA undertook a second polysomnographic study including distal esophageal pH monitoring, with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) intervention. Twelve subjects with proven OSA took part in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel group study of the effect of antireflux therapy (nizatidine) on OSA parameters. In 63 patients and 41 controls, we found that patients with OSA had significantly more GER events than controls as measured by number of reflux events over 8 hours (115 vs 23; P <0.001), and percent of time spent at pH <4.0 (21.4% vs 3.7%; P <0.001). In patients with proven OSA, 53.4% of GER episodes were temporally related to apneas or hypopneas. Less than half (46.8%) of all apneas were temporally related to acid reflux, and only 43.8% of arousals were related to reflux events. In the therapeutic trials, nCPAP reduced GER parameters in both patients with OSA and without OSA, suggesting a nonspecific effect. Antireflux therapy (nizatidine) reduced arousals but not apnea-hypopnea index in patients with OSA. Patients with OSA have a higher prevalence of GER than matched control subjects. Nasal CPAP reduces GER parameters nonspecifically, and thus the role of OSA in the pathogenesis of GER remains unclear. GER, however is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of arousals, but there is no evidence that it is involved in the pathogenesis of apneas. PMID:10718464

Ing, A J; Ngu, M C; Breslin, A B

2000-03-01

67

Contemporary Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been available in some form for greater than three decades. Early management for airway obstruction during sleep relied on tracheotomy which although life saving was not well accepted by patients. In the early eighties two new forms of treatment for OSAS were developed. Surgically a technique described as a uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) was used to treat the retropalatal region for snoring and sleep apnea. Concurrently sleep medicine developed a nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device to manage nocturnal airway obstruction. Both of these measures were used to expand and stabilize the pharyngeal airway space during sleep. The goal for each technique was to limit or alleviate OSAS. Almost 30 yr later these two treatment modalities continue to be the mainstay of contemporary treatment. As expected, CPAP device technology improved over time along with durable goods. Surgery followed suit and additional techniques were developed to treat soft and bony structures of the entire upper airway (nose, palate and tongue base). This review will only focus on the contemporary surgical methods that have demonstrated relatively consistent positive clinical outcomes. Not all surgical and medical treatment modalities are successful or even partially successful for every patient. Advances in the treatment of OSAS are hindered by the fact that the primary etiology is still unknown. However, both medicine and surgery continue to improve diagnostic and treatment methods. Methods of diagnosis as well as treatment regimens should always include both medical and surgical collaborations so the health and quality of life of our patients can best be served. PMID:19784401

2009-01-01

68

MRI findings and sleep apnea in children with Chiari I malformation.  

PubMed

Chiari I malformation is characterized by downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Scant data are available on the clinical course, relationship to the extent of herniation on magnetic resonance imaging in Chiari I malformation and the presence of sleep-disordered breathing on polysomnography. Retrospective analysis was performed looking at polysomnographic findings of children diagnosed with Chiari I malformation. Details on how Chiari I malformation was diagnosed, brainstem magnetic resonance imaging findings, and indications for obtaining the polysomnogram in these patients were reviewed. We also reviewed available data on children who had decompression surgery followed by postoperative polysomnography findings. Twenty-two children were identified in our study (11 males, median age 10 years, range 1 to 18). Three had central sleep apnea, five had obstructive sleep apnea, and one had both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Children with sleep-disordered breathing had excessive crowding of the brainstem structures at the foramen magnum and were more likely to have a greater length of herniation compared with those children without sleep-disordered breathing (P = 0.046). Patients with central sleep apneas received surgical decompression, and their conditions were significantly improved on follow-up polysomnography. These data suggest that imaging parameters may correlate with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with Chiari I malformation. PMID:23498564

Khatwa, Umakanth; Ramgopal, Sriram; Mylavarapu, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Smith, Edward; Proctor, Mark; Scott, Michael; Pai, Vidya; Zarowski, Marcin; Kothare, Sanjeev V

2013-04-01

69

Investigations of upper airway obstruction pattern in sleep apnea benefit from real-time 3D MRI Yoon-Chul Kim1  

E-print Network

minutes and the subject might have light (e.g., non-REM) sleep [5]. In this study, central apneas allowed3066 Investigations of upper airway obstruction pattern in sleep apnea benefit from real-time 3D Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States Target Audience: Sleep medicine physicians

Southern California, University of

70

[Brain stem auditory evoked potentials in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].  

PubMed

To evaluate a possible brainstem role in pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, a study on brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), has been conducted. 15 OSAS patients, medium and severe form, with organic pathologies of the upper respiratory tract have been evaluated. 15 normal subjects were compared as control. All the patients were subjected to audiometry, including total liminal audiometry, timpanometry, acustic reflex, and BAEP study. BAEP evoked with trains of cliks at 11 and 51 periods/sec., showed morphological alterations and a longer central conductance of time interval (I-V interval) in only four patients. BAEP alterations noted in the OSAS-affected patients are neither constant nor specific. Therefore, the observed BAEP alterations might be due to apneas, as a consequence of the chronic hypoxic- hypercapnic status occurring in the brain-stem. PMID:7484151

Cimino, A; Speciale, R; Gallina, S; Cimino, M; Chillura, M; Lo Presti, G M; Ciulla, L

1995-04-01

71

A Respiratory Movement Monitoring System Using Fiber-Grating Vision Sensor for Diagnosing Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-restrictive and non-contact respiratory movement monitoring system that finds the boundary between chest and abdomen automatically and detects the vertical movement of each part of the body separately is proposed. The system uses a fiber-grating vision sensor technique and the boundary position detection is carried out by calculating the centers of gravity of upward moving and downward moving sampling points, respectively. In the experiment to evaluate the ability to detect the respiratory movement signals of each part and to discriminate between obstructive and central apneas, detected signals of the two parts and their total clearly showed the peculiarities of obstructive and central apnea. The cross talk between the two categories classified automatically according to several rules that reflect the peculiarities was ? 15%. This result is sufficient for discriminating central sleep apnea syndrome from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and indicates that the system is promising as screening equipment. Society of Japan

Takemura, Yasuhiro; Sato, Jun-Ya; Nakajima, Masato

2005-01-01

72

Semin Immunopathol . Author manuscript Obstructive sleep apnea, immuno-inflammation, and atherosclerosis  

E-print Network

by recurrent pharyngeal collapses occurring during sleep 1 . The upper airway[ ] closure could be completeSemin Immunopathol . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Obstructive sleep apnea, immuno Arnaud Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent

Boyer, Edmond

73

Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study.  

PubMed

Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; Paola, Angelo de

2014-11-01

74

Treating obstructive sleep apnea: can an intraoral prosthesis help?  

PubMed

The author studied the effectiveness of an intraoral airway maintenance prosthesis in treating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. He found that the prosthesis, which can be constructed and modified easily by a dentist, significantly reduced the number of apneas per night and the syndrome's severity in his subjects. PMID:7722106

Osseiran, H S

1995-04-01

75

Study Helps Explain Connection Between Sleep Apnea, Stroke And Death  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Press release covers study that finds obstructive sleep apnea decreases blood flow to the brain, elevates blood pressure within the brain and eventually harms the brainÂ?s ability to modulate these changes and prevent damage to itself.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2009-01-06

76

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is common and causes significant morbidity. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is also common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Because OSA is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that OSA is associated with peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes. Objectives: To assess the relationship between OSA and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study of adults with type 2 diabetes recruited randomly from the diabetes clinic of two UK hospitals. Measurements and Main Results: Peripheral neuropathy was diagnosed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ? 5 events/h) was assessed using home-based, multichannel respiratory monitoring. Serum nitrotyrosine was measured by ELISA, lipid peroxide by spectrophotometer, and microvascular function by laser speckle contrast imaging. Two hundred thirty-four patients (mean [SD] age, 57 [12] yr) were analyzed. OSA prevalence was 65% (median apnea-hypopnea index, 7.2; range, 0–93), 40% of which were moderate to severe. Neuropathy prevalence was higher in patients with OSA than those without (60% vs. 27%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for possible confounders, OSA remained independently associated with diabetic neuropathy (odds ratio, 2.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.44–5.52; P = 0.0034). Nitrotyrosine and lipid peroxide levels (n = 102, 74 with OSA) were higher in OSA and correlated with hypoxemia severity. Cutaneous microvascular function (n = 71, 47 with OSA) was impaired in OSA. Conclusions: We describe a novel independent association between diabetic peripheral neuropathy and OSA. We identified increased nitrosative/oxidative stress and impaired microvascular regulation as potential mechanisms. Prospective and interventional studies are needed to assess the impact of OSA and its treatment on peripheral neuropathy development and progression in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22723291

Ali, Asad; Raymond, Neil T.; Begum, Safia; Dubb, Kiran; Mughal, Shanaz; Jose, Biju; Piya, Milan K.; Barnett, Anthony H.; Stevens, Martin J.

2012-01-01

77

Low-grade albuminuria in children with obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Small urinary protein loss (low-grade albuminuria or microalbuminuria) may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. In the present study, it was hypothesized that children with obstructive sleep apnea have an increased risk of microalbuminuria compared with control subjects without sleep-disordered breathing. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured in morning spot urine specimens collected from consecutive children with or without snoring who were referred for polysomnography. Three groups were studied: (i) control subjects (no snoring, apnea-hypopnea index < 1 episode h(-1) ; n = 31); (ii) mild obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index = 1-5 episodes h(-1) ; n = 71); and (iii) moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index > 5 episodes?h(-1) ; n = 27). Indications for polysomnography in control subjects included nightmares, somnambulism and morning headaches. An albumin-to-creatinine ratio > median value in the control group (1.85 mg of albumin per g of creatinine) was defined as elevated. Logistic regression analysis revealed that children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, but not those with mild obstructive sleep apnea, had increased risk of elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio relative to controls (reference) after adjustment for age, gender and presence of obesity: odds ratio 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-12.6); P = 0.04 and 1.5 (0.6-3.7); P > 0.05, respectively. Oxygen desaturation of hemoglobin and respiratory arousal indices were significant predictors of albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r = 0.31, P = 0.01; and r = 0.43, P < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea are at significantly higher risk of increased low-grade excretion of albumin in the morning urine as compared with control subjects without obstructive sleep apnea. These findings may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier related to nocturnal hypoxemia and sympathetic activation which are induced by obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:23228180

Varlami, Vasiliki; Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Theologi, Vasiliki; Theophanous, Eleni; Liakos, Nikolaos; Daskalopoulou, Euphemia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

2013-06-01

78

Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Quantification by Cardiovascular Data Analysis  

PubMed Central

Sleep disorders are a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Sleep apnea is the most common sleep disturbance and its detection relies on a polysomnography, i.e., a combination of several medical examinations performed during a monitored sleep night. In order to detect occurrences of sleep apnea without the need of combined recordings, we focus our efforts on extracting a quantifier related to the events of sleep apnea from a cardiovascular time series, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP). Physiologic time series are generally highly nonstationary and entrap the application of conventional tools that require a stationary condition. In our study, data nonstationarities are uncovered by a segmentation procedure which splits the signal into stationary patches, providing local quantities such as mean and variance of the SBP signal in each stationary patch, as well as its duration . We analysed the data of 26 apneic diagnosed individuals, divided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and compared the results with those of a control group. From the segmentation procedure, we identified that the average duration , as well as the average variance , are correlated to the apnea-hypoapnea index (AHI), previously obtained by polysomnographic exams. Moreover, our results unveil an oscillatory pattern in apneic subjects, whose amplitude is also correlated with AHI. All these quantities allow to separate apneic individuals, with an accuracy of at least . Therefore, they provide alternative criteria to detect sleep apnea based on a single time series, the systolic blood pressure. PMID:25222746

Camargo, Sabrina; Riedl, Maik; Anteneodo, Celia; Kurths, Jürgen; Penzel, Thomas; Wessel, Niels

2014-01-01

79

Classifying obstructive sleep apnea using smartphones.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious sleep disorder which is characterized by frequent obstruction of the upper airway, often resulting in oxygen desaturation. The serious negative impact of OSA on human health makes monitoring and diagnosing it a necessity. Currently, polysomnography is considered the gold standard for diagnosing OSA, which requires an expensive attended overnight stay at a hospital with considerable wiring between the human body and the system. In this paper, we implement a reliable, comfortable, inexpensive, and easily available portable device that allows users to apply the OSA test at home without the need for attended overnight tests. The design takes advantage of a smatrphone's built-in sensors, pervasiveness, computational capabilities, and user-friendly interface to screen OSA. We use three main sensors to extract physiological signals from patients which are (1) an oximeter to measure the oxygen level, (2) a microphone to record the respiratory effort, and (3) an accelerometer to detect the body's movement. Finally, we examine our system's ability to screen the disease as compared to the gold standard by testing it on 15 samples. The results showed that 100% of patients were correctly identified as having the disease, and 85.7% of patients were correctly identified as not having the disease. These preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed system when compared to the gold standard and emphasize the important role of smartphones in healthcare. PMID:25038556

Al-Mardini, Mamoun; Aloul, Fadi; Sagahyroon, Assim; Al-Husseini, Luai

2014-12-01

80

The role of lateral pharyngoplasty in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that lateral pharyngoplasty is an effective procedure to correct obstructive sleep apnea. The objective of the paper was to evaluate factors contributing to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and identify the different severity categories of obstructive sleep apnea that could benefit from lateral pharyngoplasty. We included 60 patients undergoing uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with or without lateral pharyngoplasty from December 1, 2008 to May 31, 2012. Six who did not complete the post-operative survey were excluded. 54 participants were assigned alternatively to either uvulopalatopharyngoplasty alone (control group, n = 29) or to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with lateral pharyngoplasty (intervention group, n = 25). The reduction of apnea-hypoxia index in the intervention group (49.3 %) was higher than it was in the control group (30.4 %), but the average value was not statistically significant (p = 0.088). Only patients with moderate obstructive sleep apnea in the intervention group achieved a significant reduction of apnea-hypoxia index (30.7 vs. 10.8 %; p = 0.020). Factors such as body mass index, nadir/mean SpO2, snoring index, Epworth sleepiness scale and periodic limb movement index did not change significantly following lateral pharyngoplasty. To evaluate patients' upper airway anatomy, we employed cephalometry, and found that the retroglossal space played a critical role in severe obstructive sleep apnea. Our study showed that only patients in the moderate category can be benefited from adding lateral pharyngoplasty to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty; however, patients in the mild or severe category did not benefit from adding this procedure. This information is vital when considering surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Level of evidence Prospective cohort study, Level II. PMID:25214171

Chi, Jessie Chao-Yun; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chou, Tse-Yu; Shu, Chih-Hung; Shiao, An-Suey; Lin, Chia-Mo

2015-02-01

81

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep, associated with intermittent oxygen desaturation, sleep fragmentation, and symptoms of disruptive snoring and daytime sleepiness. Increasing focus is being placed on the relationship between OSAS and all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related mortality, but it still largely unclear whether this association is causative or simply speculative and epidemiological. Basically, reliable clinical evidence supports the hypothesis that OSAS might be associated with essential and resistant hypertension, as well as with an incremental risk of developing stroke, cardiac rhythm perturbations (e.g., atrial fibrillation, bradyarrhythmias, supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias), coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Although it is still unclear whether OSAS might represent an independent risk factor for several acute or chronic conditions, or rather might trigger cardiovascular disease in the presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia), there is a plausible biological background underlying this association, in that most of the mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of OSAS (i.e., hypoxia, hypercapnia, negative intrathoracic pressure, micro-arousal, sympathetic hyperactivity, metabolic and hormonal changes, oxidative stress, phlogosis, endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and genetic predisposition) might also be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. In this article we discuss the different aspects of the relationship between OSAS and pathogenically different conditions such as systemic hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, metabolic abnormalities, arrhythmias, and heart failure, and we also discuss the kaleidoscope of phenomena implicated in the pathogenesis of this challenging disease. PMID:21455862

Fava, Cristiano; Montagnana, Martina; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Lippi, Giuseppe

2011-04-01

82

Respiration Physiology (2000) Detection of obstructive sleep apnea by analysis phase  

E-print Network

collapsibility and that #(t) might potentially useful parameter for detection impending upper airway obstruction. 2000 Elsevier Science rights reserved. Keywords: Mammals, humans; Muscle, upper airways, obstructions; Sleep, obstructive apnea; Upper airways, obstructive sleep apnea; Ventilation, forced oscilation www

Timmer, Jens

83

Topography-specific spindle frequency changes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep spindles, as detected on scalp electroencephalography (EEG), are considered to be markers of thalamo-cortical network integrity. Since obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a known cause of brain dysfunction, the aim of this study was to investigate sleep spindle frequency distribution in OSA. Seven non-OSA subjects and 21 patients with OSA (11 mild and 10 moderate) were studied. A matching pursuit procedure was used for automatic detection of fast (?13Hz) and slow (<13Hz) spindles obtained from 30min samples of NREM sleep stage 2 taken from initial, middle and final night thirds (sections I, II and III) of frontal, central and parietal scalp regions. Results Compared to non-OSA subjects, Moderate OSA patients had higher central and parietal slow spindle percentage (SSP) in all night sections studied, and higher frontal SSP in sections II and III. As the night progressed, there was a reduction in central and parietal SSP, while frontal SSP remained high. Frontal slow spindle percentage in night section III predicted OSA with good accuracy, with OSA likelihood increased by 12.1%for every SSP unit increase (OR 1.121, 95% CI 1.013 - 1.239, p=0.027). Conclusions These results are consistent with diffuse, predominantly frontal thalamo-cortical dysfunction during sleep in OSA, as more posterior brain regions appear to maintain some physiological spindle frequency modulation across the night. Displaying changes in an opposite direction to what is expected from the aging process itself, spindle frequency appears to be informative in OSA even with small sample sizes, and to represent a sensitive electrophysiological marker of brain dysfunction in OSA. PMID:22985414

2012-01-01

84

Effect of Prone and Supine Position on Sleep, Apneas, and Arousal in Preterm Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Prematurely born compared with term born infants are at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome, particularly if slept prone. The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis that preterm infants with or without broncho- pulmonary dysplasia being prepared for neonatal unit discharge would sleep longer and have less arousals and more central apneas in the prone position.

Ravindra Y. Bhat; Simon Hannam; Ronit Pressler; Gerrard F. Rafferty; Janet L. Peacock; Anne Greenough

2010-01-01

85

A Cost Minimization Analysis of Home versus Lab-based Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.  

E-print Network

??Importance: Insurers have adopted new reimbursement policies for diagnosing and treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using home sleep testing (HST) instead of laboratory-based strategies. Objective:… (more)

Kim, Richard

2014-01-01

86

Sleep Apnea and Daytime Sleepiness and Fatigue: Relation to Visceral Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Hypercytokinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep apnea and associated daytime sleepiness and fatigue are common manifestations of mainly obese middle-aged men. The onset of sleep apnea peaks in middle age, and its morbid and mortal se- quelae include complications from accidents and cardiovascular events. The pathophysiology of sleep apnea remains obscure. The purpose of this study was to test three separate, albeit closely related, hypotheses.

ALEXANDROS N. VGONTZAS; DIMITRIS A. PAPANICOLAOU; EDWARD O. BIXLER; KENNETH HOPPER; ANGELA LOTSIKAS; HUONG-MO LIN; ANTHONY KALES; GEORGE P. CHROUSOS

87

Pathogenic Roles of the Carotid Body Inflammation in Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Breathing difficulties in sleep are a hallmark of sleep-disordered breathing commonly observed in patients with sleep disorders. The pathophysiology of sleep apnea is in part due to an augmented activity of the carotid body chemoreflex. Arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body are sensitive to inflammatory cytokines and immunogenic molecules in the circulation, because cytokine receptors are expressed in the carotid body in experimental animals and human. Intriguingly, proinflammatory cytokines are also locally produced and released in the carotid body. Also, there are significant increases in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, cytokine receptors, and inflammatory mediators in the carotid body under hypoxic conditions, suggesting an inflammatory response of the carotid body. These upregulated cytokine signaling pathways could enhance the carotid chemoreceptor activity, leading to an overactivity of the chemoreflex adversely effecting breathing instability and autonomic imbalance. This review aims to summarize findings of the literature relevant to inflammation in the carotid body, with highlights on the pathophysiological impact in sleep apnea. It is concluded that local inflammation in the carotid body plays a pathogenic role in sleep apnea, which could potentially be a therapeutic target for the treatment of the pathophysiological consequence of sleep apnea. PMID:25276055

2014-01-01

88

Cocaine abuse and sleep apnea in severe obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is a cause of sleep breathing disorders that result in excessive daytime sleepiness. We describe the adaptive strategy used by an obese person who started to snort cocaine to remedy incoercible drowsiness affecting his working financial skills. Clinical workup documented severe sleep apnea, which was treated by noninvasive ventilation and resulted in withdrawing cocaine abuse. Undiagnosed sleep disorders may trigger surreptitious psychostimulant abuse in vulnerable individuals. PMID:23519053

Marzullo, Paolo; Menegatti, Mirta; Guzzaloni, Gabriele; Fanari, Paolo; Uccelli, Elvira; Tagliaferri, Maria Antonella; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Liuzzi, Antonio

2013-01-01

89

Obstructive sleep apnea screening by NIRS imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed at determining cerebral hemodynamic parameters in human subjects during breath holding using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Breath holding serves as a method of simulation OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea). Data was acquired non-invasively from 40 subjects, twenty OSA sufferers (10 females, 10 males, age 20-70 years), and twenty normal volunteers (10 females, 10 males, age 20-65 years). Measurements were conducted using a LED Imager (LEDI) during breath holding. In comparing OSA subjects with controls during breath holding, a consistent increase or even a decrease in oxy- ([O IIHb]), deoxy- ([HHb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentrations, and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO II) in the regional brain tissue were observed. The LEDI probe consists of 4 sources and 10 detectors serving as 4 sets of 1 source and 4 detectors each. A three wavelength (730, 805, and 850 nm) LED was used and the wavelengths were switched sequentially. The distance between sources and the source-detector separation were 2.5 cm. Data acquisition consisted of three segments, baseline for one minute, followed by a period of breath holding, and then 2 minutes of recovery time. The duration of the breath holding was subject-dependent. Our investigation proves that NIR spectroscopy could be used as a tool for detecting cerebral hemodynamics and also serves as a method of screening patients with OSA.

Kashefi, Feraydune; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Liu, Hanli

2007-02-01

90

Reliability and accuracy of sleep apnea scans in novel cardiac resynchronization therapy devices: an independent report of two cases.  

PubMed

Pacemaker apnea scan algorithms are able to screen for sleep apnea. We investigated whether these systems were able to accurately detect sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in two patients from an outpatient clinic. The first patient suffered from ischemic heart failure and severe central sleep apnea (CSA) and underwent adaptive servoventilation therapy (ASV). The second patient suffered from dilated cardiomyopathy and moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Pacemaker read-outs did not match polysomnography (PSG) recordings well and overestimated the apnea-hypopnea index. However, ASV therapy-induced SDB improvements were adequately recognized by the apnea scan of the Boston Scientific INVIVE® cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemaker. Detection of obstructive respiratory events using impedance-based technology may underestimate the number of events, as frustrane breathing efforts induce impedance changes without significant airflow. By contrast, in the second case, apnea scan overestimated the number of total events and of obstructive events, perhaps owing to a very sensitive but less specific hypopnea definition and detection within the diagnostic algorithm of the device. These two cases show that a pacemaker apnea scan is able to reflect SDB, but PSG precision is not met by far. The device scan revealed the decline of SDB through ASV therapy for CSA in one patient, but not for OSA in the second case. To achieve reliable monitoring of SDB, further technical developments and clinical studies are necessary. PMID:24519661

Fox, Henrik; Nölker, Georg; Gutleben, Klaus-Jürgen; Bitter, Thomas; Horstkotte, Dieter; Oldenburg, Olaf

2014-03-01

91

Defining common outcome metrics used in obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Sleep-disordered breathing a spectrum that ranges from snoring through disorder of increased airway resistance, to overt sleep apnea affects many clinical disease outcomes. Traditionally, disease outcomes have been measured by polysomnography, with the most common metric being the apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Multiple other clinical metrics are commonly used to assess the severity and impact of disease on important outcomes of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These allow assessment of sleepiness, quality of life, performance, and medical, especially cardiovascular outcomes. Currently the available metrics only partially explain the associated disease outcomes in different patients. This review highlights the available clinical, physiological and biomarker metrics in measuring OSA and associated co-morbidities and defines treatment goals. PMID:19010289

Al-Shawwa, Baha A; Badi, Arunkumar N; Goldberg, Andrew N; Woodson, B Tucker

2008-12-01

92

Gender Differences in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Treatment Implications  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea is a common cause of daytime sleepiness for millions of Americans. It is also a disease associated with an increased likelihood of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, daytime sleepiness, motor vehicle accidents, and diminished quality of life. A number of population based studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnea is more common in men than in women and this discrepancy is often evident in the clinical setting. There are a number of pathophysiological differences to suggest why men are more prone to the disease than women. Although the exact mechanisms are unknown, differences in obesity, upper airway anatomy, breathing control, hormones, and aging are all thought to play a role. The purpose of this review was to examine the literature on gender differences in obstructive sleep apnea and to analyze whether or not these differences in pathogenic mechanisms affect diagnosis or treatment. PMID:18951050

Lin, Christine M.; Davidson, Terence M.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

2009-01-01

93

Sodium oxybate and sleep apnea: a clinical case.  

PubMed

Sodium oxybate (GHB, Xyrem, Jazz Pharmaceuticals) is used to treat cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. We report the case of a middle aged, normo-ponderal narcoleptic woman without risk factors who developed reversible sleep apnea and objective sleepiness when treated by sodium oxybate, with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 19.7 on sodium oxybate and AHI 4.8 without treatment. Despite a subjective improvement in vigilance, mean sleep latency on MWT decreased from 21 minutes to 8 minutes on sodium oxybate. PMID:22171208

Hartley, Sarah; Quera-Salva, Maria-Antonia; Machou, Mourad

2011-12-15

94

Neurocognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder with far-reaching health implications. One of the major consequences of OSAS is an impact on neurocognitive functioning. Several studies have shown that OSAS has an adverse effect on inductive and deductive reasoning, attention, vigilance, learning, and memory. Neurocognitive impairment can be measured objectively with tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, the Steer Clear Performance Test, and tests of repetitive finger tapping. In children, OSAS may cause attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in addition to behavioral problems and learning disabilities. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include increasing age, male sex, apolipoprotein E ?4 allele positivity, current cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, Down syndrome, hypothyroidism, significant alcohol consumption, stroke, and the use of psychoactive medications. At a cellular level, OSAS likely causes cognitive impairment through intermittent hypoxia, hormonal imbalance, and/or systemic inflammation, either independently or via the resultant endothelial dysfunction that occurs. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be measured and minimized in all studies of neurocognitive impairment. Recent studies have used functional and structural neuroimaging to delineate the brain areas affected in patients with OSAS with neurocognitive dysfunction. A common finding in several of these studies is decreased hippocampal volume. Other affected brain areas include the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain, which show focal reductions in gray matter. These changes can be reversed at least partially with the use of CPAP, which highlights the importance of early recognition and treatment of OSAS. The currently available data in this field are quite limited, and more research is needed. PMID:22670023

Lal, Chitra; Strange, Charlie; Bachman, David

2012-06-01

95

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: natural history, diagnosis, and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Sleep apnea is an entity characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction resulting in nocturnal hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. It is estimated that 2%–4% of the middle-aged population has sleep apnea with a predilection in men relative to women. Risk factors of sleep apnea include obesity, gender, age, menopause, familial factors, craniofacial abnormalities, and alcohol. Sleep apnea has been increasingly recognized as a major health burden associated with hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Increased airway collapsibility and derangement in ventilatory control responses are the major pathological features of this disorder. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold-standard method for diagnosis of sleep apnea and assessment of sleep apnea severity; however, portable sleep monitoring has a diagnostic role in the setting of high pretest probability sleep apnea in the absence of significant comorbidity. Positive pressure therapy is the mainstay therapy of sleep apnea. Other treatment modalities, such as upper airway surgery or oral appliances, may be used for the treatment of sleep apnea in select cases. In this review, we focus on describing the sleep apnea definition, risk factor profile, underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, associated adverse consequences, diagnostic modalities, and treatment strategies. PMID:23616712

Gharibeh, Tarek; Mehra, Reena

2010-01-01

96

Apnea MedAssist: real-time sleep apnea monitor using single-lead ECG.  

PubMed

We have developed a low-cost, real-time sleep apnea monitoring system ''Apnea MedAssist" for recognizing obstructive sleep apnea episodes with a high degree of accuracy for both home and clinical care applications. The fully automated system uses patient's single channel nocturnal ECG to extract feature sets, and uses the support vector classifier (SVC) to detect apnea episodes. "Apnea MedAssist" is implemented on Android operating system (OS) based smartphones, uses either the general adult subject-independent SVC model or subject-dependent SVC model, and achieves a classification F-measure of 90% and a sensitivity of 96% for the subject-independent SVC. The real-time capability comes from the use of 1-min segments of ECG epochs for feature extraction and classification. The reduced complexity of "Apnea MedAssist" comes from efficient optimization of the ECG processing, and use of techniques to reduce SVC model complexity by reducing the dimension of feature set from ECG and ECG-derived respiration signals and by reducing the number of support vectors. PMID:20952340

Bsoul, Majdi; Minn, Hlaing; Tamil, Lakshman

2011-05-01

97

Influence of Body Position on Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this review is to determine the relationship between sleeping body posture and severity of obstructive sleep apnea. This relationship has been investigated in the past. However, the conclusions derived from some of these studies are conflicting with each other. This paper intends to summarize the reported relationships between sleep posture and various sleep indices in patients diagnosed with sleep apnea. Methods and Materials. A systematic review of the published English literature during a 25-year period from 1983 to 2008 was performed. Results. Published data concerning the sleep apnea severity and posture in adults are limited. Supine sleep posture is consistently associated with more severe obstructive sleep apnea indices in adults. However, relationship between sleep apnea severity indices and prone posture is inconsistent. PMID:24223313

Menon, Akshay; Kumar, Manoj

2013-01-01

98

Dead space mask eliminates central apnea at altitude.  

PubMed

Travelers to high altitude may have disturbed sleep due to periodic breathing with frequent central apneas. We tested whether a mask with added dead space could reduce the central apneas of altitude. 16 subjects were recruited, age 18-35, residing at 4600?ft (1400?m). They each slept one night with full polysomnographic monitoring, including end tidal CO2, in a normobaric hypoxia tent simulating 12,000?ft. (3658?m) altitude. Those who had a central apnea index (CAI) >20/h returned for a night in the tent for dead space titration, during which they slept with increasing amounts of dead space, aiming for a CAI <5/h or <10% of baseline. Then each subject slept another night with the titrated amount of dead space. Of the 16 subjects, 5 had a central apnea index >20/h mean 49.1, range 21.4-131.5/hr. In each of the 5, the dead space mask reduced the CAI by at least 88% to a mean of 3.1, range 0.9-7.1/h, (p=0.04). Hypopnea index was unchanged. Three subjects required 500?cc of dead space or less. One subject required 860?cc, and one required 2.1?L. Morning symptoms and arousal index were not significantly affected by the dead space mask. Dead space did not appear to increase the CO2 reserve. At 12,000?ft., central apneas can be effectively reduced with a dead space mask, but clinical utility will require further evaluation. PMID:23795738

Patz, David S; Patz, Michael D; Hackett, Peter H

2013-06-01

99

Update on obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to COPD  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and preventable lung disease that affects millions of people in the United States. Sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are also common. It is not surprising that many people with COPD also suffer from OSA. This relationship, however, puts people at risk for more nocturnal desaturations and potential complications related to this, including pulmonary hypertension and heart rhythm disturbances. This update focuses on the physiology of sleep disturbances in COPD as well as the clinical implications of OSA in COPD. PMID:24748786

Mieczkowski, Brian; Ezzie, Michael E

2014-01-01

100

Updates on Definition, Consequences, and Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a breathing disorder during sleep that has implications beyond disrupted sleep. It is increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiac, neurologic, and perioperative morbidities. Yet this disorder remains undiagnosed in a substantial portion of our population. It is imperative for all physicians to remain vigilant in identifying patients with signs and symptoms consistent with OSA. This review focuses on updates in the areas of terminology and testing, complications of untreated OSA, perioperative considerations, treatment options, and new developments in this field. PMID:21628617

Park, John G.; Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J.

2011-01-01

101

In vivo Platelet Activation Is Increased during Sleep in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have an increased risk of cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and stroke. Objective: To determine whether in vivo platelet activation and the generation of procoagulant platelet-derived microparticles (PMP) are increased during sleep in patients with OSAS. Methods: In vivo platelet activation and PMP formation was determined using flow cytometry in 12 patients

Thomas Geiser; Florian Buck; Beat J. Meyer; Claudio Bassetti; André Haeberli; Matthias Gugger

2002-01-01

102

Obstructive sleep apnea and neurocognitive performance: the role of cortisol  

PubMed Central

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder with multiple consequences including negative effects on neurocognitive function. Several domains of cognitive function are impaired in OSA patients, but the mechanisms through which this sleep disorder results in impairment are not clear. Given the well-known effects of cortisol on cognitive function, in particular memory, the dysregulating effects of OSA on cortisol levels is hypothesized as a potential pathway leading to cognitive impairment. Methods Fifty-five participants with OSA (mean apnea-hypopnea index [AHI], 30.3) were assessed over 2 days. Over a 24-hour period, blood was collected every 2 hours to examine cortisol levels. The following night, sleep was monitored with polysomnography (PSG). Participants were given a battery of neurocognitive tests, which assessed 7 cognitive domains. Results OSA severity assessed by oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was associated with 24-hour cortisol levels. AHI, ODI, and nighttime cortisol levels were associated with global deficit scores (GDS) in cognitive functioning, particularly in domains of learning, memory, and working memory (P<.05 for all). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that nighttime cortisol accounted for 9% to 16% of variance in learning (P=.018), memory (P=.003), and working memory (P=.016) domains, though apnea severity did not significantly predict any additional variance. Conclusions In our sample of patients with OSA, nocturnal cortisol levels were associated with neuropsychologic functioning above and beyond the influence of covariates and apnea severity. These findings suggest that OSA-related alterations in cortisol activity may partially explain the pathophysiology of neuropsychologic impairments in sleep apnea. PMID:24269133

Edwards, Kate M.; Kamat, Rujvi; Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E.

2013-01-01

103

Surgical correction of obstructive sleep apnea in the complicated pediatric patient documented by polysomnography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in a diverse population of children. Design: A retrospective case series of pre and post operative polysomnograms (PSG) of pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Setting: Tertiary care children's hospital. Patients: 48 patients in whom sleep studies were performed pre-operatively for either an unclear history and\\/or physical findings

Gregory J. Wiet; Charles Bower; Robert Seibert; May Griebel

1997-01-01

104

Predictors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Adenotonsillectomy Candidates  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: There is uncertainty over which characteristics increase obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) severity in children. In candidates for adenotonsillectomy (AT), we evaluated the relationship of OSAS severity and age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), prematurity, socioeconomic variables, and comorbidities. Design: Cross-sectional screening and baseline data were analyzed from the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial, a randomized, controlled, multicenter study evaluating AT versus medical management. Regression analysis assessed the relationship between the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and risk factors obtained by direct measurement or questionnaire. Setting: Clinical referral setting. Participants: Children, ages 5 to 9.9 y with OSAS. Measurements and Results: Of the 1,244 children undergoing screening polysomnography, 464 (37%) were eligible (2 ? AHI < 30 or 1 ? obstructive apnea index [OAI] < 20 and without severe oxygen desaturation) and randomized; 129 (10%) were eligible but were not randomized; 608 (49%) had AHI/OAI levels below entry criteria; and 43 (3%) had levels of OSAS that exceeded entry criteria. Among the randomized children, univariate analyses showed significant associations of AHI with race, BMI z score, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), family income, and referral source, but not with other variables. After adjusting for potential confounders, African American race (P = 0.003) and ETS (P = 0.026) were each associated with an approximately 20% increase in AHI. After adjusting for these factors, obesity and other factors were not significant. Conclusions: Apnea hypopnea index level was significantly associated with race and environmental tobacco smoke, highlighting the potential effect of environmental factors, and possibly genetic factors, on pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity. Efforts to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure may help reduce obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity. Clinical Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov (#NCT00560859). Citation: Weinstock TG; Rosen CL; Marcus CL; Garetz S; Mitchell RB; Amin R; Paruthi S; Katz E; Arens R; Weng J; Ross K; Chervin RD; Ellenberg S; Wang R; Redline S. Predictors of obstructive sleep apnea severity in adenotonsillectomy candidates. SLEEP 2014;37(2):261-269. PMID:24497655

Weinstock, Tanya G.; Rosen, Carol L.; Marcus, Carole L.; Garetz, Susan; Mitchell, Ron B.; Amin, Raouf; Paruthi, Shalini; Katz, Eliot; Arens, Raanan; Weng, Jia; Ross, Kristie; Chervin, Ronald D.; Ellenberg, Susan; Wang, Rui; Redline, Susan

2014-01-01

105

Physiological Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Sleep disordered breathing in children refers to a group of respiratory disorders that occur or are exacerbated during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the most significant disorders in this group. OSAS can present in all age groups from early infancy to adolescent years. The cardinal feature of OSAS is limitation of inspiratory flow and volume during sleep resulting in abnormal gas exchange and/or alteration of sleep patterns. When OSAS is a chronic condition it often results in adverse physiological effects that impact on health and development. The present review discusses genesis of OSAS in children and consequent end organ injury with special emphasis on behavior and cognition, cardiovascular function, autonomic regulation, inflammation, endothelial function and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23707879

Muzumdar, Hiren; Arens, Raanan

2013-01-01

106

[Beneficial effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].  

PubMed

Continuous positive airway pressure therapy is an evidence based therapy of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea can decrease sympaticotonia and, consequently, blood pressure. Furthermore, it can improve inflammatory and metabolic parameters resulting in a decreased cardiovascular risk. This article summarizes the positive effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. PMID:25403278

Magyar, Mária Tünde

2014-11-23

107

Automatic screening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea from the ECG based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Wavelet Analysis  

E-print Network

to sleep fragmentation. Sleep fragmentation is characterized by dis- ruption or loss of deep and REM sleepAutomatic screening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea from the ECG based on Empirical Mode Decomposition-- This study proposes three different methods to evaluate Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) during sleep time

108

Improving activity in adults with diabetes and coexisting obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

This study in participants with type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea evaluated changes in activity, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness after 4 weeks of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This pilot study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Sleep apnea was quantified with an overnight sleep study. Sleep quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, vigor and fatigue with the Profiles of Mood States, subjective activity with the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, and objective activity with the Bodymedia SenseWear Armband. Subjects were randomized to either CPAP (n = 12) or sham-devices (n = 11). The intervention group had reduced apneas and hypopneas, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue; they also had improved sleep quality and increased objective activity and vigor. The study suggested that treatment of obstructive sleep apnea results in a modest improvement of activity in persons with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23976778

Chasens, Eileen R; Korytkowski, Mary; Sereika, Susan M; Burke, Lora E; Drumheller, Oliver J; Strollo, Patrick J

2014-03-01

109

Automated Sleep Apnea Quantification Based on Respiratory Movement  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent and treatable disorder of neurological and medical importance that is traditionally diagnosed through multi-channel laboratory polysomnography(PSG). However, OSA testing is increasingly performed with portable home devices using limited physiological channels. We tested the hypothesis that single channel respiratory effort alone could support automated quantification of apnea and hypopnea events. We developed a respiratory event detection algorithm applied to thoracic strain-belt data from patients with variable degrees of sleep apnea. We optimized parameters on a training set (n=57) and then tested performance on a validation set (n=59). The optimized algorithm correlated significantly with manual scoring in the validation set (R2 = 0.73 for training set, R2 = 0.55 for validation set; p<0.05). For dichotomous classification, the AUC was >0.92 and >0.85 using apnea-hypopnea index cutoff values of 5 and 15, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that manually scored AHI values can be approximated from thoracic movements alone. This finding has potential applications for automating laboratory PSG analysis as well as improving the performance of limited channel home monitors. PMID:24936142

Bianchi, M.T.; Lipoma, T.; Darling, C.; Alameddine, Y.; Westover, M.B.

2014-01-01

110

The Effect of Aging and Severity of Sleep Apnea on Heart Rate Variability Indices in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to analyze how much heart rate variability (HRV) indices discriminatively respond to age and severity of sleep apnea in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Methods 176 male OSAS patients were classified into four groups according to their age and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). The HRV indices were compared via analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). In particular, the partial correlation method was performed to identify the most statistically significant HRV indices in the time and frequency domains. Stepwise multiple linear regressions were further executed to examine the effects of age, AHI, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and sleep parameters on the significant HRV indices. Results The partial correlation analysis yielded the NN50 count (defined as the number of adjacent R-wave to R-wave intervals differing by more than 50 ms) and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio to be two most statistically significant HRV indices in both time and frequency domains. The two indices showed significant differences between the groups. The NN50 count was affected by age (p<0.001) and DBP (p=0.039), while the LF/HF ratio was affected by AHI (p<0.001), the amount of Stage 2 sleep (p=0.005), and age (p=0.021) in the order named in the regression analysis. Conclusion The NN50 count more sensitively responded to age than to AHI, suggesting that the index is mainly associated with an age-related parasympathetic system. On the contrary, the LF/HF ratio responded to AHI more sensitively than to age, suggesting that it is mainly associated with a sympathetic tone likely reflecting the severity of sleep apnea. PMID:22396687

Song, Man-Kyu; Ha, Jee Hyun; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yu, Jaehak

2012-01-01

111

Analysis of anatomical and functional determinants of obstructive sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Craniofacial abnormalities have an important role in the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and may be particularly\\u000a significant in Asian patients, although obesity and functional abnormalities such as reduced lung volume and increased airway\\u000a resistance also may be important. We conducted simultaneous analyses of their interrelationships to evaluate the relative\\u000a contributions of obesity, craniofacial structure, pulmonary function, and airway

Kensaku Aihara; Toru Oga; Yuka Harada; Yuichi Chihara; Tomohiro Handa; Kiminobu Tanizawa; Kizuku Watanabe; Takefumi Hitomi; Tomomasa Tsuboi; Michiaki Mishima; Kazuo Chin

112

Hemostatic implications of endothelial cell apoptosis in obstructive sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk of atherothrombosis independent of the Framingham risk factors.\\u000a Studies on hemostasis factors in OSA are scarce and inconsistent. We sought to understand the variation in atherothrombotic\\u000a propensity as a function of apoptotic circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in OSA by investigating the relationship between\\u000a CEC apoptosis and plasma levels of hemostatic

Ali A. El Solh; Morohunfolu E. Akinnusi; Ilya G. Berim; A. Misha Peter; Linda L. Paasch; Kristie R. Szarpa

2008-01-01

113

A Randomized Trial of Adenotonsillectomy for Childhood Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Adenotonsillectomy is commonly performed in children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, yet its usefulness in reducing symptoms and improving cognition, behavior, quality of life, and polysomnographic findings has not been rigorously evaluated. We hypothesized that, in children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome without prolonged oxyhemoglobin desaturation, early adenotonsillectomy, as compared with watchful waiting with supportive care, would result in improved outcomes. METHODS We randomly assigned 464 children, 5 to 9 years of age, with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome to early adenotonsillectomy or a strategy of watchful waiting. Polysomnographic, cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 7 months. RESULTS The average baseline value for the primary outcome, the attention and executive-function score on the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (with scores ranging from 50 to 150 and higher scores indicating better functioning), was close to the population mean of 100, and the change from baseline to follow-up did not differ significantly according to study group (mean [±SD] improvement, 7.1±13.9 in the early-adenotonsillectomy group and 5.1±13.4 in the watchful-waiting group; P = 0.16). In contrast, there were significantly greater improvements in behavioral, quality-of-life, and polysomnographic findings and significantly greater reduction in symptoms in the early-adenotonsillectomy group than in the watchful-waiting group. Normalization of polysomnographic findings was observed in a larger proportion of children in the early-adenotonsillectomy group than in the watchful-waiting group (79% vs. 46%). CONCLUSIONS As compared with a strategy of watchful waiting, surgical treatment for the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in school-age children did not significantly improve attention or executive function as measured by neuropsychological testing but did reduce symptoms and improve secondary outcomes of behavior, quality of life, and polysomnographic findings, thus providing evidence of beneficial effects of early adenotonsillectomy. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; CHAT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00560859.) PMID:23692173

Marcus, Carole L.; Moore, Reneé H.; Rosen, Carol L.; Giordani, Bruno; Garetz, Susan L.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Mitchell, Ron B.; Amin, Raouf; Katz, Eliot S.; Arens, Raanan; Paruthi, Shalini; Muzumdar, Hiren; Gozal, David; Thomas, Nina Hattiangadi; Ware, Janice; Beebe, Dean; Snyder, Karen; Elden, Lisa; Sprecher, Robert C.; Willging, Paul; Jones, Dwight; Bent, John P.; Hoban, Timothy; Chervin, Ronald D.; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Redline, Susan

2013-01-01

114

Obstructive sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes in older adults.  

PubMed

Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus are commonly seen in older adults. Over the last decade, there has been increasing recognition that OSA is highly prevalent in persons with type 2 diabetes and related metabolic conditions such as insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals in OSA trigger a repertoire of pathophysiological events, which can in turn alter glucose homeostasis and possibly increase the risk for type 2 diabetes. Conversely, there is evidence that type 2 diabetes may alter the progression and expression of sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:25453306

Moon, Karoline; Punjabi, Naresh M; Aurora, R Nisha

2015-02-01

115

Cardio-Respiratory Coordination Increases during Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the main source of morbidity and mortality in the United States with costs of more than $170 billion. Repetitive respiratory disorders during sleep are assumed to be a major cause of these diseases. Therefore, the understanding of the cardio-respiratory regulation during these events is of high public interest. One of the governing mechanisms is the mutual influence of the cardiac and respiratory oscillations on their respective onsets, the cardio-respiratory coordination (CRC). We analyze this mechanism based on nocturnal measurements of 27 males suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Here we find, by using an advanced analysis technique, the coordigram, not only that the occurrence of CRC is significantly more frequent during respiratory sleep disturbances than in normal respiration (p-value<10?51) but also more frequent after these events (p-value<10?15). Especially, the latter finding contradicts the common assumption that spontaneous CRC can only be observed in epochs of relaxed conditions, while our newly discovered epochs of CRC after disturbances are characterized by high autonomic stress. Our findings on the connection between CRC and the appearance of sleep-disordered events require a substantial extension of the current understanding of obstructive sleep apneas and hypopneas. PMID:24718564

Riedl, Maik; Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F.; Penzel, Thomas; Kurths, Juergen; Wessel, Niels

2014-01-01

116

Getting a Diagnosis for Sleep Apnea  

MedlinePLUS

... records include an electroencephalogram, or EEG, measuring brain waves; an electroculogram, or EOG, measuring eye and chin movements that signal the different stages of sleep; an electrocardiogram, EKG, measuring heart rate and rhythm; chest bands that measure respiration; and ...

117

In: Progress in Sleep Apnea Research Editor: Robert T. Ferber, pp. 41-76  

E-print Network

: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), in which partial (hypopnea) or total (apnea) collapse of the upper airway Syndrome is known to be related with a partial (hypopnea) or to- tal (apnea) collapse of the upper airway. The patency of the upper airway is dictated by a combination of passive mechanical properties and active

Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

118

Insular Cortex Metabolite Changes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: Adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show significant autonomic and neuropsychologic deficits, which may derive from damage to insular regions that serve those functions. The aim was to assess glial and neuronal status from anterior insular metabolites in OSA versus controls, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PMRS), and thus to provide insights for neuroprotection against tissue changes, and to reduce injury consequences. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University-based medical center. Participants: Thirty-six patients with OSA, 53 controls. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: We performed PMRS in bilateral anterior insulae using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner, calculated N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr), choline/creatine (Cho/Cr), myo-inositol/creatine (MI/Cr), and MI/NAA metabolite ratios, and examined daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI), and neuropsychologic status (Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II] and Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI]). Body mass index, BAI, BDI-II, PSQI, and ESS significantly differed between groups. NAA/ Cr ratios were significantly reduced bilaterally, and left-sided MI/Cr and MI/NAA ratios were increased in OSA over controls. Significant positive correlations emerged between left insular MI/Cr ratios and apnea-hypopnea index values, right insular Cho/Cr ratios and BDI-II and BAI scores, and negative correlations appeared between left insular NAA/Cr ratios and PSQI scores and between right-side MI/Cr ratios and baseline and nadir change in O2 saturation. Conclusions: Adults with obstructive sleep apnea showed bilaterally reduced N-acetylaspartate and left-side increased myo-inositol anterior insular metabolites, indicating neuronal damage and increased glial activation, respectively, which may contribute to abnormal autonomic and neuropsychologic functions in the condition. The activated glial status likely indicates increased inflammatory action that may induce more neuronal injury, and suggests separate approaches for glial and neuronal protection. Citation: Yadav SK, Kumar R, Macey PM, Woo MA, Yan-Go FL, Harper RM. Insular cortex metabolite changes in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(5):951-958. PMID:24790274

Yadav, Santosh K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Yan-Go, Frisca L.; Harper, Ronald M.

2014-01-01

119

Overweight explains the increased red blood cell aggregation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Sleep apnea patients and obese subjects are overexposed to cardiovascular diseases. These two health conditions may be associated with hemorheological alterations which could increase the cardiovascular risk. The present study investigated the hemorheological characteristics in patients with overweight and/or sleep apnea to identify the main predictor of red blood cell (RBC) abnormalities in sleep apnea patients. Ninety-seven patients were subjected to one night sleep polygraphy to determine their sleep apnea status. Body mass index (BMI) and the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) were determined for categorization of obesity and sleep apnea status. Blood was sampled for hematocrit, blood viscosity, RBC deformability, aggregation and disaggregation threshold measurements. BMI and AHI were positively associated and were both positively associated with RBC aggregation. Analyses of covariance and multiple regression analyses revealed that BMI was more predictive of RBC aggregation than AHI. No association of BMI classes and AHI classes with RBC deformability or blood viscosity was observed. This study shows that increased RBC aggregation in sleep apnea patients is caused by overweight. Therapies to improve blood rheology in sleep apnea patients, and therefore reduce the risk for cardiovascular disorders, should focus on weight-loss. PMID:23271197

Sinnapah, Stéphane; Cadelis, Gilbert; Waltz, Xavier; Lamarre, Yann; Connes, Philippe

2015-01-01

120

Treatment with Nasal CPAP Decreases Automobile Accidents in Patients with Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 50 consecutive patients to test the hypothesis that successful treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nasal CPAP) will decrease automobile ac- cidents in patients with sleep apnea. Thirty-six (72%) of the patients reported using nasal CPAP reg- ularly during 2 yr. Fourteen patients reported they had not used CPAP during 2 yr. The

LARRY FINDLEY; CAROL SMITH; JOANNA HOOPER; MICHAEL DINEEN; PAUL M. SURATT

121

Sleep Apnea Gear Doesn't Squelch Sex Life, Study Says  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Sleep Apnea Gear Doesn't Squelch Sex Life, Study Says Patients who get treatment are ... Preidt Wednesday, October 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Sexual Health Sleep Apnea WEDNESDAY, Oct. 22, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

122

In-vitro study of pharyngeal pressure losses at the origin of obstructive sleep apnea  

E-print Network

are very limited. In [9] a polynomial function is proposed to predict the upper- airway pressureIn-vitro study of pharyngeal pressure losses at the origin of obstructive sleep apnea A. Van Hirtum of pharyngeal airflow at the origin of obstructive sleep apnea. The air flow rate and pressure along

Payan, Yohan

123

Respiration Physiology 123 (2000) 8799 Detection of obstructive sleep apnea by analysis of phase  

E-print Network

and that f(t) might be a potentially useful parameter for detection of impending upper airway obstruction, obstructions; Sleep, obstructive apnea; Upper airways, obstructive sleep apnea; Ventilation, forced oscilation) is linked to decreased upper airway muscle activity. We hypothesised that decreased muscle activity causes

Timmer, Jens

124

Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for sleep apnea in mentally retarded obese 14-year-old: an anaesthetic challenge.  

PubMed

Anaesthetic management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea for upper airway surgery has always been a challenging task. We report our anaesthetic approach for a young, mentally retarded obese patient with documented obstructive sleep apnea undergoing uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. The therapeutic intervention before, during and after operation is discussed. PMID:12648207

Govindarajan, R; Bakalova, T; Gerges, M; Mendelsohn, M; Michael, R; Abadir, A

2003-03-01

125

Obstructive sleep apnea in children with achondroplasia: Surgical and anesthetic considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in a large population of children with achondroplasia and to evaluate the effectiveness of adenoidectomy and\\/or tonsillectomy as treatment. Methods: Retrospective review of 95 children with achondroplasia. Results: Thirty –six patients (38%) had clinical evidence of obstructive sleep apnea. Thirty-four patients underwent surgery, with more than 1 procedure required in 10

ELIZABETH A. SISK; DIANE G. HEATLEY; BRET J. BOROWSKI; GLEN E. LEVERSON; RICHARD M. PAULI

1999-01-01

126

Sleep Apnea Symptoms and Risk of Temporomandibular Disorder  

PubMed Central

The authors tested the hypothesis that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) signs/symptoms are associated with the occurrence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), using the OPPERA prospective cohort study of adults aged 18 to 44 years at enrollment (n = 2,604) and the OPPERA case-control study of chronic TMD (n = 1,716). In both the OPPERA cohort and case-control studies, TMD was examiner determined according to established research diagnostic criteria. People were considered to have high likelihood of OSA if they reported a history of sleep apnea or ? 2 hallmarks of OSA: loud snoring, daytime sleepiness, witnessed apnea, and hypertension. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence limits (CL) for first-onset TMD. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CL for chronic TMD. In the cohort, 248 individuals developed first-onset TMD during the median 2.8-year follow-up. High likelihood of OSA was associated with greater incidence of first-onset TMD (adjusted HR = 1.73; 95% CL, 1.14, 2.62). In the case-control study, high likelihood of OSA was associated with higher odds of chronic TMD (adjusted OR = 3.63; 95% CL, 2.03, 6.52). Both studies supported a significant association of OSA symptoms and TMD, with prospective cohort evidence finding that OSA symptoms preceded first-onset TMD. PMID:23690360

Sanders, A.E.; Essick, G.K.; Fillingim, R.; Knott, C.; Ohrbach, R.; Greenspan, J.D.; Diatchenko, L.; Maixner, W.; Dubner, R.; Bair, E.; Miller, V.E.; Slade, G.D.

2013-01-01

127

[Effect of septoplasty and turbinectomy on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is thought to be closely related to nasal airway resistance, which accounts for approximately one half of total upper airway resistance. This retrospective study aimed at elucidating the effect of endoscopic endonasal surgery on OSAS. Nine consecutive patients with OSAS complaining of nasal obstruction who underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery were enrolled. They were 8 men and 1 woman ranging from 34-73 years of age with an average of 53.2 years. All patients had chronic hypertrophic rhinitis and nasal septal deviation, and underwent septoplasty and submucous turbinectomy. The severity of OSAS was assessed by 8 sleep apnea indices of polysomnography before and after surgery. The indices included the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), maximum apnea time, mean apnea time, minimum blood oxygen saturation, mean blood oxygen saturation, blood oxygen saturation decline index, awakening response index, and ratio of snoring time to sleep time. Significant decrease in the AHI (27.6 +/- 5.3 vs. 20.7 +/- 5.5/hr; p = 0.033), in the awakening response index (30.5 +/- 3.3 vs. 21.2 +/- 5.3/hr; p = 0.028), and increase in the mean blood oxygen saturation (95.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 96.0 +/- 0.7%; p = 0.023) were observed postoperatively. There was no significant change in the other 5 indices. In addition, nasal airflow resistance measured by acoustic rhinometry had significantly reduced during the periods of both inhalation (474.4 +/- 49.0 vs. 842.7 +/- 50.2cm3/s; p = 0.002) and exhalation (467.3 +/- 57.3 vs. 866.0 +/- 80.6 cm3/s; p = 0.004). The pre- and postoperative body mass indices did not differ statistically from each other. These results indicate that endoscopic endonasal surgery alone has a potential effect on sleep-disordered breathing in OSAS patients with nasal obstruction. We should be aware of such a positive impact of endonasal surgery upon the management of OSAS. PMID:23980484

Takahashi, Risa; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Hohchi, Nobusuke; Takeuchi, Shoko; Ohkubo, Jun-ichi; Ikezaki, Shoji; Suzuki, Hideaki

2013-07-01

128

Upper airway imaging in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children is a manifestation of sleep-disordered breathing and associated with a number of complications. Structural narrowing of the upper airway in combination with inadequate compensation for a decrease in neuromuscular tone is an important factor in the pathogenesis. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most important predisposing factor. However, many other causes of craniofacial defects may coexist. Additionally, the pathogenesis of narrowing is more complex in certain subgroups such as children with obesity, craniofacial malformations, Down syndrome or neuromuscular disorders. The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea is based on an overnight polysomnography. This investigation is expensive, time consuming and not widely available. In view of the major role of structural narrowing, upper airway imaging could be a useful tool for investigating obstructive sleep apnea and in establishing the site(s) of obstruction. Several radiological techniques (lateral neck radiography, cephalometry, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and post-processing of these images using computational fluid dynamics) have been used to investigate the role of structural alterations in the pathogenesis. We reviewed the literature to examine if upper airway imaging could replace polysomnography in making the diagnosis and if imaging could predict the effect of treatment with a focus on adenotonsillectomy. There is a limited number of high quality studies of imaging predicting the effect of treatment. To avoid unnecessary risks and ineffective surgeries, it seems crucial to couple the exact individual anatomical risk factor with the most appropriate treatment. We conclude that imaging could be a non-invasive tool that could assist in selection of treatment. PMID:25438733

Slaats, Monique A; Van Hoorenbeeck, Kim; Van Eyck, Annelies; Vos, Wim G; De Backer, Jan W; Boudewyns, An; De Backer, Wilfried; Verhulst, Stijn L

2014-08-21

129

Sleep and breathing on the first night after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Adenotonsillectomy (T&A) has established effectiveness for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, more than 20% of children with OSA have respiratory compromise requiring medical intervention in the postoperative period. The reasons for this complication are not well-defined. We aimed to compare the nature and severity of sleep-disordered breathing in children with mild and severe OSA on the first night following adenotonsillectomy. Ten children were classified into groups of mild and severe OSA, based on preoperative testing. On the first night after T&A, they underwent polysomnography, including electroencephalograph, submental electromyography, bilateral electro-oculograms, monitoring of respiratory movements, heart rate, ECG, and oxygen saturation. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed by the apnea-hypopnea index, the SaO(2) nadir, and the desaturation index, including dips in saturation below 90% (DI(90)). Sleep quality was assessed by sleep efficiency, time spent in each sleep state, and respiratory arousal index. Obstructive events occurred postoperatively in all children, but were more frequent in those with severe OSA preoperatively: the median (interquartile range) mixed/obstructive apnea/hypopnea indicies were 6.9 (2.2-9.8) events/hr and 21.5 (15.1-112.1) events/hr for the mild OSA group and the severe OSA group, respectively (P = 0.009). Obstructive events were the major cause of desaturation during sleep postoperatively. Sleep quality was severely disrupted in both groups, with reductions in both slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. In conclusion, despite removal of obstructing lymphoid tissue, upper airway obstruction occurred on the first postoperative night in children with OSA. This study is the first to demonstrate the mechanism of respiratory compromise after adenotonsillectomy, a common postoperative complication in children with severe OSA. PMID:15704184

Nixon, G M; Kermack, A S; McGregor, C D; Davis, G M; Manoukian, J J; Brown, K A; Brouillette, R T

2005-04-01

130

Pathobiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Related Dyslipidemia: Focus on the Liver  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea and dyslipidemia are common medical disorders that independently increase vascular morbidity and mortality. Current animal and human data show that, indeed, obstructive sleep apnea may mediate pathological alterations in cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism. The mechanisms involved are increased lipolysis, decreased lipoprotein clearance, and enhanced lipid output from the liver. Human evidence shows that the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure leads to an improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia. However, more studies are needed, to clarify the pathophysiology of the interrelationship between obstructive sleep apnea and dyslipidemia and whether treatment of obstructive sleep apnea will lead to an improvement in the lipid profile and, more importantly, reduce hyperlipidemia-related vascular outcomes. PMID:23346414

Ali, Alaa M.

2013-01-01

131

The Consolidation of Implicit Sequence Memory in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Syndrome is a relatively frequent sleep disorder characterized by disrupted sleep patterns. It is a well-established fact that sleep has beneficial effect on memory consolidation by enhancing neural plasticity. Implicit sequence learning is a prominent component of skill learning. However, the formation and consolidation of this fundamental learning mechanism remains poorly understood in OSA. In the present study we examined the consolidation of different aspects of implicit sequence learning in patients with OSA. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task to measure general skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 10-hour offline period with sleep. Our data showed differences in offline changes of general skill learning between the OSA and control group. The control group demonstrated offline improvement from evening to morning, while the OSA group did not. In contrast, we did not observe differences between the groups in offline changes in sequence-specific learning. Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep in OSA differently affects neural circuits involved in the consolidation of sequence learning. PMID:25329462

Malecek, Nick

2014-01-01

132

Sleep estimation using BodyMedia's SenseWear™ armband in patients with obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the validity of the BodyMedia's SenseWear™ Armband (BSA) device in estimating total sleep time (TST) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Simultaneous overnight recordings of in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) and BSA were performed on (1) 107 OSA patients (mean age of 45.2 ± 14.3 years, mean apnea hypopnea index of 43 ± 35.7/hr and (2) 30 controls matched with OSA patients for age and body mass index. An agreement analysis between the PSG and BSA scoring results was performed using the Bland and Altman method. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in OSA patients between BSA and PSG with regard to TST, total wake time, and sleep efficiency. There was also no significant difference in the controls between BSA and PSG with regard to TST, total wake time, and sleep efficiency. Bland Altman plots showed strong agreement between TST, wake time, and sleep efficiency for both OSA and the controls. The intraclass correlation coefficients revealed perfect agreement between BSA and PSG in different levels of OSA severity and both genders. CONCLUSION: The current data suggest that BSA is a reliable method for determining sleep in patients with OSA when compared against the gold standard test (PSG). BSA can be a useful tool in determining sleep in patients with OSA and can be combined with portable sleep studies to determine TST. PMID:23440703

Sharif, Munir M.; BaHammam, Ahmed S.

2013-01-01

133

Major factors affecting severity of obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) has become a common method for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between CT parameters and clinical parameters in OSA patients to determine major factors affecting the severity of OSA. The records of 128 consecutive snoring patients (98 males, 30 females) diagnosed with OSA were retrospectively reviewed. Polysomnography was performed for each patient. On CT scans, airway areas were measured at the level of the hard palate, the soft palate, and the base of the tongue. Polysomnographic parameters were compared by gender and age using the Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze relationships between variables and the AHI in each age group. The women were significantly older than the men (p < 0.01). The AHI and apnea index were significantly higher in men than in women. Stage 1 sleep and rapid eye movement sleep were more frequent in men than in women. The area at the base of the tongue was significantly smaller in women than in men (p = 0.027). In the 50-60 age group, the AHI was significantly higher in men (41.47 ± 19.67) than in women (17.14 ± 15.63) (p = 0.001). OSA severity varies with age, gender, and upper airway area. The OSA prognosis could be improved by evaluating the major factors and treating OSA patients according to epidemiological characteristics and anatomical structures. PMID:25621265

Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Boo-Young; Han, Jung Ju; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Jung, Kihwan; Kim, Min; Kim, Soo Whan

2015-03-01

134

Respiratory Movement of Upper Airway Tissue in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To measure real-time movement of the tongue and lateral upper airway tissues in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subjects during wakefulness using tagged magnetic resonance imaging. Design: Comparison of the dynamic imaging of three groups of increasing severity OSA and a control group approximately matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Setting: Not-for-profit research institute Participants: 24 subjects (apnea hypopnea index [AHI] range 2-84 events/h, 6 with AHI < 5 events/h) Methods: The upper airway was imaged awake in two planes using SPAtial Modulation of Magnetization (SPAMM). Tissue displacements were quantified with harmonic phase analysis. Measurements and Results: All subjects had dynamic airway opening in the sagittal plane associated with inspiration. In the nasopharynx, the increase in airway cross-sectional area during inspiration correlated with minimal cross-sectional area of the airway (R = 0.900, P < 0.001). AHI correlated negatively with movement of the nasopharyngeal lateral walls (R = - 0.542, P = 0.006). Four movement patterns were observed during inspiration: “en bloc” anterior movement of the whole posterior tongue; movement of only the oropharyngeal posterior tongue; bidirectional movement; or minimal movement. Some subjects showed different inspiratory movement patterns with different breaths. A low AHI (< 5) was associated with en bloc movement (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Inspiratory movement of the tongue varied between and within subjects, likely as a result of local and neural factors. However, in severe OSA inspiratory movement was minimal. Citation: Brown EC; Cheng S; McKenzie DK; Butler JE; Gandevia SC; Bilston LE. Respiratory movement of upper airway tissue in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1069-1076. PMID:23814344

Brown, Elizabeth C.; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Bilston, Lynne E.

2013-01-01

135

Cognition and biomarkers of oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate neuropsychological performance and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the relationships between these factors. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study of 14 patients (36.0±6.5 years old) with obstructive sleep apnea and 13 controls (37.3±6.9 years old). All of the participants were clinically evaluated and underwent full-night polysomnography as well as neuropsychological tests. Blood samples were used to assay superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and homocysteine, as well as vitamins E, C, B11 and B12. RESULTS: The patients performed poorly relative to the controls on several neuropsychological tests, such as the attention test and tests of long-term memory and working memory/executive function. They also had lower levels of vitamin E (p<0.006), superoxide dismutase (p<0.001) and vitamin B11 (p<0.001), as well as higher concentrations of homocysteine (p<0.02). Serum concentrations of vitamin C, catalase, glutathione and vitamin B12 were unaltered. Vitamin E levels were related to performance in the backward digit span task (F?=?15.9; p?=?0.002) and this correlation remained after controlling for age and body mass index (F?=?6.3, p?=?0.01). A relationship between superoxide dismutase concentrations and executive non-perseveration errors in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (F?=?7.9; p?=?0.01) was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased levels of antioxidants and lower performance on the neuropsychological tasks were observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. This study suggests that an imbalance between antioxidants and pro-oxidants may contribute to neuropsychological alterations in this patient population. PMID:23778335

Sales, Leticia Viana; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales; D'Almeida, Vania; Pompéia, Sabine; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Tufik, Sérgio; Bittencourt, Lia

2013-01-01

136

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder with major neurocognitive and cardiovascular sequelae. It is estimated that more than one quarter of the population is at risk for OSA, with increased prevalence noted in populations with hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, and atrial fibrillation. A number of epidemiologic and mechanistic studies have recently generated interest in the role of OSA in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, a link that continues to require extensive investigation. This chapter reviews these epidemiologic studies, the current understanding of the mechanisms by which OSA may contribute to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, and the effects of OSA treatment on cardiovascular disease outcomes. PMID:21253882

Balachandran, Jay S.; Malhotra, Atul

2015-01-01

137

A home sleep apnea screening device with time-domain signal processing and autonomous scoring capability.  

PubMed

Current solutions of sleep apnea diagnosis require the patient to undergo overnight studies at a specialized sleep laboratory. Due to such inconvenience and high cost, millions of sleep apnea patients remain undiagnosed and thus untreated. Based on a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensor and an effective apnea detection algorithm, we propose a low-cost single-channel apnea screening solution applicable in the comfort of patients' homes. A prototype device was designed and assembled including a MEMS sensor for measuring the patient's nasal air flows, and a time-domain signal processing IC for apnea detection and autonomous scoring. The IC chip was fabricated in standard 0.5- ?m CMOS technology. The proposed device was tested for both respiratory rhythm detection and sleep apnea screening under clinical environment. Apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI) were scored to indicate severity of sleep apnea conditions. Test results suggest that the proposed device can be a valuable screening solution for the broader public with undiagnosed apnea conditions. PMID:25486649

Jin, Jiayi; Sanchez-Sinencio, Edgar

2015-02-01

138

Prediagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea via Multiclass MTS  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has become an important public health concern. Polysomnography (PSG) is traditionally considered an established and effective diagnostic tool providing information on the severity of OSA and the degree of sleep fragmentation. However, the numerous steps in the PSG test to diagnose OSA are costly and time consuming. This study aimed to apply the multiclass Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MMTS) based on anthropometric information and questionnaire data to predict OSA. Implementation results showed that MMTS had an accuracy of 84.38% on the OSA prediction and achieved better performance compared to other approaches such as logistic regression, neural networks, support vector machine, C4.5 decision tree, and rough set. Therefore, MMTS can assist doctors in prediagnosis of OSA before running the PSG test, thereby enabling the more effective use of medical resources. PMID:22545062

Su, Chao-Ton; Chen, Kun-Huang; Chen, Li-Fei; Wang, Pa-Chun; Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang

2012-01-01

139

[Screening of sleep apnea syndrome with Sleeprecorder SD-101].  

PubMed

Polysomnography (PSG) has been the gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). However, PSG is not generally available since it is technically demanding, and cost and labour are necessary. Currently, there is growing demand for its diagnosis. Thus, simplified portable equipments have been increasingly utilized. Sleeprecorder SD-101 (Suzuken, Nagoya, Japan) is a pad-shaped and novel device for SAS analysis. A total of 162 sitting-sensor tips are 1.6 inch apart, embeded in the 55 x 22 inch pad, and capable of detecting load with precision of one gram. Sleeprecorder SD-101 placed beneath the chest can recognize respiratory pattern and record thoracic movement during sleep. SASLyzer (Suzuken, Nagoya, Japan), a software installed in a compatible PC, analyzes the data and indicates apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). We present a case of SAS in a 40-year-old man (181 cm, 98 kg) with peritonsillitis. We used Sleeprecorder SD-101 since he complained of severe snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness. He had severe SAS with AHI 50.7. Subsequently, conventional PSG also indicated AHI 77. In the present case with severe SAS, these two methods showed equivalent severity. Sleeprecorder SD-101 could be a useful device for screening of SAS patients. PMID:20077781

Ogata, Junichi; Udaka, Tsuyoshi; Inaba, Tsuyoshi; Kadokawa, Yohei; Minami, Kouichiro

2010-01-01

140

Physiology in Medicine: Obstructive sleep apnea pathogenesis and treatment—considerations beyond airway anatomy  

PubMed Central

We review evidence in support of significant contributions to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from pathophysiological factors beyond the well-accepted importance of airway anatomy. Emphasis is placed on contributions from neurochemical control of central respiratory motor output through its effects on output stability, upper airway dilator muscle activation, and arousability. In turn, we consider the evidence demonstrating effective treatment of OSA via approaches that address each of these pathophysiologic risk factors. Finally, a case is made for combining treatments aimed at both anatomical and ventilatory control system deficiencies and for individualizing treatment to address a patient's own specific risk factors. PMID:24201709

Xie, Ailiang; Patz, David S.; Wang, David

2013-01-01

141

Correlation between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Cardiac Disease Severity.  

PubMed

Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is one of the most common respiratory disorders in humans. There is emerging evidence linking OSA to vascular disease, particularly hypertension. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that link OSA to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation are not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) with coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD). Methods. A questionnaire survey based on Berlin questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was conducted among 406 patients to assess demographic data and the symptoms, such as excessive daytime sleepiness and snoring. Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Berlin questionnaire were completed by all of the patients. Venous blood samples were obtained for biochemical tests. Characteristics of coronary arteries were collected from angiographies' reports. All patients were divided into two groups based on results from Berlin questionnaire: low risk patients for OSA and high risk patients for OSA. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 13. Results. Mean age of patients was 61.8 ± 10.5. 212 (52.2%) patients were categorized as high risk group for apnea. Also, excessive daytime sleepiness was reported in 186 patients (45.8%). The severity of coronary artery involvement, daytime sleepiness, and electrocardiogram abnormalities was significantly higher in high risk patients for OSA compared with low risk patients. High risk patients had higher level of FBS and LDL and lower level of HDL cholesterol (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our study found a strong correlation between the number of stenotic vessels and OSA. Based on our findings, OSA can be a predisposing factor for cardiac diseases. PMID:24701348

Javadi, Hamid Reza; Jalilolghadr, Shabnam; Yazdi, Zohreh; Rezaie Majd, Zeinab

2014-01-01

142

Correlation between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Cardiac Disease Severity  

PubMed Central

Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is one of the most common respiratory disorders in humans. There is emerging evidence linking OSA to vascular disease, particularly hypertension. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that link OSA to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation are not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) with coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD). Methods. A questionnaire survey based on Berlin questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was conducted among 406 patients to assess demographic data and the symptoms, such as excessive daytime sleepiness and snoring. Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Berlin questionnaire were completed by all of the patients. Venous blood samples were obtained for biochemical tests. Characteristics of coronary arteries were collected from angiographies' reports. All patients were divided into two groups based on results from Berlin questionnaire: low risk patients for OSA and high risk patients for OSA. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 13. Results. Mean age of patients was 61.8 ± 10.5. 212 (52.2%) patients were categorized as high risk group for apnea. Also, excessive daytime sleepiness was reported in 186 patients (45.8%). The severity of coronary artery involvement, daytime sleepiness, and electrocardiogram abnormalities was significantly higher in high risk patients for OSA compared with low risk patients. High risk patients had higher level of FBS and LDL and lower level of HDL cholesterol (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our study found a strong correlation between the number of stenotic vessels and OSA. Based on our findings, OSA can be a predisposing factor for cardiac diseases. PMID:24701348

Javadi, Hamid Reza; Jalilolghadr, Shabnam; Yazdi, Zohreh; Rezaie Majd, Zeinab

2014-01-01

143

High altitude pulmonary edema, down syndrome, and obstructive sleep apneas.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old adult with a Down syndrome was admitted in December 2006 at the Moutiers hospital in the French Alps for an acute inaugural episode of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) that occurred in the early morning of day 3 after his arrival to La Plagne (2000 m). This patient presented an interventricular septal defect operated on at the age of 7, a hypothyroidism controlled by 50 microg levothyrox, a state of obesity (BMI 37.8 kg/m(2)), and obstructive sleep apneas with a mean of 42 obstructive apneas or hypopneas per hour, treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The patient refused to use his CPAP during his stay in La Plagne. At echocardiography, resting parameters were normal, with a left ventricular, ejection fraction of 60%, a normokinetic right ventricle, and an estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) of 30 mmHg. At exercise, sPAP rose to 45 mmHg and the right ventricle was still normokinetic and not dilated. An exercise hypoxic tolerance test performed at 60 W and at the equivalent altitude of 3300 m revealed a severe drop in arterial oxygen saturation down to 60%, with an abnormal low ventilatory response to hypoxia, suggesting a defect in peripheral chemosensitivity to hypoxia. In conclusion, patients with Down syndrome, including adults with no cardiac dysfunction and regular physical activity, are at risk of HAPE even at moderate altitude when they suffer from obstructive sleep apneas associated with obesity and low chemoresponsiveness. This observation might be of importance since an increasing number of young adults with Down syndrome participate in recreational or sport activities, including skiing and mountaineering. PMID:18578649

Richalet, Jean-Paul; Chenivesse, Cécile; Larmignat, Philippe; Meille, Laurent

2008-01-01

144

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is a Predictor of Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Chronically Sleep Deprived Obese Adults  

PubMed Central

Context Sleep abnormalities, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), have been associated with insulin resistance. Objective To determine the relationship between sleep, including OSA, and glucose parameters in a prospectively assembled cohort of chronically sleep-deprived obese subjects. Design Cross-sectional evaluation of a prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. Main Outcome Measure(s) Sleep duration and quality assessed by actigraphy, sleep diaries and questionnaires, OSA determined by a portable device; glucose metabolism assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT), and HbA1c concentrations in 96 obese individuals reporting sleeping less than 6.5 h on a regular basis. Results Sixty % of subjects had an abnormal respiratory disturbance index (RDI?5) and 44% of these subjects had abnormal oGTT results. Severity of OSA as assessed by RDI score was associated with fasting glucose (R?=?0.325, p?=?0.001) and fasting insulin levels (??=?0.217, p?=?0.033). Subjects with moderate to severe OSA (RDI>15) had higher glucose concentrations at 120 min than those without OSA (RDI<5) (p?=?0.017). Subjects with OSA also had significantly higher concentrations of plasma ACTH (p?=?0.009). Several pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in subjects with OSA (p<0.050). CRP levels were elevated in this sample, suggesting increased cardiovascular risk. Conclusions OSA is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in obese, sleep deprived individuals. Since sleep apnea is common and frequently undiagnosed, health care providers should be aware of its occurrence and associated risks. Trial Registration This study was conducted under the NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036 and is listed in ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898 PMID:23734252

Cizza, Giovanni; Piaggi, Paolo; Lucassen, Eliane A.; de Jonge, Lilian; Walter, Mary; Mattingly, Megan S.; Kalish, Heather; Csako, Gyorgy; Rother, Kristina I.

2013-01-01

145

Electrical stimulation therapy improves sleep respiratory parameters in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Recent clinical trials have shown that electrical stimulation has beneficial effects in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of electrical stimulation therapy for OSAS with a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of all relative studies was performed through searching international literature, including PUBMED, CNKI, and EMBASE databases. This literature analysis compared all patients undergoing electrical stimulation therapy with respect to the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and changes in sleep structure. Six studies were selected involving a total of 91 patients. The meta-analysis indicated that electrical stimulation therapy reduced RDI, longest apnea time, and improved the minimum SaO2. Based on the evidence found, electrical stimulation may be a potential therapy for OSAS, warranting further clinical trials. PMID:24142709

Tan, Jie-wen; Qi, Wei-wei; Ye, Rui-xin; Wu, Yuan-yuan

2013-10-01

146

Real-Time 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Pharyngeal Airway in Sleep Apnea  

E-print Network

:1501­1510, 2014. VC 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Key words: MRI; upper airway; airway obstruction; sleep apnea of physio- logical signals for identifying sites of airway obstruction during natural sleep in pediatric with sleep-disordered breathing. External airway occlusion was used to induce partial collapse of the upper

Southern California, University of

147

Using the Pathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea to Teach Cardiopulmonary Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The effects of intermittent upper airway obstruction include alveolar hypoventilation, altered arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors, which leads to frequent arousals. These arousals disturb sleep

Levitzky, Michael G.

2008-01-01

148

Laryngeal pathologies as an etiologic factor of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a chronic condition of airway obstruction, common in children, with known clinical consequences. The etiology of OSAS in children stems from a combination of obstructing structural factors and neuromotor factors. In children, tonsilar hypertrophy accounts for this condition in most cases, however, in about 20% of the cases, other causes are involved. For the treatment of apnea in children, adenotonsillectomy is the most commonly performed procedure, though we should indicate the treatment according to its underlying cause. The aim of this paper is to highlight other possible apnea etiologies, contributing to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. We present two cases of patients with apnea of unusual origin: one of respiratory dystonia and another of supraglottic stenosis as the causative factor of obstructive sleep apnea. In conclusion, we emphasize the need for the ENT to perform detailed research on the etiology of apnea, for individualized treatment. PMID:23333286

Pinto, José Antonio; Kohler, Rodrigo; Wambier, Henrique; Gomes, Leonardo Marques; Mizoguchi, Elcio Izumi; Prestes dos Reis, Rodrigo

2013-04-01

149

Obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic bone disease: insights into the relationship between bone and sleep.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and low bone mass are two prevalent conditions, particularly among older adults-a section of the U.S. population that is expected to grow dramatically over the coming years. OSA, the most common form of sleep-disordered breathing, has been linked to multiple cardiovascular, metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory derangements and may have adverse effects on bone. However, little is known about how OSA (including the associated hypoxia and sleep loss) affects bone metabolism. In order to gain insight into the relationship between sleep and bone, we review the growing information on OSA and metabolic bone disease and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms by which OSA may affect bone metabolism/architecture. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25639209

Swanson, Christine M; Shea, Steven A; Stone, Katie L; Cauley, Jane A; Rosen, Clifford J; Redline, Susan; Karsenty, Gerard; Orwoll, Eric S

2015-02-01

150

The relationship between morning hypertension and sleep quality in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) profiles in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in relation to the data of a sleep study. Total 103 patients newly diagnosed with OSAS underwent overnight polysomnography and 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements. Patients without morning or nocturnal hypertension (control group), patients with morning hypertension but not nocturnal hypertension (surge-type group), and patients with both morning and nocturnal hypertension (sustained-type group) were compared. Morning hypertension was present in 54 patients (16 surge-type and 38 sustained-type). The apnea-hypopnea index and sleep efficiency were higher and lower, respectively, in the sustained-type group than in the other groups. Slow-wave sleep incidence was significantly lower in the sustained-type and surge-type groups than in the control group. These results suggest that approximately half the OSAS patients displayed morning hypertension, the sustained-type being more common than the surge-type. Poor sleep quality plays an important role in the pathogenesis of morning hypertension in both the sustained- and the surge-type group. PMID:23530964

Sasaki, Nobuo; Ozono, Ryoji; Yamauchi, Ryo; Teramen, Kazushi; Edahiro, Yoshinobu; Ishii, Kiyomi; Seto, Ayako; Kihara, Yasuki

2013-01-01

151

The differences in sleep profile changes under continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy between non-obese, obese and severely obese sleep apnea patients.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances in obstructive sleep apnea are caused mainly by repetitive apneas and hypopneas. An alternative factor contributing to disordered sleep may be the obesity, which is frequently associated with sleep apnea. The sleep disturbing effect of obesity was found previously in obese nonapneic subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity on sleep quality in sleep apnea patients in particular in patients under continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with successfully normalized respiration. We reviewed the archive data of 18 non-obese, 18 obese and 17 severely obese age and gender matched sleep apnea patients treated with CPAP. The polysomnographic parameters from the diagnostic night, from the second night under CPAP and from the follow up night (after three months of CPAP use) were compared. Before CPAP the apnea hypopnea index was worse in obese and in severely obese group and it normalised under CPAP in all groups. The severely obese group showed more light sleep and less REM sleep before CPAP and inversely - less light and more REM sleep in the second night under CPAP than the non-obese group. In the follow up, there was no differences in sleep profile between groups. This study indicates obesity does not affect the sleep independently of respiratory disorders. Before therapy it is associated with more severe sleep apnea and indirectly with worse sleep quality. PMID:22791640

Antczak, J; Horn, B; Richter, A; Bodenschatz, R; Latuszynski, K; Schmidt, E W; Jernajczyk, W

2012-06-01

152

Obstructive sleep apnea and tonsillectomy: do we have a new indication for extended postoperative observation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

E know that certain subpopulations of children undergoing tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy, particularly those with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), are at greater risk for severe and occasionally life-threatening postoperative complications. Increased oxygen requirements, and a higher incidence of airway obstruction and apnea are often observed in these patients. In this issue of the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, Koomson et al. have

Charles J. Coté; Stephen H. Sheldon

2004-01-01

153

Upper Airway Collapsibility and Cephalometric Variables in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased pharyngeal collapsibility and abnormal anatomic structures have been postulated to con- tribute to the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. It is unclear whether the abnormal craniofacial and soft tissue features may affect the pharyngeal collapsibility and contribute to the apnea density. In the present study we examine the relationship between pharyngeal collaps- ibility and cephalometric variables in

EMILIA SFORZA; WILLIAM BACON; THOMAS WEISS; ANNE THIBAULT; CHRISTOPHE PETIAU; JEAN KRIEGER

2000-01-01

154

Simulation of the Retroglossal Fluid-Structure Interaction During Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

E-print Network

. Then, simulations of the complete collapsus at the retroglossal level in the upper airway have beenSimulation of the Retroglossal Fluid-Structure Interaction During Obstructive Sleep Apnea Franz an Obstructive Apnea is presented. It is based on simplifications of the full continuum formulation (Navier

Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

155

CPAP, Weight Loss, or Both for Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea tend to coexist and are associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure, but their causal relation to these abnormalities is unclear. METHODS We randomly assigned 181 patients with obesity, moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) greater than 1.0 mg per liter to receive treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a weight-loss intervention, or CPAP plus a weight-loss intervention for 24 weeks. We assessed the incremental effect of the combined interventions over each one alone on the CRP level (the primary end point), insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, and blood pressure. RESULTS Among the 146 participants for whom there were follow-up data, those assigned to weight loss only and those assigned to the combined interventions had reductions in CRP levels, insulin resistance, and serum triglyceride levels. None of these changes were observed in the group receiving CPAP alone. Blood pressure was reduced in all three groups. No significant incremental effect on CRP levels was found for the combined interventions as compared with either weight loss or CPAP alone. Reductions in insulin resistance and serum triglyceride levels were greater in the combined-intervention group than in the group receiving CPAP only, but there were no significant differences in these values between the combined-intervention group and the weight-loss group. In per-protocol analyses, which included 90 participants who met prespecified criteria for adherence, the combined interventions resulted in a larger reduction in systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure than did either CPAP or weight loss alone. CONCLUSIONS In adults with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea, CPAP combined with a weight-loss intervention did not reduce CRP levels more than either intervention alone. In secondary analyses, weight loss provided an incremental reduction in insulin resistance and serum triglyceride levels when combined with CPAP. In addition, adherence to a regimen of weight loss and CPAP may result in incremental reductions in blood pressure as compared with either intervention alone. PMID:24918371

Chirinos, Julio A.; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Teff, Karen; Rader, Daniel J.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Townsend, Raymond; Foster, Gary D.; Maislin, Greg; Saif, Hassam; Broderick, Preston; Chittams, Jesse; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Pack, Allan I.

2014-01-01

156

Analog and Mixed Signal Design towards a Miniaturized Sleep Apnea Monitoring Device  

E-print Network

and neurophysiological level[11], providing the definition of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. Shortly thereafter, C. E. Sullivan and colleagues made the landmark introduction of continuous nasal pressure (CPAP) application as the noninvasive treatment...

Jin, Jiayi

2014-07-23

157

Neuroendocrine Alterations in Obese Patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a serious, prevalent condition that has significant morbidity and mortality when untreated. It is strongly associated with obesity and is characterized by changes in the serum levels or secretory patterns of several hormones. Obese patients with OSAS show a reduction of both spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion coupled to reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and impaired peripheral sensitivity to GH. Hypoxemia and chronic sleep fragmentation could affect the sleep-entrained prolactin (PRL) rhythm. A disrupted Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been described in OSAS. Some derangement in Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) secretion has been demonstrated by some authors, whereas a normal thyroid activity has been described by others. Changes of gonadal axis are common in patients with OSAS, who frequently show a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Altogether, hormonal abnormalities may be considered as adaptive changes which indicate how a local upper airway dysfunction induces systemic consequences. The understanding of the complex interactions between hormones and OSAS may allow a multi-disciplinary approach to obese patients with this disturbance and lead to an effective management that improves quality of life and prevents associated morbidity or death. PMID:20182553

Lanfranco, Fabio; Motta, Giovanna; Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Baldi, Matteo; Balbo, Marcella; Ghigo, Ezio; Arvat, Emanuela; Maccario, Mauro

2010-01-01

158

Sleep apnea symptoms and accident risk factors in Persian commercial vehicle drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Motor vehicle accidents are the second highest cause of mortality in Iran. Sleep apnea symptoms have been associated with\\u000a increased risk of motor vehicle accidents in other countries. However, we have limited data in Iran. We conducted a study\\u000a to evaluate sleep apnea symptoms and sleepiness in professional drivers and to assess the predictors of motor vehicle accidents\\u000a in Iran.

Babak Amra; Reza Dorali; Salehe Mortazavi; Mohammad Golshan; Ziba Farajzadegan; Ingo Fietze; Thomas Penzel

159

Association of sleep apnea with clinically silent microvascular brain tissue changes in acute cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the importance of sleep apnea in relation to clinically silent microvascular brain tissue changes in patients with acute cerebral ischemia. Patients with acute cerebral ischemia prospectively underwent nocturnal respiratory polygraphy within 5 days from symptom-onset. Sleep apnea was defined as apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI) ?5/h. Experienced readers blinded to clinical and sleep-related data reviewed brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans for leukoaraiosis and chronic lacunar infarctions. Ischemic lesions were considered clinically silent when patients did not recall associated stroke-like symptoms. Functional outcome was assessed with modified Rankin Scale at discharge, 6 and 12 months. Fifty-one of 56 (91 %) patients had sleep apnea of any degree. Patients with moderate-to-severe leukoaraiosis (Wahlund score ?5) were found to have higher mean AHI than those with none or mild leukoaraiosis (34.4 vs. 12.8/h, p < 0.001). Moderate-to-severe sleep apnea (AHI ?15/h) was found to be an independent predictor of moderate-to-severe leukoaraiosis (adjusted OR 6.03, 95 % CI 1.76-20.6, p = 0.0042) and of moderate-to-severe leukoaraiosis associated with clinically silent chronic lacunar infarctions (adjusted OR 10.5, 95 % CI 2.19-50.6, p = 0.003). The higher the Wahlund score and the AHI, the more likely unfavorable functional outcome resulted over time (p = 0.0373). In acute cerebral ischemia, sleep apnea is associated with clinically silent microvascular brain tissue changes and may negatively influence functional outcome. Routine sleep apnea screening and further investigation of possible long-term effects of non-invasive ventilatory treatment of sleep apnea appear warranted in this at-risk population. PMID:24292644

Kepplinger, Jessica; Barlinn, Kristian; Boehme, Amelia K; Gerber, Johannes; Puetz, Volker; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Schrempf, Wiebke; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Albright, Karen C; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Reichmann, Heinz; von Kummer, Ruediger; Bodechtel, Ulf

2014-02-01

160

questionnaire as having at least 2 of these risk factors, were deemed high risk for sleep apnea.  

E-print Network

upper airway narrowing and obstruction, and epiglottis obstruction and were predictive of the Fujita QUANTIFICATION OF AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION IN ADULT OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA Jose E. Barrera MD, FACS* Andrew B: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is comprised of dynamic airway events that occur during natural sleep. Current

161

Cumulative Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Short Sleep Duration with the Risk for Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and short sleep duration are individually associated with an increased risk for hypertension (HTN). The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis of a cumulative association of OSA severity and short sleep duration with the risk for prevalent HTN. Among 1,499 patients undergoing polysomnography for suspected OSA, 410 (27.3%) previously diagnosed as hypertensive and taking antihypertensive medication were considered as having HTN. Patients with total sleep time (TST) <6 h were considered to be short sleepers. Logistic regression procedures were performed to determine the independent association of HTN with OSA and sleep duration. Considering normal sleepers (TST ?6 h) without OSA as the reference group, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals) for having HTN was 2.51 (1.35–4.68) in normal sleepers with OSA and 4.37 (2.18–8.78) in short sleepers with OSA after adjustment for age, gender, obesity, diabetes, depression, current smoking, use of thyroid hormones, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep complaint, time in bed, sleep architecture and fragmentation, and study site. The risk for HTN appeared to present a cumulative association with OSA severity and short sleep duration (p<0.0001 for linear trend). The higher risk for HTN was observed in short sleepers with severe OSA (AHI ?30) (OR, 4.29 [2.03–9.07]). In patients investigated for suspected OSA, sleep-disordered breathing severity and short sleep duration have a cumulative association with the risk for prevalent HTN. Further studies are required to determine whether interventions to optimize sleep may contribute to lower BP in patients with OSA. PMID:25531468

Priou, Pascaline; Le Vaillant, Marc; Meslier, Nicole; Paris, Audrey; Pigeanne, Thierry; Nguyen, Xuan-Lan; Alizon, Claire; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Leclair-Visonneau, Laurene; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

2014-01-01

162

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Perioperative Complications: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep related breathing disorder. Its prevalence is estimated to be between 2% and 25% in the general population. However, the prevalence of sleep apnea is much higher in patients undergoing elective surgery. Sedation and anesthesia have been shown to increase the upper airway collapsibility and therefore increasing the risk of having postoperative complications in these patients. Furthermore, the majority of patients with sleep apnea are undiagnosed and therefore are at risk during the perioperative period. It is important to identify these patients so that appropriate actions can be taken in a timely fashion. In this review article, we will discuss the epidemiology of sleep apnea in the surgical population. We will also discuss why these patients are at a higher risk of having postoperative complications, with the special emphasis on the role of anesthesia, opioids, sedation, and the phenomenon of REM sleep rebound. We will also review how to identify these patients preoperatively and the steps that can be taken for their perioperative management. Citation: Vasu TS; Grewal R; Doghramji K. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and perioperative complications: a systematic review of the literature. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(2):199-207. PMID:22505868

Vasu, Tajender S.; Grewal, Ritu; Doghramji, Karl

2012-01-01

163

[Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the upper airway muscles].  

PubMed

Pharyngeal muscles are prone to distorsion during inspiratory negative pressure. Some pharyngeal muscles, called pharyngeal dilatators, exhibit tonic and/or phasic inspiratory activity. At the velar level, tensor palatini, glossopharyngeus, palatopharyngeus and musculus uvula drive the airflow towards nasal or buccal breathing. Genioglossus and geniohyoid muscles exert a forward propulsion to the tongue. The contraction of the dilatators muscles precedes the diaphram contraction. These muscles show a poor endurance. In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, they contract during unfavorable metabolic (hypoxia and hypercapnia) as well as mechanical (excentrical contraction) conditions. Histological changes occur in upper airway dilator muscles: muscle volume and proportion of type Ila fibers are increased. These changes, considered as compensatory mechanisms, are variable within the different studied pharyngeal muscles. The initial pharyngeal obstructive site, and its further extension, could be determined by the different strength and endurance properties of these muscles. PMID:11924045

Fleury, B; Hausser-Hauw, C; Chabolle, F

2001-11-01

164

Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease on Asthma Control in Obesity  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a risk factor for asthma. Obese asthmatics often have poor asthma control and respond poorly to therapy. It has been suggested that co-morbidities associated with obesity, such as reflux and obstructive sleep apnea, could be important factors contributing to poor asthma control in obese patients. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine if (i) reflux and/or (ii) symptoms of sleep apnea contribute to poor asthma control in obesity. Methods We studied asthmatic subjects participating in a trial of reflux treatment. Participants underwent baseline evaluation of asthma symptoms and lung function. 304 participants underwent esophageal pH probe testing. 246 participants were evaluated for obstructive sleep apnea symptoms. Results Of 402 participants in this trial, 51% were obese. Role of reflux in asthma control Those with higher body mass index reported a higher prevalence of reflux symptoms, but the prevalence of pH probe acid reflux was similar in all groups. Reflux was not associated with measures of asthma control in obese patients. Role of obstructive sleep apnea in asthma control Symptoms and self-report of obstructive sleep apnea were more common with increasing body mass index and associated with worse asthma control as measured by the Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire and Asthma Symptom Utility Index. Conclusions Our data suggest that obstructive sleep apnea, but not gastroesophageal reflux disease may contribute significantly to poor asthma control in obese patients. PMID:21819338

Dixon, Anne E.; Clerisme-Beaty, Emmanuelle M.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Rubin I.; Lang, Jason E.; Brown, Ellen D.; Richter, Joel E.; Irvin, Charles G.; Mastronarde, John G.

2011-01-01

165

Deficits in involuntary attention switching in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

Cognitive functions are altered in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and it has been proposed that vigilance and attentional deficits play a pivotal role in all aspects of these deficits. One way to assess attentional system integrity is the study of event-related-potentials (ERP), but only a few ERP studies have been conducted in patients with OSAS. The aim of the study was to use ERP to further assess attentional impairments in these patients. Thirteen OSAS patients and 13 age-matched controls underwent a night of polysomnographic recording. Each subject was also tested with an ERP paradigm where standard (95%, 1000Hz), high deviant (2.5%, 1250Hz) and low deviant (2.5%, 1050Hz) tones were presented. Subjects were asked to ignore the stimuli and read during the task. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a amplitudes and latencies were measured. No between-group difference was observed for sleep stages, except a lower percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in patients with OSAS (p<0.01). Moreover, the OSAS group showed a higher micro-arousal index and more sleep transitions than the control group (p<0.05). A significant group effect was found for the amplitude of the P3a component (p<0.05) that was lower in patients with OSAS for both high and low deviant tones. No between-group difference was found for the MMN and the P3a latencies. In conclusion, patients with OSAS have specific alterations of the P3a component that reflects involuntary attention switching, but automatic auditory processing assessed by MMN appears to be preserved. PMID:16987606

Gosselin, Nadia; Mathieu, Annie; Mazza, Stéphanie; Décary, Anne; Malo, Jacques; Montplaisir, Jacques

2006-11-01

166

Two-Year-Old with Post-Surgical Hypoglossal Nerve Injury and Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Background: Airway patency in both children and adults depends on the tonic and phasic activation of muscles of the tongue and pharynx supplied by the hypoglossal nerve arising at the medullary level Methods/Patient: We report a case of a 2-year-old who after resection of fourth ventricle anaplastic ependymoma developed severe sleep disordered breathing and tongue fasciculation. Results: Polysomnography showed severe obstructive sleep apnea with oxygen desaturation to 33%. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed post-surgical effacement of the dorsal lateral medulla. Conclusions: We postulate that damage to the hypoglossal nerve at the level of the medulla contributed to the patient's severe obstructive sleep apnea. Patient was treated with tracheostomy. Citation: DelRosso LM; Hoque R; Gonzalez-Toledo E. Two-year-old with post-surgical hypoglossal nerve injury and obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):97-98. PMID:24426827

DelRosso, Lourdes M.; Hoque, Romy; Gonzalez-Toledo, Eduardo

2014-01-01

167

CPAP Therapy of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Type 2 Diabetics Improves Glycemic Control During Sleep  

PubMed Central

Background: Type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are frequently comorbid conditions. OSA is associated with increased insulin resistance, but studies of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have shown inconsistent effects on glycemic control. However, endpoints such as hemoglobin A1c and insulin sensitivity might not reflect short-term changes in glycemic control during sleep. Methods: We used a continuous glucose-monitoring system to measure interstitial glucose every 5 minutes during polysomnography in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes and newly diagnosed OSA. The measurements were repeated after an average of 41 days of CPAP (range 26–96 days). All patients were on a stable diet and medications. Each 30-second epoch of the polysomnogram was matched with a continuous glucose-monitoring system reading, and the sleeping glucose level was calculated as the average for all epochs scored as sleeping. Results: The mean sleeping glucose decreased from untreated (122.0 ± 61.7 mg/dL) to treated (102.9 ± 39.4 mg/dL; p = 0.03 by Wilcoxon paired rank test). The sleeping glucose was more stable after treatment, with the median SD decreasing from 20.0 to 13.0 mg/dL (p = 0.005) and the mean difference between maximum and minimum values decreasing from 88 to 57 mg/dL (p = 0.003). The change in the mean hemoglobin A1c from 7.1% to 7.2% was not significant. Conclusions: Our study is limited by the lack of a control group, but the results suggest that sleeping glucose levels decrease and are more stable after patients with type 2 diabetes and OSA are treated with CPAP. Citation: Dawson A; Abel SL; Loving RT; Dailey G; Shadan FF; Cronin JW; Kripke DF; Kline LE. CPAP therapy of obstructive sleep apnea in type 2 diabetics improves glycemic control during sleep. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(6):538–542. PMID:19110882

Dawson, Arthur; Abel, Susan L.; Loving, Richard T.; Dailey, George; Shadan, Farhad F.; Cronin, John W.; Kripke, Daniel F.; Kline, Lawrence E.

2008-01-01

168

Overdrive Ventricular Pacing in Pacemaker Recipients with Permanent Atrial Fibrillation and Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Cardiac pacing is ineffective in obstructive sleep apnea (SA), but it can alleviate central SA/Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA) in patients with heart failure (HF). We examined whether overnight overdrive ventricular pacing (OVP) has an effect on SA in pacemaker recipients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ? 15 was confirmed in 28/38 patients screened by finger pulse oximetry during overnight ventricular pacing at a backup rate of 40 bpm (BUV40). These patients (23 men, 77.9 ± 7.6 y, BMI 27.6 ± 5.1 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to 2 consecutive nocturnal ventilation polygraphies with BUV40 versus OVP at 20 bpm above the mean nocturnal heart rate observed during screening. Results: During BUV40 versus OVP, (1) mean heart rate was 49 ± 8 versus 71 ± 8 bpm (p < 0.0001) and percent ventricular pacing 36% ± 38% versus 96% ± 6% (p < 0.0001); (2) AHI was 35.4 ± 11.9 versus 32.5 ± 15.5 (p = ns), central AHI 23.9 ± 11.8 versus 19.1 ± 12.7 (p < 0.001), and obstructive AHI 11.6 ± 13.1 versus 13.5 ± 15.9 (p = ns). In 15/28 patients without HF, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 51% ± 17%, AHI was 37.6 ± 11.0 during BUV40 and 39.0 ± 11.5 during OVP, versus 32.8 ± 12.9 and 24.9 ± 16.5 in 13/28 patients with HF (p = 0.02) and mean LVEF 35% ± 15% (p = 0.01). Between the 2 subgroups, (1) central AHI was 23.6 ± 12.4 during BUV40 and 21.5 ± 14.0 during OVP versus 24.1 ± 11.6 and 16.2 ± 10.7 (p = 0.05); (2) obstructive AHI was 14.0 ± 13.7 during BUV40 and 17.6 ± 16.5 during OVP versus 8.8 ± 12.3 and 8.7 ± 14.3 (p = ns). Conclusions: The prevalence of SA, predominantly central, was high in our pacemaker recipients with permanent AF. In those with HF, a single overnight OVP resulted in modest improvement in central events. Citation: Bordier P; Maurice-Tison S; Ramana NK. Overdrive ventricular pacing in pacemaker recipients with permanent atrial fibrillation and sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):257-264. PMID:22701382

Bordier, Philippe; Maurice-Tison, Sylvie; Ramana, Nishi Krishna

2012-01-01

169

Gender-specific anthropometric markers of adiposity, metabolic syndrome and visceral adiposity index (VAI) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea often coexists with visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we analysed gender-related differences in anthropometrics according to sleep apnea severity and metabolic abnormalities. In addition, the visceral adiposity index, a recently introduced marker of cardiometabolic risk, was analysed. Consecutive subjects with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (n = 528, 423 males, mean age ± standard deviation: 51.3 ± 12.8 years, body mass index: 31.0 ± 6.2 kg m(-2) ) were studied by full polysomnography (apnea-hypopnea index 43.4 ± 27.6 h(-1) ). Variables of general and visceral adiposity were measured (body mass index, neck, waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio). The visceral adiposity index was calculated, and metabolic syndrome was assessed (NCEP-ATP III criteria). The sample included controls (apnea-hypopnea index <10 h(-1) , n = 55), and patients with mild-moderate (apnea-hypopnea index 10-30 h(-1) , n = 144) and severe sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index >30 h(-1) , n = 329). When anthropometric variables were entered in stepwise multiple regression, body mass index, waist circumference and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome were associated with the apnea-hypopnea index in men (adjusted R(2)  = 0.308); by contrast, only hip circumference and height-normalized neck circumference were associated with sleep apnea severity in women (adjusted R(2)  = 0.339). These results changed little in patients without metabolic syndrome; conversely, waist circumference was the only correlate of apnea-hypopnea index in men and women with metabolic syndrome. The visceral adiposity index increased with insulin resistance, but did not predict sleep apnea severity. These data suggest gender-related interactions between obstructive sleep apnea, obesity and metabolic abnormalities. The visceral adiposity index was a good marker of metabolic syndrome, but not of obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:24118617

Mazzuca, Emilia; Battaglia, Salvatore; Marrone, Oreste; Marotta, Anna M; Castrogiovanni, Alessandra; Esquinas, Cristina; Barcelò, Antonia; Barbé, Ferran; Bonsignore, Maria R

2014-02-01

170

Data-driven phenotyping : graphical models for model-based phenotyping of sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Sleep apnea is a multifactorial disease with a complex underlying physiology, which includes the chemoreflex feedback loop controlling ventilation. The instability of this feedback loop is one of the key factors contributing to a number of sleep disorders, including Cheyne?Stokes respiration and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A major limitation of the conventional characterization of this feedback loop is the need for labor-intensive and technically challenging experiments. In recent years, a number of techniques that bring together concepts from signal processing, control theory, and machine learning have proven effective for estimating the overall loop gain of the respiratory control system (see Figure 1) and its major components, chemoreflex gain and plant gain, from noninvasive time-series measurements of ventilation and blood gases. The purpose of this article is to review the existing model-based techniques for phenotyping of sleep apnea, and some of the emerging methodologies, under a unified modeling framework known as graphical models. The hope is that the graphical model perspective provides insight into the future development of techniques for model-based phenotyping. Ultimately, such approaches have major clinical relevance since strategies to manipulate physiological parameters may improve sleep apnea severity. For example, oxygen therapy or drugs such as acetazolamide may be used to reduce chemoreflex gain, which may improve sleep apnea in selected patients. PMID:25437474

Nemati, Shamin; Orr, Jeremy; Malhotra, Atul

2014-01-01

171

Clinical predictors of nocturia in the sleep apnea population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate clinical predictors of nocturia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods: In retrospective manner, a total of 200 patients with OSA were randomly included. Group I contained 100 patients with OSA and no nocturia, and Group II included 100 patients with OSA and nocturia. Bivariate logistic analyses were used to identify variables most likely to contribute to nocturia. Multivariate logistic regression of age, waist circumference, STOP score (Snore, Tired, Obstruction and Pressure), and Apnea–Hypopnea Index (AHI) was performed to evaluate predictors of nocturia. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results: Median nocturia episodes were 2.2 in Group II. Patients were younger in Group I, with a mean age of 45 vs 50 years (P = 0.008). Mean BMI of 30 was similar in both groups, but there were more overweight patients in Group II (28% vs 18%). AHI approached significance between groups—18 vs 23 in group I and II, respectively (P = 0.071). In multivariate analysis, age over 70 years and moderate AHI were statistically significant predictors of nocturia (coefficients 0.6 and –0.2 with P = 0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusions: This study identifies age and AHI score as predictors of nocturia in patients with OSA. This may indicate the usefulness of incorporating nocturia in the screening of patients with OSA. Future studies are needed to further evaluate mechanism of action, clinical significance, and effect of treatment for nocturia in patients with OSA. PMID:24669119

Raheem, Omer A; Orosco, Ryan K; Davidson, Terence M; Lakin, Charles

2014-01-01

172

Influence of obstructive sleep apnea on serum butyrylcholinesterase activity and ischemia-modified albumin levels  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of obstructive sleep apnea and continuous positive airway pressure treatment on serum butyrylcholinesterase activity and ischemia-modified albumin levels. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with obstructive sleep apnea and 30 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled and underwent a diagnostic polysomnogram. The serum butyrylcholinesterase activity, ischemia-modified albumin levels, metabolic parameters, and polysomnography scores were detected and evaluated. Nine patients were studied before and after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. RESULTS: The serum ischemia-modified albumin levels were significantly higher and the butyrylcholinesterase activity was significantly lower in patients with obstructive sleep apnea than in the controls (p<0.001). The continuous positive airway pressure treatment decreased the modified albumin levels and elevated the buthrylcholinesterase activity (p?=?0.019 and p?=?0.023, respectively). The modified albumin levels were positively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (r?=?0.462, p?=?0.008) at baseline. Elevated ischemia-modified albumin levels can be more accurate than butyrylcholinesterase activity at reflecting the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed a significant difference between the areas under the curve 0.916 for ischemia-modified albumin and 0.777 for butyrylcholinesterase (z?=?2.154, p?=?0.031). CONCLUSION: The elevated ischemia-modified albumin level was significantly associated with obstructive sleep apnea and was more sensitive than butyrylcholinesterase activity in reflecting obstructive sleep apnea. The continuous positive airway pressure treatment helped to ameliorate the imbalance. PMID:23917661

Yang, Liu-Xue; Ma, Shao-Gang; Liu, Hong; Xu, Wei

2013-01-01

173

Circulation Time Measurement from Sleep Studies in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Lung to finger circulation time (LFCT) can be estimated from polysomnography (PSG) in the presence of an apneic event by using oxygen as an indicator and a finger as the site of detection. The purpose of this study was to refine the methodology of LFCT measurement and to compare LFCT in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with and without heart failure (HF). Methods: In a retrospective manner, 10 LFCT measurements per patient were made from the PSG in 171 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of OSA who were divided into two groups: (a) those with a clinical history of underlying HF (N = 42) and (b) those without HF (N = 129). Mean values were compared between the two groups. We also examined associations of LFCT with various factors in each group and the combined group separately using multiple regression analysis. Results: Gender and age were significantly associated with LFCT in patients with OSA alone. Use of ?-blockers was associated with LFCT in the group with OSA with HF. Among the entire cohort, HF, ?-blocker, gender, and age were found to be significantly associated with LFCT. The presence of HF was the strongest predictor of a prolonged LFCT (adjusted mean LFCT: OSA only = 18.5 [95% CI: 17.2-19.7 sec] vs. OSA with HF = 26.1 [95% CI: 24.3-28.0 sec], p < 0.0001). Conclusion: LFCT can be reliably measured and is prolonged in patients with OSA and underlying HF. LFCT based on PSG may be a useful marker for detection of coexisting HF in patients with OSA. Citation: Kwon Y, Khan T, Pritzker M, Iber C. Circulation time measurement from sleep studies in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):759-765. PMID:25024653

Kwon, Younghoon; Khan, Talha; Pritzker, Marc; Iber, Conrad

2014-01-01

174

Obstructive sleep apnea in 2 women with familial partial lipodystrophy due to a heterozygous LMNA R482Q mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

lthough obstructive sleep apnea has many attributes of a complex genetic trait, 1 few genetic mutations have been identified in patients with the condition. Obesity has been shown to be associated with obstructive sleep apnea in the general population, 2 but few rare genetic syndromes affecting total body adipose content or distribu- tion have been evaluated for possible association with

Robert A. Hegele; Salam A. Al-Attar; Brian K. Rutt

2007-01-01

175

Infants undergoing pyloromyotomy are not at risk for postoperative apnea. Staff of Sutter Community Hospitals Sleep Disorders Center.  

PubMed

Thirty term infants undergoing general anesthesia and pyloromyotomy had pre- and postoperative sleep studies to determine whether these infants were at risk for postoperative apnea. Sleep studies showed an improved respiratory disturbance index (RDI) after surgery. Postoperatively, apnea indices were lower and lowest oxygen saturation values were increased compared to the infants' preoperative status. We conclude that pyloromyotomy does not elicit postoperative apnea in term infants. PMID:10230928

Chipps, B E; Moynihan, R; Schieble, T; Stene, R; Feaster, W; Marr, C; Greenholz, S; Poulos, N; Groza, D

1999-04-01

176

Management of obstructive sleep apnea in pediatric craniofacial anomalies  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often associated with congenital craniofacial malformations such as Pierre-Robin Syndrome, Hemifacial Microsomia, Treacher Collins Syndrome resulting in decreased pharyngeal airway, which, in severe cases, leads to tracheostomy dependence. Some pediatric patients had tracheostomies done and others with severe respiratory distress were considered tracheostomy candidates. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with severe respiratory distress without tracheostomy and ten patients with tracheostomy were treated by mandibular distraction osteogenesis using either external or internal devices. The expansion of mandibular framework was analyzed using bony cephalometric landmarks and computed tomography (CT). Results: The results demonstrated average mandibular elongation of 29 mm on each side using the external devices and 22 mm using the internal devices, and an increase in mandibular volume and pharyngeal airway. The group of patients with tracheostomies were decannulated and in the patients with respiratory distress there was improved airway with improvement of signs and symptoms of OSA with elimination of oxygen requirement. Conclusions: Mandibular distraction is a useful method in younger children with OSA expanding the mandible and concomitantly advancing the base of tongue and hyoid bone increasing the pharyngeal airway. The external devices permit greater distraction length, the removal is simple but the devices are uncomfortable for the patients. On the other hand, the internal devices are more comfortable for patients but permit shorter distraction length and require a second operation for removal. PMID:23483041

Rachmiel, Adi; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror

2012-01-01

177

Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?  

PubMed Central

Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents.

Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

2014-01-01

178

Is there a place for teaching obstructive sleep apnea and snoring in the predoctoral dental curriculum?  

PubMed

The widespread prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and apneic snoring is both alarming and well documented. Sleep disorders affect one out of five Americans. Yet, during an attempt to study the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring among patients at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Dentistry, a search through the entire school's database for the terms "sleep apnea" and "snoring" found only ninety-two patients who admitted to snoring. Currently, the condition "sleep apnea" is not even on the school's list of health/medical questions. These figures not only are inconsistent with national statistics, but confirm that more needs to be done to make dental students aware of these disorders, include them in patient medical histories, and ultimately educate patients about therapies that can help. Considering the health concerns related to this sleep disorder, the economic impact of insomnia and daytime sleepiness, as well as the fact that the dentist is well poised to reduce symptoms and increase the quality of life among sufferers, mandibular advancement devices should become an educational standard in the predoctoral clinical curriculum of dental schools. Predoctoral clinical curricula need to reflect this current health trend and train dentists to care for these patients comprehensively. PMID:23225683

Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L; Pancratz, Frank

2012-12-01

179

SLEEP, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2010 643 Heritability of Abnormalities in Cardiopulmonary Coupling--Ibrahim et al OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA (OSA) IS A COMPLEX DIS-  

E-print Network

" sleep), and very low frequency coupling (wake or REM sleep). A spectrographic sub- set of LFC, denotedSLEEP, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2010 643 Heritability of Abnormalities in Cardiopulmonary Coupling--Ibrahim et al OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA (OSA) IS A COMPLEX DIS- EASE WITH A STRONG GENETIC COMPONENT1 . A NUM

180

Validation of the ApneaLink™ for the Screening of Sleep Apnea: a Novel and Simple Single-Channel Recording Device  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Screening for sleep apnea may be useful in a number of settings, such as preoperative testing, clinical research, and evaluation for referral to a sleep center. The purpose of the study was to validate the ApneaLink™ device (ResMed Corporation, Poway, Calif) for use as a screening tool for sleep apnea in clinical practice. Methods: The ApneaLink device is a single-channel screening tool for sleep apnea that measures airflow through a nasal cannula connected to a pressure transducer, providing an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) based on recording time. We compared the AHI from the ApneaLink device to that obtained during simultaneously conducted attended sleep-laboratory polysomnography to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the device in consecutive subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus referred from a diabetes clinic. We also compared the AHI obtained from the ApneaLink device during a study in the subjects' homes to that obtained during the in-laboratory study. The laboratory study was performed within 2 weeks of the home study. Results: Fifty-nine subjects completed the study. Mean age of subjects was 57 years; mean body mass index was 33 kg/m2. The results demonstrate a high sensitivity and specificity of the at-home ApneaLink AHI compared with the AHI from the simultaneous polysomnographic study at all AHI levels, with the best results at an AHI of ? 15 events per hour (sensitivity 91%, specificity 95%). The AHI comparison from the home and laboratory studies also demonstrates good sensitivity and specificity at AHI levels of ? 15 and ? 20 events per hour (sensitivity 76%, specificity 94%, for both). Conclusions: Given the prevalence of sleep apnea in the adult population and in specific comorbid conditions, a screening tool may be useful in many diagnostic settings. This study demonstrates that the ApneaLink device provides reliable information, is a simple, easy-to-use device, and is highly sensitive and specific in calculating AHI, when compared with the AHI obtained from full polysomnography. Citation: Erman MK; Stewart D; Einhorn D et al. Validation of the ApneaLink™ for the screening of sleep apnea: a novel and simple single-channel recording device. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(4):387–392. PMID:17694728

Erman, Milton K.; Stewart, Deirdre; Einhorn, Daniel; Gordon, Nancy; Casal, Eileen

2007-01-01

181

Screening of obstructive sleep apnea with empirical mode decomposition of pulse oximetry.  

PubMed

Detection of desaturations on the pulse oximetry signal is of great importance for the diagnosis of sleep apneas. Using the counting of desaturations, an index can be built to help in the diagnosis of severe cases of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. It is important to have automatic detection methods that allows the screening for this syndrome, reducing the need of the expensive polysomnography based studies. In this paper a novel recognition method based on the empirical mode decomposition of the pulse oximetry signal is proposed. The desaturations produce a very specific wave pattern that is extracted in the modes of the decomposition. Using this information, a detector based on properly selected thresholds and a set of simple rules is built. The oxygen desaturation index constructed from these detections produces a detector for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome with high sensitivity (0.838) and specificity (0.855) and yields better results than standard desaturation detection approaches. PMID:24931493

Schlotthauer, Gastón; Di Persia, Leandro E; Larrateguy, Luis D; Milone, Diego H

2014-08-01

182

Shared governance in building community capacity: A case study of sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

East Harlem has the highest diabetes mortality rate in New York City, NY. Using Community Based Participatory Research principles, the East Harlem Partnership for Diabetes Prevention—a community- academic partnership—formed to build community capacity with a goal to address health disparities in East Harlem. As part of prevention efforts, community partners chose to study the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and its relationship to pre-diabetes and progression to diabetes. However, community partners insisted any study of sleep apnea go beyond simple assessment to ensure the largely uninsured, minority population enrolled also have access to state of the art diagnosis and treatment. Through compromise and collaboration, the partnership developed a culturally appropriate and scientifically rigorous method to diagnose and treat sleep apnea as part of a novel research program.

Lee, Euny C; Simon, Ellen P.; Nickerson, Jillian; Brenner, Barbara; Talavera, Sandra; Goytia, Crispin; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol R.

2015-01-01

183

Driving habits and risk factors for traffic accidents among sleep apnea patients--a European multi-centre cohort study.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased motor vehicle accident risk, and improved detection of patients at risk is of importance. The present study addresses potential risk factors in the European Sleep Apnea Database and includes patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea [n = 8476, age 51.5 (12.5) years, body mass index 31.0 (6.6) kg m(-2) , 82.4% driver's licence holders]. Driving distance (km year(-1) ), driver's licence type, sleep apnea severity, sleepiness and comorbidities were assessed. Previously validated risk factors for accident history: Epworth Sleepiness Scale ?16; habitual sleep time ?5 h; use of hypnotics; and driving ?15 000 km year(-1) were analysed across European regions. At least one risk factor was identified in male and female drivers, 68.75 and 51.3%, respectively. The occurrence of the risk factors was similar across Europe, with only a lower rate in the eastern region (P = 0.001). The mean number of risk factors increased across classes of sleep apnea severity. Frequent driving was prevalent [14.0 (interquartile range 8.0-20.0) × 10(3)  km year(-1) ] and 32.7% of drivers had severe obstructive sleep apnea [apnea-hypopnea index 50.3 (38.8-66.0) n h(-1) ]. Obesity, shorter sleep time and younger age were associated with increased traffic exposure (P ? 0.03). In conclusion, the risk factors associated with accident history were common among European patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea, but varied between geographical regions. There was a weak covariation between occurrence of risk factors and clinically determined apnea severity but frequent driving, a strong risk factor for accidents, was over-represented. Systematic evaluation of accident-related risk factors is important to detect sleep apnea patients at risk for motor vehicle accidents. PMID:25040185

Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Lombardi, Carolina; Mcnicholas, Walter T; Penzel, Thomas; Riha, Renata L; Rodenstein, Daniel; Grote, Ludger

2014-12-01

184

Sleep apnea syndrome: experience of the pulmonology department in Ibn Sina Hospital, Rabat, Morocco  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sleep apnea syndrome is a highly prevalent disorder that is still underdiagnosed and undertreated and whose obstructive form is the most common. The diagnosis is suspected on clinical signs collected by interrogation and questionnaires (Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale), then confirmed by objective sleep study findings (polygraphy or polysomnography). It is necessary to conduct studies in each context on the characteristics and management of sleep apnea syndrome comprising the testing of reliability of the questionnaires. Methods Prospective and descriptive study of 104 patients addressed to sleep consultation at pulmononology Department of Ibn Sina Hospital, Morocco over a period of 5 years (January 2006 to December 2010), agreed to participate in the study, responded to a predetermined questionnaire, and benefited from clinical examination and paraclinical tests including a polygraphy or a polysomnography Results 59(56.7%) patients had an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome with a similar prevalence in both sexes. 32.2% of patients were obese and 28,8% had cardio-vascular diseases. Snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and witnessed apnea were found in respectively 79.7%, 50.8% and 16.9%. Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale had an acceptable internal consistency against apnea hypopnea index with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient respectively 0.79 and 0.78. Depending on severity, clinical impact and results of investigations, the adequate treatment has been proposed based on the 2010 recommendations for clinical practice. Conclusion This study has provided an idea about the profile and the management of patients having an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and showed that both Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale are two simple and reliable methods in our context. A larger and further study across the country should be considered. PMID:23308333

Jniene, Asmaa; el Ftouh, Mustapha; Fihry, Mohamed Tawfiq el Fassy

2012-01-01

185

Pattern of upper airway obstruction during sleep before and after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty in patients with obstructive sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the pre-and postoperative pattern of upper airway obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients treated by uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP).Background: The response rate to UPPP in unselected OSA patients is generally about 50%.Methods: Intraluminal pressure measurements during sleep were employed to analyze the pattern of upper airway obstruction before and after surgery.Results: Ten patients with mild to moderate OSA

A. N. Boudewyns; W. A. De Backer; P. H. Van de Heyning

2001-01-01

186

University of Wisconsin study finds sleep apnea associated with higher mortality from cancer  

Cancer.gov

Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), commonly known as sleep apnea, is associated with an increased risk of cancer mortality, according to a new study. While previous studies have associated SDB with increased risks of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, depression, and early death, this is the first human study to link apnea with higher rate of cancer mortality, showing a nearly five times higher incidence of cancer deaths in patients with severe SDB compared to those without the disorder, a result that echoes previous findings in animal studies.

187

Obesity, and not obstructive sleep apnea, is responsible for metabolic abnormalities in a cohort with sleep-disordered breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the profile of metabolic abnormalities in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).Patients and methods: In a case-control study conducted in two years, from April 2003 to March 2005, data obtained from polysomnography study, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, serum insulin, insulin resistance, leptin and adiponectin levels, were compared between the various groups. Included in the study were

S. K. Sharma; Saket Kumpawat; Ashish Goel; Amit Banga; Lakshmi Ramakrishnan; Pradeep Chaturvedi

2007-01-01

188

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Associated with Preserved Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Elderly Subjects  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) acts as a stimulator of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) mobilization, intensifying osteoblast formation in animal models. The recurrence of apnea and oxygen desaturation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may mimic experimental models of IH. We hypothesized that in elderly with OSA, apnea-related IH may mobilize MSCs and thereby prevent the age-related decline in osteogenesis. This study explored the relationship between OSA and bone mineral density (BMD), and the effect of IH on BMD, in a large sample of elderly subjects. Participants: There were 833 volunteers age 68.6 ± 0.8 y (59% women). Intervention: Each participant underwent evaluation of BMD at lumbar spine and femoral sites by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as well as clinical and polygraphic examinations. OSA was diagnosed on the basis of an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ? 15. Measurements and Results: There were 55% of the participants who presented with OSA, and these subjects were predominantly male and overweight. Compared with subjects without OSA, those with OSA had a higher femoral and spinal BMD (P < 0.001). Body mass index (BMI), AHI, and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) (P < 0.01) were significantly related to BMD. After adjustment for sex, BMI, metabolic values, and hypertension, multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between femoral and lumbar T scores and both daily energy expenditure (P < 0.001) and ODI (P = 0.007). Conclusions: In elderly subjects, the presence of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with higher bone mineral density, with oxygen desaturation index being a significant determinant of bone metabolism. These results suggest that apnea-related intermittent hypoxia may stimulate the bone remodeling process in older population. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT 00759304 and NCT 00766584. Citation: Sforza E; Thomas T; Barthélémy JC; Collet P; Roche F. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with preserved bone mineral density in healthy elderly subjects. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1509-1515. PMID:24082310

Sforza, Emilia; Thomas, Thierry; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Collet, Philippe; Roche, Frédéric

2013-01-01

189

Detection of sleep apnea events via tracking nonlinear dynamic cardio-respiratory coupling from electrocardiogram signals.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder that causes increasing risk of mortality and affects quality of life of approximately 6.62% of the total US population. Timely detection of sleep apnea events is vital for the treatment of OSA. In this paper, we present a novel approach based on extracting the quantifiers of nonlinear dynamic cardio-respiratory coupling from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals to detect sleep apnea events. The quantifiers of the cardio-respiratory dynamic coupling were extracted based on recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and a battery of statistical data mining techniques were to enhance OSA detection accuracy. This approach would lead to a cost-effective and convenient means for screening of OSA, compared to traditional polysomnography (PSG) methods. The results of tests conducted using data from PhysioNets Sleep Apnea database suggest excellent quality of the OSA detection based on a thorough comparison of multiple models, using model selection criteria of validation data: Sensitivity (91.93%), Specificity (85.84%), Misclassification (11.94%) and Lift (2.7). PMID:24111378

Karandikar, Kunal; Le, Trung Q; Sa-ngasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S

2013-01-01

190

Association Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Endothelial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Summary The objective of the study is to examine whether increasing OSA severity is associated with worsening endothelial function. The design is a cross-sectional examination of the baseline assessment of a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial examining the effects of oxygen, CPAP therapy, or lifestyle modifications on cardiovascular biomarkers. Participants were recruited from cardiology clinics at four sites. Participants with an Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) of 15 to 50 and known cardio/cerebrovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors were included. OSA severity indices (oxygen desaturation index [ODI], AHI, and percent sleep time below 90% oxygen saturation [TST<90]) and a measure of endothelium mediated vasodilatation (Framingham Reactive Hyperemia Index, F-RHI derived from peripheral arterial tonometry, PAT) were assessed. The sample included 267 individuals with a mean AHI of 25.0 ± 8.5 (SD) and mean F-RHI 0.44 ± 0.38. In adjusted models, the slope of the relationship between ODI and F-RHI differed above and below an ODI of 24.6 (p=0.04), such that above an ODI of 24.6 there was a marginally significant decline in the geometric mean of the PAT ratio by 3% (95% CI: (0%, 5%); p=0.05) while below this point, there was a marginally significant incline in the geometric mean of the PAT ratio by 13% (95% CI: (0%, 27%); p=0.05) per 5-unit increase in ODI. A similar pattern was observed between AHI and F-RHI. No relation was noted with TST<90 and F-RHI. There was evidence of a graded decline in endothelial function in association withn higher levels of intermittent hypoxemia. PMID:23331757

Seif, Fadi; Patel, Sanjay R.; Walia, Harneet; Rueschman, Michael; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Patil, Susheel P.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Babineau, Denise C.; Redline, Susan; Mehra, Reena

2012-01-01

191

The morphology of the nasopharyngeal inlet in obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Routine flexible optic laryngoscopy (FOL) can visualize the airway from the nasopharynx to the hypopharynx in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). With the tip of a flexible endoscope at the nasopharyngeal inlet (NPI), we can visualize the morphology of this area. We evaluated the effect of NPI morphology on OSA severity. Videos were obtained during FOL examinations of the NPI in 83 patients (11 females, 72 males; mean age 42.1 ± 9.5 years) and NPI morphology was examined. Two main morphologies were seen: wide and narrow. The narrow NPI group (n = 45) was further subdivided into kidney-shaped (n = 34), elliptical (n = 6), and circumferential (n = 5) groups. The wide NPI group (n = 38) was subdivided into circumferential (n = 20) and kidney-shaped (n = 18) groups. Mean Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) values were 30.38 ± 22.36 and 14.51 ± 13.9 in the narrow and wide groups, respectively. Mean RDI values were 45.32 ± 30.6, 23.74 ± 10.8, and 28.72 ± 21.5 in the narrow circumferential, elliptical, and kidney-shaped groups, respectively. Mean RDI values were 11.58 ± 12.91 and 17.8 ± 14.6 in the wide circumferential and kidney-shaped groups, respectively. RDI values were significantly lower in the wide morphology group (p < 0.0005). NPI morphology might predict OSA during routine FOL examination. Further analysis of the subgroups supported evidence of narrowing, reflected as higher RDI values. PMID:23756624

Aksoy, Elif Ayanoglu; Serin, Gediz Murat; Polat, Senol; Ünal, Ömer Faruk; Tanyeri, Hasan

2014-04-01

192

Cephalometric comparison of obstructive sleep apnea patients and healthy controls  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to compare the cephalometric characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients with those of healthy subjects and to determine possible relationships between cephalometric measurements of OSA patients and control subjects. Methods: Standardized lateral cephalograms of 16 OSA patients and 16 healthy controls were obtained. Airway dimensions and dentofacial parameters were measured using a cephalometric analysis program (Dolphin Imaging Cephalometric and Tracing Software, Chatsworth, CA, USA). All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS version 17.0.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive statistics were calculated for all measurements, and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to evaluate intergroup differences. Results: Midface length was significantly shorter and upper lip E-plane length was significantly longer in the OSA group than in the controls (P<.05). SNA, SNB, and mandibular plane angles (GoGn-SN), anterior and posterior facial heights, and posteroanterior face height ratio were similar in both groups. Maxillary length was slightly longer in the OSA group, whereas the mandibular length showed a slight increase in the control group (P<.05). The axial inclination of the lower incisor to its respective plane was normal, whereas the upper incisor was significantly protrusive (P<.05) in the OSA group. Distance between the hyoid and mandible was significantly greater in the OSA group than in the controls, indicating that the hyoid bone was positioned more downward in the OSA group (P<.05). Conclusions: In this study, the patients with OSA demonstrated significant differences in several craniofacial measurements. OSA patients showed reduced midface length and inferiorly placed hyoid bone and tended to have smaller airway dimensions. PMID:23408768

Gungor, Ahmet Yalcin; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Yilmaz, H. Huseyin; Yariktas, Murat

2013-01-01

193

Figure 1. A result from a 14-year old subject with sleep related breathing disorder. (a,b) Axial MR image frames representing that there is (a) no apneic event and (b) central apnea. A marked reduction of the airway cross-sectional area is observed in (b)  

E-print Network

.I. Pack, "Identification of upper airway anatomic risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea with volumetric-Symposium: Imaging of the Pediatric Upper Airway Novel MRI-based Acquisition Methods Yoon-Chul Kim, Ziyue Wu, Winston. Finally, recent work on 3D real-time MRI acquisition of the upper airway during sleep is presented

Southern California, University of

194

Sleep apnea termination decreases cerebral blood volume: a near-infrared spectroscopy case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.

Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Meriläinen, Pekka

2009-07-01

195

Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypopnea Syndrome, Electrocardiogram, and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We evaluated the impact of surgically-induced weight loss on Obstructive Sleep Apnea\\/Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS),\\u000a electrocardiographic changes, pulmonary arterial pressure and daytime sleepiness in morbidly obese patients. Methods: 16 women\\u000a and 13 men (n=29) underwent bariatric surgery in a 3-year period. The following tests were performed before and 1 year after\\u000a surgery: nocturnal polysomnography, daytime Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT),

Matilde Valencia-Flores; Arturo Orea; Miguel Herrera; Victoria Santiago; Verónica Rebollar; Violeta A. Castaño; Jorge Oseguera; Jorge Pedroza; Jorge Sumano; Montserrat Resendiz; Guillermo García-Ramos

2004-01-01

196

A Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Normal Humans Role of the Upper Airway  

Microsoft Academic Search

tive pressure nights. We found that the application of negative pressure was associated with the development of recurrent ob- structive apneas (non-REM-disordered breathing rate, 32.6 6 34.8 and 37.8 6 29.1 events\\/h during each of two negative pressure nights; p , 0.001) that were associated with oxyhemoglobin de- saturation, arousals from sleep, and alterations in sleep stage dis- tribution. Moreover,

EARL D. KING; PHILIP L. SMITH; ALAN R. SCHWARTZ

197

Neuropsychological and behavioral correlates of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate a group of children with mild to moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea\\u000a Syndrome (OSAS) for baseline neurocognitive deficits and behavioral dysfunction. A subset of the sample were also reassessed,\\u000a using the same test battery, after treatment with adenotonsillectomy.Design: Baseline and post-treatment neuropsychological and behavioral assessment.Setting: Pediatric sleep disorders clinic at

Judith Owens; Anthony Spirito; Ann Marcotte; Melissa McGuinn; Leslie Berkelhammer

2000-01-01

198

The Face of Sleepiness: Improvement in Appearance after Treatment of Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Anecdote but no formal evidence suggests that facial appearance improves after hypersomnolent patients with obstructive sleep apnea are treated. We investigated whether masked volunteer raters can identify post- rather than pre-treatment images as looking more alert, and whether impressions are predicted by any objective changes on highly precise 3-dimensional digital photogrammetry. Methods: Participants included 20 adults with obstructive sleep apnea on polysomnography and excessive sleepiness on Epworth Sleepiness Scales. Photogrammetry was performed before and after ? 2 months of adherent use of positive airway pressure. Twenty-two raters then assessed pre- and post-treatment facial images, paired side-by-side in random order. Results: Subjects included 14 men and 6 women, with mean age 45 ± 11 (SD) years and mean baseline apnea/hypopnea index of 26 ± 21. The 22 raters twice as often identified post-treatment rather than pre-treatment images to look more alert (p = 0.0053), more youthful (p = 0.026), more attractive (p = 0.0068), and more likely to reflect the treated state (p = 0.015). Photogrammetry documented post-treatment decreases in forehead surface volume and decreased infraorbital and cheek redness, but no narrowing of the interpalpebral fissure. Decreased deep NREM sleep at baseline, and pre- to post-treatment decrements in facial redness showed promise as predictors of improved subjective ratings for alertness. Conclusions: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea are perceived to appear more alert, more youthful, and more attractive after adherent use of positive airway pressure. Objective changes in facial surface volume and color were identified. Post-treatment decrements in redness may inform subjective impressions of improved alertness. Citation: Chervin RD; Ruzicka DL; Vahabzadeh A; Burns MC; Burns JW; Buchman SR. The face of sleepiness: improvement in appearance after treatment of sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):845-852. PMID:23997695

Chervin, Ronald D.; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Vahabzadeh, Arshia; Burns, Margaret C.; Burns, Joseph W.; Buchman, Steven R.

2013-01-01

199

[Obstructive sleep apnea--its clinical significance, and the role of general practitioners in its treatment and care].  

PubMed

It is has been widely studied and proved that obstructive sleep apnea is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke. It is also important to be aware that, due to sleep apnea, hypersomnia increases the risk of accidents and the prevalence of neuropsychiatric complications (cognitive impairments, depression, memory and concentration problems, quality of life decreasing). Sleep apnea has several social and economical consequences. Family physicians have an important role in screening and recognizing sleep apnea. Effective screening methods could prevent severe, irreversible complications and could improve patients' quality of life. Family physicians should collaborate with a specialist from sleep laboratory in the field of the patients' examination, treatment and care. PMID:20889440

Torzsa, Péter; Kalabay, László; Adám, Agnes; Novák, Márta; Mucsi, István

2010-10-17

200

Prevalence of Moderate or Severe Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Obese Persons with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated prior to gastric bypass surgery the prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) by Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography in 14 obese women and in 6 obese men, mean age 45 years, with a mean body mass index of 49 ± 5 kg\\/m2 who had nocturnal polysomnography for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiographic

Jasdeep Sidana; Wilbert S. Aronow; Gautham Ravipati; Brian Di Stante; John A. McClung; Robert N. Belkin; Stuart G. Lehrman

2005-01-01

201

Support Vector Machines for Automated Recognition of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome From ECG Recordings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity as well as excessive daytime sleepiness and poor quality of life. In this study, we apply a machine learning technique [support vector machines (SVMs)] for automated recognition of OSAS types from their nocturnal ECG recordings. A total of 125 sets of nocturnal ECG recordings acquired from normal subjects (OSAS- )

Ahsan H. Khandoker; Marimuthu Palaniswami; Chandan K. Karmakar

2009-01-01

202

Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Kidney Transplant Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectives: We assessed the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its clinical correlates in a large sample of patients who received a kidney transplant (Tx). We also compared the prevalence of the disorder between dialysis patients who were on the waiting list for a Tx (WL) and Tx patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was a

Miklos Zsolt Molnar; Alpar Sandor Lazar; Anett Lindner; Katalin Fornadi; Maria Eszter Czira; Andrea Dunai; Rezso Zoller; Andras Szentkiralyi; Laszlo Rosivall; Colin Michael Shapiro; Marta Novak; Istvan Mucsi

2010-01-01

203

A Wireless Sensor System for Biopotential Recording in the Treatment of Sleep Apnea  

E-print Network

A Wireless Sensor System for Biopotential Recording in the Treatment of Sleep Apnea Disorder Lei a wireless system capable of recording from a large number of electrodes (map human bodies' biopotentials in many environments such as intelligent battlefields, smart hospitals, earthquake response systems

Tang, Wendy

204

Detection of cognitive impairment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome using mismatch negativity?  

PubMed Central

In this experiment, 97 patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome were divided into three groups (mild, moderate, severe) according to minimum oxygen saturation, and 35 healthy subjects were examined as controls. Cognitive function was determined using the mismatch negativity paradigm and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The results revealed that as the disease worsened, the mismatch negativity latency was gradually extended, and the amplitude gradually declined in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. Importantly, mismatch negativity latency in severe patients with a persistent time of minimum oxygen saturation < 60 seconds was significantly shorter than that with a persistent time of minimum oxygen saturation > 60 seconds. Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between minimum oxygen saturation latency and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. These findings indicate that intermittent night-time hypoxemia affects mismatch negativity waveforms and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. As indicators for detecting the cognitive functional status of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome patients, the sensitivity of mismatch negativity is 82.93%, the specificity is 73.33%, the accuracy rate is 81.52%, the positive predictive value is 85.00%, the negative predictive value is 70.21%, the positive likelihood ratio is 3, and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.23. These results indicate that mismatch negativity can be used as an effective tool for diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome patients.

Wen, Xiaohui; Wang, Ningyu; Liu, Jinfeng; Yan, Zhanfeng; Xin, Zhonghai

2012-01-01

205

The Effect of Upper Airway Obstruction and Arousal on Peripheral Arterial Tonometry in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of airflow limitation and arousal on digital from the autonomic nervous system in response to the physio- vascular tone in 10 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) logic disturbances that characterize periods of upper airway using the recently developed, noninvasive technique of peripheral obstruction. Hypoxia, acting through the carotid body, can arterial tonometry (PAT). Subjects were

Christopher P. O'Donnell; Lawrence Allan; Paul Atkinson; Alan R. Schwartz

206

Assessment of Cardiac Sympathetic Function with Iodine123-MIBG Imaging in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

lodine-123-MIBG imaging has been used to evaluate myocardial sympathetic function in various cardiac diseases. In patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), increased sympathetic activity has been widely recognized, as assessed by measuring the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of catecholamines and by measuring muscle sympathetic nerve activity. However, these measurements are not specific indices of cardiac sympathetic function. Therefore,

Naoki Otsuka; Motoharu Ohi; Kazuo Chin; Hideo Kit; Tetsuo Noguchi; Tatsuhiko Hat; Ryuji Nohara; Ryohei Hosokawa; Masatoshi Fujita; Kenshi Kuno

207

Elevated Morbidity and Health Care Use in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale:Health care use, areliable measure ofmorbidity, is notice- ably higher 1 yr before obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) diagnosis in preschool children. It is not clear at what age OSAS- related morbidity becomes expressed. Objective: To explore morbidity and health care use among children with OSAS starting from first year of life. Methods: Case-control study, starting from the first year

Ariel Tarasiuk; Sari Greenberg-Dotan; Tzahit Simon-Tuval; Bruria Freidman; Aviv D. Goldbart; Asher Tal; Haim Reuveni

208

Effects of stabilizing or increasing respiratory motor outputs on obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

To determine how the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patient's pathophysiological traits predict the success of the treatment aimed at stabilization or increase in respiratory motor outputs, we studied 26 newly diagnosed OSA patients [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 42 ± 5 events/h with 92% of apneas obstructive] who were treated with O2 supplementation, an isocapnic rebreathing system in which CO2 was added only during hyperpnea to prevent transient hypocapnia, and a continuous rebreathing system. We also measured each patient's controller gain below eupnea [change in minute volume/change in end-tidal Pco2 (?V?e/?PetCO2)], CO2 reserve (eupnea-apnea threshold PetCO2), and plant gain (?PetCO2/?V?e), as well as passive upper airway closing pressure (Pcrit). With isocapnic rebreathing, 14/26 reduced their AHI to 31 ± 6% of control (P < 0.01) (responder); 12/26 did not show significant change (nonresponder). The responders vs. nonresponders had a greater controller gain (6.5 ± 1.7 vs. 2.1 ± 0.2 l·min?1·mmHg?1, P < 0.01) and a smaller CO2 reserve (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.3 ± 0.4 mmHg, P < 0.01) with no differences in Pcrit (?0.1 ± 1.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.9 cmH2O, P > 0.05). Hypercapnic rebreathing (+4.2 ± 1 mmHg PetCO2) reduced AHI to 15 ± 4% of control (P < 0.001) in 17/21 subjects with a wide range of CO2 reserve. Hyperoxia (SaO2 ?95–98%) reduced AHI to 36 ± 11% of control in 7/19 OSA patients tested. We concluded that stabilizing central respiratory motor output via prevention of transient hypocapnia prevents most OSA in selected patients with a high chemosensitivity and a collapsible upper airway, whereas increasing respiratory motor output via moderate hypercapnia eliminates OSA in most patients with a wider range of chemosensitivity and CO2 reserve. Reducing chemosensitivity via hyperoxia had a limited and unpredictable effect on OSA. PMID:23599393

Teodorescu, Mihaela; Pegelow, David F.; Teodorescu, Mihai C.; Gong, Yuansheng; Fedie, Jessica E.; Dempsey, Jerome A.

2013-01-01

209

Sleep apnea screening by autoregressive models from a single ECG lead.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening based on the electrocardiogram (ECG) recording during sleep. OSA is a common sleep disorder produced by repetitive occlusions in the upper airways and this phenomenon can usually be observed also in other peripheral systems such as the cardiovascular system. Then the extraction of ECG characteristics, such as the RR intervals and the area of the QRS complex, is useful to evaluate the sleep apnea in noninvasive way. In the presented analysis, 50 recordings coming from the apnea Physionet database were used; data were split into two sets, the training and the testing set, each of which was composed of 25 recordings. A bivariate time-varying autoregressive model (TVAM) was used to evaluate beat-by-beat power spectral densities for both the RR intervals and the QRS complex areas. Temporal and spectral features were changed on a minute-by-minute basis since apnea annotations where given with this resolution. The training set consisted of 4950 apneic and 7127 nonapneic minutes while the testing set had 4428 apneic and 7927 nonapneic minutes. The K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and neural networks (NN) supervised learning classifiers were employed to classify apnea and non apnea minutes. A sequential forward selection was used to select the best feature subset in a wrapper setting. With ten features the KNN algorithm reached an accuracy of 88%, sensitivity equal to 85%, and specificity up to 90%, while NN reached accuracy equal to 88%, sensitivity equal to 89% and specificity equal to 86%. In addition to the minute-by-minute classification, the results showed that the two classifiers are able to separate entirely (100%) the normal recordings from the apneic recordings. Finally, an additional database with eight recordings annotated as normal or apneic was used to test again the classifiers. Also in this new dataset, the results showed a complete separation between apneic and normal recordings. PMID:19709961

Mendez, Martin O; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Matteucci, Matteo; Cerutti, Sergio; Penzel, Thomas

2009-12-01

210

The effect of adding gender item to Berlin Questionnaire in determining obstructive sleep apnea in sleep clinics  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIM: We aimed to validate the Turkish version of Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) and developped a BQ-gender (BQ-G) form by adding gender component. We aimed to compare the two forms in defining patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in sleep clinics. METHODS: Four hundred and eighty five consecutive patients, refered to our sleep clinic for snoring, witnessed apnea and/or excessive daytime sleepiness were enrolled to the study. All patients underwent in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG). Patients with sleep efficiency less than 40% and total sleep time less than 4 hours, chronic anxiolitic/sedative drug usage, respiratory tract infection within past two weeks were excluded from the study. All the patients fulfilled BQ. The test and retest for BQ were applied in 15-day interval in 30 patients. RESULTS: Totally 433 patients were enrolled to the study (285 male, 148 female). The mean age of the patients was 47,5 ± 10.5 (21-79). 180 patients (41.6%) had apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ? 15, while 253 patients (58,4%) had AHI > 15. The ? value was 48–94 and the the truth value was 69-94% for the test-retest procedure. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), and area under the curve AUC were 84.2%, 31.7%, 48.7%, 63.4%, and 0.579 in order for BQ and 79.9 %, 51.7%, 63.2% , 69.6%, and 0.652 for BQ-G. CONCLUSION: The results showed that BQ-G is relatively better than BQ in determining moderate to severe OSA in sleep clinics where most of the patients are sleep apneic but both of the tests were found to have insufficient validities in defining moderate to severe OSA in sleep clinics.

Yüceege, Melike; F?rat, Hikmet; Sever, Özlem; Demir, Ahmet; Ard?ç, Sad?k

2015-01-01

211

Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Associated with Cardiac Troponin I Concentrations in a Community-based Sample: Data from the Akershus Sleep Apnea Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Previous community-based studies have failed to demonstrate an independent association between OSA and circulating cardiac troponin concentrations, a marker of myocardial injury. However, these studies have used troponin assays with modest analytic sensitivity to detect low-level, chronic increments in troponin levels. Using a highly sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) assay, we tested the hypothesis that the severity of OSA is associated with myocardial injury independently of comorbidities. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 514 subjects (54% men, age 48 ± 11 y [mean ± SD]). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: hs-TnI concentrations were measured in fasting morning blood samples and 318 participants (62%) had hs-TnI concentration above the limit of detection ([LoD] 1.2 ng/L). The severity of OSA, expressed as the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and nocturnal hypoxemia, was assessed by in-hospital polysomnography. After adjustment for age, gender, estimated creatinine clearance, history of coronary artery disease and hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, left ventricular hypertrophy, and cholesterol ratio in multivariate linear regression models, higher AHI (standardized ? = 0.12, P = 0.006), lower mean SpO2 (? = -0.13, P = 0.012) and higher percentage of total sleep time with SpO2 < 90% (? = 0.12, P = 0.011) were all associated with higher hs-TnI levels in separate models. Additional analyses with hs-TnI categorized in tertiles or using a different strategy for persons with hs-TnI levels below the LoD did not change the results. Conclusion: Increased obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity is independently associated with higher concentrations of hs-TnI, suggesting that frequent apneas or hypoxemia in OSA may cause low-grade myocardial injury. Citation: Einvik G, Røsjø H, Randby A, Namtvedt SK, Hrubos-Strøm H, Brynildsen J, Somers VK, Omland T. Severity of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with cardiac troponin I concentrations in a community-based sample: data from the Akershus Sleep Apnea Project. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1111-1116. PMID:24882906

Einvik, Gunnar; Røsjø, Helge; Randby, Anna; Namtvedt, Silje K.; Hrubos-Strøm, Harald; Brynildsen, Jon; Somers, Virend K.; Omland, Torbjørn

2014-01-01

212

Automatic screening of obstructive sleep apnea from the ECG based on empirical mode decomposition and wavelet analysis  

E-print Network

. OSA is a common sleep disorder caused by repetitive occlusions of the upper airways, which producesAutomatic screening of obstructive sleep apnea from the ECG based on empirical mode decomposition Physiol. Meas. 31 (2010) 273­289 doi:10.1088/0967-3334/31/3/001 Automatic screening of obstructive sleep

213

The impact of sleep apnea treatment on carbohydrate metabolism in patients with acromegaly.  

PubMed

Sleep Apnea is highly prevalent and may contribute to insulin resistance in patients with acromegaly. The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of sleep apnea treatment with a continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) device on insulin resistance evaluated by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC). A prospective, randomized, open label, placebo-controlled, crossover study was performed at a tertiary outpatient pituitary center. Twelve acromegalic subjects on somatostatin analogs (SA) with a recent diagnosis of moderate to severe sleep apnea were randomized to CPAP therapy or to nasal dilator adhesive (NDA) with placebo effect for 3 months and then crossed over for another 3 months period without washout. Assessment of HEC, mathematical insulin resistance indexes (HOMA, HOMA2 and QUICKI), GH, IGF-1, HbA1c and free fat acids were performed. A significant reduction on insulin resistance was demonstrated by HEC at the end of the study in patients on CPAP (HEC, pre- and post-CPAP: 4.27 vs. 6.10 mg/Kg/min, P = 0.032). This reduction was not observed in NDA group (HEC, pre- and post-adhesive: 5.53 vs. 5.19 mg/Kg/min, P = 0.455). There was no significant difference on HbA1c or on peripheral insulin resistance indexes in both treatments. CPAP promoted a significant increase on peripheral insulin sensitivity in acromegalic patients with moderate to severe sleep apnea on SA use. Our results support the concept that sleep apnea plays an important role on glucose metabolism. Insulin resistance indexes were unable to detect this finding. PMID:22983689

Duarte, Felipe Henning Gaia; Jallad, Raquel Soares; Amaro, Aline Cecília Soares; Drager, Luciano Ferreira; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Bronstein, Marcello Delano

2013-09-01

214

Ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging in upper airways obstruction in sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that the sites of upper airways obstruction (UAO) are varied in a patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) among different sleep stages is studied. Four patients with OSAS underwent ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a field strength of 0.064 Tesla provided real-time images and generated less noise and necessitated less strict magnetic isolation compared with conventional high-field MRI. After the fixed end-apneic sleep stage was determined, the polysomnogram was switched off and ultra-low-field MRI was commenced. The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the upper airway patency in the deepest sleep stage obtained for each patient was assessed. Upper airway obstruction was found at the level of the palatopharynx (PP) at sleep onset extended to the glossopharynx (GP) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in two cases and during NREM sleep in one case. This combined PP and GP obstruction was observed from sleep onset and remained unchanged in one case. The patent upper airways were observed during treatment with CPAP during REM sleep in two patients and during stage two of NREM sleep in the other two patients. It can be concluded that the sites of UAO vary in a patient with OSAS in different sleep stages. The results also suggest the use of the ultra-low-field MRI in order to visualize the dynamic and real-time behaviors of the upper airways during sleep in patients with OSAS. PMID:9201792

Okada, T; Fukatsu, H; Ishigaki, T; Yasuma, F; Kayukawa, Y

1996-10-01

215

Respiratory Sound Analysis for Flow Estimation During Wakefulness and Sleep, and its Applications for Sleep Apnea Detection and Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracheal respiratory sounds analysis has been investigated as a non--invasive method to estimate respiratory flow and upper airway obstruction. However, the flow--sound relationship is highly variable among subjects which makes it challenging to estimate flow in general applications. Therefore, a robust model for acoustical flow estimation in a large group of individuals did not exist before. On the other hand, a major application of acoustical flow estimation is to detect flow limitations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during sleep. However, previously the flow--sound relationship was only investigated during wakefulness among healthy individuals. Therefore, it was necessary to examine the flow--sound relationship during sleep in OSA patients. This thesis takes the above challenges and offers innovative solutions. First, a modified linear flow--sound model was proposed to estimate respiratory flow from tracheal sounds. To remove the individual based calibration process, the statistical correlation between the model parameters and anthropometric features of 93 healthy volunteers was investigated. The results show that gender, height and smoking are the most significant factors that affect the model parameters. Hence, a general acoustical flow estimation model was proposed for people with similar height and gender. Second, flow--sound relationship during sleep and wakefulness was studied among 13 OSA patients. The results show that during sleep and wakefulness, flow--sound relation- ship follows a power law, but with different parameters. Therefore, for acoustical flow estimation during sleep, the model parameters should be extracted from sleep data to have small errors. The results confirm reliability of the acoustical flow estimation for investigating flow variations during both sleep and wakefulness. Finally, a new method for sleep apnea detection and monitoring was developed, which only requires recording the tracheal sounds and the blood's oxygen saturation level (SaO2) data. It automatically classifies the sound segments into breath, snore and noise. A weighted average of features extracted from sound segments and SaO2 signal was used to detect apnea and hypopnea events. The performance of the proposed approach was evaluated on the data of 66 patients. The results show high correlation (0.96, p < 0.0001) between the outcomes of our system and those of the polysomnography. Also, sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method in differentiating simple snorers from OSA patients were found to be more than 91%. These results are superior or comparable with the existing commercialized sleep apnea portable monitors.

Yadollahi, Azadeh

216

The Utility of a Portable Recording Device for Screening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The ApneaLink Plus is a portable recording device that measures air flow, respiratory effort, heart rate, and pulse oximetry. In the current study, we asked whether this device could be used to screen for obstructive sleep apnea in the pediatric population. Methods: Sleep-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) was performed simultaneously with measurements using the portable device on obese pediatric patients referred for snoring. The obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) was calculated automatically by the device (autoscore) and manually by the investigators. Sensitivity, specificity, correlation, and receiver operating curves (ROC) were used to compare the portable device to PSG. Results: Twenty-five subjects (60% male, mean age 13.6 ± 3.0 years, OAHI on PSG 11.8 ± 27.1) were studied. We identified a significant correlation between the OAHI of the ApneaLink autoscore and PSG (Spearman Rho = 0.886 [p < 0.001]). Using the PSG results as standard, ROC curves comparing the ApneaLink OAHI with the PSG OAHI demonstrated high congruence. The autoscore agreement was very good at PSG OAHI > 1.5 (area under the receiver operating curve [AUC] 0.965, OAHI > 5 [AUC 0.937], and OAHI > 10 [AUC 1.00]). The agreement of the manual score and autoscore were essentially equivalent. The device's autoscore demonstrated high sensitivity at all cutoffs examined (100% at OAHI > 1.5, 85.7% at OAHI > 5, and 100% at OAHI > 10). The specificity increased with increasing cutoffs (46.2% at OAHI > 1.5, 83.3% at OAHI > 5, and 90.0% at OAHI > 10). Conclusion: he ApneaLink Plus is a sensitive screening tool for evaluation of suspected OSAS in obese pediatric patients aged 9-18 years. The specificity improves with increasing OAHI cutoffs. The device detects OSAS when tested in a sleep laboratory on obese adolescents referred for symptoms of sleep related breathing disorder. Citation: Lesser DJ; Haddad GG; Bush RA; Pian MS. The utility of a portable recording device for screening of obstructive sleep apnea in obese adolescents. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):271-277. PMID:22701384

Lesser, Daniel J.; Haddad, Gabriel G.; Bush, Ruth A.; Pian, Mark S.

2012-01-01

217

Hypertension, metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and diabetes associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Associations between hypertension, metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)\\u000a were assessed in a prospective single center clinical study including patients from an outpatient sleep clinic and an inpatient\\u000a sleep lab.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The Görlitz Metabolic Study is a prospective trial assessing the relationship between current definitions of the metabolic\\u000a syndrome (Adult Treatment Pannel III, ATP 3; International Diabetes Federation, IDF;

H.-W. M. Breuer

2011-01-01

218

Detection of obstructive sleep apnea in ECG recordings using time-frequency distributions and dynamic features.  

PubMed

Detection of obstructive sleep apnea can be performed through heart rate variability analysis, since fluctuations of oxygen saturation in blood cause variations in the heart rate. Such variations in heart rate can be assessed by means of time-frequency analysis implemented with time-frequency distributions belonging to Cohen's class. In this work, dynamic features are extracted from time frequency distributions in order to detect obstructive sleep apnea from ECG signals recorded during sleep. Furthermore, it is applied a methodology to measure the relevance of each dynamic feature, before the implementation of k-nn classifier used to recognize the normal and pathologic signals. As a result, the proposed method can be applied as a simple diagnostic tool for OSA with a high accuracy (up to 92.67%) in one-minute intervals. PMID:19964393

Quiceno-Manrique, A F; Alonso-Hernández, J B; Travieso-González, C M; Ferrer-Ballester, M A; Castellanos-Domínguez, G

2009-01-01

219

The incidence and severity of pulmonary hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea with hypothyroidism  

PubMed Central

Background Hypothyroidism and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are both common health problems and can be seen together. Each of these 2 diseases can cause pulmonary hypertension (PH). We aimed to determine whether hypothyroidism with OSA has a significant effect on the frequency and severity of PH. Material/Methods A total of 236 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group I, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (n=149); Group II, Hypothyroidism (n=56); and Group III, Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypothyroidism (n=31). All patients underwent polysomnography and echocardiography and serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine 4 (FT4) were analyzed. Results There were 167 male and 69 female participants, and the mean age was 47.8±11.5 (Group I: 81.9% male, 18.1% female; Group II: 44.6% male, 55.4% female; Group III: 64.6% male, 35.4% female). Distribution of mean pulmonary arterial pressure on echocardiography was statistically different among the 3 groups (x2=14.99, p=0.006). When adjusted according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), age, and body mass index (BMI), a significant relation with PH was determined (p=0.002). Conclusions The combination of hypothyroidism with OSA is associated with an increased frequency and severity of PH. When PH is found out of line with the severity of OSA, thyroid dysfunction should be investigated. PMID:24149072

Araz, Omer; Ucar, Elif Yilmazel; Yalcin, Asl?han; Pulur, Didem; Acemoglu, Hamit; Tas, Hakan; Saglam, Leyla; Akgun, Metin; Mirici, Arzu

2013-01-01

220

Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Apnea in Patients' Homes: The Rationale and Methods of the “GoToSleep” Randomized-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: The “Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Apnea in Cerebrovascular Disease” (GoToSleep) study is evaluating a strategy to improve the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea among veterans with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) who also have hypertension. Specifically, the GoToSleep study was designed to overcome some of the barriers that exist within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to the timely diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea by using ambulatory home-based polysomnography and auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to reduce the reliance on laboratory-based sleep studies. Methods: The GoToSleep study is a prospective, multi-site, randomized, controlled strategy trial among an expected 318 veterans with cerebrovascular disease and hypertension who are assigned to an intervention group or a control group. Patients in the intervention group receive unattended polysomnography at baseline, and those with sleep apnea receive auto-titrating CPAP therapy for up to one year. Patients in the control group receive usual care and unattended polysomnography at the end of the study to identify the rate of undiagnosed sleep apnea. The primary objectives of the GoToSleep study are to determine whether a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategy among veterans with cerebrovascular disease and hypertension improves: (1) detection of sleep apnea; (2) appropriate treatment for sleep apnea; and (3) control of hypertension. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure assessments are made at baseline and at the end of the one-year study period for both groups. Antihypertensive medications and their doses are recorded at the time of the 24-hour blood pressure measurements. Discussion: This manuscript provides the rationale for 4 key components of the design of the GoToSleep trial: the inclusion of patients with cerebrovascular disease and hypertension without the use of a measure of daytime sleepiness as an eligibility criterion; the use of portable polysomnography and auto-titrating CPAP in patients' homes rather than using sleep laboratory polysomnography with fixed pressure CPAP; the analytic approach to evaluating change in blood pressure in the context of change in antihypertensive medications; and the use of a usual care control group. Citation: Bravata DM; Ferguson J; Miech EJ; Agarwal R; McClain V; Austin C; Struve F; Foresman B; Li X; Wang Z; Williams LS; Dallas MI; Couch CD; Sico J; Fragoso C; Matthias MS; Chumbler N; Myers J; Burrus N; Dube A; French DD; Schmid AA; Concato J; Yaggi HK. Diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea in patients' homes: the rationale and methods of the “GoToSleep” randomized-controlled trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(1):27–35. PMID:22334806

Bravata, Dawn M.; Ferguson, Jared; Miech, Edward J.; Agarwal, Rajiv; McClain, Vincent; Austin, Charles; Struve, Frederick; Foresman, Brian; Li, Xinli; Wang, Zhu; Williams, Linda S.; Dallas, Mary I.; Couch, Cody D.; Sico, Jason; Fragoso, Carlos; Matthias, Marianne S.; Chumbler, Neale; Myers, Jennifer; Burrus, Nicholas; Dube, Archana; French, Dustin D.; Schmid, Arlene A.; Concato, John; Yaggi, H. Klar

2012-01-01

221

The effect of exercise on obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized and controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of the study was to assess the effect of breathing and physical exercise on pulmonary functions, apnea-hypopnea index\\u000a (AHI), and quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty patients with mild to moderate OSAS were included in the study either as exercise or control group. The control group\\u000a did not receive any treatment, whereas

Yesim Salik Sengul; Sevgi Ozalevli; Ibrahim Oztura; Oya Itil; Baris Baklan

2011-01-01

222

Obstructive lingual thyroid causing sleep apnea: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Lingual thyroid has been reported to cause obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) only once in the literature. We present a case of a 49-year-old nonobese female with a 2-year history of progressive snoring, apneas, snort arousals, and daytime somnolence associated with the sensation of an 'enlarging tongue'. She was found to have severe OSA caused by a large lingual thyroid. While positive airway pressure therapy was not successful, surgical resection of the thyroid was curative. OSA caused by lingual thyroid and other oropharyngeal/parapharyngeal tumors are discussed. A careful oropharyngeal examination is important in evaluating patients with complaints of OSA. PMID:15511710

Barnes, Terrance W; Olsen, Kerry D; Morgenthaler, Timothy I

2004-11-01

223

Management of obstructive sleep apnea in the indigent population: a deviation of standard of care?  

PubMed

Comprehensive management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) typically is managed best via a multidisciplinary approach, involving otolaryngologists, sleep psychologists/psychiatrists, pulmonologists, neurologists, oral surgeons, and sleep trained dentists. By utilizing these resources, one could fashion a treatment individualized to the patient, giving rise to the holistic phrase of "personalized medicine." Unfortunately, in situations and environments with limited resources, the treatment options in an otolaryngologist's armamentarium are restricted--typically to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus sleep surgery. However, a recent patient encounter highlighted here shows how a hospital's reimbursement policy effectively dictated a patient's medical management to sleep surgery. This occurred although the current gold standard for the initial treatment of OSA is CPAP. Changing the course of medical/surgical management by selectively restricting funding is a cause of concern, especially when it promotes patients to choose a treatment option that is not considered the current standard of care. PMID:24316791

Hamblin, John S; Sandulache, Vlad C; Alapat, Philip M; Takashima, Masayoshi

2014-03-01

224

Medical Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Review by the Medical Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Task Force of the Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of patients with obstructive sleep apnea neither tolerate positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy nor achieve suc- cessful outcomes from either upper airway surgeries or use of an oral appliance. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to systematically evaluate available peer-reviewed data on the effectiveness of adjunctive medical therapies and summarize findings from these studies. A review

Sigrid C. Veasey; Christian Guilleminault; Kingman P. Strohl; Mark H. Sanders; Robert D. Ballard; Ulysses J. Magalang

2006-01-01

225

Time of day affects chemoreflex sensitivity and the carbon dioxide reserve during NREM sleep in participants with sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Our investigation was designed to determine whether the time of day affects the carbon dioxide reserve and chemoreflex sensitivity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Ten healthy men with obstructive sleep apnea completed a constant routine protocol that consisted of sleep sessions in the evening (10 PM to 1 AM), morning (6 AM to 9 AM), and afternoon (2 PM to 5 PM). Between sleep sessions, the participants were awake. During each sleep session, core body temperature, baseline levels of carbon dioxide (PetCO2 ) and minute ventilation, as well as the PetCO2 that demarcated the apneic threshold and hypocapnic ventilatory response, were measured. The nadir of core body temperature during sleep occurred in the morning and was accompanied by reductions in minute ventilation and PetCO2 compared with the evening and afternoon (minute ventilation: 5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 6.1 ± 0.2 l/min, P < 0.02; PetCO2 : 39.7 ± 0.4 vs. 41.4 ± 0.6 vs. 40.4 ± 0.6 Torr, P < 0.02). The carbon dioxide reserve was reduced, and the hypocapnic ventilatory response increased in the morning compared with the evening and afternoon (carbon dioxide reserve: 2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 3.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.5 ± 0.3 Torr, P < 0.002; hypocapnic ventilatory response: 2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 l·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.001). We conclude that time of day affects chemoreflex properties during sleep, which may contribute to increases in breathing instability in the morning compared with other periods throughout the day/night cycle in individuals with sleep apnea. PMID:25213638

El-Chami, Mohamad; Shaheen, David; Ivers, Blake; Syed, Ziauddin; Badr, M Safwan; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mateika, Jason H

2014-11-15

226

[An algorithm based on ECG signal for sleep apnea syndrome detection].  

PubMed

The diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) has a significant importance in clinic for preventing diseases of hypertention, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia and cerebrovascular disorder, etc. This study presents a novel method for SAS detection based on single-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The method preprocessed ECG and detected QRS waves to get RR signal and ECG-derived respiratory (EDR) signal. Then 40 time- and spectral-domain features were extracted to normalize the signals. After that support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify the signals as "apnea" or "normal". Finally, the performance of the method was evaluated by the MIT-BIH Apnea-ECG database, and an accuracy of 95% in train sets and an accuracy of 88% in test sets were achieved. PMID:24459959

Yu, Xiaomin; Tu, Yuewen; Huang, Chao; Ye, Shuming; Chen, Hang

2013-10-01

227

Novel parameters for evaluating severity of sleep disordered breathing and for supporting diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.  

PubMed

Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is a complex public health problem causing increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Traditionally, evaluation of the severity of the disease is based on Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI). It is defined as the average number of apnea and hypopnea events per hour during sleep. However, e.g. the total duration and the morphology of the recorded events are not considered when evaluating the severity of the disease. This is surprising, as increasing the length of apnea and hypopnea events will most likely lead to longer and deeper oxygen desaturation events. Obviously, this is physiologically more stressful and may have more severe health consequences than shorter and shallower desaturation events. Paradoxically, the lengthening of apnea and hypopnea events may even lead to a decrease in AHI and oxygen desaturation index (ODI). This raises the question of whether additional information is needed besides AHI and ODI for the evaluation of the severity of SAHS and its potential cardiovascular consequences. In the present paper, several novel parameters are introduced to bring additional information for evaluation of the severity of SAHS. Besides the number of events per hour, that AHI and ODI takes into account, the duration of the breathing cessations and the morphology of the oxygen desaturation events are considered as important factors that may influence the daytime fatigue and also the related cardiovascular problems. In this study diagnostic ambulatory polygraphy recordings of 19 male patients were retrospectively analysed. Importantly, the novel parameters showed significant variation amongst patients with similar AHI. For example, the correlation between AHI and the Obstruction severity-parameter was only moderate (r(2)=0.604, p<0.001). This suggests that patients with similar AHI may exhibit significantly different cardiovascular stress related to the disease. It is suggested that the present novel parameters might provide additional information over the currently used parameters and support the evaluation of the severity of SAHS. PMID:23360196

Kulkas, A; Tiihonen, P; Eskola, K; Julkunen, P; Mervaala, E; Töyräs, J

2013-02-01

228

Variability of QT Interval Duration in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Indicator of Disease Severity  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To determine OSA-related changes in variability of QT interval duration and in heart rate variability (HRV), and to evaluate the relationship of these parameters to disease severity. Design: Retrospective analysis of diagnostic sleep records. Settings: Clinical sleep laboratory in a hospital setting. Patients: Twenty patients (12 males and 8 females) without significant comorbidities who were undergoing polysomnography were studied. Measurements and Results: Standard heart rate variability measures and QT variability (Berger algorithm) were computed over consecutive 5-minute ECG epochs throughout the night. The effect of sleep stage and the relationship between these parameters and the severity of OSA as determined by the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) were explored. Further, a linear regression model of QT variability was developed. Severity of OSA (RDI) was 49 ± 28 (range from 17–107) events/hr. QT variability was the only ECG measure significantly correlated with RDI (both log-transformed; r = 0.6, P = 0.006). Further, QT variability was correlated with the minimum oxygen saturation (r = ?0.55, P = 0.01). Sleep stage showed a significant effect on HRV, but not on QT variability. In the regression model, RDI was the strongest predictor of QT variability (R2 increase 38%), followed by high and low frequency power of HRV (R2 increase 10% each). Conclusion: Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with changes in QT interval variability during sleep. The variance of beat-to-beat QT intervals correlates more strongly with the severity of OSA (as determined by RDI) than standard measures of heart rate variability, and is correlated with blood oxygenation, but not sleep stage. Citation: Baumert M; Smith J; Catcheside P; McEvoy RD; Abbott D; Sanders P; Nalivaiko E. Variability of QT interval duration in obstructive sleep apnea: an indicator of disease severity. SLEEP 2008;31(7):959-966. PMID:18652091

Baumert, Mathias; Smith, Janet; Catcheside, Peter; McEvoy, R Douglas; Abbott, Derek; Sanders, Prashanthan; Nalivaiko, Eugene

2008-01-01

229

Characterization of primary symptoms leading to Chinese patients presenting at hospital with suspected obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

Objectives We identified the primary symptoms leading to Chinese patients presenting at hospital with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and studied the prevalence and characteristics of OSA in confirmed cases. Methods We collected data on 350 consecutive patients (302 males and 43±11 years old) with suspected OSA who underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG). Results Among all patients, rankings of primary symptoms that led to the patients presenting at hospital for PSG were observed apnea (33%), snoring alone (29%), choking/gasping (13%), daytime sleepiness (5%) and other (20%). For severe OSA, prevalence rate was 61%, apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 64±18, age was 44±10 years old, body mass index (BMI) was 28±3.5 kg/m2, and hypertension rate was 28%. Conclusions Self-awareness of symptoms led a majority of the patients to present at hospital in China. Compared to currently available case series studies, our results suggest that OSA patients in East Asian countries are characterized by higher prevalence and more severe apnea, younger age, poorer sleep quality, but less obesity and less comorbidity with hypertension, relative to countries in North America, South America and Europe. PMID:24822101

Li, Zhe; Du, Lina; Li, Yun; Huang, Lili; Lei, Fei; Yang, Linghui; Li, Tao

2014-01-01

230

The evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

Aim. To evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Method. We studied 43 new diagnosed OSAS patients and 40 healthy volunteers. Patients underwent an overnight sleep study in an effort to diagnose and determine the severity of OSAS. RNFL analyses were performed using Stratus OCT. The average and the four-quadrant RNFL thickness were evaluated. Results. There was no difference between the average and the four-quadrant RNFL thickness in OSAS and control groups. There was no correlation between apnea-hypopnea index and intraocular pressure. Body mass index of patients with moderate and severe OSAS was significantly higher in patients with mild OSAS. Conclusion. Mean RNFL thickness did not differ between the healthy and the OSAS subjects, however, the parameters were more variable, with a larger range in OSAS patients compared to controls. PMID:24369492

Adam, Mehmet; Okka, Mehmet; Yosunkaya, Sebnem; Bozkurt, Banu; Kerimo?lu, Hürkan; Turan, Meydan

2013-01-01

231

Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children: Beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy.  

PubMed

The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in the general childhood population is 1-2% and the most common cause is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy, there are other highly prevalent causes of this syndrome in children. The causes are often multifactorial and include muscular hypotonia, dentofacial abnormalities, soft tissue hypertrophy of the airway, and neurological disorders). Collaboration between different specialties involved in the care of these children is essential, given the wide variability of conditions and how frequently different factors are involved in their genesis, as well as the different treatments to be applied. We carried out a wide literature review of other causes of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy. We organised the prevalence of this syndrome in each pathology and the reasons that cause it, as well as their interactions and management, in a consistent manner. PMID:25107357

Esteller, Eduard

2014-08-01

232

High Priority Future Research Needs for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To identify and prioritize future research needs (FRN) topics for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty-one panel members represented six stake-holder categories: patients and the public, providers; purchasers of health care, payers, policymakers, and principal investigators. Building on a recently completed comparative effectiveness review, stakeholders nominated and discussed potential FRN topics. Stakeholders then nominated their top priority FRN topics based on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program Selection Criteria. From these nominations, the highest priority FRN topics were determined and were elaborated upon to include possible study designs to address the topics. Results: Thirty-seven topics were discussed and prioritized. The nine highest priority FRN topics included: cost-effectiveness of management strategies, defining age- and sex-specific criteria for OSA, evaluating routine preoperative screening for OSA, evaluating involvement of a sleep medicine specialist in diagnosis of OSA, evaluating clinical prediction rules, assessing the effect of treating sleep disordered breathing and long-term clinical outcomes, comparing treatments for patients who do not tolerate positive airway pressure, evaluating strategies to improve treatment compliance, and evaluating the association between sleep apnea severity and long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions: While there are numerous specific research questions with low or insufficient strength of evidence for OSA management, OSA patients, their healthcare providers, and society at large would benefit from refocusing research efforts into the prioritized research questions and away from simple comparisons of short-term outcomes between specific interventions. Citation: Patel K; Moorthy D; Chan JA; Concannon TW. High priority future research needs for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):395-402. PMID:23585757

Patel, Kamal; Moorthy, Denish; Chan, Jeffrey A.; Concannon, Thomas W.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M.

2013-01-01

233

Does AHI Value Enough for Evaluating the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity?  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is an important and more common public health problem with increasing incidence. Polysomonography (PSG) is the gold standard test in OSAHS diagnosis. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is the main parameter of PSG, which is correlated with OSAHS severity. The main complaint of OSAHS patients is daytime sleepiness and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) used for evaluation of disease severity. The correlation of AHI with daytime sleepiness and ESS is well known. But there are many patients, which have uncorrelated daytime sleepiness with AHI. This data calls this hypothesis; Are there any other parameters which may affect daytime sleepiness. 648 patients with complaining of snoring and apnea were evaluated by polysomnography and anthropometric measurements. The cut-off value of ESS was accepted 10 as an indicator of severe daytime sleepiness. Patients were divided to groups with the aim of homogenization, according to AHI values. The patients with similar AHI values were analyzed according to their ESS scores. BMI and neck circumference were elevated in daytime sleepiness patients. The nocturnal hypoxemia markers; apnea number/index, maximum duration of apnea, at least SO2 concentration, duration of SO2 less than 90 % were much effected in the group of daytime sleepiness. Beside the fact that our research, AHI is not enough for predicting the daytime sleepiness; anthropometric measurements and the nocturnal hypoxemia markers should be evaluated. PMID:25621248

Dündar, Yusuf; Saylam, Güleser; Tatar, Emel Çadall?; Özdek, Ali; Korkmaz, Hakan; F?rat, Hikmet; Ard?ç, Sad?k

2015-03-01

234

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Alters Sleep Stage Transition Matt T. Bianchi1  

E-print Network

stage designations: wake after sleep onset (WASO), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and REM sleep) with mild (n = 496) or severe OSA (n = 338). WASO, REM sleep, and NREM sleep bout durations exhibited multi-exponential temporal dynamics. The presence of OSA accelerated the ``decay'' rate of NREM and REM sleep bouts

235

Reliability of Telemedicine in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Advances in information technology and telecommunications have provided the option of making it easier to diagnose and treat obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) using telemedicine techniques. This study assessed the feasibility and reliability of respiratory polygraphy and prescription of treatment by pressure adjustment with auto-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) systems, both being transmitted telematically to the Sleep Unit, with teleconsultation as a support method. Subjects and Methods: Forty patients were studied from a population 80?km from the Sleep Unit using respiratory polygraphy transmitted in real time. They were divided into two groups: one was seen by conventional consultation, and the other was seen using teleconsultation. We also estimated satisfaction with this system and its costs. Results: The mean patient age was 53±10.3 years, with a body mass index of 31±6.2?kg/m2 and an Epworth score of 12±5.3. In total, 35 patients were diagnosed with OSAS, with an Apnea-Hypopnea Index of ?10, and CPAP treatment was started in 16 of them. The agreement in the Apnea-Hypopnea Index, total apneas and hypopneas, mean oxygen saturation, and time with an oxygen saturation <90% was greater than 90% between the studies transmitted in real time and those stored in the polygraph. The level of compliance with CPAP treatment was 85% for the patients who were seen in a conventional clinic and 75% in those seen by teleconsultation. Conclusions: The use of telematic techniques is useful to establish a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for OSAS with the creation of a Wide Core Sleep Laboratory as a process controller. PMID:23186084

Coma-del-Corral, María Jesús; Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Allende, Marta; Cordero, José; Ordax, Estrella; Masa, Fernando

2013-01-01

236

Detrended fluctuation analysis of EEG in sleep apnea using MIT\\/BIH polysomnography data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of natural time series including electroencephalogram (EEG) show highly non-stationary characteristics in their behavior. We analyzed the EEG in sleep apnea that typically exhibits non-stationarity and long-range correlations by calculating its scaling exponents. Scaling exponents of the EEG dynamics are obtained by analyzing its fluctuation with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is suitable for non-stationary time series. We

Jong-Min Lee; Dae-Jin Kim; In-Young Kim; Kwang-Suk Park; Sun I. Kim

2002-01-01

237

A functional MRI evaluation of frontal dysfunction in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study focused on frontal dysfunction during a brief visual delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We also aimed to assess whether mismatch- or match-task would be more sensitive in the evaluation of OSAS frontal impairment and to determine the factors responsible for the association of the task performance and frontal activation.

Xi Zhang; Lin Ma; Shunwei Li; Yuping Wang; Luning Wang

2011-01-01

238

Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea Associates with Neuropsychological Deficits and Neuronal Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChildhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with neuropsychological deficits of memory, learning, and executive function. There is no evidence of neuronal brain injury in children with OSA. We hypothesized that childhood OSA is associated with neuropsychological performance dysfunction, and with neuronal metabolite alterations in the brain, indicative of neuronal injury in areas corresponding to neuropsychological function.Methods and FindingsWe conducted

Ann C Halbower; Mahaveer Degaonkar; Peter B Barker; Christopher J Earley; Carole L Marcus; Philip L Smith; M. Cristine Prahme; E. Mark Mahone

2006-01-01

239

Objective and Subjective Health Parameters and Relation to CPAP Adherence in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known regarding adherence-related factors for children prescribed continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Parent and child health-related perceptions may contribute to adherence. This study investigated objective and subjective OSA-related health parameters for 51 youth ages 8–17 with OSA. More than half were non-adherent to CPAP, and three-fourths were overweight or obese. While objective disease

Stacey L. Simon; Christina L. Duncan

2012-01-01

240

Pharyngeal suspension suture with Repose bone screw for obstructive sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective : Multilevel surgery for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) may improve success. This study’s goal is to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and short-term subjective effectiveness of a new tongue-suspension technique. Methods : A multicenter nonrandomized open enrollment trial used the Repose device to treat tongue obstruction in 39 snoring and OSA patients. Outcomes include 1- and 2-month subjective reports

B. TUCKER WOODSON; ARI DEROWE; MICHAEL HAWKE; BARRY WENIG; E ROSSJR; GEORGE P. KATSANTONIS; SAMUEL A. MICKELSON; ROBERT E. BONHAM; SELIM BENBADIS

2000-01-01

241

Preliminary Functional MRI Neural Correlates of Executive Functioning and Empathy in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Background: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with neurocognitive deficits. However, the neural substrates underlying such deficits remain unknown. Methods: To examine executive control and emotional processing in OSA, 10 children age 7 to 11 y with polysomnographically diagnosed OSA and 7 age- and sex-matched controls underwent a color-word Stroop task and an empathy task consisting of dynamic visual scenarios depicting interpersonal harm or neutral actions in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Functional MRI data were processed using MATLAB 7.12 with SPM8 for region of interest (ROI) analyses, and a general linear model was used with regressors for each trial type in each task. Results: For the Stroop task, accuracy was similar in the two groups, with no differences in the effect of incongruency on success rates. OSA showed greater neural activity than controls in eight ROI clusters for incongruent versus congruent trials (P < 0.001). Within the a priori ROIs, the anterior cingulate cortex was significantly different between groups (P < 0.05). For perceiving harm versus neutral actions, ROI analysis revealed a significant correlation between apnea-hypopnea index and left amygdala activity in harm versus neutral actions (r = -0.71, P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results provide the first functional MRI evidence that cognitive and empathetic processing is influenced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Children with OSA show greater neural recruitment of regions implicated in cognitive control, conflict monitoring, and attentional allocation in order to perform at the same level as children without OSA. When viewing empathy-eliciting scenarios, the severity of OSA predicted less sensitivity to harm in the left amygdala. Citation: Kheirandish-Gozal L; Yoder K; Kulkarni R; Gozal D; Decety J. Preliminary functional mri neural correlates of executive functioning and empathy in children with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(3):587-592. PMID:24587582

Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Yoder, Keith; Kulkarni, Richa; Gozal, David; Decety, Jean

2014-01-01

242

OPTISAS a new method to analyse patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome.  

PubMed

OPTISAS is a visualization method that allows describing very precisely a patient with Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Using the events scored by the physician, our method gives a set of graphs that are a detailed representation of the condition, sleep stage and position, in which the events occur. This helps for the diagnosis. This is possible thanks to the application of Generalized Caseview method. The method proceeds in two steps, defining the reference frame and using this reference frame to visualize data. The reference frame is built by using a supin/unsupine binary criterion, a six type event criterion and a sleep stage ordinal criterion. The main result is the visualization of the indexes (average number of events by hour) associated with the events. This allows a more accurate diagnosis showing the precise influence of the position and of the sleep stage on the events. PMID:18487788

Ugon, Adrien; Philippe, Carole; Pietrasz, Slawomir; Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel; Levy, Pierre P

2008-01-01

243

[Obstructif sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: evolution of an old concept].  

PubMed

This review summarizes the well-known clinical features of the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and emphasizes new research on this syndrome. Though described in the seventies, the prevalence OSAHS is known mainly in the US. A dramatic increasing in prevalence has been related to the increase prevalence of obesity, raising a substantial public health problem. Discussion continues on the proper definition of the syndrome and degrees of severity. Multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of sleep apnea: anatomic abnormalities, mechanical factors, nervous alterations, muscular imbalance between pharyngeal constrictor and dilator muscles or part of a metabolic syndrome? Indeed, obstructive sleep apnea with and without obesity is increasingly implicated in the initiation and progression of metabolic disorders and of cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, cardiac ischemia and probably congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and strokes). An extended literature reports the neural, humoral, thrombotic, metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms linking OSAHS to endocrinology and cardiovascular diseases. Daytime sleepiness, cognitive, memory and performance deficits with their risks are also stressed. These consequences require treating this syndrome as soon as possible. Multiple interventions (medical, mechanical-nasal positive airway pressure or oral appliances, and sometimes surgical management) can be used but nasal continuous positive airway pressure is the "gold standard" treatment in severe OSAHS. More often multiple interventions are appropriate in a given patient. Finally, there is growing evidence that genetic factors influence the expression of OSAHS. Numerous genetic studies have investigated the etiology of OSAHS with the goal of improving our understanding of its pathogenesis. PMID:17185949

Vecchierini, M-F

2006-11-01

244

Relation of obstructive sleep apnea to coronary artery calcium in non-obese versus obese men and women aged 45-75 years.  

PubMed

Sleep apnea and obesity are strongly associated, and both increase the risk for coronary artery disease. Several cross-sectional studies have reported discrepant results regarding the role obesity plays in the relation between sleep apnea and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical coronary disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between sleep apnea and the presence of CAC in a community cohort of middle-aged men and women without preexisting cardiovascular disease, stratified by body mass index (<30 vs ?30 kg/m(2)). Participants underwent electron-beam computed tomography to measure CAC and underwent home sleep testing for sleep apnea. The presence of CAC was defined as an Agatston score >0. Sleep apnea was analyzed categorically using the apnea-hypopnea index. The sample was composed of primarily men (61%) and Caucasians (56%), with a mean age of 61 years. The prevalence of CAC was 76%. In participants with body mass indexes <30 kg/m(2) (n = 139), apnea-hypopnea index ?15 (vs <5) was associated with 2.7-fold odds of having CAC, but the effect only approached significance. Conversely, in participants with body mass indexes ?30 kg/m(2), sleep apnea was not independently associated with CAC. In conclusion, sleep apnea is independently associated with early atherosclerotic plaque burden in nonobese patients. PMID:25307200

Luyster, Faith S; Kip, Kevin E; Aiyer, Aryan N; Reis, Steven E; Strollo, Patrick J

2014-12-01

245

Impact of Dronabinol on Quantitative Electroencephalogram (qEEG) Measures of Sleep in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To determine the effects of dronabinol on quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) markers of the sleep process, including power distribution and ultradian cycling in 15 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: EEG (C4-A1) relative power (% total) in the delta, theta, alpha, and sigma bands was quantified by fast Fourier transformation (FFT) over 28-second intervals. An activation ratio (AR = [alpha + sigma] / [delta + theta]) also was computed for each interval. To assess ultradian rhythms, the best-fitting cosine wave was determined for AR and each frequency band in each polysomnogram (PSG). Results: Fifteen subjects were included in the analysis. Dronabinol was associated with significantly increased theta power (p = 0.002). During the first half of the night, dronabinol decreased sigma power (p = 0.03) and AR (p = 0.03), and increased theta power (p = 0.0006). At increasing dronabinol doses, ultradian rhythms accounted for a greater fraction of EEG power variance in the delta band (p = 0.04) and AR (p = 0.03). Females had higher amplitude ultradian rhythms than males (theta: p = 0.01; sigma: p = 0.01). Decreasing AHI was associated with increasing ultradian rhythm amplitudes (sigma: p < 0.001; AR: p = 0.02). At the end of treatment, lower relative power in the theta band (p = 0.02) and lower AHI (p = 0.05) correlated with a greater decrease in sleepiness from baseline. Conclusions: This exploratory study demonstrates that in individuals with OSA, dronabinol treatment may yield a shift in EEG power toward delta and theta frequencies and a strengthening of ultradian rhythms in the sleep EEG. Citation: Farabi SS; Prasad B; Quinn L; Carley DW. Impact of dronabinol on quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) measures of sleep in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):49-56. PMID:24426820

Farabi, Sarah S.; Prasad, Bharati; Quinn, Lauretta; Carley, David W.

2014-01-01

246

Apnea D.E.S.I.R. 17/03/2010 1/17 High baseline insulin levels associated with 6year incident observed sleep apnea.  

E-print Network

. Anthropometric, clinic and biologic factors were recorded at both time-points. RESULTS-At baseline, 14% of men-year incidences were 14% and 6% respectively. Age, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and sleep.52(1.12-2.05) for smoking. Observed apnea at baseline was not associated with changes in anthropometric or biologic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Community-Dwelling Children: The NANOS Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Obesity in children is assumed to serve as a major risk factor in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, the prevalence of OSAS in otherwise healthy obese children from the community is unknown. Aim: To determine the prevalence of OSAS in obese children identified and recruited from primary care centers. Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective, multicenter study. Spanish children ages 3–14 y with a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for age and sex were randomly selected, and underwent medical history, snoring, and Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) assessments, as well as physical examination, nasopharyngoscopy, and nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) recordings. Results: Two hundred forty-eight children (54.4% males) with mean age of 10.8 ± 2.6 y were studied with a BMI of 28.0 ± 4.7 kg/m2 corresponding to 96.8 ± 0.6 percentile when adjusted for age and sex. The mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI), obstructive RDI (ORDI), and obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) were 5.58 ± 9.90, 5.06 ± 9.57, and 3.39 ± 8.78/h total sleep time (TST), respectively. Using ? 3/h TST as the cutoff for the presence of OSAS, the prevalence of OSAS ranged from 21.5% to 39.5% depending on whether OAHI, ORDI, or RDI were used. Conclusions: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in obese children from the general population is high. Obese children should be screened for the presence of OSAS. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01322763. Citation: Alonso-Álvarez ML, Cordero-Guevara JA, Terán-Santos J, Gonzalez-Martinez M, Jurado-Luque MJ, Corral-Peñafiel J, Duran-Cantolla J, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Gozal D, for the Spanish Sleep Network. Obstructive sleep apnea in obese community-dwelling children: the NANOS study. SLEEP 2014;37(5):943-949. PMID:24790273

Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Cordero-Guevara, José Aurelio; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Martinez, Mónica; Jurado-Luque, María José; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

2014-01-01

248

Autonomic cardiovascular control in children with obstructive sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic cardiorespiratory control changes with sleep-wake states and is influenced by sleep-related breathing disorders.\\u000a Power spectrum (PS) analysis of instantaneous fluctuations in heart rate (HR) is used to investigate the role of the autonomic\\u000a nervous system (ANS) in cardiorespiratory control. The two spectral regions of interest are the low frequency component (LF)\\u000a and high frequency component (HF).\\u000a \\u000a The aim of

Armanda Baharav; Suresh Kotagal; Bruce K. Rubin; J. Pratt; Solange Akselrod

1999-01-01

249

A new rodent model for obstructive sleep apnea: effects on ATP-mediated dilations in cerebral arteries  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition in which the upper airway collapses during sleep, is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Little is known how OSA affects the cerebral circulation. The goals of this study were 1) to develop a rat model of chronic OSA that involved apnea and 2) to test the hypothesis that 4 wk of apneas during the sleep cycle alters endothelium-mediated dilations in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). An obstruction device, which was chronically implanted into the trachea of rats, inflated to obstruct the airway 30 times/h for 8 h during the sleep cycle. After 4 wk of apneas, MCAs were isolated, pressurized, and exposed to luminally applied ATP, an endothelial P2Y2 receptor agonist that dilates through endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH). Dilations to ATP were attenuated ?30% in MCAs from rats undergoing apneas compared with those from a sham control group (P < 0.04 group effect; n = 7 and 10, respectively). When the NO component of the dilation was blocked to isolate the EDH component, the response to ATP in MCAs from the sham and apnea groups was similar. This finding suggests that the attenuated dilation to ATP must occur through reduced NO. In summary, we have successfully developed a novel rat model for chronic OSA that incorporates apnea during the sleep cycle. Using this model, we demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction occurred by 4 wk of apnea, likely increasing the vulnerability of the brain to cerebrovascular related accidents. PMID:23761641

Crossland, Randy F.; Durgan, David J.; Lloyd, Eric E.; Phillips, Sharon C.; Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Marrelli, Sean P.

2013-01-01

250

Individual Variability and Predictors of Driving Simulator Impairment in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with driving impairment and road crashes. However, daytime function varies widely between patients presenting a clinical challenge when assessing crash risk. This study aimed to determine the proportion of patients showing “normal” versus “abnormal” driving simulator performance and examine whether anthropometric, clinical, and neurobehavioral measures predict abnormal driving. Methods: Thirty-eight OSA patients performed a 90-min simulated driving task under 3 conditions: normal sleep, restricted sleep (4 h in bed), and normal sleep + alcohol (BAC?0.05 g/dL). Patients were classified as “resilient” drivers if, under all 3 experimental conditions their mean steering deviation fell within 2 standard deviations of the mean steering deviation of 20 controls driving under baseline normal sleep conditions, or a “vulnerable” driver if mean steering deviation was outside this range in at least one experimental condition. Potentially predictive baseline anthropometric, clinical, neurocognitive, and cortical activation measures were examined. Results: Of the 38 OSA patients examined, 23 (61%) and 15 (39%) were classified as resilient and vulnerable drivers, respectively. There were no differences in baseline measures between the groups, although the proportion of females was greater and self-reported weekly driving exposure was less among vulnerable drivers (p < 0.05). On univariate analysis gender, weekly driving hours, and auditory event related potential P2 amplitude were weakly associated with group status. Multivariate analysis showed weekly driving hours (OR 0.69, 95%CI, 0.51-0.94, p = 0.02) and P2 amplitude (OR 1.34, 95%CI 1.02-1.76, p = 0.035) independently predicted vulnerable drivers. Conclusions: Most OSA patients demonstrated normal simulated driving performance despite exposure to further sleep loss or alcohol. Most baseline measures did not differentiate between resilient and vulnerable drivers, although prior driving experience and cortical function were predictive. Novel measures to assist identification of OSA patients at risk of driving impairment and possibly accidents are needed. Trial Registration: Data presented in this manuscript was collected as part of a clinical trial “Experimental Investigations of Driving Impairment in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.” Trial ID: ACTRN12610000009011, URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=334979. Citation: Vakulin A, Catcheside PG, Baulk SD, Antic NA, Banks S, Dorrian J, McEvoy RD. Individual variability and predictors of driving simulator impairment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(6):647-655. PMID:24932145

Vakulin, Andrew; Catcheside, Peter G.; Baulk, Stuart D.; Antic, Nick A.; Banks, Siobhan; Dorrian, Jillian; McEvoy, R. Doug

2014-01-01

251

Impact of Treatment with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) on Weight in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To determine the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on weight change in persons with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design, Setting, and Participants: The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES) was a 6-month, randomized, double-blinded sham-controlled multicenter clinical trial conducted at 5 sites in the United States. Of 1,105 participants with an apnea hypopnea index ? 10 events/ hour initially randomized, 812 had body weight measured at baseline and after 6 months of study. Intervention: CPAP or Sham CPAP. Measurements: Body weight, height, hours of CPAP or Sham CPAP use, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score. Results: Participants randomized to CPAP gained 0.35 ± 5.01 kg, whereas those on Sham CPAP lost 0.70 ± 4.03 kg (mean ± SD, p = 0.001). Amount of weight gain with CPAP was related to hours of device adherence, with each hour per night of use predicting a 0.42 kg increase in weight. This association was not noted in the Sham CPAP group. CPAP participants who used their device ? 4 h per night on ? 70% of nights gained the most weight over 6 months in comparison to non-adherent CPAP participants (1.0 ± 5.3 vs. -0.3 ± 5.0 kg, p = 0.014). Conclusions: OSA patients using CPAP may gain a modest amount of weight with the greatest weight gain found in those most compliant with CPAP. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 995. Citation: Quan SF; Budhiraja R; Clarke DP; Goodwin JL; Gottlieb DJ; Nichols DA; Simon RD; Smith TW; Walsh JK; Kushida CA. Impact of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on weight in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):989-993. PMID:24127141

Quan, Stuart F.; Budhiraja, Rohit; Clarke, Denise P.; Goodwin, James L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Nichols, Deborah A.; Simon, Richard D.; Smith, Terry W.; Walsh, James K.; Kushida, Clete A.

2013-01-01

252

Validation of the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) Device Against Laboratory Polysomnography in Pregnant Women at Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To assess the validity of using the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) Unicorder for detecting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in pregnant women. Methods: Sixteen pregnant women, mean age (SD) = 29.8 (5.4) years, average gestational age (SD) = 28.6 (6.3) weeks, mean body mass index (SD) = 44.7 (6.9) kg/m2 with signs and symptoms of OSA wore the ARES Unicorder during one night of laboratory polysomnography (PSG). PSG was scored according to AASM 2007 criteria, and PSG AHI and RDI were compared to the ARES 1%, 3%, and 4% AHIs calculated with the ARES propriety software. Results: Median PSG AHI and PSG RDI were 3.1 and 10.3 events/h of sleep, respectively. Six women had a PSG AHI ? 5 events/h of sleep and 11 had a PSG RDI ? 5 events/h of sleep. PSG AHI and RDI were strongly correlated with the ARES AHI measures. When compared with polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA, the ARES 3% algorithm provided the best balance between sensitivity (1.0 for PSG AHI, 0.91 for PSG RDI) and specificity (0.5 for PSG AHI, 0.8 for PSG RDI) for detecting sleep disordered breathing in our sample. Conclusions: The ARES Unicorder demonstrated reasonable consistency with PSG for diagnosing OSA in this small, heterogeneous sample of obese pregnant women. Citation: Sharkey KM, Waters K, Millman RP, Moore R, Martin SM, Bourjeily G. Validation of the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) device against laboratory polysomnography in pregnant women at risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):497-502. PMID:24910550

Sharkey, Katherine M.; Waters, Kelly; Millman, Richard P.; Moore, Robin; Martin, Susan M.; Bourjeily, Ghada

2014-01-01

253

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment for Sleep Apnea in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Daytime sleepiness and sleep disordered breathing are increased in older compared to middle-aged adults. The cognitive and cardiovascular sequelae associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have significant implications for the older adult who may already be suffering from chronic illness. Most of the evidence supporting the utilization of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of OSA has been generated from studies employing samples consisting predominately of middle-aged adults. To examine the efficacy of CPAP for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in older adults with an emphasis on adherence and related treatment outcomes, this paper reviews findings from clinical trials including older individuals as well as those specifically targeting this population. These studies have demonstrated that following CPAP therapy, older adults have increased alertness, improved neurobehavioral outcomes in cognitive processing, memory, and executive function, decreased sleep disruption from nocturia and a positive effect on factors affecting cardiac function, including vascular resistance, platelet coagulability and other aspects of cardiovascular health. Physiological differences in respiratory structure and function between younger and older adults of similar disease severity are believed to result in older individuals requiring titration at lower CPAP levels. Once initiated, CPAP treatment is tolerated by older adults, including those with Alzheimer’s disease. Patterns of adherence in older individuals are consistent with that of middle-aged adults. PMID:17275370

Weaver, Terri E; Chasens, Eileen

2007-01-01

254

Development of nocturnal respiratory disturbance in untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

Patient histories suggest that obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a progressive condition. To investigate whether this could be shown in data from sleep recordings, 42 patients with OSAS were retrospectively studied. All had undergone a screening recording of respiration movements and oximetry at least 6 months (average, 16 months) prior to a diagnostic polysomnogram including these parameters. No treatment was given in the meantime. In the first recording, mean oxygen desaturation index (ODI, average number of desaturations of > 4 percent per sleeping hour) was 10; periodic, obstructive respiration movements occurred during (average) 36 percent of total estimated sleeping time, and mean nadir SaO2 was 85 percent. In the second recording, mean ODI was 21 (significant change, p = 0.0002), periodic respiration time was 61 percent, and nadir SaO2 was 80 percent (p = 0.0001, respectively). In 26 of 42 patients (62 percent), ODI had increased by > 50 percent. Increases in ODIs and periodic breathing were significantly correlated to increases in body weight. There were, however, exceptional patients with considerable increases in respiratory disturbance despite weight loss. The greatest changes were found in the patients who had the highest apnea indices in the polysomnograms. Early treatment may therefore be justified, since a borderline case may change to severe OSAS in 1 to 2 years' time. Follow-up recordings of untreated patients are important. PMID:8339616

Svanborg, E; Larsson, H

1993-08-01

255

Using the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea to teach cardiopulmonary integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The effects of intermittent upper airway obstruction include alveolar hypoventilation, altered arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors, which leads to frequent arousals. These arousals disturb sleep architecture and cause hypersomnolence. Chronic intermittent alveolar and systemic arterial hypoxia-hypercapnia can cause pulmonary and systemic hypertension, with effects on the right and left ventricles, and even the renal system. The pathophysiology of OSA can therefore be used to review and integrate many topics in pulmonary and cardiovascular physiology in the context of problem-based learning, a guided discussion, or a formal lecture. The discussion begins with a case scenario, followed by a definition of the disorder, the common symptoms and signs of OSA, and a description of an apneic event. These are related to the physiology of the upper airway in OSA, normal alterations in the respiratory system during sleep, the effects of apnea on gas exchange and arterial blood gases, and the cardiovascular consequences of alterations in alveolar and systemic arterial PO2 and PCO2. The treatment of OSA, particularly how the use of continuous positive airway pressure relates to the pathophysiology of the disorder, is discussed briefly.

PhD Michael G. Levitzky (Louisiana State Univ. Health Sciences Ctr. Dept. Of Physiology)

2008-06-10

256

The efficacy of Watch PAT in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnosis.  

PubMed

Polysomnography is currently considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). But high expense and the backlog of the sleep centers have resulted in a search for an alternative method of diagnosis. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and reliability of Watch PAT as an alternate option in OSAS diagnosis. The patients have worn a Watch PAT(®) 200 device in the sleep laboratory during a standard polysomnography. The correlation in REM and Non-REM AHI scores, sleep periods and the mean O2 saturation percentage between Watch PAT and PSG sleep studies were assessed. There was a statistically significant very strong correlation between PSG and Watch PAT AHI scores (Spearman's rho = 0.802 p < 0.001). The mean recording time with PSG and Watch PAT was 463.06 ± 37.08 and 469.33 ± 72.81 min, respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.068). However, there was a statistically significant difference between two methods regarding the average sleep time and REM sleep period. No statistically significant difference was revealed in the mean O2 saturation percentage (p < 0.001). Watch PAT is an efficient device and is considered to be an adjunctive diagnostic method for PSG in diagnosis of OSAS. PMID:24838359

Körkuyu, Emine; Düzlü, Mehmet; Karamert, Recep; Tutar, Hakan; Y?lmaz, Metin; Çiftçi, Bülent; Güven, Selma F?rat

2015-01-01

257

Evaluation of a Single-Channel Portable Monitor for the Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To validate the ApneaLINK (AL) as an accurate tool for determining the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in an at-risk sleep clinic population in a home test environment. Methods: Consecutive participants referred with the suspicion of OSA were evaluated in the home with the AL portable monitor (AL Home), followed by simultaneous data collection with diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) and AL in the sleep laboratory (AL Lab). Prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curves were calculated for PSG vs. AL Lab, PSG vs. AL Home, and AL Lab vs. AL Home test. Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman plots were constructed. Results: Fifty-three (55% female) participants completed the entire study. The mean age of the population was 45.1 ± 11.3 years, and body mass index was 35.9 ± 9.1 kg/m2. The prevalence of an apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ? 15 in the cohort was 35.9%. The results demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity of the AL respiratory disturbance index (RDI-AL) compared with the AHI from the PSG. The AL Lab had the highest sensitivity and specificity at RDI-AL values ? 20 events/h (sensitivity 100%, specificity 92.5%). The AL Home was most sensitive and specific at an RDI-AL ? 20 events/h (sensitivity 76.9%, specificity 92.5%). The Pearson correlations for PSG vs. AL Lab and PSG vs. AL Home were ? = 0.88 and ? = 0.82, respectively. The Bland-Altman Plots demonstrated good agreement between the methodologies. Conclusion: The AL home test is an accurate alternative to PSG in sleep clinic populations at risk for moderate and severe OSA. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT00354614. Citation: Oktay B; Rice TB; Atwood CW; Passero M; Gupta N; Givelber R; Drumheller OJ; Houck P; Gordon N; Strollo PJ. Evaluation of a single-channel portable monitor for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(4):384-390. PMID:21897775

Oktay, Burcu; Rice, Thomas B.; Atwood, Charles W.; Passero, Michael; Gupta, Neeraj; Givelber, Rachel; Drumheller, Oliver J.; Houck, Patricia; Gordon, Nancy; Strollo, Patrick J.

2011-01-01

258

Evaluation of the Upper Airway Cross-sectional Area Changes in Different Degrees of Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Cephalometric and Dynamic CT Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The upper airway lumen is narrower in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) than normal subjects. In this study, we examined changes of the upper airway cross-sectional area in each phase of respiration in different degrees of severity of OSAS with dynamic CT and investigated whether these changes have any correlation with sleep apnea severity parameters,

Aylin Yucel; Mehmet Unlu; Alpay Haktanir; Murat Acar; Fatma Fidan

259

Role of the tongue base suspension suture with The Repose System bone screw in the multilevel surgical management of obstructive sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The Repose System (tongue base suspension) is a new, minimally invasive technique for tongue base suspension in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. The purpose of this project was to describe our preliminary experience using this tongue base suspension system in conjunction with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) in the multilevel surgical approach to the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Study

Frank R. Miller; Daniel Watson; David Malis

2002-01-01

260

Prevalence of EEG Paroxysmal Activity in a Population of Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Sleep breathing disorders may trigger paroxysmal events during sleep such as parasomnias and may exacerbate preexisting seizures. We verified the hypothesis that the amount of EEG paroxysmal activity (PA) may be high in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Design: Prospective study Settings: Sleep unit of an academic center. Participants: Polysomnographic studies were performed in a population of children recruited prospectively, for suspected OSAS, from January to December 2007, with no previous history of epileptic seizures or any other medical conditions. All sleep studies included ? 8 EEG channels, including centrotemporal leads. We collected data about clinical and respiratory parameters of children with OSAS and with primary snoring, then we performed sleep microstructure analysis in 2 OSAS subgroups, matched for age and sex, with and without paroxysmal activity. Measurements and Results: We found 40 children who met the criteria for primary snoring, none of them showed PA, while 127 children met the criteria for OSAS and 18 of them (14.2%) showed PA. Children with PA were older, had a predominance of boys, a longer duration of OSAS, and a lower percentage of adenotonsillar hypertrophy than children without PA. Moreover, PA occurred over the centrotemporal regions in 9 cases, over temporal-occipital regions in 5, and over frontocentral regions in 4. Children with PA showed a lower percentage of REM sleep, a lower CAP rate and lower A1 index during slow wave sleep, and lower total A2 and arousal index than children without EEG abnormalities. Conclusions: We found a higher percentage of paroxysmal activity in children with OSAS, compared to children with primary snoring, who did not exhibit EEG abnormalities. The children with paroxysmal activity have peculiar clinical and sleep microstructure characteristics that may have implications in the neurocognitive outcome of OSAS. Citation: Miano S; Paolino MC; Peraita-Adrados R; Montesano M; Barberi S; Villa MP. Prevalence of EEG paroxysmal activity in a population of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2009;32(4):522-529. PMID:19413146

Miano, Silvia; Paolino, Maria Chiara; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Montesano, Marilisa; Barberi, Salvatore; Villa, Maria Pia

2009-01-01

261

A new suggestion for the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to suggest a new cutoff score for the Turkish version of Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in the patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In this study, the data of 483 patients who were admitted to our clinic with the complaints of daytime sleepiness and witnessed sleep apnea were reviewed retrospectively. The correlation between ESS and polysomnography (PSG) findings were assessed, and cutoff score of the Turkish version of the ESS was investigated. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 27.71 ± 26.69 eV/h, the mean ESS score was 8.42 ± 4.88. According to AHI, a statistically significant difference between ESS scores was detected (p = 0.001; p < 0.01). According to AHI (AHI ? 5, AHI ? 15 and AHI ? 30) the best cutoff score for ESS score was found as 8. The answers that were given to the ESS questions differ according to their sociocultural and economic condition. These results indicate that a score of 8 or higher on the ESS would seem a more appropriate cutoff score to suspect clinically relevant sleepiness in the Turkish population. PMID:25108342

Kum, Rauf Oguzhan; Özcan, Müge; Yurtsever Kum, Nurcan; Y?lmaz, Yavuz Fuat; Güngör, Volkan; Ünal, Adnan

2015-01-01

262

Lingua-epiglottis position predicts glossopharyngeal obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between lingua-epiglottis position and glossopharyngeal obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). One hundred and four patients with OSAHS diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG) were enrolled. Lingua-epiglottis position was visualized using endoscopy and classified into three types. Spiral CT imaging of the upper respiratory tract was performed to measure the cross-sectional area and inner diameter of the glossopharyngeal airway. The PSG was repeated after nasopharyngeal tube insertion (NPT-PSG). The NPT-PSG results, CT-measured data and incidence of stenosis were compared among the different lingua-epiglottis position groups. Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome patients with different lingua-epiglottis positions had similar demographics. As lingua-epiglottis position type varied from type I to type III, cross-sectional area and inner diameter of the glossopharyngeal area decreased, glossopharyngeal airway stenosis rate increased, and apnea hypopnea index measured by NPT-PSG increased. The lowest oxygen saturation decreased. Lingua-epiglottis position was significantly related to glossopharyngeal obstruction. Lingua-epiglottis position should be used in clinical practice for the preliminary assessment of glossopharyngeal obstruction. PMID:24728231

Li, Shuhua; Wu, Dahai; Jie, Qin; Bao, Jimin; Shi, Hongjin

2014-10-01

263

Detection of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome with ECG derived respiration in Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is mainly based on the polysomnogram (PSG), which is considered as the golden diagnostic criteria. As a novel noninvasive and low cost alternative method to detect SAHS patients, the diagnostic power of ECG-derived respiration (EDR) hasn’t been well determined. In light of this, we tested whether EDR can be utilized as a feasible tool to diagnose SAHS in Chinese patients. Overnight sleep investigation was performed in 120 subjects using polysomnogram (PSG) and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram (AECG). The apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was calculated from EDR and PSG respectively. With EDR assessments, 77 subjects were determined as SAHS (+), 43 were diagnosed as SAHS (-). The diagnostic accordance rate was 87.5% and the area under curve was 0.938. The coefficient correlation of AHI between EDR and PSG was 0.879 (P <0.001), while the correlation of maximum apnea and hypopnea time duration were 0.716 (P <0.001) and 0.281 (P <0.005), respectively. All correlations were statistically significant (P <0.01). EDR can be used as a practical tool for the diagnosis of SAHS. PMID:24995082

Tong, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Cheng; Guo, Ji-Hong; Han, Fang

2014-01-01

264

Effect of oxygen in obstructive sleep apnea: Role of loop gain  

PubMed Central

We compared the effect of oxygen on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in 6 obstructive sleep apnea patients with a relatively high loop gain (LG) and 6 with a low LG. LG is a measure of ventilatory control stability. In the high LG group (unstable ventilatory control system), oxygen reduced the LG from 0.69 ± 0.18 to 0.34 ± 0.04 (p < 0.001) and lowered the AHI by 53 ± 33 percent (p = 0.04 compared to the percent reduction in the low LG group). In the low LG group (stable ventilatory control system), oxygen had no effect on LG (0.24 ± 0.04 on room air, 0.29 ± 0.07 on oxygen, p = 0.73) and very little effect on AHI (8 ± 27 percent reduction with oxygen). These data suggest that ventilatory instability is an important mechanism causing obstructive sleep apnea in some patients (those with a relatively high LG), since lowering LG with oxygen in these patients significantly reduces AHI. PMID:18577470

Wellman, Andrew; Malhotra, Atul; Jordan, Amy S.; Stevenson, Karen E.; Gautam, Shiva; White, David P.

2015-01-01

265

Validation of the STOP-BANG Questionnaire among Patients Referred for Suspected Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Background The STOP-BANG is a simple obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening tool, part questionnaire (STOP) and part demographic or physical measures (BANG), developed for use in preoperative surgical clinics. This study assessed sensitivity and specificity of the instrument among patients referred to a sleep disorders laboratory, and also its performance characteristics when BANG physical measures are patient-reported rather than measured. Methods Adults referred for diagnostic polysomnography completed the STOP questions and answered four yes/no questions (BANG self-reported) about their body mass index (weight and height), age, neck circumference, and gender, which were also assessed by laboratory technologists (BANG-measured). Results Among N=219 subjects (mean age 46.3 ± 13.9 [s.d.] years; 98 [44.8%] males) the sensitivity of the STOP-BANG measured for an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI, events per hour of sleep) >5, >15, and >30 was 82, 93, and 97% respectively. Corresponding negative predictive values were 44, 87, and 96%. Specificities were comparatively low (48, 40, and 33%). The STOP-BANG measured and STOP-BANG self-reported scores showed essentially equivalent test characteristics against polysomnography. Conclusions The STOP-BANG appears to have limited utility in a referred, sleep laboratory setting. Negative results help to identify some individuals as unlikely to have moderate-to-severe apnea, and may thereby prove useful in identification of patients who would benefit more from laboratory studies than home studies. A STOP-BANG in which all information is self-reported may be as effective as the original version, and has potential to facilitate research or community screening where good negative predictive value is required for an effective screening tool. PMID:24800262

Boynton, Grace; Vahabzadeh, Arshia; Hammoud, Sami; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Chervin, Ronald D.

2014-01-01

266

Monitoring Sound To Quantify Snoring and Sleep Apnea Severity Using a Smartphone: Proof of Concept  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Habitual snoring is a prevalent condition that is not only a marker of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but can also lead to vascular risk. However, it is not easy to check snoring status at home. We attempted to develop a snoring sound monitor consisting of a smartphone alone, which is aimed to quantify snoring and OSA severity. Methods: The subjects included 50 patients who underwent diagnostic polysomnography (PSG), of which the data of 10 patients were used for developing the program and that of 40 patients were used for validating the program. A smartphone was attached to the anterior chest wall over the sternum. It acquired ambient sound from the built-in microphone and analyzed it using a fast Fourier transform on a real-time basis. Results: Snoring time measured by the smartphone highly correlated with snoring time measured by PSG (r = 0.93). The top 1 percentile value of sound pressure level (L1) determined by the smartphone correlated with the ambient sound L1 during sleep determined by PSG (r = 0.92). Moreover, the respiratory disturbance index estimated by the smartphone (smart-RDI) highly correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained by PSG (r = 0.94). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the smart-RDI for diagnosing OSA (AHI ? 15) were 0.70 and 0.94, respectively. Conclusions: A smartphone can be used for effectively monitoring snoring and OSA in a controlled laboratory setting. Use of this technology in a noisy home environment remains unproven, and further investigation is needed. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 79. Citation: Nakano H; Hirayama K; Sadamitsu Y; Toshimitsu A; Fujita H; Shin S; Tanigawa T. Monitoring sound to quantify snoring and sleep apnea severity using a smartphone: proof of concept. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):73-78. PMID:24426823

Nakano, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Kenji; Sadamitsu, Yumiko; Toshimitsu, Ayaka; Fujita, Hisayuki; Shin, Shizue; Tanigawa, Takeshi

2014-01-01

267

Biomarkers to Improve Diagnosis and Monitoring of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Current Status and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse associated with oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. It is proposed that these periodic changes lead to molecular variations that can be detected by assessing serum biomarkers. Studies have identified inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic perturbations attributable to sleep-disordered breathing. Given that OSAS is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, the ideal biomarker should enable timely recognition with the possibility of intervention. There is accumulating data on the utility of serum biomarkers for the evaluation of disease severity, prognosis, and response to treatment. However, current knowledge is limited by data collection techniques, disease complexity, and potential confounding factors. The current paper reviews the literature on the use of serum biomarkers in OSAS. It is concluded that the ideal serum biomarker still needs to be discovered, while caution is needed in the interpretation of hitherto available results.

Archontogeorgis, Konstantinos; Nena, Evangelia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Steiropoulos, Paschalis

2014-01-01

268

Overnight Polysomnography versus Respiratory Polygraphy in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Background: Substantial discrepancies exist in the type of sleep studies performed to diagnose pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in different countries. Respiratory polygraphic (RP) recordings are primarily performed in sleep laboratories in Europe, whereas polysomnography (PSG) constitutes the majority in the US and Australia. Home RP show consistent apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) underscoring, primarily because the total recording time is used as the denominator when calculating the AHI compared to total sleep time (TST). However, laboratory-based RP are less likely affected, since the presence of sleep technicians and video monitoring may enable more accurate TST estimates. We therefore examined differences in AHI in PSG and in-lab RP, and whether RP-based AHI may impact clinical decision making. Methods: Of all the children assessed for possible OSA who underwent PSG evaluation, 100 were identified and divided into 4 groups: (A) those with AHI < 1/h TST (n = 20), (B) 1 ? AHI < 5/h TST (n = 40), (C) 5 ? AHI < 10/h TST (n = 20), and (D) AHI ? 10/h TST (n = 20). Electroencephalography, electrooculography, and electromyography channels were deleted from the original unscored recordings to transform them into RP, and then rescored in random sequence. AHI-RP were compared to AHI-PSG, and therapeutic decisions based on AHI-RP and AHI-PSG were formulated and analyzed using clinical details derived from the patient's clinic letter. Results: Bland Altman analysis showed that in lab RP underestimated the AHI despite more accurate estimates of TST. This underestimation was due to missed hypopneas causing arousals without desaturation. Basing the therapeutic management decision on RP instead of PSG results changed the clinical management in 23% of all patients. The clinical management for patients in groups A and D was unaffected. However, 27.5% of patients in group B would have been given no treatment, as they would be diagnosed as having no OSA (AHI < 1/h TST) when they should have received a trial of anti-inflammatory therapy or been referred for ear, nose, and throat (ENT) review. Sixty percent of patients in group C would have received either a trial of medical treatment to treat mild OSA or no treatment, instead of referral to ENT services or commencement of continuous positive airway pressure. Conclusion: Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is underestimated in respiratory polygraphy (RP), and the disparity in AHI-RP and AHI-polysomnography can significantly affect clinical management decisions, particularly in children with mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea (1 < AHI < 10/h total sleep time). Citation: Tan HL; Gozal D; Ramirez HM; Bandla HPR; Kheirandish-Gozal L. Overnight polysomnography versus respiratory polygraphy in the diagnosis of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(2):255-260. PMID:24497654

Tan, Hui-Leng; Gozal, David; Ramirez, Helena Molero; Bandla, Hari P. R.; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

2014-01-01

269

Lack of Impact of Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Sleepiness, Mood and Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with sleepiness, depression and reduced quality of life. However, it is unclear whether mild OSA has these negative impacts. Using data from the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES), this study determined whether participants with mild OSA had greater sleepiness, more depressive symptoms and poorer quality of life in comparison to those without OSA. Methods 239 individuals evaluated for participation in APPLES with a baseline apnea hypopnea index (AHI) < 15 /hour were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: No OSA (N=40, AHI < 5 /hour) or Mild OSA (N=199, 5 to <15 /hour) based on their screening polysomnogram. Scores on their Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) were compared between groups. Results There were no significant differences between the No OSA and Mild OSA groups on any of the 5 measures: ESS (No OSA, 9.8 ± 3.5 vs Mild OSA, 10.6 ± 4.3, p=0.26), SSS,(2.8 ± 0.9 vs. 2.9 ± 1.0, p=0.52), HAM-D (4.6 ± 3.0 vs. 4.9 ± 4.7, p=0.27), POMS (33.5 ± 22.3 vs. 28.7 ± 22.0, p=0.70), SAQLI (4.5 ± 0.8 vs. 4.7 ± 0.7, p=0.39). Conclusion Individuals with mild OSA in this cohort do not have worse sleepiness, mood or quality of life in comparison to those without OSA. PMID:25232509

Quan, Stuart F.; Budhiraja, Rohit; Batool-Anwar, Salma; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Eichling, Phillip; Patel, Sanjay; Shen, Wei; Walsh, James K.; Kushida, Clete A.

2014-01-01

270

Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation Improves Obstructive Sleep Apnea: 12 Month Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Reduced upper airway muscle activity during sleep is a key contributor to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) pathogenesis. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) activates upper airway dilator muscles, including the genioglossus, and has the potential to reduce OSA severity. The objective of this study was to examine the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of a novel HGNS system (HGNS®, Apnex Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN) in treating OSA at 12 months following implantation. Thirty-one subjects (35% female, age 52·4±9·4 years) with moderate to severe OSA and unable to tolerate positive airway pressure underwent surgical implantation and activation of the HGNS system in a prospective single-arm interventional trial. Primary outcomes were changes in OSA severity (apnoea-hypopnoea index, AHI, from in-laboratory polysomnogram) and sleep-related quality of life (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, FOSQ). HGNS was used on 86±16% of nights for 5·4±1·4 hours per night. There was a significant improvement (p < 0·001) from baseline to 12 months in AHI (45.4±17·5 to 25·3±20·6 events/h) and FOSQ score (14·2±2·0 to 17·0±2·4) as well as other polysomnogram and symptom measures. Outcomes were stable compared to 6 months following implantation. Three serious device-related adverse events occurred: an infection requiring device removal and two stimulation lead cuff dislodgements requiring replacement. There were no significant adverse events with onset later than 6 months following implantation. HGNS demonstrated favourable safety, feasibility, and efficacy. PMID:24033656

Kezirian, Eric J.; Goding, George S.; Malhotra, Atul; O'Donoghue, Fergal J.; Zammit, Gary; Wheatley, John R.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Smith, Philip L.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Walsh, Jennifer H.; Maddison, Kathleen J.; Claman, David M.; Huntley, Tod; Park, Steven Y.; Campbell, Matthew C.; Palme, Carsten E.; Iber, Conrad; Eastwood, Peter R.; Hillman, David R.; Barnes, Maree

2013-01-01

271

Sleep-Disordered Breathing as Presenting Manifestation of Chiari Type I Malformation: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Chiari Type I malformation (CM-I) is a rare disorder with displaced cerebellar tonsils through foramen magnum. Here we present a 30-year-old man with severe central and obstructive sleep apneas as presenting manifestations of CM-I. The patient underwent neurosurgery and the follow-up polysomnography revealed the resolution of central apnea while obstructive apnea remained unchanged. Central sleep apnea (CSA) could be associated with an underlying pathology; thus, further investigation is recommended in affected subjects. PMID:25506375

Adimi, Parisa; Bakhshayesh-Karam, Mehrdad; Kiapour, Nazanin

2014-01-01

272

Effects of Adenotonsillectomy on Neurocognitive Function in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children does not only present with symptoms of sleep disturbances but also with associated symptoms such as growth failure, enuresis, academic learning difficulties, and behavioral problems, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder- (ADHD-) like symptoms. We evaluated neurocognitive functions before and after adenotonsillectomy in a patient with OSAS. An 11-year-old boy suspected of having ADHD with nocturnal enuresis was referred for evaluation. He was found to have adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Presence of snoring was evident only after detailed medical interview. Polysomnography confirmed the diagnosis of OSAS, which was subsequently treated by adenotonsillectomy. The apnea/hypopnea index decreased from 21.9 at baseline to 1.8 after surgery, and the frequency of enuresis fell from almost nightly to 2-3 times per month. Neurocognitive and behavioral assessment after the treatment of OSAS showed significant improvement in cognitive functions, especially attention capacity and considerable amelioration of behavioral problems including ADHD-like symptoms. As the most common cause of pediatric OSAS is adenotonsillar hypertrophy, medical interview and oropharyngeal examination should always be performed in children suspected of having ADHD. The necessity of sleep evaluation for children with ADHD-like symptoms was also emphasized. PMID:24971187

Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Komori, Kenjiro; Tokui, Yasumasa; Matsumoto, Teruhisa; Ueno, Shu-ichi

2014-01-01

273

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Formerly Preterm Infant: An Overlooked Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a frequent disorder in children. The clinical characteristics of OSA in very young children under 2?years of age, and more particularly, in those born prematurely, and who have respiratory complications such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), are not well defined. We therefore retrospectively reviewed our experience in a group of preterm infants with OSAS. Methods: The records of premature infants with BPD followed in the Pediatric Pulmonary Clinic at the University of Chicago who were diagnosed with OSA from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed and analyzed. Results: Twelve children, eight males, and four females with a mean gestational age of 27?weeks were found to have OSA. Mean age at diagnosis was 19?months. Inability to wean nighttime oxygen, the need to resume oxygen after intercurrent respiratory illness, and snoring were the most common presenting symptoms. The apnea–hypopnea index ranged from 1 to 120/h total sleep time (TST; mean: 29). SpO2 nadir ranged from 50 to 91%. Despite adenotonsillectomy (AT), all children had persistent sleep disordered breathing. Conclusion: In preterm infants, while snoring is a frequent symptom, poor weight gain, and inability to wean nighttime oxygen may indicate the need for further investigation for OSA. In the former preterm infant structural changes in the airway may play an important role along with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. A high level of clinical awareness is required to identify OSA in the formerly preterm infant. PMID:22144976

Sharma, Preeti B.; Baroody, Fuad; Gozal, David; Lester, Lucille A.

2011-01-01

274

Development of the Korean Version of the Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index  

PubMed Central

Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder characterized by repetitive partial or complete occlusion of the upper airway during sleep that affects quality of life. The aim of this study was to develop the Korean version of the sleep apnea quality of life index (K-SAQLI) and apply it in Korean patients with OSA. Methods Ninety-three patients with OSA completed the K-SAQLI. Its construct validity and responsiveness were tested by comparing the baseline and change scores obtained in each domain (i.e., daily functioning, social interactions, emotional functioning, and symptoms) using the medical outcome survey-short form 36 (SF-36). Results The Cronbach ? coefficients of internal reliability exceeded 0.60 in all the domains (daily functioning, 0.89; social interactions, 0.88; emotional functioning, 0.92; symptoms, 0.67; and total, 0.94). The K-SAQLI had a high test-retest correlation coefficient of 0.73 in the 20 randomized selected patients. The construct validity was confirmed by significant correlations with SF-36 subscale scores. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the K-SAQLI may be applicable for clinical purposes. PMID:24587877

Jang, Hyun-Uk; Park, Ki-Soo; Cheon, Sang-Myung; Lee, Ho-Won; Kim, Sung-Wan; Lee, Seung-Hoon

2014-01-01

275

The effect of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with tonsillectomy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

In the current study, we evaluated the effectiveness of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) in treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. All patients were previously received medical treatment but their symptoms did not resolve. A prospective study was conducted in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd, Iran. Several sleep indices were evaluated using polysomnography (PSG) in all patients before performing UPPP and tonsillectomy. All patients were visited 6 months after surgery and PSG was repeated to assess the efficacy of surgical intervention. A total of 48 patients were enrolled and underwent UPPP and tonsillectomy. Six months after surgery, significant improvements were observed in all indices of sleep (apnea-hypopnea index, respiratory distress index, arterial oxygen saturation, and snoring index). The score of daytime sleepiness (assessed by Epworth score) was also improved. According to the result of this study, using UPPP surgery in patients with OSA can cause symptoms improvement in 64 % of cases. It seems that Muller's maneuver test has assisted in briefly increasing success rate after surgery, though to prove this claim; other studies should be designed and performed in a randomized clinical trial. PMID:25621250

Baradaranfar, Mohammad Hossein; Edalatkhah, Mohsen; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechi, Saeid; Behniafard, Nasim; Mirvakili, Abbas; Halvani, Abolhassan; Baradaranfar, Amin; Emami Meybodi, Touhid

2015-03-01

276

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Is Associated with Left Ventricular Mass Independent of Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Morbid Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the relation between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and left ventricular mass (LVM) in morbid obesity and the influence of gender, menopausal status, anthropometry, body composition, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors in this relationship. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Methods: Polysomnographic and echocardiographic studies were performed in a cohort of 242 patients (86 men, 100 premenopausal (PreM) and 56 postmenopausal (PostM) women), with grade II obesity and above (BMI: 43.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2) to investigate OSA and LVM respectively. Anthropometry, body composition, glucose tolerance, and blood pressure were also recorded. Results: OSA to different degrees was diagnosed in 76.2% of the patients (n: 166), its prevalence being 90.9% (n: 70) for men, and 76% (n: 38) and 63.8% (n: 58) for PostM and PreM women, respectively (p < 0.01). LVM excess was greatest for PostM women (90.2%), followed by men (81.9%) and PreM females (69.6%) (p < 0.01). LVM values increased in accordance to OSA severity (absence, 193.7 ± 6.9 g; mild, 192.6 ± 7.8 g; moderate, 240.5 ± 12.5 g; severe, 273.6 ± 14.6 g; p < 0.01). LVM magnitude correlated with the menopausal state, age, central adiposity, hypertension (HT), type 2 diabetes (DM), desaturation index (DI), and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (r = 0.41; p < 0.01). The relationship between LVM and AHI persisted in the multivariate analysis (? = 0.25; p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, gender, menopausal state, BMI, waist circumference, neck circumference, DI, fasting plasma glucose, DM, and HT. But if tobacco habits are included, the statistical difference disappears (? = 0.22; p = 0.06). Conclusions: Morbid obesity is frequently associated with abnormal LVM, particularly in patients with OSA; this association is independent of HT, BMI, body composition, and other clinical factors, supporting a direct role of OSA on LVM in morbid obesity. This suggests that OSA and LVM might be taken as predictors of the cardiovascular risk in these patients. Citation: Pujante P; Abreu C; Moreno J; Barrero EA; Azcarate P; Campo A; Urrestarazu E; Silva C; Maria JG; Tebar J; Frühbeck G; Salvador J. Obstructive sleep apnea severity is associated with left ventricular mass independent of other cardiovascular risk factors in morbid obesity. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(11):1165-1171. PMID:24235898

Pujante, Pedro; Abreu, Cristina; Moreno, Jose; Barrero, Eduardo Alegria; Azcarate, Pedro; Campo, Arantxa; Urrestarazu, Elena; Silva, Camilo; Maria, Jesus Gil; Tebar, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Salvador, Javier

2013-01-01

277

Clinical Effect of Surgical Correction for Nasal Pathology on the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that relief of nasal obstruction in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) would lead to reduce OSA severity and to discuss the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of nasal surgery as a treatment modality for OSA. Study Design Twenty-five subjects who had reduced patency of nasal cavity and narrowing of retroglossal or retropalatal airways were diagnosed with OSA and underwent nasal surgery, such as septoplasty or turbinoplasty to correct nasal pathologies. The effect of the surgery on nasal patency was quantified by measuring minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) using acoustic rhinometry. The watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured before and after nasal surgery. Results The present study shows that the AHI and RDI decreased significantly and the lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time rose after nasal surgery in 25 OSA subjects. In addition, a reduction in subjective symptoms was observed in subjects and mean MCA increased after nasal surgery. Fourteen subjects were classified as responders and 11 subjects as non-responders. Responders showed considerable improvement of their subjective symptoms and the AHI and RDI were significantly lower after surgery. We found that the changes between pre- and post-operative AHI and RDI values were minimal in 11 non-responders. However, daytime somnolence and REM sleep time improved after nasal surgery in non-responders. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that the surgical treatment of nasal pathology improves nasal airway patency and reduces OSA severity in 56% subjects. Furthermore, correction of nasal pathology appears to result in improved sleep quality in both responder and non-responders OSA subjects. PMID:24896824

Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik

2014-01-01

278

Significance of Including a Surrogate Arousal for Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome Diagnosis by Respiratory Polygraphy  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Respiratory polygraphy is an accepted alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) diagnosis, although it underestimates the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) because respiratory polygraphy cannot identify arousals. Objectives: We performed a multicentric, randomized, blinded crossover study to determine the agreement between home respiratory polygraphy (HRP) and PSG, and between simultaneous respiratory polygraphy (respiratory polygraphy with PSG) (SimultRP) and PSG by means of 2 AHI scoring protocols with or without hyperventilation following flow reduction considered as a surrogate arousal. Methods: We included suspected SAHS patients from 8 hospitals. They were assigned to home and hospital protocols at random. We determined the agreement between respiratory polygraphy AHI and PSG AHI scorings using Bland and Altman plots and diagnostic agreement using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The agreement in therapeutic decisions (continuous positive airway pressure treatment or not) between HRP and PSG scorings was done with likelihood ratios and post-test probability calculations. Results: Of 366 randomized patients, 342 completed the protocol. AHI from HRP scorings (with and without surrogate arousal) had similar agreement with PSG. AHI from SimultRP with surrogate arousal scoring had better agreement with PSG than AHI from SimultRP without surrogate arousal. HRP with surrogate arousal scoring had slightly worse ROC curves than HRP without surrogate arousal, and the opposite was true for SimultRP scorings. HRP with surrogate arousal showed slightly better agreement with PSG in therapeutic decisions than for HRP without surrogate arousal. Conclusion: Incorporating a surrogate arousal measure into HRP did not substantially increase its agreement with PSG when compared with the usual procedure (HRP without surrogate arousal). Citation: Masa JF; Corral J; Gomez de Terreros J; Duran-Cantolla J; Cabello M; Hernández-Blasco L; Monasterio C; Alonso A; Chiner E; Aizpuru F; Zamorano J; Cano R; Monterrat JM. Significance of including a surrogate arousal for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome diagnosis by respiratory polygraphy. SLEEP 2013;36(2):249–257. PMID:23372273

Masa, Juan F.; Corral, Jaime; Gomez de Terreros, Javier; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Cabello, Marta; Hernández-Blasco, Luis; Monasterio, Carmen; Alonso, Alberto; Chiner, Eusebi; Aizpuru, Felipe; Zamorano, Jose; Cano, Ricardo; Montserrat, Jose M.; Garcia-Ledesma, Estefania; Pereira, Ricardo; Cancelo, Laura; Martinez, Angeles; Sacristan, Lirios; Salord, Neus; Carrera, Miguel; Sancho-Chust, José N.; Embid, Cristina

2013-01-01

279

Continuous respiratory monitoring for sleep apnea screening by ambulatory hemodynamic monitor  

PubMed Central

AIM: To validate the sleep-disordered breathing components of a portable electrocardiography and hemodynamic monitor to be used for sleep apnea screening. METHODS: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with cardiovascular disease. Patients with existing cardiovascular disease may have unrecognized SDB or may develop SDB while under the care of a cardiologist. A screening device for SDB, easy to use and appealing to cardiologists, would assist in referral of appropriate patients for full polysomnography (PSG). A cardiac and respiratory monitor (CPAM) was attached to patients undergoing PSG and an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) generated. The CPAM device produced respiration rate, snoring rate, individual apnea/hypopnea events and an SDB severity score (SDBSS). In addition to AHI, an expert over-reader annotated individual breaths, snores and SDB breathing events to which the automated algorithms were compared. RESULTS: The test set consisted of data from 85 patients (age: 50.5 ± 12.4 years). Of these, 57 had a positive PSG defined as AHI ? 5.0 (mean: 30.0 ± 29.8, negative group mean: 1.5 ± 1.2). The sensitivity and specificity of the SDBSS compared to AHI was 57.9% and 89.3%, respectively. The correlation of snoring rate by CPAM compared to the expert over-reader was r = 0.58 (mean error: 1.52 snores/min), while the automated respiration rate had a correlation of r = 0.90 (mean error: 0.70 breaths/min). CONCLUSION: This performance assessment shows that CPAM can be a useful portable monitor for screening and follow-up of subjects for SDB. PMID:22558491

Dillier, Roger; Baumann, Markus; Young, Mabelle; Erne, Susanne; Schwizer, Bernhard; Zuber, Michel; Erne, Paul

2012-01-01

280

Role of preoperative screening for adult patients for obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence. Underdiagnosed in the surgical population, OSA can reach a prevalence of up to 70% in bariatric surgery, and be associated with difficult airways and postoperative cardiopulmonary adverse events. Despite its association with escalation of care, increased health care resource utilization, and length of hospital stay, < 25% of health care institutions in the United States have OSA perioperative protocols to improve patient safety. This is explained in part by a lack of studies that support a widely accepted systematic approach to preoperative screening and risk stratification. This review evaluates the role of preoperative screening tools for adult patients with suspected OSA. PMID:25485922

Selim, Bernardo J; Surani, Salim R; Ramar, Kannan

2014-12-01

281

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Older Adults is a Distinctly Different Physiological Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Current evidence suggests that the pathological mechanisms underlying obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are altered with age. However, previous studies examining individual physiological traits known to contribute to OSA pathogenesis have been assessed in isolation, primarily in healthy individuals. Design: We assessed the four physiological traits responsible for OSA in a group of young and old patients with OSA. Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Ten young (20-40 y) and old (60 y and older) patients with OSA matched by body mass index and sex. Measurements and Results: Pharyngeal anatomy/collapsibility, loop gain (LG), upper airway muscle responsiveness/gain (UAG) and the respiratory arousal threshold were determined using multiple 2- to 3-min decreases or drops in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Passive pharyngeal anatomy/collapsibility was quantified as the ventilation at CPAP = 0 cmH2O immediately after the CPAP drop. LG was defined as the ratio of the ventilatory overshoot to the preceding reduction in ventilation. UAG was taken as the ratio of the increase in ventilation to the increase in ventilatory drive across the pressure drop. Arousal threshold was estimated as the ventilatory drive that caused arousal. Veupnea was quantified as the mean ventilation prior to the pressure drop. In comparison with younger patients with OSA, older patients had a more collapsible airway (ventilation at 0 cmH2O = 3.4 ± 0.9 versus 1.5 ± 0.7 L/min; P = 0.05) but lower Veupnea (8.2 ± 0.5 versus 6.1 ± 0.4 L/min; P < 0.01) and a lower LG (5.0 ± 0.7 versus 2.9 ± 0.5; P < 0.05). The remaining traits were similar between groups. Conclusions: Our data suggest that airway anatomy/collapsibility plays a relatively greater pathogenic role in older adults, whereas a sensitive ventilatory control system is a more prominent trait in younger adults with obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Edwards BA, Wellman A, Sands SA, Owens RL, Eckert DJ, White DP, Malhotra A. Obstructive sleep apnea in older adults is a distinctly different physiological phenotype. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1227-1236. PMID:25061251

Edwards, Bradley A.; Wellman, Andrew; Sands, Scott A.; Owens, Robert L.; Eckert, Danny J.; White, David P.; Malhotra, Atul

2014-01-01

282

Gender Differences in Morbidity and Health Care Utilization Among Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To explore gender differences in morbidity and total health care utilization 5 years prior to diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design: Case-control study; patients were recruited between January 2001 and April 2003. Setting: Two university-affiliated sleep laboratories. Patients: 289 women (22–81 years) with OSA were matched with 289 men with OSA for age, body mass index (BMI), and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). All OSA patients were matched 1:1 with healthy controls by age, geographic area, and primary physician. Measurements and Results: Women with OSA compared to men with OSA have lower perceived health status and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire score (54.5% vs. 28.4%, P <0.05 and 67.5±21.4 vs. 76±20.1, P <0.05, respectively). Compared to men with OSA, women with OSA have higher risk of hypothyroidism (OR 4.7; 95% CI, 2.3–10) and arthropathy (OR 1.6, 95% CI, 1.1–2.2) and lower risk for CVD (OR 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5–0.91). Compared to controls, both women and men with OSA had 1.8 times higher 5-year total costs (P <0.0001). Compared to men with OSA, expenditures for women with OSA are 1.3 times higher (P <0.0001). The multiple logistic regression (adjusting for BMI, AHI) revealed that age (OR 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.07), antipsychotic and anxiolytic drugs (OR 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2–4.4), and asthma (OR 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1–5.6) are independent determinants for “most costly” OSA women. Conclusion: Compared to men with similar OSA severity, women are heavier users of health care resources. Low FOSQ score and poor perceived health status in addition to overuse of psychoactive drugs are associated with high health care utilization among women with OSA. Citation: Greenberg-Dotan S; Reuveni H; Simon-Tuval T; Oksenberg A; Tarasiuk A. Gender differences in morbidity and health care utilization among adult obstructive sleep apnea patients. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1173-1180. PMID:17910389

Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Reuveni, Haim; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Oksenberg, Arie; Tarasiuk, Ariel

2007-01-01

283

Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Nasal Positive Airway Pressure Improves Golf Performance  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with impairment of cognitive function, and improvement is often noted with treatment. Golf is a sport that requires a range of cognitive skills. We evaluated the impact of nasal positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on the handicap index (HI) of golfers with OSAS. Methods: Golfers underwent a nocturnal polysomnogram (NPSG) to determine whether they had significant OSAS (respiratory disturbance index > 15). Twelve subjects with a positive NPSG were treated with PAP. HI, an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and sleep questionnaire (SQ) were submitted upon study entry. After 20 rounds of golf on PAP treatment, the HI was recalculated, and the questionnaires were repeated. A matched control group composed of non-OSAS subjects was studied to assess the impact of the study construct on HI, ESS, and SQ. Statistical comparisons between pre- and post-PAP treatment were calculated. Results: The control subjects demonstrated no significant change in HI, ESS, or SQ during this study, while the OSAS group demonstrated a significant drop in average HI (11.3%, p = 0.01), ESS, (p = 0.01), and SQ (p = 0.003). Among the more skilled golfers (defined as HI ? 12), the average HI dropped by an even greater degree (31.5%). Average utilization of PAP was 91.4% based on data card reporting. Conclusions: Treatment of OSAS with PAP enhanced performance in golfers with this condition. Treatment adherence was unusually high in this study. Non-medical performance improvement may be a strong motivator for selected subjects with OSAS to seek treatment and maximize adherence. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1243. Citation: Benton ML; Friedman NS. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with nasal positive airway pressure improves golf performance. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(12):1237-1242. PMID:24340283

Benton, Marc L.; Friedman, Neil S.

2013-01-01

284

Respiratory and Auditory Cortical Processing in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have impaired cortical processing of respiratory afferent stimuli, manifested by blunted sleep respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP). However, whether this impairment is limited to respiratory stimuli, or reversible after successful treatment, is unknown. We hypothesized that, during sleep, children with OSAS have (1) abnormal RREP, (2) normal cortical processing of nonrespiratory stimuli, and (3) persistence of abnormal RREP after treatment. Objectives: To measure sleep RREP and auditory evoked potentials in normal control subjects and children with OSAS before and after treatment. Methods: Twenty-four children with OSAS and 24 control subjects were tested during N3 sleep. Thirteen children with OSAS repeated testing 4–6 months after adenotonsillectomy. Measurements and Main Results: RREP were blunted in OSAS compared with control subjects (N350 at Cz ?27 ± 15.5 vs. ?47.4 ± 28.5 ?V; P = 0.019), and did not improve after OSAS treatment (N350 at Cz pretreatment ?25.1 ± 7.4 vs. ?29.8 ± 8.1 post-treatment). Auditory evoked potentials were similar in OSAS and control subjects at baseline (N350 at Cz ?58 ± 33.1 vs. ?66 ± 31.1 ?V), and did not change after treatment (N350 at Cz ?67.5 ± 36.8 vs. ?65.5 ± 20.3). Conclusions: Children with OSAS have persistent primary or irreversible respiratory afferent cortical processing deficits during sleep that could put them at risk of OSAS recurrence. OSAS does not seem to affect the cortical processing of nonrespiratory (auditory) afferent stimuli during sleep. PMID:23947422

Huang, Jingtao; Marcus, Carole L.; Davenport, Paul W.; Colrain, Ian M.; Gallagher, Paul R.

2013-01-01

285

Ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin levels in sleep apnea syndrome: Role of obesity  

PubMed Central

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among plasma leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin levels, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). METHODS: Fifty-five consecutive newly diagnosed OSAS patients and 15 age-matched nonapneic controls were enrolled in this study. After sleep study between 8:00 AM and 9:00 AM on the morning, venous blood was obtained in the fasting state to measure ghrelin and adipokines. RESULTS: Serum ghrelin levels of OSAS group were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the control group. No significant difference was noted in the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin in OSAS group when compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between ghrelin and apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) (r = 0.237, P < 0.05) or the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) (r = 0.28, P < 0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between leptin and body mass index (r = 0.592, P < 0.0001). No significant correlation was observed between leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and any polysomnographic parameters. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that serum ghrelin levels were higher in OSAS patients than those of control group and correlated with AHI and ESS. Further studies are needed to clarify the complex relation among OSAS, obesity, adipokines, and ghrelin. PMID:20835311

Ursavas, Ahmet; Ilcol, Yesim Ozarda; Nalci, Nazan; Karadag, Mehmet; Ege, Ercument

2010-01-01

286

Overnight fluid shifts in subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the characteristics of baseline body fluid content and overnight fluid shifts between non-obstructive sleep apnea (non-OSA) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subjects. Methods A case-controlled study was performed between February 2013 and January 2014, with 36 (18 OSA and 18 non-OSA) outpatients enrolled in this study. Polysomnographic parameters and results of body fluid were compared between the two groups. Results There were no differences in age, weight, and body mass index (BMI) between groups. Compared with the non-OSA group, OSA group had significantly higher neck circumference (NC) and fluid volume shift in the legs. OSA patients had higher left and right leg fluid indices than non-OSA subjects. There were significant correlations between apnoea-hypopnoea index and baseline fluid indices in both legs as well as the reduction in overnight change in both legs fluid volume. The increase in NC was also significantly correlated with the reduction in overnight change in both legs fluid volume, but not with the change in head and neck fluid volume. There were significant correlations between change in NC and increased fluid shifts in head and neck volume. Conclusions OSA patients had a higher baseline fluid content in both legs as compared with non-OSA subjects, which may be the basic factor with regards to fluid shifts in OSA patients. The increase in head and neck fluid shift volume did not directly correlate with the severity of OSA. PMID:25589967

Ding, Ning; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Xi-Long; Ding, Wen-Xiao; Gu, Bing; Ni, Bu-Qing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Jiang

2014-01-01

287

Electrophysiological Assessment of the Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Cognition  

PubMed Central

We used electrophysiological measures to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea on attention, learning, and memory. Thirty subjects (OSA group, n?=?15, control group n?=?15) participated in n-back tests, accompanied by P300 recordings, to investigate working memory and attention. The mirror-drawing test was used to study procedural memory, and the trail-making test (TMT) was used to evaluate divided attention and executive function. No significant group difference in reaction time was found in the 0-back and 1-back tests. In the 2-back test, reaction times of patients were longer than those of the control group. No P300 wave was obtained in the OSA group in any (0-, 1-, or 2-back) n-back test. In contrast, in the control group, significant P300 waves were recorded except for the 2-back test. The mirror-drawing scores were unaffected by sleep apnea. There was no difference between groups in the TMT-A test on any of the trials. Although no group difference was found in the first or second trials of the TMT-B test, OSA patients were less successful in learning on the third trial. According to our study results, OSA affects attention and executive function adversely however, we could not detect a significant effect on working or procedural memory. PMID:24587405

Gelir, Ethem; Ba?aran, Cenk; Bayrak, Sibel; Ya?c?o?lu, Süha; Budak, Murat Timur; F?rat, Hikmet; Ungan, Pekcan

2014-01-01

288

Time-on-task decrements in "steer clear" performance of patients with sleep apnea and narcolepsy.  

PubMed

Loss of attention with time-on-task reflects the increasing instability of the waking state during performance in experimentally induced sleepiness. To determine whether patients with disorders of excessive sleepiness also displayed time-on-task decrements indicative of wake state instability, visual sustained attention performance on "Steer Clear," a computerized simple RT driving simulation task, was compared among 31 patients with untreated sleep apnea, 16 patients with narcolepsy, and 14 healthy control subjects. Vigilance decrement functions were generated by analyzing the number of collisions in each of six four-minute periods of Steer Clear task performance in a mixed-model analysis of variance and linear regression equations. As expected, patients had more Steer Clear collisions than control subjects (p=0.006). However, the inter-subject variability in errors among the narcoleptic patients was four-fold that of the apnea patients, and 100-fold that of the controls volunteers; the variance in errors among untreated apnea patients was 27-times that of controls. The results of transformed collision data revealed main effects for group (p=0.006), time-on-task (p=0.001), and a significant interaction (p=0.022). Control subjects showed no clear evidence of increasing collision errors with time-on-task (adjusted R2=0.22), while apnea patients showed a trend toward vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.42, p=0.097), and narcolepsy patients evidenced a robust linear vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.87, p=0.004). The association of disorders of excessive somnolence with escalating time-on-task decrements makes it imperative that when assessment of neurobehavioral performance is conducted in patients, it involves task durations and analyses that will evaluate the underlying vulnerability of potentially sleepy patients to decrements over time in tasks that require sustained attention and timely responses, both of which are key components in safe driving performance. PMID:10505827

Findley, L J; Suratt, P M; Dinges, D F

1999-09-15

289

Time-on-task decrements in "steer clear" performance of patients with sleep apnea and narcolepsy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loss of attention with time-on-task reflects the increasing instability of the waking state during performance in experimentally induced sleepiness. To determine whether patients with disorders of excessive sleepiness also displayed time-on-task decrements indicative of wake state instability, visual sustained attention performance on "Steer Clear," a computerized simple RT driving simulation task, was compared among 31 patients with untreated sleep apnea, 16 patients with narcolepsy, and 14 healthy control subjects. Vigilance decrement functions were generated by analyzing the number of collisions in each of six four-minute periods of Steer Clear task performance in a mixed-model analysis of variance and linear regression equations. As expected, patients had more Steer Clear collisions than control subjects (p=0.006). However, the inter-subject variability in errors among the narcoleptic patients was four-fold that of the apnea patients, and 100-fold that of the controls volunteers; the variance in errors among untreated apnea patients was 27-times that of controls. The results of transformed collision data revealed main effects for group (p=0.006), time-on-task (p=0.001), and a significant interaction (p=0.022). Control subjects showed no clear evidence of increasing collision errors with time-on-task (adjusted R2=0.22), while apnea patients showed a trend toward vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.42, p=0.097), and narcolepsy patients evidenced a robust linear vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.87, p=0.004). The association of disorders of excessive somnolence with escalating time-on-task decrements makes it imperative that when assessment of neurobehavioral performance is conducted in patients, it involves task durations and analyses that will evaluate the underlying vulnerability of potentially sleepy patients to decrements over time in tasks that require sustained attention and timely responses, both of which are key components in safe driving performance.

Findley, L. J.; Suratt, P. M.; Dinges, D. F.

1999-01-01

290

Practice Parameters for the Medical Therapy of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Therapies for obstructive sleep apnea other than positive air- way pressure, oral appliances, and surgical modifications of the upper airway are reviewed in this practice parameter. Several of these therapies such as weight loss and positional therapy hold some promise. Others, such as serotonergic agents, may gain credibility in the future but lack well-designed clinical trials. No practice parameters

Timothy I. Morgenthaler; Sheldon Kapen; Teofilo Lee-Chiong; Cathy Alessi; Brian Boehlecke; Jack Coleman; Vishesh Kapur; Judith Owens; Jeffrey Pancer; Todd Swick

2006-01-01

291

Long term therapeutic efficacy of a soft monobloc mandibular advancement device in adults with obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Aim. To evaluate the long term (48 months) therapeutic efficacy of a soft monobloc mandibular advancement device in adult patients with mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Methods. The study population comprised 28 patients (6 female and 22 male, mean age 52.2 ± 6.8 years) affected by obstructive sleep apnea. After a baseline medical and somnographic examination, a functional examination of the stomatognathic system, and a questionnaire focused on sleep-related qualities and a daytime somnolence, each patient received an individual device. Two follow-ups were made 6 months (T1) and 48 months (T2) after soft monobloc mandibular advancement device treatment had been initiated, and all initial examinations were repeated. Results. The statistical analysis showed a significant decrease in body mass index value between T1 and T2 (? = 0,012), an increase of Epworth sleepiness scale value between T1 and T2 (? = 0,012), and a significant improvement and decrease of apnea/hypopnea index between T0 and T1 (? = 0,010) and between T0 and T2 (? = 0,013). Conclusion. Treatment with the soft monobloc mandibular advancement device is a therapeutic solution with long term and stable effects (48 months) for patients suffering from mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:25642453

Ballanti, Fabiana; Ranieri, Salvatore; Baldini, Alberto; Cozza, Paola

2015-01-01

292

Comparison of Atenolol, Amlodipine, Enalapril, Hydrochlorothiazide, and Losartan for Antihypertensive Treatment in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effects of atenolol (50 mg), amlodipine (5 mg), enalapril (20 mg), hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg), and losartan (50 mg) given in once-daily oral doses on office and ambulatory blood pressures (BPs) in patients with hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Each of 40 randomized patients was treated in se- quence with two of the five agents (balanced incomplete

HOLGER KRAICZI; JAN HEDNER; YÜKSEL PEKER; LUDGER GROTE

2000-01-01

293

Long Term Therapeutic Efficacy of a Soft Monobloc Mandibular Advancement Device in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Aim. To evaluate the long term (48 months) therapeutic efficacy of a soft monobloc mandibular advancement device in adult patients with mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Methods. The study population comprised 28 patients (6 female and 22 male, mean age 52.2 ± 6.8 years) affected by obstructive sleep apnea. After a baseline medical and somnographic examination, a functional examination of the stomatognathic system, and a questionnaire focused on sleep-related qualities and a daytime somnolence, each patient received an individual device. Two follow-ups were made 6 months (T1) and 48 months (T2) after soft monobloc mandibular advancement device treatment had been initiated, and all initial examinations were repeated. Results. The statistical analysis showed a significant decrease in body mass index value between T1 and T2 (? = 0,012), an increase of Epworth sleepiness scale value between T1 and T2 (? = 0,012), and a significant improvement and decrease of apnea/hypopnea index between T0 and T1 (? = 0,010) and between T0 and T2 (? = 0,013). Conclusion. Treatment with the soft monobloc mandibular advancement device is a therapeutic solution with long term and stable effects (48 months) for patients suffering from mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:25642453

Ballanti, Fabiana; Ranieri, Salvatore; Cozza, Paola

2015-01-01

294

Oral Appliance Therapy versus Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous randomized controlled trials have addressed the efficacy of mandibular advancement devices (MADs) in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Their common control condition, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), was frequently found to be superior to MAD therapy. However, in most of these studies, only nCPAP was titrated objectively but not MAD. To enable an unbiased comparison

Ghizlane Aarab; Frank Lobbezoo; Hans L. Hamburger; Machiel Naeije

2011-01-01

295

Skeletal expansion combined with soft-tissue reduction in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children: Physiologic results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty consecutive children, ranging in age from 6 days to 18 years, were treated with skeletal expansion, in addition to soft-tissue reduction, for medically refractory obstructive sleep apnea. The underlying diagnoses were craniofacial microsomia (n = 6), Down syndrome (n = 3), Pierre Robin syndrome (n = 3), cerebral palsy (n = 3), Nager’s syndrome (n = 1), Treacher Collins

STEVEN R. COHEN; DAVID A. ROSS; FERNANDO D. BURSTEIN; JEAN-FRANCOIS LEFAIVRE; JOHN E. RISKI; CATHY SIMMS

1998-01-01

296

The Effect of Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Quality of Life in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Benefits of treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with cerebral palsy could differ from those in otherwise healthy children. We examined the effects of OSA treatment by comparing a group of children with cerebral palsy treated with adenotonsillectomy or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by nasal mask with controls who…

Hsiao, Kai Hsun; Nixon, Gillian M.

2008-01-01

297

Day/Night Rhythm of Hemostatic Factors in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the hypothesis that day/night patterns of prothrombotic activity differ between patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and individuals with no OSA. Design: Prothrombotic markers' day/night rhythms recorded over one 24-h period. Setting: General clinical research center. Patients: 38 untreated OSA patients as verified by polysomnography (apnea-hypopnea index ?10/h sleep) and 22 non-OSA controls. Measurements and Results: Blood samples were collected every 2 h to measure plasma levels of fibrinolysis-inhibiting plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 and the primary fibrin degradation product D-dimer. Day/night variation in hemostasis factors was examined using a cosinor analysis. Mesor (mean) PAI-1 over the 24-h period was higher (P = 0.015), and mesor of D-dimer was lower (P = 0.001) in patients with OSA than in the non-OSA controls. These group differences stayed significant when controlling for age and gender. After further adjustment for body mass index, mean arterial pressure, and smoking, the relationship between OSA and PAI-1 became non-significant, but the relationship between OSA and D-dimer continued to be significant (P = 0.006). In the fully adjusted analysis, the amplitude (peak) for D-dimer was lower in OSA patients than in non-OSA controls (P = 0.048). The acrophase (time of the peak) for PAI-1 and D-dimer did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusions: The relatively higher average level of PAI-1 and lower average level of D-dimer across the 24-h in OSA patients might reflect decreased fibrinolytic capacity and fibrin degradation, respectively. The findings provide some evidence for a prothrombotic state in OSA, but were only partially independent of metabolic variables. Citation: von Käanel R; Natarajan L; Ancoli-Israel S; Mills PJ; Loredo JS; Dimsdale JE. Day/night rhythm of hemostatic factors in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2010;33(3):371-377. PMID:20337196

von Känel, Roland; Natarajan, Loki; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Mills, Paul J.; Loredo, José S.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

2010-01-01

298

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Increases the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: (1) To describe the incidence rate of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and (2) to investigate MVC risk factors in OSA patients. Methods: A retrospective case-series observational study was conducted using data from the West Australian Sleep Health Study at a tertiary hospital-based sleep clinic. Participants were patients (N = 2,673) referred for assessment of suspected sleep disordered breathing. Questionnaire data were collected including age, sex, years of driving, near-misses and MVCs, sleepiness, and consumption of alcohol and caffeinated drinks. Overnight laboratory-based polysomnography was performed using standard methodology.1 Poisson univariate and negative binomial multivariable regression models were used to investigate associations between risk factors and MVC and near-miss risk in patients with untreated OSA. Results: In patients with untreated OSA, the crash rate was 0.06 MVC/person-year compared with the general community crash rate of 0.02 MVC/person-year. The rate ratio comparing very sleepy men with normal men was 4.68 (95% CI 3.07, 7.14) for near-misses and 1.27 (95% CI 1.00, 1.61) for crashes, after adjusting for confounders. In women there was a significant association with sleepiness score (p = 0.02) but no dose effect across quartiles. Conclusions: Untreated OSA is associated with an increased risk of near-misses in men and women and an increased risk of MVCs in very sleepy men. There is a strong association between excessive daytime sleepiness and increased report of near-misses. Our data support the observation that it is those patients with increased sleepiness regardless of OSA severity who are most at risk. Citation: Ward KL; Hillman DR; James A; Bremner AP; Simpson L; Cooper MN; Palmer LJ; Fedson AC; Mukherjee S. Excessive daytime sleepiness increases the risk of motor vehicle crash in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1013-1021. PMID:24127145

Ward, Kim L.; Hillman, David R.; James, Alan; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Simpson, Laila; Cooper, Matthew N.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Fedson, Annette C.; Mukherjee, Sutapa

2013-01-01

299

Independent Association Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Glycated Hemoglobin in Adults Without Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis of an independent cross-sectional association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in adults without known diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS HbA1c was measured in whole-blood samples from 2,139 patients undergoing nocturnal recording for suspected OSA. Participants with self-reported diabetes, use of diabetes medication, or HbA1c value ?6.5% were excluded from this study. Our final sample size comprised 1,599 patients. RESULTS A dose-response relationship was observed between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the percentage of patients with HbA1c >6.0%, ranging from 10.8% for AHI <5 to 34.2% for AHI ?50. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, BMI, waist circumference, cardiovascular morbidity, daytime sleepiness, depression, insomnia, sleep duration, and study site, odds ratios (95% CIs) for HbA1c >6.0% were 1 (reference), 1.40 (0.84–2.32), 1.80 (1.19–2.72), 2.02 (1.31–3.14), and 2.96 (1.58–5.54) for AHI values <5, 5 to <15, 15 to <30, 30 to <50, and ?50, respectively. Increasing hypoxemia during sleep was also independently associated with the odds of HbA1c >6.0%. CONCLUSIONS Among adults without known diabetes, increasing OSA severity is independently associated with impaired glucose metabolism, as assessed by higher HbA1c values, which may expose them to higher risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22688546

Priou, Pascaline; Le Vaillant, Marc; Meslier, Nicole; Chollet, Sylvaine; Masson, Philippe; Humeau, Marie P.; Pigeanne, Thierry; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Goupil, François; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

2012-01-01

300

The Extracellular Matrix of the Lateral Pharyngeal Wall in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To compare the components of the extracellular matrix in the lateral pharyngeal muscular wall in patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This may help to explain the origin of the increased collapsibility of the pharynx in patients with OSA. Design: Specimens from the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, obtained during pharyngeal surgeries, were evaluated using histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses to determine the fractional area of collagen types I and III, elastic fibers, versican, fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 in the endomysium. Setting: Academic tertiary center. Patiens: A total of 51 nonobese adult patients, divided into 38 patients with OSA and 13 nonsnoring control subjects without OSA. Interventions: Postintervention study performed on tissues from patients after elective surgery. Measurements and Results: Pharyngeal muscles of patients with OSA had significantly more collagen type I than pharyngeal muscles in control subjects. Collagen type I was correlated positively and independently with age. The other tested components of the extracellular matrix did not differ significantly between groups. In a logistic regression, an additive effect of both the increase of collagen type I and the increase in age with the presence of OSA was observed (odds ratio (OR), 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17-3.63), when compared with the effect of increased age alone (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20). Conclusion: Collagen type I in the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was more prevalent in patients with OSA and also increased with age. It was hypothesized that this increase could delay contractile-relaxant responses in the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle at the expiratory-inspiratory phase transition, thus increasing pharyngeal collapsibility. Citation: Dantas DAS; Mauad T; Silva LFF; Lorenzi-Filho G; Formigoni GGS; Cahali MB. The extracellular matrix of the lateral pharyngeal wall in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2012;35(4):483-490. PMID:22467986

Dantas, Danielle Andrade da Silva; Mauad, Thais; Silva, Luiz F. F.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Formigoni, Gilberto G. S.; Cahali, Michel B.

2012-01-01

301

Clinical Patterns of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Its Comorbid Conditions: A Data Mining Approach  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea often results in a wide range of comorbid conditions. Although some conditions have been clearly identified as comorbid, a full clinical pattern of associated diseases has not been systematically documented. This research aimed to reveal the full pattern of comorbid conditions associated with OSA by employing a data mining technique. Methods: A large data repository (the New South Wales Inpatient Data Collection) collected between 1999 and 2004 was mined, and all clinical diagnoses were coded with ICD-10-AM codes. Results: A total of 60,197 cases (4% of total records) were identified as related to OSA (72.2% males, 27.8% females). OSA occurrence showed 2 peaks at 0–4 years and 55–59 years. A strikingly low occurrence was observed for the adolescent years. Conditions comorbid with OSA in adults by descending frequency were essential hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, past or current tobacco use, and ischemic heart conditions. Obesity and OSA showed a similar time course of onset, with a latent period of 5 years for hypertension and type 2 diabetes and 15 years for chronic ischemic heart conditions. Comorbid conditions were predominantly of the cardiovascular, endocrine/metabolic and respiratory systems. The data also indicated OSA patients are high users of health services. Conclusions: The data mining technique confirms the prevalence of the disease, describes the age distribution patterns and time courses of disease development from obesity and OSA to comorbid conditions, and implicates possible interrelationships among these conditions and high cost of treating OSA patients. Citation: Huang QR; Qin Z; Zhang S; Chow CM. Clinical patterns of obstructive sleep apnea and its comorbid conditions: a data mining approach. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(6):543–550. PMID:19110883

Huang, Qi Rong; Qin, Zhenxing; Zhang, Shichao; Chow, Chin Moi

2008-01-01

302

Early sleep apnea screening on a stroke unit is feasible in patients with acute cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Early screening for sleep apnea (SA) is rarely considered in patients with acute cerebral ischemia. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of early SA screening on a stroke unit, its impact on post-discharge SA care and the relation of SA to clinical features. Patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) prospectively underwent overnight cardiorespiratory polygraphy within 3 ± 2 days of symptom-onset. Feasibility was defined as analyzable polygraphy in 90 % of studied patients. We enrolled 61 patients (84 % AIS, 16 % TIA): mean age 66 ± 8 years, 44 % men, median NIHSS 1 (0-15), median ESS 5 (0-13). Analyzability was given in 56/61 (91.8 %; one-sided 95 % CI, lower-bound 86.0 %) patients indicating excellent feasibility of early SA screening with no significant differences in stroke severity (100 % in TIA, 91 % minor stroke, 83 % major stroke, p = 0.474). Ninety-one percent (51/56) had an apnea-hypopnea index ? 5/h (median: 20/h [0-79]); 32 % (18/56) mild, 30 % (17/56) moderate, and 29 % (16/56) severe SA. When comparing sleep-related ischemic stroke (SIS) and non-SIS patients, no differences were found regarding the presence (95 vs. 89 %, p = 0.49) or severity (e.g., severe SA: 32 vs. 27 %, p = 0.69) of SA. After 12 months, 27/38 (71 %) patients given specific recommendations completed in-laboratory sleep work-up and 7/27 (25 %) were prescribed for non-invasive ventilatory correction. In conclusion, early SA screening is feasible in patients with acute cerebral ischemia and may have a positive impact on post-discharge SA care. Given the high frequency and atypical presentation of SA, early screening for SA should be considered in all acute cerebral ischemia patients. PMID:23263538

Kepplinger, Jessica; Barlinn, Kristian; Albright, Karen C; Schrempf, Wiebke; Boehme, Amelia K; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Schwanebeck, Uta; Graehlert, Xina; Storch, Alexander; Reichmann, Heinz; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Bodechtel, Ulf

2013-05-01

303

Attenuated Heart Rate Recovery Following Exercise Testing in Overweight Young Men with Untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To evaluate whether cardiovascular responses to maximal exercise testing and recovery are altered with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in overweight young adult men. Design: Three sedentary subject groups were recruited: Overweight with OSA (OSA), overweight without OSA (No-OSA), and normal weight without OSA (Control). Presence of OSA was screened via portable diagnostic device. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects performed maximal ramping exercise testing (RXT) on a cycle ergometer with 5 minutes of active recovery. Exercise measurements included heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and oxygen consumption (VO2). Recovery HR was converted to a HR difference (HRdiff) calculation (HRpeak ? HR each minute recovery), and BP was converted to a recovery ratio for each minute. Setting: The study was carried out on the campus of Virginia Tech, Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Blacksburg, Virginia. Participants: 14 OSA, 16 No-OSA, and 14 Control volunteers. Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: In OSA subjects, HR recovery was significantly attenuated compared to the No-OSA and Control groups throughout recovery (P = 0.009). No differences were noted in the HR or BP response to exercise in any group. The VO2, adjusted for fat-free soft tissue mass, did not differ between groups. Conclusions: We found that OSA elicits alterations in the cardiovascular response post exercise, reflected by an attenuated HR recovery. This may indicate an imbalance in the autonomic regulation of HR. Exercise tests may provide utility in risk stratification for those at risk for OSA. Citation: Hargens TA; Guill SG; Zedalis D; Gregg JM; Nickols-Richardson SM; Herbert WG. Attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise testing in overweight young men with untreated obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2008;31(1):104-110. PMID:18220083

Hargens, Trent A.; Guill, Stephen G.; Zedalis, Donald; Gregg, John M.; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.; Herbert, William G.

2008-01-01

304

Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Obesity, and the Development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of respiratory complications and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) among surgical patients. OSA is more prevalent among obese individuals; obesity can predispose to ARDS. Hypothesis: It is unclear whether OSA independently contributes towards the risk of ARDS among hospitalized patients. Methods: This is a pre-planned retrospective subgroup analysis of the prospectively identified cohort of 5,584 patients across 22 hospitals with at least one risk factor for ARDS at the time of hospitalization from a trial by the US Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group designed to validate the Lung Injury Prediction Score. A total of 252 patients (4.5%) had a diagnosis of OSA at the time of hospitalization; of those, 66% were obese. Following multivariate adjustment in the logistic regression model, there was no significant relationship between OSA and development of ARDS (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.32-1.22). However, body mass index (BMI) was associated with subsequent ARDS development (OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 1.00-1.04, p = 0.03). Neither OSA nor BMI affected mechanical ventilation requirement or mortality. Conclusions: Prior diagnosis of OSA did not independently affect development of ARDS among patients with at least one predisposing condition, nor the need for mechanical ventilation or hospital mortality. Obesity appeared to independently increase the risk of ARDS. Citation: Karnatovskaia LV, Lee AS, Bender SP, Talmor D, Festic E. Obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(6):657-662. PMID:24932146

Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V.; Lee, Augustine S.; Bender, S. Patrick; Talmor, Daniel; Festic, Emir

2014-01-01

305

Long-Term Results in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) after Laser-Assisted Uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP)  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a serious disease. The etiology of and optimum therapy options for this disorder have been much discussed and have been the subject of many publications. One much discussed therapy option is laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP). Despite conflicting opinions and guidelines which recommend that it should not be used, it remains in use. Patients who had previously undergone this procedure were invited for follow-up appointments, at which they were asked to complete a questionnaire, underwent an ENT examination and underwent sleep laboratory analysis using a portable sleep lab device. The average time since LAUP treatment was 11 years. The cohort comprised 25 patients. The average preoperative apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI) score was 25.25/h; the average postoperative AHI score 23.62/h. Closer examination of our data enabled us to identify 10 responders (40%) and 15 non-responders (60%). 12% (3/25) of non-responders experienced either no reduction in their AHI score or an increase compared to their preoperative AHI score of less than 5/h. In the remaining 48% (12/25), AHI increased by more than 5/h compared to the preoperative figure. Our questionnaire showed that 40% (10/25) of patients suffered from dry mouth and 20% (5/25) from foreign body sensation. The data led us to conclude that laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty can indeed result in a reduction in AHI score comparable to other mucosal resection methods. Also in common with these methods, the efficacy of the therapy reduces with time and the procedure carries a high risk of bringing about an increase in the patient's AHI score. PMID:24979228

Göktas, Önder; Solmaz, Mustafa; Göktas, Gökhan; Olze, Heidi

2014-01-01

306

Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Lower in Double Reed Wind Musicians  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is caused by a collapse of the upper airway. Respiratory muscle training with a wind instrument (didgeridoo) in patients with moderate OSA has been previously shown to improve OSA symptomology. However, a survey of orchestra members did not indicate a difference in OSA risk between wind and non-wind instrumentalist. The present study examines whether playing of different wind instrument types may affect the risk of OSA. Methods: A national sample of active musicians (n = 906) was surveyed through the internet. Participants' risk for OSA was determined by the Berlin Questionnaire. Additional survey items included questions about general health and musical experience. Results: A binary logistic regression was conducted to determine if OSA risk was predicted by gender, age, number of years playing instrument, number of hours per week playing instrument, and instrument type. Musicians who played a double reed instrument had a lower risk of OSA (p = 0.047) than non-wind instrumentalists. Additionally, in double reed instrumentalists, the number of hours spent playing the instrument predicted lower OSA risk (p = 0.020). The risk for OSA in other wind instruments (i.e., single reed, high brass, and low brass) was not significantly different from non-wind musicians. Conclusions: Playing a double reed musical instrument was associated with a lower risk of OSA. Citation: Ward CP; York KM; McCoy JG. Risk of obstructive sleep apnea lower in double reed wind musicians. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):251-255. PMID:22701381

Ward, Christopher P.; York, Kaki M.; McCoy, John G.

2012-01-01

307

Effect of Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Depressive Symptoms: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and decreased quality of life. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or mandibular advancement devices (MADs) is effective for many symptoms of OSA. However, it remains controversial whether treatment with CPAP or MAD also improves depressive symptoms. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of CPAP or MADs on depressive symptoms in patients with OSA. We searched Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO from the inception of the databases until August 15, 2014, for relevant articles. In a random effects meta-analysis of 19 identified trials, CPAP treatment resulted in an improvement in depressive symptoms compared to control, but with significant heterogeneity between trials (Q statistic, p<0.001; I2?=?71.3%, 95% CI: 54%, 82%). CPAP treatment resulted in significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms in the two trials with a higher burden of depression at baseline (meta-regression, p<0.001). The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) in depressive symptoms with CPAP treatment in these two trial populations with baseline depression was 2.004 (95% CI: 1.387, 2.621), compared to 0.197 (95% CI: 0.059, 0.334) for 15 trials of populations without depression at baseline. Pooled estimates of the treatment effect of CPAP were greater in parallel arm trials than in crossover trials (meta-regression, p?=?0.076). Random effects meta-analysis of five trials of MADs showed a significant improvement in depressive symptoms with MADs versus controls: SMD?=?0.214 (95% CI: 0.026, 0.401) without significant heterogeneity (I2?=?0%, 95% CI: 0%, 79%). Studies were limited by the use of depressive symptom scales that have not been validated specifically in people with OSA. Conclusions CPAP and MADs may be useful components of treatment of depressive symptoms in individuals with OSA and depression. The efficacy of CPAP and MADs compared to standard therapies for depression is unknown. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25423175

Heitman, Steven J.; Tsai, Willis H.; Wang, JianLi; James, Matthew T.

2014-01-01

308

Indication of CPAP in Patients with Suspected Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Based on Clinical Parameters and a Novel Two-Channel Recording Device (ApneaLink): A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the medical decision based on the results of the hand scoring from a two-channel recording device (ApneaLink) plus clinical data for the prescription of a CPAP assay in patients with suspected OSA. Methods. 39 subjects were assessed in the sleep laboratory with polysomnography and ApneaLink. The patients completed the Epworth sleepiness scale and a clinical history. Two blinded independent observers decided to prescribe CPAP according to the results of the PSG (gold standard, observer A), ApneaLink (alternative method, observer B), and the clinical parameters. Sensitivity and specificity of observer B on the indication of CPAP were calculated. The interobserver agreement for the indication of CPAP was assessed using kappa statistics. Results. 38 subjects were included (26 men, mean age 47.5, mean RDI 28.7, mean BMI 31.4?kg/m2). The prevalence of OSA was 84%. The sensitivity and specificity of observer B to initiate a CPAP trial were 90.6% and 100%, respectively. The interrater agreement for the prescription of CPAP was good (kappa: 0.75). Conclusion. This study has shown that the use of ApneaLink plus clinical data has made it possible to indicate CPAP reliably in most patients with high-clinical pretest for OSA. PMID:23470904

Nigro, Carlos Alberto; Dibur, Eduardo; Grandval, Sofía; Nogueira, Facundo

2012-01-01

309

Association Study of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Chinese Han Population  

PubMed Central

Background: Since the serotonin (5-HT) is associated with circadian rhythm and breathing regulation, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which plays an important role in serotoninergic transmission, might be a strong candidate gene in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Objective: To investigate the association of 5-HTT gene polymorphisms with OSAS and clinical characteristics. Methods: We genotyped the 5-HTT gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and a variable number of tandem repeats at intron 2 (STin2.VNTR) in 254 OSAS patients and 338 healthy controls in Chinese Han population. Results: In total sample, the 10-repeat allele of STin2.VNTR was significantly associated with OSAS (P = 0.007, OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.15~2.58), but no association was found in 5-HTTLPR. In male subjects, both polymorphisms showed significant association with OSAS (Allele L: P = 0.005, OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.87; Allele 10: P = 0.002, OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.26 to 3.00). Two haplotypes, S-12 and L-10, constructed by the above polymorphisms also revealed significant associations with OSAS (global P-values were 0.020 for total sample and 0.0006 for male subjects, respectively). Male patients carrying the haplotype S-12 showed a significantly lower apnea / hypopnea index (AHI), depressive factor, plasma 5-HT level and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, but higher episodic memory, when compared with non-S-12 carriers (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found in excessive daytime sleepiness or other psychological function across haplotype carriers (P > 0.05). Conclusions: These findings support that 5-HTT gene may be involved in susceptibility to OSAS, especially with sex-dependent effect. Citation: Yue W; Liu H; Zhang J; Zhang X; Wang X; Liu T; Liu P; Hao W. Association study of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in chinese han population. SLEEP 2008;31(11):1535–1541. PMID:19014073

Yue, Weihua; Liu, Huiguo; Zhang, Jishui; Zhang, Xianghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Tieqiao; Liu, Pozi; Hao, Wei

2008-01-01

310

Capability of a neck worn device to measure sleep/wake, airway position, and differentiate benign snoring from obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

To evaluate the accuracy of a neck-worn device in measuring sleep/wake, detecting supine airway position, and using loud snoring to screen for obstructive sleep apnea. Study A included 20 subjects who wore the neck-device during polysomnography (PSG), with 31 records obtained from diagnostic and split-night studies. Study B included 24 community-based snorers studied in-home for up to three-nights with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity measured with a validated Level III recorder. The accuracy of neck actigraphy-based sleep/wake was measured by assessing sleep efficiency (SE). Differences in sleep position measured at the chest and neck during PSG were compared to video-editing. Loud snoring acquired with an acoustic microphone was compared to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) by- and acrosspositions. Over-reported SE by neck actigraphy was inversely related to OSA severity. Measurement of neck and chest supine position were highly correlated with video-edits (r = 0.93, 0.78). Chest was bias toward over-estimating supine time while the majority of neck-device supine position errors occurred during CPAP titrations. Snoring was highly correlated with the overall, supine, and non-supine PSG-AHI (r = 0.79, 0.74, 0.83) and was both sensitive and specific in detecting overall, supine, and non-supine PSGAHI >10 (sensitivity = 81, 88, 82 %; specificity = 87, 79, 100 %). At home sleep testing-AHI > 10, the sensitivity and specificity of loud snoring was superior when users were predominantly non-supine as compared to baseline (sensitivity = 100, 92 %; specificity = 88, 77 %). Neck actigraphy appears capable of estimating sleep/wake. The accuracy of supine airway detection with the neck-device warrants further investigation. Measurement of loud snoring appears to provide a screening tool for differentiating positional apneic and benign snorers. PMID:24599632

Levendowski, Daniel J; Veljkovic, Bratislav; Seagraves, Sean; Westbrook, Philip R

2015-02-01

311

Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Critical Role of Oral-Facial Growth: Evidences  

PubMed Central

Aims: Review of evidence in support of an oral-facial growth impairment in the development of pediatric sleep apnea in non-obese children. Method: Review of experimental data from infant monkeys with experimentally induced nasal resistance. Review of early historical data in the orthodontic literature indicating the abnormal oral-facial development associated with mouth breathing and nasal resistance. Review of the progressive demonstration of sleep-disordered-breathing (SDB) in children who underwent incomplete treatment of OSA with adenotonsillectomy, and demonstration of abnormal oral-facial anatomy that must often be treated in order for the resolution of OSA. Review of data of long-term recurrence of OSA and indication of oral-facial myofunctional dysfunction in association with the recurrence of OSA. Results: Presentation of prospective data on premature infants and SDB-treated children, supporting the concept of oral-facial hypotonia. Presentation of evidence supporting hypotonia as a primary element in the development of oral-facial anatomic abnormalities leading to abnormal breathing during sleep. Continuous interaction between oral-facial muscle tone, maxillary-mandibular growth and development of SDB. Role of myofunctional reeducation with orthodontics and elimination of upper airway soft tissue in the treatment of non-obese SDB children. Conclusion: Pediatric OSA in non-obese children is a disorder of oral-facial growth. PMID:23346072

Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian

2013-01-01

312

Supine position related obstructive sleep apnea in adults: pathogenesis and treatment.  

PubMed

The most striking feature of obstructive respiratory events is that they are at their most severe and frequent in the supine sleeping position: indeed, more than half of all obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients can be classified as supine related OSA. Existing evidence points to supine related OSA being attributable to unfavorable airway geometry, reduced lung volume, and an inability of airway dilator muscles to adequately compensate as the airway collapses. The role of arousal threshold and ventilatory control instability in the supine position has however yet to be defined. Crucially, few physiological studies have examined patients in the lateral and supine positions, so there is little information to elucidate how breathing stability is affected by sleep posture. The mechanisms of supine related OSA can be overcome by the use of continuous positive airway pressure. There are conflicting data on the utility of oral appliances, while the effectiveness of weight loss and nasal expiratory resistance remains unclear. Avoidance of the supine posture is efficacious, but long term compliance data and well powered randomized controlled trials are lacking. The treatment of supine related OSA remains largely ignored in major clinical guidelines. Supine OSA is the dominant phenotype of the OSA syndrome. This review explains why the supine position so favors upper airway collapse and presents the available data on the management of patients with supine related OSA. PMID:23669094

Joosten, Simon A; O'Driscoll, Denise M; Berger, Philip J; Hamilton, Garun S

2014-02-01

313

Inflammatory Markers and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Children: The NANOS Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) are common coexisting conditions associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state underlying some of the cognitive, metabolic, and cardiovascular morbidities. Aim. To examine the levels of inflammatory markers in obese community-dwelling children with OSA, as compared to no-OSA, and their association with clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) variables. Methods. In this cross-sectional, prospective multicenter study, healthy obese Spanish children (ages 4–15 years) were randomly selected and underwent nocturnal PSG followed by a morning fasting blood draw. Plasma samples were assayed for multiple inflammatory markers. Results. 204 children were enrolled in the study; 75 had OSA, defined by an obstructive respiratory disturbance index (RDI) of 3 events/hour total sleep time (TST). BMI, gender, and age were similar in OSA and no-OSA children. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in OSA children, with interleukin-6 concentrations being higher in moderate-severe OSA (i.e., AHI > 5/hrTST; P < 0.01), while MCP-1 levels were associated with more prolonged nocturnal hypercapnia (P < 0.001). Conclusion. IL-6, MCP-1, and PAI-1 are altered in the context of OSA among community-based obese children further reinforcing the proinflammatory effects of sleep disorders such as OSA. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01322763. PMID:24991089

Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Peris, Eduard; Cordero-Guevara, José Aurelio; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Martinez, Mónica Gonzalez; Jurado-Luque, María José; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Gozal, David

2014-01-01

314

Long-Term Effectiveness and Compliance of Positional Therapy with the Sleep Position Trainer in the Treatment of Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate effectiveness, long-term compliance, and effects on subjective sleep of the Sleep Position Trainer (SPT) in patients with position-dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (POSAS). Design: Prospective, multicenter cohort study. Patients or Participants: Adult patients with mild and moderate POSAS were included. Interventions: Patients asked to use the SPT for 6 mo. At baseline and after 1, 3, and 6 mo, questionnaires would be completed: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and questions related to SPT use. Measurements and Results: One hundred forty-five patients were included. SPT use and SPT data could not be retrieved in 39 patients. In the remaining 106 patients, median percentage of supine sleep decreased rapidly during SPT's training phase (day 3 to 9) to near-total avoidance of supine sleep. This decrease was maintained during the following months of treatment (21% at baseline versus 3% at 6 mo). SPT compliance, defined as more than 4 h of nightly use, was 64.4%. Regular use, defined as more than 4 h of usage over 5 nights/w, was 71.2%. Subjective compliance and regular use were 59.8% and 74.4%, respectively. Median ESS (11 to 8), PSQI (8 to 6), and FOSQ (87 to 103) values significantly improved compared with baseline. Conclusions: Positional therapy using the Sleep Position Trainer (SPT) effectively diminished the percentage of supine sleep and subjective sleepiness and improved sleep related quality of life in patients with mild to moderate position-dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SPT treatment appeared to have sustained effects over 6 months. SPT compliance and regular use rate were relatively good. Subjective and objective compliance data corresponded well. The lack of a placebo-controlled group limited the efficacy of conclusions. Citation: van Maamen JP, de Vries N. Long-term effectiveness and compliance of positional therapy with the Sleep Position Trainer in the treatment of positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1209-1215. PMID:25061249

van Maanen, J. Peter; de Vries, Nico

2014-01-01

315

Comparison of drug-induced sleep endoscopy and upper airway computed tomography in obstructive sleep apnea patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the findings of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) and upper airway computed tomography (UACT) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. This study was a non-randomized, prospective, clinical trial. We used DISE to identify the obstruction pattern according to VOTE classification. All 62 study subjects (all men) showed velum-related obstruction; 47 (75.8%) had lateral oropharyngeal obstruction, 45 (72.6%) had tongue-base-related obstruction, and 6 (9.7%) had epiglottal obstruction. The following UACT measurements significantly differed between subjects with and without lateral oropharyngeal obstruction (P < 0.05): airway length, laryngopharynx length, mandibular plane to hyoid distance, minimum lateral dimension of the retroglossal airway, retropalatal anteroposterior/lateral dimension, and retroglossal anteroposterior/lateral dimension. None of the UACT measurements significantly differed between subjects with and without tongue-base-related or epiglottal obstruction. These results indicate that in OSA patients, obstruction related to the lateral oropharyngeal walls can be identified using these UACT measurements. Thus, UACT, which is performed during wakefulness, can partially replace DISE, which is both time consuming and costly. PMID:24748412

Zhang, Peng; Ye, Jingying; Pan, Chuxiong; Xian, Junfang; Sun, Nian; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuhuan; Kang, Dan

2014-10-01

316

Cognitive dysfunction in type 2 diabetes patients accompanied with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate cognitive dysfunction of type 2 diabetes patients accompanied with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and to analyze its relevant characteristics. Methods: Total 115 type 2 diabetes patients were divided into OSAS group (O group, n=83) and non-OSAS group (N group, n=32); Physical examination patients (C1 group, n=64) and OSAS patients without diabetes (C2 group, n=47) served as the control group. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), nocturnal lowest saturation of pulse oxygen (LSPO2) and simple mental state examination scale (MMSE) were evaluated. Results: Among diabetes patients, patients with OSAS have lower glycated hemoglobin, platelet count, thrombocytocrit, MMSE score and lowest mean arterial oxygen than non-OSAS patients; cognitive dysfunction state and glycemic control of patients are related to their diabetic duration, and then along with increase of diabetic duration, glycemic control becomes poor, so that cognitive dysfunction becomes more and more obvious. Conclusion: Along with increased diabetic duration in type 2 diabetes accompanied with OSAS, glycemic control becomes poor, so that cognitive dysfunction more easily occurs. Meanwhile, coagulation function of blood system in OSAS patients with diabetes is impacted to some extent.

Li, Huanyin; Gong, Qi; Shao, Jinshan; Liu, Xueyuan; Zhao, Yanxin

2014-01-01

317

Association of serum hepcidin levels with the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

Background Inflammation is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Hepcidin, a 25-kD peptide hormone produced by the liver, modulates acute inflammatory responses. This study aimed to determine the association of serum levels of hepcidin with the presence and severity of OSAS. Material and Methods We enrolled 184 patients with OSAS and 110 healthy subjects. Serum levels of hepcidin were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results OSAS patients had significantly higher serum hepcidin levels compared with healthy controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that serum hepcidin levels were an independent determinant of the presence of OSAS (OR 1.224, 95% CI 1.159-1.292; P<0.001). Serum hepcidin levels were significantly elevated in severe OSAS patients compared with mild and moderate OSAS patients. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that serum hepcidin levels were correlated with the severity of OSAS. In addition, serum levels of hepcidin were correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in patients with OSAS. Conclusions Elevated serum hepcidin levels are associated with the presence and severity of OSAS. PMID:25553801

Liu, Yu; Yu, Zhengang; Hua, Defeng; Chen, Yan; Zheng, Shiliang; Wang, Leqiang

2015-01-01

318

Association of Serum Hepcidin Levels with the Presence and Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammation is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Hepcidin, a 25-kD peptide hormone produced by the liver, modulates acute inflammatory responses. This study aimed to determine the association of serum levels of hepcidin with the presence and severity of OSAS. Material/Methods We enrolled 184 patients with OSAS and 110 healthy subjects. Serum levels of hepcidin were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results OSAS patients had significantly higher serum hepcidin levels compared with healthy controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that serum hepcidin levels were an independent determinant of the presence of OSAS (OR 1.224, 95% CI 1.159–1.292; P<0.001). Serum hepcidin levels were significantly elevated in severe OSAS patients compared with mild and moderate OSAS patients. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that serum hepcidin levels were correlated with the severity of OSAS. In addition, serum levels of hepcidin were correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in patients with OSAS. Conclusions Elevated serum hepcidin levels are associated with the presence and severity of OSAS. PMID:25553801

Liu, Yu; Yu, Zhengang; Hua, Defeng; Chen, Yan; Zheng, Shiliang; Wang, Leqiang

2015-01-01

319

Weight loss and brown adipose tissue reduction in rat model of sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

Background - Obesity is related to obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), but its roles in OSAHS as cause or consequence are not fully clarified. Isocapnic intermittent hypoxia (IIH) is a model of OSAHS. We verified the effect of IIH on body weight and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of Wistar rats. Methods Nine-month-old male breeders Wistar rats of two groups were studied: 8 rats submitted to IIH and 5 control rats submitted to sham IIH. The rats were weighed at the baseline and at the end of three weeks, after being placed in the IIH apparatus seven days per week, eight hours a day, in the lights on period, simulating an apnea index of 30/hour. After experimental period, the animals were weighed and measured as well as the BAT, abdominal, perirenal, and epididymal fat, the heart, and the gastrocnemius muscle. Results Body weight of the hypoxia group decreased 17 ± 7 grams, significantly different from the variation observed in the control group (p = 0,001). The BAT was 15% lighter in the hypoxia group and reached marginally the alpha error probability (p = 0.054). Conclusion Our preliminary results justify a larger study for a longer time in order to confirm the effect of isocapnic intermittent hypoxia on body weight and BAT. PMID:18671859

Martinez, Denis; Vasconcellos, Luiz FT; de Oliveira, Patricia G; Konrad, Signorá P

2008-01-01

320

Associated bone mineral density and obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporosis is an important issue for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Worse systemic inflammation and reduced exercise capacity have been reported in COPD patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), implying that OSA may be an independent factor for osteoporosis in COPD patients. Methods A total of 66 patients with bone mineral density (BMD) and polysomnography results from a previous COPD cohort (January 2008 to January 2013) were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical characteristics such as medication, pulmonary function, BMD, and results of polysomnography were analyzed. Results The BMD in those with OSA was significantly lower than in those without OSA (?1.99±1.63 versus ?1.27±1.14, P=0.045). In univariate analysis, body mass index, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, percentage of predicted value, incremental shuttle walk test, apnea–hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were significantly associated with BMD. After multivariate linear regression analysis, the ODI was still an independent factor for BMD. In addition, smaller total lung capacity is significantly associated with higher ODI and lower BMD, which implies that lower BMD might cause severer OSA via decreased total lung capacity. Conclusion OSA may be an independent factor for BMD in patients with COPD, which implies a possible vicious cycle takes place in these patients. PMID:25673983

Wang, Tsai-Yu; Lo, Yu-Lun; Chou, Pai-Chien; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Lin, Shu-Min; Lin, Ting-Yu; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Wang, Chun-Hua; Yu, Chih-Teng; Kuo, Han-Pin

2015-01-01

321

Obstructive sleep apnea in adult patients: considerations for anesthesia and acute pain management.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represents a challenge in the perioperative period for both physicians and the health care system alike. A number of studies have associated OSA with increased risk for postoperative complications. This is of particular concern in the face of this disease remaining vastly underdiagnosed. In this context, current guidelines and established concepts such as the use of continuous positive airway pressure or the level of postoperative monitoring, lack strong scientific evidence. Other interventions such as the use neuraxial/regional anesthesia may however offer added benefit. This review aims to address considerations for physicians in charge of OSA patients in the perioperative setting and to give an outlook for current and future research on this topic. PMID:25537697

Stundner, Ottokar; Opperer, Mathias; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

2015-01-01

322

Improvements in current treatments and emerging therapies for adult obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common and is associated with a number of adverse outcomes, including an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Typical treatment approaches, including positive airway pressure, oral appliances, various upper airway surgeries, and/or weight loss, can improve symptoms and reduce the severity of disease in select patient groups. However, these approaches have several potential limitations, including suboptimal adherence, lack of suitability for all patient groups, and/or absence of adequate outcomes data. Emerging potential therapeutic options, including nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (PAP), oral negative pressure, upper airway muscle stimulation, and bariatric surgery, as well as improvements in existing treatments and the utilization of improving technologies are moving the field forward and should offer effective therapies to a wider group of patients with OSA. PMID:24860658

2014-01-01

323

The Influence of Obesity on Different Genders in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Obesity is considered to be a major contributing factor to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); however, there is limited evidence with regard to gender predominance. We analyzed 2345 patients (339 females) in correlation with body mass index (BMI) and OSA severity. Male AHIs were significantly higher than female AHIs in each BMI group. As the BMI increased, the AHI increased in both males and females, and this trend was more obvious in males. For BMI-matched male and female patients with OSA, the severity of OSA was higher in males. As BMI increased, the severity of OSA increased more obviously in males. Our findings suggest that increased body fat contributes to the pathogenesis of OSA more in males than in females and that obesity plays a more significant role in contributing to OSA in male patients. PMID:25126598

Chin, Chien-Hung; Tseng, Chia-Cheng; Chang, Huang-Chih; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Meng-Chih; Lin, Hsin-Ching; Su, Mao-Chang

2014-01-01

324

On determining available stochastic features by spectral splitting in obstructive sleep apnea detection.  

PubMed

Heart rate variability (HRV) is one of the promising directions for a simple and noninvasive way for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome detection. The time-frequency representations has been proposed before to investigate the non-stationary properties of the HRV during either transient physiological or pathological episodes. Within the framework of the filter-banked feature extraction, estimation of the spectral splitting for stochastic features extraction is an open issue. Usually, this splitting is fixed empirically without taking into account the actual informative distribution of time-frequency representations. In the present work, a relevance-based approach that aims to find a priori a boundaries in the frequency domain for the spectral splitting upon t-f planes is proposed. Results show that the approach is able to find the most informative frequency bands, achieving accuracy rate over 75%. PMID:22255726

Martínez-Vargas, J D; Sepúlveda-Cano, L M; Castellanos-Dominguez, G

2011-01-01

325

Obstructive sleep apnea and diurnal nondipping hemodynamic indices in patients at increased cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

Rationale We hypothesized increasing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity would be associated with nondipping blood pressure (BP) in increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods Baseline data from 298 cardiology patients recruited for a multicenter randomized controlled trial were examined. Dipping was defined as a sleep-related BP or heart rate (HR) reduction of at least 10%. Logistic regression models were fit, adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, CVD risk factors, CVD, and study site. Results There was a statistically significant 4% increase in the odds of nondipping SBP per 1-unit increase in both Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) and Oxygen Desaturation Index (ODI). There was no significant relationship between AHI and nondipping mean arterial pressure (MAP); however, a 3% increase in the odds of nondipping MAP per 1-unit increase in ODI was observed (odds ratio, OR =1.03; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.00–1.05). At severe OSA levels, a 10 and 4% increase in odds of nondipping DBP per 1-unit increase in AHI and ODI were observed, respectively. A 6% [OR =1.06; 95% CI (1.01–1.10)] increase in nondipping HR odds was observed with each increase in ODI until the upper quartile of ODI. Conclusion In patients at cardiovascular risk and moderate-to-severe OSA, increasing AHI and/or ODI were associated with increased odds of nondipping SBP and nondipping MAP. More severe levels of AHI and ODI also were associated with nondipping DBP. These results support progressive BP burden associated with increased OSA severity even in patients managed by cardiology specialty care. PMID:24351803

Seif, Fadi; Patel, Sanjay R.; Walia, Harneet K.; Rueschman, Michael; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Quan, Stuart F.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Patil, Susheel P.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Babineau, Denise C.; Redline, Susan; Mehra, Reena

2014-01-01

326

Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Kidney Transplant Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: We assessed the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its clinical correlates in a large sample of patients who received a kidney transplant (Tx). We also compared the prevalence of the disorder between dialysis patients who were on the waiting list for a Tx (WL) and Tx patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was a cross-sectional study of 100 Tx and 50 WL patients who underwent one-night polysomnography (SLeep disorders Evaluation in Patients after kidney Transplantation [SLEPT] Study). Sociodemographic information and data about medication, comorbidity, and laboratory parameters were collected. Results: The prevalence of mild (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ?5/h and <15/h), moderate (AHI ?15/h and <30/h), and severe OSA (AHI ?30/h) was 18, 11, and 14% in the Tx group and 28, 16, and 10% in the WL group, respectively. The AHI was significantly correlated with age (? = 0.34), body mass index (? = 0.45), neck circumference (? = 0.4), abdominal circumference (? = 0.51), and hemoglobin (? = 0.24) in the Tx group. The proportion of Tx patients who were treated with three or more antihypertensive drugs was significantly higher in the OSA group (56 versus 31%; P = 0.022). Despite taking significantly more antihypertensive drugs, the average systolic BP was still higher in patients with versus without OSA (147 ± 21 versus 139 ± 18 mmHg; P = 0.059). Conclusions: The prevalence of OSA is similar in Tx and WL patients and it may contribute to presence of hypertension in patients who receive a Tx. PMID:19965541

Lazar, Alpar Sandor; Lindner, Anett; Fornadi, Katalin; Czira, Maria Eszter; Dunai, Andrea; Zoller, Rezso; Szentkiralyi, Andras; Rosivall, Laszlo; Shapiro, Colin Michael; Novak, Marta; Mucsi, Istvan

2010-01-01

327

Obstructive sleep apnea in young infants with Down Syndrome evaluated in a Down Syndrome specialty clinic.  

PubMed

Children with Down syndrome (DS) experience congenital and functional medical issues that predispose them to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Research utilizing stringent age criteria among samples of infants with DS and OSA is limited. This study examines clinical correlates of OSA among infants with DS. A retrospective chart review was conducted of infants ?6 months of age referred to a DS clinic at a tertiary children's hospital over five-years (n?=?177). Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression models were utilized to analyze the data. Fifty-nine infants underwent polysomnography, based on clinical concerns. Of these, 95% (56/59) had studies consistent with OSA. Among infants with OSA, 71% were identified as having severe OSA (40/56). The minimum overall prevalence of OSA among the larger group of infants was 31% (56/177). Significant relationships were found between OSA and dysphagia, congenital heart disease (CHD), prematurity, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and other functional and anatomic gastrointestinal (GI) conditions. Results indicate that odds of OSA in this group are higher among infants with GI conditions in comparison to those without. Co-occurring dysphagia and CHD predicted the occurrence of OSA in 36% of cases with an overall predictive accuracy rate of 71%. Obstructive sleep apnea is relatively common in young infants with DS and often severe. Medical factors including GI conditions, dysphagia and CHD may help to identify infants who are at greater risk and may warrant evaluation. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of OSA in infants with DS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25604659

Goffinski, Alida; Stanley, Maria A; Shepherd, Nicole; Duvall, Nichole; Jenkinson, Sandra B; Davis, Charlene; Bull, Marilyn J; Roper, Randall J

2015-02-01

328

External versus Internal Distraction Devices in Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Craniofacial Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea is often associated with congenital craniofacial malformations due to hypoplastic mandible and decreased pharyngeal airway. In this study, we will compare external and internal distraction devices for mandibular lengthening in terms of effectiveness, results, patient comfort, and complications. Methods: Thirty-seven patients were treated by bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis for obstructive sleep apnea: 20 with external and 17 with internal distraction devices. Results: Lengthening of the mandible and increase of the pharyngeal airway were obtained in all patients. Using the external devices, the average mandibular elongation was 30 mm versus 22 mm with the internal devices; however, after 1 year, the results were more stable with internal devices. External devices carried greater risk for pin tract infection than the internal devices (27.5% vs 5.88%). In addition, pin loosening in 22.5% required pin replacement or led to reduced retention period. Internal devices had a precise and predictable vector of lengthening and left less visible scars at the submandibular area but carried the disadvantage of requiring a second operation for device removal. In very young children with severe micrognathia, it was impossible to place internal devices, and external devices were used. Conclusions: Internal devices should be the first choice because they are more comfortable to the patients, more predictable vector of lengthening, are less vulnerable to dislodgement, and leave reduced scarring, with the great disadvantage of second operation for removal. However, external devices still should be considered mainly in severely hypoplastic cases, and the surgeon should be prepared for both options. PMID:25426371

Nseir, Saleh; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror

2014-01-01

329

Defining Phenotypic Causes of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Identification of Novel Therapeutic Targets  

PubMed Central

Rationale: The pathophysiologic causes of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) likely vary among patients but have not been well characterized. Objectives: To define carefully the proportion of key anatomic and nonanatomic contributions in a relatively large cohort of patients with OSA and control subjects to identify pathophysiologic targets for future novel therapies for OSA. Methods: Seventy-five men and women with and without OSA aged 20–65 years were studied on three separate nights. Initially, the apnea-hypopnea index was determined by polysomnography followed by determination of anatomic (passive critical closing pressure of the upper airway [Pcrit]) and nonanatomic (genioglossus muscle responsiveness, arousal threshold, and respiratory control stability; loop gain) contributions to OSA. Measurements and Main Results: Pathophysiologic traits varied substantially among participants. A total of 36% of patients with OSA had minimal genioglossus muscle responsiveness during sleep, 37% had a low arousal threshold, and 36% had high loop gain. A total of 28% had multiple nonanatomic features. Although overall the upper airway was more collapsible in patients with OSA (Pcrit, 0.3 [?1.5 to 1.9] vs. ?6.2 [?12.4 to ?3.6] cm H2O; P <0.01), 19% had a relatively noncollapsible upper airway similar to many of the control subjects (Pcrit, ?2 to ?5 cm H2O). In these patients, loop gain was almost twice as high as patients with a Pcrit greater than ?2 cm H2O (?5.9 [?8.8 to ?4.5] vs. ?3.2 [?4.8 to ?2.4] dimensionless; P = 0.01). A three-point scale for weighting the relative contribution of the traits is proposed. It suggests that nonanatomic features play an important role in 56% of patients with OSA. Conclusions: This study confirms that OSA is a heterogeneous disorder. Although Pcrit-anatomy is an important determinant, abnormalities in nonanatomic traits are also present in most patients with OSA. PMID:23721582

White, David P.; Jordan, Amy S.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew

2013-01-01

330

Effect of obstructive sleep apnea on frequency of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke that is not included in the usual cardioembolic risk assessments for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of OSA on stroke rate in patients with AF. Patients with AF and new diagnoses of OSA were identified from retrospective chart review. Those with histories of stroke at the time of the sleep study were excluded. The primary outcome was the incidence of stroke, determined by a physician investigator blinded to the results of polysomnography. Subgroup analysis was performed among different CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. Of 5,138 patients screened for OSA, 402 (7.7%) had AF and 332 (6.4%) met the inclusion criteria. Among the study population, the occurrence of first-time stroke was 22.9%. Ischemic stroke was more common in patients with OSA compared with patients without (25.4% vs 8.2% respectively, p = 0.006). After controlling for age, male gender, and coronary artery disease, the association between OSA and stroke remained statistically significant, with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.65 (95% confidence interval 1.252 to 10.623). A positive dose effect of the apnea-hypopnea index on the rate of stroke was observed (p = 0.0045). Subgroup analysis showed significantly higher rates of stroke in patients with CHADS2 scores of 0 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores of 0 and 1 and co-morbid OSA. In conclusion, OSA in patients with AF is an independent predictor of stroke. This association may have important clinical implications in ischemic stroke risk stratification. PMID:25529543

Yaranov, Dmitry M; Smyrlis, Athanasios; Usatii, Natalia; Butler, Amber; Petrini, Joann R; Mendez, Jose; Warshofsky, Mark K

2015-02-15

331

Relationship of Heart Rate Variability to Sleepiness in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea with and without Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background: Many patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) do not complain of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), possibly due to increased sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) and accompanying heightened alertness. We hypothesized that in patients with OSA, those without subjective EDS (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS score < 11) would have higher very low frequency (VLF) heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep, reflecting greater sympathetic heart rate modulation than patients with an ESS score ? 11. Methods: Patients with severe OSA (AHI ? 30: 26 with and 65 without heart failure) were divided into those with and without EDS. Heart rate (HR) signals were acquired in stage 2 sleep during periods of recurrent apneas and hypopneas and submitted to coarse graining spectral analysis, which extracts harmonic, neurally mediated contributions to HRV from total spectral power. Because the apnea-hyperpnea cycle entrains muscle SNA at VLF (0 to 0.04 Hz), VLF power was our principal between-group comparison. Results: Subjects without EDS had higher harmonic VLF power (944 ± 839 vs 447 ± 461 msec2, p = 0.003) than those with EDS, irrespective of the presence or absence of heart failure (1218 ± 944 vs 426 ± 299 msec2, p = 0.043, and 1029 ± 873 vs 503 ± 533 msec2, p = 0.003, respectively). ESS scores correlated inversely with VLF power in all (r = -0.294, p = 0.005) and in heart failure subjects (r = -0.468, p = 0.016). Conclusions: Patients with severe OSA but without EDS have higher VLF-HRV than those with EDS. This finding suggests that patients with severe OSA but without EDS have greater sympathetic modulation of HRV than those with EDS that may reflect elevated adrenergically mediated alertness. Citation: Taranto Montemurro L; Floras JS; Picton P; Kasai T; Alshaer H; Gabriel JM; Bradley TD. Relationship of heart rate variability to sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea with and without heart failure. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):271-276. PMID:24634624

Taranto Montemurro, Luigi; Floras, John S.; Picton, Peter; Kasai, Takatoshi; Alshaer, Hisham; Gabriel, Joseph M.; Bradley, T. Douglas

2014-01-01

332

Modeling the Autonomic and Metabolic Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Simulation Study  

PubMed Central

Long-term exposure to intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation introduced by recurring obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to subsequent cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear, but impairment of the normal interactions among the systems that regulate autonomic and metabolic function is likely involved. We have extended an existing integrative model of respiratory, cardiovascular, and sleep–wake state control, to incorporate a sub-model of glucose–insulin–fatty acid regulation. This computational model is capable of simulating the complex dynamics of cardiorespiratory control, chemoreflex and state-related control of breath-to-breath ventilation, state-related and chemoreflex control of upper airway potency, respiratory and circulatory mechanics, as well as the metabolic control of glucose–insulin dynamics and its interactions with the autonomic control. The interactions between autonomic and metabolic control include the circadian regulation of epinephrine secretion, epinephrine regulation on dynamic fluctuations in glucose and free-fatty acid in plasma, metabolic coupling among tissues and organs provided by insulin and epinephrine, as well as the effect of insulin on peripheral vascular sympathetic activity. These model simulations provide insight into the relative importance of the various mechanisms that determine the acute and chronic physiological effects of sleep-disordered breathing. The model can also be used to investigate the effects of a variety of interventions, such as different glucose clamps, the intravenous glucose tolerance test, and the application of continuous positive airway pressure on OSA subjects. As such, this model provides the foundation on which future efforts to simulate disease progression and the long-term effects of pharmacological intervention can be based. PMID:22291654

Cheng, Limei; Khoo, Michael C. K.

2012-01-01

333

Screening for obstructive sleep apnea in children treated at a major craniofacial center.  

PubMed

Timely diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with craniofacial disorders may help prevent long-term adverse sequelae of upper airway obstruction, namely pulmonary hypertension, failure to thrive, and impaired neurocognitive development. Currently, little is known about the incidence of OSA in this high-risk population. A prospective study examining the incidence of positive screening for OSA in patients cared for by the craniofacial team at a large, urban referral center was performed. From January 2011 to August 2013, all patient families were asked to complete the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. This validated tool has a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 87% in predicting a positive sleep study when the ratio of positive-total responses is 0.33 or greater. Screening results were evaluated via Chi-squared and Fisher tests according to demographic and clinical variables. A total of 234 children seen in our craniofacial clinic completed the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. The mean screening age was 8.38 years, and 47% were male (110/234). Total incidence of positive OSA screening was 28.2% (66/234). Of the total population, 128 patients had an underlying syndrome (54.7%), whereas 106 patients were nonsyndromic (45.3%). Both groups were at equivalent risk for screening positive for OSA (28.1% versus 28.3%, P = 1.0). Among children with a craniofacial diagnosis, patients with a cleft lip and/or palate were at equivalent risk for screening positive for OSA as patients without a cleft (25.5% versus 32.6%, P = 0.24). The OSA symptoms affect almost one third of patients seen by our craniofacial team. Syndromic and nonsyndromic patients seem to be at equivalent risk as those patients with and without an oropharyngeal cleft. Future work will correlate these findings with formal polysomnography and may serve to heighten awareness of OSA in this at-risk population. PMID:25162551

Paliga, J Thomas; Tahiri, Youssef; Silvestre, Jason; Taylor, Jesse A

2014-09-01

334

Trazodone Increases the Respiratory Arousal Threshold in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and a Low Arousal Threshold  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The effect of common sedatives on upper airway physiology and breathing during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been minimally studied. Conceptually, certain sedatives may worsen OSA in some patients. However, sleep and breathing could improve with certain sedatives in patients with OSA with a low respiratory arousal threshold. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with OSA and a low arousal threshold. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of trazodone on upper airway dilator muscle activity, upper airway collapsibility, and breathing during sleep. Design: Patients were studied on 4 separate nights according to a within-subjects cross-over design. Setting: Sleep physiology laboratory. Patients: Seven patients with OSA and a low respiratory arousal threshold. Interventions: In-laboratory polysomnograms were obtained at baseline and after 100 mg of trazodone was administered, followed by detailed overnight physiology experiments under the same conditions. During physiology studies, continuous positive airway pressure was transiently lowered to measure arousal threshold (negative epiglottic pressure prior to arousal), dilator muscle activity (genioglossus and tensor palatini), and upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit). Measurements and Results: Trazodone increased the respiratory arousal threshold by 32 ± 6% (-11.5 ± 1.4 versus -15.3 ± 2.2 cmH2O, P < 0.01) but did not alter the apnea-hypopnea index (39 ± 12 versus 39 ± 11 events/h sleep, P = 0.94). Dilator muscle activity and Pcrit also did not systematically change with trazodone. Conclusions: Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold without major impairment in dilator muscle activity or upper airway collapsibility. However, the magnitude of change in arousal threshold was insufficient to overcome the compromised upper airway anatomy in these patients. Citation: Eckert DJ; Malhotra A; Wellman A; White DP. Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold. SLEEP 2014;37(4):811-819. PMID:24899767

Eckert, Danny J.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; White, David P.

2014-01-01

335

Central control of cardiovascular function during sleep.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that cardiovascular control during sleep is relevant for cardiovascular risk. This evidence warrants increased experimental efforts to understand the physiological mechanisms of such control. This review summarizes current knowledge on autonomic features of sleep states [non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS)] and proposes some testable hypotheses concerning the underlying neural circuits. The physiological reduction of blood pressure (BP) during the night (BP dipping phenomenon) is mainly caused by generalized cardiovascular deactivation and baroreflex resetting during NREMS, which, in turn, are primarily a consequence of central autonomic commands. Central commands during NREMS may involve the hypothalamic ventrolateral preoptic area, central thermoregulatory and central baroreflex pathways, and command neurons in the pons and midbrain. During REMS, opposing changes in vascular resistance in different regional beds have the net effect of increasing BP compared with that of NREMS. In addition, there are transient increases in BP and baroreflex suppression associated with bursts of brain and skeletal muscle activity during REMS. These effects are also primarily a consequence of central autonomic commands, which may involve the midbrain periaqueductal gray, the sublaterodorsal and peduncular pontine nuclei, and the vestibular and raphe obscurus medullary nuclei. A key role in permitting physiological changes in BP during sleep may be played by orexin peptides released by hypothalamic neurons, which target the postulated neural pathways of central autonomic commands during NREMS and REMS. Experimental verification of these hypotheses may help reveal which central neural pathways and mechanisms are most essential for sleep-related changes in cardiovascular function. PMID:24097430

Silvani, Alessandro; Dampney, Roger A L

2013-12-01

336

Position paper by Canadian dental sleep medicine professionals regarding the role of different health care professionals in managing obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliances  

PubMed Central

The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs) as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for severe OSA patients who cannot tolerate CPAP, are inappropriate candidates for CPAP or who have failed CPAP treatment attempts. The purpose of the present position paper is to guide interdisciplinary teamwork (sleep physicians and sleep dentists) and to clarify the role of each professional in the management of OA therapy. The diagnosis of OSA should always be made by a physician, and OAs should be fitted by a qualified dentist who is trained and experienced in dental sleep medicine. Follow-up assessment by the referring physician and polysomnography or sleep studies are required to verify treatment efficacy. The present article emphasizes the need for a team approach to OA therapy and provides treatment guidelines for dentists trained in dental sleep medicine. Many of the dentists and sleep physicians who contributed to the preparation of the present article are members of the Canadian Sleep Society and the authors reached a consensus based on the current literature. PMID:23061075

Gauthier, Luc; Almeida, Fernanda; Arcache, Patrick; Ashton-McGregor, Catherine; Côté, David; Driver, Helen; Ferguson, Kathleen; Lavigne, Gilles; Martin, Philippe; Masse, Jean-François; Morisson, Florence; Pancer, Jeffrey; Samuels, Charles; Schachter, Maurice; Sériès, Frédéric; Sullivan, Glendon

2012-01-01

337

Experimental Pain and Opioid Analgesia in Volunteers at High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent nocturnal hypoxia and sleep disruption. Sleep fragmentation caused hyperalgesia in volunteers, while nocturnal hypoxemia enhanced morphine analgesic potency in children with OSA. This evidence directly relates to surgical OSA patients who are at risk for airway compromise due to postoperative use of opioids. Using accepted experimental pain models, we characterized pain processing and opioid analgesia in male volunteers recruited based on their risk for OSA. Methods After approval from the Intitutional Review Board and informed consent, we assessed heat and cold pain thresholds and tolerances in volunteers after overnight polysomnography (PSG). Three pro-inflammatory and 3 hypoxia markers were determined in the serum. Pain tests were performed at baseline, placebo, and two effect site concentrations of remifentanil (1 and 2 µg/ml), an ?-opioid agonist. Linear mixed effects regression models were employed to evaluate the association of 3 PSG descriptors [wake after sleep onset, number of sleep stage shifts, and lowest oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) during sleep] and all serum markers with pain thresholds and tolerances at baseline, as well as their changes under remifentanil. Results Forty-three volunteers (12 normal and 31 with a PSG-based diagnosis of OSA) were included in the analysis. The lower nadir SaO2 and higher insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) were associated with higher analgesic sensitivity to remifentanil (SaO2, P?=?0.0440; IGFBP-1, P?=?0.0013). Other pro-inflammatory mediators like interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were associated with an enhanced sensitivity to the opioid analgesic effect (IL-1?, P?=?0.0218; TNF-?, P?=?0.0276). Conclusions Nocturnal hypoxemia in subjects at high risk for OSA was associated with an increased potency of opioid analgesia. A serum hypoxia marker (IGFBP-1) was associated with hypoalgesia and increased potency to opioid analgesia; other pro-inflammatory mediators also predicted an enhanced opioid potency. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00672737. PMID:23382975

Doufas, Anthony G.; Tian, Lu; Padrez, Kevin A.; Suwanprathes, Puntarica; Cardell, James A.; Maecker, Holden T.; Panousis, Periklis

2013-01-01

338

Quality of life among untreated sleep apnea patients compared with the general population and changes after treatment with positive airway pressure.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea leads to recurrent arousals from sleep, oxygen desaturations, daytime sleepiness and fatigue. This can have an adverse impact on quality of life. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) quality of life between the general population and untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnea; and (ii) changes of quality of life among patients with obstructive sleep apnea after 2 years of positive airway pressure treatment between adherent patients and non-users. Propensity score methodologies were used in order to minimize selection bias and strengthen causal inferences. The enrolled obstructive sleep apnea subjects (n = 822) were newly diagnosed with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea who were starting positive airway pressure treatment, and the general population subjects (n = 742) were randomly selected Icelanders. The Short Form 12 was used to measure quality of life. Untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnea had a worse quality of life when compared with the general population. This effect remained significant after using propensity scores to select samples, balanced with regard to age, body mass index, gender, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We did not find significant overall differences between full and non-users of positive airway pressure in improvement of quality of life from baseline to follow-up. However, there was a trend towards more improvement in physical quality of life for positive airway pressure-adherent patients, and the most obese subjects improved their physical quality of life more. The results suggest that co-morbidities of obstructive sleep apnea, such as obesity, insomnia and daytime sleepiness, have a great effect on life qualities and need to be taken into account and addressed with additional interventions. PMID:25431105

Bjornsdottir, Erla; Keenan, Brendan T; Eysteinsdottir, Bjorg; Arnardottir, Erna Sif; Janson, Christer; Gislason, Thorarinn; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Kuna, Samuel T; Pack, Allan I; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis

2014-11-27

339

The effect of obstructive sleep apnea and treatment with continuous positive airway pressure on stroke rehabilitation: rationale, design and methods of the TOROS study  

PubMed Central

Background Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with stroke severity and poor functional outcome. Continuous positive airway pressure seems to improve functional recovery in stroke rehabilitation. To date, the effect of continuous positive airway pressure on cognitive functioning in stroke patients is not well established. The current study will investigate the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure on both cognitive and functional outcomes in stroke patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted on the neurorehabilitation unit of Heliomare, a rehabilitation center in the Netherlands. Seventy stroke patients with obstructive sleep apnea will be randomly allocated to an intervention or control group (n?=?2×35). The intervention will consist of four weeks of continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Patients allocated to the control group will receive four weeks of treatment as usual. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, immediately after the intervention and at two-month follow-up. In a supplementary study, these 70 patients with obstructive sleep apnea will be compared to 70 stroke patients without obstructive sleep apnea with respect to cognitive and functional status at rehabilitation admission. Additionally, the societal participation of both groups will be assessed at six months and one year after inclusion. Discussion This study will provide novel information on the effects of obstructive sleep apnea and its treatment with continuous positive airway pressure on rehabilitation outcomes after stroke. Trial registration Trial registration number: Dutch Trial Register NTR3412 PMID:24568360

2014-01-01

340

Measurement, reconstruction, and flow-field computation of the human pharynx with application to sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Repetitive closure of the upper airway characterizes obstructive sleep apnea. It disrupts sleep causing excessive daytime drowsiness and is linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies simulating the underlying fluid mechanics are based upon geometries, time-averaged over the respiratory cycle, obtained usually via MRI or CT scans. Here, we generate an anatomically correct geometry from data captured in vivo by an endoscopic optical technique. This allows quantitative real-time imaging of the internal cross section with minimal invasiveness. The steady inhalation flow field is computed using a k-? shear-stress transport (SST) turbulence model. Simulations reveal flow mechanisms that produce low-pressure regions on the sidewalls of the pharynx and on the soft palate within the pharyngeal section of minimum area. Soft-palate displacement and side-wall deformations further reduce the pressures in these regions, thus creating forces that would tend to narrow the airway. These phenomena suggest a mechanism for airway closure in the lateral direction as clinically observed. Correlations between pressure and airway deformation indicate that quantitative prediction of the low-pressure regions for an individual are possible. The present predictions warrant and can guide clinical investigation to confirm the phenomenology and its quantification, while the overall approach represents an advancement toward patient-specific modeling. PMID:20550980

Lucey, A D; King, A J C; Tetlow, G A; Wang, J; Armstrong, J J; Leigh, M S; Paduch, A; Walsh, J H; Sampson, D D; Eastwood, P R; Hillman, D R

2010-10-01

341

Evening Chronotype Is Associated with Changes in Eating Behavior, More Sleep Apnea, and Increased Stress Hormones in Short Sleeping Obese Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Short sleep duration and decreased sleep quality are emerging risk factors for obesity and its associated morbidities. Chronotype, an attribute that reflects individual preferences in the timing of sleep and other behaviors, is a continuum from morningness to eveningness. The importance of chronotype in relation to obesity is mostly unknown. Evening types tend to have unhealthy eating habits and suffer from psychological problems more frequently than Morning types, thus we hypothesized that eveningness may affect health parameters in a cohort of obese individuals reporting sleeping less than 6.5 hours per night. Methodology and Principal Findings Baseline data from obese (BMI: 38.5±6.4 kg/m2) and short sleeping (5.8±0.8 h/night by actigraphy) participants (n?=?119) of the Sleep Extension Study were analyzed (www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT00261898). Assessments included the Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire, a three-day dietary intake diary, a 14-day sleep diary, 14 days of actigraphy, and measurements of sleep apnea. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol, 24 h urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine levels, morning plasma ACTH and serum cortisol, fasting glucose and insulin, and lipid parameters were determined. Eveningness was associated with eating later in the day on both working and non-working days. Progression towards eveningness was associated with an increase in BMI, resting heart rate, food portion size, and a decrease in the number of eating occasions and HDL-cholesterol. Evening types had overtly higher 24 h urinary epinephrine and morning plasma ACTH levels, and higher morning resting heart rate than Morning types. In addition, Evening types more often had sleep apnea, independent of BMI or neck circumference. Conclusions Eveningness was associated with eating later and a tendency towards fewer and larger meals and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, Evening types had more sleep apnea and higher stress hormones. Thus, eveningness in obese, chronically sleep-deprived individuals compounds the cardiovascular risk associated with obesity. PMID:23483886

Lucassen, Eliane A.; Zhao, Xiongce; Rother, Kristina I.; Mattingly, Megan S.; Courville, Amber B.; de Jonge, Lilian; Csako, Gyorgy; Cizza, Giovanni

2013-01-01

342

Modified Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and Coblation Channeling of the Tongue for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Multi-Centre Australian Trial  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the surgical outcomes and efficacy of modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (mod UPPP) and Coblation channelling of the tongue (CCT) as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Adult patients with simple snoring or obstructive sleep apnea were treated with combined modified UPPP, bilateral tonsillectomy, and CCT (N = 48). Full polysomnography was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Postoperative clinical assessment, sleep questionnaires, and patient demographics including body mass index were compared to preoperative data. All polysomnograms were re-scored to AASM recommended criteria by 2 sleep professionals. Results: The preoperative AHI (median and interquartile range) of 23.1 (10.4 to 36.6) was lowered to a postoperative AHI of 5.6 (1.9 to 10.4) (p < 0.05). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score fell from 10.5 (5.5 to 13.5) to 5.0 (3.09 to 9.5) (p < 0.05). Morbidity of the surgery was low, with no long-term complications recorded. Conclusions: Modified UPPP combined with CCT is a highly efficacious intervention for OSA with minimal morbidity. It should be considered for individuals who fail or are intolerant of CPAP or other medical devices. Citation: MacKay SG; Carney AS; Woods C; Antic N; McEvoy RD; Chia M; Sands T; Jones A; Hobson J; Robinson S. Modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and coblation channeling of the tongue for obstructive sleep apnea: a multi-centre australian trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):117–124. PMID:23372463

MacKay, Stuart G.; Carney, A. Simon; Woods, Charmaine; Antic, Nick; McEvoy, R. Doug; Chia, Michael; Sands, Terry; Jones, Andrew; Hobson, Jonathan; Robinson, Samuel

2013-01-01

343

Impact of CPAP on Activity Patterns and Diet in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Patients with severe OSA consume greater amounts of cholesterol, protein, and fat as well as have greater caloric expenditure. However, it is not known whether their activity levels or diet change after treatment with CPAP. To investigate this issue, serial assessments of activity and dietary intake were performed in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES); a 6-month randomized controlled study of CPAP vs. sham CPAP on neurocognitive outcomes. Methods: Subjects were recruited into APPLES at 5 sites through clinic encounters or public advertisement. After undergoing a diagnostic polysomnogram, subjects were randomized to CPAP or sham if their AHI was ? 10. Adherence was assessed using data cards from the devices. At the Tucson and Walla Walla sites, subjects were asked to complete validated activity and food frequency questionnaires at baseline and their 4-month visit. Results: Activity and diet data were available at baseline and after 4 months treatment with CPAP or sham in up to 231 subjects (117 CPAP, 114 Sham). Mean age, AHI, BMI, and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) for this cohort were 55 ± 13 [SD] years, 44 ± 27 /h, 33 ± 7.8 kg/m2, and 10 ± 4, respectively. The participants lacking activity and diet data were younger, had lower AHI and arousal index, and had better sleep efficiency (p < 0.05). The BMI was higher among women in both CPAP and Sham groups. However, compared to women, men had higher AHI only in the CPAP group (50 vs. 34). Similarly, the arousal index was higher among men in CPAP group. Level of adherence defined as hours of device usage per night at 4 months was significantly higher among men in CPAP group (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.6). No changes in consumption of total calories, protein, carbohydrate or fat were noted after 4 months. Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women (268 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 47 calories, p < 0.05), there also were no changes in activity patterns. Conclusion: Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women, OSA patients treated with CPAP do not substantially change their diet or physical activity habits after treatment. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 473. Citation: Batool-Anwar S, Goodwin JL, Drescher AA, Baldwin CM, Simon RD, Smith TW, Quan SF. Impact of CPAP on activity patterns and diet in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):465-472. PMID:24910546

Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L.; Drescher, Amy A.; Baldwin, Carol M.; Simon, Richard D.; Smith, Terry W.; Quan, Stuart F.

2014-01-01

344

Cardiovascular and Psychiatric Morbidity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) with Insomnia (Sleep Apnea Plus) versus Obstructive Sleep Apnea without Insomnia: A Case-Control Study from a Nationally Representative US Sample  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in patient visits with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with insomnia (OSA+Insomnia) versus OSA without insomnia (OSA-Insomnia) in a nationally representative US sample. Methods A retrospective case-control study of epidemiologic databases (National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) representing an estimated ± standard error (SE) 62,253,910±5,274,747 (unweighted count?=?7234) patient visits with diagnosis of OSA from 1995–2010, was conducted. An estimated 3,994,104±791,386 (unweighted count?=?658) were classified as OSA+Insomnia and an estimated 58,259,806±4,849,800 (unweighted count?=?6576) as OSA-Insomnia. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using OSA+Insomnia versus OSA-Insomnia as the dependent variable, and age (>50 years versus ?50 years), sex, race (‘White’ versus ‘non-White’), essential hypertension, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cardiac dysrhythmia, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, depressive, anxiety, and adjustment disorders (includes PTSD), hypersomnia and all medications used as independent variables. All comorbidities were physician diagnosed using the ICD9-CM. Results Among patient visits with OSA, an estimated 6.4%±0.9% also had insomnia. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the OSA+Insomnia group was significantly more likely to have essential hypertension (all ICD9-CM codes 401) (OR?=?1.83, 95% CI 1.27–2.65) and provisionally more likely to have cerebrovascular disease (ICD9-CM codes 430–438) (OR?=?6.58, 95% CI 1.66–26.08). The significant OR for cerebrovascular disease was considered provisional because the unweighted count was <30. Conclusions In a nationally representative sample, OSA+Insomnia was associated significantly more frequently with essential hypertension than OSA-Insomnia, a finding that has not been previously reported. In contrast to studies that have considered patient self-reports of psychological morbidity, the absence of a significant association with psychiatric disorders in our study may be indicative of the fact that we considered only physician-rated psychiatric syndromes meeting ICD9-CM criteria. Our findings among the OSA+Insomnia group are therefore most likely conservative. PMID:24599301

Gupta, Madhulika A.; Knapp, Katie

2014-01-01

345

Impact of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy on Markers of Platelet Activation in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Considerable evidence implicates CD40 signaling in the pathogenesis of atheromas. Exposure to CD40 ligand induces platelet-leukocyte conjugation, a heightened expression of inflammatory cytokines, matrix-degrading enzymes, and procoagulant factors. Objectives: To investigate the association between plasma soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and platelet-monocyte aggregates in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to determine whether treatment of OSA with nasal continuous

Morohunfolu E. Akinnusi; Linda L. Paasch; Kristie R. Szarpa; Paul K. Wallace; Ali A. El Solh

2009-01-01

346

The Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Newly Diagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Type 2 diabetes is a major epidemic in the United States, with an estimated 23.6 million diabetics or 7.8% of the population according to the National Diabetic Information Clearinghouse. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is also a major epidemic affecting 4-17% of the population. Each of these disorders, independently, can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Rapidly developing research suggests these

Sean Brown

2009-01-01

347

Association between Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin Level and Obstructive Sleep Apnea or Nocturnal Intermittent Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Background Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and a novel lipocalin, neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (Ngal), have been reported to be closely linked with cardiovascular disease and loss of kidney function through chronic inflammation. However, the relationship between OSA and Ngal has never been investigated. Objectives To evaluate the relationship between Ngal and OSA in clinical practice. Methods In 102 patients, polysomnography was performed to diagnose OSA and plasma Ngal levels were measured. The correlations between Ngal levels and OSA severity and other clinical variables were evaluated. Of the 46 patients who began treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), Ngal levels were reevaluated after three months of treatment in 25 patients. Results The Ngal level correlated significantly with OSA severity as determined by the apnea hypopnea index (r?=?0.24, p?=?0.01) and 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI) (r?=?0.26, p?=?0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that the Ngal level was associated with 4%ODI independently of other clinical variables. Compliance was good in 13 of the 25 patients who used CPAP. Although the OSA (4%ODI: 33.1±16.7 to 1.1±1.9/h, p<0.01) had significantly improved in those with good compliance, the Ngal levels were not significantly changed (60.5±18.1 before CPAP vs 64.2±13.9 ng/ml after CPAP, p?=?0.27). Conclusions Plasma Ngal levels were positively associated with the severity of OSA. However, the contribution rate of OSA to systemic Ngal secretion was small and changes in Ngal levels appeared to be influenced largely by other confounding factors. Therefore, it does not seem reasonable to use the Ngal level as a specific biomarker of OSA in clinical practice. PMID:23342100

Murase, Kimihiko; Mori, Kiyoshi; Yoshimura, Chikara; Aihara, Kensaku; Chihara, Yuichi; Azuma, Masanori; Harada, Yuka; Toyama, Yoshiro; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Hitomi, Takefumi; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

2013-01-01

348

Associated predictors of therapeutic response to uvulopharyngopalatoplasty for severe obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the associated factors affecting the outcome of uvulopharyngopalatoplasty (UPPP) in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and to investigate whether cephalometric measurements were predictive of the therapeutic response to UPPP in patients with severe OSAHS. We retrospectively studied 51 consecutive patients who underwent revised UPPP with uvula preservation (H-UPPP), or Z-palatopharyngoplasty (ZPPP) for severe OSAHS [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >30]. All patients were evaluated using physical examination, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), cephalometry, and nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) before surgery and at 6-12 months after surgery. Based on the success criteria defined as an AHI of <20 and a decrease >50 %, the overall success rate was 45.1 %. The preoperative distance from the posterior border of the uvula to the middle pharyngeal wall (U-MPW) was significantly longer in the responder group than in the nonresponder group, when considering the whole group or the H-UPPP group alone. Among all study subjects, U-MPW and change in body mass index (?BMI) were the significant predictors of surgical success. U-MPW was the key predictor for H-UPPP surgical success, whereas mandibular plane angle (MPA) and Friedman stage were the key predictors for ZPPP surgical success. In conclusion, U-MPW was a significant predictor of UPPP surgical success. Patients with U-MPW >10 mm who are unwilling to receive nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy might be suitable candidates for UPPP surgery. PMID:23443643

Liu, Su Ru; Yi, Hong Liang; Yin, Shan Kai; Guan, Jian; Chen, Bin; Meng, Li Li; Su, Kai Ming

2013-03-01

349

Computational fluid dynamics endpoints to characterize obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children  

PubMed Central

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis may quantify the severity of anatomical airway restriction in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) better than anatomical measurements alone. However, optimal CFD model endpoints to characterize or assess OSAS have not been determined. To model upper airway fluid dynamics using CFD and investigate the strength of correlation between various CFD endpoints, anatomical endpoints, and OSAS severity, in obese children with OSAS and controls. CFD models derived from magnetic resonance images were solved at subject-specific peak tidal inspiratory flow; pressure at the choanae was set by nasal resistance. Model endpoints included airway wall minimum pressure (Pmin), flow resistance in the pharynx (Rpharynx), and pressure drop from choanae to a minimum cross section where tonsils and adenoids constrict the pharynx (dPTAmax). Significance of endpoints was analyzed using paired comparisons (t-test or Wilcoxon signed rank test) and Spearman correlation. Fifteen subject pairs were analyzed. Rpharynx and dPTAmax were higher in OSAS than control and most significantly correlated to obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI), r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, respectively (P < 0.01). Airway minimum cross-sectional correlation to oAHI was weaker (r = ?0.39); Pmin was not significantly correlated. CFD model endpoints based on pressure drops in the pharynx were more closely associated with the presence and severity of OSAS than pressures including nasal resistance, or anatomical endpoints. This study supports the usefulness of CFD to characterize anatomical restriction of the pharynx and as an additional tool to evaluate subjects with OSAS. PMID:24265282

Luo, Haiyan; Persak, Steven C.; Sin, Sanghun; McDonough, Joseph M.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Arens, Raanan

2013-01-01

350

Biochemical oxidative stress-related markers in patients with obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition contributing to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to ascertain if there is any connection between OSA and novel oxidative stress-related markers. Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), soluble receptors for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were measured. Further biochemical markers were evaluated. Material/Methods Fifty-one men suspected for OSA indicated for night polygraphy were included. Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), mean blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) and time of blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation below 90% (SpO2 <90%) were measured. Morning venous blood samples were taken. Results For body mass index (BMI) we found strong positive correlation with levels of Cu, MMP-9, hsCRP and fibrinogen, and negative correlation with sRAGE. Concerning ventilation parameters, we found positive correlation of ODI and SpO2 <90% with markers MMP-9 and hsCRP. sRAGE level correlated with AHI and ODI negatively. SpO2 correlated negatively with Cu, MMP-9, hsCRP and fibrinogen. There was no correlation between ventilation parameters and markers MMP-2, PAPP-A and Zn. Compared to severity of OSA, there was significant difference in levels of hsCRP and Cu between patients with AHI ?5 and AHI ?30 independent of BMI. Conclusions MMP-9, hsCRP, sRAGE and Cu seem to be strong predictors of oxidative stress in OSA patients. The strong correlation between oxidative stress-related markers and OSA is elucidated by connection of these to BMI, which is probably a primary condition of oxidative stress, but OSA is an additive condition. PMID:21873945

Volná, Jana; Kemlink, David; Kalousová, Marta; Vávrová, Jana; Majerová, Veronika; Mestek, Otto; Švarcová, Jana; Šonka, Karel; Zima, Tomáš

2011-01-01

351

Global Brain Blood-Oxygen Level Responses to Autonomic Challenges in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by brain injury, perhaps resulting from apnea-related hypoxia or periods of impaired cerebral perfusion. Perfusion changes can be determined indirectly by evaluation of cerebral blood volume and oxygenation alterations, which can be measured rapidly and non-invasively with the global blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, a magnetic resonance imaging procedure. We assessed acute BOLD responses in OSA subjects to pressor challenges that elicit cerebral blood flow changes, using a two-group comparative design with healthy subjects as a reference. We separately assessed female and male patterns, since OSA characteristics and brain injury differ between sexes. We studied 94 subjects, 37 with newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA (6 female (age mean ± std: 52.1±8.1 yrs; apnea/hypopnea index [AHI]: 27.7±15.6 events/hr and 31 male 54.3±8.4 yrs; AHI: 37.4±19.6 events/hr), and 20 female (age 50.5±8.1 yrs) and 37 male (age 45.6±9.2 yrs) healthy control subjects. We measured brain BOLD responses every 2 s while subjects underwent cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. The global BOLD signal rapidly changed after the first 2 s of each challenge, and differed in magnitude between groups to two challenges (cold pressor, hand grip), but not to the Valsalva maneuver (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05). OSA females showed greater differences from males in response magnitude and pattern, relative to healthy counterparts. Cold pressor BOLD signal increases (mean ± adjusted standard error) at the 8 s peak were: OSA 0.14±0.08% vs. Control 0.31±0.06%, and hand grip at 6 s were: OSA 0.08±0.03% vs. Control at 0.30±0.02%. These findings, indicative of reduced cerebral blood flow changes to autonomic challenges in OSA, complement earlier reports of altered resting blood flow and reduced cerebral artery responsiveness. Females are more affected than males, an outcome which may contribute to the sex-specific brain injury in the syndrome. PMID:25166862

Macey, Paul M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

2014-01-01

352

The Associations between Anthropometric Indices and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that OSA and obesity are strongly associated, few Asian studies have examined the associations between anthropometric obesity indices and OSA, especially in the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric obesity indices on OSA in a Korean population. Methods Anthropometric indices, including neck circumference, waist circumference, and body mass index, were assessed in 383 consecutive subjects with suspected OSA. Results Of the 383 subjects assessed, 316 (82.5%) were diagnosed with OSA. Neck circumference (r?=?0.518), waist circumference (r?=?0.570), and body mass index (r?=?0.512) were correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (p<0.001, for all). After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and smoking, a logistic regression model showed that neck circumference [odds ratio (OR), 1.414; p<0.001)], waist circumference (OR, 1.114; p<0.001), and body mass index (OR, 1.364; p<0.001) were associated with OSA. The linear regression model showed that neck circumference (??=?3.748, p<0.001), waist circumference (??=?1.272, p<0.001), and body mass index (??=?3.082, p<0.001) were associated with apnea-hypopnea index. The cut-off values for predicting OSA were determined as 34.5 cm for neck circumference, 76.5 cm for waist circumference, and 23.05 kg/m2 for body mass index for females, and 38.75 cm for neck circumference, 88.5 cm for waist circumference, and 24.95 kg/m2 for body mass index for males. Conclusion Increased anthropometric indices were significantly associated with the presence and severity of OSA in a Korean population. In addition, this study demonstrated the cut-off values for body mass index, waist circumference, and neck circumference for increased OSA risk. PMID:25474257

Kang, Hyeon Hui; Kang, Ji Young; Ha, Jick Hwan; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Sung Kyoung; Moon, Hwa Sik; Lee, Sang Haak

2014-01-01

353

Daytime Sleepiness and Driving Performance in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Comparison of the MSLT, the MWT, and a Simulated Driving Task  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To test the reliability of a driving-simulation test for the objective measurement of daytime alertness compared with the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) and with the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), and to test the ability to drive safely, in comparison with on-road history, in the clinical setting of untreated severe obstructive sleep apnea. Design: N/A. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: Twenty-four patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea and reported daytime sleepiness varying in severity (as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Patients underwent MSLT and MWT coupled with 4 sessions of driving-simulation test on 2 different days randomly distributed 1 week apart. Simulated-driving performance (in terms of lane-position variability and crash occurrence) was correlated with sleep latency on the MSLT and more significantly on the MWT, showing a predictive validity toward the detection of sleepy versus alert patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, patients reporting excessive daytime sleepiness or a history of car crashes showed poorer performances on the driving simulator. Conclusions: A simulated driving test is a suitable tool for objective measurement of daytime alertness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between simulated-driving performance and on-road crash risk of patients with sleep disordered breathing. Citation: Pizza F; Contardi S; Mondini S; Trentin L; Cirignotta F. Daytime sleepiness and driving performance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: comparison of the MSLT, the MWT, and a simulated driving task. SLEEP 2009;32(3):382-391. PMID:19294958

Pizza, Fabio; Contardi, Sara; Mondini, Susanna; Trentin, Lino; Cirignotta, Fabio

2009-01-01

354

Circulating Adropin Levels in Pediatric Obstructive sleep apnea: Potential Relevance to Endothelial Function  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that levels of adropin, a recently discovered peptide that displays important metabolic and cardiovascular functions, are lower in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), especially when associated with endothelial dysfunction. Study design Age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched children (mean age: 7.2±1.4 years) were included into one of three groups based on the presence of OSA in an overnight sleep study, and on the time to post-occlusive maximal reperfusion (Tmax>45 sec) with a modified hyperemic test. Plasma adropin levels were assayed using a commercial ELISA kit. Results Among controls, mean morning adropin levels were 7.4 ng/ml (95% confidence intervals: 5.2–16.3 ng/ml) OSA children with abnormal endothelial function (OSA+/EF+) had significantly lower adropin levels (2.7±1.1 ng/ml, n=35) compared with matched controls (7.6±1.4 ng/ml; n=35; p<0.001), and to children with OSA and normal endothelial function (OSA+/EF?: 5.8±1.5 ng/ml, n=47; p<0.001). Plasma adropin <4.2 ng/ml reliably predicted endothelial functional status, but individual adropin levels were not significantly correlated with age, BMI-z score, obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) or nadir SpO2. Adropin levels were assessed after adenotonsillectomy in a subset of children with OSA (n=22), and showed increases in OSA+/EF+ (2.5±1.4 ng/ml to 6.4±1.9 ng/ml, n=14; p<0.01) but remained unchanged in OSA+EF? (5.7±1.3 ng/ml to 6.4±1.1 ng/ml, n=8; p>0.05). Conclusion Plasma adropin levels are reduced in pediatric OSA when endothelial dysfunction is present, and return to within normal values after adenotonsillectomy. Assessment of adropin circulating levels may provide a reliable indicator of vascular injury in the context of OSA on children. PMID:23810721

Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Molero-Ramirez, Helena; Tan, Hui-Leng; Bandla, Hari P.R.

2013-01-01

355

[Sleep psychiatry].  

PubMed

Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

Chiba, Shigeru

2013-01-01

356

[Sleep-related breathing disorders and (resulting) cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Sleep-related breathing disorders occur in cardiology patients mostly as obstructive or central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. The prevalence and incidence are clearly increased in comparison to the general population. Depending on the underlying cardiac disease up to 75% of patients can have obstructive or central sleep apnea and up to 50% have indications for therapy according to the current guidelines. Obstructive sleep apnea is considered to be an independent and well treatable risk factor for the development and deterioration of many cardiovascular diseases. This review briefly describes examples of prevalence, pathophysiology and current study situation with respect to the association between sleep-related breathing disorders and arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, arteriosclerosis with coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Although the role of obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for the development of these diseases is well documented, central sleep apnea is less of a risk factor per se but is considered to mirror an underlying cardiac disease with then further negative consequences for this disease. It is not the sleep apnea per se but the subsequent cardiovascular diseases which limit the prognosis of these patients and therefore bring them into the focus of cardiology. Obstructive and central sleep apnea can be successfully and sustainably treated by various forms of nocturnal positive airway pressure therapy. Furthermore, there are several therapeutic procedures which are currently being tested and the significance will be investigated in the coming years. PMID:24477634

Oldenburg, O; Bitter, T; Fox, H; Horstkotte, D

2014-02-01

357

Sleep-disordered breathing in neurologic conditions.  

PubMed

Sleep-related breathing disorder or sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) encompasses central sleep apnea (CSA), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and sleep-related hypoventilation or hypoxemic syndromes. SDB is common in neurologic conditions that affect the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients with neurologic conditions are at risk for SDB due to a combination of factors such as muscular weakness, damage to areas of the brain that control respiration, use of sedating medications, and weight gain from limited physical activity. This article discusses recognition and treatment of SDB as important aspects of treating patients with neurologic disease. PMID:25156770

Deak, Maryann C; Kirsch, Douglas B

2014-09-01

358

[Early signs of cognitive impairment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome: an event-related potential study].  

PubMed

This study seeks to explore the early signs of cognitive impairment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). According to polysomnography, twenty patients diagnosed with OSAHS and twenty normal controls underwent event-related potential (ERP) examination including mismatch negativity (MMN) and P300. Compared with normal controls, OSAHS patients showed significantly prolonged latency of MMN and P300 at Cz. After controlling age and body mass index (BMI), MMN latency positively correlated with apnea hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen reduction index, stage N1 sleep and arousal index, while MMN latency negatively correlated with stage N3 sleep and mean blood oxygen saturation; and P300 latency positively related to AHI and oxygen reduction index; no relationships were found among MMN latency, MMN amplitude, P300 latency and P300 amplitude. These results suggest that the brain function of automatic processing and controlled processing aere impaired in OSAHS patients, and these dysfunction are correlated with nocturnal repeatedly hypoxemia and sleep structure disturbance. PMID:25464805

Zou, Ke; Sun, Yuanfeng; Tang, Xiangdong; Lei, Fei; Du, Lina; Chen, Zhesi; Yan, Tingting; Zheng, Zhong

2014-08-01

359

[Early signs of cognitive impairment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome: an event-related potential study].  

PubMed

This study seeks to explore the early signs of cognitive impairment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). According to polysomnography, twenty patients diagnosed with OSAHS and twenty normal controls underwent event-related potential (ERP) examination including mismatch negativity (MMN) and P300. Compared with normal controls, OSAHS patients showed significantly prolonged latency of MMN and P300 at Cz. After controlling age and body mass index (BMI), MMN latency positively correlated with apnea hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen reduction index, stage N1 sleep and arousal index, while MMN latency negatively correlated with stage N3 sleep and mean blood oxygen saturation; and P300 latency positively related to AHI and oxygen reduction index; no relationships were found among MMN latency, MMN amplitude, P300 latency and P300 amplitude. These results suggest that the brain function of automatic processing and controlled processing aere impaired in OSAHS patients, and these dysfunction are correlated with nocturnal repeatedly hypoxemia and sleep structure disturbance. PMID:25508436

Zou, Ke; Sun, Yuanfeng; Tang, Xiangdong; Lei, Fei; Du, Lina; Chen, Zhesi; Yan, Tingting; Zheng, Zhong

2014-08-01

360

Automatic screening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea from the ECG based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and wavelet analysis.  

PubMed

This study proposes three different methods to evaluate Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) during sleep time solely based on the ECG signal. OSA is a common sleep disorder produced by repetitive occlusions of the upper airways, which produces a characteristic pattern on the ECG. Extraction of ECG characteristics as the heart rate variability and the QRS peak area offer alternative measures for cheap, non-invasive and reliable pre-diagnosis of sleep apnea. 50 of the 70 recordings from the database of the Computers in Cardiology Challenge 2000, freely available on Physionet, have been used in this analysis, subdivided in a training and a testing set. We investigated the possibilities concerning the use of the recently proposed method Empirical Mode Decomposition in this application and compared it with the established Wavelet Analysis. From the results of these decompositions the eventual features were extracted, complemented with a series of standard HRV time domain measures and three extra non-linear measures. Of all features smoothed versions were calculated. From the obtained feature set, the best performing feature subset was used as the input of a Linear Discriminant Classifier. In this way we were able to classify the signal on a minute-by-minute basis as apneic or non-apneic with an accuracy of around 90% and to perfectly separate between apneic and normal patients, using around 20 to 40 features and with the possibility to do this in three alternative ways. PMID:19163490

Corthout, J; Van Huffel, S; Mendez, M O; Bianchi, A M; Penzel, T; Cerutti, S

2008-01-01

361

Distinctive patterns of cortical excitability to transcranial magnetic stimulation in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.  

PubMed

Altered responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), restless legs syndrome (RLS), insomnia, and sleep-deprived healthy subjects have been reported. We have reviewed the relevant literature in order to identify eventual distinctive electrocortical profiles based on single and paired-pulse TMS, sensorimotor modulation, plasticity-related and repetitive TMS measures. Although obtained from heterogeneous studies, the detected changes might be the result of the different pathophysiological substrates underlying OSAS, RLS, insomnia and sleep deprivation rather than reflect the general effect of non-specific sleep loss and instability. OSAS tends to exhibit an increased motor cortex inhibition, which is reduced in RLS; intracortical excitability seems to be in favor of an "activating" profile in chronic insomnia and in sleep-deprived healthy individuals. Abnormal plasticity-related TMS phenomena have been demonstrated in OSAS and RLS. This review provides a perspective of TMS techniques by further understanding the role of neurotransmission pathways and plastic remodeling of neuronal networks involved in common sleep disorders. TMS might be considered a valuable tool in the assessment of sleep disorders, the evaluation of the effect of therapy and the design of non-pharmacological approaches. PMID:24849846

Lanza, Giuseppe; Cantone, Mariagiovanna; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Pennisi, Manuela; Bella, Rita; Pennisi, Giovanni; Ferri, Raffaele

2015-02-01

362

Association of Plasma Homocysteine with Self-Reported Sleep Apnea Is Confounded by Age: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006  

PubMed Central

High levels of plasma homocysteine are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases especially if accompanied by sleep apnea, but a direct pathogenetic link between plasma homocysteine levels and obstructive sleep apnea is debatable. This association can have far-reaching public health implications considering the inverse association between folate and plasma homocysteine. We used data from the 2005-2006 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to test the hypothesized associations. Of the 4490 subjects included in analysis, 177 reported sleep apnea. Age-standardized and design-effect-corrected prevalence rates were differential across gender, plasma homocysteine, and red cell folate status. Plasma homocysteine was positively correlated with age (r = 0.38, P < 0.0001). Multivariate analyses using sociodemographic and clinical covariates demonstrated that plasma homocysteine levels retained their respective associations with self-reported sleep apnea in all models except when age was included as a covariate. Our results demonstrate that the claimed association of plasma homocysteine with sleep apnea may be confounded by age. PMID:23471122

Thakre, Tushar P.; Mamtani, Manju; Ujaoney, Shweta; Kulkarni, Hemant

2012-01-01

363

Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cognitition and neuroimaging data in sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with a broad range of neurocognitive difficulties. The current view is that the neurocognitive impairment in OSA is due to the adverse effects of sleep fragmentation and/or intermittent hypoxia. The overall picture of cognitive deficits in OSA is complex. On balance, there appears to be negative effects of OSA on cognition, most likely in the domains of attention/vigilance, verbal and visual delayed long-term memory, visuospatial/constructional abilities, and executive dysfunction. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective and widely used treatment of OSA. In the majority of studies of OSA patients treated with CPAP, attention/vigilance improved, but changes in global functioning, executive functioning, and memory improved in about half of the studies. This may be due, in part, to variability in study design and sampling methodology across studies. Structural volume changes have been demonstrated in brain regions of OSA patients including areas that regulate memory and executive function (e.g., frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and hippocampus). Growing evidence suggests that the OSA-related changes in brain morphology may improve with CPAP treatment. Neuroimaging studies performed during cognitive testing have provided insight into CPAP's effect on function of neuroanatomical circuits in the brain. Although neuroimaging can provide important insights into the structural and functional differences associated with OSA, one of the challenges is to interpret the findings in light of comorbid conditions that also cause neural injury. The purpose of this article is to provide a narrative review of the publications on cognition and neuroimaging in OSA before and after CPAP treatment. PMID:23570950

Ferini-Strambi, L; Marelli, S; Galbiati, A; Castronovo, C

2013-08-01

364

Genetic analysis of candidate SNPs for metabolic syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by the reduction or complete cessation in airflow resulting from an obstruction of the upper airway. Several studies have observed an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among OSA patients. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors characterized by the presence of insulin resistance, is often found in patients with OSA, but the complex interplay between these two syndromes is not well understood. In this study, we present the results of a genetic association analysis of 373 candidate SNPs for MetS selected in a previous genome wide association analysis (GWAS). The 384 selected SNPs were genotyped using the Illumina VeraCode Technology in 387 subjects retrospectively assessed at the Internal Medicine Unit of the “Virgen de Valme” University Hospital (Seville, Spain). In order to increase the power of this study and to validate our findings in an independent population, we used data from the Framingham Sleep study which comprises 368 individuals. Only the rs11211631 polymorphism was associated with OSA in both populations, with an estimated OR=0.57 (0.42-0.79) in the joint analysis (p=7.21 × 10-4). This SNP was selected in the previous GWAS for MetS components using a digenic approach, but was not significant in the monogenic study. We have also identified two SNPs (rs2687855 and rs4299396) with a protective effect from OSA only in the abdominal obese subpopulation. As a whole, our study does not support that OSA and MetS share major genetic determinants, although both syndromes share common epidemiological and clinical features. PMID:23524009

Grilo, Antonio; Ruiz-Granados, Elena S.; Moreno-Rey, Concha; Rivera, Jose M.; Ruiz, Agustin; Real, Luis M.; Sáez, Maria E.

2014-01-01

365

Urinary Neurotransmitters Are Selectively Altered in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Predict Cognitive Morbidity  

PubMed Central

Background: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cognitive dysfunction, suggesting altered neurotransmitter function. We explored overnight changes in neurotransmitters in the urine of children with and without OSA. Methods: Urine samples were collected from children with OSA and from control subjects before and after sleep studies. A neurocognitive battery assessing general cognitive ability (GCA) was administered to a subset of children with OSA. Samples were subjected to multiple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for 12 neurotransmitters, and adjusted for creatinine concentrations. Results: The study comprised 50 children with OSA and 20 control subjects. Of the children with OSA, 20 had normal GCA score (mean ± SD) (101.2 ± 14.5) and 16 had a reduced GCA score (87.3 ± 13.9; P < .001). Overnight increases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels emerged in children with OSA; taurine levels decreased. Using combinatorial approaches and cutoff values for overnight changes of these four neurotransmitters enabled prediction of OSA (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.923; P < .0001). Furthermore, GABA and taurine alterations, as well as overnight reductions in phenylethylamine, were more prominent in children with OSA and low GCA than in children with OSA and normal GCA (P < .001), and they reliably discriminated GCA status (AUC: 0.977; P < .0001). Conclusions: Pediatric OSA is associated with overnight increases in urinary concentrations of catecholamines indicative of heightened sympathetic outflow. Increases in GABA levels and decreases in taurine levels could underlie mechanisms of neuronal excitotoxicity and dysfunction. Combinatorial approaches using defined cutoffs in overnight changes in concentrations of selected neurotransmitters in urine may not only predict OSA but also the presence of cognitive deficits. Larger cohort studies appear warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:23306904

Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; McManus, Corena J. T.; Kellermann, Gottfried H.; Samiei, Arash

2013-01-01

366

Clinical Guideline for the Evaluation, Management and Long-term Care of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common chronic disorder that often requires lifelong care. Available practice parameters provide evidence-based recommendations for addressing aspects of care. Objective: This guideline is designed to assist primary care providers as well as sleep medicine specialists, surgeons, and dentists who care for patients with OSA by providing a comprehensive strategy for the evaluation, management and long-term care of adult patients with OSA. Methods: The Adult OSA Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) was assembled to produce a clinical guideline from a review of existing practice parameters and available literature. All existing evidence-based AASM practice parameters relevant to the evaluation and management of OSA in adults were incorporated into this guideline. For areas not covered by the practice parameters, the task force performed a literature review and made consensus recommendations using a modified nominal group technique. Recommendations: Questions regarding OSA should be incorporated into routine health evaluations. Suspicion of OSA should trigger a comprehensive sleep evaluation. The diagnostic strategy includes a sleep-oriented history and physical examination, objective testing, and education of the patient. The presence or absence and severity of OSA must be determined before initiating treatment in order to identify those patients at risk of developing the complications of sleep apnea, guide selection of appropriate treatment, and to provide a baseline to establish the effectiveness of subsequent treatment. Once the diagnosis is established, the patient should be included in deciding an appropriate treatment strategy that may include positive airway pressure devices, oral appliances, behavioral treatments, surgery, and/or adjunctive treatments. OSA should be approached as a chronic disease requiring long-term, multidisciplinary management. For each treatment option, appropriate outcome measures and long-term follow-up are described. Citation: Epstein LJ; Kristo D; Strollo PJ; Friedman N; Malhotra A; Patil SP; Ramar K; Rogers R; Schwab RJ; Weaver EM; Weinstein MD. Clinical guideline for the evaluation, management and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):263–276. PMID:19960649

2009-01-01

367

Obstructive sleep apnea and pulmonary function in patients with severe obesity before and after bariatric surgery: a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in both developed and developing countries is one of the most serious public health problems and has led to a global epidemic. Obesity is one of the greatest risk factors of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is found in 60 to 70% of obese patients mainly due to the buildup of fat tissue in the upper portion of the thorax and neck. The aim of the present randomized clinical trial is to assess daytime sleepiness, sleep architecture and pulmonary function in patients with severe obesity before and after bariatric surgery. Methods This randomized, controlled trial, was designed, conducted, and reported in accordance with the standards of The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement. Patients were divided into a bariatric surgery group and control group. The clinical evaluation was performed at the Sleep Laboratory of the Nove de JulhoUniversity (Sao Paulo, Brazil) and consisted of the collection of clinical data, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), measurements of neck and abdomen circumferences, spirometry, maximum ventilatory pressure measurements, standard overnight polysomnography (PSG) and the administration of the Berlin Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results Fifty-two patients participated in the present study and performed PSG. Out of these, 16 underwent bariatric surgery. After surgery, mean BMI decreased from 48.15 ± 8.58 to 36.91 ± 6.67 Kg/m2. Significant differences were found between the preoperative and postoperative periods regarding neck (p < 0.001) and waist circumference (p < 0.001), maximum inspiratory pressure (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004) and maximum expiratory pressure (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002) for women and men, respectively, as well as sleep stage N3 (p < 0.001), REM sleep (p = 0.049) and the apnea-hypopnea index (p = 0.008). Conclusions Bariatric surgery effectively reduces neck and waist circumference, increases maximum ventilatory pressures, enhances sleep architecture and reduces respiratory sleep disorders, specifically obstructive sleep apnea, in patients with severe obesity. Trial registration The protocol for this study was registered with the World Health Organization (Universal Trial Number: U1111-1121-8873) and Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials – ReBEC (RBR-9k9hhv). PMID:25136444

2014-01-01

368

Discrimination of sleep-apnea-related decreases in the amplitude fluctuations of PPG signal in children by HRV analysis.  

PubMed

In this paper, an analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) during decreases in the amplitude fluctuations of photopletysmography (PPG) [decreases in the amplitude fluctuations of photopletysmography (DAP)] events for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) screening is presented. Two hundred and sixty-eight selected signal segments around the DAP event were extracted and classified in five groups depending on SaO (2) and respiratory behavior. Four windows around each DAP are defined and temporal evolution of time-frequency HRV parameters was analyzed for OSAS screening. Results show a significant increase in sympathetic activity during DAP events, which is higher in cases associated with apnea. DAP events were classified as apneic or nonapneic using a linear discriminant analysis from the HRV indexes. The ratio of DAP events per hour r(DAP) and the ratio of apneic DAP events per hour r(DAP)(a) were computed. Results show an accuracy of 79% for r(DAP)(a) (12% increase with respect to r(DAP)), a sensitivity of 87.5%, and a specificity of 71.4% when classifying 1-h polysomnographic excerpts. As for clinical subject classification, an accuracy of 80% (improvement of 6.7% ), a sensitivity of 87.5%, and a specificity of 71.4% are reached. These results suggest that the combination of DAP and HRV could be an improved alternative for sleep apnea screening from PPG with the added benefit of its low cost and simplicity. PMID:19272873

Gil, Eduardo; Mendez, Martín; Vergara, José María; Cerutti, Sergio; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Laguna, Pablo

2009-04-01

369

Development and evaluation of a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese sleep apnea patients receiving continuous positive airway pressure treatment  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Analyzed subjects were 653 Japanese OSA patients (619 males and 34 females) treated with CPAP at a sleep laboratory in a respiratory clinic in a Japanese city. Based on Bandura’s social cognitive theory, the CPAP Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea in Japanese (CSESA-J) was developed by a focus group of experts, using a group interview of OSA patients for the items of two previous self-efficacy scales for Western sleep apnea patients receiving CPAP treatment. CSESA-J has two subscales, one for self-efficacy and the other for outcome expectancy, and consists of a total of 15 items. Content validity was confirmed by the focus group. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy were 0.47–0.76 and 0.41–0.92, respectively, for the corresponding items. CSESA-J had a significant but weak positive association with the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a strong positive association with “Self-efficacy scale on health behavior in patients with chronic disease.” Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.85 for the self-efficacy subscale and 0.89 for the outcome expectancy subscale. The intraclass correlation coefficient using data from the first and second measurements with CSESA-J for a subset of 130 subjects was 0.93 for the self-efficacy and outcome expectancy subscales. These results support CSESA-J as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the self-efficacy of Japanese OSA patients treated with CPAP. Further studies are warranted to confirm validity for female OSA patients and generalizability.

Saito, Ayako; Kojima, Shigeko; Sasaki, Fumihiko; Hayashi, Masamichi; Mieno, Yuki; Sakakibara, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Shuji

2015-01-01

370

Development and evaluation of a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese sleep apnea patients receiving continuous positive airway pressure treatment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Analyzed subjects were 653 Japanese OSA patients (619 males and 34 females) treated with CPAP at a sleep laboratory in a respiratory clinic in a Japanese city. Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, the CPAP Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea in Japanese (CSESA-J) was developed by a focus group of experts, using a group interview of OSA patients for the items of two previous self-efficacy scales for Western sleep apnea patients receiving CPAP treatment. CSESA-J has two subscales, one for self-efficacy and the other for outcome expectancy, and consists of a total of 15 items. Content validity was confirmed by the focus group. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy were 0.47-0.76 and 0.41-0.92, respectively, for the corresponding items. CSESA-J had a significant but weak positive association with the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a strong positive association with "Self-efficacy scale on health behavior in patients with chronic disease." Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.85 for the self-efficacy subscale and 0.89 for the outcome expectancy subscale. The intraclass correlation coefficient using data from the first and second measurements with CSESA-J for a subset of 130 subjects was 0.93 for the self-efficacy and outcome expectancy subscales. These results support CSESA-J as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the self-efficacy of Japanese OSA patients treated with CPAP. Further studies are warranted to confirm validity for female OSA patients and generalizability. PMID:25678832

Saito, Ayako; Kojima, Shigeko; Sasaki, Fumihiko; Hayashi, Masamichi; Mieno, Yuki; Sakakibara, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Shuji

2015-01-01

371

Examining the Mechanism of Action of a New Device Using Oral Pressure Therapy for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism of action of the oral pressure therapy (OPT) device, a new treatment for sleep apnea. Design: Case series. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients: Fifteen subjects with sleep apnea who had been successfully treated (responders) with the OPT device and 4 subjects who were not successfully treated (non-responders) with the OPT device. Interventions: All subjects underwent a MRI (without the device, with the device in place without vacuum and with the device in place with vacuum) to examine the biomechanical changes associated with the OPT device. Measurements and Results: Oral pressure therapy significantly (P = 0.002) increased the size of the retropalatal airway in both the lateral and anterior-posterior dimensions by moving the soft palate anteriorly and superiorly and the anterior-superior segment of the tongue forward, toward the teeth. The percentage and absolute increase in the cross-sectional area of the retropalatal region, the superior movement of the soft palate, and the anterior displacement of the tongue were significantly greater in the responders than in the non-responders. In responders, there were significant increases in the mean (P = 0.002), maximum (P = 0.0002), and minimum (P = 0.04) cross-sectional areas of the retropalatal region with the OPT device. However, in the retroglossal region, airway caliber decreased with the OPT device. Conclusions: In those who responded to oral pressure therapy, it increased airway caliber in the retropalatal region by moving the soft palate anteriorly and superiorly and the anterior-superior segment of the tongue forward. Citation: Schwab RJ, Kim C, Siegel L, Keenan BT, Black J, Farid-Moayer M, Podmore J, Vaska M. Examining the mechanism of action of a new device using oral pressure therapy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1237-1247. PMID:25061252

Schwab, Richard J.; Kim, C.; Siegel, Lawrence; Keenan, B.T.; Black, Jed; Farid-Moayer, Mehran; Podmore, Jonathan; Vaska, Matt

2014-01-01

372

Use of oximetry as a screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea: a case study in taiwan.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a relatively common disease in the general population. Patients with OSA have a high risk of various comorbid medical diseases. Polysomnography (PSG) is the current gold standard for diagnosing OSA but is time consuming and expensive. This study aims to identify a sensitive screening parameter that can be used by clinicians to determine the time of referral for PSG examination in Taiwan. Eighty-seven patients, including 67 males and 20 females, were included in this study. We divided the patients into two groups: training data (n?=?58) and testing group (n?=?29). Pearson ? (2) test was used to perform bivariate analysis, and a decision tree was used to build a model. The decision model selected the frequency of desaturation?>?4% per hour (DI4) as the indicator of OSA influence. The testing data accuracy of the C4.5 decision tree was 82.80%. External data were also used to validate the model reliability. The accuracy of the external data was 95.96%. Approximately one-third of patients with DI4 between 11 and 33 suffered from OSA. This population requires further diagnosis. Oximetry is an important and widely available screening method in Taiwan. This study proposes the need for PSG referral if DI4 is between 11 and 33. PMID:25677955

Huang, Shou-Hung; Teng, Nai-Chia; Wang, Kung-Jeng; Chen, Kun-Huang; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Wang, Pa-Chun

2015-03-01

373

Is Obstructive Sleep Apnea Associated with Cortisol Levels? A Systematic Review of the Research Evidence  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis; however a relationship between OSA and altered cortisol levels has not been conclusively established. We conducted a systematic review using the PRISMA Guidelines based on comprehensive database searches for (1) studies of OSA patients compared to controls in whom cortisol was measured and (2) studies of OSA patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in whom cortisol was measured pre and post treatment. Five electronic databases were searched along with the reference lists of retrieved studies. The primary outcomes were (1) differences in cortisol between OSA and control subjects and (2) differences in cortisol pre-post CPAP treatment. Sampling methodology, sample timing and exclusion criteria were evaluated. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of studies precluded statistical pooling. One study identified differences in cortisol between OSA patients and controls. Two studies showed statistically significant differences in cortisol levels pre-post CPAP. The majority of studies were limited by assessment of cortisol at a single time point. The available studies do not provide clear evidence that OSA is associated with alterations in cortisol levels or that treatment with CPAP changes cortisol levels. Methodological concerns such as infrequent sampling, failure to match comparison groups on demographic factors known to impact cortisol levels (age, body mass index; BMI),and inconsistent control of variables known to influence HPA function may have limited the results. PMID:21803621

Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Edwards, Kate M.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

2011-01-01

374

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Multiple Anthropometric Indices of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to examine the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity among young adults. A total of 2911 college students in Thailand participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were taken by trained research staff. Overall, 6.3% of college students had OSA determined by the Berlin Questionnaire, 9.6% were overweight (BMI: 25–29 kg/m2), 4.5% were obese (BMI?30 kg/m2); 12.4% had abdominal obesity (men: waist circumference?90 cm; women: waist circumference?80 cm). There were significant associations between OSA and overweight (odds ratio (OR)=1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04–1.85) and obesity (OR=24.23; 95% CI=15.20–38.61), independent of demographic and lifestyle factors, blood pressure, and psychological distress. Students with OSA were more likely to have abdominal obesity than those without OSA (OR=2.09; 95% CI=1.19–3.67). OSA was significantly related to joint effects of general and abdominal obesity. The OSA-obesity associations were robust and evident for both genders, individuals with normal and elevated blood pressure, and those with and without psychological distress. This study shows independent associations of OSA with general and abdominal obesity among young adults. OSA could be a risk factor for obesity and consequent cardiovascular morbidities. OSA screening and treatment might be important for young adults.

Chen, Xiaoli; Pensuksan, Wipawan C.; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

375

Cardiopulmonary responses to exercise in moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Information regarding the safety of maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) or the mechanisms of exercise limitation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is fairly limited. In the present study, we addressed the problem of exercise capacity in moderate-to-severe OSA patients. Nineteen non-consecutive patients (three female, 16 male) with moderate-to-severe OSA and 11 age and body mass index matched control subjects (four female, seven male) underwent respiratory function tests during pre-exercise resting period and volitionally limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. All participants completed CPET without any complication. Control subjects were exercise limited due to deconditioning. None of the patients revealed mechanical ventilatory limitation to exercise or had evidence of cardiac ischaemia. Five patients had no limitation to exercise. Six patients had low VO2peak, low anaerobic treshold (AT), and low peak O2 pulse, a pattern consistent with ventricular dysfunction. Six patients had low VO2peak, low AT, and peak heart rate less than 85% predicted. This pattern is consistent with exercise limitation due to peripheral vascular disease. Two patients had low VO2peak, low AT without peak oxygen pulse and peak heart rate abnormalities consistent with deconditioning. We concluded that moderate-to-severe OSA patients have impaired exercise capacity. Exercise limitation seems to originate from cardiovascular reasons namely left ventricular dysfunction and/or peripheral vascular impairment; and finally, maximal CPET can be tolerated by these patient group without serious complications. PMID:15765282

Oztürk, Levent Mukadder; Metin, Gökhan; Cuhadaro?lu, Ca?lar; Utkusava?, Ayfer; Tutluo?lu, Bülent

2005-01-01

376

Placenta-secreted circulating markers in pregnant women with obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Abstract Aims: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with placenta-mediated adverse clinical outcomes. We aimed at comparing placenta-secreted proteins, such as first and second trimester Down syndrome screening markers which have been linked to preeclampsia, and markers of angiogenesis in pregnant women with OSA, and pregnant controls at low risk for OSA. Methods: A case-control study of pregnant women with OSA and controls at low risk for OSA was performed. Levels of first and second trimester markers were reported as multiple of median (MoM), and adjusted for body mass index (BMI). Stored samples were tested for markers of angiogenesis and adjusted for gestational age, BMI, and chronic hypertension. Results: A total of 24 women with OSA and 166 controls had screening markers. BMI was higher in cases compared to controls, P=0.01. MoM levels of placenta associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) were significantly lower in cases versus controls, even after adjusting for BMI (0.52 IQR 0.48 vs. 1.01 IQR 0.63, P=0.009). The ratio of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 to placental growth factor was significantly higher in cases than controls, even after adjusting for confounders (4.42 IQR 2.52 vs. 2.93 IQR 2.01, P=0.009). Conclusion: Circulating placenta-secreted glycoproteins and markers of angiogenesis are altered in pregnant women with OSA. PMID:24846956

Bourjeily, Ghada; Curran, Patrizia; Butterfield, Kristen; Maredia, Hasina; Carpenter, Marshall; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn

2014-05-20

377

Effect of nasal valve dilation on effective CPAP level in obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Nasal problems are frequent at high continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We hypothesized that a reduction of the nasal resistance reduces CPAP and investigated the effect of a nasal valve dilator (Nozovent) on CPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In a randomized cross-over design Nozovent was inserted in 38 patients during one of two nights using AutoSet T. CPAP differences > 1 cm H2O were considered as clinically relevant. With Nozovent the median CPAP pressure was reduced from 8.6 cm H2O to 8.0 H2O (P = 0.023) in all patients, but the number of patients with a reduction of CPAP by 1 cm H2O was not significant. The median CPAP level among 20 patients requiring a CPAP level of above 9 cm H2O was reduced from 10.3 to 9.1 cm H2O, P < 0.05. A clinical improvement with Nozovent was seen in 10 of 20 patients requiring a pressure of above 9 cm H2O compared with 4 of 18 patients who needed lower pressures, P = 0.025. Nozovent reduces the CPAP level 1 cm H2O in 50% of patients requiring a high pressure (> 9 cm H2O). Future studies should identify possible patients benefiting from a nasal dilator during CPAP therapy. PMID:14509553

Schönhofer, Bernd; Kerl, Jens; Suchi, Stefan; Köhler, Dieter; Franklin, Karl A

2003-09-01