Sodium oxybate (?-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) is a neurotransmitter in the human brain which exerts sedative effects and is used therapeutically in the treatment of narcolepsy. Current safety recommendations have been formulated for the use of GHB in patients with preexisting breathing disorders. We report the case of a 39-year-old female with narcolepsy and cataplexy revealing the de novo emergence of central sleep apneas in a Cheyne-Stokes pattern under constant treatment with GHB. After discontinuation of GHB, polysomnographic re-evaluation demonstrated the disappearance of central sleep apneas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of de novo central sleep apneas induced by GHB in a patient without pre-existing sleep-disordered breathing, suggesting that there is a need for further investigation and potentially an extension of the safety guidelines to patients without a pre-existing breathing disorder. PMID:23834969
Frase, Lukas; Schupp, Jonas; Sorichter, Stephan; Randelshofer, Wolfgang; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph
By the current definition, complex sleep apnea (CompSA) refers to the emergence of central sleep apnea (CSA) during the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). However, new-onset CSA has been described with use of other treatments for OSA, including tracheostomy, maxillofacial surgery, and mandibular advancement device. We present a patient with CSA beginning after endoscopic sinus and nasal surgery for nasal obstruction in the setting of mild OSA. This case highlights the importance of non-PAP mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CompSA. PMID:22701391
Goldstein, Cathy; Kuzniar, Tomasz J
Apnea, the cessation of breathing, is a common physiological and pathophysiological phenomenon. Among the different forms of apnea, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is clinically the most prominent manifestation. OSA is characterized by repetitive airway occlusions that are typically associated with peripheral airway obstructions. However, it would be an oversimplification to conclude that OSA is caused by peripheral obstructions. OSA is the result of a dynamic interplay between chemo- and mechanosensory reflexes, neuromodulation, behavioral state and the differential activation of the central respiratory network and its motor outputs. This interplay has numerous neuronal and cardiovascular consequences that are initially adaptive but in the long-term become major contributors to morbidity and mortality. Not only OSA, but also central apneas (CA) have multiple, and partly overlapping mechanisms. In OSA and CA the underlying mechanisms are neither "exclusively peripheral" nor "exclusively central" in origin. This review discusses the complex interplay of peripheral and central nervous components that characterizes the cessation of breathing. PMID:23770311
Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Garcia, Alfredo J; Anderson, Tatiana M; Koschnitzky, Jenna E; Peng, Ying-Jie; Kumar, Ganesh K; Prabhakar, Nanduri R
We report on a patient with mental retardation and chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure who was found to have severe central apnea and periodic breathing while undergoing an evaluation of low oxygen saturation during wakefulness at rest. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, which was performed to uncover potential causes for the central sleep apnea, revealed a "molar tooth sign" consistent with the diagnosis of Joubert syndrome. Joubert syndrome-related disorders are autosomal-recessive disorders characterized by diffuse hypotonia, developmental delay, abnormal respiratory patterns, and the pathognomonic neuroradiologic finding of a molar tooth sign. Adaptive servoventilation failed to correct the central apneas or the periodic breathing. Treatment with bilevel positive airway pressure in S/T mode led to resolution of the central events, improvement in sleep quality, and normalization of the oxygen saturation during wakefulness. PMID:20726289
Wolfe, Lisa; Lakadamyali, Hüseyin; Mutlu, Gökhan M
Given that the apnea-ventilation cycle length during central sleep apnea (CSA) with congestive heart failure (CHF) is z 70 s, we hy- pothesized that rapidly responsive peripheral CO 2 ventilatory re- sponses would be raised in CHF-CSA and would correlate with the severity of CSA. Sleep studies and single breath and rebreathe hy- percapnic ventilatory responses (HCVR) were measured as
PETER SOLIN; TEANAU ROEBUCK; DAVID P. JOHNS; E. HAYDN WALTERS; MATTHEW T. NAUGHTON
Background: There are no standard therapies for the management of central sleep apnea (CSA). Either positive pressure therapy (PAP) or supplemental oxygen (O2) may stabilize respiration in CSA by reducing ventilatory chemoresponsiveness. Additionally, increasing opioid use and the presence of comorbid conditions in US veterans necessitates investigations into alternative titration protocols to treat CSA. The goal was to report on the effectiveness of titration with PAP, used alone or in conjunction with O2, for the management of CSA associated with varying comorbidities and opioid use. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review over 3 years, performed at a VA sleep disorders center. The effects of CPAP, CPAP+O2, and BPAP+O2, used in a step-wise titration protocol, on consecutive patients diagnosed with CSA were studied. Results: CSA was diagnosed in 162 patients. The protocol was effective in eliminating CSA (CAI ? 5/h) in 84% of patients. CPAP was effective in 48%, while CPAP+O2 combination was effective in an additional 25%, and BPAP+O2 in 11%. The remaining 16% were non-responders. Forty-seven patients (29%) were on prescribed opioid therapy for chronic pain, in whom CPAP, CPAP+O2, or BPAP+O2 eliminated CSA in 54%, 28%, and 10% cases,, respectively. CPAP, CPAP+O2, and BPAP+O2 each produced significant declines in the AHI, CAI, and arousal index, and an increase in the SpO2. Conclusion: The data demonstrate that using a titration protocol with CPAP and then PAP with O2 effectively eliminates CSA in individuals with underlying comorbid conditions and prescription opioid use. Comparative studies with other therapeutic modalities are required. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 565. Citation: Chowdhuri S; Ghabsha A; Sinha P; Kadri M; Narula S; Badr MS. Treatment of central sleep apnea in US veterans. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):555-563.
Chowdhuri, Susmita; Ghabsha, Ahmed; Sinha, Prabhat; Kadri, Medina; Narula, Simranjit; Badr, M. Safwan
Central sleep apnea (CSA) is characterized by the inability to generate regular breathing patterns as a result of the loss\\u000a of metabolic drive and failure of respiratory muscle control. We present the case of a 54-year-old woman with a severe CSA\\u000a strictly dependent upon REM-sleep. Extensive diagnostic workup excluded typical underlying causes and serological analysis\\u000a revealed acute borreliosis infection. The
Armin Steffen; Johann Hagenah; Barbara Wollenberg; Norbert Brüggemann
... I have sleep apnea I am a health care professional ASAA Blog The ASAA joins with APHA sayng Public Health is ROI International Patient Safety Day January 21, 2013 Pediatric Sleep Apnea Infomation ASAA sponsor - F&P Wins World Design Awards for Innovation Sleep Apnea Awareness Day is ...
Study Objectives: At termination of obstructive apneas, arousal is a protective mechanism that facilitates restoration of upper airway patency and airflow. Treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces arousal frequency indicating that such arousals are caused by OSA. In heart failure (HF) patients with central sleep apnea (CSA), however, arousals frequently occur several breaths after apnea termination, and there is uncertainty as to whether arousals from sleep are a consequence of CSA. If so, they should diminish in frequency when CSA is attenuated. We therefore sought to determine whether attenuation of CSA by CPAP reduces arousal frequency. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients and Setting: We examined data from 205 HF patients with CSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ? 15, > 50% were central) randomized to CPAP or control who had polysomnograms performed at baseline and 3 months later. Measurements and Results: In the control group, there was no change in AHI or frequency of arousals. In the CPAP-treated group, the AHI decreased significantly (from [mean ± SD] 38.9 ± 15.0 to 17.6 ± 16.3, P < 0.001) but neither the frequency of arousals nor sleep structure changed significantly. Conclusion: These data suggest that attenuation of CSA by CPAP does not reduce arousal frequency in HF patients. We conclude that arousals were not mainly a consequence of CSA, and may not have been acting as a defense mechanism to terminate apneas in the same way they do in OSA. Citation: Ruttanaumpawan P; Logan AG; Floras JS; Bradley TD. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Sleep Structure in Heart Failure Patients with Central Sleep Apnea. SLEEP 2009;32(1):91-98.
Ruttanaumpawan, Pimon; Logan, Alexander G.; Floras, John S.; Bradley, T. Douglas
Sleep disturbances affect practically every segment of society, permeating across all ethnic, socioeconomic, and age groups. According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, there are more than 90 different sleep disorders. One of the most commonly diagnosed sleep disorders is sleep apnea. There are 3 types of sleep apnea: central, mixed, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sleep-disordered breathing is
Susan Zafarlotfi; Mohammed Quadri; Jacob Borodovsky
Brainstem evoked potentials (BSEP) were recorded in 23 patients with adult sleep apnea (ASA). Three patients were studied with all-night polysomnography prior to our testing. They were categorized as having obstructive, central, or mixed sleep apnea depending on the predominant sleep findings. All patients with central sleep apnea had abnormal BSEP with prolongation of wave V. A majority of the remaining patients with obstructive sleep apnea and mixed sleep apnea had abnormal BSEP, but without specific configurations. These findings substantiate our hypothesis that brainstem dysfunction may play a role in ASA. PMID:7149540
Snyderman, N L; Johnson, J T; Møller, M; Thearle, P B
Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS) is a distinct form of sleep-disordered breathing characterized as central sleep apnea (CSA), and presents in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients during initial treatment with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. The mechanisms of why CompSAS occurs are not well understood, though we have a high loop gain theory that may help to explain it. It is still controversial regarding the prevalence and the clinical significance of CompSAS. Patients with CompSAS have clinical features similar to OSA, but they do exhibit breathing patterns like CSA. In most CompSAS cases, CSA events during initial CPAP titration are transient and they may disappear after continued CPAP use for 4~8 weeks or even longer. However, the poor initial experience of CompSAS patients with CPAP may not be avoided, and nonadherence with continued therapy may often result. Treatment options like adaptive servo-ventilation are available now that may rapidly resolve the disorder and relieve the symptoms of this disease with the potential of increasing early adherence to therapy. But these approaches are associated with more expensive and complicated devices. In this review, the definition, potential plausible mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and treatment approaches of CompSAS will be summarized. PMID:23861580
Wang, Juan; Wang, Yan; Feng, Jing; Chen, Bao-Yuan; Cao, Jie
Suppression of Central Sleep Apnea by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and Transplant-Free Survival in Heart Failure A Post Hoc Analysis of the Canadian Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Patients With Central Sleep Apnea and Heart Failure Trial (CANPAP)
Background—In the main analysis of the Canadian Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) for Patients with Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) and Heart Failure Trial (CANPAP), CPAP had no effect on heart transplant-free survival; however, CPAP only reduced the mean apnea-hypopnea index to 19 events per hour of sleep, which remained above the trial inclusion threshold of 15. This stratified analysis of
Michael Arzt; John S. Floras; Alexander G. Logan; R. John Kimoff; Debra Morrison; Kathleen Ferguson; Israel Belenkie; Michael Pfeifer; John Fleetham; Patrick Hanly; Mark Smilovitch; Clodagh Ryan; George Tomlinson; T. Douglas Bradley
This paper first describes the AM-FM demodulation of an arterial pressure signal. Although it is known to be efficient on signals modulated by breathing, we demonstrate that in case of lack of respiratory modulation (real or simulated central sleep apnea), the AM-FM algorithm doesn't perform well in heart rate extraction. We introduce then a new algorithm based on Singular Spectrum Analysis eigenvalues which performs better cardiac frequency estimation in this context. Respiratory estimation is possible but is beyond the scope of this paper. The error for cardiac frequency estimation is around 0.2 BPM (Beats Per Minute) versus 5.5 BPM for the AM-FM demodulation. Further experimentations will be performed (with this time both cardiac and respiratory assessments) and will deal with real sleep apnea cases. PMID:19965048
Nguyen, Quang-Vinh; Le Page, Ronan; Goujon, Jean-Marc; Guyader, Patrick; Billon, Michel
\\u000a Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) encompasses all forms of respiratory disorders specific to sleep (1). There is a spectrum of SDB ranging from mild to severe with the most severe form being obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (2). In adults, OSA has been linked to cardiovascular disease, specifically hypertension (HTN) (3). The association between systemic HTN and OSA is well documented in
Alisa A. Acosta
Infancy is a developmental period characterized by instability of the control of breathing. Apneas of short duration are common, mostly central, and more frequent during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Obstructive apneas are rare in healthy control infants. Triggering factors such as respiratory syncitial virus infection can increase the frequency and the duration of apneas. Upper airway problems related to bone malformations,
... apnea in adults Liabilities of sleep deprivation and sleep disorders Management of obstructive sleep apnea in adults Management ... the patient does not have other illnesses or sleep disorders that may interfere with the results. SLEEP APNEA ...
Sleep apnea is a condition in which a narrowing or closure of the upper airway during sleep causes repeated sleep disturbances, and possible complete awakenings, leading to poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness. The primary objectives of thi...
L. C. Barr L. Boyle G. Maislin
The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of apneas on REM-elicited dream reports, and to examine the influence of clinically successful treatment of the apneas on dreaming. Thirty-three volunteers suffering from sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) slept during two nights in the sleep laboratory. Sixteen were treated with nasal continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) during the first night and
M. Gross; P. Lavie
Study Objectives: Obesity is a recognized risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We evaluated whether total trunk and central fat mass (CFM) is associated with OSAS in elderly subjects. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorbsiometry (DEXA). Participants: 749 volunteers aged 67.2 ± 0.8 years (59.4% women). Intervention: All participants underwent evaluation of their body composition by DEXA in parallel with clinical and polygraphic assessments. The presence of OSAS was defined by an apnea plus hypopnea index (AHI) ? 15. Measurements and Results: A total of 44.8% of the population had an AHI < 15, and 55.2% presented OSAS. OSAS subjects were more frequently overweight and had a higher total trunk fat mass and central fat mass (CFM). Correlation analyses revealed that body mass index (r = 0.27, P < 0.001), neck circumference (r = 0.35, P < 0.001), and CFM (r = 0.23, P < 0.001) were significantly related to AHI. Logistic regression analysis indicated that in mild OSAS cases (> 15AHI < 30), BMI (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03-1.18; P = 0.008), and male gender (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.05-2.12, P = 0.03) were key factors explaining an AHI between 15 and 30. In severe cases (AHI > 30), male gender (OR: 3.65; 95% CI: 2.40-5.55; P < 0.001) and CFM (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03-1.19; P = 0.009) were significant independent predictors of OSAS. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT 00759304 and NCT 00766584. Conclusions: Although central fat mass plays a role in the occurrence of severe OSAS in men older than 65 years of age, its low discriminative sensitivity in mild OSAS cases does not warrant systematic use of DEXA for the diagnosis of OSAS. Citation: Degache F; Sforza E; Dauphinot V; Celle S; Garcin A; Collet P; Pichot V; Barthélémy JC; Roche F. Relation of central fat mass to obstructive sleep apnea in the elderly. SLEEP 2013;36(4):501-507.
Degache, Francis; Sforza, Emilia; Dauphinot, Virginie; Celle, Sebastien; Garcin, Arnauld; Collet, Philippe; Pichot, Vincent; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Roche, Frederic
Apneas in the different sleep states are commonly observed in the full-term healthy newborn infant. Central and short apneas prevail whilst apneas greater than 15 sec. are rare; a marked incidence of short apneas (less than 10 sec.) was observed in active sleep, even though apneas are not exclusive of active sleep. There is a strong inter-individual variability of apnea incidence. Apnea incidence in a state is not positively correlated to apnea incidence in different behavioural states: on the contrary there seems to be an opposite correlation between incidence in AS and QS. Apnea occurrence is positively correlated, in individuals, to the periodic breathing percentage. Apneas number and their duration is markedly lowered already in the second month of life. Periodic breathing must be considered a feature of immaturity. Obstructive apneas are less frequent than central apneas: their survey requires sophisticated technics with the aid of simultaneous recording of several breathing parameters. Relationship between central apneas/ obstructive apneas and mixed apneas is not known. Certainly obstructive and mixed apneas occurrence has been underestimated because of technical difficulties deriving from their survey. The meaning of an incidence of short apneas markedly higher than normal in full-term newborn infants is controversial and not clear, individuals with long apneas and subjects with short apneas in excess have been considered infants at SIDS risk. It is not clear whether periodic breathing and apneas depend on a common pathogenesis; the correlation between high incidence of periodic breathing in postnatal period and SIDS risk is still controversial. Few Authors suggest to treat newborn infants with extended apneas in sleep and considerable percentage of periodic breathing with aminophylline. The relation between gastro-oesophageal reflux and apnea has been recently evidenced. Central apneas and obstructive apneas during breast and bottle feeding have also been documented. Differently from pre-term infant apneas, bradycardia, although not exceptional, is not frequent during apneas in full-term newborn infants. PMID:3601711
Ferrari, F; Cavallo, R; Benatti, A; Ori, L; Ferrari, P; Filippi, A; Giustardi, A; Montorsi, R; Cavazzuti, G B
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are defined using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)\\u000a from overnight polysomnography (PSG). AHI is the sum of apneic and hypopneic events per hour of sleep (1). Obstructive apneas\\u000a are defined by more than 80% decrease in airflow for 10?s or more in the presence of thoraco-abdominal efforts. Hypopneas\\u000a are defined by a
Kathleen Akgun; Francoise J. Roux
Sleep apnea is a serious, potentially life-threatening condition. It is a breathing disorder characterized by repeated collapse of the upper airway during sleep, with consequent cessation of breathing. Virtually all sleep apnea patients have a history of ...
The use of opioids has been associated with development of sleep-disordered breathing, including central apneas, nocturnal\\u000a oxygen desaturations, and abnormal breathing patterns. We describe sleep-disordered breathing and its subsequent treatment\\u000a in a group of obstructive sleep apneic patients on chronic opioid therapy. Clinical evaluation followed by diagnostic overnight\\u000a polysomnogram was performed in subjects on chronic opioid therapy who met the
Christian Guilleminault; Michelle Cao; Herbert J. Yue; Pawan Chawla
Metabolic syndrome is a disorder characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, increased triglycerides, decreased HDL cholesterol and increased blood glucose. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates that insulin resistance and an increased amount of abdominal fat are the pathogenic factors for the characteristics of metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies indicate that sleep apnea may be a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It has also been suggested that the metabolic syndrome or "syndrome X" should also comprise obstructive sleep apnea and should then be called syndrome "Z". It appears that obstructive sleep apnea and the metabolic syndrome are characterized by the same pathophysiologic environment, which increases the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease. The increased amount of visceral fat and the accompanying insulin resistance seem to be the main characteristics responsible for the development of obstructive sleep apnea and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18923660
Kostoglou-Athanassiou, I; Athanassiou, P
Metabolic syndrome is a disorder characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, increased triglycerides, decreased HDL cholesterol and increased blood glucose. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates that insulin resistance and an increased amount of abdominal fat are the pathogenic factors for the characteristics of metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies indicate that sleep apnea may be a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It has also been suggested that the metabolic syndrome or "syndrome X" should also comprise obstructive sleep apnea and should then be called syndrome "Z". It appears that obstructive sleep apnea and the metabolic syndrome are characterized by the same pathophysiologic environment, which increases the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease. The increased amount of visceral fat and the accompanying insulin resistance seem to be the main characteristics responsible for the development of obstructive sleep apnea and the metabolic syndrome.
Kostoglou-Athanassiou, I; Athanassiou, P
Abstract Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements in patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) and the relationship between the severity of SAS and minimal arterial oxygen saturation (min. SpO2) with respect to CCT. Materials and methods: Two hundred and fourteen eyes of 107 patients (58 males, 49 females) who were diagnosed as SAS and 80 eyes of 40 healthy subjects (20 males, 20 females) were included in the study. The SAS patients were divided into subgroups according to their Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) values as: AHI values between 5 and 15 as subgroup 1, between 15 and 30 as subgroup 2, and the values ?30 as subgroup 3. The CCT was measured by an ultrasonic pachymetric system. Statistical analyses were an analysis of variance test and, for post-hoc analysis, the Dunnett C test. Results: Mean age was 52.5?±?10.96 years in the study group, and 40.7?±?10.14 years in the control group. There were 58 (54.2%) males and 49 (45.8%) females in the study group, and 20 (50%) males and 20 (50%) females in the control group. Mean CCT values were 526.65?±?25.06, 525.26?±?29.25, 512.93?±?43.20 and 539.90?±?17.28 in subgroup 1, subgroup 2, subgroup 3 and the control group, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between gender and age groups with respect to CCT (p?>?0.05). When the mean CCT values of each subgroups were compared with the control group, the differences were statistically significant (p?0.05). There was a negative correlation between CCT and AHI values and a positive correlation between CCT and min. SpO2 values. Conclusions: CCT measurements differ significantly in patients with SAS compared with healthy control subjects. It should be taken into consideration that SAS may reduce CCT over time and that CCT should be measured in each ophthalmic examination. PMID:23721251
Ekinci, Metin; Huseyinoglu, Nergiz; Cagatay, H Huseyin; Ceylan, Erdinc; Keles, Sadullah; Gokce, Gokcen
Polysomnography, the standard diagnostic test for people suspected of having sleep apnea, is a limited resource due to its expense. Decisions about which patients to refer to a sleep center and which require polysomnography can be made based on an estimate of the probability that they have sleep apnea. Clinical features that are associated with the severity of sleep apnea,
W. Ward Flemons; Walter T. McNicholas
To determine the characteristics of and mechanisms causing the bradycardia during sleep apnea (SA), both patients with SA and normals were studied. Evaluation of six consecutive SA patients demonstrated that bradycardia occurred during 95% of all apneas (central, obstructive, and mixed) and became marked with increased apnea length (P less than 0.01) and increased oxyhemoglobin desaturation (P less than 0.01). Heart rate slowed 9.5 beats per minute (bpm) during apneas of 10-19 s in duration, 11.4 bpm during 20-39s apneas, and 16.6 bpm during 40-59-s apneas. Sleep stage had no effect unexplained by apnea length or degree of desaturation. Oxygen administration to four SA patients completely prevented the bradycardia although apneas lengthened (P less than 0.05) in three. Sleeping normal subjects did not develop bradycardia during hypoxic hyperpnea but, instead, HR increased with hypoxia in all sleep stages, although the increase in HR was not as great as that which occurred while awake. Breath holding in awake normals did not result in bradycardia during hyperoxia (SaO2 = 99%), but was consistently (P less than 0.01) associated with heart rate slowing during room air breath-holds (-6 bpm) at SaO2 = 93%, with more striking slowing (-20 bpm) during hypoxic breath-holds (P less than 0.01) at SaO2 = 78%. Breath holding during hyperoxic hypercapnia had no significant effect on rate. Breath holding in awake SA subjects demonstrated similar findings. We conclude that the bradycardia of SA is a consistent feature of apnea and results from the combined effect of cessation of breathing plus hypoxemia.
Zwillich, C; Devlin, T; White, D; Douglas, N; Weil, J; Martin, R
Study Objectives: Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) is often used to treat central sleep apnea (CSA) and complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS). Both CompSAS and CSA may occur in the setting of CHF and with the use of chronic opioids. We hypothesized that ASV would be less successful in treatment of CSA and CompSAS secondary to opioid use than in CHF patients. Methods: Consecutive patients were studied between January and December 2009 who underwent ASV titration for CSA or CompSAS due to CHF (defined as EF < 45%, or > 50% with evidence for diastolic dysfunction on echocardiogram) and chronic opioid users (defined by the use of opioids > 6 months). Results: Study included one hundred and eight patients with 77 males (71.3%) and 31 females (28.7%). Subjects had severe sleep apnea at baseline (AHI 45.6 ± 27.4) and inadequate control of sleep disordered breathing on CPAP (AHI 50.0 ± 32.2, CAI 36.6 ± 32). No significant differences were found between the groups in overall ASV success, defined as AHI < 10/h (p = 0.236). ASV was successful in 28 (59.6%) of those in the opioid group, compared to 43 (70.5%) of those in the CHF group. When ASV success was defined as AHI < 5/h at optimum EEP, there was again no significant difference between the groups (p-value = 0.812). Logistic regression showed unit increases in BMI, unit increases in HCO3, and presence of CSR were each associated with decreased likelihood of ASV success. Conclusion: We did not find a statistically significant difference in the effectiveness of ASV between CHF patients and chronic opioid users, with the overall success rate approaching 70%, as defined by an AHI < 10/h. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 577. Citation: Ramar K; Ramar P; Morgenthaler TI. Adaptive servoventilation in patients with central or complex sleep apnea related to chronic opioid use and congestive heart failure. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):569-576.
Ramar, Kannan; Ramar, Priya; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent sleep disorder, characterized by repeated disruptions of breathing during\\u000a sleep. The sleep fragmentation and the accompanying hypoxemia lead to many negative consequences including cardiovascular\\u000a diseases, cognitive impairment, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depressive symptoms (Parish and Somers 2004; Reimer and Flemons\\u000a 2003). Originally viewed as an interesting but rare malady, OSA is now
Paul J. Mills; Michael G. Ziegler; Joel E. Dimsdale
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition of repetitive upper airway collapse, which occurs during sleep. Recent literature has emphasized the role of OSA in contributing to glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. OSA is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, although definitive data are sparse with regard to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and CPAP therapy. CPAP provides effective treatment for OSA, but patient adherence remains challenging. Aside from daytime symptom improvement, it is difficult to monitor the adequacy of treatment response. Thus, the search for a biomarker becomes critical. The discovery of an ideal biomarker for OSA has the potential to provide information related to diagnosis, severity, prognosis, and response to treatment. In addition, because large-scale randomized controlled trials are both ethically and logistically challenging in assessing hard cardiovascular outcomes, certain biomarkers may be reasonable surrogate outcome measures. This article reviews the literature related to potential biomarkers of OSA with the recognition that an ideal biomarker does not exist at this time. PMID:22796846
Montesi, Sydney B; Bajwa, Ednan K; Malhotra, Atul
Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), a common disorder, is characterized by repetitive episodes of cessation of breathing during sleep, resulting in hypoxemia and sleep disruption. The consequences of the abnormal breathing during sleep include daytime sleepiness, neurocognitive dysfunction, development of cardiovascular disorders, metabolic dysfunction, and impaired quality of life. There are two types of SAS: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and
Katsuhisa Banno; Meir H. Kryger
Sleep apnea is the cessation of breathing during sleep. These episodes result in hypoxemia and sleep disruption; thus the consequences are both cardiorespiratory and neural. Sleep apnea syndrome is defined by a constellation of signs and symptoms, with the main presenting symptom being excessive daytime sleepiness. A diagnosis requires documentation of episodes of abnormal breathing during sleep. This disorder, once
Meir H. Kryger
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repeated episodes of obstructed (apnea) or reduced (hypopnea) airflow in the upper airway during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea results in variable arterial oxygen desaturations and arousals leading to sleep fragmentation. Most patients with OSA first come to the attention of a clinician when they complain of daytime sleepiness or when their bed partner reports loud snoring and witnessed episodes. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with impaired quality of life, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and motor vehicle accidents, yet the disorder remains undiagnosed in a significant portion of the population. Overnight polysomnography, whether facility-based or portable, is required for appropriate patient diagnosis. Portable monitoring can be used in patients with a high pre-test probability for moderate-to-severe OSA, who are without significant comorbidities. Management of OSA requires a long-term multidisciplinary approach. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. Oral appliances may be indicated in patients with mild-to-moderate OSA who do not wish to use CPAP. Surgical therapy is generally reserved for selected patients in whom CPAP or oral appliance are not an option. PMID:24145590
Kabir, Asad; Ifteqar, Sarah; Bhat, Abid
Study Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on sleep, sleep apnea, and morning alertness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: In-hospital investigations. Participants: Forty patients with obstructive sleep apnea naïve to treatment, with an apnea-hypopnea index of 10-30. Interventions: Three different nights in room temperatures of 16°C, 20°C, and 24°C. Measurements: Overnight polysomnography and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Results: The obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was 30 ± 17 at 16°C room temperature, 28 ± 17 at 20°C, and 24 ± 18 at 24°C. The obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was higher at 16°C room temperature versus 24°C (P = 0.001) and at 20°C room temperature versus 24°C (P = 0.033). Total sleep time was a mean of 30 min longer (P = 0.009), mean sleep efficiency was higher (77 ± 11% versus 71 ± 13% respectively, P = 0.012), and the patients were significantly more alert according to the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (P < 0.028) in the morning at 16°C room temperature versus 24°C. The amount of sleep in different sleep stages was not affected by room temperature. Conclusions: Untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnea sleep longer, have better sleep efficiency, and are more alert in the morning after a night's sleep at 16°C room temperature compared with 24°C, but obstructive sleep apnea is more severe at 16°C and 20°C compared with 24°C. Clinical Trial Information: This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00544752. Citation: Valham F; Sahlin C; Stenlund H; Franklin KA. Ambient temperature and obstructive sleep apnea: effects on sleep, sleep apnea, and morning alertness. SLEEP 2012;35(4):513-517.
Valham, Fredrik; Sahlin, Carin; Stenlund, Hans; Franklin, Karl A.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common medical condition that occurs in approximately 5% to 15% of the population. The pathophysiology of OSA is characterized by repetitive occlusions of the posterior pharynx during sleep that obstruct the airway, followed by oxyhemoglobin desaturation, persistent inspiratory efforts against the occluded airway, and termination by arousal from sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated
JAMES M. PARISH; VIREND K. SOMERS
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a form of sleep disordered breathing char- acterized by episodes of apnea (during sleep) lasting at least 10 seconds per episode. The apneic periods are associated with arterial hypoxemia and disruption of normal sleep as a result of awakenings. It is increasingly being recognized that OSA is a public health hazard and there is increasing
Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in adults and its prevalence is rising dramatically in children. Obesity, especially\\u000a central obesity, leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, affecting more than 100 million people worldwide.\\u000a Central obesity is also a major risk factor for sleep apnea, which affects 2–4% of adults in the United States, and has prevalence\\u000a in excess
Christopher P. O’Donnell
... Also, criteria developed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) de ne obstructive sleep apnea as a ... dental professionals who have advanced training in dental sleep medicine. Patients are referred for this treatment by their ...
Background and Purpose: There is increasing recognition of the high and rising prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It has been suggested that OSA may contribute to erectile dysfunction. This review will examine the evidence and potential mechanisms, including abnormalities of neural, endothelial and hormonal function, linking OSA to erectile dysfunction. Conclusion: Available data suggest, but do not prove, a
Adelaide M. Arruda-Olson; Lyle J. Olson; Ajay Nehra; Virend K. Somers
Automatic sleep analysis is used in the daily work of sleep centers working with digital polysomnography. Automatic sleep analysis has a limited accuracy in the sleep of healthy volunteers with approximately 80% conformance depending on definition. The problem of limited accuracy is even more severe in sleep disorders. Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder with a high prevalence which requires
T. Penzel; K. Kesper; V. Gross; H. F. Becker; C. Vogelmeier
Study Objectives: We describe the respiratory, cardiac, and sleep-related characteristics of two types of sleep-related respiratory pauses in children that can fulfill current criteria of pathological apnea, but often seem to be benign: prolonged expiratory apnea (PEA) and post-sigh central apnea (PSCA). Methods: All outpatient comprehensive overnight polysomnography completed on children without significant underlying medical conditions completed during an 18-month period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of augmented breaths followed by a respiratory pause. Events were identified as a PEA or PSCA based on characteristic features. Physiologic parameters associated with the respiratory events were recorded and compared. Results: Fifty-seven (29 PEA and 28 PEA) events were identified in 17 patients (8.5 ± 3.5 years old). Median durations of PEA and PSCA were not significantly different. For both PEA and PSCA, average heart rate (HR) during the augmented breath before the respiratory pause differed from lowest instantaneous HR during the first half of the pause. When compared to each other, the lowest instantaneous HR recorded in the first half of PEA was lower than that for PSCA (63.9 [59.41–68.3] vs 66.75 [61.7–80.75]) beats per min, p = 0.03. No PEA or PSCA event was associated with an oxygen desaturation more than 3% from baseline. Conclusion: PEA and PSCA have stereotypic HR changes and resemble pathologic apneas but appear to be benign. Clinical significance of PEA and PSCA is yet to be determined. Consistent recognition of the events is required, given their frequency of occurrence and potential for misclassification. Citation: Haupt ME; Goodman DM; Sheldon SH. Sleep related expiratory obstructive apnea in children. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(6):673-679.
Haupt, Mark E.; Goodman, Denise M.; Sheldon, Stephen H.
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder and affects approximately 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women. Obstructive sleep apnea is clearly associated with obesity, with more than 50% of patients having a body mass index > 30 kg\\/m2. Substantial evidence identified obstructive sleep apnea as risk factor not only for excessive daytime sleepiness and road traffic accidents,
Wolfram Grimm; Heinrich F. Becker
Prospective clinical trials addressing the role of serotonin (5-HT) in sleep apnea have indicated that the 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine is beneficial to some patients with obstructive apnea, whereas the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron seems of little value despite its efficacy in rat and dog models of sleep apnea (central and obstructive). Here, we examined the effect of these drugs
C. Real; I. Seif; J. Adrien; P. Escourrou
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common health problem diagnosed and managed by various medical specialists, including family practice physicians, pediatricians, pulmonologists, and general and pediatric otolaryngologists. If left untreated, the sequelae can be severe. Over the last decade, significant advancements have been made in the evidence-based management of pediatric OSAS. This article focuses on the current understanding of this disease, its management, and related clinical practice guidelines. PMID:23905822
Alexander, Nathan S; Schroeder, James W
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypertension commonly coexist. Observational studies indicate that untreated OSA is associated\\u000a with an increased risk of prevalent hypertension, whereas prospective studies of normotensive cohorts suggest that OSA may\\u000a increase the risk of incident hypertension. Randomized evaluations of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) indicate\\u000a an overall modest effect on blood pressure. However, these studies do indicate
David A. Calhoun
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of airflow cessation resulting in brief arousals and intermittent hypoxemia. Several studies have documented significant daytime cognitive and behavioral dysfunction that seems to extend beyond that associated with simple sleepiness and that persists in some patients after therapeutic intervention. A still unanswered question is whether cognitive symptoms in OSA are primarily a consequence of sleep fragmentation and hypoxemia, or whether they coexist independently from OSA. Moreover, very little is known about OSA effects on cognitive performances in the elderly in whom an increased prevalence of OSA is present. In this review we will consider recent reports in the association between sleep apnea and cognition, with specific interest in elderly subjects, in whom sleep disturbances and age-related cognitive decline naturally occur. This will allow us to elucidate the behavioral and cognitive functions in OSA patients and to gain insight into age differences in the cognitive impairment. Clinically, these outcomes will aid clinicians in the evaluation of diurnal consequences of OSA and the need to propose early treatment.
Sforza, Emilia; Roche, Frederic
The essential feature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in chil- dren is increased upper airway resistance during sleep. Airway narrowing may be due to craniofacial abnormalities and\\/or soft tissue hypertrophy. The resultant breathing patterns during sleep are highly variable, but include obstructive cycling, in- creased respiratory effort, flow limitation, tachypnea, and\\/or gas exchange abnormalities. Consequently, sleep disruption occurs, ranging from
Eliot S. Katz; Carolyn M. D'Ambrosio
Population-based epidemiologic studies have uncovered the high prevalence and wide severity spectrum of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea, and have consistently found that even mild obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significant morbidity. Evidence from methodologically strong cohort studies indicates that undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea, with or without symptoms, is independently associated with increased likelihood of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, daytime sleepiness, motor vehicle accidents, and diminished quality of life. Strategies to decrease the high prevalence and associated morbidity of obstructive sleep apnea are critically needed. The reduction or elimination of risk factors through public health initiatives with clinical support holds promise. Potentially modifiable risk factors considered in this review include overweight and obesity, alcohol, smoking, nasal congestion, and estrogen depletion in menopause. Data suggest that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with all these factors, but at present the only intervention strategy supported with adequate evidence is weight loss. A focus on weight control is especially important given the expanding epidemic of overweight and obesity in the United States. Primary care providers will be central to clinical approaches for addressing the burden and the development of cost-effective case-finding strategies and feasible treatment for mild obstructive sleep apnea warrants high priority. PMID:11991871
Young, Terry; Peppard, Paul E; Gottlieb, Daniel J
There is a recognized association between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and metabolic syndrome, designated syndrome Z. The criteria for metabolic syndrome include at least three of the following factors: central obesity (waist circumference ? 102 cm for males and ? 88 cm for females); triglycerides ? 150 mg/dL; HDL cholesterol < 40 mg/dL for males and < 50 mg/dL for females; arterial blood pressure ? 130/85 mmHg; and fasting glucose ? 100 mg/dL. Central obesity is associated with OSAS and metabolic syndrome, and there is evidence that obstructive sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The implied mechanisms result from the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal axis; activation of pro-inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and TNF-?; and the reduction in adiponectin levels, principally triggered by intermittent hypoxemia related to apnea. Despite such evidence, the results are controversial regarding the benefits of treating sleep apnea with CPAP in the presence of these metabolic alterations. In addition, the few studies that have addressed sleep apnea as a risk factor for dyslipidemia have presented conflicting results. Population-based, longitudinal controlled studies are necessary in order to elucidate the interaction between sleep apnea and metabolic consequences so that these individuals are properly treated. PMID:20944981
Carneiro, Glaucia; Fontes, Francisco Hora; Togeiro, Sônia Maria Guimarães Pereira
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a serious disease caused by the collapse of upper airways during sleep. The present method of measuring the severity of OSA is the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI). The AHI is defined as the average number of Obstructive events (Apnea and Hypopnea, OAH-events) during the total sleep period. The number of occurrence of OAH events during each hour of sleep is a random variable with an unknown probability density function. Thus the measure AHI alone is insufficient to describe its true nature. We propose a new measure Dynamic Apnea Hypopnea Index Time Series (DAHI), which captures the temporal density of Apnea event over shorter time intervals, and use its higher moments to obtain a dynamic characterization of OSA. PMID:17947093
Karunajeewa, Asela S; Abeyratne, Udantha R; Rathnayake, Suren I; Swarnkar, V
Background—The prevalence and characteristics of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with LV dysfunction without overt heart failure and tested the hypothesis that sleep-disordered breathing is linked to greater hemodynamic and autonomic impairment. Methods and Results—We studied 47 patients with LV ejection fractions 40%
Paola A. Lanfranchi; Virend K. Somers; Alberto Braghiroli; Ugo Corra; Ermanno Eleuteri; Pantaleo Giannuzzi
Blood pressure, heart rate, sympathetic nerve activity, and polysomnography were recorded during wakefulness and sleep in 10 patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Measurements were also obtained after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in four patients. Awake sympathetic activity was also measured in 10 age- and sex-matched control subjects and in 5 obese subjects without a history of sleep apnea. Patients with sleep apnea had high levels of nerve activity even when awake (P < 0.001). Blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity did not fall during any stage of sleep. Mean blood pressure was 92 +/- 4.5 mmHg when awake and reached peak levels of 116 +/- 5 and 127 +/- 7 mmHg during stage II sleep (n = 10) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (n = 5), respectively (P < 0.001). Sympathetic activity increased during sleep (P = 0.01) especially during stage II (133 +/- 9% above wakefulness; P = 0.006) and REM (141 +/- 13%; P = 0.007). Peak sympathetic activity (measured over the last 10 s of each apneic event) increased to 299 +/- 96% during stage II sleep and to 246 +/- 36% during REM sleep (both P < 0.001). CPAP decreased sympathetic activity and blood pressure during sleep (P < 0.03). We conclude that patients with obstructive sleep apnea have high sympathetic activity when awake, with further increases in blood pressure and sympathetic activity during sleep. These increases are attenuated by treatment with CPAP.
Somers, V K; Dyken, M E; Clary, M P; Abboud, F M
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of stroke independent of known vascular and metabolic risk factors. Although patients with OSA have higher prevalence of hypertension and evidence of hypercoagulability, the mechanism of this increased risk is unknown. Obstructive apnea events are associated with surges in blood pressure, hypercapnia, and fluctuations in cerebral blood flow. These perturbations can adversely affect the cerebral circulation.
Fred Urbano (Yale University School of Medicine and Center for Sleep Center); Vahid Mohsenin (Yale University Sleep Center and John B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory)
A case of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is presented which led to cor pulmonale. The diagnosis was based on polysomnography (PSG) which demonstrated OSA periods with hypoxemia. The patient was qualified for uvulopalitopharyngoplasty. Also CPAP is being considered. PMID:2352884
Cie?licki, J; Sliwi?ski, P; Zieli?ski, J
To study the effect of transient, apnea-induced hypoxemia on electrocortical activity, five patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were investigated during nocturnal sleep. Polysomnographic and simultaneous digitized electro encephalographic (EEG) recordings for topographic and compressed spectral array analysis were made. The EEG recordings were timed exactly to respiratory events. During nonrapid eye movement (NREM) apnea, delta band amplitude increased, starting on average 13 seconds after the apnea onset. Average differences were 268% between initial and maximal values and 202% between initial and final values. In contrast, significant increases in delta amplitudes between the onset and end of REM apneas did not occur, although some caused deep oxygen desaturations. Changes in delta activity were not correlated to NREM apnea duration or degree of desaturation. These results indicate that the increased delta activity during NREM apneas may not be caused by arterial hypoxemia. It could instead be due to either an arousal mechanism, since arousals may be preceded by slow waves in EEG, or to a breakthrough of slow-wave-sleep activity. The sleep disturbance in severe OSAS may create such a propensity for slow-wave sleep that stages pass much more rapidly than in normal persons. PMID:8723384
Svanborg, E; Guilleminault, C
Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the number one killer of Americans. It is also a major risk factor\\u000a for obstructive sleep apnea, which is rising in the US population as the obesity epidemic continues. Obstructive sleep apnea,\\u000a in turn, has been implicated as a risk factor for hypertension, glucose dysregulation, and cardiovascular disease. Understanding\\u000a the pathophysiologic
Muhammad Iqbal; Syed Shah; Sonalis Fernandez; Jocelyne Karam; Girardin Jean-Louis; Samy I. McFarlane
We report obstructive sleep apnea in a 3-year-old boy with tracheomalacia secondary to tracheotomy that resolved after placement of a metallic stent in the region of tracheomalacia. The tracheal location of obstruction during sleep in this case contrasts with the usual location in the pharynx or, less often, the larynx. This case also demonstrates the utility of polysomnography in managing decannulation of tracheostomies. Citation: Muzumdar H; Nandalike K; Bent J; Arens R. Obstructive sleep apnea due to extrathoracic tracheomalacia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):163–164.
Muzumdar, Hiren; Nandalike, K.; Bent, J.; Arens, Raanan
Rationale: Opioids have become part of contemporary treatment in the management of chronic pain. However, chronic use of opioids has been associated with high prevalence of sleep apnea which could contribute to morbidity and mortality of such patients. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to treat sleep apnea in patients on chronic opioids. Methods: Five consecutive patients who were referred for evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea underwent polysomnography followed by a second night therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. Because CPAP proved ineffective, patients underwent a third night therapy with adaptive pressure support servoventilation. Main Results: The average age of the patients was 51 years. They were habitual snorers with excessive daytime sleepiness. Four suffered from chronic low back pain and one had trigeminal neuralgia. They were on opioids for 2 to 5 years before sleep apnea was diagnosed. The average apnea-hypopnea index was 70/hr. With CPAP therapy, the apnea-hypopnea index decreased to 55/hr, while the central apnea index increased from 26 to 37/hr. The patients then underwent titration with adaptive pressure support servoventilation. At final pressure, the hypopnea index was 13/hr, with central and obstructive apnea index of 0 per hour. Conclusions: Opioids may cause severe sleep apnea syndrome. Acute treatment with CPAP eliminates obstructive apneas but increases central apneas. Adaptive pressure support servoventilation proves to be effective in the treatment of sleep related breathing disorders in patients on chronic opioids. Long-term studies on a large number of patients are necessary to determine if treatment of sleep apnea improves quality of life, decreases daytime sleepiness, and ultimately decreases the likelihood of unexpected death of patients on opioids. Citation: Javaheri S; Malik A; Smith J; Chung E. Adaptive pressure support servoventilation: a novel treatment for sleep apnea associated with use of opioids. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(4):305-310.
Javaheri, Shahrokh; Malik, Athar; Smith, Jason; Chung, Eugene
Although there is a strong link between sleep apnea and hypertension (HTN), the mechanism of HTN in sleep apnea continuous to be under investigation. Because decreased arterial compliance is associated with HTN, we sought to examine whether small artery elasticity index (SAEI) and large artery elasticity index (LAEI) are different in the sleep apnea cohort compared to their controls. Diagnosis
Marilou I. Ching; Bong Hee Sung; Michael F. Wilson; Sandra A. Block; Daniel I. Rifkin
Obesity is a primary risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea in humans, but the impact of obesity on central sleep apnea is less clear. Given the comorbidities associated with obesity in humans, we developed techniques for long-term recording of diaphragmatic EMG activity and polysomnography in obese mice to assess breathing patterns during sleep and to determine the effect of obesity on apnea generation. We hypothesized that genetically obese ob/ob mice would exhibit less variability in breathing across the 24-h circadian cycle, be more prone to central apneas, and be more likely to exhibit patterns of increased diaphragm muscle activity consistent with obstructive apneas compared with lean mice. Unexpectedly, we found that obese mice exhibited a greater circadian impact on respiratory rate and diaphragmatic burst amplitude than lean mice, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Central apneas were more common in REM sleep (42 ± 17 h(-1)) than non-REM (NREM) sleep (14 ± 5 h(-1)) in obese mice (P < 0.05), but rates were not different between lean and obese mice in either sleep state. Even after experimentally enhancing central apnea generation by acute withdrawal of hypoxic chemoreceptor activation during sleep, central apnea rates remained comparable between lean and obese mice. Last, we were unable to detect patterns of diaphragmatic burst activity suggestive of obstructive apnea events in obese mice. In summary, obesity does not predispose mice to increased occurrence of central or obstructive apneas during sleep, but does lead to a more pronounced circadian variability in respiration. PMID:23722707
Davis, Eric M; Locke, Landon W; McDowell, Angela L; Strollo, Patrick J; O'Donnell, Christopher P
Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is becoming increasingly prevalent in North America and has been described in association with specific chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases. In primary care, where the prevalence of co-occurring chronic conditions is very high, the potential association with OSA is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between OSA and 1) the presence and severity of multimorbidity (multiple co-occurring chronic conditions), and 2) subcategories of multimorbidity. Methods A cluster sampling technique was used to recruit 120 patients presenting with OSA of various severities from the records of a sleep laboratory in 2008. Severity of OSA was based on the results of the polysomnography. Patients invited to participate received a mail questionnaire including questions on sociodemographic characteristics and the Disease Burden Morbidity Assessment (DBMA). They also consented to give access to their medical records. The DBMA was used to provide an overall multimorbidity score and sub-score of diseases affecting various systems. Results Bivariate analysis did not demonstrate an association between OSA and multimorbidity (r?=?0.117; p?=?0.205). However, severe OSA was associated with multimorbidity (adjusted odds ratio?=?7.33 [1.67-32.23], p?=?0.05). OSA was moderately correlated with vascular (r?=?0.26, p?=?0.01) and metabolic syndrome (r?=?0.26, p?=?0.01) multimorbidity sub-scores. Conclusions This study showed that severe OSA is associated with severe multimorbidity and sub-scores of multimorbidity. These results do not allow any causal inference. More research is required to confirm these associations. However, primary care providers should be aware of these potential associations and investigate OSA when deemed appropriate.
Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of epilepsy related mortality in treatment resistant epilepsy. Most SUDEPs occur after one or more seizure(s) during sleep. Nocturnal seizures may go unrecognized. Respiratory depression in the peri-ictal period is one of the primary potential causes of SUDEP. Ictal and postictal apnea is often overlooked because it is not routinely assessed, but appears common and has been a recent focus of SUDEP research. We report a 37 year-old man who had central apnea as the initial manifestation of partial complex seizures associated with oxygen desaturation. This important pathophysiological consequence of a nocturnal complex seizure was identified by respiratory monitoring during a combined video EEG and sleep study. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:22726818
Nadkarni, Mangala A; Friedman, Daniel; Devinsky, Orrin
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)is the most common form of sleep-disordered breathing, affecting 5-15% of the population. It is characterized by intermittent episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during sleep that disrupts normal ventilation and sleep architecture, and is typically associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and wit - nessed apneas. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea present
Mosharraf Hossain; Mostofa Midhat Pasha; A. K. M. Mosharraf-Hossain
Hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids is the most common cause of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Bilateral tonsillectomy, most commonly performed with adenoidectomy, is the accepted treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. We report the unusual case of a child who underwent unilateral tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy at another institution and subsequently presented to us with persistent severe obstructive sleep apnea and a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The adenoids were not obstructing the choanae. The remaining tonsil was removed and the patient's sleep apnea resolved. This is the first objectively documented report of a solitary tonsil causing severe obstructive sleep apnea (using polysomnography) that resolved after removal of the remaining tonsil. PMID:23680524
Sklar, Michael C; Narang, Indra; Ngan, Bo-Yee; Propst, Evan J
Mortality risk in heart failure relates to the degree of chronic sympathetic nervous system activation. Do acute increases\\u000a in central sympathetic outflow, as occur nightly in patients with sleep apnea, augment this risk? This review explores 4 novel\\u000a concepts: 1) sleep disordered breathing is common in heart failure, 2) the acute effects of sleep apnea and the chronic effects\\u000a of
John S. Floras
he diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) generally re- quires a presenting symptom or symptoms and the demon- stration of apneas and\\/or hypopneas per hour of sleep (AHI) on a formal sleep study. The diagnosis of mild OSA is not well defined but in a 1999 report of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM), definitions of mild OSA by
Michael R. Littner
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder whose prevalence is linked to an epidemic of obesity in Western society. Sleep apnea is due to recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep that are caused by elevations in upper airway collapsibility during sleep. Collapsibility can be increased by underlying anatomic alter- ations and\\/or disturbances in upper airway neuromuscular control, both
Alan R. Schwartz; Susheel P. Patil; Alison M. Laffan; Vsevolod Polotsky; Hartmut Schneider; Philip L. Smith
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common yet an under-diagnosed sleep related breathing disorder affecting predominantly middle-aged men. OSA is associated with many adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease. Common OSA associated\\/induced cardiovascular disorders include coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias and stroke, which further increase morbidity and mortality in the OSA population. Endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy, impaired sympathetic
Mehmood Butt; Girish Dwivedi; Omer Khair; Gregory Y. H. Lip
A 5-year-old child with Down syndrome (DS) diagnosed with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and subsequently found to have severe hypothyroidism is presented. Following 3 months of treatment with levothyroxine, she had full resolution of her OSA. This case underscores the importance of routine thyroid function screening in children with DS and demonstrates that OSA in children with
A number of recent studies have described the presence of significant gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aims of our studies were to determine the prevalence of this in a controlled population and to investigate the potential for a causal relationship between the two entities by determining whether therapy of OSA altered GER parameters, and
Alvin J Ing; Meng C Ngu; Antony B. X Breslin
Background—Altered cardiovascular variability is a prognostic indicator for cardiovascular events. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that OSA is accompanied by alterations in cardiovascular variability, even in the absence of overt cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results—Spectral analysis of variability of muscle sympathetic nerve activity, RR interval, and blood
Krzysztof Narkiewicz; Nicola Montano; Chiara Cogliati; Philippe J. H. van de Borne; Mark E. Dyken; Virend K. Somers
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated occur- restoration of airway muscle tone is delayed until arousal (5), rences of hypoxic, hypercapnic, and transient blood pressure eleva- implying dysfunction of normal control systems or afferent tion episodes that may damage or alter neural structures. Underde- systems that respond to airway closure. In addition, the upper veloped structures or pre-existing
Paul M. Macey; Luke A. Henderson; Katherine E. Macey; Jeffry R. Alger; Robert C. Frysinger; Mary A. Woo; Rebecca K. Harper; Frisca L. Yan-Go; Ronald M. Harper
Sleep Apnea and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Jun 25,2012 Plain old snoring can get a little annoying, especially for someone listening to it. ... high blood pressure , arrhythmia , stroke and heart failure . Heart disease is the leading cause of death in America, ...
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is presently considered as the “treatment of choice” for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Though some OSA patients adhere to treatment recommendations and ultimately respond quite well to CPAP therapy, there is a substantial subgroup for which compliance is a particularly difficult issue. Despite receiving recommendations to the contrary and for reasons that are incompletely
Carl J Stepnowsky; Polly J Moore
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. As it is strongly associated with known cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, OSA is an independent risk factor for hypertension and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of congestive cardiac failure, pulmonary hypertension, arrhythmias, and atherosclerosis. Obesity
Jo-Dee L. Lattimore; David S. Celermajer; Ian Wilcox
This study assessed the relationship between hematocrit levels and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and examined how this relationship was affected by the degree of hypoxia as well as by possible confounding factors. Two-hundred sixty three subjects (189 men and 74 women) underwent nocturnal polysomnography with oximetry and had measurements of hematocrit, hemoglobin, white blood cell count, body mass
Jong Bae Choi; José S. Loredo; Daniel Norman; Paul J. Mills; Sonia Ancoli-Israel; Michael G. Ziegler; Joel E. Dimsdale
Antrochoanal polyps (ACPS) are uncommon in children presenting to the pediatric clinic. They commonly present with unilateral nasal obstruction. ACPS presenting as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a young child is an uncommon initial presentation. A high level of suspicion is needed to diagnose OSA in young children as the presenting symptoms may be nonspecific and sometimes misleading. PMID:22983926
Veerappan, Ilamaran; Ramar, Rathisharmila; Navaneethan, Nagendran; Dharmapuri Yaadhavakrishnan, Raj Prakash
A mathematical model of non-obstructive human periodic breathing (Cheyne–Stokes respiration) or central sleep apnea (CSA)\\u000a is described which focused on explaining recently reported non-linear behavior. Evidence was presented that CHF (chronic heart\\u000a failure)–CSA and ICSA (idiopathic central sleep apnea) both involved limit cycle oscillations. The validity of applying linear\\u000a control theory for stabilization must then be re-examined. Critical threshold values
S. M. Yamashiro
According to standard sleep stage scoring, sleep EEG is studied from the central area of parietal lobes. However, slow wave sleep (SWS) has been found to be more powerful in frontal areas in healthy subjects. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients often suffer from functional disturbances in prefrontal lobes. We studied the effects of nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (nCPAP) treatment on sleep EEG, and especially on SWS, in left prefrontal and central locations in 12 mild to moderate OSAS patients. Sleep EEG was recorded by polysomnography before treatment and after a 3 month nCPAP treatment period. Recordings were classified into sleep stages. No difference was found in SWS by central sleep stage scoring after the nCPAP treatment period, but in the prefrontal lobe all night S3 sleep stage increased during treatment. Furthermore, prefrontal SWS increased in the second and decreased in the fourth NREM period. There was more SWS in prefrontal areas both before and after nCPAP treatment, and SWS increased significantly more in prefrontal than central areas during treatment. Regarding only central sleep stage scoring, nCPAP treatment did not increase SWS significantly. Frontopolar recording of sleep EEG is useful in addition to central recordings in order to better evaluate the results of nCPAP treatment. PMID:17844944
Eskelinen, Veera; Uibu, Toomas; Himanen, Sari-Leena
A chinstrap alone improved severe obstructive sleep apnea as well as or better than the use of CPAP. Citation: Vorona RD; Ware JC; Sinacori JT; Ford ML; Cross JP. Treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with a chinstrap. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):729–730.
Vorona, Robert D.; Ware, J. Catesby; Sinacori, John T.; Ford, Melvin L.; Cross, J. Parker
Although obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease have common risk factors, epidemiologic studies show that sleep apnea increases risks for cardiovascular disease independently of individuals' demographic characteristics (i.e., age, sex, and race) or risk markers (i.e., smoking, alcohol, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension). Individuals with severe sleep apnea are at increased risk for coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and stroke. The underlying mechanisms explaining associations between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease are not entirely delineated. Several intermediary mechanisms might be involved including sustained sympathetic activation, intrathoracic pressure changes, and oxidative stress. Other abnormalities such as disorders in coagulation factors, endothelial damage, platelet activation, and increased inflammatory mediators might also play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Linkage between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease is corroborated by evidence that treatment of sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure reduces systolic blood pressure, improves left ventricular systolic function, and diminishes platelet activation. Several systematic studies are necessary to explicate complex associations between sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease, which may be compounded by the involvement of diseases comprising the metabolic syndrome (i.e., central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). Large-scale, population-based studies testing causal models linking among sleep apnea, cardiovascular morbidity, and metabolic syndrome are needed. Citation: Jean-Louis G; Zizi F; Clark LT; Brown CD; McFarlane SI. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: role of the metabolic syndrome and its components. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(3):261–272.
Jean-Louis, Girardin; Zizi, Ferdinand; Clark, Luther T.; Brown, Clinton D.; McFarlane, Samy I.
The diagnostic value of flow-volume curves for sleep apnea was studied in 32 patients with obstructive sleep apnea, 40 simple\\u000a snorers, and 30 healthy nonsnorers. A sawtooth appearance of the flow-volume curve was seen in 22 of the sleep apnea patients\\u000a (69%), 14 of the simple snorers (35%), and 10 of the nonsnorers (33%). The ratio of midexpiratory flow (FEF
Helmuth Rauscher; Wolfgang Popp; Hartmut Zwick
Sleep apnea is a common disorder associated with obesity and related health problems. Although treat- ment of sleep apnea may relieve some autonomic symptoms, it is currently unknown whether treatment of sleep apnea is specifically associated with the resolution of orthostatism and syncope. Herein we de- scribe a 73-year-old man who had recurrent episodes of syncope. An extensive work-up, including
Floyd B. Willis; Amber L. Isley; Yonas E. Geda; Ali Shaygan; Luther Quarles; Paul A. Fredrickson
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes hypoxemia, negative intrathoracic pressure, and frequent arousal, contributing to increased cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is linked to hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. Successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment has a beneficial effect on hypertension and improves the survival rate of patients with cardiovascular disease. Thus, long-term compliance with CPAP treatment may result in substantial blood pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension suffering from OSAS. Central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration occur in 30–50% of patients with heart failure (HF). Intermittent hypoxemia, nocturnal surges in sympathetic activity, and increased left ventricular preload and afterload due to negative intrathoracic pressure all lead to impaired cardiac function and poor life prognosis. SDB-related HF has been considered the potential therapeutic target. CPAP, nocturnal O2 therapy, and adaptive servoventilation minimize the effects of sleep apnea, thereby improving cardiac function, prognosis, and quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment of SDB will yield better therapeutic outcomes for hypertension and HF.
Noda, Akiko; Miyata, Seiko; Yasuda, Yoshinari
Both obesity and sleep apnea are prevalent health conditions that frequently coaggregate. Obesity-associated inflammation may influence asthma control; the relation of sleep apnea to asthma or allergic rhinitis may be bidirectional. Both obesity and sleep apnea are associated with augmented levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, and it is biologically plausible that the proinflammatory effects of one disorder influence the expression of the other disorder. This article elucidates mechanistic associations among obesity, sleep apnea, and systemic inflammation; highlights interrelationships between these factors with cardiopulmonary disease; and identifies specific areas for future research directions.
Mehra, Reena; Redline, Susan
Prospective clinical trials addressing the role of serotonin (5-HT) in sleep apnea have indicated that the 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine is beneficial to some patients with obstructive apnea, whereas the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron seems of little value despite its efficacy in rat and dog models of sleep apnea (central and obstructive). Here, we examined the effect of these drugs in transgenic mice lacking monoamine oxidase A (Tg8), which exhibit approximately 3-fold higher rates of central sleep apnea than their wild-type counterparts (C3H), linked to their enhanced 5-HT levels. Acute ondansetron (2 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneal), acute fluoxetine (16 mg kg(-1)) and 13-day chronic fluoxetine (1 or 16 mg kg(-1)) decreased by approximately 80% the total (spontaneous and post-sigh) apnea index in Tg8 mice during non-rapid eye movement sleep, with no statistically significant effect on apnea in C3H mice. Our study shows that both drugs reduce the frequency of apneic episodes attributable to increased monoamine levels in this model of MAOA deficiency, and suggests that both may be effective in some patients with central sleep apneas. PMID:19615472
Real, C; Seif, I; Adrien, J; Escourrou, P
Study Objectives: Identify polysomnographic and demographic factors associated with elevation of nocturnal end-tidal CO2 in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Methods: Forty-four adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea were selected such that the maximal nocturnal end-tidal CO2 was below 45 mm Hg in 15 studies, between 45 and 50 mm Hg in 14, and above 50 mm Hg in 15. Measurements included mean event (i.e., apneas or hypopneas) and mean inter-event duration, ratio of mean post- to mean pre-event amplitude, and percentage of total sleep time spent at an end-tidal CO2 < 45, 45-50, and > 50 mm Hg. An integrated nocturnal CO2 was calculated as the sum of the products of average end-tidal CO2 at each time interval by percent of total sleep time spent at the corresponding time interval. Results: The integrated nocturnal CO2 was inversely correlated with mean post-apnea duration, with lesser contributions from mean apnea duration and age (R2 = 0.56), but did not correlate with the apnea-hypopnea index, or the body mass index. Mean post-event to mean pre-event amplitude correlated with mean post-apnea duration (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Mean apnea duration did not correlate with mean post-apnea duration. Conclusions: Nocturnal capnometry reflects pathophysiologic features of sleep apnea, such as the balance of apnea and post-apnea duration, which are not captured by the apnea-hypopnea index. This study expands the indications of capnometry beyond apnea detection and quantification of hypoventilation syndromes. Citation: Jaimchariyatam N; Dweik RA; Kaw R; Aboussouan LS. Polysomnographic determinants of nocturnal hypercapnia in patients with sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(3):209-215.
Jaimchariyatam, Nattapong; Dweik, Raed A.; Kaw, Roop; Aboussouan, Loutfi S.
Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases healthcare utilization and is associated with reduced work performance and\\u000a occupational injuries. The economic burden related to untreated OSA is substantial, accounting for billions of dollars per\\u000a year. Furthermore, therapy of OSA is an extremely cost-efficient use of healthcare resources, comparing highly favorably with\\u000a other commonly funded medical therapies. Governments, transportation agencies, industry, and
Nayef AlGhanim; Vikram R. Comondore; John Fleetham; Carlo A. Marra; Najib T. Ayas
Opinion statement Sleep apnea is a major public health problem that afflicts 9% of women and 24% of men 30 to 60 years of age. It is highly\\u000a treatable, but when untreated, it has been associated with (but not necessarily linked to) increased probability of cerebral\\u000a and coronary vascular disease, congestive heart failure, metabolic dysfunction, cognitive dysfunction, excessive daytime sleepiness,\\u000a motor
Vivien C. Abad; Christian Guilleminault
Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome is characterized by repeated airway collapse during sleep. The li-terature describes multiple causes of the disease. The main cause is a reduction of the expansion forces of the pharyngeal dilator muscles, as in situations of genioglossal muscle dysfunction, and discoordination between the inspiratory activity of the muscle and respiratory effort, which play an important role in progression of the disease. Other described causes are soft tissue disorders, such as macroglossia or tonsillar hypertrophy, and skeletal structural alterations such as micrognathia and retrognathia. The syndrome is also more frequent in obese people, where the accumulation of fat in the neck region produces narrowing of the pharyngeal airway, thereby diminishing the passage of air. This review focuses on the pathogenesis, epidemiology, main features and diagnosis of the disease, and on its main forms of treatment. Key words:Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, sleep apnea syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Azagra-Calero, Eva; Barrera-Mora, Jose M.; Llamas-Carreras, Jose M.; Solano-Reina, Enrique
Little is known regarding sleep architecture in children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We hypothesized that sleep architecture was normal, and that apnea increased over the course of the night, in children with OSAS. We analyzed polysom- nographic studies from 20 children with OSAS and 10 control sub- jects. Sleep architecture was similar between the groups. Of ob-
DANIEL Y. T. GOH; PATRICIA GALSTER; CAROLE L. MARCUS
Purpose Current screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) emphasizes self-reported snoring and other breathing symptoms. Nocturia,\\u000a a symptom with a precise pathophysiological link to sleep apnea, has not been assessed as a screening tool for this common\\u000a disorder of sleep respiration. In a large sample of adults presenting to area sleep centers, we aimed to determine the predictive\\u000a power of nocturia
Edward Romero; Barry Krakow; Patricia Haynes; Victor Ulibarri
Increased upper airway resistance during sleep may lead to heavy snoring and\\/or obstructive sleep apnea in infants and children.\\u000a Clinical symptoms will be seen with increased upper airway resistance during sleep, even without obstructive sleep apnea or\\u000a significant oxygen saturation drop. It may be responsible for apparent life threatening events (ALTE). Mild cranio-facial\\u000a morphometric changes are often associated with increased
Christian Guilleminault; Riccardo Stoohs
Background ApneaLink is a novel single-channel screening device for sleep apnea detection which is based on pressure-transduced measurement\\u000a of oronasal airflow, summarised as respiratory disturbance index per hour of recording time (RDIApneaLink). We tested ApneaLink's diagnostic performance in a patient population with high prevalence of sleep apnea.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods ApneaLink was applied simultaneously with in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) (n?=?102, 24 female, age 54.7 years) and
Regine Ragette; Yi Wang; Gerhard Weinreich; Helmut Teschler
This paper presents an inexpensive MEMS accelerometer-based sleep-apnea screening technique. The algorithm presented here is easy to implement on a low-end microprocessor, and also accurate enough to detect both obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea episodes. The results of some preliminary studies are included.
Christie L. Bucklin; Manohar Das; Sam L. Luo
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This treatment works by providing a pneumatic splint that prevents upper airway collapse during sleep. AutoCPAP (APAP) can provide a solution to some traditional problems. The devices monitor some or all of the following variables: flow (apnea or hypopnea), snoring (airway
Richard B. Berry; Malcolm Randall
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with executive cognitive impairment. An important question is whether impairment in executive functioning in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is independent of dysfunction in attention. Attentional control is a subcomponent of executive functioning that is mediated by frontal lobe processing. In the current study, we investigated whether attentional control is deficient in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Attentional control processes were investigated through conflict adaptation and conflict frequency paradigms. These neuropsychological paradigms were assessed by using the Simon, Flanker and Stroop tasks. We additionally analysed post-error slowing data within these tasks. Error processing is another index of cognitive control that is mediated by frontal lobe functioning. Our sample consisted of 14 healthy adults and 24 patients with untreated moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Results indicated that attentional control is partially dysfunctional among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Attentional control processes were deficient when focal attention (Flanker task) processes were involved, but were intact when observed using the Simon and Stroop tasks. A non-significant trend in post-error slowing data suggested that error processing, assessed with the Flanker task, was diminished among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. These results support the view that obstructive sleep apnea syndrome leads to some amount of frontal lobe dysfunction, and that attentional control and error processing might be particularly affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. PMID:23414228
Tulek, Baykal; Atalay, Nart Bedin; Kanat, Fikret; Suerdem, Mecit
We examined the influence of gender on the polysomnographic features of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a retrospective study of 830 patients with OSA diagnosed by overnight polysomnogra- phy (PSG). The severity of OSA was determined from the apnea- hypopnea index (AHI) for total sleep time (AHI TST ), and was clas- sified as mild (5 to 25 events\\/h), moderate
KRISTINE S. THORNLEY; PATRICK J. HANLY
The purpose of this study is: (1) to estimate the prevalence of sleep apnea among a high-risk sample of commercial drivers; (2) to examine the relationship in the high-risk sample between severity of sleep apnea and decrements in function related to drivi...
A. I. Pack D. Dinges G. Maislin
Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) in children are caused by a diverse group of anatomic and physiologic pathologies. These disorders share a common clinical presentation as stertor or sonorous breathing, occasionally accompanied by apneic events of variable duration. Successful management depends on accurate identification of the site of obstruction and the severity of obstruction. Intervention, both surgical and nonsurgical, is tailored to the disorder. In children with SRBD, such intervention may alter behavior and cognition, improve sleep and feeding, or even save a life. PMID:17606027
Darrow, David H
Twenty-six children with obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated by lateral neck radiographs during wakefulness, and by polygraphic monitoring and upper airway fluoroscopy during natural sleep. Children with craniofacial abnormalities, palatal surgery, and central nervous system disease were excluded from the study. Moderate or marked enlargement of tonsils and adenoids was noted on lateral neck radiographs of 18 of 26 patients.
Sandra Kreplick Fernbach; R. T. Brouillette; T. W. Riggs; C. E. Hunt
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is common and its prevalence is expected to increase with the current obesity epidemic. If left untreated, it is associated with important morbidity such as growth failure, neurocognitive impairment, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, and endothelial dysfunction. Recent research has shown that many children, especially the obese or those with other underlying medical conditions, have residual obstructive sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy (the primary treatment for childhood obstructive sleep apnea). These children could be effectively treated with continuous positive airway pressure but poor adherence is a significant limitation of this therapy. Therefore, new treatment modalities for the pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are needed. Current research has focused on newer therapies for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, such as anti-inflammatories, dental treatments, high-flow nasal cannula, and weight loss. However, there are few randomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of these therapies. Further research is warranted. PMID:23931720
Tapia, Ignacio E; Marcus, Carole L
Study Objectives: In children, most obstructive events occur during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We hypothesized that children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), in contrast to age-matched control subjects, would not maintain airflow in the face of an upper airway inspiratory pressure drop during REM sleep. Design: During slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep, we measured airflow, inspiratory time, inspiratory time/total respiratory cycle time, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation at a holding pressure at which flow limitation occurred and at 5 cm H2O below the holding pressure in children with OSAS and in control subjects. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen children with OSAS and 23 normal control subjects. Results: In both sleep states, control subjects were able to maintain airflow, whereas subjects with OSAS preserved airflow in SWS but had a significant decrease in airflow during REM sleep (change in airflow of 18.58 ± 12.41 mL/s for control subjects vs ?44.33 ± 14.09 mL/s for children with OSAS, P = 0.002). Although tidal volume decreased, patients with OSAS were able to maintain minute ventilation by increasing the respiratory rate and also had an increase in inspiratory time and inspiratory time per total respiratory cycle time Conclusion: Children with OSAS do not maintain airflow in the face of upper-airway inspiratory-pressure drops during REM sleep, indicating a more collapsible upper airway, compared with that of control subjects during REM sleep. However, compensatory mechanisms exist to maintain minute ventilation. Local reflexes, central control mechanisms, or both reflexes and control mechanisms need to be further explored to better understand the pathophysiology of this abnormality and the compensation mechanism. Citation: Huang J; Karamessinis LR; Pepe ME; Glinka SM; Samuel JM; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Upper airway collapsibility during REM sleep in children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2009;32(9):1173-1181.
Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie R.; Pepe, Michelle E.; Glinka, Stephen M.; Samuel, John M.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.
To examine the roles of obstructive apnea (OA) and central apnea (CA) in oxygen desaturation on hypertension and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), we performed a sleep study on 41 elderly subjects (mean age 69.5 +/- 6.8 years, male:female = 31:10). Nocturnal oxygen desaturation was documented with a pulse oximeter and apneas (OA and CA) were diagnosed on the basis of results of respiratory inductive plethysmography and oronasal flow. Significant desaturation (SDS, greater than 5% drop in SpO2 from baseline value) and desaturation index (DI; epsilon SDS (%) x duration (hour)) were calculated using the continuous nocturnal monitoring system with a pulse oximeter. We defined central type apnea above 50% as the central type group (n = 8, mean age 58.6 +/- 2.9, mean BMI 21.3 +/- 1.0, male:female = 7:1), and obstructive type and mixed type apnea above 50% as the obstructive type group (n = 21, mean age 70.0 +/- 3.2, mean BMI 25.3 +/- 1.0, male:female = 17:4). Other subjects were assigned to the control group (n = 12, mean age 64.3 +/- 2.3, mean BMI 23.8 +/- 1.2, male:female = 7:5). The DI (delta 5%) of the central type was 0.34 +/- 0.17, and that of the obstructive type was 1.78 +/- 0.7 showing a significant increase in the latter compared to the control group (p < 0.02). The DI (< 90%) of the central type was 0.14 +/- 0.07, and that of the obstructive type was 1.72 +/- 0.75, and that of the obstructive type was significantly greater than in the control group (p < 0.05) and central type (p < 0.05). There were 4 cases (33.3%) with hypertension in the control group and 4 cases (50.0%) with hypertension in the central type group, but there were 15 cases (71.4%) with hypertension in the obstructive type group. Hypertensive prevalence in the obstructive group was significantly more than in the control group (p < 0.05). No significant difference in body mass index or age were seen in the obstructive group and control group. There was a significant correlation between mean blood pressure and apnea index (AI). The AI of the hypertensive group was significantly higher than that of the normotensive group (p < 0.001). These results suggest that subjects with significant obstructive apneas may be at greater risk for hypertension than subjects with central apneas and that hypertension in the pathogenesis of SAS may be related to the severity of apneas rather than oxyhemoglobin desaturation. PMID:10936927
Sudo, E; Ohga, E; Teramoto, S; Matsuse, T; Nagase, T; Toba, K; Fukuchi, Y; Ouchi, Y
Objective: Observations of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) show a restless sleep. But there is no significant disturbance of sleep macrostructure as in adult OSAS patients. It will be proved, whether the analysis of arousals permits a comprehensive characterization of this respiratory related sleep disturbance. Considering the problems in EEG-arousals detection in dependence of age and maturation we
S. Scholle; G. Zwacka
Chiari I malformation is characterized by downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Scant data are available on the clinical course, relationship to the extent of herniation on magnetic resonance imaging in Chiari I malformation and the presence of sleep-disordered breathing on polysomnography. Retrospective analysis was performed looking at polysomnographic findings of children diagnosed with Chiari I malformation. Details on how Chiari I malformation was diagnosed, brainstem magnetic resonance imaging findings, and indications for obtaining the polysomnogram in these patients were reviewed. We also reviewed available data on children who had decompression surgery followed by postoperative polysomnography findings. Twenty-two children were identified in our study (11 males, median age 10 years, range 1 to 18). Three had central sleep apnea, five had obstructive sleep apnea, and one had both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Children with sleep-disordered breathing had excessive crowding of the brainstem structures at the foramen magnum and were more likely to have a greater length of herniation compared with those children without sleep-disordered breathing (P = 0.046). Patients with central sleep apneas received surgical decompression, and their conditions were significantly improved on follow-up polysomnography. These data suggest that imaging parameters may correlate with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with Chiari I malformation. PMID:23498564
Khatwa, Umakanth; Ramgopal, Sriram; Mylavarapu, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Smith, Edward; Proctor, Mark; Scott, Michael; Pai, Vidya; Zarowski, Marcin; Kothare, Sanjeev V
The global epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and its immediate as well as long-term consequences for obese individuals and society as a whole cannot be overemphasized. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and clinically significant consequences affecting the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, obesity is additionally complicated by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in up to 60% of obese children. OSA, which is diagnosed using the gold standard polysomnogram (PSG), is characterised by snoring, recurrent partial (hypopneas) or complete (apneas) obstruction of the upper airway. OSA is frequently associated with intermittent oxyhemoglobin desaturations, sleep disruption, and sleep fragmentation. There is emerging data that OSA is associated with cardiovascular burden including systemic hypertension, changes in ventricular structure and function, arterial stiffness, and metabolic syndromes. Thus, OSA in the context of obesity may independently or synergistically magnify the underlying cardiovascular and metabolic burden. This is of importance as early recognition and treatment of OSA in obese children are likely to result in the reduction of cardiometabolic burden in obese children. This paper summarizes the current state of understanding of obesity-related OSA. Specifically, this paper will discuss epidemiology, pathophysiology, cardiometabolic burden, and management of obese children and adolescents with OSA.
Narang, Indra; Mathew, Joseph L.
There are two key problems in applying Doppler radar to a diagnosis system for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. The first is noise associated with body movement and the second is the body position in bed and the change of the sleeping posture. We propose a new automatic gain control and a real-time radar-output channel selection method which is based on a spectrum shape analysis. There are three types of sleep apnea: central sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea and mixed sleep apnea. In this paper we paid attention to the obstructive sleep apnea and attempted to detect the disorder of corrugated shape compared with usual breathing or the paradoxical movement of the reversed phase with chest and abdominal radar signals. A prototype of the system was set up at a sleep disorder center in a hospital and field tests were carried out with eight subjects. Despite the subjects engaging in frequent body movements while sleeping, the system was quite effective in the diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (r=0.98). PMID:23920557
Kagawa, Masayuki; Ueki, Katsuhiko; Kurita, Akira; Tojima, Hirokazu; Matsui, Takemi
Background: Sleep apnea is associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus. However, no studies have compared sleep apnea symptoms in diabetic patients and their first degree relatives. The purpose of our study was to investigate high risk for sleep apnea syndrome, in diabetics and their first degree relatives for prevention of diabetes in family. Methods: As a part of a cohort study, all of diabetic and their first degree relatives who came for glucose control in diabetes clinic were invited to take part in the survey. Two thousand, four hundred and sixty-two individuals (82% of invited) agreed to fill out the Berlin and Epworth sleep questionnaire. Participants consisted of 2462 subjects of 15–70 years of age, both males and females with diabetes and family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 1234 participants had diabetes and 11,231 were relatives of diabetic patients. High risk for sleep apnea regarding Berlin questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale, diabetic and relative were analyzed. Results: Prevalences of high risk for sleep apnea were higher among diabetics than relatives (P-value<0.001). In a multiple regression analysis, “age, body mass index, education, high blood pressure” were risk factor for sleep apnea symptoms while isolated blood glucose level was not by Berlin questionnaire. By Epworth sleep scale only education level was a risk factor for sleep apnea symptoms while isolated blood glucose level was not risk factor. Conclusions: Sleep apnea symptoms may not have significant difference between diabetics and their relatives. We need more study on sleep apnea in the family of diabetic patients. We hope that more studies on mentioned field may help prevention of diabetes in their family.
Amra, Babak; Bahaee, Farideh Sheikh; Amini, Masoud; Golshan, Mohammad; Fietze, Ingo; Penzel, Thomas
Resistant hypertension is common among adults with hypertension affecting up to 30% of patients. The treatment of resistant hypertension is important because suboptimal blood pressure control is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. A frequent comorbid condition in patients with resistant hypertension is obstructive sleep apnea. The pathophysiology of sleep apnea-associated hypertension is characterized by sustained adrenergic activation and volume retention often posing treatment challenges in patients with resistant hypertension. This review will address some of the epidemiologic data associating apnea with the pathogenesis of resistant hypertension. Diagnosis and management of apnea and its associated hypertension will also be considered. PMID:21104207
Williams, Stephen K; Ravenell, Joseph; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Zizi, Ferdinand; Underberg, James A; McFarlane, Samy I; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
Synopsis Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder of pre-menopausal women, is characterized by chronic hyperandrogenism, oligoanovulation, obesity and insulin resistance. Importantly, PCOS women are at increased risk for glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Recent reports indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in PCOS. Alterations in sex steroids (i.e. high androgen and low estrogen levels) and increased visceral adiposity in PCOS could potentially contribute to the increased prevalence of OSA in this disorder. There is some evidence to suggest that there may be strong associations between the presence and severity of OSA and the metabolic disturbances that characterize PCOS. Causal mechanisms in the link between PCOS and OSA remain to be elucidated. Clinicians who manage PCOS patients should be aware of the high prevalence of OSA in these patients and systematically evaluate these women for sleep disturbances.
Tasali, Esra; Van Cauter, Eve; Ehrmann, David A.
Objective To determine whether obstructive sleep apnea mediates the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosomatic and somatic disorders and its implications for self-rated health (SRH) among Iraqi immigrants in the United States. Methods A random sample of immigrants who had left Iraq before the 1991 Gulf War (n = 145) or after (n = 205) and are residing in metropolitan Detroit responded to a structured interview covering questions on sociodemographics, premigration trauma, SRH, physician-diagnosed and -treated obstructive sleep apnea, somatic disorders, and psychosomatic disorders. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between premigration trauma scores and health, as well as to explore mediating pathways between PTSD, obstructive sleep apnea, and health. Results The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among post-Gulf War immigrants (30.2%) was significantly higher than among pre-Gulf War immigrants (0.7%; p < .001). Premigration trauma scores were positively associated with depression and PTSD. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which obstructive sleep apnea mediated the relationship between PTSD and psychosomatic and somatic disorders. Premigration trauma also related directly to SRH. Conclusions Part of the PTSD-associated adverse health effects observed in Iraqi immigrants is mediated by obstructive sleep apnea. Because sleep apnea in the current study is based on medical history and current treatment, there is a need for future confirmatory polysomnographic studies.
Arnetz, Bengt B.; Templin, Thomas; Saudi, Waleed; Jamil, Hikmet
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) present upper airway obstruction during sleep which can be documented by electromyography. The cause of weakness in oropharyngeal muscles is still unknown. Lesions of pons and medulla oblongata have to be expected. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) may indicate pathological changes in these regions. Several studies described normal BAEP in OSAS-patients. Moderate forms of OSAS as well as central sleep apnea syndromes were investigated, however. In our study 20 patients (17 men, 3 women, mean age 53.9 +/- 2.1 ys) with severe OSAS (apnea/hypopnea-index: 34.2 +/- 14.1/h, part of O2-saturation < or = 90% during sleep (SaO2 < or = 90%): 13.5 +/- 4.2%, minimal nocturnal O2-saturation: 78.0 +/- 2.5%) before starting nCPAP-therapy were investigated. BAEP were elicited after applying clicks 70 dB above threshold to each ear. Means of single wave latencies as well as interpeak latencies (I-V, I-III, III-V) were delayed significantly compared to normal controls. Main prolongations were seen regarding wave latency I (p < or = 0.001) and-interpeak latency I-V (p < or = 0.001). Prolongation of interpeak latencies (mean +/- 2.5 SD) of one or two sides could be demonstrated in 12 out of 20 patients. Pontomesencephal lesions (9 patients) dominated. There was no connection with respiratory parameters. As against pathological BAEP changes correlated with the duration of the disease. In conclusion pathological BAEP indicating brainstem lesions were seen in 60% of the examined OSAS-patients. Mesencephal lesions dominated, number of lesions increased with duration of disease. Therefore pathological findings have not to be considered as cause but as a result of hypoxemia in OSAS. Pathological BAEP may reveal a higher risk for cerebrovascular stroke. Therefore these patients should be leaded to further cerebrovascular investigation. PMID:9091889
Kotterba, S; Rasche, K
BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnea is underdiagnosed. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of an online intervention to promote obstructive sleep apnea screening among members of an Internet weight-loss community. METHODS Members of an Internet weight-loss community who have never been diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea or discussed the condition with their healthcare provider were randomized to intervention (online risk assessment +feedback) or control. The primary outcome was discussing obstructive sleep apnea with a healthcare provider at 12 weeks. RESULTS Of 4700 members who were sent e-mail study announcements, 168 (97% were female, age 39.5 years [standard deviation 11.7], body mass index 30.3 [standard deviation 7.8]) were randomized to intervention (n = 84) or control (n = 84). Of 82 intervention subjects who completed the risk assessment, 50 (61%) were low risk and 32 (39%) were high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Intervention subjects were more likely than control subjects to discuss obstructive sleep apnea with their healthcare provider within 12 weeks (11% [9/84] vs 2% [2/84]; P = .02; relative risk = 4.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.002–20.21). The number needed to treat was 12. High-risk intervention subjects were more likely than control subjects to discuss obstructive sleep apnea with their healthcare provider (19% [6/32] vs 2% [2/84]; P = .004; relative risk = 7.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.68–37.02). One high-risk intervention subject started treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSION An online screening intervention is feasible and likely effective in encouraging members of an Internet weight-loss community to discuss obstructive sleep apnea with their healthcare provider.
Hwang, Kevin O.; Hamadah, Abdurrahman M.; Johnson, Craig W.; Thomas, Eric J.; Goodrick, G. Ken; Bernstam, Elmer V.
Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate markers of systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in subjects with and without OSAS in order to investigate the most important factors that determine the oxidant–antioxidant status. Methods A total of 66 subjects referred to our Sleep laboratory were examined by full polysomnography. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity were assessed by measurement of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant capacity (BAP) in blood samples taken in the morning after the sleep study. Known risk factors for oxidative stress, such as age, sex, obesity, smoking, hypelipidemia, and hypertension, were investigated as possible confounding factors. Results 42 patients with OSAS (Apnea-Hypopnea index >15 events/hour) were compared with 24 controls (AHI<5). The levels of d-ROMS were significantly higher (p?=?0.005) in the control group but the levels of antioxidant capacity were significantly lower (p?=?0.004) in OSAS patients. The most important factors predicting the variance of oxidative stress were obesity, smoking habit, and sex. Parameters of sleep apnea severity were not associated with oxidative stress. Minimal oxygen desaturation and smoking habit were the most important predicting factors of BAP levels. Conclusion Obesity, smoking, and sex are the most important determinants of oxidative stress in OSAS subjects. Sleep apnea might enhance oxidative stress by the reduction of antioxidant capacity of blood due to nocturnal hypoxia.
Simiakakis, M.; Kapsimalis, F.; Chaligiannis, E.; Loukides, S.; Sitaras, N.; Alchanatis, M.
Enhanced target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity represent common issues observed in both resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea. Common pathophysiological features and risk factors justify their coexistence, especially in individuals with increased upper-body adiposity. Impaired sodium handling, sympathetic activation, accelerated arterial stiffening, and impaired cardiorenal hemodynamics contribute to drug-resistant hypertension development in obstructive sleep apnea. Effective CPAP therapy qualifies as an effective "add-on" to the underlying antihypertensive pharmacological therapy, and emerging evidence underlines the favorable effect of mineralocorticoid antagonists on both resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea treatment. PMID:21274434
Thomopoulos, Costas; Michalopoulou, Helena; Kasiakogias, Alexandros; Kefala, Anna; Makris, Thomas
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which includes obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as its most extreme variant, is characterized by intermittent episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, leading to cessation of breathing while asleep. Cardiac arrhythmias are common problems in OSA patients, although the true prevalence and clinical relevance of cardiac arrhythmias remains to be determined. The presence and complexity of tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias may influence morbidity, mortality and quality of life for patients with OSA. Although the exact mechanisms underlying the link between OSA and cardiac arrhythmias are not well established, they could be some of the same proposed mechanisms relating OSA to different cardiovascular diseases, such as repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to markedly reduced or absent airflow, followed by oxyhemoglobin desaturation, persistent inspiratory efforts against an occluded airway and termination by arousal from sleep. These mechanisms elicit a variety of autonomic, hemodynamic, humoral and neuroendocrine responses that evoke acute and chronic changes in cardiovascular function. However, despite substantial research effort, the goals of determining in advance which patients will respond most favorably to certain treatment options (such as continuous positive airway pressure, tracheostomy or cardioversion) and the developing alternative treatments remain largely elusive. Therefore, this literature review aims to summarize a broad array of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between OSA and cardiac arrhythmias and the extent of this association from an epidemiological perspective, thereby attempting to assess the effects of OSA treatment on the presence of cardiac arrhythmias.
Hersi, Ahmad Salah
Sleep apnea is characterized by frequent prolonged interruptions of breathing during sleep. This syndrome causes severe sleep disorders and is often responsible for development of other diseases such as heart problems, high blood pressure and daytime fatigue, etc. After diagnosis, sleep apnea is often successfully treated by applying positive air pressure (CPAP) to the mouth and nose. Although effective, the (CPAP) equipment takes up a lot of space and the connected mask causes a lot of inconvenience for the patients. This raised interest in developing new techniques for treatment of sleep apnea syndrome. Several studies indicated that electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve and muscle in the tongue may be a useful method for treating patients with severe sleep apnea. In order to be able to successfully prevent the occurrence of apnea it is necessary to have some technique for early and fast on-line detection or prediction of the apnea events. This paper suggests using measurements of respiratory airflow (mouth temperature). The signal processing for this task includes the use of a window short-FFT technique and uses an artificial back propagation neural net to model or predict the occurrence of apneas. The results show that early detection of respiratory interruption is possible and that the delay time for this is small.
Waldemark, Karina E.; Agehed, Kenneth I.; Lindblad, Thomas
The role of chemical control instability in the pathogenesis of ob- structive sleep apnea (OSA) is not clear. We studied 32 patients with OSA during sleep while their upper airway was stabilized with continuous positive airway pressure. Twelve patients had repeti- tive OSA whenever they were asleep, regardless of body position or sleep stage, and were classified as having severe
MAGDY YOUNES; MICHELE OSTROWSKI; WAYNE THOMPSON; COLLEEN LESLIE; WARREN SHEWCHUK
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent sleep disorder, characterized by repeated disruptions of breathing during sleep. This disease has many potential consequences including excessive daytime sleepiness, neurocognitive deterioration, endocrinologic and metabolic effects and decreased quality of life. Patients with OSAS experience repetitive episodes of hypoxia and reoxygenation during transient cessation of breathing that provoke systemic effects. Furthermore,
Carlos Zamarron; Felix del Campo Matias; Carlos J. Egea
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea is frequent during the acute phase of stroke, and it is associated with poorer outcomes. A well-established relationship between supine sleep and obstructive sleep apnea severity exists in non-stroke patients. This study investigated the frequency of supine sleep and positional obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: Patients who suffered their first acute stroke, either ischemic or hemorrhagic, were subjected to a full polysomnography, including the continuous monitoring of sleep positions, during the first night after symptom onset. Obstructive sleep apnea severity was measured using the apnea-hypopnea index, and the NIHSS measured stroke severity. RESULTS: We prospectively studied 66 stroke patients. The mean age was 57.6±11.5 years, and the mean body mass index was 26.5±4.9. Obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ?5) was present in 78.8% of patients, and the mean apnea-hypopnea index was 29.7±26.6. The majority of subjects (66.7%) spent the entire sleep time in a supine position, and positional obstructive sleep apnea was clearly present in the other 23.1% of cases. A positive correlation was observed between the NIHSS and sleep time in the supine position (rs?=?0.5; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged supine positioning during sleep was highly frequent after stroke, and it was related to stroke severity. Positional sleep apnea was observed in one quarter of stroke patients, which was likely underestimated during the acute phase of stroke. The adequate positioning of patients during sleep during the acute phase of stroke may decrease obstructive respiratory events, regardless of the stroke subtype.
Camilo, Millene R.; Fernandes, Regina M. F.; Sander, Heidi H.; Nobre, Fernando; Santos-Pontelli, Taiza; dos Santos, Antonio C.; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Leite, Joao P.; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M.
This study describes a simple method, based on a movable catheter technique, for use during routine polysomnography to identify the site of obstruction, and this has been applied to 51 patients with suspected sleep apnea. The obstruction was found to be retropalatal in 30, retrolingual in 7, and could not be determined in 14 patients (12 had no sleep apnea, 1 did not sleep, and 1 had central sleep apnea). Twelve of these patients had uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with preoperative and postoperative polysomnograms to determine the site of obstruction. The preoperative obstruction was retropalatal in nine and retrolingual in three. Postoperatively, four patients (one with retrolingual obstruction and three with retropalatal obstruction) no longer had sleep apnea. In the remaining eight patients, the site of obstruction was unchanged from the preoperative one. Several conclusions result: 1. the movable catheter technique offers a simple way to determine the site of obstruction in patients with significant obstructive sleep apnea, 2. most such patients obstruct in the retropalatal region, and 3. preoperative localization of the site of obstruction to the retropalatal region does not seem to improve the surgical outcome of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. PMID:1921639
Metes, A; Hoffstein, V; Mateika, S; Cole, P; Haight, J S
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A body of epidemiologic and clinical evidence dating back to the early 1960s establishes the relationships between sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, the most common type of sleep-disordered breathing, are at increased risk for coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and stroke. Evidence that treatment of sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure reduces blood pressure, improves left ventricular systolic function, and diminishes platelet activation further supports linkage between obstructive sleep apnea and CVD. Notwithstanding, complex associations between these two conditions remain largely unexplained due to dearth of systematic experimental studies. Arguably, several intermediary mechanisms including sustained sympathetic activation, intrathoracic pressure changes, and oxidative stress might be involved. Other abnormalities such as dysfunctions in coagulation factors, endothelial damage, platelet activation, and increased systemic inflammation might also play a fundamental role. This review examines evidence for the associations between obstructive sleep apnea and CVD and suggested underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. Specific issues pertaining to definition, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep apnea are also discussed. Consistent with rising interest in the potential role of the metabolic syndrome, this review explores the hypothesized mediating effects of each of the components of the metabolic syndrome.
JEAN-LOUIS, G; ZIZI, F; BROWN, DB; OGEDEGBE, G; BORER, JS; McFARLANE, SI
BACKGROUND: The definition of complex sleep apnea (CompSAS) encompasses patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who develop central apnea activity upon restitution of airway patency. Presence of arterial hypertension (HTN), coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF) have been proposed as risk factors for CompSAS among OSA patients. Using our database of patients with CompSAS, we examined the prevalence of these risk factors and defined other clinical characteristics of patients with CompSAS. METHODS: Through retrospective search of the database, we examined the medical and clinical characteristics of consecutive patients diagnosed with CompSAS between 11/1/2006 and 6/30/2011 at NorthShore University HealthSystem. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients with CompSAS were identified. Among patients included in the study, 97 (64.7 %) had at least one risk factor for CompSAS, while 53 (35.3 %) did not have any of them. Prevalence of low left ventricular ejection fraction and hypocapnia were low. Therapeutic interventions consisted of several positive airway pressure therapies, mainly adaptive servo ventilation. A hundred and ten patients (73.3 %) complied with recommended therapy and improved clinically. CONCLUSIONS: Although most patients with CompSAS have cardiac comorbidities, about one third of patients do not have any risk factors of CompSAS prior to sleep testing. Further research on factors involved in development of CompSAS will allow for better tailoring of therapy to pathophysiology involved in an individual case. PMID:23436008
Ku?niar, Tomasz J; Kasibowska-Ku?niar, Kamilla; Ray, Daniel W; Freedom, Thomas
Press release covers study that finds obstructive sleep apnea decreases blood flow to the brain, elevates blood pressure within the brain and eventually harms the brainÃÂs ability to modulate these changes and prevent damage to itself.
APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder particularly among middle-aged, obese men, although its existence in women as well as in lean individuals is increasingly recognized. Despite the early recognition of the strong association between OSA and obesity, and OSA and cardiovascular problems, sleep apnea has been treated as a 'local abnormality' of the respiratory track rather than as a 'systemic illness.' In 1997, we first reported that the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) were elevated in patients with disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and proposed that these cytokines were mediators of daytime sleepiness. Also, we reported a positive correlation between IL-6 or TNFalpha plasma levels and the body-mass-index (BMI). In subsequent studies, we showed that IL-6, TNFalpha, and insulin levels were elevated in sleep apnea independently of obesity and that visceral fat, was the primary parameter linked with sleep apnea. Furthermore, our findings that women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (a condition associated with hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance) were much more likely than controls to have sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and daytime sleepiness, suggests a pathogenetic role of insulin resistance in OSA. Other findings that support the view that sleep apnea and sleepiness in obese patients may be manifestations of the Metabolic Syndrome, include: obesity without sleep apnea is associated with daytime sleepiness; PCOS and diabetes type 2 are independently associated with EDS after controlling for SDB, obesity, and age; increased prevalence of sleep apnea in post-menopausal women, with hormonal replacement therapy associated with a significantly reduced risk for OSA; lack of effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in obese patients with apnea on hypercytokinemia and insulin resistance indices; and that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) parallels the prevalence of symptomatic sleep apnea in general random samples. Finally, the beneficial effect of a cytokine antagonist on EDS in obese, male apneics and that of exercise on SDB in a general random sample, supports the hypothesis that cytokines and insulin resistance are mediators of EDS and sleep apnea in humans. In conclusion, accumulating evidence provides support to our model of the bi-directional, feed forward, pernicious association between sleep apnea, sleepiness, inflammation, and insulin resistance, all promoting atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:15893251
Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Bixler, Edward O; Chrousos, George P
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder of repetitive sleep disruption caused by reduced or blocked respiratory airflow. Although an anatomically compromised airway accounts for the major predisposition to OSA, a patient's arousal threshold and factors related to the central control of breathing (ventilatory control stability) are also important. Arousal from sleep (defined by EEG desynchronization) may be the only mechanism that allows airway re-opening following an obstructive event. However, in many cases arousal is unnecessary and even worsens the severity of OSA. Mechanisms for arousal are poorly understood. However, accumulating data are elucidating the relevant neural pathways and neurotransmitters. For example, serotonin is critically required, but its site of action is unknown. Important neural substrates for arousal have been recently identified in the parabrachial complex (PB), a visceral sensory nucleus in the rostral pons. Moreover, glutamatergic signaling from the PB contributes to arousal caused by hypercapnia, one of the arousal-promoting stimuli in OSA. A major current focus of OSA research is to find means to maintain airway patency during sleep, without sleep interruption. PMID:23810448
Chamberlin, Nancy L
Compared to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), maxillo-facial surgery is rarely performed in Canada for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. However, in patients with retrolingual obstruction, UPPP cannot be expected to result in good surgical outcome. We describe a patient with retrognathia causing airway obstruction at the base of the tongue, in whom sagittal mandibular osteotomy with hyoid bone advancement resulted in resolution of snoring and sleep apnea. PMID:1960789
Metes, A; Direnfeld, V; Haight, J S; Hoffstein, V
Treatment of sleep apnea can improve liver enzyme abnormalities in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However,\\u000a the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy for sleep apnea on liver fat accumulation was not assessed. Liver\\u000a biopsy is the “gold standard” for determining and quantifying liver fat accumulation; however, obtaining two separate liver\\u000a biopsies is challenging. We examined, using a
Isaac Shpirer; Laurian Copel; Efrat Broide; Arnon Elizur
There are a number of recent studies evaluating sleep disordered breathing and its treatment in the context of blood pressure control. In addition, total sleep time and subjective sleep complaints may also be related to hypertension; these will be reviewed. Recent findings in original articles document that sleep disordered breathing and decreased total sleep time, if chronic, may contribute to an increased risk for development of hypertension. Treatment of sleep apnea with either continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or oral devices are reasonable treatment approaches for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but the data on the effect on blood pressure remain unclear. In summary, treatment of sleep disordered breathing may help reduce blood pressure or decrease development of incident hypertension. PMID:24101162
Guralnick, Amy S
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are very prevalent diseases in modern society. Recent years have seen the emergence of a wide body of literature suggesting an important association between these two diseases. This review will provide a summary of this evidence as it currently exists. First, it will review the literature suggesting an association between AF and OSA by highlighting the prevalence of AF in OSA, the correlation of AF prevalence with OSA severity and the trend towards increased AF recurrence in patients with OSA after treatment for AF. Second, it will identify the possible pathophysiologic mechanisms for this association. In doing so, it will discuss the investigated effects of intrathoracic pressure changes, autonomic instability and atrial remodeling. Finally, it will review the evidence of the effect of treatment of OSA on AF, highlighting the role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the treatment of OSA and its impact on AF prevalence and recurrence.
Digby, Genevieve C; Baranchuk, Adrian
Objectives: to describe the frequency of sleep apnea in patients with acromegaly;to identify the proportion of candidates for treatment with positive airway pressure;to report our experience with the positive pressure titration process in acromegaly patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study that included the acromegaly cohort at the Centro Medico Nacional “20 de Noviembre” in Mexico City (n=44). A standard polysomnography (PSG) was carried out for each patient. A second PSG was done for purposes of CPAP titration. Results: A total of 35 patients were studied (80% of the cohort, 20 [57%] women). Polysomnography results showed that 34 subjects (97%, 95%CI 91-100%) had apnea hypopnea indexes (AHI) ? 5. No patient had central apnea. We identified 19 subjects with AHI ?5 and Epworth ?10, for a frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome of 54% (95%CI 36-71%). A total of 31 patients (88%; 95%CI 77-99%) were deemed to be candidates for positive pressure treatment, but only 8 of them accepted CPAP. They required pressures that ranged from 10 to 18 cmH2O. Conclusions: Our results confirm a high prevalence of sleep apnea in patients with acromegaly, and provide evidence that the majority of those patients are candidates for treatment with positive pressure. Contrary to what has been reported, we identified no patients with central apnea.
Hernandez-Gordillo, Daniel; Ortega-Gomez, Maria del Rocio; Galicia-Polo, Lourdes; Castorena-Maldonado, Armando; Vergara-Lopez, Alma; Guillen-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis
Objectives: Few minority patients with sleep apnea have been evaluated or treated. This study ascertained adherence rate to referrals for sleep apnea evaluation by primary care physicians in a community-based sample of black patients; it also examined baseline characteristics likely to influence adherence rates. Methods: A retrospective chart audit was conducted at a hospital-based sleep clinic. Scrutiny was limited to male and female patients between the ages of 20 and 80 years. Data obtained for this analysis included baseline characteristics from a detailed sleep history and/or screening questionnaires and polysomnographic parameters. Results: Of the 421 patients referred by their private care physicians, 38% (n = 160) adhered to the recommendation for a sleep consultation, but all who showed up for their appointment underwent polysomnographic studies. Logistic regression analyses showed that obesity and daytime sleepiness were the most important factors predicting adherence, with multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of 2.69 [95% CI: 1.54–4.71, p < 0.001] and 6.98 [95% CI: 3.86–12.64, p < 0.001], respectively. Of the patients who underwent a polysomnographic sleep evaluation, 91% received a sleep apnea diagnosis and were treated. Conclusions: Black patients may be underutilizing available sleep services, but direct comparisons with other ethnic groups could not be made because of insufficient archival data. While the present study does not identify specific barriers to accessing services for sleep problems, it indicates that blacks who are obese and/or are experiencing daytime sleepiness are likely to adhere to recommendations of their physician. Targeted culturally congruent educational interventions to increase awareness of sleep apnea in black communities might help to increase adherence rate. Citation: Jean-Louis G; von Gizycki H; Zizi F; Dharawat A; Lazar JM; Brown CD. Evaluation of sleep apnea in a sample of black patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(5):421–425.
Jean-Louis, Girardin; von Gizycki, Hans; Zizi, Ferdinand; Dharawat, Amita; Lazar, Jason M.; Brown, Clinton D.
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome surgery studies largely evaluate single procedures or procedure combinations in case series designs, but it can be difficult to compare results across studies. The authors present a standardized format for presentation of surgical study results to facilitate pooled analyses and subgroup analyses. The format includes thorough characterization of baseline subject characteristics and the use of outcome measures that reflect the spectrum of obstructive sleep apnea and its consequences. As the apnea-hypopnea index is the most common, albeit controversial, primary outcome measure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome surgery studies, the authors propose analysis and reporting standards to facilitate understanding its role as an outcome measure. Because surgical outcomes vary according to subject characteristics, investigators should also evaluate the potential association between baseline subject characteristics and outcomes. PMID:21493223
Kezirian, Eric J; Weaver, Edward M; Criswell, Mark A; de Vries, Nico; Woodson, B Tucker; Piccirillo, Jay F
Goal Sleep apnea affects over half of acute ischemic stroke patients and is associated with poor stroke outcomes. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of a randomized, sham-controlled continuous positive airway pressure trial in acute ischemic stroke patients. Methods Subjects identified to have sleep apnea based on an apnea-hypopnea index ? 5 on overnight polysomnography or portable respiratory monitoring within 7 days of stroke symptom onset were randomized to receive active or sham continuous positive airway pressure for 3 months. Objective usage was ascertained by compliance data cards. Subjects, treating physicians, and outcome assessors were masked to intervention allocation. Findings Among 87 consented subjects, 74 were able to complete sleep apnea screening, 54 (73%) of whom had sleep apnea; 32 agreed to randomization. Of the 15 who commenced active titration, 11 (73%) took the device home, and 8 (53%) completed the 3 month follow-up. Of the 17 subjects who commenced sham titration, 11 (65%) took the sham device home and completed the 3 month follow-up. The median cumulative usage hours over the 90 days were similar in the active group (53 hours (IQR: 22, 173)) and the sham group (74 hours (17, 94)) and blinding to condition was successfully maintained. Conclusion This first-ever, randomized, sham-controlled trial of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with recent stroke and sleep apnea showed that sham treatment can be an effective placebo.
Brown, Devin L.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Kalbfleisch, John D.; Zupancic, Michael J.; Migda, Erin M.; Svatikova, Anna; Concannon, Maryann; Martin, Cory; Weatherwax, Kevin J.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.
Auditory brainstem response (ABR) has been used by several investigators to study the role of the brain stem in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These studies have produced conflicting results. We studied 27 preoperative OSA patients and 17 controls using click stimuli presented at a slow (11.7/second) rate and at a fast (57.7/second) rate. ABR was repeated postoperatively in 18 patients. There were no statistically significant differences in the ABRs of preoperative OSA patients when compared with the control group. However, the preoperative recordings showed statistically significant prolonged latencies for wave III (p less than 0.01) and interpeak latency (IPL) I-III (p less than 0.01) when compared to postoperative recordings. Rapid-rate testing was not helpful. Although normal sleep does not cause ABR abnormalities, the pathological sleepiness seen in OSA patients may cause brainstem dysfunction manifested by prolonged ABR latencies. These abnormalities may resolve with treatment of OSA. PMID:3362011
Wetmore, S J; Henderson, C; Doshier, N W; Milligan, L B
Rationale: Sleep apnea is believed to be a genetic disorder. Thus, we hypothesized that anatomic risk factors for sleep apnea would demonstrate family aggregation. Objectives: We used volumetric magnetic resonance imaging in a sib pair \\
Richard J. Schwab; Michael Pasirstein; Laura Kaplan; Robert Pierson; Adonna Mackley; Robert Hachadoorian; Raanan Arens; Greg Maislin; Allan I. Pack
Sleep Apnea is a relatively common disorder that can affect all ages. The condition is characterized by periods of disturbed airflow patterns during sleep time, namely reduced airflow (hypopnea) or airflow cessation (apnea). It is postulated that both typ...
J. Lau T. A. Trikalinos
Study Objectives: Children with obstructive sleep apnea have blunted baroreflex sensitivity and increased blood pressure variability. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that treatment of sleep apnea by adenotonsillectomy results in significant improvement of baroreflex sensitivity, lowering of blood pressure and blood pressure variability and increase vagal heart rate modulation. Study Design: One hundred ninety-four children aged 9.6 ± 2.3 years were enrolled; 133 had obstructive sleep apnea and 61 were healthy controls. For children with sleep apnea, polysomnography with 3-lead electrocardiography and continuous blood pressure was performed before adenotonsillectomy, then 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. Controls underwent the same assessment at study entry and 6 months later. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity was measured in the time and frequency domains. Data analyses were performed for available and complete cases. Results: Children with sleep apnea experienced postoperatively an increase in baroreflex sensitivity and decrease in blood pressure variability during wakefulness and sleep. A decrease in blood pressure during sleep and in heart rate during wakefulness was also measured. The improvement in baroreflex sensitivity was predicted by the change in the apnea-hypopnea and arousal indices. A normal pattern of rising baroreflex sensitivity during the night was restored in children with severe apnea after surgery. However, baroreceptor sensitivity did not completely normalize after treatment. Conclusion: Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children by adenotonsillectomy is associated with gradual improvement in known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Complete normalization of baroreceptor sensitivity was not achieved 6 months postoperatively. Citation: Crisalli JA; McConnell K; VanDyke RD; Fenchel MC; Somers VK; Shamszumann A; Chini B; Daniels SR; Amin RS. Baroreflex sensitivity after adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnea during wakefulness and sleep. SLEEP 2012;35(10):1335-1343.
Crisalli, Joseph A.; McConnell, Keith; VanDyke, Rhonda D.; Fenchel, Matthew C.; Somers, Virend K.; Shamszumann, A.; Chini, Barbara; Daniels, Stephen R.; Amin, Raouf S.
For over two decades clinical studies have been conducted which suggest the existence of a relationship between depression and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Recently, Ohayon underscored the evidence for a link between these two disorders in the general population, showing that 800 out of 100,000 individuals had both, a breathing-related sleep disorder and a major depressive disorder, with up to 20% of the subjects presenting with one of these disorders also having the other. In some populations, depending on age, gender and other demographic and health characteristics, the prevalence of both disorders may be even higher: OSA may affect more than 50% of individuals over the age of 65, and significant depressive symptoms may be present in as many as 26% of a community-dwelling population of older adults. In clinical practice, the presence of depressive symptomatology is often considered in patients with OSA, and may be accounted for and followed-up when considering treatment approaches and response to treatment. On the other hand, sleep problems and specifically OSA are rarely assessed on a regular basis in patients with a depressive disorder. However, OSA might not only be associated with a depressive syndrome, but its presence may also be responsible for failure to respond to appropriate pharmacological treatment. Furthermore, an undiagnosed OSA might be exacerbated by adjunct treatments to antidepressant medications, such as benzodiazepines. Increased awareness of the relationship between depression and OSA might significantly improve diagnostic accuracy as well as treatment outcome for both disorders. In this review, we will summarize important findings in the current literature regarding the association between depression and OSA, and the possible mechanisms by which both disorders interact. Implications for clinical practice will be discussed.
Schroder, Carmen M; O'Hara, Ruth
This information is right for you if a doctor said you have mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea, or OSA. People with OSA may snore and stop (or pause) their breathing a few or many times when they sleep; If you are looking for ways to treat ...
We studied the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate, a respiratory stimulant, on the incidence and duration of episodes of apnea and disordered breathing in 13 nonhypercapnic men with obstructive sleep apnea. Nocturnal polysomnography was done before and after four weeks of treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (60 mg/day) and one week after cessation of treatment. There were no significant (p less than 0.05) differences in the mean frequency of apneic episodes per hour of sleep before (31.3 +/- 5.7 [+/- SE]), during (26.8 +/- 6.6), or after (23.6 +/- 7.0) treatment, or in the mean number of disordered breathing episodes per hour of sleep before (19.4 +/- 5.6), during (21.4 +/- 5.8), or after (23.1 +/- 6.3) the period of treatment. Medroxyprogesterone did not alter significantly the total time of apnea or the total time for disordered breathing, expressed as percentages of total sleep time. Arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea and disordered breathing did not change with treatment. Medroxyprogesterone increased the minute ventilation and occlusion pressure responses to hypercapnia measured in the awake state; however, the results of this study demonstrate that medroxyprogesterone does not improve the breathing disorders during sleep in the nonhypercapnic patient with obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:2946559
Rajagopal, K R; Abbrecht, P H; Jabbari, B
Sleep-related painful erection is a rare syndrome recognized by reports of painful nocturnal erection, an association between REM sleep and pain, and the absence of pain during wakeful sexual activity. Approximately 30 cases have been reported in the literature. We add two more cases, each of which seemed to be associated with severe sleep apnea. Treatment of the apnea with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure device lessened the symptom in both men. Implications of this association are discussed. PMID:22350120
Ferré, Alex; Vila, Josepa; Jurado, M José; Arcalis, Nuria; Camps, Juaquim; Cambrodi, Roser; Romero, Odile
Aviation safety reports indicate that many incidents are related to fatigue. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by irregular snoring with repeated apnea episodes during sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness. Deprived of sleep, patients suffer from daytime sleepiness and involuntary sleep attacks. The prevalence of OSA among adult men is more than one percent, 0.5% in women. Predisposed are men aged 40-65 yr. Many patients, including pilots, are unaware of their sleeping disturbance and the symptoms are not easily recognized. Therefore, this condition may not be discovered during a regular health examination. However, this condition can be effectively treated. In our opinion, pilots suffering from OSA do not necessarily have to lose their certificate. Diagnosis and treatment can be conducted, followed by regular check-ups. We suggest that questions about sleep be included in pilots' health examinations. PMID:9408566
Panton, S; Norup, P W; Videbaek, R
The upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is thought to collapse during sleep at least in part, because of a sleep related reduction in upper airway dilator muscle activity. Therefore a comprehensive understanding of the neural regulation of these muscles is warranted. The dilator muscles can be classified in two broad categories; those that have respiratory related activity and those that fire constantly throughout the respiratory cycle. The motor control of these two groups likely differs with the former receiving input from respiratory neurons and negative pressure reflex circuits. The activity of both muscle groups is reduced shortly after sleep onset, indicating that both receive input from brainstem neurons involved in sleep regulation. In the apnea patient, this may lead to pharyngeal airway collapse. This review briefly describes the currently proposed sleep and respiratory neural pathways and how these circuits interact with the upper airway dilator muscle motorneurones, including recent evidence from animal studies.
Jordan, Amy S; White, David P
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have been reported to be at greater risk for cardiovascular events, and midnight surge of blood pressure (BP) may be a mechanism of sleep apnea–related cardiovascular risk. However, there has been no accurate noninvasive technique to detect intermittent BP surge at the time of each sleep apnea episode. We therefore developed an experimental
Osamu Shirasaki; Shingo Yamashita; Shin-ichi Kawara; Kayoko Tagami; Joji Ishikawa; Kazuyuki Shimada; Kazuomi Kario
SUMMARY Identifying predictors of subjective sleepiness and severity of sleep apnea are important yet challenging goals in sleep medicine. Classification algorithms may provide insights, especially when large data sets are available. We analyzed polysomnography and clinical features available from the Sleep Heart Health Study. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the apnea–hypopnea index were the targets of three classifiers: k-nearest neighbor, naive Bayes and support vector machine algorithms. Classification was based on up to 26 features including demographics, polysomnogram, and electrocardiogram (spectrogram). Naive Bayes was best for predicting abnormal Epworth class (0–10 versus 11–24), although prediction was weak: polysomnogram features had 16.7% sensitivity and 88.8% specificity; spectrogram features had 5.3% sensitivity and 96.5% specificity. The support vector machine performed similarly to naive Bayes for predicting sleep apnea class (0–5 versus >5): 59.0% sensitivity and 74.5% specificity using clinical features and 43.4% sensitivity and 83.5% specificity using spectrographic features compared with the naive Bayes classifier, which had 57.5% sensitivity and 73.7% specificity (clinical), and 39.0% sensitivity and 82.7% specificity (spectrogram). Mutual information analysis confirmed the minimal dependency of the Epworth score on any feature, while the apnea–hypopnea index showed modest dependency on body mass index, arousal index, oxygenation and spectrogram features. Apnea classification was modestly accurate, using either clinical or spectrogram features, and showed lower sensitivity and higher specificity than common sleep apnea screening tools. Thus, clinical prediction of sleep apnea may be feasible with easily obtained demographic and electrocardiographic analysis, but the utility of the Epworth is questioned by its minimal relation to clinical, electrocardiographic, or polysomnographic features.
Eiseman, Nathaniel A.; Westover, M. Brandon; Mietus, Joseph E.; Thomas, Robert J.; Bianchi, Matt T.
Opinion statement Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and sleep-wake disturbances (SWD) are frequent in stroke patients. They deserve attention,\\u000a because they may significantly influence rehabilitation process and functional outcome. In addition, SDB may increase the\\u000a risk of stroke recurrence. More than 50% of stroke patients have SDB, mostly obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In some patients,\\u000a stroke recovery is accompanied by an improvement of
Dirk M. Hermann; Claudio L. Bassetti
Obesity is a cause of sleep breathing disorders that result in excessive daytime sleepiness. We describe the adaptive strategy used by an obese person who started to snort cocaine to remedy incoercible drowsiness affecting his working financial skills. Clinical workup documented severe sleep apnea, which was treated by noninvasive ventilation and resulted in withdrawing cocaine abuse. Undiagnosed sleep disorders may trigger surreptitious psychostimulant abuse in vulnerable individuals. PMID:23519053
Marzullo, Paolo; Menegatti, Mirta; Guzzaloni, Gabriele; Fanari, Paolo; Uccelli, Elvira; Tagliaferri, Maria Antonella; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Liuzzi, Antonio
Introduction: In normal-tension glaucoma, optic nerve damage occurs without elevated intraocular pressures, hence vascular and pathogenic mechanisms other than intraocular pressure effects have been postulated. However, the exact cause(s) remain unknown. We have looked for an association between normal-tension glaucoma and sleep apnea syndrome, a disease characterized by repetitive upper airway obstructions during sleep, inducing hypoxia and sleep disruption with
Daniel S. Mojon; Christian W. Hess; David Goldblum; Matthias Boehnke; Fritz Koerner; Matthias Gugger; Claudio Bassetti; Johannes Mathis
Objective: This review aims to impart information regarding recognition of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and associated excessive sleepiness (ES) in the primary care setting in order to provide optimal care to patients with this common but serious condition. This review will also discuss the prevalence and treatment of depression in patients with OSA. Data Sources: A MEDLINE search of articles published between 1990 and 2008 was conducted using the search terms obstructive sleep apnea AND excessive sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea AND depression, and obstructive sleep apnea AND primary care. Searches were limited to articles in English concerned with adult patients. Study Selection: In total, 239 articles were identified. Articles concerning other sleep disorders and forms of apnea were excluded. The reference lists of identified articles were searched manually to find additional articles of interest. Data Synthesis: Primary care physicians can aid in the diagnosis of OSA and associated ES by being vigilant for lifestyle and physical risk factors associated with this condition. In addition, primary care physicians should maintain a high level of clinical suspicion when presented with illnesses that are commonly comorbid with OSA, such as psychiatric disorders and depression, in particular. Conversely, assessment of patients with OSA for common comorbidities may also improve a patient's prognosis and quality of life. Conclusions: Primary care physicians play a vital role in recognizing OSA and ES. These clinicians are crucial in supporting their patients during treatment by ensuring that they have clear, concise information regarding available therapies and the correct application and maintenance of prescribed devices.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia with rising incidence. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent among patients with AF. This observation has prompted significant research in understanding the relationship between OSA and AF. Multiple studies support a role of OSA in the initiation and progression of AF. This association has been independent of obesity, body mass index and hypertension. Instability of autonomic tone and wide swings in intrathoracic pressure are seen in OSA. These have been mechanistically linked to initiation of AF in OSA patients by lowering atrial effective refractory period, promoting pulmonary vein discharges and atrial dilation. OSA not only promotes initiation of AF but also makes management of AF difficult. Drug therapy and electrical cardioversion for AF are less successful in presence of OSA. There has been higher rate of early and overall recurrence after catheter ablation of AF in patients with OSA. Treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure has been shown to improve control of AF. However, additional studies are needed to establish a stronger relationship between OSA treatment and success of AF therapies. There should be heightened suspicion of OSA in patients with AF. There is a need for guidelines to screen for OSA as a part of AF management.
Goyal, Sandeep K; Sharma, Abhishek
The increasing prevalence of obesity in children seems to be associated with an increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to this association include the following: adenotonsillar hypertrophy due to increased somatic growth, increased critical airway closing pressure, altered chest wall mechanics, and abnormalities of ventilatory control. However, the details of these mechanisms and their interactions have not been elucidated. In addition, obesity and OSAS are both associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of features such as hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory states. There is some evidence that OSAS may contribute to the progression of metabolic syndrome with a potential for significant morbidity. The treatment of OSAS in obese children has not been standardized. Adenotonsillectomy is considered the primary intervention followed by continuous positive airway pressure treatment if OSAS persists. Other methods such as oral appliances, surgery, positional therapy, and weight loss may be beneficial for individual subjects. The present review discusses these issues and suggests an approach to the management of obese children with snoring and possible OSAS.
This study assessed the relationship between hematocrit levels and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and examined how this relationship was affected by the degree of hypoxia as well as by possible confounding factors. Two-hundred sixty three subjects (189 men and 74 women) underwent nocturnal polysomnography with oximetry and had measurements of hematocrit, hemoglobin, white blood cell count, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), and 24-h urine norepinephrine (NE). Patients with severe OSA [respiratory disturbance index (RDI) >30] had significantly higher hematocrit values than patients with mild to moderate OSA or nonapneic controls (p < 0.01). However, only one patient had a hematocrit in the range of clinical polycythemia. Hematocrit levels were significantly correlated with BMI, BP, urinary NE, RDI, percent of time spent at oxygen saturation <90%, and with mean oxygen saturation. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that mean oxygen saturation, RDI, and percent of time spent at oxygen saturation <90% were significant predictors of hematocrit level, even after controlling for gender, ethnicity, 24-h urine NE, BMI, and BP (p < 0.05). The severity of OSA is significantly associated with increased hematocrit, even after controlling for possible confounding variables. However, nocturnal hypoxemia in OSA does not usually lead to clinical polycythemia. PMID:16770648
Choi, Jong Bae; Loredo, José S; Norman, Daniel; Mills, Paul J; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ziegler, Michael G; Dimsdale, Joel E
\\u000a In this paper a method for sleep apnea classification is proposed. The method is based on a feedforward neural network trained\\u000a using a bayesian framework and a cross-entropy error function. The inputs of the neural network are the first level-5-detail\\u000a coefficients obtained from a discrete wavelet transformation of the samples of the thoracic effort signal corresponding to\\u000a the apnea. In
Oscar Fontenla-romero; Bertha Guijarro-berdiñas; Amparo Alonso-betanzos; Ana Del Rocío Fraga-iglesias; Vicente Moret-bonillo
Background: Previous studies have documented an effect of mandibular advancement (MA) on pharyngeal airway size and collapsibility. Objectives: We aimed to describe the course of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the snoring index (SI) during progressive MA and to evaluate the long-term efficacy, tolerance and usage of MA therapy after progressive MA titration in sleep apnea patients. Methods: Sixty-six patients
Louise Gindre; Frédéric Gagnadoux; Nicole Meslier; Jean-Marie Gustin; Jean-Louis Racineux
The aim of this study was to determine whether the 2-h daytime ApneaGraph (dAG) for patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) can be used initially to diagnose and identify the site of obstruction before surgery. Fifty patients with OSAHS diagnosed by polysomnogram were enrolled in this prospective study. Sleep-related parameters, which include the indices for apnea-hypopnea (AHI), apnea index (AI), obstructive, central and mixed AHI (OAHI, CAHI and MAHI, respectively), the lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO?) and the proportion of upper and lower airway obstruction (UPPER and LOWER, respectively), were measured by both daytime and nocturnal AG (nAG). Different operative techniques were used according to the obstruction site assessed by the nAG. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), visual analog scale (VAS), AI, AHI and LSaO?. All the indices except LSaO? found no significant differences between dAG and nAG; there were significant positive correlations with regard to most indices, but not for CAHI between dAG and nAG. When compared dAG with nAG, most moderate and severe patients had predominant sites of obstructions in the upper level. Postoperative ESS, VAS, AI and AHI decreased significantly, while LSaO? significantly increased compared with those preoperative counterparts. dAG may be used as an alternative means for early and low-cost diagnostic evaluation of OSAHS before surgery. PMID:21448614
Yu, Rong; Li, Wuyi; Huo, Hong; Shen, Ping; Tian, Xu
To determine the importance of arousals from sleep on alterations of the cardiovascular control associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) we measured heart-rate, continuous blood pressure and respiration in 5 OSAS patients and 5 control subjects during test procedures performed in overnight sleep. The tests consisted of inducing arousal with acoustic stimuli randomly delivered when subjects were in a
A. Blasi; J. Jol; A. Baydur; R. Juarez; M. C. K. Khoo
Study Objectives: Investigate the relationship between gestational age and weight for gestational age and sleep apnea diagnosis in a cohort of children aged up to 6 years old. Design: A cohort study, using record linked population health data. Setting: New South Wales, Australia. Participants: 398,961 children, born between 2000 and 2004, aged 2.5 to 6 years. Measurements: The primary outcome was sleep apnea diagnosis in childhood, first diagnosed between 1 and 6 years of age. Children with sleep apnea were identified from hospital records with the ICD-10 code G47.3: sleep apnea, central or obstructive. Results: A total of 4,145 (1.0%) children with a first diagnosis of sleep apnea were identified. Mean age at first diagnosis was 44.2 months (SD 13.9). Adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, or both were common among the children diagnosed with sleep apnea (85.6%). Children born preterm compared to term were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with sleep apnea (< 32 weeks versus term hazard ratio 2.74 [95% CI: 2.16, 3.49]) this remained even after adjustment for known confounding variables. Children born small for gestational age were not at increased risk of sleep apnea compared to children born appropriate for gestational age, hazard ratio 0.95 (95% CI 0.86-1.06). Conclusions: This is the largest study investigating preterm birth and sleep apnea diagnosis and suggests that diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing is more prevalent in children born preterm, but not those who are small for gestational age. Citation: Raynes-Greenow CH; Hadfield RM; Cistulli PA; Bowen J; Allen H; Roberts CL. Sleep apnea in early childhood associated with preterm birth but not small for gestational age: a population-based record linkage study. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1475-1480.
Raynes-Greenow, Camille H.; Hadfield, Ruth M.; Cistulli, Peter A.; Bowen, Jenny; Allen, Hugh; Roberts, Christine L.
Polysomnographic signals are usually recorded from patients exhibiting symptoms related to sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Analysis of polysomnographic data allows for the determination of the type and severity of sleep apnea or other sleep-related disorders by a specialist or technician. The usual procedure entails an overnight recording several hours long. This paper presents a methodology to
P. Caseiro; R. Fonseca-Pinto; A. Andrade
Sleep apnea is an entity characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction resulting in nocturnal hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. It is estimated that 2%–4% of the middle-aged population has sleep apnea with a predilection in men relative to women. Risk factors of sleep apnea include obesity, gender, age, menopause, familial factors, craniofacial abnormalities, and alcohol. Sleep apnea has been increasingly recognized as a major health burden associated with hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Increased airway collapsibility and derangement in ventilatory control responses are the major pathological features of this disorder. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold-standard method for diagnosis of sleep apnea and assessment of sleep apnea severity; however, portable sleep monitoring has a diagnostic role in the setting of high pretest probability sleep apnea in the absence of significant comorbidity. Positive pressure therapy is the mainstay therapy of sleep apnea. Other treatment modalities, such as upper airway surgery or oral appliances, may be used for the treatment of sleep apnea in select cases. In this review, we focus on describing the sleep apnea definition, risk factor profile, underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, associated adverse consequences, diagnostic modalities, and treatment strategies.
Gharibeh, Tarek; Mehra, Reena
Sleep apnea is a breathing disorder that results from momentary and cyclic collapse of the upper airway, leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). IH can lead to the formation of free radicals that increase oxidative stress, and this mechanism may explain the association between central sleep apnea and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We assessed the level of inflammation in the lung and liver tissue from animals subjected to intermittent hypoxia and simulated sleep apnea. A total of 12 C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups and then exposed to IH (n = 6) or a simulated IH (SIH) (n = 6) for 35 days. We observed an increase in oxidative damage and other changes to endogenous antioxidant enzymes in mice exposed to IH. Specifically, the expression of multiple transcription factors, including hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1?), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cleaved caspase 3 were shown to be increased in the IH group. Overall, we found that exposure to intermittent hypoxia for 35 days by simulating sleep apnea leads to oxidative stress, inflammation, and increased activity of caspase 3 in the liver and lung.
da Rosa, Darlan Pase; Forgiarini, Luiz Felipe; Baronio, Diego; Feijo, Cristiano Andrade; Martinez, Denis; Marroni, Norma Possa
Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can lead to important neurobehavioral consequences including cognitive deficits, hyperactivity/inattention, daytime sleepiness, and mood disturbances. Interestingly, the potential role of OSA in the pathogenesis of impulse-control disorders such as nail biting (onychophagia) is currently unknown. We present a case of a man with severe onychophagia and biting-induced finger mutilation that was completely resolved after diagnosis and treatment of severe OSA. Accordingly, this report represents an important clinical observation that suggests a connection between sleep physiology and the neurobiological circuits implicated in the regulation of impulse-control behaviors. Further research in this area may improve our current understanding of the neurobehavioral consequences of untreated OSA. Citation: Nino G; Singareddy R. Severe onychophagia and finger mutilation associated with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):379-381.
Nino, Gustavo; Singareddy, Ravi
Apneas generally reappear in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) when treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is interrupted. However, a single-night treatment interruption may be associated with a lesser severity of sleep apneas than before treatment. We hypothesized that this decrease in severity of sleep apneas reflects changes in the respiratory response to upper airway obstruction. Therefore, we compared indexes of respiratory effort during sleep in 25 patients with OSA before and after 1 year of CPAP treatment. Respiratory effort was assessed by means of an esophageal balloon. After 1 year of CPAP treatment, there was a decrease in the maximal end-apneic esophageal pressure swings (Pes) (from 56.7 +/- 5.4 to 30.3 +/- 2.6 cm H2O; p = 0.000; mean +/- SEM), in the overall increase in Pes during an apnea (35.2 +/- 3.6 vs 16.5 +/- 1.5 cm H2O; p = 0.000), as well as the rate of increase in Pes (1.1 +/- 0.1 vs 0.6 +/- 0.1 cm H2O/s; p = 0.000). Although body mass index (BMI) did not change significantly, the individual changes in BMI significantly correlated with the changes in respiratory effort after 1 year of CPAP treatment. Apnea duration and apnea-related oxygen desaturation also decreased significantly. We conclude that long-term CPAP treatment induces changes in respiratory control that persist at least on the first night of treatment interruption. PMID:8681615
Boudewyns, A; Sforza, E; Zamagni, M; Krieger, J
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) prediction formulas can potentially simplify the treatment of obstructive sleep\\u000a apnea (OSA). However, they can be difficult to derive and validate. We tested a statistical method to derive and validate\\u000a a CPAP prediction formula using the same sample population. Seventy-six OSA patients underwent polysomnography and CPAP titration.\\u000a Anthropometric measures, sleep parameters, and the Epworth sleepiness
José S. Loredo; Charles Berry; Richard A. Nelesen; Joel E. Dimsdale
Opinion statement Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a highly prevalent disorder, has historically been under-recognized. As its diagnosis and recognition\\u000a increases, physicians other than sleep specialists will need to gain familiarity with the management of this disorder, which\\u000a is so closely tied to increased morbidity, mortality, and an overall health care burden. Most patients with OSA have been\\u000a managed primarily with positive
Ninon Pachikara; Reena Mehra
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been recognized as a cause of sleep disruption and daytime somnolence. During the past two\\u000a decades, emerging evidence has implicated OSA as a comorbidity in a number of cardiovascular disease conditions (1). More recently, the effects of OSA have been linked to the activation of a number of mechanisms that may contribute to the\\u000a development
Virend K. Somers
Introduction Collapsibility of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes repeated arousals from sleep, decreased oxygen\\u000a saturation of the blood, and excessive sleepiness (ES). Patients with OSA are at increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular\\u000a disease, and experience occupational and vehicular accidents more frequently than the general population. Furthermore, the\\u000a life expectancy of patients with untreated OSA is significantly
Russell Rosenberg; Paul Doghramji
Our clinical experience suggested existence of a third group, stage-independent-OSA besides two known groups: REM-dependent-OSA and NREM-dependent-OSA. This study was planned to compare the characteristics of this group with the other two. All the subjects undergoing diagnostic video-polysomnographies with AHI >5/h were included in this study. Based upon the ratio of AHI during REM and NREM sleep, various groups were formed. REM-dependent-OSA was defined as AHI-REM/AHI-NREM >2; all other subjects were included in Not-REM-dependent-OSA (A-1 analysis). This group was further bifurcated into two groups: Non-REM-dependent OSA (NREM-dependent-OSA) where AHI-NREM/AHI-REM >2 and remaining subjects were included in the sleep-stage-independent-OSA group (A-2 analysis). SPSS v 17.0 was used to calculate independent sample t test (A-1 analysis) and Kruskall-Wallis test (A-2 analysis). Using A-1 approach, REM-dependent-OSA group was found to be suffering from mild-moderate OSA (90 %). REM-dependent OSA group had lower AHI-NREM (P < 0.001; 95 % CI 22.11-36.81) and lower AHI-total (P < 0.001; 95 % CI 15.39-30.73). Surprisingly, AHI-REM and DI-REM were not significantly different between these groups. A-2 analysis showed that overall, REM-dependent-OSA had lowest AHI-total while the stage-independent group had highest (P < 0.001). However, on analysis of REM-dependent-OSA, it was found that few of the subjects from this group had severe OSA (AHI-total > 30/h). The NREM-AHI increased linearly as we moved from REM-dependent-OSA to stage-independent-OSA with a significant difference across groups (P < 0.001). However, similar trend was not observed for AHI-REM. This study showed that a third group, sleep-stage-independent-OSA also exists when OSA is classified according to the proportion of apnea across sleep stages. This classification partially corresponds with the severity of illness. PMID:23283530
Gupta, Ravi; Lahan, Vivekananda; Sindhwani, Girish
This project demonstrates the usefulness of an unconstrained and completely non-invasive respiration monitoring system. With the system implemented in this project, patients that suffer from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can sleep without any apnea monitoring devices connected to them, and by means of a pressure sensor attached to an air mattress, be under constant monitoring for apneas. This project extends
Jonathan R. Waters; John R. LaCourse
Study Objectives: Determining the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is based on apnea and hypopnea event rates per hour of sleep. Making this determination presents a diagnostic challenge, given that summary metrics do not consider certain factors that influence severity, such as body position and the composition of sleep stages. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 300 consecutive diagnostic PSGs performed at our center to determine the impact of body position and sleep stage on sleep apnea severity. Results: The median percent of REM sleep was 16% (reduced compared to a normal value of ~25%). The median percent supine sleep was 65%. Fewer than half of PSGs contained > 10 min in each of the 4 possible combinations of REM/NREM and supine/non-supine. Half of patients had > 2-fold worsening of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in REM sleep, and 60% had > 2-fold worsening of AHI while supine. Adjusting for body position had greater impact on the AHI than adjusting for reduced REM%. Misclassification—specifically underestimation of OSA severity—is attributed more commonly to body position (20% to 40%) than to sleep stage (~10%). Conclusions: Supine-dominance and REM-dominance commonly contribute to AHI underestimation in single-night PSGs. Misclassification of OSA severity can be mitigated in a patient-specific manner by appropriate consideration of these variables. The results have implications for the interpretation of single-night measurements in clinical practice, especially with trends toward home testing devices that may not measure body position or sleep stage. Citation: Eiseman NA; Westover MB; Ellenbogen JM; Bianchi MT. The impact of body posture and sleep stages on sleep apnea severity in adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(6):655-666.
Eiseman, Nathaniel A.; Westover, M. Brandon; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M.; Bianchi, Matt T.
... at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. It was written by Emily White, M.S., Thomas Workman, Ph.D., Amir Sharafkhaneh, M.D., and Michael Fordis, M.D. Illustrations were created by Douglas Alexander. Patients with sleep apnea reviewed ...
Rodents exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH), a model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifest impaired learning and memory and somnolence. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative tissue damage, and apoptotic neuronal cell death are associated with the presence of IH-induced CNS dysfunction. Furthermore, treatment with antioxidants or overexpression of antioxidant enzymes is neuroprotective during IH. These findings mimic
Yang Wang; Shelley X. L. Zhang; David Gozal
Background—The chemoreflexes are an important mechanism for regulation of both breathing and autonomic cardiovascular function. Abnormalities in chemoreflex mechanisms may be implicated in increased cardiovascular stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis that chemoreflex function is altered in patients with OSA. Methods and Results—We compared ventilatory, sympathetic, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to hypoxia,
Krzysztof Narkiewicz; Philippe J. H. van de Borne; Catherine A. Pesek; Mark E. Dyken; Nicola Montano; Virend K. Somers
Objectives. Excessive daytime sleepi- ness (EDS) occurs frequently in adult patients with ob- structive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the incidence of EDS in children with OSA is unknown. Methods. To determine overall daytime sleepiness in pediatric OSA, 54 children with OSA, 14 children with primary snoring (PS), and 24 controls (C) underwent an overnight diagnostic polysomnogram followed the next day
David Gozal; Mei Wang; Dennis W. Pope
We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) referred to a tertiary university–based medical center. A cross-sectional study of patients with a definite diagnosis of OSAS was performed using new diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome that were designed for the Japanese population. Clinical features and comorbidities related to metabolic syndrome were compared between
Ryujiro Sasanabe; Katsuhisa Banno; Kazuo Otake; Rika Hasegawa; Kengo Usui; Mikiko Morita; Toshiaki Shiomi
The interaction between craniofacial structure assessed by lateral cephalometry, and tongue, soft palate, and upper airway size determined from computed tomography (CT) scans was examined in 25 control subjects and 80 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). On the basis of the cephalometric analyses, the patients with OSA had retruded mandibles with large ANB angle differences, elongated maxillary and mandibular
Alan A. Lowe; John A. Fleetham; Satoshi Adachi; C. Francis Ryan
The physiopathology of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome is multifactorial. Gender and obesity status, as well as genetic, anatomic, and hormonal factors, together with respiratory drive, interact in a diverse manner in the physiopathology and clinical expression of the disease. Obesity is the main risk factor, since increases in body mass index, visceral fat, and neck circumference are strong predictors of
Andrea Barral Martins; Sérgio Tufik; Sonia Maria; Guimaraes Pereira; Togeiro Moura
The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical findings and polysomnography results obtained at public and private clin- ics in Brazil, the follow-up after diagnosis, and the therapeutic aspects related to continuous positive airway pressure. Patients who snore and who have obstructive sleep apnea were retrospec- tively divided into two groups, i.e., public clinic (N = 307)
A. I. Zonato; L. R. Bittencourt; F. L. Martinho; P. Baiard; S. M. Togeiro; A. A. Benedito-Silva; S. Tufik
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is effectively treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Low rates of CPAP adherence led to the development of a personalized feedback intervention requiring minimal provider burden. In a comparison of the intervention to standard information, group differences failed to reach significance. Explanations for the findings include low power, that machines were not provided, and an
Kathryn A. Roecklein; Julie A. Schumacher; Jeanne M. Gabriele; Colleen Fagan; Alp Sinan Baran; Allen C. Richert
This study examined the cerebral response to a verbal learning (VL) task in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Twelve OSA patients and 12 controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). As hypothesized, VL performance was similar for both groups, but OSA patients showed increased brain activation in several brain regions. These regions included bilateral inferior frontal and middle
Liat Ayalon; Sonia Ancoli-Israel; Zoe Klemfuss; Mark D. Shalauta; Sean P. A. Drummond
To investigate whether cardiac dysfunction or abnormal measurements on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) are present in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and what factors are responsible for exercise limitation in these patients. We enrolled 20 patients with moderate or severe OSAS in the OSA group and 20 subjects without OSAS in the control group. All subjects underwent a
Ching-Chi Lin; Wen-Yeh Hsieh; Chon-Shin Chou; Shwu-Fang Liaw
With the growing epidemic of obesity in an aging population, obstructivesleepapnea(OSA)isincreasinglyencounteredin clinical practice. Given the acute cardiopulmonary stressors consequent to repetitive upper airway collapse, as well as evidence for cardiovas- cular homeostatic dysregulation in subjects with sleep apnea, there is ample biologic plausibility that OSA imparts increased cardiovas- cular risk, independent of comorbid disease. Indeed, observational studies have suggested strong
Jason M. Golbin; Virend K. Somers; Sean M. Caples
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cognitive impairment, daytime sleepiness, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) remains the primary treatment for this disorder, and recent data provide novel insight regarding optimal CPAP application and compliance. Promising alternate forms of OSA treatment have also been addressed with recent clinical research.
Weingarten, Jeremy A
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cognitive impairment, daytime sleepiness, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) remains the primary treatment for this disorder, and recent data provide novel insight regarding optimal CPAP application and compliance. Promising alternate forms of OSA treatment have also been addressed with recent clinical research. PMID:20948733
Weingarten, Jeremy A; Basner, Robert C
The prevalence of OSA and its significance as a secondary cause of hypertension is increasingly recognized. OSA has been detected in up to 30% of hypertensive patients. Among persons with OSA, 50% or more are hypertensive. Screening for sleep apnea is strongly recommended. Healthcare providers do not commonly include routine assessment of OSA risk. Furthermore, patients are usually unaware of
M. R. Wofford; D. S. King; S. B. Wyatt; K. G. Harkins; K. W. Kelly; D. W. Jones
BackgroundObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in stroke patients and is associated with poor functional outcome. The effects of positional therapy in ischemic stroke patients with OSA have not been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that ischemic stroke patients have less severe OSA during positional therapy that promotes nonsupine positioning.
Anna Svatikova; Ronald D. Chervin; Jeffrey J. Wing; Brisa N. Sanchez; Erin M. Migda; Devin L. Brown
Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can have adverse effects on cognitive functioning, mood, and cardiovascular functioning. OSA brings with it disturbances in sleep architecture, oxygenation, sympathetic nervous system function, and inflammatory processes. It is not clear which of these mechanisms is linked to the decrease in cognitive functioning. This study examined the effect of inflammatory parameters on cognitive dysfunction. Materials and methods Thirty-nine patients with untreated sleep apnea were evaluated by polysomnography and completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. After the first night of evaluation in the sleep laboratory, blood samples were taken for analysis of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Results sTNF-R1 significantly correlated with cognitive dysfunction. In hierarchical linear regression analysis, measures of obstructive sleep apnea severity explained 5.5% of the variance in cognitive dysfunction (n.s.). After including sTNF-R1, percentage of variance explained by the full model increased more than threefold to 19.6% (F= 2.84, df=3, 36, p=0.05). Only sTNF-R1 had a significant individual relationship with cognitive dysfunction (?=0.376 t=2.48, p=0.02). Conclusions sTNF-R1 as a marker of chronic inflammation may be associated with diminished neuropsychological functioning in patients with OSA.
Haensel, Alexander; Bardwell, Wayne A.; Mills, Paul J.; Loredo, Jose S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Morgan, Erin E.; Heaton, Robert K.; Dimsdale, Joel E.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a breathing disorder during sleep that has implications beyond disrupted sleep. It is increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiac, neurologic, and perioperative morbidities. Yet this disorder remains undiagnosed in a substantial portion of our population. It is imperative for all physicians to remain vigilant in identifying patients with signs and symptoms consistent with OSA. This review focuses on updates in the areas of terminology and testing, complications of untreated OSA, perioperative considerations, treatment options, and new developments in this field.
Park, John G.; Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J.
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea is common among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and may contribute to poor cardiovascular outcomes. However, obstructive sleep apnea is largely unrecognized in this population. We sought to identify the clinical predictors of obstructive sleep apnea among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Consecutive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were recruited from a tertiary University Hospital and were evaluated using validated sleep questionnaires (Berlin and Epworth) and overnight portable monitoring. Ninety patients (males, 51%; age, 46±15 years; body mass index, 26.6±4.9 kg/m2) were included, and obstructive sleep apnea (respiratory disturbance index ?15 events/h) was present in 37 patients (41%). RESULTS: Compared with the patients without obstructive sleep apnea, patients with obstructive sleep apnea were older and had higher body mass index, larger waist circumference, larger neck circumference, and higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation. Excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth scale) was low and similar in the patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. The only predictors of obstructive sleep apnea (using a logistic regression analysis) were age ?45 years (odds ratio [OR], 4.46; 95% confidence interval [CI 95%], 1.47–13.54; p?=?0.008) and the presence of atrial fibrillation [OR, 5.37; CI 95%, 1.43–20.12; p?=?0.013]. CONCLUSION: Consistent clinical predictors of obstructive sleep apnea are lacking for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which suggests that objective sleep evaluations should be considered in this population, particularly among elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.
Nerbass, Flavia B.; Pedrosa, Rodrigo P.; Genta, Pedro R.; Antunes, Murillo O.; Arteaga-Fernandez, Edmundo; Drager, Luciano F.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo
In some conditions continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) therapy alone fails to provide satisfactory oxygenation. In these situations oxygen (O2) is often being added to CPAP/BIPAP mask or hose. Central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are often present along with other chronic conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure, pulmonary fibrosis, neuromuscular disorders, chronic narcotic use, or central hypoventilation syndrome. Any of these conditions may lead to the need for supplemental O2 administration during the titration process. Maximization of comfort, by delivering O2 directly via a nasal cannula through the mask, will provide better oxygenation and ultimately treat the patient with lower CPAP/BIPAP pressure.
Porhomayon, Jahan; Zadeii, Gino; Nader, Nader D.; Bancroft, George R.; Yarahamadi, Alireza
Children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have more collapsible airways compared with normal subjects, yet sustain sta- ble breathing during wakefulness and part of sleep. This indicates successful neuromuscular compensation. Using a custom intraoral surface electrode to record pharyngeal dilator muscle activity (the genioglossus (EMGgg) normalized to the wakeful baseline), we per- formed overnight polysomnograms in three groups of
Eliot S. Katz; David P. White
Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is one of the most common breathing related sleep disorders. Sleep apnea (SA) may be of particular concern in chronic heart failure patients due to its high levels of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic potential of SA using spectral analysis of nocturnal heart rate, and to introduce new simple time
Abed Elhamid Lawabni; Ahmed H. Tewfik
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) refers to the occurrence of episodes of complete or partial pharyngeal obstruction with oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep. These hypoxia\\/reoxygenation episodes may cause generation of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species are toxic to biomembranes and may lead to the peroxidation of lipids. We tested the hypothesis that obstructive sleep apnea is linked to increased oxidative
Levent Öztürk; Banu Mansour; Meral Yüksel; A. Süha Yalçin; Firuz Çeliko?lu; Nuran Gökhan
Seizure disorder and sleep apnea are common chronic disorders in children, but the relationship between sleep apnea and seizure control has not been studied in the pediatric population. This retrospective review included nine children with neurodevelopmental disorders who had well-documented sleep apneic episodes and seizure disorders. Seizure frequency was reduced in five patients (56%) in the first 12 months after
Susan Koh; Sally L Ward; Meei Lin; Lan S Chen
Sleep has been regarded as a testing situation for the autonomic nervous system, because its activity is modulated by sleep stages. Sleep-related breathing disorders also influence the autonomic nervous system and can cause heart rate changes known as cyclical variation. We investigated the effect of sleep stages and sleep apnea on autonomic activity by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV). Since
Thomas Penzel; Jan W. Kantelhardt; Ludger Grote; Jörg-Hermann Peter; Armin Bunde
Sleep has been regarded as a testing situation for the autonomic nervous system, because its activity is modulated by sleep stages. Sleep-related breathing disorders also influence the autonomic nervous system and can cause heart rate changes known as cyclical variation. We investigated the effect of sleep stages and sleep apnea on autonomic activity by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV). Since
Thomas Penzel; Jan W. Kantelhardt; Ludger Grote; Jörg-Hermann Peter; Armin Bunde
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) experience fragmented sleep and exhibit different sleep architectures. While polysomnographic metrics for quantifying sleep architecture are studied, there is little information about the impact of OSA on the ratio of different sleep-wake stages (wake, W; rapid eye movement, REM; non-REM stages 1 to 3, N1 to N3). This study, therefore, aims to investigate the relationship between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, a measure of OSA severity) and all possible ratios of sleep-wake stages. Sleep architectures of 24 adult subjects with suspected OSA were constructed according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine scoring manual, and subsequently analyzed through various correlation (Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall) and regression (linear, logarithmic, exponential, and power-law) approaches. Results show a statistically significant positive, linear and monotonic correlation between AHI and REM/N3, as well as between AHI and N1/W (p-values < 0.05). These findings imply that patients with increased severity of OSA may spend more time in REM than deep sleep, and in light sleep than wake (or less time in deep sleep than REM, and in wake than light sleep). A power-law regression model may possibly explain the relationships of AHI-REM/N3 and AHI-N1/W, and predict the value of AHI using REM/N3 or N1/W. PMID:23366967
Ng, Andrew Keong; Guan, Cuntai
Study Objective: The Berlin Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) are commonly used to screen for sleep apnea in non-pregnant populations. We sought to evaluate the Berlin and ESS in pregnancy and to determine whether an alternative screening approach could better detect sleep apnea in pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women at high risk for sleep apnea (women with chronic hypertension, pre-gestational diabetes, obesity, and/or a prior history of preeclampsia) completed a sleep survey composed of the Berlin and ESS, and participated in an overnight sleep evaluation with the Watch-PAT100 (WP100), a wrist-mounted device designed to diagnose sleep apnea, defined as an apnea hypopnea index ? 5. Using multivariable statistics, demographic, clinical, and subjective symptoms that were independently associated with sleep apnea were determined and a prediction rule for the presence of sleep apnea was developed. The predictive capacity of this newly developed system was compared to that of the Berlin and ESS using receiver-operating curve (ROC) statistics. Results: Of the 114 women who participated and had a valid WP100 study, 100 completed the Berlin and 96 the ESS. The Berlin and ESS did not accurately predict sleep apnea in this high-risk pregnancy cohort, with ROC area under the curves (AUC) of 0.54 (p = 0.6) and 0.57 (p = 0.3), respectively. Conversely, a model incorporating frequent snoring, chronic hypertension, age, and body mass index performed significantly better (AUC 0.86, p > 0.001). Conclusion: The Berlin and ESS are not appropriate tools to screen for sleep apnea in high-risk pregnant women. Conversely, our four-variable model more accurately predicts sleep apnea in pregnancy. Citation: Facco FL; Ouyang DW; Zee PC; Grobman WA. Development of a pregnancy-specific screening tool for sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(4):389-394.
Facco, Francesca L.; Ouyang, David W.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Grobman, William A.
Background: Reduced upper airway muscle activity during sleep is fundamental to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) counteracts this problem, with potential to reduce OSA severity. Study Objectives: To examine safety and efficacy of a novel HGNS system (HGNS, Apnex Medical, Inc.) in treating OSA. Participants: Twenty-one patients, 67% male, age (mean ± SD) 53.6 ± 9.2 years, with moderate to severe OSA and unable to tolerate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Design: Each participant underwent surgical implantation of the HGNS system in a prospective single-arm interventional trial. OSA severity was defined by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) at baseline and 3 and 6 months post-implant. Therapy compliance was assessed by nightly hours of use. Symptoms were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: HGNS was used on 89% ± 15% of nights (n = 21). On these nights, it was used for 5.8 ± 1.6 h per night. Nineteen of 21 participants had baseline and 6-month PSGs. There was a significant improvement (all P < 0.05) from baseline to 6 months in: AHI (43.1 ± 17.5 to 19.5 ± 16.7), ESS (12.1 ± 4.7 to 8.1 ± 4.4), FOSQ (14.4 ± 2.0 to 16.7 ± 2.2), SAQLI (3.2 ± 1.0 to 4.9 ± 1.3), and BDI (15.8 ± 9.0 to 9.7 ± 7.6). Two serious device-related adverse events occurred: an infection requiring device removal and a stimulation lead cuff dislodgement requiring replacement. Conclusions: HGNS demonstrated favorable safety, efficacy, and compliance. Participants experienced a significant decrease in OSA severity and OSA-associated symptoms. Clinical Trial Information: Name: Australian Clinical Study of the Apnex Medical HGNS System to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Registration Number: NCT01186926. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01186926. Citation: Eastwood PR; Barnes M; Walsh JH; Maddison KJ; Hee G; Schwartz AR; Smith PL; Malhotra A; McEvoy RD; Wheatley JR; O'Donoghue FJ; Rochford PD; Churchward T; Campbell MC; Palme CE; Robinson S; Goding GS; Eckert DJ; Jordan AS; Catcheside PG; Tyler L; Antic NA; Worsnop CJ; Kezirian EJ; Hillman DR. Treating obstructive sleep apnea with hypoglossal nerve stimulation. SLEEP 2011;34(11):1479-1486.
Eastwood, Peter R.; Barnes, Maree; Walsh, Jennifer H.; Maddison, Kathleen J.; Hee, Geoffrey; Schwartz, Alan R.; Smith, Philip L.; Malhotra, Atul; McEvoy, R. Douglas; Wheatley, John R.; O'Donoghue, Fergal J.; Rochford, Peter D.; Churchward, Tom; Campbell, Matthew C.; Palme, Carsten E.; Robinson, Sam; Goding, George S.; Eckert, Danny J.; Jordan, Amy S.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Tyler, Louise; Antic, Nick A.; Worsnop, Christopher J.; Kezirian, Eric J.; Hillman, David R.
The possible role of ventilatory control in relation to sleep apnea has not yet been clarified. We investigated the relationship between awake ventilatory drives to hypoxia and hypercapnia and sleep-disordered breathing in 21 subjects with sleep apnea syndrome. The awake hypoxic ventilatory drive, which was evaluated by occlusion pressure responses, was inversely correlated with the magnitude of maximal oxygen desaturation during sleep as well as the ratio of duration with more than 4 and 10% oxygen desaturation to total sleep time. On the other hand, the awake hypercapnic ventilatory drive was not correlated with these parameters of sleep desaturation. Apnea index and duration were not correlated with the degree of hypoxic or hypercapnic ventilatory drive, respectively. Our study concluded that sleep desaturation is better correlated with hypoxic ventilatory drive than with hypercapnic ventilatory drive in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. These results are different from the results obtained in the patients with COPD in our previous study. PMID:2492171
Kunitomo, F; Kimura, H; Tatsumi, K; Okita, S; Tojima, H; Kuriyama, T; Honda, Y
Study Objectives: Abnormal ventilatory drive may contribute to the pathophysiology of the childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Concomitant with the obesity epidemic, more adolescents are developing OSAS. However, few studies have specifically evaluated the obese adolescent group. The authors hypothesized that obese adolescents with OSAS would have a blunted hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) while awake and blunted ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) during sleep compared with obese and lean adolescents without OSAS. Design: CVR was measured during wakefulness. During nonrapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, respiratory parameters and genioglossal electromyogram were measured during CO2 administration in comparison with room air in obese adolescents with OSAS, obese control study participants, and lean control study participants. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Twenty-eight obese patients with OSAS, 21 obese control study participants, and 37 lean control study participants. Results: The obese OSAS and obese control groups had a higher HCVR compared with the lean control group during wakefulness. During both sleep states, all 3 groups had a response to CO2; however, the obese OSAS group had lower percentage changes in minute ventilation, inspiratory flow, inspiratory time, and tidal volume compared with the 2 control groups. There were no significance differences in genioglossal activity between groups. Conclusions: HCVR during wakefulness is increased in obese adolescents. Obese adolescents with OSAS have blunted ventilatory responses to CO2 during sleep and do not have a compensatory prolongation of inspiratory time, despite having normal CO2 responsivity during wakefulness. Central drive may play a greater role than upper airway neuromotor tone in adapting to hypercapnia. Citation: Yuan H; Pinto SJ; Huang J; McDonough JM; Ward MB; Lee YN; Bradford RM; Gallagher PR; Shults J; Konstantinopoulou S; Samuel JM; Katz ES; Hua S; Tapia IE; Marcus CL. Ventilatory responses to hypercapnia during wakefulness and sleep in obese adolescents with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1257–1267.
Yuan, Haibo; Pinto, Swaroop J.; Huang, Jingtao; McDonough, Joseph M.; Ward, Michelle B.; Lee, Yin N.; Bradford, Ruth M.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Shults, Justine; Konstantinopoulou, Sophia; Samuel, John M.; Katz, Eliot S.; Hua, Shucheng; Tapia, Ignacio E.; Marcus, Carole L.
Objectives The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the effect of isolated uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) on subjective obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms in adult patients regardless of the response to surgery, and ultimately 2) to investigate the differences in changes in subjective OSA symptoms between successful and unsuccessful surgery groups. Methods Twenty consecutive adult patients who underwent isolated UPPP were enrolled. Pre- and postoperative subjective OSA symptoms (snoring, witnessed apnea, daytime sleepiness, morning headache, daytime fatigue, restless sleep, difficulty with morning arousal) and polysomnographic data were evaluated in all subjects. Changes in subjective OSA symptoms before and after surgery were investigated in the successful (n=11) and unsuccessful (n=9) groups. Surgical success was defined as a reduction of at least 50% in the preoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and a postoperative AHI less than 20 per hour. Results After isolated UPPP, all subjective OSA symptoms changed significantly in the patients, especially in the successful group. In the unsuccessful group, snoring, witnessed apnea and daytime fatigue changed significantly, while other symptoms did not change significantly after surgery. Conclusion Isolated UPPP may improve subjective OSA symptoms in adult patients whom surgery was successful or unsuccessful. However, after isolated UPPP, the improvements in subjective OSA symptoms in the unsuccessful group may be different from those in the successful group.
Choi, Ji Ho; Jun, Young Joon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Heung Man; Lee, Sang Hag; Kwon, Soon Young; Choi, Hyuk
Objective This study aims to analyze how much heart rate variability (HRV) indices discriminatively respond to age and severity of sleep apnea in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Methods 176 male OSAS patients were classified into four groups according to their age and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). The HRV indices were compared via analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). In particular, the partial correlation method was performed to identify the most statistically significant HRV indices in the time and frequency domains. Stepwise multiple linear regressions were further executed to examine the effects of age, AHI, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and sleep parameters on the significant HRV indices. Results The partial correlation analysis yielded the NN50 count (defined as the number of adjacent R-wave to R-wave intervals differing by more than 50 ms) and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio to be two most statistically significant HRV indices in both time and frequency domains. The two indices showed significant differences between the groups. The NN50 count was affected by age (p<0.001) and DBP (p=0.039), while the LF/HF ratio was affected by AHI (p<0.001), the amount of Stage 2 sleep (p=0.005), and age (p=0.021) in the order named in the regression analysis. Conclusion The NN50 count more sensitively responded to age than to AHI, suggesting that the index is mainly associated with an age-related parasympathetic system. On the contrary, the LF/HF ratio responded to AHI more sensitively than to age, suggesting that it is mainly associated with a sympathetic tone likely reflecting the severity of sleep apnea.
Song, Man-Kyu; Ha, Jee Hyun; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yu, Jaehak
Abstract Question A 4-year-old child was diagnosed by polysomnography as experiencing mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Despite the child being inattentive and distracted during the day at school, his parents prefer to avoid surgical treatment (adenotonsillectomy). Are there any non-surgical treatments for mild OSA in young children? Answer Obstructive sleep apnea in children is caused mainly by adenotonsillar hypertrophy and can lead to considerable morbidities, including neurocognitive and behavioural disturbances. Surgical removal of the tonsils and adenoids is the treatment of choice. In recent years, however, a new understanding of the inflammatory components of OSA has led to the assumption that anti-inflammatory treatment can reduce adenotonsillar size and improve OSA symptoms. Evidence from a few studies suggests that intranasal steroids and oral leukotriene receptor antagonists have beneficial effects, but data from randomized controlled trials are still lacking.
Friedman, Bat-Chen; Goldman, Ran D.
Background: From 1984 to 2006, studies of sleep in patients with interstitial lung disease revealed disturbed sleep, frequent nocturnal desaturations, nocturnal cough, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our goal was to analyze OSA in an outpatient population of stable patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: Patients with IPF who had been followed up in the Vanderbilt Pulmonary Clinic were asked to participate. All patients were given a diagnosis of IPF by the 2000 American Thoracic Society consensus statement criteria. Subjects completed an Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) questionnaire and a sleep apnea scale of sleep disorders questionnaire (SA-SDQ) before undergoing nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of > 5 events per hour. Results: Fifty subjects enrolled and completed a NPSG. The mean age was 64.9 years, and the mean BMI was 32.3. OSA was diagnosed in 88% of subjects. Ten subjects (20%) had mild OSA (AHI, 5 to 15 events per hour), and 34 subjects (68%) had moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI, > 15 events per hour). Only 6 subjects (12%) had a normal AHI. One patient was asymptomatic as determined by ESS and SA-SDQ, but had an AHI of 24 events per hour. The sensitivity of the ESS was 75% with a specificity of 15%, whereas the SA-SDQ had a sensitivity of 88% with a specificity of 50%. BMI did not correlate strongly with AHI (r = 0.30; p = 0.05). Conclusions: OSA is prevalent in patients with IPF and may be underrecognized by primary care providers and specialists. Neither ESS nor SA-SDQ alone or in combination was a strong screening tool. Given the high prevalence found in our sample, formal sleep evaluation and polysomnography should be considered in patients with IPF.
Lancaster, Lisa H.; Mason, Wendi R.; Parnell, James A.; Rice, Todd W.; Loyd, James E.; Milstone, Aaron P.; Collard, Harold R.; Malow, Beth A.
All children are at risk for the development of an obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) since adenotonsillar hypertrophy is widespread and the most common cause in children. The clinical picture, etiology and diagnostic approach of OSAS in children is discussed. Attention is given to the indications for polysomnography and the differences between adult and pediatric OSAS. An overview is presented of the different treatment modalities and the possible link between sudden infant death syndrome, pediatric OSAS and adult OSAS. PMID:7484147
Boudewyns, A N; Van de Heyning, P H
Opinion statement The treatments for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) described in this paper represent the latest information and data. Nasal\\u000a continuous positive airway pressure, initially described in 1981, remains the cornerstone of therapy. Advances in mask interfaces,\\u000a the use of humidification, the downloading of usage informa tion, the development of pressure delivery modifications, and\\u000a reductions in the size and noise of
Nancy A. Collop
Oral appliance therapy is an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for treating the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. However, the ability to pre-select suitable candidates for either treatment is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the value of relevant variables that can predict the outcome of oral appliance and CPAP therapy. Fifty-one patients treated with oral
A. Hoekema; M. H. J. Doff; L. G. M. de Bont; J. H. van der Hoeven; P. J. Wijkstra; H. R. Pasma; B. Stegenga
Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by intermit- tent hypoxia\\/reoxygenation (IHR), is associated with atherosclerosis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are implicated in atherogen- esis by producing oxidizing radicals and proteolytic enzymes during PMN-endothelium interactions. PMN apoptosis is a fundamental, injury-limiting mechanism, which prevents their destructive poten- tial. Objectives: To determine whether PMN apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules are affected by
Larissa Dyugovskaya; Andrey Polyakov; Peretz Lavie; Lena Lavie
The metabolic syndrome, an emerging public health problem, represents a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors. It has\\u000a been suggested that the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of developing some of the features\\u000a of the metabolic syndrome, including hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. In this article, we discuss the\\u000a parallels between the metabolic syndrome
Anna Svatikova; Robert Wolk; Apoor S. Gami; Michal Pohanka; Virend K. Somers
Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can have adverse effects on cognitive functioning, mood, and cardiovascular functioning. OSA\\u000a brings with it disturbances in sleep architecture, oxygenation, sympathetic nervous system function, and inflammatory processes.\\u000a It is not clear which of these mechanisms is linked to the decrease in cognitive functioning. This study examined the effect\\u000a of inflammatory parameters on cognitive dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and
Alexander Haensel; Wayne A. Bardwell; Paul J. Mills; Jose S. Loredo; Sonia Ancoli-Israel; Erin E. Morgan; Robert K. Heaton; Joel E. Dimsdale
Diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is most accurately obtained with a nocturnal polysomnogram. However, limitations on availability make alternative screening tools necessary. Nocturnal oximetry studies or nap polysomnography can be useful if positive; however, further testing is necessary to if these tests are negative. History and physical examination have insufficient sensitivity and specificity for diagnosingpediatric SDB. Adenotonsillectomy remains first-line therapy for pediatric SDB and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Additional study of limited therapies for mild OSA are necessary to determine if these are reasonable primary methods of treatment or if they should be reserved for children with persistent OSA. PMID:22980685
Ishman, Stacey L
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. It is estimated to affect nearly 5% of the general female population. Obesity is often associated with OSA. The physiological changes associated with pregnancy may increase the severity of OSA with a higher risk of maternal and fetal morbidity. However, very few parturients are diagnosed during pregnancy. These undiagnosed parturients pose great challenge to the attending anaesthesiologist during the perioperative period. Parturients at risk should be screened for OSA, and if diagnosed, treated. This review describes the anaesthetic concerns in obese parturients at risk for OSA presenting to the labor and delivery unit. PMID:23225920
Ankichetty, Saravanan P; Angle, Pam; Joselyn, Anita Shirley; Chinnappa, Vinod; Halpern, Stephen
Background: Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prolonged QRS duration are associated with hypertension, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. However, possible links between QRS duration and OSA have not been explored. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 221 patients who underwent polysomnography at our center. Demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and ECG were collected to explore a relationship between OSA and QRS duration. Results: The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was positively correlated with QRS duration (r = 0.141, p = 0.03). Patients were divided into 3 groups: AHI < 5 (61), AHI 5-29 (104), and AHI > 30 (55). The mean QRS duration prolonged significantly as OSA worsened (AHI < 5, 85 ± 9.5; AHI 5-29, 89 ± 11.9; and AHI > 30, 95 ± 19.9 ms, p = 0.001). QRS ? 100 ms was present in 12.7% of patients with severe OSA compared with 0% in the rest of the sample (p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age, race, and cardiovascular risk factors, this association remained significant in women but not in men. Conclusion: QRS duration and OSA were significantly associated. Severity of OSA independently predicted prolonged QRS in women but not men. Nevertheless, prolongation of QRS duration in either sex may potentiate arrhythmic risks associated with OSA. Citation: Gupta S; Cepeda-Valery B; Romero-Corral A; Shamsuzzaman A; Somers VK; Pressman GS. Association between QRS duration and obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(6):649-654.
Gupta, Shuchita; Cepeda-Valery, Beatriz; Romero-Corral, Abel; Shamsuzzaman, Abu; Somers, Virend K.; Pressman, Gregg S.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep apnea indicators and injury in older farmers from Kentucky and South Carolina. Participants reported at least 1 day of farm work during the preceding year (n = 756) and received income from farming. The primary outcome variable was occurrence of injuries because of farm work in the past year. Main explanatory variables of interest included snoring, gasping, snorting, or cessation of breathing while asleep; trouble sleeping; consumption of sleep medications; trouble staying awake during daytime; and sleep quality. Simple logistic regressions established bivariate associations between explanatory and outcome variables. Explanatory variables significantly associated with the outcome in the bivariate analyses were used to fit a multivariable logistic regression model. The results show that just over 10% of participants experienced a farm injury in the past year. Significant bivariate associations were detected between the occurrence of injuries and number of days of farm work (odds ratio [OR] = 1.003, p = .0002); number of hours of farm work during the last week (OR = 1.017, p = .0047); male gender (OR = 2.48, p = .0007); arthritis or rheumatism conditions (OR = 1.981, p = .004); stopped breathing while sleeping (OR = 2.338, p = .0027); and problems staying awake during the past month (OR = 2.561, p = .001). In the final multivariable model, "stopping breathing while asleep" (p
Heaton, Karen; Azuero, Andres; Reed, Deborah
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a disease in which airways involuntarily collapse during sleep, leading to serious consequences. About 1O% of snorers suffer from OSA, unknown to their, nevertheless requiring medical attention. The current standard of dia...
U. R. Abeyratne C. K. Patabandi K. Puvanendran
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is increasingly recognized as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. OSA is implicated in the pathogenesis\\u000a of hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, coronary artery disease and stroke. OSA exerts its negative cardiovascular\\u000a consequences through its unique pattern of intermittent hypoxia. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation\\u000a are all consequences of OSA directly linked to intermittent hypoxia and critical
Rami Khayat; Brian Patt; Don Hayes Jr
Study Objective: To examine obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a risk factor for work disability. Patients and Setting: Consecutive patients referred to the University of California San Francisco Sleep Disorders Center with suspected OSA (n = 183). Design: All patients underwent overnight polysomnography after completing a written survey which assessed work disability due to sleep problems, occupational characteristics and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 10. Results: Among 150 currently employed patients, 83 had OSA on polysomnography (apnea-hypopnea index ? 5). Compared with patients in whom both OSA and EDS were absent, patients with the combination of OSA and EDS were at higher risk of both recent work disability (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 13.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9–48) and longer-term work duty modification (OR, 3.6; CI, 1.1–12). When either OSA or EDS were absent, the strength of the association with work disability was less than when both OSA and EDS were present. When OSA was examined without respect to EDS, patients with OSA were at increased risk of recent work disability relative to patients without OSA (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2–5.8), but the association of OSA with longer-term work duty modification did not meet standard criteria for statistical significance (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 0.8–5.0). Conclusions: The combination of OSA and EDS contributes to work disability, and OSA by itself contributes to recent work disability. These findings should highlight to employers and clinicians the importance of OSA in the workplace to encourage patients to be screened for OSA, particularly in situations of decreased productivity associated with EDS. Citation: Omachi TA; Claman DM; Blanc PD; Eisner MD. Obstructive sleep apnea: a risk factor for work disability. SLEEP 2009;32(6):791-798.
Omachi, Theodore A.; Claman, David M.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.
Background—The effect of sleep apnea on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity is mainly unknown. We aimed to study whether sleep apnea is related to stroke, death, or myocardial infarction in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. Methods and Results—A total of 392 men and women with coronary artery disease referred for coronary angiography were examined by use of overnight sleep apnea
Fredrik Valham; Thomas Mooe; Terje Rabben; Hans Stenlund; Urban Wiklund; Karl A. Franklin
The reliability of a POLYMESAM (PM) instrument in the detection of ventilatory disorders and in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) was evaluated in 50 subjects suspected for OSAS, simultaneously studied by polysomnography (PSG) in a sleep laboratory. Recordings were analysed by separate scorers, blinded to the results of the paired recording. The number of central (Ac), obstructive (Ao) or mixed apneas (Am), of hypopneas (H), and the total number of ventilatory disorders (AH) per hour of time in bed (TIB) calculated on the two recordings were significantly correlated. Bland and Altman analysis showed a good agreement between AH/TIB, Ac/TIB, Am/TIB and mean AH duration; a lower Ao/TIB at PM was mirrored by a higher H/TIB. Forty-two subjects had OSAS according to an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) > or = 10 at PSG. Due to low sleep efficiency, AH/TIB was substantially lower than AHI. However an AH/TIB > or = 5 at PM showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 71.4%, while an AH/TIB > or = 10 showed a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 100%. In conclusion, PM proved reliable for recognition of the characteristics of ventilatory disorders and for diagnosis of OSAS. PMID:11980277
Marrone, O; Salvaggio, A; Insalaco, G; Bonsignore, M R; Bonsignore, G
Objective. This technical report de- scribes the procedures involved in developing the recom- mendations of the Subcommittee on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in children. The group of primary in- terest for this report was otherwise healthy children older than 1 year who might have adenotonsillar hyper- trophy or obesity as underlying risk factors of obstruc- tive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
Michael S. Schechter
In the 19th century, several authors held the view that nightmares are caused by oxygen shortage. The present study was designed to study nightmare frequency in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and its relationship to respiratory parameters. A brief questionnaire was administered to 323 patients with sleep apnea syndrome before their first laboratory night. The reduction in nightmare frequency
Michael Schredl; Judith Schmitt; Gerhard Hein; Tina Schmoll; Sabine Eller; Janina Haaf
Background: Current research is inconclusive as to whether obstructive sleep apnea severity directly limits exercise capacity and lowers health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of obstructive sleep apnea severity with determinants of exercise capacity and HRQoL. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were evaluated by home somnography and classified as no obstructive sleep apnea (n = 43) or as having mild (n = 27), moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea (n = 21). Exercise capacity was assessed by a ramping cycle ergometer test, and HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: Greater obstructive sleep apnea severity was associated with older age, higher body weight, higher body mass index, lower peak aerobic capacity, a higher percentage of peak aerobic capacity at a submaximal exercise intensity of 55 watts, and lower physical component summary score from the SF-36. None of these variables were statistically different among obstructive sleep apnea severity groups after controlling for age and body weight. Obstructive sleep apnea severity was not associated with any cardiorespiratory fitness or HRQoL parameter. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea severity has no independent association with exercise capacity or HRQoL.
Butner, Katrina L; Hargens, Trent A; Kaleth, Anthony S; Miller, Larry E; Zedalis, Donald; Herbert, William G
We evaluated pulmonary function abnormalities associated with the sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in 170 habitual snorers without SAS (n 5 62, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) , 10 per hour of sleep), with moderately severe SAS (n 5 56, 10 < AHI , 30) or with severe SAS (n 5 52, AHI > 30). The three groups were similar regarding obesity (BMI
FRANÇOISE ZERAH-LANCNER; FRÉDÉRIC LOFASO; ANDRÉ COSTE; FRÉDÉRIC RICOLFI; FRANÇOISE GOLDENBERG; ALAIN HARF
Sleep apnea patients and obese subjects are overexposed to cardiovascular diseases. These two health conditions may be associated with hemorheological alterations which could increase the cardiovascular risk. The present study investigated the hemorheological characteristics in patients with overweight and/or sleep apnea to identify the main predictor of red blood cell (RBC) abnormalities in sleep apnea patients. Ninety-seven patients were subjected to one night sleep polygraphy to determine their sleep apnea status. Body mass index (BMI) and the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) were determined for categorization of obesity and sleep apnea status. Blood was sampled for hematocrit, blood viscosity, RBC deformability, aggregation and disaggregation threshold measurements. BMI and AHI were positively associated and were both positively associated with RBC aggregation. Analyses of covariance and multiple regression analyses revealed that BMI was more predictive of RBC aggregation than AHI. No association of BMI classes and AHI classes with RBC deformability or blood viscosity was observed. This study shows that increased RBC aggregation in sleep apnea patients is caused by overweight. Therapies to improve blood rheology in sleep apnea patients, and therefore reduce the risk for cardiovascular disorders, should focus on weight-loss. PMID:23271197
Sinnapah, Stéphane; Cadelis, Gilbert; Waltz, Xavier; Lamarre, Yann; Connes, Philippe
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is a very common sleep disorder that is associated with several neurocognitive impairments. The present study aims to assess the electroencephalographic (EEG) power before, during and after obstructive apnea episodes, in four frequency bands: delta (?), theta (?), alpha ? and beta (?). For that propose, continuous wavelet transform was applied to the EEG signals
Ana Luisa Coito; David Belo; Teresa Paiva; J. Miguel Sanches
No data are available on the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in Indians. We conducted a two-phase cross-sectional prevalence study for the same in healthy urban Indian males (35-65 years) coming to our hospital in Bombay for a routine health check. We also investigated its risk factors and evaluated the significance of the most
Zarir F. Udwadia; Amita V. Doshi; Sharmila G. Lonkar; Chandrajeet I. Singh
To determine its predictive value, polysomnography was performed on 14 snorers with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) before and 3 months after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). In the 8 patients considered as cured (less than 10 apneas per hour after UPPP), total apnea index (TAI) decreased from 29.7 ± 22.6 to 4.9 ± 3.5. Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) increased from 10.9 ±
Francois Philip-Joet; Marc Rey; Jean Michel Triglia; Martine Reynaud; Micheline Saadjian; Alain Saadjian; Alain Arnaud
A 53-year-old epileptic man had two seizures during polysomnography. Significant sleep apnea followed each (apnea-hypopnea indices (AHIs) of 22 and 20.4 for the 2 h following seizure one and 47.7 for the 53 min following seizure two). Lower hourly AHIs (range: 6.0-14.1) occurred for the remainder of the study. Results were not position-dependent. This suggests that epilepsy can transiently worsen sleep apnea, with implications for treatment. PMID:19473819
Trotti, Lynn M; Bliwise, Donald L
One of the hallmarks of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is loud snoring. Army conscripts sleep in barracks, and loud snorers are easily detected. We made polygraphic recordings from these snorers during one night spent in the hospital, to find the ones suffering from OSA. Forty-nine conscripts (all male; mean age, 21 +/- 2 years; body mass index, 25 +/- 3 kg/m2) were studied; 32 (65%) complained about daytime sleepiness, and one had caused a shipwreck during an episode of fatigue. Oxygen levels decreased 4 to 9% >20 times per hour (4-9% oxygen desaturation index [ODI4] of >20 hours) for three subjects (6%). Eleven additional subjects (22%) had ODI4 values of >10 hours. Four (8%) of them did not complain about daytime sleepiness. The mean apnea index (AI) was 11 +/- 13 hours; 20 patients (41%) had AI values exceeding 10 hours. ODI4 and AI were significantly correlated (r = 0.67; p < 0.001). Body mass index did not correlate significantly with ODI4 or apnea index. Approximately one-fifth of loudly snoring conscripts suffer from OSA. Loud snorers should be examined before being selected for duties requiring maintenance of high alertness. PMID:17803083
Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Savolainen, Seppo
The authors tested the hypothesis that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) signs/symptoms are associated with the occurrence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), using the OPPERA prospective cohort study of adults aged 18 to 44 years at enrollment (n = 2,604) and the OPPERA case-control study of chronic TMD (n = 1,716). In both the OPPERA cohort and case-control studies, TMD was examiner determined according to established research diagnostic criteria. People were considered to have high likelihood of OSA if they reported a history of sleep apnea or ? 2 hallmarks of OSA: loud snoring, daytime sleepiness, witnessed apnea, and hypertension. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence limits (CL) for first-onset TMD. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CL for chronic TMD. In the cohort, 248 individuals developed first-onset TMD during the median 2.8-year follow-up. High likelihood of OSA was associated with greater incidence of first-onset TMD (adjusted HR = 1.73; 95% CL, 1.14, 2.62). In the case-control study, high likelihood of OSA was associated with higher odds of chronic TMD (adjusted OR = 3.63; 95% CL, 2.03, 6.52). Both studies supported a significant association of OSA symptoms and TMD, with prospective cohort evidence finding that OSA symptoms preceded first-onset TMD. PMID:23690360
Sanders, A E; Essick, G K; Fillingim, R; Knott, C; Ohrbach, R; Greenspan, J D; Diatchenko, L; Maixner, W; Dubner, R; Bair, E; Miller, V E; Slade, G D
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is thought to be closely related to nasal airway resistance, which accounts for approximately one half of total upper airway resistance. This retrospective study aimed at elucidating the effect of endoscopic endonasal surgery on OSAS. Nine consecutive patients with OSAS complaining of nasal obstruction who underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery were enrolled. They were 8 men and 1 woman ranging from 34-73 years of age with an average of 53.2 years. All patients had chronic hypertrophic rhinitis and nasal septal deviation, and underwent septoplasty and submucous turbinectomy. The severity of OSAS was assessed by 8 sleep apnea indices of polysomnography before and after surgery. The indices included the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), maximum apnea time, mean apnea time, minimum blood oxygen saturation, mean blood oxygen saturation, blood oxygen saturation decline index, awakening response index, and ratio of snoring time to sleep time. Significant decrease in the AHI (27.6 +/- 5.3 vs. 20.7 +/- 5.5/hr; p = 0.033), in the awakening response index (30.5 +/- 3.3 vs. 21.2 +/- 5.3/hr; p = 0.028), and increase in the mean blood oxygen saturation (95.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 96.0 +/- 0.7%; p = 0.023) were observed postoperatively. There was no significant change in the other 5 indices. In addition, nasal airflow resistance measured by acoustic rhinometry had significantly reduced during the periods of both inhalation (474.4 +/- 49.0 vs. 842.7 +/- 50.2cm3/s; p = 0.002) and exhalation (467.3 +/- 57.3 vs. 866.0 +/- 80.6 cm3/s; p = 0.004). The pre- and postoperative body mass indices did not differ statistically from each other. These results indicate that endoscopic endonasal surgery alone has a potential effect on sleep-disordered breathing in OSAS patients with nasal obstruction. We should be aware of such a positive impact of endonasal surgery upon the management of OSAS. PMID:23980484
Takahashi, Risa; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Hohchi, Nobusuke; Takeuchi, Shoko; Ohkubo, Jun-ichi; Ikezaki, Shoji; Suzuki, Hideaki
Study Objective: We sought to determine the effect of severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on long-term outcomes after myocardial infarction. We hypothesized that severe OSA was associated with lower event-free survival rate after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: A total of 120 patients underwent an overnight sleep study during index admission for STEMI. Severe OSA was defined as apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ? 30, and non-severe OSA defined as AHI < 30. Results: Among the 105 patients who completed the study, 44 (42%) had severe OSA and 61 (58%) non-severe OSA. The median creatine kinase level and mean left ventricular systolic function were similar between the 2 groups. None of the 105 study patients had received treatments for OSA. Between 1- and 18-month follow-up, the severe OSA group incurred 1 death, 2 reinfarctions, 1 stroke, 6 unplanned target vessel revascularizations, and 1 heart failure hospitalization. In contrast, there were only 2 unplanned target vessel revascularizations in the non-severe OSA group. The incidence of major adverse events was significantly higher in the severe OSA group (15.9% versus 3.3%, adjusted hazard ratios: 5.36, 95% CI: 1.01 to 28.53, p = 0.049). Kaplan-Meier event-free survival curves showed the event-free survival rates in the severe OSA group was significantly worse than that in the non-severe OSA group (p = 0.021, log-rank test). Conclusion: 42% of the patients admitted with STEMI have undiagnosed severe OSA. Severe OSA carries a negative prognostic impact for this group of patients. It is associated with a lower event-free survival rate at 18-month follow-up. Citation: Lee CH; Khoo SM; Chan MY; Wong HB; Low AF; Phua QH; Richards AM; Tan HC; Yeo TC. Severe obstructive sleep apnea and outcomes following myocardial infarction. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):616–621.
Lee, Chi-Hang; Khoo, See-Meng; Chan, Mark Y.; Wong, Hwee-Bee; Low, Adrian F.; Phua, Qian-Hui; Richards, A. Mark; Tan, Huay-Cheem; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng
Study Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiopulmonary exercise performance in lean and obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared with controls. Design: Case-control study. Setting: The study was carried out in Sao Paulo Sleep Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Patients and Participants: Individuals with similar ages were allocated into groups: 22 to the lean OSA group, 36 to the lean control group, 31 to the obese OSA group, and 26 to the obese control group. Interventions: The participants underwent a clinical evaluation, polysomnography, a maximum limited symptom cardiopulmonary exercise test, two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, and spirometry. Measurements and Results: The apnea-hypopnea index, arousal index, lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and time of SaO2 < 90% were different among the groups. There were differences in functional capacity based on the following variables: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), P < 0.01 and maximal carbon dioxide production (VCO2max), P < 0.01. The obese patients with OSA and obese controls presented significantly lower VO2max and VCO2max values. However, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and anaerobic threshold (AT) did not differ between groups. Peak diastolic blood pressure (BP) was higher among the obese patients with OSA but was not accompanied by changes in peak systolic BP and heart rate (HR). When multiple regression was performed, body mass index (P < 0.001) and male sex in conjunction with diabetes (P < 0.001) independently predicted VO2max (mL/kg/min). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that obesity alone and sex, when associated with diabetes but not OSA, influenced exercise cardiorespiratory function. Citation: Rizzi CF; Cintra F; Mello-Fujita L; Rios LF; Mendonca ET; Feres MC; Tufik S; Poyares D. Does obstructive sleep apnea impair the cardiopulmonary response to exercise? SLEEP 2013;36(4):547-553.
Rizzi, Camila F.; Cintra, Fatima; Mello-Fujita, Luciane; Rios, Lais F.; Mendonca, Elisangela T.; Feres, Marcia C.; Tufik, Sergio; Poyares, Dalva
Sleep disordered breathing does show different types of events. These are obstructive apnea events, central apnea events and mixed sleep apnea (MSA) which have a central component with a pause in airflow without respiratory effort followed by an obstructive component with respiratory effort. The esophageal pressure (Pes) is the accurate method to assess respiratory effort. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the features extracted from photo-plethysmogram (PPG) could relate with the changes in Pes during MSA. Therefore, Pes and PPG signals during 65 pre-scored MSA events and 10 s preceding the events were collected from 8 patients. Pulse intervals (PPI), Pulse wave amplitudes (PWA) and wavelet decomposition (Wv) of PPG signals at level 8 (0.15-0.32 Hz) were derived from PPG signals. Results show that significant correlations (r = 0.63, p < 0.01; r = 0.42, p < 0.05; r = 0.8, p < 0.01 for OSA part) were found between reductions in Pes and that in PPG based surrogate respiratory signals PPI, PWA and Wv. Results suggest that PPG based relative respiratory effort signal can be considered as an alternative to Pes as a means of measuring changes in inspiratory effort when scoring OSA and CSA parts of MSA events. PMID:23695488
Khandoker, A H; Karmakar, C K; Penzel, T; Glos, M; Palaniswami, M
Increasing numbers of overweight children and adults are presenting to sleep medicine clinics for evaluation and treatment of sleepiness. Sleepiness negatively affects quality of life, mental health, productivity, and safety. Thus, it is essential to comprehensively address all potential causes of sleepiness. While many obese individuals presenting with hypersomnolence will be diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea and their sleepiness will improve with effective therapy for sleep apnea, a significant proportion of patients will continue to have hypersomnolence. Clinical studies demonstrate that obesity without sleep apnea is also associated with a higher prevalence of hypersomnolence and that bariatric surgery can markedly improve hypersomnolence before resolution of obstructive sleep apnea. High fat diet in both humans and animals is associated with hypersomnolence. This review critically examines the relationships between sleepiness, feeding, obesity, and sleep apnea and then discusses the hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory mechanisms potentially contributing to hypersomnolence in obesity, independent of sleep apnea and other established causes of excessive daytime sleepiness. Citation: Panossian LA; Veasey SC. Daytime sleepiness in obesity: mechanisms beyond obstructive sleep apnea—a review. SLEEP 2012;35(5):605-615.
Panossian, Lori A.; Veasey, Sigrid C.
Severe adenotonsillar hypertrophy can be the main cause of nocturnal respiratory affections, as confirmed by the improvement of symptoms seen after adenotonsillectomy. Unsuccessful surgical treatment can be due to craniofacial morphological alterations. Hypotony of the pharyngeal muscles could also be responsible together with tonsil hypertrophy. In our study, we enrolled 125 patients (87 males and 38 females), aged from 3 to 8 years, suffering from chronic snoring. All the patients underwent adenotonsillectomy. The follow-up was carried out at 2, 4 and 6 months after the operation. Snoring and nocturnal apneas were no longer present in almost all the patients. Overnight polysomnography remains the gold standard diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but its feasibility in clinical practice is debated. Rhinomanometry, which gives an objective evaluation of ventilatory nasal function, acoustic rhinometry, which measures the cross-section in fixed nasal areas, and nasal mucociliary transport time can be considered useful tests to evaluate the cause of respiratory obstruction. PMID:21865711
Passàli, Desiderio; De Benedetto, Michele; Lauriello, Maria; Passàli, Francesco Maria
In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), repetitive episodes of apnea cause increased sympathetic nerve activity, increased surges in arterial blood pressure, swings in intrathoracic pressure, oxidative stres, hypoxia and hypercapnia. The association of OSAS with some diseases, having endothelial dysfunction in their physiopathology, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, coronary artery diseases, stroke and heart failure is common. Increased sympathetic nerve activity and also endothelial dysfunction which are the results of hypoxia, have important roles in vascular complications of OSAS. When compared with healthy population, an important endothelial dysfunction in OSAS patients and relationship between OSAS severity and endothelial dysfunction have been shown. In this review, the relationship between OSAS and endothelial dysfunction was overviewed. PMID:16258893
Dursuno?lu, Ne?e; Dursuno?lu, Dursun
Numerous medical disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, may cause nocturnal diaphoresis. Previous work has associated severe obstructive sleep apnea with nocturnal diaphoresis. This case report is of import as our patient with severe nocturnal diaphoresis manifested only mild sleep apnea, and, for years, his nocturnal diaphoresis was ascribed to other causes, i.e., first prostate cancer and then follicular B-cell lymphoma. Additionally, it was the nocturnal diaphoresis and not more common symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, such as snoring, that led to the definitive diagnosis of his sleep apnea and then to treatment with a gratifying resolution of his onerous symptom. PMID:23853568
Vorona, Robert Daniel; Szklo-Coxe, Mariana; Fleming, Mark; Ware, J Catesby
The objective of this study was to determine whether impaired upper airway (UA) mucosal sensation contributes to altered swallowing function in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We determined UA two-point discrimination threshold (2PDT) and vibratory sensation threshold (VST) in 15 men with untreated OSA and 9 nonapneic controls (CL). We then assessed swallowing responses to oropharyngeal fluid boluses delivered via a catheter. The threshold volume required to provoke swallowing and the mean latency to swallowing were determined, as was the phase of the respiratory cycle in which swallowing occurred [expressed as percentage of control cycle duration (%CCD)] and the extent of prolongation of the respiratory cycle after swallowing [inspiratory suppression time (IST)]. 2PDT and VST were significantly impaired in OSA patients compared with CL subjects. 2PDT was positively correlated with swallowing latency and threshold volume in CL subjects, but not in OSA patients. Threshold volume did not differ between the groups [median value = 0.1 ml (95% confidence interval = 0.1-0.2) for OSA and 0.15 ml (95% confidence interval = 0.1-0.16) for CL], whereas swallowing latency was shorter for OSA patients [3.3 (SD 0.7) vs. 3.9 (SD 0.8) s, P = 0.04]. %CCD and IST were similar for OSA patients and CL subjects. However, among OSA patients there was a significant inverse relation between VST and IST. These findings suggest that oropharyngeal sensory impairment in OSA is associated with an attenuation of inhibitory modulating inputs to reflex and central control of UA swallowing function. PMID:17185498
Jobin, Vincent; Champagne, Victoria; Beauregard, Josée; Charbonneau, Isabelle; McFarland, David H; Kimoff, R John
Background A 60-year-old male with obesity (body-mass index 43 kg\\/m2) presented with recurrent symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF), which he had had since age 41 years. The AF was refractory to treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs. Pacemaker implantation for tachycardia–bradycardia syndrome was required as well as ablation for atrial flutter, and the patient underwent a total of four DC cardioversions. Sleep studies
Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer; Virend K Somers; Paul A Friedman; Paul J Wang; Mina K Chung
Study Objectives: To examine episodic memory performance in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design Meta-analysis was used to synthesize results from individual studies examining the impact of OSA on episodic memory performance. The performance of individuals with OSA was compared to healthy controls or normative data. Participants Forty-two studies were included, comprising 2,294 adults with untreated OSA and 1,364 healthy controls. Studies that recorded information about participants at baseline prior to treatment interventions were included in the analysis. Measurements Participants were assessed with tasks that included a measure of episodic memory: immediate recall, delayed recall, learning, and/or recognition memory. Results: The results of the meta-analyses provide evidence that individuals with OSA are significantly impaired when compared to healthy controls on verbal episodic memory (immediate recall, delayed recall, learning, and recognition) and visuo-spatial episodic memory (immediate and delayed recall), but not visual immediate recall or visuo-spatial learning. When patients were compared to norms, negative effects of OSA were found only in verbal immediate and delayed recall. Conclusions: This meta-analysis contributes to understanding of the nature of episodic memory deficits in individuals with OSA. Impairments to episodic memory are likely to affect the daily functioning of individuals with OSA. Citation Wallace A; Bucks RS. Memory and obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis. SLEEP 2013;36(2):203-220.
Wallace, Anna; Bucks, Romola S.
CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. Illuminate the relationship between childhood obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). 2. Determine the complications associated with obesity and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). 3. Discuss currently recommended management options for OSA in the obese child or adolescent. The prevalence of obesity in the pediatric population has dramatically increased in the last 30 years. While the adverse health effects of obesity have long been recognized in adults, many of these complications are now understood to begin in early childhood. Obese children and adolescents are significantly more likely than their peers of healthy weight to suffer from obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome. In turn, affected individuals may experience myriad serious clinical sequelae; neuro-cognitive, psychiatric, cardiovascular, and endocrinologic complications have each been extensively documented. Thus, the spectrum of obesity-related disease represents a serious but preventable threat to personal and family wellness; additionally, it is a source of considerable health care expenditure and represents a national and international health crisis. The optimal care of these patients will be best achieved through the pediatric health care provider's timely recognition of these clinical problems and knowledge of appropriate intervention strategies. PMID:24126983
Nevin, Mary A
Introduction The present study investigated whether autonomic control of the heart for persons with low and high levels of sleep apnea\\/hypopnea\\u000a differed between sleep stages and across the sleep period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion Electrocardiography and impedance cardiography of 24 patients referred to polysomnography were recorded through the night.\\u000a A mixed repeated-measures and between-subjects, quasi-experimental design was utilized. Heart period, high frequency heart\\u000a rate variability,
Sérgio P. da Silva; Verne D. Hulce; Richard W. Backs
Study Objectives: Females with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show different psychological and physiological symptoms from males, which may be associated with sex-related variations in neural injury occurring with the disorder. To determine whether male- or female-specific brain injury is present in OSA, we assessed influences of sex on white matter changes in the condition. Design: Two-group factorial. Setting: University medical center. Patients or Participants: 80 subjects total, with newly diagnosed, untreated OSA groups of 10 female (age mean ± SE: 52.6 ± 2.4 years, AHI 22.5 ± 4.1 events/h) and 20 male (age 48.9 ± 1.7, AHI 25.5 ± 2.9) patients, and 20 female (age 50.3 ± 1.7) and 30 male (age 49.2 ± 1.4) healthy control subjects. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Brain fiber integrity was assessed with fractional anisotropy (FA), a diffusion tensor imaging-derived measure. Sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, depression, and anxiety were assessed with questionnaires. We identified regions of differing injury in male versus female OSA patients by assessing brain regions with significant interaction effects of OSA and sex on FA. Areas of sex-specific, OSA-related FA reductions appeared in females relative to males, including in the bilateral cingulum bundle adjacent to the mid hippocampus, right stria terminalis near the amygdala, prefrontal and posterior-parietal white matter, corpus callosum, and left superior cerebellar peduncle. Females with OSA showed higher daytime sleepiness, anxiety and depression levels, and reduced sleep quality. Conclusions: Sex differences in white matter structural integrity appeared in OSA patients, with females more affected than males. These female-specific structural changes may contribute to or derive from neuropsychological and physiological symptom differences between sexes. Citation: Macey PM; Kumar R; Yan-Go FL; Woo MA; Harper RM. Sex differences in white matter alterations accompanying obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1603-1613.
Macey, Paul M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Yan-Go, Frisca L.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.
Study Objectives: Structural and functional brain changes may contribute to neural dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the effect of OSA on resting-state brain activity has not been established. The objective of this study was to investigate alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the common brain networks in patients with OSA and their relationships with changes in gray matter volume (GMV) in the corresponding brain regions. Designs: Resting-state functional and structural MRI data were acquired from patients with OSA and healthy controls. Seven brain networks were identified by independent component analysis. The rsFC in each network was compared between groups and the GMV of brain regions with significant differences in rsFC was also compared. Setting: University hospital. Patients and Participants: Twenty-four male patients with untreated OSA and 21 matched healthy controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: OSA specifically affected the cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks but not the visual and auditory networks. The medial prefrontal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed decreased rsFC and GMV in patients with OSA, suggesting structural and functional deficits. The right DLPFC and left precentral gyrus showed decreased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting a functional deficit. The right posterior cingulate cortex demonstrated increased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting functional compensation. In patients with OSA, the rsFC of the right DLPFC was negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusions: OSA specifically affects resting-state functional connectivity in cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks, which may be related to the impaired cognitive and motor functions in these patients. Citation: Zhang Q; Wang D; Qin W; Li Q; Chen B; Zhang Y; Yu C. Altered resting-state brain activity in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2013;36(5):651-659.
Zhang, Quan; Wang, Dawei; Qin, Wen; Li, Qiong; Chen, Baoyuan; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate neuropsychological performance and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the relationships between these factors. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study of 14 patients (36.0±6.5 years old) with obstructive sleep apnea and 13 controls (37.3±6.9 years old). All of the participants were clinically evaluated and underwent full-night polysomnography as well as neuropsychological tests. Blood samples were used to assay superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and homocysteine, as well as vitamins E, C, B11 and B12. RESULTS: The patients performed poorly relative to the controls on several neuropsychological tests, such as the attention test and tests of long-term memory and working memory/executive function. They also had lower levels of vitamin E (p<0.006), superoxide dismutase (p<0.001) and vitamin B11 (p<0.001), as well as higher concentrations of homocysteine (p<0.02). Serum concentrations of vitamin C, catalase, glutathione and vitamin B12 were unaltered. Vitamin E levels were related to performance in the backward digit span task (F?=?15.9; p?=?0.002) and this correlation remained after controlling for age and body mass index (F?=?6.3, p?=?0.01). A relationship between superoxide dismutase concentrations and executive non-perseveration errors in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (F?=?7.9; p?=?0.01) was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased levels of antioxidants and lower performance on the neuropsychological tasks were observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. This study suggests that an imbalance between antioxidants and pro-oxidants may contribute to neuropsychological alterations in this patient population.
Sales, Leticia Viana; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales; D'Almeida, Vania; Pompeia, Sabine; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder. It usually results from the structural compromise of the upper airway. In patients with OSA, the obstruction predominantly occurs along the pharyngeal airway, and also a variety of tumors have been reported to cause such a condition. We present here the case of a thyroglossal duct cyst causing OSA in adult. This case demonstrates that thyroglossal duct cyst or some kind of mass lesions in the airway lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of OSA patients.
Jung, Hahn Jin; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Lee, Chul Hee; Chung, Young Jun
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder. It usually results from the structural compromise of the upper airway. In patients with OSA, the obstruction predominantly occurs along the pharyngeal airway, and also a variety of tumors have been reported to cause such a condition. We present here the case of a thyroglossal duct cyst causing OSA in adult. This case demonstrates that thyroglossal duct cyst or some kind of mass lesions in the airway lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of OSA patients. PMID:24069524
Jung, Hahn Jin; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Lee, Chul Hee; Chung, Young Jun; Mo, Ji-Hun
Sleep apnea is a common respiratory disorder during sleep, which is described as a cessation of airflow to the lungs that\\u000a lasts at least for 10 s and is associated with at least 4% drop in blood’s oxygen saturation level (SaO2). The current gold standard method for sleep apnea assessment is full-night polysomnography (PSG). However, its high cost,\\u000a inconvenience for patients,
Azadeh Yadollahi; Eleni Giannouli; Zahra Moussavi
Sleep fragmentation and respiratory disturbance measures are used in the assessment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but have proved to be disappointingly poor correlates of daytime sleepiness. This study investigates the ability of electroencephalograph (EEG) and non-EEG sleep fragmentation indi- ces to predict both presenting sleepiness and the improvement in sleepiness with subsequent nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy
LESLEY S. BENNETT; BEVERLY A. LANGFORD; JOHN R. STRADLING; ROBERT J. O. DAVIES
Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can lead to important neurobehavioral consequences including cognitive deficits, hyperactivity/inattention, daytime sleepiness, and mood disturbances. Interestingly, the potential role of OSA in the pathogenesis of impulse-control disorders such as nail biting (onychophagia) is currently unknown. We present a case of a man with severe onychophagia and biting-induced finger mutilation that was completely resolved after diagnosis and treatment of severe OSA. Accordingly, this report represents an important clinical observation that suggests a connection between sleep physiology and the neurobiological circuits implicated in the regulation of impulse-control behaviors. Further research in this area may improve our current understanding of the neurobehavioral consequences of untreated OSA. PMID:23585754
Nino, Gustavo; Singareddy, Ravi
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children is a highly prevalent disorder caused by a conglomeration of complex pathophysiological processes, leading to recurrent upper airway dysfunction during sleep. The clinical relevance of OSA resides in its association with significant morbidities that affect the cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and metabolic systems. The American Academy of Pediatrics recently reiterated its recommendations that children with symptoms and signs suggestive of OSA should be investigated with polysomnography (PSG), and treated accordingly. However, treatment decisions should not only be guided by PSG results, but should also integrate the magnitude of symptoms and the presence or absence of risk factors and signs of OSA morbidity. The first-line therapy in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy is adenotonsillectomy, although there is increasing evidence that medical therapy, in the form of intranasal steroids or montelukast, may be considered in mild OSA. In this review, we delineate the major concepts regarding the pathophysiology of OSA, its morbidity, diagnosis, and treatment.
Tan, Hui-Leng; Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila
Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome is characterized by repeated airway collapse during sleep. The literature describes multiple causes of the disease. The main cause is a reduction of the expansion forces of the pharyngeal dilator muscles, as in situations of genioglossal muscle dysfunction, and discoordination between the inspiratory activity of the muscle and respiratory effort, which play an important role in progression of the disease. Other described causes are soft tissue disorders, such as macroglossia or tonsillar hypertrophy, and skeletal structural alterations such as micrognathia and retrognathia. The syndrome is also more frequent in obese people, where the accumulation of fat in the neck region produces narrowing of the pharyngeal airway, thereby diminishing the passage of air. This review focuses on the pathogenesis, epidemiology, main features and diagnosis of the disease, and on its main forms of treatment. PMID:22549673
Azagra-Calero, Eva; Espinar-Escalona, Eduardo; Barrera-Mora, José-María; Llamas-Carreras, José-María; Solano-Reina, Enrique
To find an efficient and valid alternative of polysomnography (PSG), this paper investigates real-time sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) detection based on electrocardiograph (ECG) and saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO(2)) signals, individually and in combination. We include ten machine-learning algorithms in our classification experiment. It is shown that our proposed SpO (2) features outperform the ECG features in terms of diagnostic ability. More importantly, we propose classifier combination to further enhance the classification performance by harnessing the complementary information provided by individual classifiers. With our selected SpO(2) and ECG features, the classifier combination using AdaBoost with Decision Stump, Bagging with REPTree, and either kNN or Decision Table achieves sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all around 82% for a minute-based real-time SAHS detection over 25 sleep-disordered-breathing suspects' full overnight recordings. PMID:22353404
Xie, Baile; Minn, Hlaing
Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We investigated myocardial perfusion using real-time quantitative myocardial contrast echocardiography with concurrent assessment of macrovascular and microvascular endothelial dysfunction in normotensive subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, who were compared with hypertensive and healthy subjects, as well as the impact of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on obstructive sleep apnea subjects. We measured flow (hyperemia)-mediated dilation and response to glyceryl trinitrate of brachial artery (ultrasound), cutaneous perfusion responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside (laser Doppler), pulse wave velocity, and circulating endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells in a total of 108 subjects (n=36 each of matched obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and healthy cohorts). Subjects with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension demonstrated abnormal myocardial perfusion (P<0.001 for both comparisons), attenuated brachial artery reactivity (P<0.001), and cutaneous perfusion responses (P<0.001) compared with healthy individuals. Both hypertensive and obstructive sleep apnea patients showed significant improvements in myocardial perfusion (P<0.01), brachial artery reactivity (P<0.001), and cutaneous perfusion responses (P<0.001) after 26 weeks of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. There were no significant differences in pulse wave velocity and endothelial cells across the 3 groups. Concomitant endothelial dysfunction and impaired myocardial perfusion are present in otherwise normal subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, and effective continuous positive airway pressure treatment reverses many of these macrovascular/microvascular abnormalities. PMID:21747042
Butt, Mehmood; Khair, Omer A; Dwivedi, Girish; Shantsila, Alena; Shantsila, Eduard; Lip, Gregory Y H
Context: Questionnaire studies linked symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Whether this association is present when OSA is assessed objectively by polysomnography is not known. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between pregnancy, OSA, and GDM. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted observational case-control studies using polysomnography in 15 nonpregnant, nondiabetic women (NP-NGT), 15 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (P-NGT), and 15 pregnant women with GDM (P-GDM). The groups were frequency matched for age and race/ethnicity. Pregnant women were studied during the late second to early third trimester. Main Outcome Measures: Comparisons of OSA diagnosis and sleep parameters between NP-NGT and P-NGT to assess the impact of pregnancy and between P-NGT and P-GDM to explore the association between GDM and OSA were measured. Results: Compared with NP-NGT, P-NGT women had a higher apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (median 2.0 vs 0.5, P = .03) and more disrupted sleep as reflected by a higher wake time after sleep onset (median 66 vs 21 min, P < .01) and a higher microarousal index (median 16.4 vs 10.6, P = .01). Among the pregnant women, P-GDM had markedly lower total sleep time (median 397 vs 464 min, P = .02) and a higher AHI (median 8.2 vs 2.0, P = .05) than P-NGT women. OSA was more prevalent in P-GDM than in P-NGT women (73% vs 27%, P = .01). After adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index, the diagnosis of GDM was associated with a diagnosis of OSA [odds ratio 6.60 (95% confidence interval 1.15-37.96)]. In pregnancy, after adjusting for prepregnancy body mass index, higher microarousal index significantly associated with higher hemoglobin A1c and fasting glucose levels. Higher oxygen desaturation index was associated with higher fasting glucose levels. Conclusion: Pregnancy is associated with sleep disturbances. Sleep is more disturbed in GDM than in P-NGT women. There is a strong association between GDM and OSA. PMID:23966237
Reutrakul, Sirimon; Zaidi, Nausheen; Wroblewski, Kristen; Kay, Helen H; Ismail, Mahmoud; Ehrmann, David A; Van Cauter, Eve
The physiopathology of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is multifactorial. Gender and obesity status, as well as genetic, anatomic, and hormonal factors, together with ventilatory drive, interact in a diverse manner in the physiopathology and clinical expression of the disease. Obesity is the main risk factor, since increases in body mass index, visceral fat, and neck circumference are strong predictors of the disease. Progesterone increases the activity of the upper airway dilator muscles and therefore plays a protective role in premenopausal women. This explains the fact that the prevalence of the disease is higher in postmenopausal patients, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as in males. Evidence supports the fact that, as individuals grow older, there is a decrease in muscle tonus, with a consequent reduction in the dimensions of the upper airway lumen. Craniofacial anomalies, such as in retrognathia or micrognathia, are accompanied by posterior positioning of the tongue and can result in narrowing of the upper airway lumen. Finally, decreased ventilatory drive has been detected in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypercapnia. PMID:17568874
Martins, Andrea Barral; Tufik, Sérgio; Moura, Sonia Maria Guimaraes Pereira Togeiro
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a widespread disorder characterized by recurrent, partial, or complete episodes of apnea due to upper airway tract obstruction during sleep. OSAS frequency is likely to increase in hypothyroidism because of obesity, macroglossia, dysfunctional upper respiratory tractus (URT) musculature, deposition of mucopolysaccharides in URT tissues, and decreased ventilatory control. This study examines the relationship between OSAS and thyroid disease in OSAS subjects. This study includes 150 polysomnographically diagnosed OSAS patients (50 mild, 50 moderate, 50 severe OSAS cases) treated at Endocrinology and Metabolism Department of Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital between January 2010 and May 2011 and 32 non-OSAS control subjects. All patients were given serum TSH, free T3 (fT3), free T4 (fT4), anti thyroid peroxidase (Anti-TPO), and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) tests, as well as thyroid ultrasounds. We did not find any difference in prevalence of hypothyroidism, numbers of nodules and parenchyma heterogenicity determined by ultrasound, between OSAS subgroups and controls (p > 0,05). In this study, functional and ultrasonographic examination of the thyroid gland did not reveal any relationship between OSAS and thyroid disease. We believe hence that long-term follow-up studies can establish the possible significance of routine evaluation of OSAS patients for thyroid disease. PMID:23564558
Mete, Turkan; Yalcin, Yavuz; Berker, Dilek; Ciftci, Bulent; Guven Firat, Selma; Topaloglu, Oya; Cinar Yavuz, Halise; Guler, Serdar
The sleep architectures of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in the young child (child-OSAS, n = 17; mean age: 5.9+/-2.7 years; male:female 14:3) were compared with that of OSAS in the adult (n = 19; mean age: 44.7+/-10.7 years; male:female 18:1) and that of primary snoring in the child (n = 5; mean age: 7.0+/-2.4 years; male:female 5:0). Child-OSAS and OSAS in the adult had the same severity in oxygen desaturation. Child-OSAS showed lower Apnea-Hypopnea Index compared with OSAS in the adult. Sleep continuity in child-OSAS was not impaired compared with OSAS in the adult. Sleep fragmentation in child-OSAS was not so remarkable. The quantity of slow wave sleep in child-OSAS was similar to that of primary snoring in the child. Both profiles of sleep architectures showed nearly the same pattern. PMID:11186099
Yamadera, W; Chiba, S; Itoh, H; Ozone, M; Takahashi, T; Sasaki, M; Ushijima, S; Moriyama, H
We derived descriptive characteristics related to habitual sleep duration and insomnia for individuals newly diagnosed with sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome and evaluated how sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome, insomnia, depression, and sleep duration relate to sleepiness and fatigue. In total, 100 participants were divided into three sleep groups: short (<7 hours), long (? 8 hours), and midrange (7-7.9 hours). Polysomnography, insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue, depression, and gender were assessed. Half of the participants were short sleepers. They were more likely to have insomnia than midrange or long sleepers and they were more likely to be sleepy than midrange or long sleepers, regardless of insomnia. PMID:23345390
Fichten, Catherine S; Creti, Laura; Rizzo, Dorrie; Bailes, Sally; Baltzan, Marc; Amsel, Rhonda; Libman, Eva
In the case reported here, a 34-year-old man with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome had arterial hypertension and had had a stroke that caused right hemiplegia. A review of the literature reveals a surprisingly high occurrence of arterial hypertension in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, including children. The cause of hypertension in these patients is not clear. Surgical procedures and a new nonsurgical treatment have been successful in relieving the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. Our patient's symptoms resolved completely after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and tonsillectomy. However, his arterial hypertension persisted. PMID:4059136
Tikare, S K; Chaudhary, B A; Bandisode, M S
The diagnosis and management of insomnia relies primarily on clinical history. However, patient self-report of sleep-wake times may not agree with objective measurements. We hypothesized that those with shallow or fragmented sleep would under-report sleep quantity, and that this might account for some of the mismatch. We compared objective and subjective sleep-wake times for 277 patients who underwent diagnostic polysomnography. The group included those with insomnia symptoms (n = 92), obstructive sleep apnea (n = 66) or both (n = 119). Mismatch of wake duration was context dependent: all three groups overestimated sleep latency but underestimated wakefulness after sleep onset. The insomnia group underestimated total sleep time by a median of 81 min. However, contrary to our hypothesis, measures of fragmentation (N1, arousal index, sleep efficiency, etc.) did not correlate with the subjective sleep duration estimates. To unmask a potential relationship between sleep architecture and subjective duration, we tested three hypotheses: N1 is perceived as wake; sleep bouts under 10 min are perceived as wake; or N1 and N2 are perceived in a weighted fashion. None of these hypotheses exposed a match between subjective and objective sleep duration. We show only modest performance of a Naïve Bayes Classifier algorithm for predicting mismatch using clinical and polysomnographic variables. Subjective-objective mismatch is common in patients reporting insomnia symptoms. We conclude that mismatch was not attributable to commonly measured polysomnographic measures of fragmentation. Further insight is needed into the complex relationships between subjective perception of sleep and conventional, objective measurements. PMID:23521019
Bianchi, Matt T; Williams, Kathryn L; McKinney, Scott; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M
|Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The effects of intermittent upper airway obstruction include alveolar hypoventilation, altered arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors, which leads to frequent arousals. These arousals disturb sleep…
Levitzky, Michael G.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease with substantial health and economic impact [1–3]. During sleep, the upper airway collapses repeatedly leading to sleep fragmentation and oxyhemoglobin desaturation. Furthermore, there are compelling epidemiologic data implicating OSA in the development of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular events. For example, Marin et al.  published data from a cohort of patients with
Nabil M. Al Lawati; Najib T. Ayas
Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during childhood and the effects of growth and maturation on CPAP requirements. Design: Retrospective study with use of a written questionnaire administered to pediatric practitioners treating sleep disorders. Setting: Nine academic pediatric sleep disorders centers. Results: Data were obtained for 94
Carole L. Marcus; Sally L. Davidson Ward; George B. Mallory; Carol L. Rosen; Robert C. Beckerman; Debra E. Weese-Mayer; Robert T. Brouillette; Ha T. Trang; Lee J. Brooks
Context Sleep abnormalities, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), have been associated with insulin resistance. Objective To determine the relationship between sleep, including OSA, and glucose parameters in a prospectively assembled cohort of chronically sleep-deprived obese subjects. Design Cross-sectional evaluation of a prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. Main Outcome Measure(s) Sleep duration and quality assessed by actigraphy, sleep diaries and questionnaires, OSA determined by a portable device; glucose metabolism assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT), and HbA1c concentrations in 96 obese individuals reporting sleeping less than 6.5 h on a regular basis. Results Sixty % of subjects had an abnormal respiratory disturbance index (RDI?5) and 44% of these subjects had abnormal oGTT results. Severity of OSA as assessed by RDI score was associated with fasting glucose (R?=?0.325, p?=?0.001) and fasting insulin levels (??=?0.217, p?=?0.033). Subjects with moderate to severe OSA (RDI>15) had higher glucose concentrations at 120 min than those without OSA (RDI<5) (p?=?0.017). Subjects with OSA also had significantly higher concentrations of plasma ACTH (p?=?0.009). Several pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in subjects with OSA (p<0.050). CRP levels were elevated in this sample, suggesting increased cardiovascular risk. Conclusions OSA is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in obese, sleep deprived individuals. Since sleep apnea is common and frequently undiagnosed, health care providers should be aware of its occurrence and associated risks. Trial Registration This study was conducted under the NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036 and is listed in ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898
Cizza, Giovanni; Piaggi, Paolo; Lucassen, Eliane A.; de Jonge, Lilian; Walter, Mary; Mattingly, Megan S.; Kalish, Heather; Csako, Gyorgy; Rother, Kristina I.
Recent clinical trials have shown that electrical stimulation has beneficial effects in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of electrical stimulation therapy for OSAS with a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of all relative studies was performed through searching international literature, including PUBMED, CNKI, and EMBASE databases. This literature analysis compared all patients undergoing electrical stimulation therapy with respect to the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and changes in sleep structure. Six studies were selected involving a total of 91 patients. The meta-analysis indicated that electrical stimulation therapy reduced RDI, longest apnea time, and improved the minimum SaO2. Based on the evidence found, electrical stimulation may be a potential therapy for OSAS, warranting further clinical trials. PMID:24142709
Tan, Jie-Wen; Qi, Wei-Wei; Ye, Rui-Xin; Wu, Yuan-Yuan
Rationale: Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) recruits lingual muscles, reduces pharyngeal collapsibility, and treats sleep apnea. Objectives: We hypothesized that graded increases in HGNS relieve pharyngeal obstruction progressively during sleep. Methods: Responses were examined in 30 patients with sleep apnea who were implanted with an HGNS system. Current (milliampere) was increased stepwise during non-REM sleep. Frequency and pulse width were fixed. At each current level, stimulation was applied on alternating breaths, and responses in maximal inspiratory airflow (VImax) and inspiratory airflow limitation (IFL) were assessed. Pharyngeal responses to HGNS were characterized by the current levels at which VImax first increased and peaked (flow capture and peak flow thresholds), and by the VImax increase from flow capture to peak (?VImax). Measurements and Main Results: HGNS produced linear increases in VImax from unstimulated levels at flow capture to peak flow thresholds (215 ± 21 to 509 ± 37 ml/s; mean ± SE; P < 0.001) with increasing current from 1.05 ± 0.09 to 1.46 ± 0.11 mA. VImax increased in all patients and IFL was abolished in 57% of patients (non-IFL subgroup). In the non-IFL compared with IFL subgroup, the flow response slope was greater (1241 ± 199 vs. 674 ± 166 ml/s/mA; P < 0.05) and the stimulation amplitude at peak flow was lower (1.23 ± 0.10 vs. 1.80 ± 0.20 mA; P < 0.05) without differences in peak flow. Conclusions: HGNS produced marked dose-related increases in airflow without arousing patients from sleep. Increases in airflow were of sufficient magnitude to eliminate IFL in most patients and IFL and non-IFL subgroups achieved normal or near-normal levels of flow, suggesting potential HGNS efficacy across a broad range of sleep apnea severity.
Barnes, Maree; Hillman, David; Malhotra, Atul; Kezirian, Eric; Smith, Philip L.; Hoegh, Thomas; Parrish, Daniel; Eastwood, Peter R.
Study Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate cardiovascular autonomic activity during wakefulness, using cardiovascular tests, in a population of children with OSAS. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Sleep unit of an academic center. Participants: We included 25 children (mean age 10.2 ± 2.3 years) undergoing a diagnostic assessment for OSAS, and 25 age-matched healthy control subjects. All subjects underwent an overnight polysomnography and autonomic cardiovascular tests using parts of the Ewing test battery, which is a physiological test used for the assessment of autonomic function (head-up tilt test, Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing test). Measurements and Results: Eighteen of 25 children with OSAS (11 males, mean age 9.4 ± 1.7 years) concluded the study. OSAS patients had higher systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, baseline heart rate, the 30:15 index (which represents the RR interval at the 15th and 30th beats during the head up tilt test), and delta diastolic and systolic blood pressure during the head-up tilt test, while the heart rate variability during the deep breathing test was lower, compared with controls. A positive correlation between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and negative between AHI and both the 30:15 index and Valsalva ratio, were found. Stepwise linear regression analysis detected a negative correlation between AHI and the 30:15 index and Valsalva ratio, a positive correlation between overnight mean oxygen saturation and delta heart rate, and between AHI and delta systolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Our data point to an increase in basal sympathetic activity during wakefulness and to an impaired reaction to several physiological stimuli, which is dependent on the severity of OSAS. Citation: Montesano M; Miano S; Paolino MC; Massolo AC; Ianniello F; Forlani M; Villa MP. Autonomic cardiovascular tests in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2010;33(10):1349-1355.
Montesano, Marilisa; Miano, Silvia; Paolino, Maria Chiara; Massolo, Anna Claudia; Ianniello, Filomena; Forlani, Martina; Villa, Maria Pia
We used sophisticated volumetric analysis techniques with mag- netic resonance imaging in a case-control design to study the upper airway soft tissue structures in 48 control subjects (apnea-hypopnea index, 2.0 1.6 events\\/hour) and 48 patients with sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index, 43.8 25.4 events\\/hour). Our design used exact matching on sex and ethnicity, frequency matching on age, and statistical control for
Richard J. Schwab; Michael Pasirstein; Robert Pierson; Adonna Mackley; Robert Hachadoorian; Raanan Arens; Greg Maislin; Allan I. Pack
The wearable respiratory inductive plethysmograph(RIP) system is a non-intrusive respiratory monitoring system. Sleep monitoring was performed on 9 human subjects suspected of having sleep apnea hypersomnolence syndrome (SAHS) and 7 healthy volunteers using both the wearable RIP system and the conventional polysomnography(PSG), and the sensitivity and specificity of the wearable RIP system were analyzed by comparison with the PSG results. According to the characteristic of the wearable RIP system in detecting sleep apnea/hypopnea event, the diagnostic criteria of sleep apnea/hypopnea event were put forward. All subjects with SAHS diagnosed by the wearable RIP were confirmed by PSG,the sensitivity and specificity of the wearable RIP system for detecting sleep apnea/hypopnea events were 99.0% and 94.6% respectively. The wearable RIP system can be used reliably in detecting sleep apnea/hypopnea events. This system can be used at home for detecting the sleep apnea/hypopnea events non-intrusively. PMID:18610614
Zhang, Zhengbo; Bi, Yaqiong; Yu, Mengsun; Wu, Taihu; Li, Ruoxin
Sleep disturbances in obstructive sleep apnea are caused mainly by repetitive apneas and hypopneas. An alternative factor contributing to disordered sleep may be the obesity, which is frequently associated with sleep apnea. The sleep disturbing effect of obesity was found previously in obese nonapneic subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity on sleep quality in sleep apnea patients in particular in patients under continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with successfully normalized respiration. We reviewed the archive data of 18 non-obese, 18 obese and 17 severely obese age and gender matched sleep apnea patients treated with CPAP. The polysomnographic parameters from the diagnostic night, from the second night under CPAP and from the follow up night (after three months of CPAP use) were compared. Before CPAP the apnea hypopnea index was worse in obese and in severely obese group and it normalised under CPAP in all groups. The severely obese group showed more light sleep and less REM sleep before CPAP and inversely - less light and more REM sleep in the second night under CPAP than the non-obese group. In the follow up, there was no differences in sleep profile between groups. This study indicates obesity does not affect the sleep independently of respiratory disorders. Before therapy it is associated with more severe sleep apnea and indirectly with worse sleep quality. PMID:22791640
Antczak, J; Horn, B; Richter, A; Bodenschatz, R; Latuszynski, K; Schmidt, E W; Jernajczyk, W
E know that certain subpopulations of children undergoing tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy, particularly those with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), are at greater risk for severe and occasionally life-threatening postoperative complications. Increased oxygen requirements, and a higher incidence of airway obstruction and apnea are often observed in these patients. In this issue of the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, Koomson et al. have
Charles J. Coté; Stephen H. Sheldon
Regularity of overnight pulse oximetry data, which can be quantified using entropy, may be used to characterize severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this paper three entropy measures, namely Shannon-, approximate-and sample entropy, were compared in terms of their ability to discriminate between mild and severe OSAS. In a group of 5 mild OSAS subjects, with apnea hypopnea
Spyretta Golemati; Veronika Zourou; Konstantina S. Nikita
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is considerably more common in men than women. Preliminary data suggest that androgens may play a role in the male predominance of apnea. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by menstrual disturbances, androgen excess, and frequently obesity. These features suggest that women with PCOS may be at increased risk for OSA. To determine whether obese women
ROBERT B. FOGEL; ATUL MALHOTRA; GIORA PILLAR; STEPHEN D. PITTMAN; ANDREA DUNAIF; DAVID P. WHITE
Background: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) often complain of dryness of mouth and throat prior to and during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). It is believed that this is due to mouth breathing (MB). However, the association between mouth breathing and apneas\\/hypopneas and the effect of CPAP on MB has not been studied. Objectives: The purpose of
Karl Heinz Ruhle; Georg Nilius
A case of sleep apnea syndrome wwas successfully treated by transfusion of 'vital energy'. The donor was the patient's son, 20 years old and healthy. The machine used was type 701 electroacupuncture apparatus. Treatment was carried out by needling Zusanli...
Listeria neuromeningitis presents as febrile rhombencephalitis in half the patients, often with persistent sequelae such as cranial nerve palsy. We report the case of a man who developed central apnea with simultaneous consciousness impairment subsequent to an infectious disease. Magnetic resonance imaging showed low signal intensities in T1 and T2, particularly in the medulla. Neither acidosis, hypoxia nor hypercapnea stimulated the respiratory centers during episodes of apnea; ventilation started again only with strong voluntary stimulation. Pons and medulla lesions of the reticular formation were probable as well as lesions of the automatic respiratory system and could explain the central origin of the apnea in this patient. PMID:10226320
Milhaud, D; Bernardin, G; Roger, P M; Magnié, M; Mattei, M
Background Prior studies suggest that obstructive sleep apnea may be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, a strong risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. The goals of this pilot case–control study were to determine whether Barrett’s esophagus patients have an increased likelihood of obstructive sleep apnea and to determine whether nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux symptoms affect the relationship between Barrett’s esophagus and obstructive sleep apnea risk. Methods Patients with Barrett’s esophagus completed the Berlin Questionnaire, a validated survey instrument identifying subjects at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Two outpatient control groups were recruited: 1) EGD Group, subjects matched to Barrett’s esophagus cases by age, race, and gender with esophagogastroduodenoscopy negative for Barrett’s esophagus; and 2) Colonoscopy Group, patients getting colonoscopy. Rates of scoring at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea were compared. Respondents were also questioned regarding severity of their typical gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and presence of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Results The study included 287 patients (54 Barrett’s esophagus, 62 EGD, and 171 colonoscopy subjects). Barrett’s esophagus patients were slightly older than colonoscopy patients and more obese. 56% (n = 30) of Barrett’s esophagus subjects scored at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea, compared with 42% (n = 26) of EGD subjects (OR 1.73, 95% CI [0.83, 3.62]) and 37% (n = 64) of colonoscopy patients (OR 2.08, 95% CI [1.12, 3.88]). The association between Barrett’s esophagus and scoring at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea compared with colonoscopy patients disappeared after adjusting for age. Barrett’s esophagus patients reported more severe typical heartburn and regurgitation symptoms than either control group. Among all subjects, patients with nocturnal reflux symptoms were more likely to score at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea than patients without nocturnal reflux. Conclusions In this pilot study, a high proportion of Barrett’s esophagus subjects scored at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Having Barrett’s esophagus was associated with more severe gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, and nocturnal reflux symptoms were associated with scoring at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. The need for obstructive sleep apnea screening in Barrett’s esophagus patients with nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux symptoms should be further evaluated.
OBJECTIVE Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children is associated with significant morbidity. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treats obstructive apnea in children, but is impeded by low adherence. We, therefore, sought to assess the effect of warm humidified air delivered through an open nasal cannula (treatment with nasal insufflation [TNI]) on obstructive sleep apnea in children with and without adenotonsillectomy. METHODS Twelve participants (age: 10 ± 1 years; BMI: 35 ± 14 kg/m2), with obstructive apnea-hypopnea syndrome ranging from mild to severe (2–36 events per hour) were administered 20 L/min of air through a nasal cannula. Standard sleep architecture, sleep-disordered breathing, and arousal indexes were assessed at baseline, on TNI, and on CPAP. Additional measures of the percentage of time with inspiratory flow limitation, respiratory rate, and inspiratory duty cycle were assessed at baseline and on TNI. RESULTS TNI reduced the amount of inspiratory flow limitation, which led to a decrease in respiratory rate and inspiratory duty cycle. TNI improved oxygen stores and decreased arousals, which decreased the occurrence of obstructive apnea from 11 ± 3 to 5 ± 2 events per hour (P < .01). In the majority of children, the reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index on TNI was comparable to that on CPAP. CONCLUSIONS TNI offers an alternative to therapy to CPAP in children with mild-to-severe sleep apnea. Additional studies will be needed to determine the efficacy of this novel form of therapy.
McGinley, Brian; Halbower, Ann; Schwartz, Alan R.; Smith, Philip L.; Patil, Susheel P.; Schneider, Hartmut
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children is common. The impact of SDB on the growth and development of child may have detrimental effects on health, neuropsychological development, quality of life, and economic potential; therefore, SDB in children should be recognized as a public health problem as in the adult population. The coexistence of obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) not only appears to yield increased morbidity rates and poorer responses to therapy, but also is altogether associated with a distinct and recognizable clinical phenotype. Therapeutic options have somewhat expanded since the initial treatment approaches were conducted, to include not only surgical extraction of hypertrophic adenoids and tonsils, but also nonsurgical alternatives such as continuous positive air pressure, anti-inflammatory agents and oral appliances (OAs). Now, American academy of sleep medicine (AAOSM) has recommended OAs for OSA, hence the therapeutic interventions that are directed at the site of airway obstruction in the maxillofacial region are within the scope of dentistry. Among the physicians treating the children, dentists are more likely to identify adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Hence, the dentist can play an important role in identifying and treating those cases with OAs, who refuse the surgery, or those with structural abnormality in which myofunctional appliances are beneficial.
Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Sharma, Naresh Kumar; Prabhat, K. C.
The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components among obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients vs controls, as well as to investigate which of these components are strongly associated with the presence of OSA in subjects reporting symptoms indicating sleep-disordered breathing. Included were 83 consecutive male subjects, without known concomitant diseases, who visited an outpatient clinic of obesity, diabetes and metabolism. Based on polysomnography, these were divided into two groups: OSA patients (n = 53) and controls (n = 30). Parameters indicating MS, according to the NCEP ATP III criteria (blood pressure, waist circumference, glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol levels) were evaluated in both groups. The criteria for MS were fulfilled in 49 participants. Presence of MS was significantly correlated with the presence of OSA. However, after adjustment for BMI, only serum glucose was significantly associated with the presence of OSA (P = 0.002). Conversely, the presence of MS was associated with a significant reduction in percentage of slow-wave sleep (P = 0.030). In conclusion, these results provide further evidence for the association between OSA and MS. Between subjects with MS, elevated serum glucose levels indicate a higher probability for the presence of OSA.
Papanas, Nikolaos; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Nena, Evangelia; Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Skarlatos, Athanasios; Konsta, Maria; Vasdekis, Vasileios; Maltezos, Efstratios; Bouros, Demosthenes
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a serious, prevalent condition that has significant morbidity and mortality when untreated. It is strongly associated with obesity and is characterized by changes in the serum levels or secretory patterns of several hormones. Obese patients with OSAS show a reduction of both spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion coupled to reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and impaired peripheral sensitivity to GH. Hypoxemia and chronic sleep fragmentation could affect the sleep-entrained prolactin (PRL) rhythm. A disrupted Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been described in OSAS. Some derangement in Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) secretion has been demonstrated by some authors, whereas a normal thyroid activity has been described by others. Changes of gonadal axis are common in patients with OSAS, who frequently show a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Altogether, hormonal abnormalities may be considered as adaptive changes which indicate how a local upper airway dysfunction induces systemic consequences. The understanding of the complex interactions between hormones and OSAS may allow a multi-disciplinary approach to obese patients with this disturbance and lead to an effective management that improves quality of life and prevents associated morbidity or death.
Lanfranco, Fabio; Motta, Giovanna; Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Baldi, Matteo; Balbo, Marcella; Ghigo, Ezio; Arvat, Emanuela; Maccario, Mauro
Since sleep apnea is a risk factor for high mortality of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, this study examined the prevalence\\u000a in RA patients with occipitocervical lesions, and the associated radiographic features. Twenty-nine RA patients requiring\\u000a surgery for progressive myelopathy due to occipitocervical lesions (3 males, 26 females, average age 65 years) were preoperatively\\u000a evaluated. Twenty-three (79%) had sleep apnea defined as
Naoki Shoda; Atsushi Seichi; Katsushi Takeshita; Hirotaka Chikuda; Takashi Ono; Hiroyuki Oka; Hiroshi Kawaguchi; Kozo Nakamura
Our purpose was to compare the effectiveness and side effects of a novel, single-piece mandibular advancement device (OSA-Mono- bloc) for sleep apnea therapy with those of a two-piece appliance with lateral Herbst attachments (OSA-Herbst) as used in previous studies. An OSA-Monobloc and an OSA-Herbst with equal pro- trusion were fitted in 24 obstructive sleep apnea patients unable to use continuous
KONRAD E. BLOCH; ANGELO ISELI; JINNONG N. ZHANG; XIAOBIN XIE; VLADIMIR KAPLAN; PAUL W. STOECKLI; ERICH W. RUSSI
Background Motor vehicle accidents are the second highest cause of mortality in Iran. Sleep apnea symptoms have been associated with\\u000a increased risk of motor vehicle accidents in other countries. However, we have limited data in Iran. We conducted a study\\u000a to evaluate sleep apnea symptoms and sleepiness in professional drivers and to assess the predictors of motor vehicle accidents\\u000a in Iran.
Babak Amra; Reza Dorali; Salehe Mortazavi; Mohammad Golshan; Ziba Farajzadegan; Ingo Fietze; Thomas Penzel
Detection and classification of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is a critical problem. In this study an efficient method for classification\\u000a sleep apnea through sub-band energy of abdominal effort using a particularly designed hybrid classifier as Wavelets + Neural\\u000a Network is proposed. The Abdominal respiration signals were separated into spectral sub-band energy components with multi-resolution\\u000a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The energy
M. Emin Tagluk; Necmettin Sezgin
Adenoidectomy is a commonly performed surgery in children, even though its effectiveness is still under investigation. However, in children with risk factors such as age under 3 years old, associated comorbidities, or severe obstructive sleep apneas, a high postoperative respiratory morbidity is possible. We report the case of a 15-month-old boy with Noonan syndrome and a complex clinical history, who presented with a life-threatening obstructive sleep apnea due to hypertrophy of the adenoids which resolved completely after adenoidectomy.
Khirani, Sonia; Leboulanger, Nicolas; Ramirez, Adriana; Fauroux, Brigitte
\\u000a Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is a very common sleep disorder that is associated with several neurocognitive impairments.\\u000a The present study aims to assess the electroencephalographic (EEG) power before, during and after obstructive apnea episodes,\\u000a in four frequency bands: delta (?), theta (?), alpha (?) and beta (?). For that purpose, continuous wavelet transform was applied to the EEG signals
David Belo; Ana Coito; Teresa Paiva; João Sanches
Obstructive apneas produce high negative intrathoracic pressure that imposes an afterload burden on the left ventricle. Such episodes might produce structural changes in the left ventricle over time. Doppler echocardiograms were obtained within 2 months of attended polysomnography. Patients were grouped according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): mild/no obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; AHI <15) and moderate/severe OSA (AHI ?15). Mitral valve tenting height and area, left ventricular (LV) long and short axes, and LV end-diastolic volume were measured in addition to tissue Doppler parameters. Comparisons of measurements at baseline and follow-up between and within groups were obtained; correlations between absolute changes (?) in echocardiographic parameters were also performed. After a mean follow-up of 240 days mitral valve tenting height increased significantly (1.17 ± 0.12 to 1.28 ± 0.17 cm, p = 0.001) in moderate/severe OSA as did tenting area (2.30 ± 0.41 to 2.66 ± 0.60 cm(2), p = 0.0002); ?tenting height correlated with ?LV end-diastolic volume (rho 0.43, p = 0.01) and ?tenting area (rho 0.35, p = 0.04). In patients with mild/no OSA there was no significant change in tenting height; there was a borderline significant increase in tenting area (2.20 ± 0.44 to 2.31 ± 0.43 cm(2), p = 0.05). Septal tissue Doppler early diastolic wave decreased (8.04 ± 2.49 to 7.10 ± 1.83 cm/s, p = 0.005) in subjects with moderate/severe OSA but not in in those with mild/no OSA. In conclusion, in patients with moderate/severe OSA, mitral valve tenting height and tenting area increase significantly over time. This appears to be related, at least in part, to changes in LV geometry. PMID:22264596
Pressman, Gregg S; Figueredo, Vincent M; Romero-Corral, Abel; Murali, Ganesan; Kotler, Morris N
Introduction An altered autonomic control and response to respiratory events during sleep have been reported in infants with obstructive\\u000a sleep apnea but appropriate methods are not established. We assessed the feasibility of pulse transit time (PTT) in detecting\\u000a subcortical arousals in eight infants (median age 7 days) suffering from the Pierre Robin sequence and obstructive sleep apnea.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Sleep studies including recordings of
Alessandra Rizzoli; Michael S. Urschitz; Judit Sautermeister; Silvia Miano; Jacopo Pagani; Maria P. Villa; Christian F. Poets
Commercial motor vehicle driving is a hazardous occupation, having the third highest fatality rate among common U.S. jobs. Among the estimated 14 million U.S. commercial motor vehicle drivers, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea is reported to be 17% to 28%. Despite the identified increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers, federal law does not require that they be screened for obstructive sleep apnea. This article presents an evidence-based practice change project; the authors developed, implemented, and evaluated a screening program to identify commercial motor vehicle drivers' risk for obstructive sleep apnea during commercial driver medical examinations. The results of this practice change indicated screening for obstructive sleep apnea during the commercial driver medical examination led to improved identification of obstructive sleep apnea risk among commercial motor vehicle drivers and should be a clinical standard in occupational health clinics. [Workplace Health Saf 2013;61(11):479-484.]. PMID:24144003
Olszewski, Kimberly; Wolf, Debra
A 4-yr-old girl has exhibited severe snoring, restless sleep and increasing daytime sleepiness over the last 3 months. The physical examination showed that she was not obese but had kissing tonsils. Polysomnography demonstrated increased apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 5.2, and multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) showed shortened mean sleep latency and one sleep-onset REM period (SOREMP). She was diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and underwent tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. After the surgery, her sleep became much calmer, but she was still sleepy. Another sleep test showed normal AHI of 0.2, the mean sleep latency of 8 min, and two SOREMPs. Diagnosis of OSA to be effectively treated by surgery and narcolepsy without cataplexy was confirmed. Since young children exhibiting both OSA and narcolepsy can fail to be diagnosed with the latter, it's desirable to conduct MSLT when they have severe daytime sleepiness or fail to get better even with good treatment.
Kwon, Soonhak; Jang, Kyungmi; Hwang, Sukyung; Cho, Minhyun
Objective Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) experience disrupted sleep. This study examined the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on sleep parameters in AD patients with OSA. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled trial of 3 weeks of therapeutic CPAP (tCPAP) vs. 3 weeks placebo CPAP (pCPAP) followed by 3 weeks tCPAP in patients with AD and OSA. Polysomnography data from screening after one night and after three weeks of treatment were analyzed. Records were scored for percent of each sleep stage, total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), sleep period (SP), time in bed (TIB), sleep onset (SO), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), and arousals. A randomized design comparing one night of pCPAP to tCPAP and a paired analysis combining 3 weeks of tCPAP were performed. Results Fifty-two participants (mean age=77.8 years, SD=7.3) with AD and OSA were included. After one treatment night, the tCPAP group had significantly less % Stage 1 (p=0.04) and more % Stage 2 sleep (p=0.02) when compared to the pCPAP group. In the paired analysis, 3-weeks of tCPAP resulted in significant decreases in WASO (p=0.005), % Stage 1 (p=0.001), arousals (p=0.005), and in an increase in % Stage 3 (p=0.006). Conclusion In mild to moderate AD patients with OSA, the use of tCPAP resulted in deeper sleep after just one night, with improvements maintained for three weeks.
Cooke, Jana R.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Liu, Lianqi; Loredo, Jose S.; Natarajan, Loki; Palmer, Barton S.; He, Feng; Corey-Bloom, Jody
Detection of sleep apnea using electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters is noninvasive and inexpensive. Our approach is based on the hypothesis that the patient's sleep-wake cycle during episodes of sleep apnea modulates heart rate (HR) oscillations. These HR oscillations appear as low-frequency fluctuations of instantaneous HR (IHR) and can be detected using HR variability analysis in the frequency domain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of our ECG-based algorithm for sleep apnea detection and quantification. The algorithm first detects normal QRS complexes and R-R intervals used to derive IHR and to estimate its spectral power in several frequency ranges. A quadratic classifier, trained on the learning set, uses 2 parameters to classify the 1-minute epoch in the middle of each 6-minute window as either apneic or normal. The windows are advanced by 1-minute steps, and the classification process is repeated. As a measure of quantification, the algorithm correctly classified 84.7% of all the 1-minute epochs in the evaluation database; and as a measure of the accuracy of apnea classification, the algorithm correctly classified all 30 test recordings in the evaluation database either as apneic or normal. Our sleep apnea detection algorithm based on analysis of a single-lead ECG provides accurate apnea detection and quantification. Because of its noninvasive and low-cost nature, this algorithm has the potential for numerous applications in sleep medicine. PMID:20719334
Babaeizadeh, Saeed; White, David P; Pittman, Stephen D; Zhou, Sophia H
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production increases in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and is linked to early vascular remodeling, the mechanism of which is unknown. The objective of this study was to to determine the molecular mechanisms of LTB4 pathway activation in polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and early vascular remodeling in OSA and the specific contribution of intermittent hypoxia (IH). PMNs were isolated from 120 OSA patients and 33 healthy subjects and used for measurements of LTB4 production, determination of mRNA and protein expression levels, or exposed for four cycles of in vitro IH. PMNs derived from OSA patients exhibited increased LTB4 production, for which apnea-hypopnea index was an independent predictor (P=0.042). 5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) mRNA and protein increased significantly in PMNs from OSA patients versus controls and were associated with carotid luminal diameter and intima-media thickness. LTB4 (10 ng/ml) increased IL-6 (P=0.006) and MCP-1 (P=0.002) production in OSA patient monocytes. In vitro exposure of PMNs from controls to IH enhanced FLAP mRNA levels (P= 0.027) and induced a 2.7-fold increase (P=0.028) in LTB4 secretion compared with PMNs exposed to normoxia. In conclusion, upregulation of FLAP in PMNs in response to IH may participate in early vascular remodeling in OSA patients, suggesting FLAP as a potential therapeutic target for the cardiovascular morbidity associated with OSA.
Stanke-Labesque, Francoise; Pepin, Jean-Louis; de Jouvencel, Tiphaine; Arnaud, Claire; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Petri, Marcelo H.; Tamisier, Renaud; Jourdil, Jean Francois; Levy, Patrick; Back, Magnus
SUMMARY This review summarizes the recent literature on the epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from various population-based studies. Despite methodologic differences, comparisons have yielded similar prevalence rates of the OSA syndrome in various geographic regions and amongst a number of ethnic groups. Risk factors for OSA including obesity, aging, gender, menopause, and ethnicity are analyzed. We also provide discussion on adverse medical conditions associated with OSA including hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiovascular mortality, insulin resistance, and neurocognitive dysfunction. Finally with the progression of the global obesity epidemic, we focus on the economic health care burden of OSA and the importance of recognizing the largely undiagnosed OSA population with emphasis on strategies to improve access to diagnostic resources.
Lee, Won; Nagubadi, Swamy; Kryger, Meir H.; Mokhlesi, Babak
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underrecognized, yet significant factor in the pathogenesis of metabolic derangements in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Recent findings suggest that there may be two “subtypes” of PCOS, i.e. PCOS with or without OSA, and these two subtypes may be associated with distinct metabolic and endocrine alterations. PCOS women with OSA may be at much higher risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease than PCOS women without OSA and may benefit from therapeutic interventions targeted to decrease the severity of OSA. The present chapter will review what is currently known about the roles of sex steroids and adiposity in the pathogenesis of OSA, briefly review the metabolic consequences of OSA as well as the metabolic abnormalities associated with PCOS, review the prevalence of OSA in PCOS and finally present early findings regarding the impact of treatment of OSA on metabolic measures in PCOS.
Nitsche, Katie; Ehrmann, David A.
Examining the care of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is forefront in perianesthesia nursing. The issue of how to effectively manage patients with OSA emerges as the patient presents for surgery. Evaluation of current practice demonstrates a gap in the consistency of care provided to patients with OSA. The development and implementation of a nursing standard of care has proven highly effective in improving the perioperative management of patients with OSA. With the introduction of preoperative screening, we can more readily identify and facilitate communication of the presence of OSA. Staff education and an increase in postoperative monitoring time help to ensure that all patients with OSA receive safe, consistent, quality care while recovering from anesthesia. PMID:23021445
Abstract The combination of metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been termed “syndrome Z.” The prevalence of both OSA and metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, in part linked to the epidemic of obesity. Beyond their epidemiologic relationship, growing evidence suggests that OSA may be causally related to metabolic syndrome. We are only beginning to understand the potential mechanisms underlying the OSA–metabolic syndrome interaction. Although there is no clear consensus, there is growing evidence that alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary axis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to repetitive hypoxia, inflammation, and generation of adipokines may be implicated in the changes associated with both OSA and metabolic syndrome. Whether some or all of these metabolic alterations mechanistically link OSA to metabolic syndrome remains to be proven, but it is an area of intense scientific interest.
Calvin, Andrew D.; Albuquerque, Felipe N.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco
The combination of metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been termed "syndrome Z." The prevalence of both OSA and metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, in part linked to the epidemic of obesity. Beyond their epidemiologic relationship, growing evidence suggests that OSA may be causally related to metabolic syndrome. We are only beginning to understand the potential mechanisms underlying the OSA-metabolic syndrome interaction. Although there is no clear consensus, there is growing evidence that alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to repetitive hypoxia, inflammation, and generation of adipokines may be implicated in the changes associated with both OSA and metabolic syndrome. Whether some or all of these metabolic alterations mechanistically link OSA to metabolic syndrome remains to be proven, but it is an area of intense scientific interest. PMID:19344228
Calvin, Andrew D; Albuquerque, Felipe N; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Somers, Virend K
Taste disorder is a rare complication of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, and may have a significant impact on quality of life. Herein, we report a case of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a 51-year-old man who experienced taste disturbance after palatopharyngeal surgery using electrocautery for developing a uvulopalatal flap. Gustatory function test using three-drop-method with solutions of highest concentration was implemented to assess the deficiency of four basic tastes. The results showed deficit of sweet taste associated with phantom of bitter taste. The patient reported constant spontaneous bitter taste and dysgeusia in sweet taste with poor quality of life at the 2-year follow-up. We suggest that patients are informed of the potential for taste impairment from palatopharyngeal surgery, as well as reducing the use of electrocautery in developing uvulopalatal flap to reduce damage to taste function. PMID:17395567
Hsiao, Han-Ren; Li, Hsueh-Yu
BACKGROUND: Despite its current recognition as a major health concern, little has been published about obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as a health problem in public healthcare systems where limited resources, language and cultural differences may present barriers to detection and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe patients referred for suspected OSAS in a large county-funded healthcare system. METHOD: A retrospective, descriptive observational study that included all patients referred for an OSAS evaluation between September 2000 and September 2002. RESULTS: Only 123 patients were referred and 115 completed an evaluation during the two-year period: 99% met OSAS diagnostic criteria, which was severe in 79% and frequently complicated by related comorbid conditions. CPAP acceptance was lower than in the previous series, especially among Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that referral for OSAS evaluation was limited to those most severely affected and raise the possibility of underdetection and undertreatment in the ublic sector.
Tran, Dana; Wallace, Jeanne
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with severe cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities. Cor pulmonale and right-sided heart failure may ensue. Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is one of several treatment modalities suggested for OSAS. Tracheotomy and CPAP treatment in adult OSAS patients and adenotonsillectomy in children with OSAS were shown to lead to improvement in some cardiac parameters. Cardiac function was prospectively evaluated in 19 OSAS patients before and after UPPP. No significant changes after surgery were noted on electrocardiographic studies. Improvement in global and regional function of both ventricles was seen in 91% of the patients. A trend toward significant elevation in left ventricular ejection fraction and a statistically significant increase in right ventricular ejection fraction were observed (45% +/- 9% to 50% +/- 7% [p = 0.007]). Our results support performance of UPPP in selected OSAS patients for relief of potentially life-threatening cardiac pathologies. PMID:1383911
Zohar, Y; Talmi, Y P; Frenkel, H; Finkelstein, Y; Rudnicki, C; Fried, M; Zahavi, Y
AAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood illness. In some patients, this illness may persist into adulthood and an association between ADHD and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has been found in childhood. However, it is unclear how OSA and ADHD coincide in adulthood. Therefore, to explore the relationship between OSA and adult ADHD the current investigation utilized a clinically-based cross-sectional survey. Subjects consisted of 81 treatment-naïve OSA patients and 32 controls. Measures included each patient completed a questionnaire regarding sleep, Adult ADHD scale. Clinical information, body mass index, 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and polysomnography.The subjects with Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) ? 5 events/h were defined as patients with OSA. The control group was accepted as individuals with AHI > 0 events/h. The prevalence of adult ADHD was not different between the patients with OSA and the control group [(7.4 % (6/75) vs. 6.3 % (2/30), p = 0.8, respectively]. OSA patients with ADHD, as compared with those without, had higher anxiety scores and poorer physical component scores of quality of life and higher ESS scores. ADHD scores in patients with OSA were associated with anxiety and depression scores and SF36 physical and mental component scores in bivariate analyses. Thus, in our sample ADHD was not a frequent illness in adult patients with OSA. However, in patients with OSA and ADHD higher levels of anxiety and daytime sleepiness and poorer quality of life was found. PMID:23179074
O?uztürk, Ömer; Ekici, Mehmet; Çimen, Dilay; Ekici, Aydanur; Senturk, Erol
OBJECTIVES.Although many children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have complete resolution of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome after adenotonsillec- tomy, some patients have persistent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome requiring positive airway pressure treatment. Little is known about positive airway pressure adherence among school-aged children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS.We retrospectively reviewed records from January 2000 through December 2004 to assess positive
Elizabeth C. Uong; Mary Epperson; Sharon A. Bathon; Donna B. Jeffe
Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxemia, arousals from sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Accumulating\\u000a evidence indicates that hypoxemia and sleep disruption contribute to the development of cardiovascular abnormalities in OSA.\\u000a OSA is effectively treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy that splints open the airway during sleep.\\u000a Studies have shown that CPAP therapy improves daytime sleepiness and
John M. Dopp; Barbara J. Morgan
Sleep disorders have a high prevalence. Sleep disorders are recognized first by the complaint of non-restorative sleep. A quantification of the disorder is done by the investigation in a sleep laboratory. The investigation in the sleep laboratory examines the EEG, EOG and EMG to derive sleep stages. This is a labor intensive sleep scoring after the polysomnography investigation. Usually the
T. Penzel; C.-C. Lo; P. C. Ivanov; K. Kesper; H. F. Becker; C. Vogelmeier
Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common and treatable among the elderly. Yet, few older adults seek evaluation for OSA at sleep disorders centers. The authors assessed the feasibility of a two-stage screening procedure for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in a community-based sample of older adults. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Participants' domicile (in-home) and academic sleep research center. Participants: There were 452 Medicare recipients residing in the greater Philadelphia metropolitan area with the complaint of daytime sleepiness. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: All participants underwent in-home unattended sleep studies that recorded airflow, and standard in-laboratory polysomnography. Additional measures included symptoms of sleep apnea, body mass index, neck circumference, age, and sex. When comparing diagnostic approaches, the best-performing single-stage model was one that combined apnea symptoms with age and neck circumference. This model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.774 and negative posttest probability of 1.2%. The best-performing two-stage model combined symptoms, neck circumference, age, and sex in the first stage, followed by an unattended portable study with a corresponding AUC of 0.85 and negative posttest probability of 0.5%. Conclusions: Unattended, self-assembled, in-home sleep studies recording airflow and respiratory effort are most useful if applied in tandem with clinical data, including a carefully obtained sleep history. This two-stage model is accurate in identifying severe OSAS in older adults and represents a practical diagnostic approach for older adults. Incorporating clinical data was vital and increased accuracy well above that of unattended studies of airflow and effort alone. Citation: Morales CR; Hurley S; Wick LC; Staley B; Pack FM; Gooneratne NS; Maislin G; Pack A; Gurubhagavatula I. In-home, self-assembled sleep studies are useful in diagnosing sleep apnea in the elderly. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1491-1501.
Morales, Christian R.; Hurley, Sharon; Wick, Lindsay C.; Staley, Bethany; Pack, Frances M.; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Allan; Gurubhagavatula, Indira
The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in finger pulse wave amplitude (PWA), as measured by photoplethysmography, and heart rate (HR), related to obstructive respiratory events and associated arousals during sleep. We analyzed 1,431 respiratory events in NREM sleep from 12 patients according to (1) the type of event (apnea, hypopnea, upper airway resistance episode) and (2) the
José Haba-Rubio; Georges Darbellay; François R. Herrmann; Jean G. Frey; Alda Fernandes; Jean M. Vesin; Jean P. Thiran; Jean M. Tschopp
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder that disproportionately affects blacks. While clinical and epidemiologic data indicate intraethnic differences in several medical diseases, little is known about whether OSA symptoms differ within the black ethnic group. We estimated the rate of OSA symptoms in a community-based sample of Caribbean-born black men and women. We also ascertained which sociodemographic and/or medical factors were associated with OSA risk. A total of 554 patients (mean age = 48.17 +/- 16.75 years) participated in the study; 55% were women. Data were collected in four primary-care clinics in Brooklyn, NY. A health educator explained the purpose of the study to interested patients and assisted consenting participants in completing questionnaires, which required 15 min to complete. Participants reporting habitual snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, and sleep fragmentation were considered at high OSA risk. The rate of OSA symptoms was: snoring (45%), excessive daytime sleepiness (33%), and difficulty maintaining sleep (34%). Many reported falling asleep while watching television (47%) or while driving (14%). Based on logistic regression analysis, a history of heart disease was the most important predictor of the likelihood of expressing OSA symptoms, with a corresponding multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of 11 (95% confidence interval = 3.03-40.63). Findings suggest the need to investigate whether Caribbean-born blacks are at greater risk for developing OSA than African Americans and whites. Caribbean-born blacks with a history of heart disease should be a prime target for interventions that promote adequate screening and timely OSA diagnosis. PMID:18516637
Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Fernandez, Sonalis; von Gizycki, Hans; Lazar, Jason M; Nunes, Joao; Brown, Clinton D
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by increased upper airway collapsibility during sleep. The present study investigated the use of the negative expiratory pressure test as a method to rule out obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Flow limitation was evaluated in 155 subjects. All subjects underwent a diurnal negative expiratory pressure test and a nocturnal sleep study. The severity of sleep apnea was determined based on the apnea-hypopnea index. Flow limitation was assessed by computing the exhaled volume at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 s (V0.2, V0.5, and V1.0, respectively) during the application of a negative expiratory pressure and expressed as a percentage of the previous exhaled volume. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were constructed to identify the optimal threshold volume at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 s for obstructive sleep apnea detection. RESULTS: Mean expiratory volumes at 0.2 and 0.5 s were statistically higher (p<0.01) in healthy subjects than in all obstructive sleep apneic groups. Increasing disease severity was associated with lower expiratory volumes. The V0.2 (%) predictive parameters for the detection of sleep apnea were sensitivity (81.1%), specificity (93.1%), PPV (98.1%), and NPV (52.9%). Sensitivity and NPV were 96.9% and 93.2%, respectively, for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, and both were 100% for severe obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSION: Flow limitation measurement by V0.2 (%) during wakefulness may be a very reliable method to identify obstructive sleep apnea when the test is positive and could reliably exclude moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea when the test is negative. The negative expiratory pressure test appears to be a useful screening test for suspected obstructive sleep apnea.
Romano, Salvatore; Salvaggio, Adriana; Bue, Anna Lo; Marrone, Oreste; Insalaco, Giuseppe
Study Objectives: Cardiac pacing is ineffective in obstructive sleep apnea (SA), but it can alleviate central SA/Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA) in patients with heart failure (HF). We examined whether overnight overdrive ventricular pacing (OVP) has an effect on SA in pacemaker recipients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ? 15 was confirmed in 28/38 patients screened by finger pulse oximetry during overnight ventricular pacing at a backup rate of 40 bpm (BUV40). These patients (23 men, 77.9 ± 7.6 y, BMI 27.6 ± 5.1 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to 2 consecutive nocturnal ventilation polygraphies with BUV40 versus OVP at 20 bpm above the mean nocturnal heart rate observed during screening. Results: During BUV40 versus OVP, (1) mean heart rate was 49 ± 8 versus 71 ± 8 bpm (p < 0.0001) and percent ventricular pacing 36% ± 38% versus 96% ± 6% (p < 0.0001); (2) AHI was 35.4 ± 11.9 versus 32.5 ± 15.5 (p = ns), central AHI 23.9 ± 11.8 versus 19.1 ± 12.7 (p < 0.001), and obstructive AHI 11.6 ± 13.1 versus 13.5 ± 15.9 (p = ns). In 15/28 patients without HF, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 51% ± 17%, AHI was 37.6 ± 11.0 during BUV40 and 39.0 ± 11.5 during OVP, versus 32.8 ± 12.9 and 24.9 ± 16.5 in 13/28 patients with HF (p = 0.02) and mean LVEF 35% ± 15% (p = 0.01). Between the 2 subgroups, (1) central AHI was 23.6 ± 12.4 during BUV40 and 21.5 ± 14.0 during OVP versus 24.1 ± 11.6 and 16.2 ± 10.7 (p = 0.05); (2) obstructive AHI was 14.0 ± 13.7 during BUV40 and 17.6 ± 16.5 during OVP versus 8.8 ± 12.3 and 8.7 ± 14.3 (p = ns). Conclusions: The prevalence of SA, predominantly central, was high in our pacemaker recipients with permanent AF. In those with HF, a single overnight OVP resulted in modest improvement in central events. Citation: Bordier P; Maurice-Tison S; Ramana NK. Overdrive ventricular pacing in pacemaker recipients with permanent atrial fibrillation and sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):257-264.
Bordier, Philippe; Maurice-Tison, Sylvie; Ramana, Nishi Krishna
Distinguishing obstructive sleep apnea from central apnea depends upon accurate measure of chest and abdominal movement. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) polysomnography guidelines recommend the use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) belts but not piezoelectrode (PE) belts for measuring chest and abdominal movements. To compare these two sensors, we measured the signal amplitude for 10 RIP belts and 10 PE belts stretched by mechanical distraction across six distances (2.5 to 15.0 centimeters) and replicated 10 times for each belt. Amplitudes were measured using the Stellate Harmonie (Stellate Systems, Inc., Natus Medical, Inc., San Carlos, California, USA) recording system. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was calculated. All RIP belts performed well at all distraction lengths and demonstrated linear performance. Eight of 10 PE belts performed well through all measures whereas, two showed nonlinear increase in signal on stretch of greater than 12.5 centimeters. Signals from PE belts highly correlated with the distance of distraction (r = 0.96 to 0.99) and the RIP belts (r = 0.98 to 0.99). These results suggest that PE belts perform similarly to RIP belts at distraction distances up to 10.0 centimeters. Further testing on biological models is needed to determine if PE belts are a suitable alternative for RIP belts in polysomnography. PMID:23019764
Vaughn, Courtney M; Clemmons, Pamela
Rostral fluid displacement has been proposed as a pathophysiologic mechanism of both central and obstructive sleep apnea. Aquaporins are membrane proteins that regulate water transport across the cell membrane and are involved in brain edema formation and resolution. The present study investigated the effect of intermittent hypoxia (IH), a model of sleep apnea, on brain aquaporins. Mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia to a nadir of 7% oxygen fraction. Brain water content, Aquaporin-1 and Aquaporin-3 were measured in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry stainings were performed to evaluate cell damage. Compared to the sham group, the hypoxia group presented higher brain water content, lower levels of Aquaporin-1 and similar levels of Aquaporin-3. Immunoreactivity to GFAP and S100B was stronger in the hypoxia group in areas of extensive gliosis, compatible with cytotoxic edema. These findings, although preliminary, indicate an effect of IH on aquaporins levels. Further investigation about the relevance of these data on the pathophysiology of OSA is warranted. PMID:23123204
Baronio, Diego; Martinez, Denis; Fiori, Cintia Zappe; Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Forgiarini, Luiz Felipe; Pase da Rosa, Darlan; Kim, Lenise Jihe; Cerski, Marcelle Reesink
The objective of this study was to examine heart rate variability (HRV) among sleep stages in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)\\u000a patients. The study was retrospective within subjects and examined the sleep stages and HRV in relation to OSA, age, body\\u000a mass index (BMI), and sex. Data collected during diagnostic polysomnograms were used in this study. There were 105 clinical\\u000a patients
Erica B. Reynolds; Gilbert Seda; J. C. Ware; Aaron I. Vinik; Marcelo R. Risk; Nancy F. Fishback
Asthma has been identified as a possible risk factor for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in children. It is not known whether parent-reported asthma increases the likelihood of the diagnosis of OSA in snoring children. We hypothesized that snoring children with asthma are more likely to have OSA than snoring children without asthma. This study is a 1-year retrospective review of polysomnogram and questionnaire data collected on 236 patients referred to the University of Maryland Pediatric Sleep laboratory for evaluation of snoring. Of the 236 patients, 58% (137/236) were boys, and 79% (173/219 reporting race) were African-American (AA). The age at referral was 7.2 +/- 3.7 years (mean +/- S.D.). Mean body mass index (BMI) percentile was 73.4 +/- 32.3%, with 43.2% (54/125) >95th percentile. A history of asthma was reported by 31.4% (74/236); no subject was symptomatic on the night of the study. We found no increased risk for polysomnographically diagnosed OSA for asthmatics. To the contrary, by logistic regression analysis, a parent/guardian report of asthma decreased the odds of having OSA by 34% (p = 0.027), controlling for individual and socioeconomic factors and assessment results. Polysomnographic (PSG) differences between asthmatic and non-asthmatic children were found in only the arousal index (11.0 vs.9.3 +/- 6.5/h, p = 0.099) and total sleep time (337.1 +/- 64.3 vs. 347 +/- 65.2 min, p = 0.1) In a referral-based group of predominantly AA inner-city snoring children, asymptomatic asthma decreased the likelihood of OSA. PMID:18421491
Ramagopal, Maya; Scharf, Steven M; Roberts, Darryl W; Blaisdell, Carol J
Phrenic nerve stimulation can reproduce during wakefulness the dissociation between upper airway and inspiratory muscles that is associated with obstructive sleep-related breathing disorders. This could provide a useful management tool in the study of passive upper airway (UA) dynamics during wakefulness in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). To as- sess the feasibility of the technique in this
CHRISTIAN STRAUS; ALEXANDRE DEMOULE; VALÉRIE ATTALI; ISABELLE ARNULF; JEAN-PHILIPPE DERENNE; THOMAS SIMILOWSKI
Background: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a specific marker for catecholaminergic neurones. Some reports have demonstrated a decrease of TH in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) compared with controls. To further investigate this, the correlation between TH and sleep apnea was investigated here. Materials and methods: Among 27,000 infants studied prospectively to characterize their sleep–wake behavior, 38 infants died under
Toshiko Sawaguchi; Yuri Ozawa; Patricia Franco; Hazim Kadhim; Jose Groswasser; Martine Sottiaux; Sachio Takashima; Hiroshi Nishida; Andre Kahn
Background: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a specific marker for catecholaminergic neurones. Some reports have demonstrated a decrease of TH in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) compared with controls. To further investigate this, the correlation between TH and sleep apnea was investigated here. Materials and Methods: Among 27,000 infants studied prospectively to characterize their sleep–wake behavior, 38 infants died under
Toshiko Sawaguchi; Yuri Ozawa; Franco Patricia; Hazim Kadhim; Jose Groswasser; Martine Sottiaux; Sachio Takashima; Hiroshi Nishida; Andre Kahn
The Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) was developed to record key elements of the disease that are important to patients. All items felt to influence the quality of life of these patients were identified. Final questionnaire items were selected by interviewing 113 patients with sleep ap- nea and 50 snorers who rated each item on whether it
W. WARD FLEMONS; MARLENE A. REIMER
The effects of sleep disorders on the quality of life (QOL) have been documented in the literature. Excessive sleepiness and altered circadian rhythms may negatively affect ability to learn, employment, and interpersonal relations, and directly degrade QOL. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome of varying severity on QOL. The study
C. Lopes; A. M. Esteves; L. R. A. Bittencourt; S. Tufik; M. T. Mello
Although the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been decreased by education programs to avoid sleeping in prone position, the pathological mechanisms of SIDS have not fully been understood. Basic research on sleep apnea using experimental animals may help further understanding and prevention of SIDS because the syndrome is thought as inability to wake up from respiratory arrest
Akira Nakamura; Tomoyuki Kuwaki
Although the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been decreased by education programs to avoid sleeping in prone position, the pathological mechanisms of SIDS have not fully been understood. Basic research on sleep apnea using experimental animals may help further understanding and prevention of SIDS because the syndrome is thought as inability to wake up from respiratory arrest
Akira Nakamura; Tomoyuki Kuwaki
Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk, but the impact of mild forms of OSA and their treatment on cardiovascular outcomes remains controversial. Objectives: To prospectively investigate cardiovascular outcomes in treated versus untreated patients with OSA. Methods: Consecutive sleep laboratory patients with all degrees of OSA were included. Endpoints were nonfatal (myocardial infarction, stroke, and acute
Nikolaus J. Buchner; Bernd M. Sanner; Jan Borgel; Lars C. Rump
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which is a highly prevalent breathing disorder in sleep, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Results from clinical studies as well as animal models and cell culture studies utilizing intermittent hypoxia implicate oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of OSAS. However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely understood. Both oxidative
Lena Lavie; Vsevolod Polotsky
Study Objectives: To assess the relative roles and interaction of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and obesity on interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Design: Cross-sectional cohort. Setting: The Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort. Participants: 454 untreated OSA patients (380 males and 74 females), mean ± standard deviation age 54.4 ± 10.6 yr. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants underwent a sleep study, abdominal magnetic resonance imaging to measure total abdominal and visceral fat volume, and had fasting morning IL-6 and CRP levels measured in serum. A significantly higher correlation was found for BMI than visceral fat volume with CRP and IL-6 levels. Oxygen desaturation index, hypoxia time, and minimum oxygen saturation (SaO2) significantly correlated with IL-6 and CRP levels, but apnea-hypopnea index did not. When stratified by body mass index (BMI) category, OSA severity was associated with IL-6 levels in obese participants only (BMI > 30 kg/m2). A multiple linear regression model with interaction terms showed an independent association of OSA severity with IL-6 levels and an interaction between OSA severity and BMI, i.e., degree of obesity altered the relationship between OSA and IL-6 levels. An independent association of OSA severity with CRP levels was found for minimum SaO2 only. A similar interaction of OSA severity and BMI on CRP levels was found for males and postmenopausal women. Conclusions: OSA severity is an independent predictor of levels of IL-6 and CRP but interacts with obesity such that this association is found only in obese patients. Citation: Arnardottir ES; Maislin G; Schwab RJ; Staley B; Benediktsdottir B; Olafsson I; Juliusson S; Romer M; Gislason T; Pack AI. The interaction of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity on the inflammatory markers c-reactive protein and interleukin-6: the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort. SLEEP 2012;35(7):921-932.
Arnardottir, Erna S.; Maislin, Greg; Schwab, Richard J.; Staley, Bethany; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Olafsson, Isleifur; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Romer, Micah; Gislason, Thorarinn; Pack, Allan I.
Obstructive sleep apnea is recognized as having high prevalence and causing remarkable cardiovascular risk. Coronary artery disease has been associated with obstructive sleep apnea in many reports. The pathophysiology of coronary artery disease in obstructive sleep apnea patients probably includes the activation of multiple mechanisms, as the sympathetic activity, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and systemic hypertension. Moreover, chronic intermittent hypoxia and oxidative stress have an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary disease and are also fundamental to the development of atherosclerosis and other comorbidities present in coronary artery diseases such as lipid metabolic disorders. Interestingly, the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease has been associated with obstructive sleep apnea and the severity of sleep disordered breathing may have a direct relationship with the morbidity and mortality of patients with coronary diseases. Nevertheless, treatment with CPAP may have important effects, and recent reports have described the benefits of obstructive sleep apnea treatment on the recurrence of acute heart ischaemic events in patients with coronary artery disease.
Carpio, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Garcia-Rio, Francisco
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious sleep disorder with high community prevalence. More than 80% of OSA suffers remain undiagnosed. Polysomnography (PSG) is the current reference standard used for OSA diagnosis. It is expensive, inconvenient and demands the extensive involvement of a sleep technologist. At present, a low cost, unattended, convenient OSA screening technique is an urgent requirement. Snoring is always almost associated with OSA and is one of the earliest nocturnal symptoms. With the onset of sleep, the upper airway undergoes both functional and structural changes, leading to spatially and temporally distributed sites conducive to snore sound (SS) generation. The goal of this paper is to investigate the possibility of developing a snore based multi-feature class OSA screening tool by integrating snore features that capture functional, structural, and spatio-temporal dependences of SS. In this paper, we focused our attention to the features in voiced parts of a snore, where quasi-repetitive packets of energy are visible. Individual snore feature classes were then optimized using logistic regression for optimum OSA diagnostic performance. Consequently, all feature classes were integrated and optimized to obtain optimum OSA classification sensitivity and specificity. We also augmented snore features with neck circumference, which is a one-time measurement readily available at no extra cost. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using snore recordings from 86 subjects (51 males and 35 females). Data from each subject consisted of 6-8 h long sound recordings, made concurrently with routine PSG in a clinical sleep laboratory. Clinical diagnosis supported by standard PSG was used as the reference diagnosis to compare our results against. Our proposed techniques resulted in a sensitivity of 93±9% with specificity 93±9% for females and sensitivity of 92±6% with specificity 93±7% for males at an AHI decision threshold of 15 events/h. These results indicate that our method holds the potential as a tool for population screening of OSA in an unattended environment. PMID:23343563
Abeyratne, U R; de Silva, S; Hukins, C; Duce, B
We hypothesized that impaired performance on driving simulation and EEG defined attention lapses are greater in obstructive sleep apnea patients than in the normal population. Participants completed a 60-minute driving simulation with continuous EEG monitoring. Sleep apnea patients demonstrated increased lane position variability, crashes, and attention lapses throughout the task. Attention lapses appeared to underlie the poorer driving performance. Because sleepiness can occur in other populations, e.g. shift workers and on call physicians, these results support the need for the development of countermeasures, highway safety education programs, and the recognition and treatment of sleep disorders.
Risser, M.R.; Ware, J.C.
The objective was to establish the evidence base for diagnosing sleep apnea (SA) in adult patients using systematic review methods. Tests covered were sleep monitoring devices, radiologic imaging, laboratory assays, and clinical signs and symptoms posited...
S. D. Ross I. E. Allen K. J. Harrison M. Kvasz J. Connelly I. A. Sheinhait
Objective: The purpose of this study was to correlate changes in PSG parameters between the diagnostic polysomnogram (dPSG) and the first night of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (cpapPSG) to subjective improvement in sleep quality.Background: In patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), therapy with CPAP results in reduction of sleep latency, stage 1 sleep, arousal index (Al)
Amit Verma; Rodney A Radtke; Kevan E VanLandingham; John H King; Aatif M Husain
INTRODUCTION: Hemangiomas involving the upper airway can be an uncommon cause of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old Caucasian man with a known history of a large hemangioma of his head and neck presented with sleep-disordered breathing to the sleep unit of our hospital. Severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was revealed on polysomnography. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure
Maria Antoniadou; Paschalis Steiropoulos; Evangelia Serasli; Venetia Tsara
Objective: To test the hypothesis that blood hyperviscosity could account for the controversial results observed during electrophys- iological evaluation of the brain stem in sleep apnea syndrome. Methods: This was a prospective study of a sample of patients with sleep apnea who were participating in a stroke prevention eval- uation. Participants were 610 male patients with obstructive sleep apnea, aged
Istvan Bernath; Patrick McNamara; Zoltan Szakacs; Attila Terray-Horvath; Zsuzsanna Vida
Background: Commercial motor vehicle drivers are at an increased risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Medical Review Board has recommended that commercial motor vehicle drivers undergo testing for OSA if they have a positive Berlin Questionnaire or a BMI ? 30 kg/m2. We developed an online screening tool based on the Berlin Questionnaire for anonymous use by commercial drivers to assess their risk of OSA prior to their required FMCSA physicals. Methods: We based the survey on the Berlin Sleep Questionnaire. The survey was hosted on the Truckers for a Cause Chapter of Alert Well and Keeping Energetic of the American Sleep Apnea Association (TFAC-AWAKE) organization website, and was promoted through the TFAC's XM radio, word of mouth, and trucking industry press contacts. Results: A total of 595 individuals completed the survey. Of these, 55.9% were positive on the Berlin, 78.3% had either hypertension or obesity, 69.6% were obese, 47.6% had a BMI > 33 kg/m2, and 20.5% reported falling asleep at stoplights. Conclusions: Some commercial drivers willingly assess their OSA risk anonymously online, and a majority of those who do so are obese, have positive Berlin screening questionnaires, and would be required to undergo polysomnography if recommendations made to the FMCSA became regulation. In contrast to reported behavior during actual Commercial Driver Medical Examinations physicals, some commercial drivers will report OSA symptoms if it is “safe” to do so. Sleep health professionals need expedient, non-punitive methods to keep commercial motor vehicle drivers healthy and driving and to raise drivers' awareness of the dangers of drowsy driving and unhealthy lifestyles. Citation: Smith B; Phillips BA. Truckers drive their own assessment for obstructive sleep apnea: a collaborative approach to online self-assessment for obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(3):241-245.
Smith, Ben; Phillips, Barbara A.
We studied the effects of modafinil, a vigilance-enhancing drug, on excessive daytime sleepiness, memory, night sleep and respiration in 6 patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) using a double-blind random cross-over design with 24-hour polysomnography, verbal memory test and a 5-week sleep-wake diary kept by the patients. There were two 2-week treatment periods in which either modafinil or placebo
Isabelle Arnulf; Pascale Homeyer; Lucile Garma; William A. Whitelaw; Jean-Philippe Derenne
lthough obstructive sleep apnea has many attributes of a complex genetic trait, 1 few genetic mutations have been identified in patients with the condition. Obesity has been shown to be associated with obstructive sleep apnea in the general population, 2 but few rare genetic syndromes affecting total body adipose content or distribu- tion have been evaluated for possible association with
Robert A. Hegele; Salam A. Al-Attar; Brian K. Rutt
Heart rate and blood pressure variability analysis as well as baroreflex sensitivity have been proven to be powerful tools for the assessment of autonomic control in clinical practice. Their ability to detect systematic changes caused by different states, diseases and treatments shall be shown for sleep disorders. Therefore, we consider 18 normotensive and 10 hypertensive patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) before and after a three-month continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Additionally, an age and sex matched control group of 10 healthy subjects is examined. Linear and nonlinear parameters of heart rate and blood pressure fluctuation as well as the baroreflex sensitivity are used to answer the question whether there are differences in cardiovascular regulation between the different sleep stages and groups. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of CPAP therapy in OSAS patients shall be investigated. Kruskal-Wallis tests between the sleep stages for each group show significant differences in the very low spectral component of heart rate (VLF/P: 0.0033-0.04 Hz, p<0.01) which indicates differences in metabolic activity during the night. Furthermore, the decrease of Shannon entropy of word distribution as a parameter of systolic blood pressure during non-REM sleep reflects the local dominance of the vagal system (p<0.05). The increased sympathetic activation of the patients leads to clear differences of cardiovascular regulation in different sleep stages between controls and patients. We found a significant reduction of baroreflex sensitivity in slow wave sleep in the OSAS patients (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05) compared to controls, which disappeared after three months of CPAP therapy. Hence, our results demonstrate the ability of cardiovascular analyzes to separate between healthy and pathological regulation as well as between different severities of OSAS in this retrospective study. PMID:21823997
Gapelyuk, Andrej; Riedl, Maik; Suhrbier, Alexander; Kraemer, Jan F; Bretthauer, Georg; Malberg, Hagen; Kurths, Jürgen; Penzel, Thomas; Wessel, Niels
Question of the study: Prevalence and determinants of daytime hypoxemia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome are not well established. The aims of this study, conducted in a large series of OSA patients, were to estimate the prevalence of daytime hypoxemia, to assess the reciprocal effects between daytime PaO2 and nocturnal SpO2, and to investigate the direct and indirect role of sleep apnea severity in determining feedback gas exchange abnormalities. Materials and methods: In 456 patients a daytime hypoxemia-nocturnal hypoxia feedback structural equations model was designed. PaO2 adjusted for age (% of predicted), percent sleep time spent with SpO2 <90% (TST90), oxygen desaturation index and the apnea-hypopnea index, were determined as the measures of daytime hypoxemia, nocturnal hypoxia, and sleep apnea severity, respectively, after adjusting for the severity of obesity and lung volumes. Results: The TST90-PaO2 feed-back structural equations modeling showed that daytime PaO2 was inversely related (P<0.001) to nocturnal hypoxia (?4.0% of PaO2 per 1 SD of TST90). The severity of OSA (?1.0%) was an indirect determinant of daytime PaO2 via the TST90 pathway. In contrast, daytime PaO2 did not influence (P>0.05) the extent of nocturnal hypoxia. Conclusions: In OSA patients, the extent of nocturnal hypoxia seems to be both a direct determinant and a mediator of the indirect effect of sleep apnea on the development of daytime hypoxemia. Citation: Fanfulla F; Grassi M; Taurino AE; Lupo ND; Trentin R. The relationship of daytime hypoxemia and nocturnal hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2008;31(2):249–255.
Fanfulla, Francesco; Grassi, Mario; Taurino, Anna Eugenia; Lupo, Nadia D'Artavilla; Trentin, Rossella
Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of body position on REM-related obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Design: Retrospective analysis. Patients: 100 consecutive adult OSA patients (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ? 5) who had ? 10 min of REM sleep in both supine and lateral postures. REM-related OSA was defined by previously used criteria (REM AHI/Non-REM (NREM) AHI ? 2) and was compared with data from Not–REM-related OSA (REM AHI / NREM AHI < 2). Measurements and Results: Most (93%) of the REM-related OSA patients (n = 45) had a mild–moderate syndrome, compared to 50.9% in the Not–REM-related OSA patients (n = 55). REM-related OSA patients had a lower apnea index (AI), AHI, supine and lateral AHI, and NREM AHI, but similar REM AHI compared to the Not–REM-related OSA group. For the entire group, the following sequence was observed: AHI REM supine > AHI NREM supine > AHI REM lateral > AHI NREM lateral. Also, for the REM-related and Not–REM-related OSA patients, the interaction between supine posture and REM sleep led to the highest AHI. However, the average length of apnea and hypopneas during REM sleep was similar in the supine and lateral postures. Conclusions: During REM sleep, the supine position is associated with increased frequency but not increased duration of apneas and hypopneas. These body position effects prevail over the differences between REM-related and Not–REM-related OSA patients. Citation: Oksenberg A; Arons E; Nasser K; Vander T; Radwan H. REM-related obstructive sleep apnea: the effect of body position. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(4):343-348.
Oksenberg, Arie; Arons, Elena; Nasser, Khitam; Vander, Tatiana; Radwan, Henryk
Objectives/Hypothesis To examine DISE findings in nonresponders to previous pharyngeal OSA surgery Study Design cross-sectional Methods Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) using propofol for unconscious sedation was performed in nonresponders to previous OSA surgery (including palate surgery with or without tonsillectomy and possible other procedures), defined by an apnea-hypopnea index >10 events/hour. Recorded findings included the presence and degree of obstruction in the palatal and hypopharyngeal regions, the contributions of specific structures (velum, oropharyngeal lateral walls, tongue, and/or epiglottis) to upper airway obstruction, and the degree of mouth opening. Results Thirty-three nonresponders underwent DISE examinations. Age was 46.2±11.8 years, and 9% (3/33) were female. On diagnostic sleep studies prior to DISE, the apnea-hypopnea index was 43.4±26.6 events/hour. During DISE, a majority of subjects demonstrated residual palatal obstruction, and almost all demonstrated hypopharyngeal obstruction. A diversity of individual structures contributed to upper airway obstruction, often in combination. Moderate to severe mouth opening occurred in one-third of subjects and was associated with narrowing of upper airway dimensions. Conclusions Residual upper airway obstruction in surgery nonresponders likely occurs due to multiple mechanisms, and DISE may enhance the understanding of them.
Kezirian, Eric J.
Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular complications such as systemic hypertension, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Successful OSA treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has resulted in coincident reductions in systemic hypertension, improvements in left ventricular systolic function, and reductions in sympathetic nervous activity. These data suggest that successful treatment of OSA may reduce cardiovascular morbidity in such patients. Although CPAP is the more successful treatment for OSA when used properly and consistently, its clinical success is often limited by poor patient and partner acceptance, which leads to suboptimal compliance. Oral appliances or upper airway surgeries are considered a second line of treatment for patients with mild to moderate OSA who do not comply with or refuse long-term CPAP treatment. Oral devices such as mandibular repositioning appliances were recently shown to improve arterial hypertension in OSA patients. Electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve is a new investigational therapy for patients with moderate to severe OSA. This new treatment option, if proven effective, may provide cardiovascular benefits secondary to treating OSA. PMID:21104045
Vanderveken, Olivier M; Boudewyns, An; Ni, Quan; Kashyap, Bhavani; Verbraecken, Johan; De Backer, Wilfried; Van de Heyning, Paul
There are few autopsy studies of patients dying suddenly with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Twenty-five forensic autopsies of unexpected sudden death in individuals with OSA were reviewed. The causes of death were as follows: cardiomyopathy (n = 11); sudden unexpected death without morphologic findings (SUDNA, n = 6); and other cardiovascular diseases not related to OSA (n = 8). The cardiomyopathy group comprised five hearts with concentric left ventricular hypertrophy without dilatation and six with left ventricular diameter >4 cm (dilated cardiomyopathy). Four of six hearts in the SUDNA group showed right ventricular dilatation compared with seven of 11 showed cardiomyopathy and one of eight miscellaneous. The degree of obesity was greatest in the dilated cardiomyopathy group (10 of 11 obese) followed by the SUDNA group (four of six obese). The cardiac findings in patients dying suddenly and unexpectedly with OSA include nonspecific cardiomyopathy, other cardiac conditions, and hearts without a morphologic cause of death, which show frequent right ventricular dilatation as the only finding. PMID:23865847
Zhang, Mingchang; Li, Ling; Fowler, David; Zhao, Ziqin; Wei, Dengming; Zhang, Yang; Burke, Allen
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that it is associated with atherosclerosis and left ventricular dysfunction markers. The aim of this study was to assess the cardiovascular effects of OSA depending on its severity, in patients without clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease. One hundred thirty newly diagnosed, nondiabetic OSA patients (mean age 49 ± 10 years), without vasoactive treatment were included. They underwent clinical and ambulatory blood pressure measurements, echocardiography, carotid ultrasound examination, and a carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement. Seventy-five percent of the subjects were hypertensive according to the clinical or ambulatory measurement. More patients with the most severe forms (respiratory disturbance index >37/hour) had a nondipper profile (52% vs 34%; P = 0.025) and their left ventricular mass was higher (40 ± 7 vs 36 ± 8 g/m, p = 0.014). This last parameter was independently and inversely associated with mean nocturnal oxygen saturation (P = 0.004). PWV and carotid intima-media thickness did not differ between one OSA severity group to another, but the prevalence of carotid hypertrophy was higher when mean SaO2 was below 93.5% (29.5 vs 16%; P = 0.05). Our study shows that in OSA patients without clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease, there is a significant left ventricular and arterial effect, which is even more marked when OSA is severe.
Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Nadra, Marie; Barone-Rochette, Gilles; Ormezzano, Olivier; Pierre, Helene; Pepin, Jean-Louis
Purpose of review To provide an update on the connection between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease. Recent findings Large prospective studies have established that OSA is associated with an increased incidence of hypertension and, in men, of coronary disease, stroke, and heart failure. Advances in understanding the pathophysiologic basis for these associations include identification of a role for OSA in inducing abnormalities in hepatic lipid-metabolizing enzymes, endothelial dysfunction, and upregulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediators. A large body of data implicates OSA as playing a significant role in the occurrence and resistance to treatment of atrial fibrillation. Clinical trials have shown small to modest improvements in blood pressure associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use, with smaller or uncontrolled studies suggesting that CPAP may improve cardiovascular outcomes or intermediate markers. Summary OSA and cardiovascular disease commonly co-aggregate. Multiple studies indicate that OSA contributes to or exacerbates cardiovascular disease, and thus may be a novel target for cardiovascular risk reduction. While the evidence supports screening and treatment of OSA in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease, it also underscores a need for well powered clinical trials to examine the role of CPAP and other therapies in these populations.
Monahan, Ken; Redline, Susan
This clinical report describes a 3.5-year-old boy suffering from chronic daytime fatigue, accumulated snoring and dramatically appearing apnea during sleep. Oxycardiorespirography revealed a breathing pattern similar to repetitive obstructive apnea and an oxygen saturation periodically dropping to 80%. During tidal breathing, fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed aspiration of the aryepiglottic folds and the epiglottis during inspiration. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy was excluded. Due to
Joachim Schessl; Edmund Rose; Rudolf Korinthenberg; Matthias Henschen
The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectionally the prevalence and covariates of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome\\u000a (OSAS) and its relationship to metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR), and coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population\\u000a sample of 1,946 men and women representative of Turkish adults. OSAS was identified when habitual snoring and episodes of\\u000a apnea were combined with
Altan Onat; Gülay Hergenç; Hüseyin Uyarel; Mehmet Yaz?c?; Mustafa Tuncer; Yüksel Do?an; Günay Can; Kurt Rasche
We hypothesize that sleep apnea-hypopnea alters interaction between cardiac vagal modulation and sleep delta EEG. Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is related to cardiovascular complications in men. SAHS patients show higher sympathetic activity than normal subjects. In healthy men, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is associated with cardiac vagal influence, whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is linked to cardiac sympathetic activity. Interaction between cardiac autonomic modulation and delta sleep EEG is not altered across a life span nor is the delay between appearances of modifications in both signals. Healthy controls, moderate SAHS, and severe SAHS patients were compared across the first three NREM-REM cycles. Spectral analysis was applied to ECG and EEG signals. High frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) of heart rate variability (HRV), ratio of LF/HF, and normalized (nu) delta power were obtained. A coherency analysis between HF(nu) and delta was performed, as well as a correlation analysis between obstructive apnea index (AI) or hypopnea index (HI) and gain, coherence, or phase shift. HRV components were similar between groups. In each group, HF(nu) was larger during NREM, while LF(nu) predominated across REM and wake stages. Coherence and gain between HF(nu) and delta decreased from controls to severe SAHS patients. In SAHS patients, the delay between modifications in HF(nu) and delta did not differ from zero. AI and HI correlated negatively with coherence, while HI correlated negatively with gain only. Apneas-hypopneas affect the link between cardiac sympathetic and vagal modulation and delta EEG demonstrated by the loss of cardiac autonomic activity fluctuations across shifts in sleep stages. Obstructive apneas and hypopneas alter the interaction between both signals differently. PMID:16675631
Jurysta, F; Lanquart, J-P; van de Borne, P; Migeotte, P-F; Dumont, M; Degaute, J-P; Linkowski, P
The widespread prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and apneic snoring is both alarming and well documented. Sleep disorders affect one out of five Americans. Yet, during an attempt to study the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring among patients at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Dentistry, a search through the entire school's database for the terms "sleep apnea" and "snoring" found only ninety-two patients who admitted to snoring. Currently, the condition "sleep apnea" is not even on the school's list of health/medical questions. These figures not only are inconsistent with national statistics, but confirm that more needs to be done to make dental students aware of these disorders, include them in patient medical histories, and ultimately educate patients about therapies that can help. Considering the health concerns related to this sleep disorder, the economic impact of insomnia and daytime sleepiness, as well as the fact that the dentist is well poised to reduce symptoms and increase the quality of life among sufferers, mandibular advancement devices should become an educational standard in the predoctoral clinical curriculum of dental schools. Predoctoral clinical curricula need to reflect this current health trend and train dentists to care for these patients comprehensively. PMID:23225683
Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L; Pancratz, Frank
Understanding the inter-relationship between pharmacological agents, ventilatory control, upper airway physiology and their consequent effects on sleep-disordered breathing may provide new directions for targeted drug therapy. Where available, this review focuses on human studies that contain both drug effects on sleep-disordered breathing and measures of ventilatory control or upper airway physiology. Many of the existing studies are limited in sample size or comprehensive methodology. At times, the presence of paradoxical findings highlights the complexity of drug therapy for OSA. The existing studies also highlight the importance of considering inter-individual pharmacokinetics and underlying causes of sleep apnea in interpreting drug effects on sleep-disordered breathing. Practical ways to assess an individual's ventilatory control and how it interacts with upper airway physiology is required for future targeted pharmacotherapy in sleep apnea. PMID:23685318
Wang, David; Eckert, Danny J; Grunstein, Ronald R
Much of the clinical care of sleep apnea patients is focused on case identification, diagnosis, and treatment prescription, while follow-up care tends to be intermittent and patient-initiated. There is a clear need for an alternative, cost-effective way to examine sleep apnea treatment efficacy. As part of our research program to improve the clinical care of sleep apnea patients using Internet enabled systems, we have developed a prototype Wireless Blood Pulse-Oximeter System that patients can use in their homes. The oximeter system can be applied by the patient and is based on a data-push mechanism to a secure server that is designed for both patient and provider access. PMID:17238730
Stepnowsky, Carl; Blair, Paul; DiNicola, Gia; Lenert, Leslie A
Upper airway occlusion in obstructive sleep apnea has been attributed to a decline in pharyngeal neuromuscular activity occurring in a structurally narrowed airway. Surgical treatment focuses on the correction of anatomic abnormalities, but there is a potential role for activation of the upper airway musculature, especially with stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve and genioglossus muscle. We present evidence from research on upper airway neuromuscular electrical stimulation in animals and humans. We also present results from eight obstructive sleep apnea patients with a fully implanted system for hypoglossal nerve stimulation, demonstrating an improvement in upper airway collapsibility and obstructive sleep apnea severity. Future research, including optimization of device features and stimulation parameters as well as patient selection, is necessary to make hypoglossal nerve stimulation a viable alternative to positive airway pressure therapy and upper airway surgical procedures. PMID:20116305
Kezirian, Eric J; Boudewyns, An; Eisele, David W; Schwartz, Alan R; Smith, Philip L; Van de Heyning, Paul H; De Backer, Wilfried A
Much of the clinical care of sleep apnea patients is focused on case identification, diagnosis, and treatment prescription, while follow-up care tends to be intermittent and patient-initiated. There is a clear need for an alternative, cost-effective way to examine sleep apnea treatment efficacy. As part of our research program to improve the clinical care of sleep apnea patients using Internet enabled systems, we have developed a prototype Wireless Blood Pulse-Oximeter System that patients can use in their homes. The oximeter system can be applied by the patient and is based on a data-push mechanism to a secure server that is designed for both patient and provider access.
Stepnowsky, Carl; Blair, Paul; DiNicola, Gia; Lenert, Leslie A
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common chronic disorder that often requires lifelong care. Available practice param- eters provide evidence-based recommendations for addressing as- pects of care. Objective: This guideline is designed to assist primary care provid- ers as well as sleep medicine specialists, surgeons, and dentists who care for patients with OSA by providing a comprehensive strategy for
Patrick J. Strollo; Norman Friedman; Atul Malhotra; Richard J. Schwab; Michael D. Weinstein
OBJECTIVE Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in type 2 diabetes and increases oxidative stress. Hence, OSA could promote the development and progression of DN. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cohort study in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients with known OSA or ESRD were excluded. DN was defined as the presence of albuminuria or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). DN progression was based on eGFR measurements. OSA was defined as apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ?5 events/h. Serum nitrotyrosine abundance (a marker of nitrosative stress) was measured by ELISA. RESULTS A total of 224 patients were included. OSA and DN prevalence was 64.3 and 40.2, respectively. DN prevalence was higher in patients with OSA (OSA(+)) compared with those without OSA (OSA(-)) (49.3% vs. 23.8%, P < 0.001). After adjustment, OSA (odds ratio 2.64 [95% CI 1.13-6.16], P = 0.02) remained independently associated with DN. After an average follow-up of 2.5 (0.7) years, eGFR decline was greater in OSA(+) compared with OSA(-) patients (median -6.8% [interquartile range -16.1 to 2.2] vs. -1.6% [-7.7 to 5.3%], P = 0.002). After adjusting, both baseline OSA (B = -3.8, P = 0.044) and AHI (B = -4.6, P = 0.02) remained independent predictors of study-end eGFR. Baseline serum nitrotyrosine abundance (B = -0.24, P = 0.015) was an independent predictor of study-end eGFR after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS OSA is independently associated with DN in type 2 diabetes. eGFR declined faster in patients with OSA. Nitrosative stress may provide a pathogenetic link between OSA and DN. Interventional studies assessing the impact of OSA treatment on DN are needed. PMID:24062320
Tahrani, Abd A; Ali, Asad; Raymond, Neil T; Begum, Safia; Dubb, Kiran; Altaf, Quratul-Ain; Piya, Milan K; Barnett, Anthony H; Stevens, Martin J
Purpose A high prevalence of depressive symptomatology has been reported amongst sufferers of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but it\\u000a remains unclear as to whether this is due to their OSA or other factors associated with the disorder. The current study aimed\\u000a to assess the incidence and aetiology of depression in a community sample of individuals presenting to the sleep laboratory\\u000a for
Melinda L. Jackson; Con Stough; Mark E. Howard; Jo Spong; Luke A. Downey; Bruce Thompson
It is known that application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves sleep architecture in patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). In contrast, there have been only a few studies which deal with deterioration of sleep architecture by discontinuation of CPAP. In the present study we analyzed changes of sleep architecture by temporary removal of CPAP. The subjects were 41 patients who underwent polysomnography (PSG) for diagnosis of SAS. The patients chose either a 1-night study in which only PSG was done, or a 2-night study in which, after treatment with CPAP for one month, PSGs with and without CPAP at night were done. The mean ages, heights, and weights between the 1-night group and the 2-night group were not statistically different The mean AHI of the 1-night group (38.9 +/- 5.0/hr; mean +/- SE) and that of the 2-night group (45.7 +/- 5.4/hr) were not significantly different. The mean AHI profoundly decreased (4.4 +/- 0.9) by CPAP therapy on the second night. Percents of each sleep stage in the 1-night group were as follows; stage 1, 31.8%; stage 2, 50.0%; stage (3 + 4), 2.8%: REM, 15.7%. In the 2-night group, stage 1 was 43.6%, significantly higher than that in the 1-night group, while stage 2 was 39.9%, which was significantly smaller. There were no significant difference in stage (3 + 4) and REM. When CPAP was again applied to the 2-night patients, stage 1 significantly decreased to 15.5%, while stage 2 (55.6%), stage (3 + 4) 6.7%, and REM (22.3%) increased significantly. Therefore, cessation of CPAP shifts the sleep stage from stage 2 to stage 1. Since stages 1 and 2 occupy approximately 80% of total sleep duration, the shift may have some physiological significance. Resumation of CPAP may have improved quality of life and day-time sleepiness by decreasing stage 1 sleep and increasing stages of deeper sleep and REM. PMID:16285588
Kondo, Tetsuri; Ishii, Hiroshi; Iga, Tomie; Nishiya, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Ichiro
Study Objectives: To evaluate the value of mouth opening during sleep for predicting surgical outcomes after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). Methods: Retrospectively, 69 out of 120 consecutive patients with obstructive sleep apnea who underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty at an academic tertiary referral center were included in this study. Sixty-nine subjects underwent cephalometry, nocturnal polysomnography and sleep videofluoroscopy before and after UPPP. Multiple parameters from the above studies were evaluated as potential predictors of UPPP outcomes. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that an increased angle of mouth opening during sleep was the only significant predictor for surgical failure (p < 0.001). The angle of mouth opening could predict surgical outcome with predictive values of 72.4% and 82.5% for success and failure, respectively. Conclusions: Sleep videofluoroscopy during sleep revealed that the simple measurement of mouth-opening angle could outstandingly predict surgical outcome. Citation: Lee CH; Mo JH; Seo BS; Kim DY; Yoon IY; Kim JW. Mouth opening during sleep may be a critical predictor of surgical outcome after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(2):157-162.
Lee, Chul Hee; Mo, Ji-Hun; Seo, Beom Seok; Kim, Dong-Young; Yoon, In-Young; Kim, Jeong-Whun
Purpose The study aims to assess the risk factors for the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among severely obese\\u000a patients evaluated for bariatric surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods Polysomnography recordings were performed in consecutive patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from January 2004 to\\u000a January 2007. Sleep apnea was noted as present or absent and graded from mild to severe according
Gláucia Carneiro; Ronaldo T. B. Flório; Maria Teresa Zanella; Marcia Pradella-Hallinan; Fernando Flexa Ribeiro-Filho; Sérgio Tufik; Sônia Maria Togeiro
Recent evidence suggests the possible development of difficult mask ventilation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Based on our current understanding of the pathophysiology of pharyngeal airway obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea patients, we conclude that anesthesiologists can decrease respiratory complications during anesthesia induction by conducting careful pre-induction preparations, including body and head positioning and sufficient preoxygenation, and by using the two-hand mask ventilation technique with effective airway maneuvers and appropriate ventilator settings while continuously assessing ventilation status with capnography. PMID:23212587
Sato, Yumi; Ikeda, Aya; Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh
While patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or multiple sclerosis (MS) are at high risk of developing postoperative complications, both of them have special anesthetic considerations in intraoperative and postoperative periods. A careful preoperative evaluation, use of the optimal anesthetic regimen and close postoperative care is essential for these patients. Rarity of coexistence of both obstructive sleep apnea and multiple sclerosis in a surgical patient necessitates careful anesthetic management. We here report anesthetic management of a female patient with OSA and MS who underwent anesthesia three times for surgery and review the literature.
Ceyhan, Aysegul; Uyar, Esra Turkyilmaz; Gencay, Isin Yazici; Gunal, Solmaz Eruyar
This cross-sectional study was conducted to examine whether the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with elevation of the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and increase in the plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), both of which are known markers of cardiovascular risk, and also to determine if the concurrent presence of the metabolic syndrome might exacerbate this elevation in
Kazuki Shiina; Hirofumi Tomiyama; Yoshifumi Takata; Yasuhiro Usui; Kihiro Asano; Yoji Hirayama; Takeshi Nakamura; Akira Yamashina
Study Objectives: It is commonly believed that louder snoring is associated with more severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We evaluated the association between snoring intensity and the severity of OSA to better understand this clinical correlation. We also investigated the relationships between body mass index (BMI), neck size, sleep stage, and body position with the intensity of snoring. Methods: Overnight polysomnography, including objective measurement of snoring intensity, in 1643 habitual snorers referred for evaluation of sleep apnea. Results: Sixty-five percent of patients were male; the cohort had a mean age of 48.7 ± 13.7 y and BMI of 30.9 ± 8.8 kg/m2. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 28.2 ± 26. The severity of OSA was graded as no OSA (AHI < 5), mild (AHI 5 to 15), moderate (AHI 15 to 30), severe (AHI 30 to 50), and very severe OSA (AHI > 50). Snoring intensity increased progressively across all 5 categories of AHI frequency and ranged from 46.3 ± 3.6 db in patients with AHI < 5 to 60.5 ± 6.4 db in those with AHI > 50. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the intensity of snoring and the AHI (r = 0.66, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The intensity of snoring increases as OSA becomes more severe. Citation: Maimon N; Hanly PJ. Does snoring intensity correlate with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea? J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(5):475-478.
Maimon, Nimrod; Hanly, Patrick J.
Objective: This study aimed to compare the cephalometric characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients with those of healthy subjects and to determine possible relationships between cephalometric measurements of OSA patients and control subjects. Methods: Standardized lateral cephalograms of 16 OSA patients and 16 healthy controls were obtained. Airway dimensions and dentofacial parameters were measured using a cephalometric analysis program (Dolphin Imaging Cephalometric and Tracing Software, Chatsworth, CA, USA). All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS version 17.0.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive statistics were calculated for all measurements, and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to evaluate intergroup differences. Results: Midface length was significantly shorter and upper lip E-plane length was significantly longer in the OSA group than in the controls (P<.05). SNA, SNB, and mandibular plane angles (GoGn-SN), anterior and posterior facial heights, and posteroanterior face height ratio were similar in both groups. Maxillary length was slightly longer in the OSA group, whereas the mandibular length showed a slight increase in the control group (P<.05). The axial inclination of the lower incisor to its respective plane was normal, whereas the upper incisor was significantly protrusive (P<.05) in the OSA group. Distance between the hyoid and mandible was significantly greater in the OSA group than in the controls, indicating that the hyoid bone was positioned more downward in the OSA group (P<.05). Conclusions: In this study, the patients with OSA demonstrated significant differences in several craniofacial measurements. OSA patients showed reduced midface length and inferiorly placed hyoid bone and tended to have smaller airway dimensions.
Gungor, Ahmet Yalcin; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Yilmaz, H. Huseyin; Yariktas, Murat
Untreated and long-lasting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may lead to important vascular abnormalities, including endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. We observed a correlation between microcirculatory reactivity and endothelium-dependent release of nitric oxide in OSA patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that OSA affects (micro)vasculature and we aimed to identify vascular gene targets of OSA that could possibly serve as reliable biomarkers of severity of the disease and possibly of vascular risk. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we evaluated gene expression in skin biopsies of OSA patients, mouse aortas from animals exposed to 4-week intermittent hypoxia (IH; rapid oscillations in oxygen desaturation and reoxygenation), and human dermal microvascular (HMVEC) and coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) cultured under IH. We demonstrate a significant upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3; A20), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1??? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in skin biopsies obtained from OSA patients with severe nocturnal hypoxemia (nadir saturated oxygen levels [SaO2]<75%) compared to mildly hypoxemic OSA patients (SaO2 75%-90%) and a significant upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expression compared to control subjects. Gene expression profile in aortas of mice exposed to IH demonstrated a significant upregulation of eNOS and VEGF. In an in vitro model of OSA, IH increased expression of A20 and decreased eNOS and HIF-1? expression in HMVEC, while increased A20, VCAM-1 and HIF-1?expression in HCAEC, indicating that EC in culture originating from distinct vascular beds respond differently to IH stress. We conclude that gene expression profiles in skin of OSA patients may correlate with disease severity and, if validated by further studies, could possibly predict vascular risk in OSA patients. PMID:23923005
Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Bakker, Jessie P; Clarke, Douglas N; Csizmadia, Eva; Kocher, Olivier; Veves, Aristidis; Tecilazich, Francesco; O'Donnell, Christopher P; Ferran, Christiane; Malhotra, Atul
The occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is achondroplasia has been linked to brain stem compression. Overnight sleep studies (11 subjects) and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP's, 10 subjects) were recorded before and after conventional treatment of OSA in achondroplasia. The two groups were derived from 30 subjects who underwent diagnostic sleep studies and SEPs, including 15 females and 15 males with a median age 6.6 years (range 1.0-47.6) at the time of the first study. In 30 initial studies there was no correlation between severity of OSA and abnormalities on SEP evaluation. Treatment of 17 subjects included adenotonsillectomy (n = 3), weight loss (n = 1), and nasal-mask continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (n = 13). Sleep studies in 11 subjects after a delay of 8.8 +/- 2.8 months showed a reduction in respiratory disturbance index (RDI) from 38.4 +/- 6.9 to 6.5 +/- 1.8 events hr(-1) (p < 0.001) and movements/arousals fell from 10.4 +/- 2.2 to 4.8 +/- 0.2 hr(-1) (p < 0.04). Obstructive events were reduced from 33.7 +/- 6.9 to 2.4 +/- 1.0 hr(-1) (p < 0.001). Improvement of respiratory indices was associated with an increased proportion of slow-wave sleep from 25.2 +/- 4.0% to 32.3 +/- 2.4% (p = 0.01), and decrease in stage 1-2 sleep from 59.3 +/- 5.8% to 46.6 +/- 1.9% (p = 0.03). There was no increase in the percentage of REM sleep (15.2 to 21.2%). Repeat SEP studies in 10 subjects, after clinically effective treatment of OSA, showed improvement of SEP score of at least 1 grade, in 5 of 7 (71%) with initially abnormal values. We conclude that treatment of relieve upper airway obstruction improves OSA in achondroplasia, accompanied by changes in sleep structure and, in some cases, improved studies of neurological function. PMID:8585566
Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D O; Fagan, E R; Sullivan, C E
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the validity of the BodyMedia's SenseWear™ Armband (BSA) device in estimating total sleep time (TST) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Simultaneous overnight recordings of in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) and BSA were performed on (1) 107 OSA patients (mean age of 45.2 ± 14.3 years, mean apnea hypopnea index of 43 ± 35.7/hr and (2) 30 controls matched with OSA patients for age and body mass index. An agreement analysis between the PSG and BSA scoring results was performed using the Bland and Altman method. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in OSA patients between BSA and PSG with regard to TST, total wake time, and sleep efficiency. There was also no significant difference in the controls between BSA and PSG with regard to TST, total wake time, and sleep efficiency. Bland Altman plots showed strong agreement between TST, wake time, and sleep efficiency for both OSA and the controls. The intraclass correlation coefficients revealed perfect agreement between BSA and PSG in different levels of OSA severity and both genders. CONCLUSION: The current data suggest that BSA is a reliable method for determining sleep in patients with OSA when compared against the gold standard test (PSG). BSA can be a useful tool in determining sleep in patients with OSA and can be combined with portable sleep studies to determine TST.
Sharif, Munir M.; BaHammam, Ahmed S.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is considerably more common in men than women. Preliminary data suggest that androgens may play a role in the male predominance of apnea. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by menstrual disturbances, androgen excess, and frequently obesity. These features suggest that women with PCOS may be at increased risk for OSA. To determine whether obese women with PCOS have an increased prevalence of sleep apnea compared with age and weight-matched reproductively normal women, we performed overnight polysomnography for determination of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in 18 obese women with PCOS and age and weight-matched control women. Additional measurements included waist, hip, and neck circumferences, serum total testosterone, unbound testosterone, and DHEAS. Women with PCOS had a higher AHI than controls (22.5 +/- 6.0, vs. 6.7 +/- 1.0, P = 0.008). Women with PCOS were also more likely to suffer from symptomatic OSA syndrome (44.4% vs. 5.5%, P = 0.008). AHI correlated with waist-hip ratio (r = 0.51, P < 0.03), serum testosterone (r = 0.52, P < 0.03) and unbound testosterone (r = 0.50, P < 0.05) in women with PCOS. We conclude that obese women with PCOS are at increased risk of OSA when compared with matched reproductively normal women. Women with PCOS should be carefully questioned regarding symptoms of sleep apnea. PMID:11238505
Fogel, R B; Malhotra, A; Pillar, G; Pittman, S D; Dunaif, A; White, D P
The objective of this study was to compare continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use, functional status, and client satisfaction in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients randomized to either telemedicine support or traditional care. In our university-affiliated sleep disorders center, patients with OSAS who were initiating CPAP therapy were randomized to receive telemedicine support vs traditional follow-up care for 30 days.
Yvonne Taylor; Arn Eliasson; Teotimo Andrada; David Kristo; Robin Howard
Study Objectives: To review studies examining the cooccurrence of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), explore evidence for the effect of OSA therapy on insomnia symptoms and the effect of insomnia treatments on breathing and sleep in patients with OSA, and discuss challenges in the evaluation and treatment of comorbid insomnia and OSA. Methods/Results: Seven pertinent studies were identified that assessed the prevalence of comorbid insomnia and OSA or sleep disordered breathing. Four studies were identified that examined the effects of OSA treatment in patients with insomnia, and 8 studies were found that examined hypnotic use in patients with OSA or sleep disordered breathing. A high prevalence (39%-58%) of insomnia symptoms have been reported in patients with OSA, and between 29% and 67% of patients with insomnia have an apnea-hypopnea index of greater than 5. Combination therapy, including both cognitive behavior therapy and OSA treatment, resulted in greater improvements in insomnia than did either cognitive behavior therapy or OSA treatment alone. The use of GABAergic nonbenzodiazepine agents has been associated with improvements in sleep and has little to no effect on the apnea-hypopnea index in patients with OSA. Conclusions: Insomnia and OSA frequently cooccur. The optimal strategy for adequately treating comorbid insomnia and OSA remains unclear. Future research examining the impact of insomnia on continuous positive airway pressure therapy is needed. Given the substantial overlap in symptoms between insomnia and OSA, evaluation and treatment of these 2 conditions can be challenging and will require multidisciplinary collaboration among sleep specialists. Citation: Luyster FS; Buysse DJ; Strollo PJ. Comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea: challenges for clinical practice and research. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(2):196-204.
Luyster, Faith S.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Strollo, Patrick J.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder, characterized by excessive snoring and repetitive apneas and arousals, which leads to fragmented sleep and, most importantly, to intermittent nocturnal hypoxaemia during apneas. Considering previous studies about morphovolumetric alterations in sleep apnea, in this study we aimed to investigate for the first time the functional connectivity profile of OSA patients and age-gender-matched healthy controls, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty severe OSA patients (mean age 43.2 ± 8 years; mean apnea-hypopnea index, 36.3 h(-1) ) and 20 non-apneic age-gender-body mass index (BMI)-matched controls underwent fMRI and polysomnographic (PSG) registration, as well as mood and sleepiness evaluation. Cerebro-cerebellar regional homogeneity (ReHo) values were calculated from fMRI acquisition, in order to identify pathology-related alterations in the local coherence of low-frequency signal (<0.1 Hz). Multivariate pattern classification was also performed using ReHo values as features. We found a significant pattern of cortical and subcortical abnormal local connectivity in OSA patients, suggesting an overall rearrangement of hemispheric connectivity balance, with a decrease of local coherence observed in right temporal, parietal and frontal lobe regions. Moreover, an increase in bilateral thalamic and somatosensory/motor cortices coherence have been found, a finding due possibly to an aberrant adaptation to incomplete sleep-wake transitions during nocturnal apneic episodes, induced by repetitive choke sensation and physical efforts attempting to restore breathing. Different hemispheric roles into sleep processes and a possible thalamus key role in OSA neurophysiopathology are intriguing issues that future studies should attempt to clarify. PMID:23171248
Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Sicilia, Isabella; Richiardi, Jonas; Vatti, Giampaolo; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Marino, Daniela; Rocchi, Raffaele; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Rossi, Alessandro
Background: Heart failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing nations like Nigeria. Sleep apnea and snoring has recently been recognized to be a cardiovascular risk factor. Sleep apnea is yet to be well studied among Africans with heart failure. We aimed to determine the prevalence of snoring and high risk for obstructive sleep apnea among Nigerians with stable heart failure. Materials and Methods: We studied 103 subjects that included 62 patients with heart failure and 41 control subjects. Demographic parameters and clinical examination were performed on the participants. The Berlin score and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were administered for each participant. Echocardiography was done on all participants. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17.0. Results: Snoring was reported in 48.4% of subjects with heart failure compared to 22.0% of control subjects ( P < 0.005). High risk for obstructive sleep apnea using the Berlin score was documented in 51.6% of heart failure subjects compared to 7.31% of controls. Excessive daytime somnolence occurred more in heart failure patients (51.6% vs. 9.8%, P < 0.05). Snorers tended to be older and were more likely to be obese than nonsnorers. Systolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher among heart failure subjects with snoring than those without snoring (131.9 ± 19.2 vs. 119.2 ± 15.7 and 6.0 ± 0.8 vs. 5.4 ± 2.7, P < 0.005). Conclusion: Heart failure seems to be associated with snoring and a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea among Africans with heart failure. Assessment for sleep disordered breathing should be incorporated into their routine clinical workup.
Akintunde, Adeseye A.
The role of the arterial baroreflex in the cardiovascular changes associated with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on baroreflex function during sleep are unknown. Baroreflex control of heart rate was studied in 29 normotensive patients with OSAS under no treatment, in 11 age-matched control subjects, and in 10 patients at CPAP withdrawal after 5.5 +/- 3.7 (range 3-14) months of treatment. Baroreflex control of heart rate was assessed by "sequence method" analysis of continuous blood pressure recordings (Finapres) obtained during nocturnal polysomnography. In untreated OSAS, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was low during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (REM) stage 2 sleep compared with control subjects, and correlated inversely with mean lowest Sa(O(2)) and the blood pressure increase after apneas. After CPAP treatment, the apnea-hypopnea index was lower, and mean lowest Sa(O(2)) higher than before treatment. After CPAP, patients were more bradycardic, blood pressure and its standard deviation decreased as Sa(O(2)) improved in non-REM stage 2 sleep, and BRS increased (nocturnal wakefulness: +59%; non-REM stage 2 sleep: +68% over pretreatment values). Our data suggest that baroreflex dysfunction in OSAS may be at least partly accounted for by nocturnal intermittent hypoxemia, and can be reversed by long-term CPAP treatment. PMID:12153958
Bonsignore, Maria R; Parati, Gianfranco; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Marrone, Oreste; Castiglioni, Paolo; Romano, Salvatore; Di Rienzo, Marco; Mancia, Giuseppe; Bonsignore, Giovanni
This information is right for you if a doctor said you have mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea, or OSA. People with OSA may snore and stop (or pause) their breathing a few or many times when they sleep; If you are looking for ways to treat ...
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) was first described more than a century ago; however, OSAS in children was first described in 1976. OSAS is a common problem in children as in adults, with a prevalence of 1–3%. OSAS is becoming a substantial health risk in children and the under-diagnosed condition may lead to substantial morbidity if left untreated. Childhood OSAS
Hui Ding; Xi-cheng Liu; Jian-peng Zhang
In this study, we hypothesized that anatomic abnormalities of the oropharynx, particularly narrowing of the airway by the lateral pharyngeal walls, tonsils, and tongue, would be associated with an increased likelihood for obstructive apnea among patients pre- senting to a sleep disorders center. To test this hypothesis, we used data from a cohort of 420 patients presenting to the Penn
JOSEPH B. SCHELLENBERG; GREG MAISLIN; RICHARD J. SCHWAB
Previous case reports have indicated dental devices can be an effective nonsurgical treatment for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of two intraoral devices in reducing the Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores in a group of 24 adult volunteers with a history of loud snoring. Subjects were randomly assigned to
Mark G. Hans; Suchitra Nelson; Virginia G. Luks; Paul Lorkovich; Seung-Jin Baek
INTRODUCTION: The increased incidence of morbid obesity has resulted in an increase of bariatric surgical procedures. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a commonly encoun- tered comorbidity in morbidly obese patients. Sedatives, analgesics, and anesthetics alter airway tone, and airway obstruction and death have been reported in patients with OSA after minimal doses of sedatives and anesthetics, yet there is a
Shireen Ahmad; Alexander Nagle; Robert J. McCarthy; Paul C. Fitzgerald; John T. Sullivan; Jay Prystowsky
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity as well as excessive daytime sleepiness and poor quality of life. In this study, we apply a machine learning technique [support vector machines (SVMs)] for automated recognition of OSAS types from their nocturnal ECG recordings. A total of 125 sets of nocturnal ECG recordings acquired from normal subjects (OSAS- )
Ahsan H. Khandoker; Marimuthu Palaniswami; Chandan K. Karmakar
Previous studies of craniofacial risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been based predominantly on cephalometry. However, differences in head form (measured by the cranial index (CI)) and facial form (measured by the facial index (FI)) are consid- ered by anthropologists to provide a basis for structural variation in craniofacial anatomy. We assessed the association of head and facial
BANU CAKIRER; MARK G. HANS; GREG GRAHAM; JOAN AYLOR; PETER V. TISHLER; SUSAN REDLINE
The purpose of this study was to compare two groups of adult men from different ethnic backgrounds and with obstructive sleep apnea; they were selected by matching age, gender, skeletal pattern, body mass index, and respiratory disturbance index. Pretreatment cephalometric radiographs and overnight polysomnograms of 30 Chinese and 43 Caucasian patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusions were analyzed to
Yuehua Liu; Alan A. Lowe; Xianglong Zeng; Minkui Fu; John A. Fleetham
Background and purposeDue to the increasing importance of quality of life assessments in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and due to an increased use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), for comparative purposes it is essential to understand the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments and the ICF. The purpose of this study was
Armin Stucki; Alarcos Cieza; Macé M. Schuurmans; Bedirhan Ustun; Gerold Stucki; Felix Gradinger; Markku Partinen
BackgroundMathematical formulas have been less than adequate in assessing the optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) level in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objectives of the study were (1) to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) using demographic and anthropometric information to predict optimal CPAP level based on an overnight titration study and (2) to compare the predicted
Ali A. El Solh; Zaher Aldik; Moutaz Alnabhan; Brydon Grant
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), a highly prevalent, under-diagnosed disorder, is an important preventable cause of accidents at work and on the road. Commercial drivers are predominantly middle-aged men with high levels of obesity and hypertension, increasing their risk for OSA. Although Department of Transportation (DOT) physicals are conducted to certify drivers, physicians have no accurate and convenient methods for identifying
Chris Berka; Philip Westbrook; Daniel J. Levendowski; Michelle N. Lumicao; Caitlin K. Ramsey; Timothy Zavora; Travis Offner
Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is a serious disorder with significant daytime consequences. Treatment for SAS most commonly takes the form of positive airway pressure (PAP). Although effective, PAP adherence is often below expectations. Previous studies have suggested that the provision of information on the importance of PAP use can enhance adherence. In this study, we compare 2 brief behavioral approaches—traditional
Mark S. Aloia; Kevin Smith; J. Todd Arnedt; Richard P. Millman; Michael Stanchina; Carol Carlisle; Jacki Hecht; Belinda Borrelli
OBJECTIVES. Positive airway pressure therapy (PAP) is frequently used to treat chil- dren who have obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and do not respond to adeno- tonsillectomy. However, no studies have evaluated objectively adherence to PAP in children, and few studies have evaluated objectively the effectiveness of PAP. The objective of this study was to determine adherence and effectiveness of PAP
Carole L. Marcus; Gerald Rosen; Sally L. Davidson Ward; Ann C. Halbower; Laura Sterni; Janita Lutz
The prospective influence of relationship support and conflict on adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was examined over the first 3 months of CPAP treatment in 42 married, male patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). CPAP adherence reports were available for 23 patients. Patient ratings of marital conflict predicted average nightly adherence (? = ?0.357, p < .05), but
Kelly Glazer Baron; Timothy W. Smith; Laura A. Czajkowski; Heather E. Gunn; Christopher R. Jones
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a noninvasive method to measure respiratory resistance (R rs ) potentially useful for monitoring upper airway obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea\\/ hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). The aim of this work was to test the clinical suitability of FOT in assess- ing dynamic changes in airflow obstruction in patients with SAHS during continuous positive
DANIEL NAVAJAS; RAMÓN FARRÉ; MAR ROTGER; RAMÓN BADIA; MARINA PUIG-de-MORALES; JOSEP M. MONTSERRAT
The aims of this study were to evaluate patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) with regards to dysanapsis (airway size relative to lung size) and to demonstrate the differences between the patients with and without extrathoracic airway obstruction. The study population consisted of 15 patients with OSAS and 14 age and body mass index (BMI) matched control subjects. OSAS
Levent Öztürk; Gökhan Metin; Ça?lar Çuhadaro?lu; Ayfer Utkusava?; Bülent Tutluo?lu
Objectives: In some patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores (ESS) do not reflect the severity of disease. In many cases, bed partners (BPs) report more severe hypersomnia on the part of the patient than the patient him\\/herself. The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement between patients and BPs on ESS scores and to
Timothy J Walter; Nancy Foldvary; Edward Mascha; Dudley Dinner; Joseph Golish
There is growing evidence linking obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) with multiple cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Exercise testing is generally available and routinely used to provide valuable information on cardiopulmonary function in healthy and diseased populations. This review summarizes and integrates recent findings on exercise testing in OSAHS and discusses the potential mechanisms that may contribute to the responses
Adrian Aron; Donald Zedalis; John M. Gregg; Francis C. Gwazdauskas; William G. Herbert
BackgroundObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive nighttime obstructions of the upper airway that induce hypoxemia, hypercapnia, sympathetic activation, and arousals. This disorder induces cardiovascular autonomic imbalance and contributes to the development of hypertension. While the diagnostic and prognostic utility of exercise testing is well established in cardiology, the clinical utility of the exercise test in screening for OSA
Anthony S. Kaleth; Thomas W. Chittenden; Brian J. Hawkins; Trent A. Hargens; Steve G. Guill; Donald Zedalis; John M. Gregg; William G. Herbert
BackgroundObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased sympathetic activity and hypertension in adults. We tested the hypothesis that children with OSA also have increased sympathetic activity as measured by overnight urinary catecholamines, and that this increase is related to the severity of OSA and to blood pressure (BP).
Denise M. O’Driscoll; Rosemary S. C. Horne; Margot J. Davey; Sarah A. Hope; Vicki Anderson; John Trinder; Adrian M. Walker; Gillian M. Nixon
This paper investigates the use of identified nonlinear multivariable autonomous models in the classification of breathing patterns of a patient with sleep apnea. Details about the identification procedure are provided and the results reported for the case study at hand suggest that identified models could be useful in computer-based monitoring. PMID:15047435
Aguirre, Luis Antonio; Souza, Alvaro V P
Background: Leptin is a hormone with well-investigated functions concerning body composition, energy homeostasis and feeding behavior in humans. The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is strongly associated with obesity, which is known to be closely associated with hyperleptinemia. More recently, ghrelin, a hormone that also influences appetite and energy homeostasis, has been discovered. Objectives: The aim of this study was
Tansu Ulukavak Ciftci; Oguz Kokturk; Neslihan Bukan; Ayse Bilgihan
Background: Gastric mucosal ischemia develops in critically ill patients in a number of clinical settings due to diversion of blood flow from the splanchnic bed to more vital organs, and can be detected by the measurement of gastric intramucosal pH (pHi). Study Objective: We hypothesized that similar changes would occur during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) due to increased respiratory work
Lawrence J. Epstein; James H. Henderson; II; Marjorie Sullivan; Zab Mohsenifar
Despite the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), the attributable vascular risk from each condition is unknown. We hypothesize that OSA may have a similar effect on vascular function as type 2 diabetes does. Healthy normal-weight subjects, healthy obese subjects, subjects with type 2 diabetes, and obese subjects with OSA were enrolled. Vascular
Susie Yim-Yeh; Shilpa Rahangdale; Anh Tu Duy Nguyen; Karen E. Stevenson; Victor Novack; Aristidis Veves; Atul Malhotra
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper was to determine the most common craniofacial changes in patients suffering Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) with regards to the degree of obesity. Accordingly, cephalometric data reported in the literature was searched and analyzed. METHODS: After a careful analysis of the literature from 1990 to 2006, 5 papers with similar procedural criteria were selected.
Antonino M Cuccia; Giuseppina Campisi; Rosangela Cannavale; Giuseppe Colella
Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerosis is a key mechanism for these cardiovascular events. Recent cross-sectional studies showed the presence of early signs of atherosclerosis in patients with OSA who were free of comorbidities. Objectives: To determine the impact of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on atherosclerosis.
Luciano F. Drager; Luiz A. Bortolotto; Adelaide C. Figueiredo; Eduardo M. Krieger; Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho
Background: Although continuous positive airway pres- sure (CPAP) has become the standard of care in the treat- ment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 2 systematic re- views have questioned its utility. Since the publication of these reviews, several randomized controlled trials have been reported. We, therefore, performed a meta- analysis to assess the effect of CPAP on subjective and objective
Sanjay R. Patel; David P. White; Atul Malhotra; Michael L. Stanchina; Najib T. Ayas
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of premenopausal women, characterized by chronic hyperan- drogenism, oligoanovulation, and insulin resistance. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are strongly associated with insulin resistance and hypercytokinemia, independently of obesity. We hypothesized that women with PCOS are at risk for OSA and EDS. Fifty-three women with PCOS (age
ALEXANDROS N. VGONTZAS; RICHARD S. LEGRO; EDWARD O. BIXLER; ALLISON GRAYEV; ANTHONY KALES; GEORGE P. CHROUSOS
A new index, the cross-power index (CPI), is proposed to quantify the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in terms of its cardiovascular effects. On the basis of the influences that recurring drops in oxygen saturation have on systolic blood pressure variability of OSAS patients, CPI is defined as the integral of the cross-spectrum modulus between systolic blood pressure
P. Castiglioni; M. R. Bonsignore; G. Insalaco; G. Parati; M. Di Rienzo
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a range of cardiovascular sequelae and increased cardiovascular mortality. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of OSA in patients with symptomatic angina and angiographically verified coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition, we analyzed the association of OSA and other coronary risk factors with CAD and myocardial infarction.
Harald Schäfer; Ulrich Koehler; Santiago Ewig; Ekkhard Hasper; Selcuk Tasci; Berndt Lüderitz
Pharyngeal collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is linked to decreased upper airway muscle activity. We hypothesised that decreased muscle activity causes decreased stiffness of the upper airway wall and assumed that a decrease in wall stiffness would result in a change point (CP) of the morphology of phase angle time series ?(t) obtained by forced oscillation
S. Reisch; J. Timmer; H. Steltner; K. H. Ruhle; J. H. Ficker; J. Guttmann
The purpose of this study was to explore aspects of engagement in physical activity in persons with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and overweight. Seven women and eight men were interviewed, and transcribed data were analyzed according to qualitative content analysis.Two themes evolved reflecting influences on engagement in physical activity: 1) Incentives strong enough, and 2) Facilitators for success and challenges
Helena Igelström; Cathrin Martin; Margareta Emtner; Eva Lindberg; Pernilla Åsenlöf
This paper evaluates the different surgical treatments used in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and snoring. This critical analysis is based on an extensive review of the literature and the authors’ experience. In snoring patients, the success rate of surgery focusing on the soft palate does not exceed 50–60%, and the risk of pharyngeal narrowing is high. Therefore, this treatment should
Philippe Pasche; A. Pellanda; Bertrand Jaques
Rationale: Studies of the genetics of obstructive sleep apnea may be facilitated by identifying intermediate traits with high heritability that quantify etiological pathways, such as those related to respiratory control. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-based sleep spectrograms, measuring the coupling between respiratory modulation of ECG QRS-wave amplitude and heart rate variability, may provide measures of sleep state and ventilatory dynamics during sleep. We evaluated the familial aggregation of distinctive spectrographic biomarkers of unstable sleep, related to elevated-low frequency cardiopulmonary coupling (e-LFC), to assess their utility in genetic studies. Methods: 622 participants from 137 families from the Cleveland Family Study underwent standardized polysomnography (PSG). From the ECG signal on the PSG, the interbeat interval time series and the corresponding ECG-derived respiratory signal were extracted, and the low frequency (0.01-0.1 Hz) component of their coupling was computed using a fully automated method. Narrow sense heritability of e-LFC was calculated using variance component methods. Results: A spectral marker of abnormal low frequency cardiopulmonary coupling (e-LFC) demonstrated moderate correlation with apnea hypopnea index (AHI; r = 0.35, P < 0.0001). The heritability estimate for e-LFC, after adjusting for age and sex was 0.32 (P < 10-5) and remained unchanged after additionally adjusting for body mass index or AHI. In biological relatives of those with sleep apnea, a related marker of e-LFC was more prevalent than in controls (P = 0.05). Conclusions: Approximately 30% of the variability of e-LFC, measured from a continuous ECG during sleep, is explained by familial factors other than BMI. ECG-based spectrographic measures of cardiopulmonary coupling may provide novel phenotypes for characterizing subgroups of individuals with different propensities and genetic etiologies for sleep apnea or for other conditions associated with sleep fragmentation. Citation: Ibrahim LH; Jacono FJ; Patel SR; Thomas RJ; Larkin EK; Mietus JE; Peng CK; Goldberger AL; Redline S. Heritability of abnormalities in cardiopulmonary coupling in sleep apnea: use of an electrocardiogram-based technique. SLEEP 2010;33(5):643-646.
Ibrahim, Lamia H.; Jacono, Frank J.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Thomas, Robert J.; Larkin, Emma K.; Mietus, Joseph E.; Peng, Chung-Kang; Goldberger, Ary L.; Redline, Susan
Background: Practice parameters for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in adults by surgical modification of the upper airway were first published in 1996 by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (formerly ASDA). The following practice parameters update the previous practice parameters. These recommendations were reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed, and the GRADE system was used to assess the quality of evidence. The findings from this evaluation are provided in the accompanying review paper, and the subsequent recommendations have been developed from this review. The following procedures have been included: tracheostomy, maxillo-mandibular advancement (MMA), laser assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP), uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP),radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and palatal implants. Recommendations: The presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea must be determined before initiating surgical therapy (Standard). The patient should be advised about potential surgical success rates and complications, the availability of alternative treatment options such as nasal positive airway pressure and oral appliances, and the levels of effectiveness and success rates of these alternative treatments (Standard). The desired outcomes of treatment include resolution of the clinical signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea and the normalization of sleep quality, the apnea-hypopnea index, and oxyhemoglobin saturation levels (Standard). Tracheostomy has been shown to be an effective single intervention to treat obstructive sleep apnea. This operation should be considered only when other options do not exist, have failed, are refused, or when this operation is deemed necessary by clinical urgency (Option). MMA is indicated for surgical treatment of severe OSA in patients who cannot tolerate or who are unwilling to adhere to positive airway pressure therapy, or in whom oral appliances, which are more often appropriate in mild and moderate OSA patients, have been considered and found ineffective or undesirable (Option). UPPP as a sole procedure, with or without tonsillectomy, does not reliably normalize the AHI when treating moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, patients with severe OSA should initially be offered positive airway pressure therapy, while those with moderate OSA should initially be offered either PAP therapy or oral appliances (Option). Use of multi-level or stepwise surgery (MLS), as a combined procedure or as stepwise multiple operations, is acceptable in patients with narrowing of multiple sites in the upper airway, particularly if they have failed UPPP as a sole treatment (Option). LAUP is not routinely recommended as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (Standard). RFA can be considered as a treatment in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea who cannot tolerate or who are unwilling to adhere to positive airway pressure therapy, or in whom oral appliances have been considered and found ineffective or undesirable (Option). Palatal implants may be effective in some patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea who cannot tolerate or who are unwilling to adhere to positive airway pressure therapy, or in whom oral appliances have been considered and found ineffective or undesirable (Option). Postoperatively, after an appropriate period of healing, patients should undergo follow-up evaluation including an objective measure of the presence and severity of sleep-disordered breathing and oxygen saturation, as well as clinical assessment for residual symptoms. Additionally, patients should be followed over time to detect the recurrence of disease (Standard). Conclusions: While there has been significant progress made in surgical techniques for the treatment of OSA, there is a lack of rigorous data evaluating surgical modifications of the upper airway. Systematic and methodical investigations are needed to improve the quality of evidenc
Aurora, R. Nisha; Casey, Kenneth R.; Kristo, David; Auerbach, Sanford; Bista, Sabin R.; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Karippot, Anoop; Lamm, Carin; Ramar, Kannan; Zak, Rochelle; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.