Science.gov

Sample records for central washington state

  1. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791

  2. Diversity and phenology of the generalist predator community in apple orchards of Central Washington State (insecta, araneae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predatory insects and spiders were collected from apple orchards in two geographic regions of Central Washington State to assess seasonal phenology and diversity of the generalist predator community. Arthropods were collected from orchard canopy every 3-7 d over two growing seasons (March-October) ...

  3. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  4. Differential uplift and incision of the Yakima River terraces, central Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, Adrian M; Amos, Colin B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan; Staisch, Lydia; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The fault-related Yakima folds deform Miocene basalts and younger deposits of the Columbia Plateau in central Washington State. Geodesy implies ~2 mm/yr of NNE directed shortening across the folds, but until now the distribution and rates of Quaternary deformation among individual structures has been unclear. South of Ellensburg, Washington, the Yakima River cuts a ~600 m deep canyon across several Yakima folds, preserving gravel-mantled strath terraces that record progressive bedrock incision and related rock uplift. Here we integrate cosmogenic isochron burial dating of the strath terrace gravels with lidar analysis and field mapping to quantify rates of Quaternary differential incision and rock uplift across two folds transected by the Yakima River: Manastash and Umtanum Ridge. Isochron burial ages from in situ produced 26Al and 10Be at seven sites across the folds date episodes of strath terrace formation over the past ~2.9 Ma. Average bedrock incision rates across the Manastash (~88 m/Myr) and Umtanum Ridge (~46 m/Myr) anticlines are roughly 4 to 8 times higher than rates in the intervening syncline (~14 m/Myr) and outside the canyon (~10 m/Myr). These contrasting rates demonstrate differential bedrock incision driven by ongoing Quaternary rock uplift across the folds at rates corresponding to ~0.13 and ~0.06 mm/yr shortening across postulated master faults dipping 30 ± 10°S beneath the Manastash and Umtanum Ridge anticlines, respectively. The reported Quaternary shortening across the anticlines accounts for ~10% of the ~2 mm/yr geodetic budget, suggesting that other Yakima structures actively accommodate the remaining contemporary deformation.

  5. Differential uplift and incision of the Yakima River terraces, central Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Adrian M.; Amos, Colin B.; Bierman, Paul; Rood, Dylan H.; Staisch, Lydia; Kelsey, Harvey; Sherrod, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The fault-related Yakima folds deform Miocene basalts and younger deposits of the Columbia Plateau in central Washington State. Geodesy implies ~2 mm/yr of NNE directed shortening across the folds, but until now the distribution and rates of Quaternary deformation among individual structures has been unclear. South of Ellensburg, Washington, the Yakima River cuts a ~600 m deep canyon across several Yakima folds, preserving gravel-mantled strath terraces that record progressive bedrock incision and related rock uplift. Here we integrate cosmogenic isochron burial dating of the strath terrace gravels with lidar analysis and field mapping to quantify rates of Quaternary differential incision and rock uplift across two folds transected by the Yakima River: Manastash and Umtanum Ridge. Isochron burial ages from in situ produced 26Al and 10Be at seven sites across the folds date episodes of strath terrace formation over the past ~2.9 Ma. Average bedrock incision rates across the Manastash (~88 m/Myr) and Umtanum Ridge (~46 m/Myr) anticlines are roughly 4 to 8 times higher than rates in the intervening syncline (~14 m/Myr) and outside the canyon (~10 m/Myr). These contrasting rates demonstrate differential bedrock incision driven by ongoing Quaternary rock uplift across the folds at rates corresponding to ~0.13 and ~0.06 mm/yr shortening across postulated master faults dipping 30 ± 10°S beneath the Manastash and Umtanum Ridge anticlines, respectively. The reported Quaternary shortening across the anticlines accounts for ~10% of the ~2 mm/yr geodetic budget, suggesting that other Yakima structures actively accommodate the remaining contemporary deformation.

  6. Blood α-Synuclein in Agricultural Pesticide Handlers in Central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Susan Searles; Checkoway, Harvey; Zhang, Jing; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Keifer, Matthew C.; Paulsen, Michael; Farin, Federico M.; Cook, Travis J.; Simpson, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that occupational exposure to pesticides might increase Parkinson disease risk. Some pesticides, such as the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos, appear to increase the expression of α-synuclein, a protein critically involved in Parkinson disease. Therefore, we assessed total blood cell α-synuclein in 90 specimens from 63 agricultural pesticide handlers, mainly Hispanic men from central Washington State, who participated in the state’s cholinesterase monitoring program in 2007–2010. Additionally, in age-adjusted linear regression models for repeated measures, we assessed whether α-synuclein levels were associated with butyrylcholinesterase-chlorpyrifos adducts or cholinesterase inhibition measured in peripheral blood, or with self-reported pesticide exposure or paraoxonase (PON1) genotype. There was no evidence by any of those indicators that exposure to chlorpyrifos was associated with greater blood α-synuclein. We observed somewhat greater α-synuclein with the PON1 -108T (lower paraoxonase enzyme) allele, and with ≥10 hours of exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting insecticides in the preceding 30 days, but neither of these associations followed a clear dose-response pattern. These results suggest that selected genetic and environmental factors may affect α-synuclein blood levels. However, longitudinal studies with larger numbers of pesticide handlers will be required to confirm and elucidate the possible associations observed in this exploratory cross-sectional study. PMID:25460623

  7. Late Holocene Drought Record From Castor Lake, North-Central Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. B.; Abbott, M. B.; Polissar, P. J.; Finney, B.

    2006-12-01

    The effects of recent and historic drought in the North American west provide motivation for understanding the natural variability and underlying causes of these events. We present a 6,000-year lake sediment record of water balance from Washington State in an effort to address these questions. A series of overlapping sediment cores were collected and chronological control was established through a combination of radiocarbon, tephrochronology, and cesium isotope activity. Modern basin morphometry and lake water oxygen and hydrogen isotope data indicate closed-basin hydrology and the strong influence of evaporative enrichment on lake water composition, and therefore sensitivity of the system to changes in regional water balance and drought. Samples of endogenic aragonite precipitates were isolated from sediment cores at an average sampling interval of 3.7mm, corresponding to a temporal resolution of approximately 7 years. Grayscale data were generated from digital images of the cores collected under controlled light conditions and are shown to track changes in oxygen isotope values, with darker layers corresponding to periods of increased isotopic composition. In addition to supporting the notion that oxygen isotope data are primarily recording changes in water balance as opposed to changes in water source or temperature, the increased resolution of the grayscale record improves the resolution of the climate signal to the sub-millimeter scale of the laminations. There is a significant correlation between the most recent portion of the Castor Lake grayscale record and a 1,500-yr Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstruction from central Washington (1). The strong association between changes in the Castor Lake record and changes in the PDSI reconstruction provides convincing method validation and strengthens the interpretation of both as drought signals. Spectral analyses of the grayscale record using singular spectrum analysis (SSA), maximum entropy method (MEM

  8. Holocene mammalian change in the central Columbia Basin of eastern Washington state, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2016-08-01

    Predictions of changes in the Holocene mammalian fauna of the central Columbia Basin in eastern Washington (USA) based on environmental changes are largely met. Taxonomic richness is greatest during periods of cool-moist climate. Rates of input of faunal remains to the paleozoological record may suggest greater mammalian biomass during periods of greater moisture but are difficult to interpret without data on sampling intensity in the form of volume of sediment excavated. Abundances of leporids and grazing ungulates fluctuate in concert with abundance of grass. Several biogeographic records are tantalizing but require additional study and data before being accepted as valid. Records of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) indicate this species was present in the central basin during the Holocene contrary to historic records and recent suggestions modern foxes there are escapees from fur farms. Bison (Bison bison) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) underwent diminution of body size during the Holocene. Modern efforts to conserve the Columbia Basin ecosystem are advised to consider the Holocene record as indicative of what may happen to that ecosystem in the future.

  9. 75 FR 14462 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington... of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum... Henebry-DeLeon, NAGPRA Program Director, Department of Anthropology, Central Washington...

  10. GIARDIASIS IN WASHINGTON STATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective was to determine the potential for transmission of giardiasis through approved drinking water supplies in Washington State. The project consisted of five studies: the first was conducted during trapping seasons (1976-1979) and resulted in examining of 656 beaver sto...

  11. Indians of Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Maps, photographs, and illustrations are included in this introductory history of Indians in Washington state. The tribal groups of the area are classified by geographic and cultural region as Coastal, Puget Sound, and Plateau tribes, and the majority of the resource booklet provides information about the history and culture of each group.…

  12. Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers in central Washington State.

    PubMed Central

    Loewenherz, C; Fenske, R A; Simcox, N J; Bellamy, G; Kalman, D

    1997-01-01

    Children up to 6 years of age who lived with pesticide applicators were monitored for increased risk of pesticide exposure: 48 pesticide applicator and 14 reference families were recruited from an agricultural region of Washington State in June 1995. A total of 160 spot urine samples were collected from 88 children, including repeated measures 3-7 days apart. Samples were assayed by gas chromatography flame photometric detector for dimethylphosphate metabolites. Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was the dominant metabolite. DMTP levels were significantly higher in applicator children than in reference children (p = 0.015), with median concentrations of 0.021 and 0.005 microg/ml, respectively; maximum concentrations were 0.44 and 0.10 microg/ml, respectively. Percentages of detectable samples were 47% for applicator children and 27% for reference children. A marginally significant trend of increasing concentration was observed with decreasing age among applicator children (p = 0.060), and younger children within these families had significantly higher concentrations when compared to their older siblings (p = 0.040). Applicator children living less than 200 feet from an orchard were associated with higher frequency of detectable DMTP levels than nonproximal applicator children (p =0.036). These results indicate that applicator children experienced higher organophosphorus pesticide exposures than did reference children in the same community and that proximity to spraying is an important contributor to such exposures. Trends related to age suggest that child activity is an important variable for exposure. It is unlikely that any of the observed exposures posed a hazard of acute intoxication. This study points to the need for a more detailed understanding of pesticide exposure pathways for children of agricultural workers. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9405329

  13. Host Plant Use by and New Host Records of Apple Maggot, Western Cherry Fruit Fly, and Other Rhagoletis Species (Diptera: Tephritidae). I. Central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant use by apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and other Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in five cities or towns and several habitats of difference commercial importance within south central Washington state was de...

  14. HOST PLANT USE BY APPLE MAGGOT, WESTERN CHERRY FRUIT FLY, AND OTHER RHAGOLETIS SPECIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE): IN CENTRAL WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant use by apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and other Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in western Washington state and northwestern Oregon were determined by rearing larvae in fruit to adults in 2004 to 2006. Rh...

  15. Washington State 1995 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Financial Management, Olympia.

    This document is intended to present, in tables and graphs, a diversity of information on Washington State, its people, economy, and government. The information was obtained from state and federal agencies and from private businesses. The data are organized into 11 major chapters which cover the following topics (sample subtopics in parentheses):…

  16. Petrography of the coarse-grained facies of the Miocene-Pliocene Ringold Formation, south-central Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, S.M.; Suczek, C.A. . Geology Dept.); Lindsey, K.A. )

    1993-04-01

    The Miocene-Pliocene Ringold Formation in the Pasco Basin of south-central Washington is thought to have been deposited by two major river systems, the ancestral Columbia and the ancestral Salmon-Clearwater. This study was performed to determine the petrographic characteristics of coarse-grained deposits from these two rivers. Sand samples were collected from conglomerates across the Pasco Basin, artificially consolidated with epoxy, thin sectioned, and stained for ease of K-spar and plagioclase identification. Three hundred points were counted per slide using Gazzi-Dickinson point-count methods. Preliminary results indicate that these two ancestral river systems can be differentiated on the basis of plagioclase/total-feldspar (P/F) ratios and to a lesser extent heavy mineral assemblages. P/F ratio for the Columbia River is 0.77 and for the Salmon-Clearwater River 0.53. Heavy mineral assemblages comprise a total of 9% for the Columbia River and 7% for the Salmon-Clearwater. The variety of heavy mineral types within Columbia River samples is consistently greater. QFL and lithic percentages are less diagnostic. QFL mean percentages for ancestral Columbia River samples are 46-31-23 compared to 39-39-22 for the Salmon-Clearwater River. Lithic counts are dominated by mafic volcanics with subordinate sedimentary and metamorphic lithologies.

  17. Deformation of quaternary strata and its relationship to crustal folds and faults, south-central Puget Lowland, Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, D.B.; Troost, K.G.; Hagstrum, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Folded Quaternary deposits across the south-central Puget Lowland, an area just south of the Seattle fault that extends across the Seattle uplift and its boundary with the adjacent Tacoma basin, provide increased resolution of the character and rate of crustal deformation. They also constrain alternative, and partly incompatible, views of crustal structure previously suggested by geophysical investigations. Tectonic deformation has been progressive for at least the past few hundred thousand years: older sediments display greater deformation than the youngest exposed deposits in the study area. Strain rates across the Seattle uplift have probably been between 0.25 and 1.0 mm/yr during this period, accounting for ???10% of the total strain shortening of the western Washington crust. The Seattle uplift displays Quaternary deformation across its full north-south extent and has structural discontinuities at both its northern and southern boundaries. Previous workers have already established the faulted nature of its northern boundary; exposed Quaternary strata across its southern boundary display intense folding, the location of which generally corresponds to the projection of a "Tacoma fault" suggested by prior geophysical studies. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  18. Bilingual Story Times in North Central Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumiller, Marilyn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the growth of the Spanish-speaking population served by the North Central Regional Library System (Washington) and the library's response which has included improving Spanish language collections, encouraging staff to learn Spanish, developing bilingual programs for children and families, improving publicity, and using translators. (LRW)

  19. Coccidioidomycosis acquired in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Goldoft, Marcia; Ralston, Cindy; Limaye, Ajit P; Chua, Jimmy; Hill, Heather; Jecha, Larry; Thompson, George R; Chiller, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic evidence suggest that 3 individuals with acute coccidioidomycosis were exposed in Washington State, significantly beyond previously identified endemic areas. Given the patients' lack of recent travel, coccidioidomycosis was not suspected, leading to delays in diagnosis and appropriate therapy. Clinicians should be aware of this possibility and consider the diagnosis. PMID:23223598

  20. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  1. Project IEP: Washington State Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Linda M.

    The document reports the Washington component of Project IEP (individualized education program), a project designed to identify and clarify perceptions related to roles in the IEP process as mandated by P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. It is explained that under Project IEP approximately 200 persons (including state and…

  2. View of southeastern Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of southeastern Washington States as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. The Snake River flows into the Columbia River in the most southerly corner of the picture. The Wallula Lake is below the junction of the two rivers. The Yakima Valley is at the southwestern edge of the photograph. The Columbia Basin is in the center of the picture. The Cascade Range extends across the northwest corner of the photograph.

  3. The Effect of the Leader in Me, a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention System (SW-PBIS), Based on Student Achievement and Office Discipline Referrals for Fifth Grade Students in a Rural Elementary School in North Central Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose this study was to examine the implementation of The Leader in Me, a school-wide positive behavior intervention system (SW-PBIS), and analyze its impact on 5th grade students based on student achievement and office discipline referrals in a rural elementary school in North Central Washington state. The school was in the first year of…

  4. Washington State biomass data book

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  5. Early Learning in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    About 80,000 children enter kindergarten in Washington each year, and many lack basic language and behavioral skills--such as knowing letters and colors, following directions, getting along with others, and exhibiting impulse-control. In 2006, based on the recommendation of the Washington Learns Commission, Governor Christine Gregoire created the…

  6. Early Childhood Injury Deaths in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starzyk, Patricia M.

    This paper discusses data on the deaths of children aged 1-4 years in Washington State. A two-fold approach was used in the analysis. First, Washington State death certificate data for 1979-85 were used to characterize the deaths and identify hazardous situations. Second, death certificates were linked to birth certificates of children born in…

  7. Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.

    The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created to collect information regarding a variety of adolescent health behaviors among students in the state of Washington. It expands on two previous administrations of a student tobacco, alcohol, and other drug survey and includes questions about medical care, safety,…

  8. State of Washington Population Trends, 1975. Washington State Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Program Planning and Fiscal Management, Olympia.

    As of April 1, 1975, Washington's population was estimated at 3,494,124--an increase of 80,874 since 1970. Prepared yearly, this report presents tabular data pertaining to: (1) current April 1 estimates for cities, towns, and counties; (2) current decline in household size; (3) the use of postal vacancy surveys in estimating vacancy rates; and (4)…

  9. State of Washington Population Trends, 1977. Washington State Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Program Planning and Fiscal Management, Olympia.

    As of April 1, 1977, Washington's population was estimated at 3,661,975--an increase of 248,725 since 1970. Prepared yearly, this report presents data on the official April 1 population estimates for cities, towns, and counties; components of population change; planned population forecasting activities; procedures which help make the housing unit…

  10. 78 FR 21401 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: Central Washington University has completed an... remains should submit a written request to Central Washington University. If no additional requestors...

  11. Washington: The State and Its Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    A profile of Washington is presented, which examines trends in the state's economy, environment, population, and educational system. A contradiction exists between the state's beautiful scenery and well-educated population and its high crime and suicide rates. The state is characterized by a highly educated work force, a less diversified economy,…

  12. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, south central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-04-16

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The purpose of this document is twofold: (1) summarize the NPH that are important to the design and evaluation of structures, systems, and components at the Hanford Site; (2) develop the appropriate natural phenomena loads for use in the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28. The supporting standards, DOE-STD-1020-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for Department of Energy Facilities (DOE 1994a); DOE-STD-1022-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Site Characteristics Criteria (DOE 1994b); and DOE-STD-1023-95, Natural Phenomena Hazards Assessment Criteria (DOE 1995) are the basis for developing the NPH loads.

  13. Anencephaly: An Ongoing Investigation in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Barron, Sara

    2016-03-01

    : In the spring of 2012, a nurse in Washington State detected a cluster of babies born with anencephaly-a fatal condition in which infants are born without parts of the brain or skull. The resulting investigation initially confirmed a rate of anencephaly between January 2010 and January 2013 of 8.4 per 10,000 live births-more than four times the national average. As of November 2015, cases of anencephaly in Washington State have continued to increase, with the current rate estimated at 9.5 per 10,000 live births. While no distinct cause has yet been determined, neural tube defects-including anencephaly-are known to have multiple causes, including folic acid deficit, genetic variants in the folate pathway, and exposure to a variety of environmental and occupational toxins. This article describes many of these risk factors and explores the findings of Washington's ongoing investigation. PMID:26914056

  14. Washington State Annual Rural Manpower Report, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Employment Security, Olympia.

    The annual report of the Rural Manpower Program, Employment Service Division, contains narrative and statistical data that describe important developments in Washington State during 1973. In terms of man-months of labor, rural counties provided less than 25% of the total seasonal farm employment in 1973, while urban Yakima County alone provided…

  15. Washington State Annual Rural Manpower Report, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Employment Security, Olympia.

    The report contains information on significant developments in the 1972 Washington State Farm Labor and Rural Manpower Program. Part I, the Annual Summary, recommends that farm labor programs be designed to insure an adequate number of efficient workers and that a means be developed to prolong employment periods for the worker, thus reducing…

  16. State of Washington Strategic Information Technology Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Information Services, Olympia. Policy and Regulation Div.

    The Strategic Information Technology Plan of Washington is introduced and explained. The plan is mandated by state law to create a new framework for communication and collaboration to bring together agency technology planning with the achievement of statewide information technology goals and strategies. It provides a point of reference for the…

  17. Alternative Maternity Services in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starzyk, Patricia M.

    The nature of maternity services has changed in the past 20 years, with a movement away from traditional (physician delivery in a hospital) towards other alternative services. This study examined alternative maternity services in Washington State, which ranks eighth in the country in the use of such services. Data were collected from birth and…

  18. Indians of Washington State. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milhafer, Judith; And Others

    This unit supplements social studies curriculum in Washington state schools and is offered to help teachers design courses on Indians of the Pacific Northwest. The unit is designed to build understanding and appreciation for historical and contemporary Indian culture, and to examine how people meet their needs using natural resources and…

  19. 22. View looking north on Central Avenue from Washington Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View looking north on Central Avenue from Washington Street. The Stroud Building (with awnings on the second story) is located on the east (right) side of the street near the center of the block. The original Adams Hotel is seen at the right rear of the photograph Circa 1901-1910. Credit ADLAPR. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 77 FR 11582 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Central Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary object to the Indian tribe stated...

  1. Petroleum geology of the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.Y.; Tennyson, M.E.; Lingley, W.S.; Law, B.E.

    1997-12-31

    Washington is a petroleum exploration frontier, but there is no current petroleum production in the State. Several possible petroleum systems may be present, hosted by sedimentary rocks deposited in Eocene strike-slip basins and late Eocene and younger intra-arc, fore-arc, and trench basins. Eight conventional petroleum plays, three coal-bed gas plays, and two continuous-type gas plays are delineated in order to analyze and assess the resource potential. In these plays, the potential for significant petroleum accumulations appears greatest in the Columbia Plateau region of eastern Washington. On a regional scale, the absence of high-quality source rocks is probably the most important factor limiting development of large accumulations, although development of suitable reservoirs and an inability to map trays also limits the potential of some plays.

  2. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  3. High School Administrative Staffing in Washington State: Principal Perspectives on Resource Needs and Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored how high school principals prioritize their work and utilize available human resources to adjust to inadequate administrative staffing. Analysis of staffing levels across the state of Washington and specifically inside two eastern Washington districts framed interview questions for central office administration…

  4. A Proposed Library Network for Washington State, Working Paper for the Washington State Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Joseph; Hayes, Robert M.

    This report presents a proposed program plan for developing an integrated library network in the State of Washington. The need for such a plan arises from the requirements of Title III of the Library Services and Construction Act and from the increasing demands placed upon libraries and the resulting need to use available resources better. The…

  5. Earthquake Induced Water Waves in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Qamar, A.; Pratt, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Mw 7.9 Denali earthquake of 3 November 2002 caused minor damage to at least 20 houseboats by initiating water waves in Lake Union, Seattle, Washington. Damage caused by unusual water activity is not uncommon in Washington State. Newspaper reports show that damage also has been caused by water waves in the Seattle area during local or distant earthquakes in 1899 (Yakutat Bay Alaska earthquake), 1949 (Olympia earthquake) and 1965 (Seattle-Tacoma earthquake). Analysis of Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) recordings of the Denali earthquake demonstrates that large water waves are due in part to local amplification of seismic waves by the underlying Seattle sedimentary basin. Simple formulae predict water wave amplitudes only half or smaller than those reported for swimming pools and lakes. Resonance initiated by multiple cycles of surface waves, focusing, and near-shore effects could further amplify the water waves. To understand the type and origins of these water waves, we are examining the response of a water body of rectangular shape and rectangular cross-section subjected to hypothetical forcing functions, and to forcing functions derived from seismograph records of major earthquakes. The results provide estimates of the potential wave heights during future large earthquakes on the nearby subduction zone or on local faults.

  6. Washington State Board of Education Strategic Plan, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Washington State Legislature significantly changed the role of the State Board of Education (SBE). While the Board retains some administrative duties, SBE is now mandated to play a broad leadership role in strategic oversight and policy for K-12 education in the state. This paper presents the strategic plan of Washington State Board…

  7. Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.

    PubMed

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, affirmed a district court judgment that ruled unconstitutional a Washington statute banning assisted suicide, as applied to competent, terminally ill adults who wish to obtain prescription medication to hasten their deaths. The statute, which was challenged by a group of patients, physicians, and the nonprofit organization Compassion in Dying, was held to be unconstitutional because it violated the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution. The court took into consideration the interests of the state in protecting life, preventing suicides, preventing undue, arbitrary, or unfair influences on an individual's decision to end his life, and ensuring the integrity of the medical profession. These interests were balanced against an individual's strong liberty interest in determining how and when one's life should end. The court recognized this interest after assessing the growing public support for assisted suicide, changes in the causes of death and medical advances, and Supreme Court cases addressing due process liberty interests. The court then determined that the state's interest, which could be protected by adopting sufficient safeguards, did not outweigh the severe burden placed on the terminally ill, and thus the statute as applied was unconstitutional. PMID:11648417

  8. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the multi-year, multi-million dollar Washington State Achievers Scholarship program. Concerned about disparities in college participation for low-income students in the state of Washington versus their wealthier peers, the Gates Foundation partnered with the College Success Foundation (CSF),…

  9. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation (CSF),…

  10. Educator Supply and Demand in Washington State. 2004 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry; Maloney, Rick; Hathaway, Randy; Bryant, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the findings of the third Educator Supply and Demand Research study in the State of Washington. The intent of these Washington studies is to provide data to inform and shape decisions and activities in the following ways: (1) Provide useful information for educational policymakers, including the legislature, the State Board…

  11. Attitudes of Washington State physicians toward health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Malter, A D; Emerson, L L; Krieger, J W

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes of Washington State physicians about health care reform and about specific elements of managed competition and single-payer proposals were evaluated. Opinions about President Clinton's reform plan were also assessed. Washington physicians (n = 1,000) were surveyed from October to November 1993, and responses were collected through January 1994; responses were anonymous. The response rate was 80%. Practice characteristics of respondents did not differ from other physicians in the state. Of physicians responding, 80% favored substantial change in the current system, 43% favored managed competition, and 40% preferred a single-payer system. Of physicians responding, 64% thought President Clinton's proposal would not adequately address current problems. Reduced administrative burden, a central element of single-payer plans, was identified by 89% of respondents as likely to improve the current system. Other elements of reform plans enjoyed less support. More procedure-oriented specialists than primary care physicians favored leaving the current system unchanged (28% versus 8%, P < .001). While physicians favor health care reform, there is no consensus on any single plan. It seems unlikely that physicians will be able to speak with a single voice during the current debates on health care reform. PMID:7941503

  12. Heat flow and geothermal studies in the state of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, D.D.; Steele, J.L.; Kelley, S.A.

    1985-08-01

    Existing geothermal gradient and heat flow data for the state of Washington are summarized. In addition, information on mean-annual ground surface temperatures is included. The data consist of accurate, detailed temperature-depth measurements in selected available holes throughout the state of Washington made between 1979 and 1982. Measurements of thermal conductivity on selected rock samples from these drill holes and ancillary information required to assess the significance of the data and calculate heat flow values were obtained as well. Information is presented on the mean-annual ground-surface temperatures throughout the state of Washington. 32 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. The Successful Transfer Structure in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jane; Andreas, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    How did Washington create a clear organizational structure that assigns responsibility for each aspect of transfer policy to the group that is best suited to manage it (Kisker, Wagoner, and Cohen, 2011)? In this chapter, the authors will introduce the agencies, organizations, and entities that have played a key role in gathering information,…

  14. Recidivism of Supermax Prisoners in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…

  15. State of Washington Computer Use Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Jack L.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a spring 1982 survey of a random sample of Washington public schools which separated findings according to school level (elementary, middle, junior high, or high school) and district size (either less than or greater than 2,000 enrollment). A brief review of previous studies and a description of the survey…

  16. 78 FR 79344 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to partially disapprove a Washington Regional Haze State Implementation Plan (RH SIP) element submitted by the State of Washington (the State) on December 22, 2010, that exempted Alcoa's Wenatchee Works aluminum smelting facility (Alcoa Wenatchee facility or Wenatchee facility), located near Wenatchee, Washington, from the Clean Air Act's......

  17. Freeway and arterial management effort in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, L.N. )

    1989-11-01

    Traffic congestion and personal mobility preservation are the most challenging issues facing transportation professionals. From Phoenix to San Francisco to Washington, D.C., citizens are identifying transportation as their number one concern, outweighing issues such as pollution, overpopulation, unemployment, and crime. In the state of Washington, particularly in the greater Seattle area, congestion is likewise a major concern. In order to address the mobility problems facing the urban areas of Washington, the state initiated a new transportation research and implementation program in October 1987. The program is called Freeway and Arterial Management Effort (FAME). The focus of the program is discussed by the author.

  18. Alternative Fuels for Washington's School Buses: A Report to the Washington State Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, John Kim; McCoy, Gilbert A.

    This document presents findings of a study that evaluated the use of both propane and compressed natural gas as alternative fuels for Washington State school buses. It discusses air quality improvement actions by state- and federal-level regulators and summarizes vehicle design, development, and commercialization activities by all major engine,…

  19. The December 1872 Washington state earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.; Haugerud, R.A.; Hopper, M.G.; Ludwin, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The largest historical earthquake in eastern Washington occurred on 15 December 1872. We used Modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) assignments for 12 twentieth-century earthquakes to determine attenuation relations for different regions in the Pacific Northwest. MMI attenuation for propagation paths east and west of the Cascade Mountains differs significantly only for epicentral distances greater than about 225 km. We used these attenuation relations and the MMI assignments for the 15 December 1872 earthquake to conclude that its epicentral region was east of the Cascade Mountains near Lake Chelan, Washington, and most probably near the south end of Lake Chelan. The intensity magnitude, M1, is 6.8 and moment magnitude, M, is 6.5-7.0 at the 95% confidence level.

  20. Washington State hydropower development/resource protection plan. Draft 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the second draft plan is to meet the requirements of a comprehensive plan under the Federal Power Act. The Electric Consumers` Protection Act of 1986 clarified the meaning of Section 10(a) of the Federal Power Act concerning comprehensive plans and their effect on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) licensing process. The Act made explicit the right of a state or state resource agency to prepare a comprehensive plan for a ``waterway or waterways`` and to have this plan be given the consideration by FERC. In 1989, the Washington State Legislature passed comprehensive hydropower planning legislation, ``an act related to hydropower development/resource protection.`` The legislation directed the development of a state comprehensive hydropower plan to serve the broad public interest regarding development of cost-effective electricity and conservation of river- related environmental values. The second draft plan represents the work of the Washington State Energy Office; the Washington State Departments of Ecology, Fisheries, Wildlife, and Natural Resources; the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission; and the Department of Community Development`s Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. The history and concept of a state hydropower comprehensive plan. The purpose, scope and methodology for developing the plan are outlined. A Washington State River Resource/Hydropower Database is described. An evaluation of Environmental values and Hydropower Development to include resource protection areas is presented. Finally, state agency permitting and planning processes for hydropower development and resource protection are described.

  1. Washington State hydropower development/resource protection plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the second draft plan is to meet the requirements of a comprehensive plan under the Federal Power Act. The Electric Consumers' Protection Act of 1986 clarified the meaning of Section 10(a) of the Federal Power Act concerning comprehensive plans and their effect on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) licensing process. The Act made explicit the right of a state or state resource agency to prepare a comprehensive plan for a waterway or waterways'' and to have this plan be given the consideration by FERC. In 1989, the Washington State Legislature passed comprehensive hydropower planning legislation, an act related to hydropower development/resource protection.'' The legislation directed the development of a state comprehensive hydropower plan to serve the broad public interest regarding development of cost-effective electricity and conservation of river- related environmental values. The second draft plan represents the work of the Washington State Energy Office; the Washington State Departments of Ecology, Fisheries, Wildlife, and Natural Resources; the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission; and the Department of Community Development's Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. The history and concept of a state hydropower comprehensive plan. The purpose, scope and methodology for developing the plan are outlined. A Washington State River Resource/Hydropower Database is described. An evaluation of Environmental values and Hydropower Development to include resource protection areas is presented. Finally, state agency permitting and planning processes for hydropower development and resource protection are described.

  2. State Laws Regarding Education Reform, Assessment, and Accountability in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Terry; Kanikeberg, Ken; Butts, Robert

    This document combines in one place the provisions of Washington State law that provide the legal framework for "education reform." Due to the nature in which Washington State laws are "codified" in statute and to the comprehensiveness of education reform, the laws regarding education reform are scattered throughout the Revised Code of Washington.…

  3. A low emission vehicle procurement approach for Washington state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, G. A.; Lyons, J. K.; Ware, G.

    1992-06-01

    The Clean Air Washington Act of 1991 directs the Department of Ecology to establish a clean-fuel vehicle standard. The Department of General Administration shall purchase vehicles based on this standard beginning in the Fall of 1992. The following summarizes the major issues effecting vehicle emissions and their regulation, and present a methodology for procuring clean-fuel vehicles for the State of Washington. Washington State's air quality problems are much less severe than in other parts of the country such as California, the East Coast and parts of the Mid West. Ozone, which is arguably the dominant air quality problem in the US, is a recent and relatively minor issue in Washington. Carbon monoxide (CO) represents a more immediate problem in Washington, with most of the state's urban areas exceeding national CO air quality standards. Since the mid-1960's, vehicle tailpipe hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions have been reduced by 96 percent relative to precontrol vehicles. Nitrogen oxide emissions have been reduced by 76 percent. Emissions from currently available vehicles are quite low with respect to in-place exhaust emission standards. Cold-start emissions constitute about 75 percent of the total emissions measured with the Federal Test Procedure used to certify motor vehicles. There is no currently available 'inherently clean burning fuel'. In 1991, 3052 vehicles were purchased under Washington State contract. Provided that the same number are acquired in 1993, the state will need to purchase 915 vehicles which meet the definition of a 'clean-fueled vehicle'.

  4. Stereo Pair, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This stereoscopic view combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was

  5. Anaglyph, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This anaglyph combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space

  6. Goat Moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) of the Hanford Site and Hanford National Monument, Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three species of goat moths are recorded at the Hanford Nuclear Site and Hanford National Monument in south central Washington State. They are: Comadia bertholdi (Grote), 1880, Givira cornelia (Neumoegen & Dyar), 1893, and Prionoxystus robiniae (Peck), 1818. The general habitat of the Hanford area...

  7. European Earwig, Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) at the Hanford Reach National Monument, Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European earwig, Forficula auricularia L., was surveyed using pitfall traps at three sites at the Hanford Reach National Monument in south central Washington state. Pitfall traps were collected weekly from April 2002 through April 2003. The earwig was consistently taken during all months of the...

  8. Astronomy 101 in Washington State High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Julie H.; Garner, S.; Stetter, T.; McKeever, J.; Santo Pietro, V.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Washington in the High School (UWHS) program enables high schools to offer the 5 quarter credits Astronomy 101 (Astr 101) course for college credits. The credits are transferable to most colleges and universities. The course provides an alternative to advance placement courses and programs such as Washington's Running Start whereby high school students take courses at community colleges. Astr 101 focuses on stars, galaxies and the universe, as well as background topics such as gravitation, electromagnetic radiation and telescopes. The course satisfies the UW "natural world” and "quantitative/symbolic reasoning” distribution requirements. Students must pay a fee to enroll, but the credits cost less than half what they would cost for the course if taken on one of the UW campuses. The course can be offered as either one semester or full-year at the high school. Teachers who offer Astr 101 must be approved in advance by the UW Astronomy Department, and their syllabi and course materials approved also. Teachers receive orientation, professional development opportunities, classroom visits and support (special web site, answering questions, making arrangements for campus visits, planetarium visits) from astronomy department course coordinator. The UWHS Astr 101 program has produced positive outcomes for the astronomy department, the participating teachers and the students who complete the course. In this poster we will discuss our 5 years of experience with offering Astr 101, including benefits to the students, teachers, high schools, university and department, student outcomes, course assessments and resources for offering the course.

  9. 1988 Washington State Program for Migrant Children's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Rosa, Raul

    This comprehensive report on the Washington State program for migrant children's education was compiled by the state education department in order to comply with federal and state funding requirements. It is divided into four parts: (1) Federal Assistance Application; (2) Program Narrative; (3) Budget Information; and (4) Assurances. The program…

  10. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  11. Washington State Asian Pacific American Organizations Resources Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Commission on Asian-American Affairs, Olympia.

    This resource directory was prepared to assist educators, the media, government officials, students, and the general public in locating accurate and up-to-date information about Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in Washington State. It was also prepared to help APAs find the services that are available to them throughout the state. This guide lists…

  12. Language Policy and Bilingual Education in Arizona and Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric J.; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the bilingual/language education policies of Arizona and Washington to show that state-level language policy plays a critical role in shaping the appropriation of federal language policy [No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III] and how different state-level language policies impact the district level of policy…

  13. A Common Student Information System for Washington State Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Ray

    In response to state legislation requesting a comprehensive management information system and cost benefit analysis, the Washington State Board of Community College Education revised their reporting procedures with the goal of facilitating district and legislative requests, management of the community college system, and integration of the budget…

  14. Wage Rate Comparability Review Washington State Work Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    Washington State's Higher Education Coordinating Board undertook a review of the State Work Study (SWS) program requirements related to the classification and compensation of SWS positions at public colleges and universities. A task force studying wage rate comparability was convened to review statutory directives related to this issue and to…

  15. POPULATION TRENDS AND EDUCATIONAL CHANGE IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, VINCENT A.; SCHMID, CALVIN F.

    THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POPULATION CHANGES IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIPS TO AND INFLUENCES UPON PUBLIC EDUCATIONAL TRENDS, ESPECIALLY WITH RESPECT TO PHYSICAL FACILITIES, CURRICULUMS, STAFF, FINANCES, AND ADMINISTRATION. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY, THE STATE WAS GROUPED INTO LOGICAL AND…

  16. MIGRATION OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, STATE OF WASHINGTON.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOSSMAN, CHARLES S.; AND OTHERS

    TWO GENERAL ASPECTS OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT MIGRATION AS IT RELATES TO THE STATE OF WASHINGTON ARE DISCUSSED. THE FIRST ASPECT INCLUDES ANALYSIS OF MIGRATION PATTERNS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ENROLLMENT CATEGORIES AND TYPES OF INSTITUTIONS, DIFFERENTIAL VOLUMES AND PATTERNS OF MIGRATION FOR SPECIFIC COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE STATE, AND…

  17. Teacher Evaluation Instruments: The Processes and Protocols in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Andie Shane

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a descriptive analysis of teacher evaluation documents used in the state of Washington in 2010-2011. The purpose of the research was to understand what documents were used, differences and similarities from district to district, and the extent to which they conformed to state administrative rules and what the literature argues…

  18. Washington Community Colleges. Correctional Education. Annual Report 2004-2005. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This annual report provides a snapshot of enrollments, student demographics, courses and programs, student achievements, staffing, and funding for community college correctional education programs provided at Washington State Department of Corrections adult facilities. The primary source of information for this document is the State Board for…

  19. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  20. Employee Training Needs as Expressed by Employers in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knold, John A., Ed.

    A study assessed the attitudes of 702 Washington State employers toward vocational education at the secondary and postsecondary levels. The majority of respondents perceived community colleges and vocational-technical institutes, but not public high schools, to be doing a very good job of preparing students for job and careers. Over 90 percent…

  1. The Elementary Physical Education Program. Washington State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravas, Connie; And Others

    This paper describes the Elementary Physical Education Program (EPE) at Washington State University, which represents a field-centered, competency-based approach to the preparation of physical education teachers. General program objectives include the following: (a) to prepare elementary physical education specialists to work effectively in a…

  2. Washington State Student Achievement Initiative Policy Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Wachen, John; Moore, Colleen; Shulock, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges launched a performance funding policy called the Student Achievement Initiative (SAI) both to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in community colleges and to provide incentives to colleges through financial rewards…

  3. Job Opportunities Forecast for Washington State 1976-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Commission for Vocational Education, Olympia.

    The seven-year forecast of vocationally related job openings in the State of Washington from 1976 through 1982 identifies long range, gross demands of vocational education training needs by occupational category. Part 1 provides an introduction and lists major participants. Part 2 describes the system's major features and limitations, and…

  4. An Evaluation of Washington State's Job Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    The Job Skills Program (JSP) in Washington State provides job training customized to meet the needs of employers through partnerships of employers and training institutions. The JSP funds up to one-half the cost of training, with employers providing a match. Training can be provided for new employees, for upgrading employees receiving promotions,…

  5. First occurrence of Ochlerotatus japonicus in the state of Washington.

    PubMed

    Roppo, Monica R; Lilja, Jack L; Maloney, Francis A; Sames, William J

    2004-03-01

    This is a report on the 1st occurrence of Ochlerotatus japonicus in the state of Washington. In August through November 2001, immature stages were found near the King County communities of Carnation (2 sites), Black Diamond, Kent, and Issaquah and were reared to the adult stage for identification and preservation. PMID:15088708

  6. Washington State Vocational Education Annual Performance Report. Program Year 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This performance report for program year 1994 outlines the accomplishments and benefits to individuals in Washington State as a result of programs funded by the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990, PL 101-392. The report records enrollment information, projects conducted, accomplishments, and future needs for…

  7. Writing Programs in Washington State. Oral and Written Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    After providing a synthesis of research on the teaching of writing, this booklet offers summaries of writing programs in Washington State. Included are descriptions of (1) the Kettle Falls Secondary Language Arts Project, (2) the Kettle Falls rating scale for student writing, (3) Project WRITE, (4) the Puget Sound Writing Program, (5) the Edmonds…

  8. Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) newly recorded from Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of museum specimens, unpublished collection data, and field surveys conducted between 2010 and 2014 resulted in new records for 22 species of sawflies in Washington State. These data highlight the continued range expansion of exotic species across North America, seven of which are likely...

  9. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  10. Washington State's Corrections Clearinghouse: A Comprehensive Approach to Offender Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    Since 1976, the Correctional Clearinghouse (CCH), which is a unit of the Washington State Employment Security Department, has been committed to preparing offenders for the workplace and finding employment. The CCH's principal service delivery strategies are as follows: (1) providing direct services (teaching job readiness courses in prisons and…

  11. Evaluation of the Washington State Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.

    2001-02-23

    Since 1976, the national Weatherization Assistance Program has been working to improve the energy efficiency of dwelling units occupied by low-income residents. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and implemented by state and local agencies, the program is active in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. This report focuses on the recent outcomes of Washington State's weatherization efforts. The performance of the Washington Weatherization Program is of interest because few evaluations have been performed in this part of the country and because Washington contains a high proportion of electrically-heated houses, which have received relatively little examination in the past. This study, which calculates the magnitude of energy savings for both electrically-heated and gas-heated houses and compares program benefits and costs, was initiated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the summer of 1998. In conclusion, we find that the Washington State Weatherization Assistance Program has achieved substantial energy savings in both electrically-heated and gas-heated houses. A comparison of the findings from this study with those from many other evaluations of state weatherization efforts conducted over the past 10 years indicates that Washington is in the top one-third nationwide in terms of program-induced energy savings. In addition, the relationships between energy savings and both pre-weatherization consumption and weatherization expenditures reported in this document are consistent with the findings from earlier studies. These findings suggest that households with high energy consumption make effective targets for state weatherization efforts and that increasing the amount spent per household yields tangible returns in terms of energy savings.

  12. Innovate Washington Group Looks to Create State Business

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-04-11

    Monthly column for TCH - April 2012. Excerpt here: Change is inevitable. In fact, many say it’s the only constant. One can either wait for the waves to hit and try not to drown, or get ahead of them and maximize the ride. I believe being proactive is the harder, but more powerful option. Over the past couple years numerous people have proactively worked to effect a particular change across the state of Washington: create a thriving ecosystem to accelerate technology-based economic development and achieve sustainable job growth. The result is an organization called Innovate Washington.

  13. Community Exposure and Sensitivity to Earthquake Hazards in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, J.; Wood, N. J.; Weaver, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    Communities in Washington State are potentially threatened by earthquakes from many sources, including the Cascadia Subduction zone and myriad inland faults (Seattle fault, Tacoma fault, etc.). The USGS Western Geographic Science Center, in collaboration with the State of Washington Military Department Emergency Management Division, has been working to identify Washington community vulnerability to twenty-one earthquake scenarios to provide assistance for mitigation, preparedness, and outreach. We calculate community earthquake exposure and sensitivity by overlaying demographic and economic data with peak ground acceleration values of each scenario in a geographic information system. We summarize community and county earthquake vulnerability to assist emergency managers by the number of earthquake scenarios affecting each area, as well as the number of residents, occupied households, businesses (individual and sector), and employees in each predicted Modified Mercalli Intensity value (ranging from V to IX). Percentages based on community, county, and scenario totals also provide emergency managers insight to community sensitivity to the earthquake scenarios. Results indicate significant spatial and temporal residential variations as well as spatial economic variations in exposure and sensitivity to earthquake hazards in the State of Washington, especially for communities west of the Cascade Range.

  14. Phytoplankton off the Coast of Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Clear weather over the Pacific Northwest yesterday gave the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) a good view of this mountain region of the United States. Also, there are several phytoplankton blooms visible offshore. The white areas hugging the California coastline toward the bottom of the image are low-level stratus clouds. SeaWiFS acquired this true-color scene on October 3, 2001. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. Space Grant and Astronomy Education: The State of Washington's Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, J.

    2000-12-01

    This poster summarizes projects that I have been involved in which utilize NASA Space Grant resources to improve K-12 and undergraduate education at institutions in the State of Washington. Examples I will use include the development of preservice courses for K-12 teachers, inservice workshops for K-12 teachers, minigrants for teachers, support of teacher/scientist partnerships, dissemination of NASA and other resources (curriculum, videos, etc.) to teachers, and support for undergraduate research projects, mentoring and scholarships. I will show how these projects contribute to achieving Washington state and national science standards. Space Grant funding exists in every state and can potentially be accessed by astronomers to carry out education projects that are appropriate to their institution and area of interest. Information will be provided on how to contact Space Grant offices in each state.

  16. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington state. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was on evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success.

  17. Washington State School Finance, 1999: A Special Focus on Teacher Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plecki, Margaret L.

    This paper provides current information about the funding of Washington's K-12 school finance system. Schools in Washington State derive most of their revenues from state sources. In response to a 1977 court ruling, 'Seattle v. State of Washington', the state assumed responsibility for funding "basic education" for a "uniform system of K-12 public…

  18. Work-related burns in Washington State, 1994 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Baggs, James; Curwick, Christy; Silverstein, Barbara

    2002-07-01

    This article describes an investigation of work-related burns in Washington State during 1994-1998. Workers' compensation data were used to describe the general characteristics of burn injuries, estimate industrial claims rates, and compare nonhospitalized and hospitalized burn cases. The completeness of workers' compensation data as a source for surveillance was evaluated. During 1994-1998, a total of 20,213 burn claims were accepted by the workers' compensation system. Hospitalized burn cases represented only 1.5% of burn claims but incurred 55% of the costs. In addition, workers' compensation data underestimated the frequency and rate of burns. Although workers' compensation claims rates decreased during 1994-1998, work-related burns remain a problem in Washington State. Several industries (e.g., roofing, foundries, and aluminum smelting) were identified as priorities for prevention of burn hospitalizations, which incur the greater cost and time loss. PMID:12134534

  19. Wind Powering America State Outreach. Final Technical Report: Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, Tim

    2013-09-30

    The Washington Department of Commerce, via a U.S. Department of Energy grant, supported research into siting and permitting processes for wind projects by Skagit County, Washington. The goal was to help a local government understand key issues, consider how other areas have addressed wind siting, and establish a basis for enacting permitting and zoning ordinances that provided a more predictable permitting path and process for landowners, citizens, government and developers of small and community wind projects. The County?s contractor developed a report that looked at various approaches to wind siting, interviewed stakeholders, and examined technology options. The contractor outlined key issues and recommended the adoption of a siting process. The Skagit County Commission considered the report and directed the Skagit County Planning & Development Services Department to add development of wind guidelines to its work plan for potential changes to development codes.

  20. 78 FR 44594 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ..., Olympia, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Washington State Parks..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia... Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA. The human remains were removed from Birch...

  1. 76 FR 28073 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University... the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human remains and... made by the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University professional staff in...

  2. 77 FR 61782 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Washington State Parks... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Washington State Parks and Recreation...

  3. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00...

  4. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-12-31

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington`s industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state`s total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state`s energy needs.

  5. The montane bee fauna of north central Washington, USA, with floral associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mountains of north central Washington contain a variety of habitat types, from shrub-steppe to high alpine meadows. While native bee surveys of some surrounding areas of the Columbia Basin are fairly complete, little work has been done in this region to document the diversity of bees found ther...

  6. 77 FR 51564 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington, has completed an... contact the Burke Museum. Repatriation of the human remains to the tribe named below may occur if...

  7. 75 FR 36672 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington, Seattle, WA. The human remains were removed... sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the...

  8. Blair v. Washington State University: Making State ERA'a a Potent Remedy for Sex Discrimination in Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Doralice McEuen; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The case of Blair vs. Washington State University revives the state equal rights amendment as a feasible and powerful cause of action against sex-based discrimination, in college athletics and beyond. Washington's amendment mandated equality in funding, facilities, treatment, and opportunities for Washington State University's women's…

  9. An evaluation of Washington State Environmental Policy Act implementation (SEPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, G. ); Luce, C.

    1993-09-01

    An evaluation of the Washington State Environmental Policy Act's (SEPA) use by King County shows that the substantive provisions of SEPA are seldom used. Because of this lack of use, the fundamental purposes of the act are being undermined and ecological damage continues without accountability. The authors propose a simple approach to increase the use of the substantive provision. The approach requires that administrators make precise interpretations of often vague environmental policies. This will result in increased use of applied science in the adaptive management paradigm and fulfilling the substantive intent of SEPA.

  10. The Center for the Study of Migrant and Indian Education; An Overview of the History and Purpose of an Educational Service Center for Teachers of Migrant and Indian Children in the State of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Migrant and Indian Education, Toppenish, WA.

    The document provides an overview of the history and purpose of the educational service center for teachers of migrant and Indian children in the State of Washington. The center, a project of the Department of Education of Central Washington College, is located on an Indian reservation in the Yakima Valley in the central part of the state. The…

  11. A Study of Water Wave Wakes of Washington State Ferries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfect, Bradley; Riley, James; Thomson, Jim; Fay, Endicott

    2015-11-01

    Washington State Ferries (WSF) operates a ferry route that travels through a 600m-wide channel called Rich Passage. Concerns of shoreline erosion in Rich Passage have prompted this study of the generation and propagation of surface wave wakes caused by WSF vessels. The problem was addressed in three ways: analytically, using an extension of the Kelvin wake model by Darmon et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 738, 2014); computationally, employing a RANS Navier-Stokes model in the CFD code OpenFOAM which uses the Volume of Fluid method to treat the free surface; and with field data taken in Sept-Nov, 2014, using a suite of surface wave measuring buoys. This study represents one of the first times that model predictions of ferry boat-generated wakes can be tested against measurements in open waters. The results of the models and the field data are evaluated using direct comparison of predicted and measured surface wave height as well as other metrics. Furthermore, the model predictions and field measurements suggest differences in wake amplitudes for different class vessels. Finally, the relative strengths and weaknesses of each prediction method as well as of the field measurements will be discussed. Washington State Department of Transportation.

  12. Washington State Pediatricians' Attitudes Toward Alternative Childhood Immunization Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Wightman, Aaron; Marcuse, Edgar K.; Taylor, James A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of parents' requests for alternative childhood immunization schedules (ACISs) and pediatricians' comfort with and willingness to use ACISs. METHODS: Washington State primary care pediatricians were asked to complete an Internet-based survey on ACISs. The main outcome measures were the frequency of parents' requests for ACISs, pediatricians' comfort with their use, and pediatricians' willingness to use ACISs for individual vaccines. In addition, respondents were asked to characterize their practices and to provide demographic information. RESULTS: Of the 311 respondents (response rate: 65%), 209 met inclusion criteria and were included in analyses. Overall, 77% of eligible respondents reported that parents sometimes or frequently requested ACISs, and 61% were comfortable using an ACIS if requested by a parent. Pediatricians were least willing to consider using ACISs for diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatricians who practiced in a neighborhood or community clinic were less comfortable using ACISs than were those in a 1- or 2-physician practice (odds ratio: 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Washington State pediatricians are regularly being asked to use ACISs, and most of them are comfortable using them if requested. Pediatricians are least willing to delay H influenzae type b vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis vaccine, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which suggests prioritization of immunizations that protect against potentially devastating bacterial infections of infancy and early childhood. PMID:22123877

  13. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington's industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state's total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state's energy needs.

  14. 75 FR 434 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington, Seattle, WA, that meet the... language group of Salish cultures. The Duwamish people primarily occupied this area, specifically the...

  15. Seattle to Spokane: Mapping Perceptions of English in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Betsy E.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores perceptions of linguistic variation in English in Washington state (WA). Respondents marked on a map of WA the places where they believe people’s English sounds “different” and provided a label for that type of English. The analysis of the results used digital tools to create composite maps consisting of (1) respondents’ spatial perceptions of English in WA, (2) spatial perceptions of English in WA according to different demographic groups, and (3) affective values associated with regions identified by respondents. The results suggest that Washingtonians perceive that urban areas and eastern WA are places where English is different. The results also demonstrate that when respondents are surveyed about variation within their own state rather than variation across the country, local types of organizational categories, such as an urban/rural dichotomy or belief in a regional standard, can emerge. PMID:25892828

  16. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  17. Controls on ground-water chemistry in the Horse Heaven Hills, south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkampf, W.C.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Packard, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Miocene basaltic aquifers are the source of domestic and municipal water, and about 20,000 acre-feet of irrigation water annually, in the Horse Heaven Hills in south-central Washington State. Groundwater chemical variations derive from the hydraulic characteristics is of the geohydrologic system, from groundwater basalt reactions, and from irrigation. Some dissolved species concentrations increase with residence time; others decrease. Recharge area groundwaters are calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate waters with sodium-adsorption ratios (SAR's) less than 1.0. They evolve to sodium potassium bicarbonate waters with SAR 's as high as 17. Glassy and cryptocrystalline phases of the basalt are the main sources of dissolved sodium. They dissolve by silicate hydrolysis in carbon dioxide charged waters that recharge the aquifer system. Dissolved silicon, iron, and aluminum concentrations are controlled by the solubilities of amorphous secondary alteration products, which order to silica phases, oxyhydroxides, and smectite. Carbonate mineral precipitation is induced by increasing pH from the hydrolysis reaction. Sodium and potassium concentrations increase until clinoptilolite saturation is reached and precipitation begins. Deviations from the general variation patterns are due to localized geologic structures which distort the groundwater flow system, and to the irrigation use of Columbia River water. (USGS)

  18. Petrogenesis of the Fifes Peak volcanics, south-central Cascades Range, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, R.S.; Thompson, J.M.S. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    During the late Oligocene (ca. 27--23 Ma.), a voluminous section of subduction-related basalt to rhyolite flows and interbedded pyroclastics, comprising the Fifes Peak Formation, were extruded in the south-central Cascades Range of Washington State. Microprobe analyses reveal that basalts and basaltic andesites contain megacrysts of aluminous clinopyroxene and spinel (hercynite) that may be xenocrysts derived from an upper mantle source zone or early, high pressure magmatic phases. Mass balance calculations indicate that the compositional variation of the Fifes Peak basalt and andesite was controlled mainly by high-pressure clinopyroxene-dominated fractionation, coupled with lower pressure fractionation of plagioclase + orthopyroxene + magnetite/ilmenite. Trace element data and mass balances also show that the more silicic lavas must contain a significant crustal component (such as a high Ba/Nb pelagic sediment). The dacites and rhyolites were probably formed mainly by crustal melting, rather than contamination of mantle-derived magmas. The Fifes Peak volcanics have a typical arc-type trace-element distribution with distinct depletions in Ta, Nb, and Ti and enrichment in Th and large-ion-lithophile elements. All of the analyzed Fifes Peak flows are light-rare-earth-element enrichment, with a mean La/Yb ratio of 7.6. There is no indication of an OIB mantle source array, nor the low fluid-flux subduction conditions that characterize magmas generated in the southwest Cascades. Apparently the anomalous nature of the subduction zone in that region of the Cascades arc does not extend northward to the south-central Cascades.

  19. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western and Central Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species R. zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple p...

  20. Washington State Community Colleges: Impact on the Economy of the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sally; And Others

    Using a Virginia study as a model, this study assessed the effect on Washington state's economy of its 27 campus community college system. The study was based on a simple circular cash-flow model for the years 1969-1976 and measured economic impact in three areas: on the level of business volume done in-state, on employment, and on total state…

  1. Turning State Data and Research into Information: An Example from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, David; Seppanen, Loretta; Stephens, Deborah; Stewart, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, a new performance funding system for community and technical colleges. Its purposes are to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in state colleges each year and provide incentives through financial rewards to…

  2. State Gender Equity Law & Athletic Participation among Community Colleges in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Horton, David, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of partial tuition waivers for athletic participation among community colleges in Washington State and its implications for state and federal gender equity policy and legislation. Using a mixed-methods approach, this article presents findings from Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act data, document analysis, and…

  3. Washington's Infant Toddler Early Intervention Program Study: Enrollment of Washington Children with Disabilities and Special Health Care Needs in Washington State Public Programs on December 1, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Trisha; And Others

    This document presents tables, graphs, and narrative text providing information on the number and characteristics of infants and toddlers, under the age of 3, with disabilities and special health problems who were enrolled in Washington State's infant and toddler early intervention program in 1995. Major findings of the report include the…

  4. Washington's Infant Toddler Early Intervention Program Study: Enrollment of Washington Children with Disabilities and Special Health Care Needs in Washington State Public Programs on December 1, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Dorothy; Keenan, Trisha; Cawthon, Laurie; Felming, Jan; Dickey, Rita; Loerch, Sandy; Shureen, Anne

    This report presents information on infants and toddlers (ages birth to three) with delaying or disabling conditions, who were enrolled in Washington State public services on December 1, 1997, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part H. Major findings included: (1) there was a total enrollment of 5,007 infants and toddlers (2.1…

  5. Developing Agency Dissemination Policy. Washington State Dissemination Conference, Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (Olympia, Washington, January 22, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    Building upon groundwork established by previous meetings, this session of the Washington Dissemination Task Force focused on the preparation and intensive study of a policy and guidelines on dissemination for the Office of the State Department of Public Instruction (OSPI), and the identification of future responsibilities of the group. Conference…

  6. Background concentrations of metals in soils from selected regions in the State of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ames, K.C.; Prych, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Soil samples from 60 sites in the State of Washington were collected and analyzed to determine the magnitude and variability of background concen- trations of metals in soils of the State. Samples were collected in areas that were relatively undisturbed by human activity from the most pre- dominant soils in 12 different regions that are representative of large areas of Washington State. Concentrations of metals were determined by five different laboratory methods. Concentrations of mercury and nickel determined by both the total and total-recoverable methods displayed the greatest variability, followed by chromium and copper determined by the total-recoverable method. Concentrations of other metals, such as aluminum and barium determined by the total method, varied less. Most metals concentrations were found to be more nearly log-normally than normally distributed. Total metals concentrations were not significantly different among the different regions. However, total-recoverable metals concentrations were not as similar among different regions. Cluster analysis revealed that sampling sites in three regions encompassing the Puget Sound could be regrouped to form two new regions and sites in three regions in south-central and southeastern Washington State could also be regrouped into two new regions. Concentrations for 7 of 11 total-recoverable metals correlated with total metals concentrations. Concen- trations of six total metals also correlated positively with organic carbon. Total-recoverable metals concentrations did not correlate with either organic carbon or particle size. Concentrations of metals determined by the leaching methods did not correlate with total or total-recoverable metals concentrations, nor did they correlate with organic carbon or particle size.

  7. 78 FR 13887 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ..., Olympia, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Washington State Parks... 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650, telephone (360) 902- 0939. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here... contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA...

  8. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 5105-5106, February 1, 2010). In the Federal Register, paragraph number 7... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... funerary objects in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  9. Profiles in Excellence: Washington State. Using a Statewide Coalition to Transform Teaching through National Board Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 1998, Washington State had 51,512 classroom teachers, but only 29 of them were National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs). By 2009, the number of NBCTs in Washington had grown to 3,975--5th in the nation in total numbers, and 2nd in the nation in new teachers certifying that year. The state's successful strategy for increasing the number of…

  10. 77 FR 74871 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  11. 76 FR 73664 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology... University, Museum of Anthropology (WSU) has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary... Collins, Director, Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA 99164-4910,...

  12. 78 FR 2429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  13. RESEARCH COORDINATING UNIT FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PILANT, GEORGE P.

    THE WASHINGTON RESEARCH COORDINATING UNIT (RCU), ORGANIZED IN THE WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION ON JUNE 1, 1965, AIMED TO INITIATE, COORDINATE, AND RELATE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH, ACTIVITIES, AND INFORMATION TO MEET THE VOCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE STATE'S YOUTH. MAJOR PROJECTS CARRIED OUT UNDER CONTRACT BETWEEN THE RCU AND…

  14. The Equal Rights Amendment in Washington State: An Analysis and Interpretation of Voting Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecas, Viktor; And Others

    A study was undertaken in Washington state to investigate voting behavior on the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which was approved by Washington state voters in 1972. Specifically, research objectives were to determine who was for or against the ERA, to assess the nature of objections to the ERA, and to consider implications of the ERA for family…

  15. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  16. Trace element content of leaves of desert shrubs in south-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Garland, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of leaves of desert shrubs showed strong differences in macroelements according to species and location on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) site in south-central Washington. Halophytes were characterized by high levels of K, Cl, Br, Mn, and Na, and glycophytes by high levels of Ca and Mg. However, trace element content was not significantly different. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) leaves from Wyoming and the ALE site were not greatly different in trace element content. Natural leaf fall collections can be used to monitor changing levels of trace element content induced by coal combustion steam-electric plants.

  17. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  18. A Study of Low Frequency Earthquakes in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, A. A.; Bostock, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    In the past decade, studies have shown that non-volcanic tremor in southwest Japan can be explained by swarms of low frequency earthquakes (LFEs). More recently LFEs have been identified and documented in southern Vancouver Island. Here we extend study of LFEs to Washington state by exploiting data from the IRIS-PASCAL CAFE experiment. We use network autocorrelation to detect LFEs within 4 different tremor episodes (2007,2008,2010 and 2011). We separate the dataset into 2 components, one involving stations between the Olympic Peninsula and Puget Sound (North Group) and the other involving stations to the south of Puget Sound (South Group). For the South Group, only the 2007 and 2008 tremor episodes are available. From an initial 4915 (North Group) and 3306 (South Group) detections of LFEs using a set of 7 3-components stations, we use iterative network cross-correlation to register further detections and stack to improve signal-to-noise ratio of LFE family templates. On the basis of progress to date, we anticipate the assembly of ~150 and ~50 LFE family templates for the North and South Groups, respectively. We plan to locate these LFE family templates, determine representative focal mechanisms and investigate LFE occurrence relative to regular seismicity for comparison with previous results from southern Vancouver Island and southwest Japan.

  19. Occupational carpal tunnel syndrome in Washington State, 1984-1988.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, G M; Haug, J; Heyer, N; Checkoway, H; Peck, N

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are no published population-based studies of occupational carpal tunnel syndrome (OCTS) using a strict case definition. Most studies are either industry specific or present patient self-report of symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a population-based incidence study of OCTS using the Washington State Workers' Compensation database. Incident OCTS claims were identified with paid bills for physician reported ICD codes 354.0 and 354.1. RESULTS: There were 7,926 incident OCTS claims identified for the years 1984-1988, which yields an industry-wide incidence rate of 1.74 claims/1,000 FTEs. The mean age (37.4 years) and female/male ratio (1.2:1) in this population differ from those reported in nonoccupational carpal tunnel studies (mean age, 51 years; female/male ratio, 3:1). The female-specific OCTS incidence rate increased significantly during the study period. The highest industry specific OCTS rates were found in the food processing, carpentry, egg production, wood products, and logging industries. CONCLUSION: Demographic differences and industry-specific rates consistent with workplace exposures suggest that OCTS is distinct from CTS occurring in nonoccupational settings. Workers' compensation data proved useful in identifying high risk industries. PMID:1827570

  20. Riparian vegetation of the Snake River in Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.C.; Mettler, L.

    1994-06-01

    In January 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers selected reservoir drawdown and lowered pool elevation as the preferred alternative in the Columbia River Salmon Flow Measured Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). During March 1992, reservoirs upstream from Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams on the Snake River were drawn down below the minimum operating pool (MOP), which is 5 vertical feet below ordinary high water level (0@) level. The reservoir upstream from Lower Granite Dam was drawn down to approximately 37 ft below 0 while that upstream of Little Goose Dam was drawn down to approximately 15 ft (4.5 m) below MOP. Following the drawdown (March 1--31, 1992), the reservoirs of all four dams in the Snake River of Washington State (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor) were maintained at MOP (April 1--July 31,1992). This allowed a defined portion of shoreline to be exposed for an extended period. The objectives of the study were to monitor impacts to the associated upland, riparian/wetland, and aquatic vegetation and newly exposed shorelines of four reservoirs of the Snake River during the flow measures study; and monitor the newly exposed shorelines for invasion of pioneering species during the entire period of the wildlife monitoring study.

  1. Golovinomyces spadaceus causing powdery mildew on Coreopsis hybrid 'Full Moon' (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on a Coreopsis cultivar in the Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Garden on the Washington State University campus, Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. White to off-white sporulating mycelial areas were ~5mm in diam to confluent and confined to adaxial...

  2. Content and Activities for Teaching about Indians of Washington State, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janda, Janet

    The purpose of this curriculum guide is to suggest content and appropriate activities for the study of Washington State Indians and is designed as a supplement to regular social studies curriculum for grades K-3 and 4-6. Objectives for studying about Indians in three geographic regions in Washington (the Coast, Puget Sound, and the Plateau) are to…

  3. Credit-by-Exam Acceptance Policies: Advanced Study of Washington State's Public Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Rachel; Martin, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Washington Student Achievement Council's 10-Year Roadmap sets a goal for 2023 of having 70 percent of Washington adults (ages 25-44) receive a postsecondary credential. At the same time, dramatic cuts in state funding for higher education, particularly since 2008, have shifted more of the cost of higher education onto students and families, making…

  4. Professional Negotiations in the Washington State Community Colleges: A Database and Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryman, Gerald; And Others

    This study provides background information and recommendations for administrators pertaining to collective bargaining in the Washington State Community College System. It begins with a brief overview of the history of the laws and statutes relating to negotiations in the community colleges of Washington, followed by an inventory of the contents…

  5. Regional Climate Model Projections for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Salathe, E.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Zhang, Yongxin

    2010-05-05

    Global climate models do not have sufficient spatial resolution to represent the atmospheric and land surface processes that determine the unique regional heterogeneity of the climate of the State of Washington. If future large-scale weather patterns interact differently with the local terrain and coastlines than current weather patterns, local changes in temperature and precipitation could be quite different from the coarse-scale changes projected by global models. Regional climate models explicitly simulate the interactions between the large-scale weather patterns simulated by a global model and the local terrain. We have performed two 100-year climate simulations using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). One simulation is forced by the NCAR Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) and the second is forced by a simulation of the Max Plank Institute, Hamburg, global model (ECHAM5). The mesoscale simulations produce regional changes in snow cover, cloudiness, and circulation patterns associated with interactions between the large-scale climate change and the regional topography and land-water contrasts. These changes substantially alter the temperature and precipitation trends over the region relative to the global model result or statistical downscaling. To illustrate this effect, we analyze the changes from the current climate (1970-1999) to the mid 21st century (2030-2059). Changes in seasonal-mean temperature, precipitation, and snowpack are presented. Several climatological indices of extreme daily weather are also presented: precipitation intensity, fraction of precipitation occurring in extreme daily events, heat wave frequency, growing season length, and frequency of warm nights. Despite somewhat different changes in seasonal precipitation and temperature from the two regional simulations, consistent results for changes in snowpack and extreme precipitation are found in

  6. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Three Potato Pests in Washington State.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, Elizabeth M; Wohleb, Carrie H; Waters, Timothy D; Crowder, David W

    2016-08-01

    Pest phenology models allow producers to anticipate pest outbreaks and deploy integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Phenology models are particularly useful for cropping systems with multiple economically damaging pests throughout a season. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crops of Washington State, USA, are attacked by many insect pests including the potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller), the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus Baker), and the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Each of these pests directly damages potato foliage or tubers; C. tenellus and M. persicae also transmit pathogens that can drastically reduce potato yields. We monitored the seasonal population dynamics of these pests by conducting weekly sampling on a network of commercial farms from 2007 to 2014. Using these data, we developed phenology models to characterize the seasonal population dynamics of each pest based on accumulated degree-days (DD). All three pests exhibited consistent population dynamics across seasons that were mediated by temperature. Of the three pests, C. tenellus was generally the first detected in potato crops, with 90% of adults captured by 936 DD. In contrast, populations of P. operculella and M. persicae built up more slowly over the course of the season, with 90% cumulative catch by 1,590 and 2,634 DD, respectively. Understanding these seasonal patterns could help potato producers plan their IPM strategies while allowing them to move away from calendar-based applications of insecticides. More broadly, our results show how long-term monitoring studies that explore dynamics of multiple pest species can aid in developing IPM strategies in crop systems. PMID:27271946

  7. Application of quality measurement and performance standards to public health systems: Washington State's approach.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Barbara J; Mason, Marlene; Brown, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    To date, there have been few points of intersection between the quality work done in the general health system and performance review in the public health system. This article describes Washington State's set of performance standards for public health, the accreditation-type evaluation process, and some of the results of the recent performance evaluation against the Washington State Standards. Taking action on the evaluation results could enhance the capacity of public health to join general health systems in Washington State to address several of the priority areas described in Transforming Health Care Quality, the 2003 Institute of Medicine Report. PMID:15235380

  8. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington State. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Of 194 birds found dead, brains of 125 were analysed; endrin toxicosis accounted for >24% of the total and 37% of those analysed. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was no evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success. Use of endrin abruptly declined during this study and its use is currently limited to emergency situations. Wildlife mortality from endrin also decreased; only six endrin-related mortalities were detected the last year of the study and there have been no reports of die-offs since the study ended.

  9. The State of Washington's Children. [Fourth Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well-being: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 26 key indicators of child well-being are: (1) family composition; (2) teen birth…

  10. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  11. The State of Washington's Children. [Sixth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Alice, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT sixth annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well-being: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 20 key indicators of child well-being are: (1) births to unmarried…

  12. NCLB: Local Implementation and Impact in Southwest Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Linda; Margolis, Jason

    2006-01-01

    The research reported here is from the first two years of an ongoing and largely qualitative study to examine the impact of the No Child Left Behind federal education policy on educational practice and climate in elementary schools in two districts in southwest Washington. Based on systematic drop-in observations in classrooms and interviews with…

  13. The State of Washington's Children, Spring 2000. [Eighth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is the eighth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. Following an introduction, Part 1 of the report focuses on one "success story" and one "challenge ahead" for each of the five domains examined: (1) family and community (including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy, births to…

  14. The State of Washington's Children, Summer 2002. [Tenth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Frederick A.; Brandon, Richard; Hill, Sheri L.; Carter, S. Louise; Garrison, Michelle M.; DeWys, Shelley; Mandell, Dorothy J.

    This Kids Count report is the tenth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children and focuses on child poverty and the needs of the working poor. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, births to…

  15. 1980 Washington State Program Evaluation Report for Migrant Children's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plato, Kathleen C.; And Others

    Washington's program for migrant education involved 13,543 student participants in regular programs and 3,075 student participants in special programs. The summer program served 1,994 children. Because of new reporting procedures, 52 school districts were able to describe the 6,025 students served in instructional programs, parent activity, staff…

  16. The State of Washington's Children. [Seventh Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT seventh annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based 24 key indicators of well-being: (1) teen birth rate; (2) teen pregnancy rate; (3) births to unmarried mothers; (4) divorces involving children; (5) family foster caseload; (6) average real wages; (7) per…

  17. The State of Washington's Children, Fall 2001. [Ninth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

    This Kids Count report is the ninth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, divorces involving children, and births to unmarried mothers; (2) economic…

  18. Beneficial insects attracted to native flowering buckwheats (Eriogonum Michx) in central Washington.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2014-08-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs aimed at improving conservation biological control in perennial crops such as wine grapes. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to 10 species of flowering native wild buckwheat (Eriogonum spp.) in central Washington were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, the mean number per trap ranged from 48.5 (Eriogonum umbellatum) to 167.7 (Eriogonum elatum). Three Eriogonum spp. (E. elatum, Eriogonum compositum, and Eriogonum niveum) attracted significantly more beneficial insects than the lowest-ranked species. E. niveum attracted greatest numbers of bees and parasitic wasps, and E. elatum was highly attractive to predatory true bugs and beneficial flies. Blooming periods of Eriogonum spp. extended from mid April to the end of September. This study demonstrates the attraction of beneficial insects to native flowering buckwheats and suggests their potential as a component of habitat restoration strategies to improve and sustain conservation biological control in Washington viticulture. PMID:24960157

  19. SRTM and Laser Altimeter Views of Western Washington State Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, D. J.; Carabajal, C. C.

    2001-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and laser altimeter measurements of topography provide complimentary approaches to characterize landforms. Results from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will provide an unprecedented, near-global, public-domain topography data set at 90 m resolution using a single pass C-band (5.6 cm wavelength) radar interferometer. In vegetated terrains, the C-band radar energy will penetrate part way into vegetation cover. The elevation of the resulting radar phase center, somewhere between the canopy top and underlying ground, will depend on the vegetation density, structure, and presence or absence of foliage. The high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution achieved by laser altimeters, and their capability to directly measure vegetation height and ground topography beneath vegetation cover, provides a method to evaluate InSAR representations of topography. Here a preliminary C-band SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) for a portion of western Washington State is evaluated using laser altimeter data to assess its elevation accuracy and the extent of vegetation penetration. The SRTM DEM extends from the Cascades Range westward to the Olympic Peninsula. The laser altimeter data includes two profiles acquired by the second flight of the Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA-02) in August, 1997, numerous transects acquired by the airborne Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery (SLICER) in September, 1995, and comprehensive mapping in the Puget Lowland region acquired by Terrapoint, LLC for the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium in the winters of 2000 and 2001. SLA-02 and SLICER acquired waveforms that record the height distribution of illuminated surfaces within 120 m and 10 m diameter footprints, respectively. The Terrapoint elevations consist of up to four discrete returns from 1 m footprints spaced 1.5 apart, with all areas mapped twice. Methods for comparing laser altimeter and SRTM topography developed here will be

  20. Strain gradients and melt pathways, Twin Sisters complex, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruckenberg, S. C.; Newman, J.; Tikoff, B.; Toy, V. G.

    2009-12-01

    The Twin Sisters complex in the North Cascades of Washington state is a large (~6 by 16 km), virtually unaltered ultramafic body that provides information about the relationships between the formation of compositional layering, structural fabrics and the formation of inferred melt pathways in naturally deforming peridotites. Compositional layering is largely defined by alternating layers of orthopyroxene-absent dunite (>95% olivine) and orthopyroxene-present (~15% orthopyroxene; ~85% olivine) harzburgite aligned parallel to a roughly N-S striking and steeply dipping foliation. Orthopyroxene- and clinopyroxene-bearing dikes occur throughout the Twin Sisters and crosscut the host dunite and harzburgite layering. Orthopyroxene dikes range in thickness from 1 cm to >1 m and are variably oriented and may be folded. Clinopyroxene-bearing dikes are thinner, more consistently oriented (~N-S), and generally more tabular than the orthopyroxene dikes. In the Twin Sisters, cm- to m-scale zones of porphyroclastic dunite cross-cut the main dunite-harzburgite compositional layering and display a variety of relationships with pyroxene dikes in the region. These porphyroclastic dunite bands locally contain single olivine grains >10 cm and likely represent former pathways of melt migration. Transect mapping along an E-W traverse across the Twin Sisters massif reveals that these inferred melt channels form at various angles relative to the main dunite-harzburgite layering. In the west, porphyroclastic olivine layers form at low angle to the main foliation and compositional layering. These zone form at systematically higher angles across the structural section of the Twin Sisters massif to the east and commonly form conjugate cross-cutting sets at high-angle to the main N-S dunite-harzburgite layering. This change in band angle correlates broadly with changes in the intensity of folding of orthopyroxene-bearing dikes, with more intensely deformed dikes in the west to more planar dikes

  1. Relation between Nitrates in Water Wells and Potential Sources in the Lower Yakima Valley, Washington State

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of a study EPA conducted to investigate the contribution of various sources to the high nitrate levels in groundwater and residential drinking water wells in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State.

  2. Map and data for Quaternary faults and folds in Washington state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidke, David J.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; McCrory, Patricia A.; Personius, Stephen F.; Nelson, Alan R.; Dart, Richard L.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Haller, Kathleen M.; Machette, Michael N.

    2004-01-01

    The map shows faults and folds in Washington State that exhibit evidence of Quaternary deformation and includes data on timing of most recent movement, sense of movement, slip rate, and continuity of surface expression.

  3. Poly 3D fault modeling scripts/data for permeability potential of Washington State geothermal prospects

    DOE Data Explorer

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-05

    Matlab scripts/functions and data used to build Poly3D models and create permeability potential GIS layers for 1) Mount St Helen's, 2) Wind River Valley, and 3) Mount Baker geothermal prospect areas located in Washington state.

  4. Detection of a pathogen shift among the pectolytic bacterial pathogens of potato in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial tuber soft rot, aerial stem rot and blackleg are significant diseases of potatoes in Washington State. These diseases are caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, and Dickeya chrysanthemi, all characterized by the ability to produce pectolytic ...

  5. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  6. Seasonal patterns of capture of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis phloxiphaga (Grote and Robinson)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in pheromone traps in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of the 6 years of this study in south central Washington state, male corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), first appeared in pheromone traps in late May to early June, and were present continuously until mid to late October. Maximum numbers of corn earworm moths captured in pheromon...

  7. Evolution of the phenazine biosynthesis pathway and diversity of phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. in dryland wheat-producing areas of Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenazines are versatile secondary metabolites of bacterial origin that function as signaling compounds and contribute to the ecological fitness and pathogenicity of the producing strains. A 2007-2008 survey of commercial dryland fields in central Washington State (annual precipitation <15 in) revea...

  8. Abundances of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), has infested native black-fruited hawthorn (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington since at least 2003, but little is known about the fly’s ecology in hawthorns there. The main objective here was to determine adult and larval abu...

  9. Leafroller parasitism across an orchard landscape in central Washington and effect of neighboring rose habitats on parasitism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitiam of sentinel Pandemis pyrusana (Tortricidae) leafroller larvae on potted apple trees placed in apple, pear and cherry orchards within a 2000 hectare landscape mosaic in south-central Washington were measured in 1999-2000. Parasitism rates of sentinels averaged 15% in spring and 31% in summ...

  10. Pythium Species Associated with Damping-off of Pea in Certified Organic Fields in the Columbia Basin of Central Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of Pythium species in organic vegetable production areas of the semi-arid Columbia Basin of central Washington was carried out in the fall of 2009 to identify species associated with damping-off during early spring planting. Isolates (n = 305) baited from soil sampled from 37 certified orga...

  11. The Wallula fault and tectonic framework of south-central Washington, as interpreted from magnetic and gravity anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig; Wells, Ray E.; Rohay, Alan C.

    2013-11-13

    Magnetic and gravity data, collected in south-central Washington near the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt (YFTB) are used to model upper crustal structure, the extent of the late Columbia River Basalt flow named the Ice Harbor member, the vertical conduits (dikes) that the Ice Harbor erupted from, and whether the dikes are offset or affected by faulting on the Wallula Fault zone.

  12. 76 FR 58039 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... In 1953-1954, human remains and funerary objects were removed from the Cedar Cave Site (45-KT-20), in... Cedar Cave site was published in the Federal Register . The Burke Museum and Central Washington University have jointly repatriated these human remains and funerary objects from the Cedar Cave...

  13. Survey of macromoths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of a Palouse prairie remnant site in eastern Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Palouse or Palouse Prairie is a bioregion consisting primarily of native grasses, shrubs, and forbs that originally covered over 16,000 km2 of central Idaho, southeastern Washington, and northeastern Oregon. Less than 1% of this habitat remains with much of it having been converted to agricultu...

  14. Cancer survival among American Indians in western Washington State (United States).

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J R; Dennis, L K; White, E

    1994-09-01

    Cancer survival among American Indians is worse than among other races in some regions of the United States, but has not been studied among American Indians in Washington state. Our purpose was to evaluate cancer survival among American Indians included in the Seattle-Puget Sound Cancer Registry. We compared site-specific survival among American Indians (n = 551) and Whites (n = 110,899) diagnosed from 1974 to 1989 for five cancer sites. For all sites except prostate, the distribution of cancer stage at diagnosis for American Indians was not significantly different from the distribution for Whites, and a similar proportion of American Indians and Whites received cancer treatment. After adjustment for age differences between American Indians and Whites, American Indians experienced poorer survival from prostate, breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. Poorer survival among American Indians persisted after adjustment for differences in cancer stage at diagnosis, lack of cancer treatment, and residence in a non-urban county. The survival experience among American Indians who were recorded as non-American Indians in the cancer registry but who were listed as American Indians in Indian Health Service records was more favorable than that among persons initially coded as American Indians in the cancer registry. We conclude that cancer survival among American Indians in western Washington is poorer than that among Whites in the same region, and that factors other than age, differences in stage at diagnosis, lack of cancer treatment, and residence in non-urban counties account for this. PMID:7999966

  15. Blueprint for Change in Washington: State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" provided a comprehensive review of states' policies that impact the teaching profession. As a companion to last year's comprehensive state-by-state analysis, the 2010 edition provides each state with an individualized "Blueprint for Change," building off last year's "Yearbook" goals and recommendations.…

  16. Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, in south central Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, has recently been identified as a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter, the putative causal agent of zebra chip (ZC) potato disease. ZC is causing millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New...

  17. Population and business exposure to twenty scenario earthquakes in the State of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of an initial analysis of population and business exposure to scenario earthquakes in Washington. This analysis was conducted to support the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Northwest Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) and an ongoing collaboration between the State of Washington Emergency Management Division (WEMD) and the USGS on earthquake hazards and vulnerability topics. This report was developed to help WEMD meet internal planning needs. A subsequent report will provide analysis to the community level. The objective of this project was to use scenario ground-motion hazard maps to estimate population and business exposure to twenty Washington earthquakes. In consultation with the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program and the Washington Division of Geology and Natural Resources, the twenty scenario earthquakes were selected by WEMD (fig. 1). Hazard maps were then produced by the USGS and placed in the USGS ShakeMap archive.

  18. A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Sala, A. M., Jr.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

  19. THE SETTLERS PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION 1894 - 1945 & THE DUPONT PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION 1943 - 1945 BRINGING HISTORY TO LIFE IN SOUTH CENTRAL WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ CR PH.D.

    2009-07-13

    Washington is called the 'Evergreen State' and it evokes images like this of lush forests, lakes and mountains. However, such images apply primarily to the half of the state west of the Cascade Mountains, where we are today. Eastern Washington state is quite a different matter and I want to draw your attention to a portion of Eastern Washington that is the focus ofmy presentation to you this morning. This image was taken on a part of the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, a 586-square mile government reservation, the second largest DOE facility in the nation . Here you can see where I am talking about, roughly 220 miles southeast of Seattle and about the same distance northeast of Portland.

  20. An In Depth Look at Veterans Attending the Community Colleges in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James R.

    In order to compile general data on veterans attending two-year institutions in Washington State, develop educational and employment profiles of the veterans, explore the extent of veterans' knowledge of available benefits, and evaluate the effectiveness of Veterans Outreach programs throughout the state, a questionnaire was designed and…

  1. Washington State Need Grant: Less-Than-Halftime Pilot Project (SHB 1345)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Washington State Legislature authorized, through Substitute House Bill 1345, a two-year pilot project allowing eligible students, who enroll for four or five credits in a term, to receive the State Need Grant (SNG). Several important policy considerations emerged during the pilot project. Board staff explored these issues with financial…

  2. Workforce Training Results: An Evaluation of Washington State's Workforce Development System, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    The third biennial outcome evaluation of the state of Washington's workforce development system analyzed the results of nine of the state's largest workforce development programs plus employer-provided training for participants who left programs from July 1, 1997 to June 30, 1998. For reporting results, the nine programs were grouped into three…

  3. Design for Excellence: Washington State Community College System Master Plan. Volume I, Mission, History and Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community Coll. Education, Olympia.

    This first of three related volumes outlines the development and current objectives of community-junior college education in the state of Washington. Beginning as small liberal arts colleges, the 2-year colleges were limited in growth until 1961, when the concept of "comprehensive curricula" was officially recognized through state legislation. In…

  4. Working While Studying: Does It Matter? An Examination of the Washington State Work Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Water, Gordon; Augenblick, John

    The impact of working on academic performance and persistence of a sample of full-time undergraduates enrolled in Washington State's public and private institutions during fall 1983 through spring 1985 was studied. Data sources included: student records for the State Work Study, College Work Study, and nonworking financial aid recipients; and…

  5. Lessons on Leadership: A Study of Distributed Leadership in Washington State. Research Report #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington School Research Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As traditionally structured, American schools, in general, have found it more difficult to educate some students than others. In Washington State, as in most other states, the single best predictor of student achievement at the school level is the percentage of students on free or reduced (f/r) lunch status (Abbott & Joireman, 2001). This fact has…

  6. High School Equivalency Program--Washington State University. 1981-82 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babayan, Anita, Comp.

    Two kinds of evaluation measures assessed the effectiveness of the 1981-82 Washington State University High School Equivalency Program (WSU-HEP). Discrepancy evaluation measures outlined in the WSU program proposal were employed by the staff in documenting the degree to which the program met its stated goals which were clustered around four…

  7. Incidence, transmission and molecular characterization of Potato virus S from selected potato cultivars in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Washington State Potato Seed Lot Trials annually evaluates seed lots from several states for the incidence of various potato viruses and other growth compromising factors. During the 2005 and 2006 seasons, many plants within seed lots of cv. Defender displayed necrotic lesions, leaf malformati...

  8. Rates of Student-Reported Antisocial Behavior, School Suspensions, and Arrests in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Toumbourou, John W.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Mathers, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few methodologically rigorous international comparisons of student-reported antisocial behavior have been conducted. This paper examines whether there are differences in the frequency of both antisocial behavior and societal responses to antisocial behavior in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States. These 2 states were…

  9. Mapping Agricultural Crops with AVIRIS Spectra in Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert; Pavri, Betina; Roberts, Dar; Ustin, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Spectroscopy is used in the laboratory to measure the molecular components and concentrations of plant constituents to answer questions about the plant type, status, and health. Imaging spectrometers measure the upwelling spectral radiance above the Earth's surface as images. Ideally, imaging spectrometer data sets should be used to understand plant type, plant status, and health of plants in an agricultural setting. An Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data set was acquired over agricultural fields near Wallula, Washington on July 23rd, 1997. AVIRIS measures upwelling radiance spectra through 224 spectral channels with contiguous 10-nm sampling from 400 to 2500 nm in the solar-reflected spectrum. The spectra are measured as images of 11 by up to 800 km with 20-m spatial resolution. The spectral images measured by AVIRIS represent the integrated signal resulting from: the solar irradiance; two way transmittance and scattering of the atmosphere; the absorptions and scattering of surface materials; as well as the spectral, radiometric and spatial response functions of AVIRIS. This paper presents initial research to derive properties of the agricultural fields near Wallula from the calibrated spectral images measured by AVIRIS near the top of the atmosphere.

  10. Mapping Agricultural Crops with AVIRIS Spectra in Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pavri, Betina; Roberts, Dar; Ustin, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Spectroscopy is used in the laboratory to measure the molecular components and concentrations of plant constituents to answer questions about the plant type, status, and health. Imaging spectrometers measure the upwelling spectral radiance above the Earth's surface as images. Ideally, imaging spectrometer data sets should be used to understand plant type, plant status, and health of plants in an agricultural setting. An Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data set was acquired over agricultural fields near Wallula, Washington on July 23rd, 1997. AVIRIS measures upwelling radiance spectra through 224 spectral channels with contiguous 10-nm sampling from 400 to 2500 run in the solar-reflected spectrum. The spectra are measured as images of 11 by up to 800 km with 20-m spatial resolution. The spectral images measured by AVIRIS represent the integrated signal resulting from: the solar irradiance; two way transmittance and scattering of the atmosphere; the absorptions and scattering of surface materials; as well as the spectral, radiometric and spatial response functions of AVIRIS. This paper presents initial research to derive properties of the agricultural fields near Wallula from the calibrated spectral images measured by AVIRIS near the top of the atmosphere.

  11. Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins and Other Lipophilic Toxins of Human Health Concern in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Moore, Leslie; Bill, Brian D.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Harrington, Neil; Borchert, Jerry; da Silva, Denis A. M.; Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 μg okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxin (YTX) with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3) were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound. PMID:23760013

  12. Diarrhetic shellfish toxins and other lipophilic toxins of human health concern in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Moore, Leslie; Bill, Brian D; Adams, Nicolaus G; Harrington, Neil; Borchert, Jerry; da Silva, Denis A M; Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L

    2013-06-01

    The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 μg okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxin (YTX) with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3) were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound. PMID:23760013

  13. A Qualitative Study of Teacher and Principal Perceptions of Washington State Teacher Evaluation Instruments: Danielson, Marzano, and CEL 5D+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Matthew Paul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the level of support teachers and principals have toward the new mandated teacher evaluation instruments in the state of Washington. In 2010, the Washington state legislature passed SB 6696 which essentially overhauled the system of how principals evaluate teachers in the state. The bill did away with the…

  14. Prevalence of gabapentin in impaired driving cases in Washington State in 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brianna L

    2009-10-01

    Gabapentin (Neurontin) is an antiepileptic drug commonly prescribed for pain treatment. In the past 15 years, indications for gabapentin have been increasing even though the complete mechanism of action is unknown. Side effects include somnolence, dizziness, ataxia, nystagmus, and fatigue. This study reviewed all cases positive for gabapentin submitted to the Washington State Toxicology Laboratory between January 2003 and December 2007. The concentrations of gabapentin in blood from impaired driving cases (n = 137) ranged from < 2.0 to 24.7 mg/L with a mean of 8.4 +/- 5.4 mg/L and a median of 7.0 mg/L. The driving population was 50% male with a mean age of 43.0 +/- 10.9 years (range 23-73). Of the cases studied, only 7% were positive for gabapentin alone with the remaining 93% indicative of polydrug use. Drug Recognition Expert reports from four cases in which the only drug detected likely to be causing impairment was gabapentin were examined. These reports demonstrated that subjects may exhibit psychophysical indicators of a central nervous system depressant (e.g., horizontal gaze nystagmus, poor performance on standardized field sobriety tests) with clinical indicators (e.g., dilated pupils, low body temperature, and elevated pulse and blood pressure) that are not consistent with a depressant. PMID:19874666

  15. Structural interpretation and physical property estimates based on COAST 2012 seismic reflection profiles offshore central Washington, Cascadia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. I.; Tobin, H. J.; Everson, E. D.; Fortin, W.; Holbrook, W. S.; Kent, G.; Keranen, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone has a history of large magnitude earthquakes, but a near-total lack of plate interface seismicity, making the updip limit of the seismogenic zone difficult to locate. In addition, the central Cascadia accretionary prism is characterized by an extremely low wedge taper angle, landward vergent initial thrusting, and a flat midslope terrace between the inner and outer wedges, unlike most other accretionary prisms (e.g. the Nankai Trough, Japan). The Cascadia Open Access Seismic Transect (COAST) lines were shot by R/V Marcus Langseth in July of 2012 off central Washington to image this subduction zone. Two trench-parallel and nine trench-perpendicular lines were collected. In this study, we present detailed seismic interpretation of both time- and depth-migrated stacked profiles, focused on elucidating the deposition and deformation of both pre- and syn-tectonic sediment in the trench and slope. Distribution and timing of sediments and their deformation is used to unravel the evolution of the wedge through time. Initially, interpretation of the time-sections is carried out to support the building of tomographic velocity models to aid in the pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) of selected lines. In turn, we use PSDM velocity models to estimate porosity and pore pressure conditions at the base of the wedge and across the basal plate interface décollement where possible, using established velocity-porosity transforms. Interpretation in this way incorporates both accurate structural relationships and robust porosity models to document wedge development and present-day stress state, in particular regions of potential overpressure. Results shed light on the origin and evolution of the mid-slope terrace and the low taper angle for the forearc wedge. This work may shed light ultimately on the position of the potential updip limit of the seismogenic zone beneath the wedge.

  16. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

  18. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    PubMed

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (<2 kg). Recommendations to characterize the extent of PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues. PMID:26071980

  19. State Civil Service Law--Civil Service Restrictions on Contracting Out by State Agencies--Washington Federation of State Employees v Spokane Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Timothy P.

    1980-01-01

    A ruling preventing state agencies, such as the community college in question, from contracting outside the institution for services that school civil service employees can and customarily do provide is criticized. (Journal availability: Washington Law Review, 1100 N.E. Campus Parkway, University of Washington, Condon Hall, JB-20, Seattle, WA…

  20. The Police, Traffic Tickets, and You. A Guide for New English Learners in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Janet; Marutani, Mio

    The 58-page reproducible text is an introductory guide to the role of police and the procedures surrounding traffic tickets in the state of Washington. It is designed for high-beginning to intermediate adult learners of English as a second language. In 17 brief, simply illustrated units, students are introduced to the police officer's job, types…

  1. Adjusting the Phenology Model of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State Apple Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in eight apple orchards in Washington State from 2003-2006 to characterize the seasonal cumulative curves of codling moth flight and the occurrence of fruit injury. Data from each generation were fit to logistic curves and these data were compared to a current widely-used mode...

  2. First report of black rot on apple fruit caused by Diplodia seriata in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July 2014, decayed ‘Fuji’ apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were observed and sampled from commercial orchards in Mattawa (Grant County) in Washington State. Fruit rot symptoms appeared to originate mainly from infections at either the calyx-end (floral parts) of the fruit or wounds on the f...

  3. 1979 Report to the Governor: Extracted from the State of Washington 1979 Annual Report (Education Agencies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrey, John N.

    A brief summary is presented of the administrative, instructional, and financial characteristics of Washington State's community colleges for fiscal year 1979. The report first discusses the major accomplishments achieved during this period, including the implementation of a course-by-newspaper and the completion of college-by-college agreements…

  4. Pathways and Persistence: Basic Skills Students at One Washington State Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Helen E.; Gerhard, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    Pressures to increase accountability in basic skills education have encouraged policy makers and postsecondary institutions to focus on student achievement. Using the Washington State Student Achievement Initiative Database and two consecutive years of data, this study examines the academic progress of basic skills students at one community…

  5. Are Consumer-Directed Home Care Beneficiaries Satisfied? Evidence from Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Joshua M.; Anderson, Wayne L.; Khatutsky, Galina

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed the effect of consumer-directed versus agency-directed home care on satisfaction with paid personal assistance services among Medicaid beneficiaries in Washington State. Design and Methods: The study analyzed a survey of 513 Medicaid beneficiaries receiving home- and community-based services. As part of a larger study,…

  6. An Alignment Analysis of Washington State's College Readiness Mathematics Standards with Various Local Placement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2006

    2006-01-01

    For the past two years, Achieve, Inc. has worked with the Transition Mathematics Project (TMP), a collaborative project of K-12 schools, community and technical colleges, and baccalaureate institutions within the state of Washington, as it developed mathematics standards that "define the core knowledge and skills expected of students entering…

  7. The Washington State System for Coordination of Staff Development. The Staff Development Coordination Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This report outlines the roles and responsibilities, pertaining to the improvement amd coordination of statewide teacher inservice, of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (SPI) in the state of Washington. After a field-based research study was conducted, a system was devised by which the SPI can improve coordination of staff development…

  8. 78 FR 78379 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and present-day Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations. Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or......

  9. 75 FR 36717 - Washington State University; Notice of Acceptance for Docketing and Opportunity for Hearing on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... University (the licensee, WSU) to operate the Washington State University Modified TRIGA Nuclear Radiation... NRC E Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E Filing process requires participants to submit... NRC's E Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007) apply to appeals of NRC staff...

  10. Progress in the First Five Years: An Evaluation of Achieving the Dream Colleges in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Wachen, John; Kerrigan, Monica Reid; Mayer, Alexander K.

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, six community and technical colleges in Washington State joined the innovative national reform initiative called Achieving the Dream (ATD). This report describes the progress each college made in implementing ATD's "culture of evidence" principles for institutional improvement, examines strategies implemented by the colleges to improve…

  11. The Challenge for Higher Education: 1996 State of Washington Master Plan for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    The State of Washington has set an enrollment goal of reaching the 70th percentile participation rate for upper-division and graduate/professional enrollments by 2020 with lower-division growth maintaining the current participation rate. From 1997-2010, the enrollment plan proposes to increase enrollments at the main campuses to physical capacity,…

  12. Coxiella burnetii Infection of a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) Found in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Kersh, Gilbert J.; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Self, Joshua S.; Akmajian, Adrianne M.; Stanton, James B.; Baszler, Timothy V.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Massung, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever. PMID:20592144

  13. Seasonal response of Noctua pronuba L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to traps in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blacklight traps at multiple sites in eastern Washington state yielded numbers of yellow underwing moths, Noctua pronuba L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Noctua pronumba is recently introduced into western North America. Summaries of the seasonal patterns of N. pronumba moths captured in those blackligh...

  14. Prenatal Care and Pregnancy Outcomes during the Recession: The Washington State Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Elliott S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    During a period of increasing unemployment and decreased Medicaid eligibility, more women residents of low-income census tracts in Washington State received delayed prenatal care or none at all and delivered proportionately more infants of low birthweight. The incidence of maternal anemia also may have increased. (Author/GC)

  15. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  16. The Future of Information Services in K-12 Schools in Washington State: A Future Search Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the process of future search conferences and describes one held to consider the future of school library media centers and information services in the state of Washington. Highlights include participation by students, librarians, teachers, administrators, and others; strategic and participatory planning; and change processes. (LRW)

  17. A Future Search Conference: The Future of Information Services in K-12 Schools in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Describes a future search conference that addressed the future of school library resource centers and their role in enhancing student learning in Washington State. Highlights include whole systems analysis; and participative planning that included teachers, administrators, librarians, parents, students, business representatives, and consultants.…

  18. Washington State Migrant Programs. Annual Report and Evaluation, 1971-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchell, Leonard

    The report of the Washington State migrant program's sixth year gave evidence of progress in providing educational and health services to migrant children. During Fiscal Year 1972, the program served more than 8,700 migrants in 197 schools in 43 districts. Funded by Title I, Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), program objectives were to…

  19. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

  20. Now It's Necessary: Virtual Reference Services at Washington State University, Pullman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; Crook, Linda

    2013-01-01

    While virtual reference services (VRS) are becoming more and more common in academic libraries, implementing and maintaining well-used and effective VRS can be a challenge in the face of competing demands on time, staffing, and funding. Between 2011 and 2012, librarians at Washington State University, Pullman (WSU) have overhauled and reorganized…

  1. CURRENT FLOW DATA FOR SELECTED USGS STREAM MONITORING STATIONS IN WASHINGTON STATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains recent stream flow data for USGS stations in Washington State. Flow data (cubic feet per second) are available for the most recent 5-6 day period and are compared with long-term average values. Flow data were collected approximately hourly. Flood stage and ...

  2. Coxiella burnetii infection of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) found in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Gilbert J; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Self, Joshua S; Akmajian, Adrianne M; Stanton, James B; Baszler, Timothy V; Raverty, Stephen A; Massung, Robert F

    2010-09-01

    A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever. PMID:20592144

  3. Columbia Basin College Student Performance on the Washington State University Writing Portfolio, 1993-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Basin Coll., Pasco, WA.

    This report examines the writing portfolio evaluations (administered between 1993-1998) of former Columbia Basin College (CBC) students who transferred to Washington State University (WSU). The WSU writing portfolio acts as a diagnostic aid to assure that all students can be successful college writers. The evaluation is required of all WSU…

  4. US Geological Survey begins seismic ground response experiments in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, A.C.; King, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This article briefly describes the experimental monitoring of minor seismic features caused by distant nuclear explosions, mining blasts and rhythmic human pushing against wooden homes. Some means of response prediction are outlined in Washington State and some effects of seismic amplification by weak clayey sediments are described. The results of several experiments are described. -A.Scarth

  5. LOLA; Library On-Line Acquisitions Sub-System, Washington State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, T.; Ames, L.

    The Acquisitions System is just one segment of an overall system design that was made for the entire Technical Services System of the Washington State University Library. After an overall study of the Technical Services System was conducted, a detailed study was made of work in the Acquisitions Department, and the Telecommunications Control…

  6. Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State: Detection, seed transmission, and chemical control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  7. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Enrollment and Staffing Report, Fall 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Fall Enrollment and Staffing Report 2013" provides a snapshot of enrollments in community and technical colleges during fall quarter 2013. The report addresses the questions most commonly raised regarding the community and technical colleges in Washington. The primary source of information for this document is the State Board for…

  8. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Enrollment and Staffing Report, Fall 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "Fall Enrollment and Staffing Report 2014" provides a snapshot of enrollments in community and technical colleges during fall quarter 2014. The report addresses the questions most commonly raised regarding the community and technical colleges in Washington. The primary source of information for this document is the State Board for…

  9. Faculty Manual. A Handbook of Policies and Regulations. Washington State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Univ., Pullman.

    The policies and procedures to be observed in the management of the affairs of Washington State University are presented. Major sections of the 1976 manual include: history and objectives; freedom and responsibility; administration and organization; faculty personnel policies; and business procedures. Faculty personnel policies deal with…

  10. Higher Education Enrollment Forecasts. Washington State 1985-87 Biennial Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Financial Management, Olympia.

    College enrollment forecasts for fall 1985 and 1986 and trends during 1979-1984 are presented for Washington State. Enrollment information is provided on the community college and four-year systems, as well as for five four-year institutions. The two forecasting methods are reviewed: an opportunity model, which projects college enrollment…

  11. Washington State Johnson-O'Malley Indian Education, 1970-71. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Harry, Ed.; Farris, Dale, Ed.

    The Superintendent of Public Instruction presents this 1970-71 annual report of Johnson-O'Malley (JOM) Indian education in the State of Washington. A historical background is presented which includes a section of the JOM Act; the criteria for receiving JOM grants; the formats of the program application and evaluation data form for the 1970-71…

  12. Washington State Public Common School Enrollment Forecasts for 1983-85 Biennium Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Financial Management, Olympia.

    This four-section report prepared by the Washington State Office of Financial Management examines the 1983-85 biennium budget forecasts for public common schools, total population and student movement in relation to economic cycles (over the past 2 decades), trends in public and private school enrollment (over the past 2 decades), and school…

  13. Accounting Manual for Educational Service Districts in the State of Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunghofer, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This manual provides principles that are an integral part of the accounting requirements for educational service districts (ESDs) in the state of Washington. They are in conformance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where referenced in the ESD principles that follow. This manual provides guidance on the following topics:(1)…

  14. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  15. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Academic Year Report, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This "Academic Year Report 2012-13" provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in Washington state for the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and…

  16. Increasing Access to Higher Education among Low-Income Students: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Brown, Doreen E.; Pavel, D. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how a comprehensive precollege intervention and developmental program among low-income high school students contributed to college enrollment outcomes measured in 2006. Our focus was on the Fifth Cohort of the Washington State Achievers (WSA) Program, which provides financial, academic, and college…

  17. [Establishment of an All-University Senate at Washington State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Univ., Pullman.

    This document contains the rules and regulations governing the functions of the All-University Senate at Washington State University. Article I outlines the Senate's powers and jurisdiction, which include serving as the legislative body of the faculty on all issues involving curricular and educational policies. Article II deals with the Senate's…

  18. Agroecological factors correlated to Rhizoctonia spp. in dryland wheat production zones of Washington state, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The necrotrophic soilborne fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG8 and R. oryzae are principal causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat in dryland cropping systems of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). A three-year survey of 33 parcels at eleven growers’ sites and 22 plots at twelve Washington State...

  19. Teacher Pension Choice: Surveying the Landscape in Washington State. Working Paper 81

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Pennucci, Annie; Bignell, Wesley

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive paper we detail the structure of two Washington State teacher retirement plans: a traditional defined benefit plan and a hybrid defined benefit-defined contribution plan. We provide preliminary evidence on how retirement plan structures may relate to the choices that teachers make. Our analysis of the financial incentives…

  20. Washington State Community College Operating Budget, 1985-87. Management Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community Coll. Education, Olympia.

    A summary is presented of the 1985-87 community college operating budget request for the Washington State Community colleges, along with a description of the policy considerations inherent in the request and the anticipated effect of the request on community college programs. The philosophy and objectives underpinning the budget request are…

  1. Scientific Framework for Stormwater Monitoring by the Washington State Department of Transportation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, R.W.; Kelly, V.J.; Wagner, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation municipal stormwater monitoring program, in operation for about 8 years, never has received an external, objective assessment. In addition, the Washington State Department of Transportation would like to identify the standard operating procedures and quality assurance protocols that must be adopted so that their monitoring program will meet the requirements of the new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System municipal stormwater permit. As a result, in March 2009, the Washington State Department of Transportation asked the U.S. Geological Survey to assess their pre-2009 municipal stormwater monitoring program. This report presents guidelines developed for the Washington State Department of Transportation to meet new permit requirements and regional/national stormwater monitoring standards to ensure that adequate processes and procedures are identified to collect high-quality, scientifically defensible municipal stormwater monitoring data. These include: (1) development of coherent vision and cooperation among all elements of the program; (2) a comprehensive approach for site selection; (3) an effective quality assurance program for field, laboratory, and data management; and (4) an adequate database and data management system.

  2. Geology and hydrology of the 300 Area and vicinity, Hanford Site, South-Central Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylord, D. R.; Poeter, E. P.

    1991-10-01

    The following report summarizes the findings of a joint Washington State University (WSU) and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) research team that investigated the geology and hydrogeology of the 300 Area during FY 87-89. The primary goal of this research was to evaluate existing data and identify new and innovative techniques and/or methods necessary to characterize the 300 Area geology and hydrogeology. Site characterization of the 300 Area demands the close integration of geologic and hydrogeologic research to achieve the most meaningful results. Geologic aspects of the research focused on the identification and analysis of both small- (i.e., sedimentary-textural characteristics) and large-scale (i.e., lithofacies and architectural elements) aquifer heterogeneities and on the derivation of fundamental compositional (i.e., mineralogy and geochemistry) data to assist in identification of marker beds. Hydrogeologic aspects of the research focused on identification and refinement of hydraulically significant, three-dimensional aquifer units termed hydrofacies and on preliminary inverse modeling of ground water flow in the 300 Area. Hydrofacies are fundamental units that will aid in site characterization, development of monitoring programs, and design of remedial action. Inverse modeling is used to improve estimates of the values of hydraulic parameters associated with each hydrofacies. The WSU/CSM research team identified two major shortcomings of the geologic and hydrogeologic data base for the 300 Area. First, the quality of geologic data from 300 Area drilling is far below that necessary to characterize either the geology or hydrogeology of the suprabasalt strata. Second, the limited number of field-scale aquifer tests and the veritable lack of hydraulic testing of discrete aquifer intervals greatly limit attempts to accurately identify basic hydraulic parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and/or specific yield.

  3. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system on the Kitsap Peninsula, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework, groundwater recharge and discharge, groundwater levels and flow directions, seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations, interactions between aquifers and the surface‑water system, and a water budget. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, the part of Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 12 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 2,116 drillers’ logs to construct 6 hydrogeologic sections and unit extent and thickness maps. Unconsolidated aquifers typically consist of moderately to well-sorted alluvial and glacial outwash deposits of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. These units often are discontinuous or isolated bodies and are of highly variable thickness. Unconfined conditions occur in areas where aquifer units are at land surface; however, much of the study area is mantled by glacial till, and confined aquifer conditions are common. Groundwater in the unconsolidated aquifers generally flows radially off the peninsula in the direction of Puget Sound and Hood Canal. These generalized flow patterns likely are complicated by the presence of low

  4. Character and distribution of borehole breakouts and their relationship to in situ stresses in deep Columbia River Basalts ( Washington State, USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Kim, K.

    1987-01-01

    The character and distribution of borehole breakouts in deeply buried basalts at the Hanford Site in S central Washington State are examined in light of stress indicator data and hydraulic- fracturing stress data by means of acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform logging systems. A series of boreholes penetrating the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group were logged to examine the extent of breakouts at depths near 1000 m. -from Authors

  5. 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    * Do floods contribute to the transport and fate of contaminants that affect human and ecosystem health? In an effort to help address these and other questions, USGS Professional Paper 1798 consists of independent but complementary chapters dealing with various scientific aspects of the 2011 floods in the Central United States.

  6. Texas State Library Centralized Processing Center. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin.

    This manual of the Centralized Processing Center (CPC) was published in 1966 by the Texas State Library as an introduction to, and explanation of, its services. The CPC is defined as a service center which receives requests for material from member libraries, then orders, receives, classifies, catalogs, prepares catalog and shelf list cards, and…

  7. Pathways From School Suspension to Adolescent Nonviolent Antisocial Behavior in Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    School suspension is associated with school drop-out, crime, delinquency, and alcohol and other drug use for the suspended student. Important research questions are how academic and related factors are relevant to the school suspension process and the generality of the process in different sites. State representative samples of Grade 7 students (N = 1,945) in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia were followed from 2002 to 2004. In both states, Grade 7 school suspension was associated with higher rates of nonviolent antisocial behavior and suspension 24 months later, before Grade 8 factors were entered into the model. Relevant factors were Grade 8 low school grades and association with antisocial peers, as well as Grade 8 antisocial behavior in Washington State only. The implications of these findings for the ways in which suspension is used in schools are outlined. PMID:24049218

  8. Species Composition of Cutworm Larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in South Central Washington Vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major grape growing areas of Washington were surveyed during 2003-2007 to determine the cutworm species present as larvae in vineyards during spring. We sampled vineyard floors, vines at night, and vines during the day. A total of 1,003 larvae was collected and 650 were reared to adults and iden...

  9. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  10. Distribution of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna

    2008-01-01

    More than 60 percent of the population of Washington State uses ground water for their drinking and cooking needs. Nitrate concentrations in ground water are elevated in parts of the State as a result of various land-use practices, including fertilizer application, dairy operations and ranching, and septic-system use. Shallow wells generally are more vulnerable to nitrate contamination than deeper wells (Williamson and others, 1998; Ebbert and others, 2000). In order to protect public health, the Washington State Department of Health requires that public water systems regularly measure nitrate in their wells. Public water systems serving more than 25 people collect water samples at least annually; systems serving from 2 to 14 people collect water samples at least every 3 years. Private well owners serving one residence may be required to sample when the well is first drilled, but are unregulated after that. As a result, limited information is available to citizens and public health officials about potential exposure to elevated nitrate concentrations for people whose primary drinking-water sources are private wells. The U.S. Geological Survey and Washington State Department of Health collaborated to examine water-quality data from public water systems and develop models that calculate the probability of detecting elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water. Maps were then developed to estimate ground water vulnerability to nitrate in areas where limited data are available.

  11. A Structural and Paleomagnetic Analysis of the Basalts of Summit Creek, central Cascades, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetrow, A. C.; Valentine, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    This study is a detailed analysis of the structural geology and paleomagnetism of the Basalts of Summit Creek. Located southeast of Mount Rainier, this section of layered basaltic flows formed during the Eocene Epoch (55 to 45 Ma). During the Eocene, this region underwent a time of unique volcanism that has shaped the modern landscape of the Pacific Northwest. Over the course of the available field season, five excursions were taken into the field to conduct structural mapping and paleomagnetic core drilling. Although exposure is limited by vegetation, nineteen sites were mapped and ten of those were drilled for cores. Cores were analyzed using alternating field demagnetization and thermal demagnetization. Mapping data was integrated into a preliminary structural map of the section. This study attempts to provide a greater understanding of the emplacement and deformation of the Basalts of the Summit Creek and any possible relationship with the Crescent Basalts located in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. Once paleomagnetic directions were corrected for core orientation and bedding tilt, none of the flows yielded orientations consistent enough to provide reliable magnetic directions for the section. This scatter is believed to be due, in part, to hydrothermal alteration that has subsequently influenced the Basalts of the Summit Creek. The scattered magnetic orientations are quite similar to those observed in the Crescent Basalts. This is does not demonstrate a definite connection between the two chemically similar Eocene volcanic sequences, but it does provide another similarity on the growing list. The lava flows along the north, middle, and south of the area and, with a few exceptions, have a northeast strike and a northwest dip. Along the middle transect of the section, nearest to Pony Creek and Carleton Ridge, bedding orientation has greater variability and suggests that there may still be unidentified structures that are influencing the area. Reflected

  12. Radiochemistry Education at Washington State University: Sustaining Academic Radiochemistry for the Nation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Sue B.; Nash, Ken; Benny, Paul; Clark, Aurora; Wall, Nathalie; Wall, Don; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2009-08-19

    Since 2002, Washington State University has been building radiochemistry as a component of its overall chemistry program. Using an aggressive hiring strategy and leveraged funds from the state of Washington and federal agencies, six radiochemistry faculty members have been added to give a total of seven radiochemists out of a department of twenty-five faculty members. These faculty members contribute to a diverse curriculum in radiochemistry, and the Chemistry Department now enjoys a significant increase in the number of trainees, the quantity of research expenditures, and the volume and quality of peer-reviewed scientific literature generated by the radiochemistry faculty and the trainees. These three factors are essential for sustaining the radiochemistry education and research program at any academic institution.

  13. Burden of Work-Related Knee Disorders in Washington State, 1999 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Spector, June T.; Adams, Darrin; Silverstein, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the burden of knee work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Methods Knee WMSDs were identified using Washington State Fund workers’ compensation data from 1999 to 2007 and analyzed by cost, industry, occupation, and claims incidence rates. Results Knee WMSDs accounted for 7% of WMSD claims and 10% of WMSD costs. The rate of decline in claims incidence rates for knee WMSDs was similar to the rate of decline for all other WMSDs. Industries at highest risk for knee WMSDs included construction and building contractors. Occupations of concern included carpenters and truck drivers in men and nursing aides and housekeepers in women. Conclusions Between 1999 and 2007, Washington State Fund knee WMSDs were widespread and associated with a large cost. Identification of specific occupational knee WMSD risk factors in high-risk industries is needed to guide prevention efforts. PMID:21508866

  14. Washington State's unscientific approach to the problem of repeat sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Brody, A L; Green, R

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, Washington State enacted the Sexual Predator Act, allowing the civil commitment of sex offenders to a mental health facility for life if they are deemed to be sexual predators (repeat, hardcore offenders). They are released only upon proof that they are no longer a threat to others. This paper reviews the debate about this law and the recent literature on the treatment of sex offenders. We conclude that the Washington State law is unscientific, because the available treatments are not adequate to ensure future safety and because the law selects poor candidates for treatment. Finally, a comment is made about preventive detention effected by psychiatry, and an analogy made to the habitual drunk driver. PMID:7841506

  15. Promoting accountability: hospital charity care in California, Washington state, and Texas.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Janet P; Stensland, Jeffrey

    2004-05-01

    Debate as to whether private hospitals meet their charitable obligations is heated. This study examines how alternative state approaches for ensuring hospital accountability to the community affects charitable expenditures and potentially affects access to care for the uninsured. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to compare private California hospitals' charity care expenditures with those of hospitals in Texas and Washington state. The key finding from this study is that net of hospital characteristics, market characteristics and community need, Texas hospitals were estimated to provide over 3 times more charity care and Washington hospitals were estimated to provide 66% more charity care than California hospitals. This finding suggests that more prescriptive community benefit or charity care requirements may be necessary to ensure that private hospitals assume a larger role in the care of the uninsured. PMID:15253376

  16. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University for intended repatriation by...

  17. Asthma Management in Educational Settings: Implementing Guideline-Based Care in Washington State Schools.

    PubMed

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Klein, Nicole; Lecce, Sally

    2015-11-01

    Managing asthma in the schools is complex and requires careful planning. This article highlights key steps in implementing guideline-based care for children with asthma in Washington State schools: assessing students, establishing acuity, communicating with parents, and training staff. Advance planning can improve outcomes for students, parents, and school staff in managing this complex and prevalent disease. NASN recently developed asthma management guidelines. Developing state-specific guidelines provides an opportunity to speak specifically to state laws and nurse practice acts while also reinforcing the importance of specialized practice to school nurses, school administrators and teachers, parents, and students. PMID:26515566

  18. Home energy rating system business plan feasibility study in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Lineham, T.

    1995-03-01

    In the Fall of 1993, the Washington State Energy Office funded the Washington Home Energy Rating System project to investigate the benefits of a Washington state HERS. WSEO established a HERS and EEM Advisory Group. Composed of mortgage lenders/brokers, realtors, builders, utility staff, remodelers, and other state agency representatives, the Advisory Group met for the first time on November 17, 1993. The Advisory Group established several subcommittees to identify issues and options. During its March 1994 meeting, the Advisory Group formed a consensus directing WSEO to develop a HERS business plan for consideration. The Advisory Group also established a business plan subcommittee to help draft the plan. Under the guidance of the business plan subcommittee, WSEO conducted research on how customers value energy efficiency in the housing market. This plan represents WSEO`s effort to comply with the Advisory Group`s request. Why is a HERS Business Plan necessary? Strictly speaking this plan is more of a feasibility plan than a business plan since it is designed to help determine the feasibility of a new business venture: a statewide home energy rating system. To make this determination decision makers or possible investors require strategic information about the proposed enterprise. Ideally, the plan should anticipate the significant questions parties may want to know. Among other things, this document should establish decision points for action.

  19. Tectonic deformation in western Washington state from global positioning system measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaradze, Giorgi

    Western Washington state is adjacent to the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ), which stretches from northern California to southern British Columbia. More than three years of continuous and "campaign" style GPS measurements in western Washington indicate that the direction of the observed horizontal velocities is roughly parallel to the direction of relative plate convergence of the Juan de Fuca (JDF) and North America (NA) plates and that the relative plate convergence and velocities decrease away from the deformation front. The average maximum principal strain rate for the entire study area calculated from the GPS velocities indicates compression of 0.05 +/- 0.01 m strain/yr in the direction N75°E. Most of the observed velocities can be attributed to locking of the CSZ thrust interface causing the accumulation elastic strain as the next great subduction earthquake approaches. Three-dimensional elastic dislocation modeling results suggest that the seismogenic zone along the Washington section of the CSZ is ˜10% wider than the earlier published values of 90 km; this can theoretically cause higher levels of ground shaking in the densely populated Puget basin of western Washington. Although the subduction related signal dominates the observed GPS velocity field, there is also evidence for an additional north-south oriented compression. To isolate this signal from the subduction related signal the dislocation model predictions must be subtracted from the observed velocities, yielding a "residual" velocity field that suggests the presence of N-S oriented compression at a rate of ˜4 mm/yr over a N-S distance of approximately 250 km. This signal presumably represents a more long-term deformation pattern than the periodic accumulation and release of elastic strain connected with subduction earthquakes and most likely is related to the occurrence of shallow earthquakes in western Washington, which are characterized by predominantly north-south oriented maximum principal

  20. Genetic characterization of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of coastal salmonid stocks in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a pathogen that infects many Pacific salmonid stocks from the watersheds of North America. Previous studies have thoroughly characterized the genetic diversity of IHNV isolates from Alaska and the Hagerman Valley in Idaho. To enhance understanding of the evolution and viral transmission patterns of IHNV within the Pacific Northwest geographic range, we analyzed the G gene of IHNV isolates from the coastal watersheds of Washington State by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. The RPA analysis of 23 isolates indicated that the Skagit basin IHNV isolates were relatively homogeneous as a result of the dominance of one G gene haplotype (S). Sequence analysis of 303 bases in the middle of the G gene (midG region) of 61 isolates confirmed the high frequency of a Skagit River basin sequence and identified another sequence commonly found in isolates from the Lake Washington basin. Overall, both the RPA and sequence analysis showed that the Washington coastal IHNV isolates are genetically homogeneous and have little genetic diversity. This is similar to the genetic diversity pattern of IHNV from Alaska and contrasts sharply with the high genetic diversity demonstrated for IHNV isolates from fish farms along the Snake River in Idaho. The high degree of sequence and haplotype similarity between the Washington coastal IHNV isolates and those from Alaska and British Columbia suggests that they have a common viral ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates we studied and those from different regions throughout the virus's geographic range confirms a conserved pattern of evolution of the virus in salmonid stocks north of the Columbia River, which forms Washington's southern border.

  1. Potential for Natural Gas Storage in Deep Basalt Formations at Canoe Ridge, Washington State: A Hydrogeologic Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2005-09-24

    Between 1999 and 2002, Pacific Gas Transmission Company (PGT) (now TransCanada Pipeline Company) and AVISTA Corporation, together with technical support provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) examined the feasibility of developing a subsurface, natural gas-storage facility in deep, underlying Columbia River basalt in south-central Washington state. As part of this project, the 100 Circles #1 well was drilled and characterized in addition to surface studies. This report provides data and interpretations of the geology and hydrology collected specific to the Canoe Ridge site as part of the U.S. DOE funding to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of this project.

  2. The First Dinosaur from Washington State and a Review of Pacific Coast Dinosaurs from North America

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia. PMID:25993090

  3. Applying downscaled climate data to wildlife areas in Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.; Helbrecht, L.; Pelltier, R.; Thompson, B.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation and natural resource managers require information about potential climate change effects for the species and ecosystems they manage. We evaluated potential future climate and bioclimate changes for wildlife areas in Washington State (USA) using five climate simulations for the 21st century from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) dataset run under the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. These data were downscaled to a 30-arc-second (~1-km) grid encompassing the state of Washington by calculating and interpolating future climate anomalies, and then applying the interpolated data to observed historical climate data. This climate data downscaling technique (also referred to as the 'delta' method) is relatively simple and makes a number of assumptions that affect how the downscaled data can be used and interpreted. We used the downscaled climate data to calculate bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) that represent important physiological and environmental limits for Washington species and habitats of management concern. Multivariate descriptive plots and maps were used to evaluate the direction, magnitude, and spatial patterns of projected future climate and bioclimatic changes. The results indicate which managed areas experience the largest climate and bioclimatic changes under each of the potential future climate simulations. We discuss these changes while accounting for some of the limitations of our downscaling technique and the uncertainties associated with using these downscaled data for conservation and natural resource management applications.

  4. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    PubMed

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia. PMID:25993090

  5. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

  6. Claims incidence of work-related disorders of the upper extremities: Washington state, 1987 through 1995.

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, B; Welp, E; Nelson, N; Kalat, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the claim incidence rate, cost, and industry distribution of work-related upper extremity disorders in Washington. METHODS: Washington State Fund workers' compensation claims from 1987 to 1995 were abstracted and categorized into general and specific disorders of gradual or sudden onset. RESULTS: Accepted claims included 100,449 for hand/wrist disorders (incidence rate: 98.2/10,000 full-time equivalents; carpal tunnel syndrome rate: 27.3), 30,468 for elbow disorders (incidence rate: 29.7; epicondylitis rate: 11.7), and 55,315 for shoulder disorders (incidence rate: 54.0; rotator cuff syndrome rate: 19.9). Average direct workers' compensation claims costs (medical treatment and indemnity) were $15,790 (median: $6774) for rotator cuff syndrome, $12,794 for carpal tunnel syndrome (median: $4190), and $6593 for epicondylitis (median: $534). Construction and food processing were among the industries with the highest rate ratios for all disorders (> 4.0). CONCLUSIONS: Upper extremity disorders represent a large and costly problem in Washington State industry. Industries characterized by manual handling and repetitive work have high rate ratios. The contingent workforce appears to be at high risk. PMID:9842381

  7. First down and goal to go. [Washington State resource applications for LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, G.

    1981-01-01

    A 10 year game plan for transition to the operational system was developed in the State of Washington. The plan is to: examine the results of past demonstration projects to identify successful operational applications, take advantage of geographic information systems, and work toward reducing/eliminating constraints of the present system which inhibit operational use. Support for the LANDSAT program was demonstrated by sending a user representative to NOAA working in the development of a user oriented system. It is suggested that the state should reassess its position, by taking advantage of the past 8 years' experience, and coordinate efforts to enhance LANDSAT' advantages in a cost effective manner.

  8. The Influence of the Wallula Fault and Pasco Basin on the Tectonic Framework of South-Central Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Wells, R. E.; Weaver, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB) in eastern Washington manifests broad-scale regional deformation of the Cascadia backarc occurring prior, during, and after emplacement of Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). CRBG basalts are strongly magnetic, and anticlines and faults of the YFTB are well displayed in high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys. Gravity anomalies, on the other hand, reflect in part the thickness of pre-Miocene sedimentary rocks beneath CRBG. The broad width of the YFTB in central Washington narrows eastward toward Idaho, with anticlines and faults merging into the narrow Wallula fault zone (WFZ). The WFZ is one element of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), an alignment of topographic and structural elements extending from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington to the Wallowa Mountains in Oregon. The tectonic relevance of the OWL, particularly the degree to which dextral shear has contributed to its evolution, is still a matter of discussion. The Pasco basin, a late Cenozoic sedimentary basin atop CRBG, is associated with a broad gravity low. The thickness of post-CRBG sediments is insufficient to account for the entire gravity anomaly, suggesting the presence of a sediment-filled basin beneath CRBG. YFTB evolution and Quaternary deformation appear to have been influenced by the Pasco basin, as evidenced by potential-field anomalies. Northernmost faults of the YFTB (Frenchman Hills, Saddle Mountains, and Umtanum Ridge) abruptly terminate as they cross the western margin of the basin. Derivative maps (e.g., maximum horizontal gradient and tilt derivative) calculated from high-resolution magnetic anomalies show no evidence of these faults beyond their mapped extent in this area. Southern faults of the YFTB (Rattlesnake Mountain, Horse Heaven Hills, and Columbia Hills) in central Washington are on strike with the Pasco basin but veer abruptly southeastward at its southwestern margin to merge into the WFZ. Northwest

  9. A survey of tractors and rollover protective structures in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Spielholz, P; Sjostrom, T; Clark, R E; Adams, D A

    2006-11-01

    A survey of farms in Washington State was conducted to determine tractor characteristics and the presence of rollover protective structures (ROPS) in a state with more inclusive rules on tractor retrofitting than federal regulations. A total of 544 valid surveys were completed from a proportional random sample across different types of farms. Responders indicated that 58% of tractors overall were equipped with ROPS, and 42% of the tractors without ROPS were exempt from the state rules. Seatbelts on tractors equipped with ROPS were reportedly used "sometimes" or more 30% of the time, and 17% of these tractors had no seatbelt installed. Tractors used for row crop farming were significantly more likely to be equipped with ROPS than those used for tree, vine, or hops farming. Older tractors were used for fewer hours, were less likely to be ROPS-equipped, and were less likely to be operated while wearing a seatbelt. The results were consistent with a positive effect of the Washington State ROPS requirements, demonstrated by the increased percentage of ROPS-equipped pre-1976 tractors, as compared to other states, and by the difference between ROPS-equipped tractors in exempt and non-exempt types of farming. The results point to the need for prevention activities to increase seatbelt use on ROPS-equipped tractors, and for further development of practical protection for tractors operating under overhead obstacles. PMID:17131952

  10. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  11. Lessons from Five States: Public Sector Use of Washington Circle Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, Deborah W.; Lee, Margaret T.; Horgan, Constance; Acevedo, Andrea; Botticelli, Michael; Clark, Spencer; Davis, Steven; Gallati, Robert; Haberlin, Karin; Hanchett, Andrew; Lambert–Wacey, Dawn; Leeper, Tracy; Siemianowski, James; Tikoo, Minakshi

    2011-01-01

    Five states (Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, and Oklahoma) have incorporated Washington Circle (WC) substance abuse performance measures in various ways into their quality improvement strategies. In this paper we focus on what other states and local providers might learn from these states’ experiences as they consider using WC performance measures. Using a case study approach, we report that the use of WC measures differs across these five states, although there are important common themes required for adoption and sustainability of performance measures which include: leadership, evaluation of specification and use of measures over time, state-specific adaptation of the WC measure specifications, collaboration with consultants and partners, inclusion of WC measures in the context of other initiatives, reporting to providers and the public, and data and resource requirements. As additional states adopt some of the WC measures, or adopt other performance measurement approaches, these states’ experiences could help them to develop implementations based on their particular needs. PMID:21257282

  12. Black carbon concentrations in snow at Tronsen Meadow in Central Washington from 2012 to 2013: Temporal and spatial variations and the role of local forest fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Ian; Kaspari, Susan; Jenkins, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Characterizing black carbon (BC) concentrations in the seasonal snowpack is of interest because BC deposition on snow can reduce albedo and accelerate melt. In Washington State, USA snowmelt from the seasonal snowpack provides an important source of water resources, but minimal work has been done characterizing BC concentrations in snow in this region. BC concentrations in snow were monitored over two winters (2012 and 2013) at Tronsen Meadow, located near Blewett Pass in the eastern Cascade Mountains in Central Washington, to characterize spatial and temporal variations in BC concentrations, and the processes affecting BC concentrations in the snowpack. BC concentrations were measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer. Snowpit BC concentrations at spatial scales ranging from centimeter to 100 m scales were fairly homogenous during the accumulation season, with greater spatial variability during the melt season due to variable melt patterns. BC concentrations in snow increased in late winter-spring due to an increase in atmospheric BC concentrations and trapping of BC on the snow surface during melt. However, during a period of intense melt in 2013 BC concentrations decreased, likely caused by meltwater scavenging. In summer 2012 the Table Mountain forest fire burned adjacent to the study site, and BC concentrations in the snowpack in 2013 were far higher than in previous years, with charred trees postfire the likely source of the elevated BC.

  13. Depth to water, 1991, in the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho; Spokane River valley, Washington; Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area, Idaho; and selected intermontane valleys, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.; Bassick, M.D.; Rogers, T.L.; Garcia, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    This map report illustrates digitally generated depth-to-water zones for the Rathdrum Prairie in Idaho; part of the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington; and the intermontane valleys of the upper Big Wood, Big Lost, Pahsimeroi, Little Lost, and Lemhi Rivers and Birch Creek in Idaho. Depth to water is 400 to 500 feet below land surface in the northern part of Rathdrum Prairie, 100 to 200 feet below land surface at the Idaho-Washington State line, and 0 to 250 feet below land surface in the Spokane area. Depth to water in the intermontane valleys in east-central Idaho is least (usually less than 50 feet) near streams and increases toward valley margins where mountain-front alluvial fans have formed. Depths to water shown in the Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area in Idaho are limited to point data at individual wells because most of the water levels measured were not representative of levels in the uppermost aquifer but of levels in deeper aquifers.

  14. The Role of Black Carbon from Wildfires in Accelerating Snow and Glacier Melt in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspari, S.; Delaney, I.; Pittenger, D.; Skiles, M.

    2014-12-01

    In Washington, snow and glacier melt provide an important source of water resources, however spring snowpack levels are declining and glaciers are retreating. While warming temperatures are a well-recognized factor contributing to snowpack decline and glacier retreat, another cause may be the deposition of black carbon (BC) onto snow and glacier surfaces. Since 2010 we have collected snow and ice core samples to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of BC deposited in Washington snow and glacier ice. BC concentrations in the winter snowpack are relatively low, with BC concentrations increasing in spring and summer due to melt induced enrichment and increased dry deposition. BC induced melt may accelerate the timing of spring snowmelt at lower elevations, however BC induced melt is likely largest at relatively high elevations where the snowpack persists into the summer months when BC concentrations were observed to be highest. Based on our research to date, the highest BC concentrations in Washington snow and ice are linked to forest fires. A shallow ice core retrieved from Mt. Olympus demonstrated that BC deposition was a magnitude higher during the 2011 Big Hump forest fire, resulting in a threefold increase in the rate of change of river discharge due to glacier melt. An ice core from South Cascade Glacier spanning the 20th century also suggests that the highest BC concentrations are associated with forest fires. Furthermore, burned areas can continue to provide a source of BC to the snowpack post-fire. We measured BC concentrations in snow at a study site from 2010-2013 in Washington State. The surrounding forest burned in 2012, after which BC deposited on the snowpack post-fire was at least four-fold higher than pre-fire. This research has implications for projected climate change, as forest fires are projected to increase and the seasonal snowpack is projected to decrease, both of which contribute to higher BC concentrations in the snowpack.

  15. Active tectonics of the Seattle fault and central Puget sound, Washington - Implications for earthquake hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Dadisman, S.V.; Childs, J. R.; Stanley, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    We use an extensive network of marine high-resolution and conventional industry seismic-reflection data to constrain the location, shallow structure, and displacement rates of the Seattle fault zone and crosscutting high-angle faults in the Puget Lowland of western Washington. Analysis of seismic profiles extending 50 km across the Puget Lowland from Lake Washington to Hood Canal indicates that the west-trending Seattle fault comprises a broad (4-6 km) zone of three or more south-dipping reverse faults. Quaternary sediment has been folded and faulted along all faults in the zone but is clearly most pronounced along fault A, the northernmost fault, which forms the boundary between the Seattle uplift and Seattle basin. Analysis of growth strata deposited across fault A indicate minimum Quaternary slip rates of about 0.6 mm/yr. Slip rates across the entire zone are estimated to be 0.7-1.1 mm/yr. The Seattle fault is cut into two main segments by an active, north-trending, high-angle, strike-slip fault zone with cumulative dextral displacement of about 2.4 km. Faults in this zone truncate and warp reflections in Tertiary and Quaternary strata and locally coincide with bathymetric lineaments. Cumulative slip rates on these faults may exceed 0.2 mm/yr. Assuming no other crosscutting faults, this north-trending fault zone divides the Seattle fault into 30-40-km-long western and eastern segments. Although this geometry could limit the area ruptured in some Seattle fault earthquakes, a large event ca. A.D. 900 appears to have involved both segments. Regional seismic-hazard assessments must (1) incorporate new information on fault length, geometry, and displacement rates on the Seattle fault, and (2) consider the hazard presented by the previously unrecognized, north-trending fault zone.

  16. Impact of a Pertussis Epidemic on Infant Vaccination in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Opel, Douglas; DeHart, M. Patricia; Warren, Jodi; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Washington State experienced a pertussis epidemic from October 2011 to December 2012. There was wide variation in incidence by county. The objectives of this study were to determine how the pertussis epidemic affected infant vaccination in Washington State and whether the incidence in counties modified this effect. METHODS: We conducted an ecologic before–after study to compare the proportion of infants up to date (UTD) with a pertussis-containing vaccine at time points before (September 30, 2011), during (September 30, 2012), and after (September 30, 2013) the epidemic. Children aged 3 to 8 months enrolled in the Washington State Immunization Information System with documented county of residence were included. UTD status was determined as ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 doses of a pertussis-containing vaccine at ages 3, 5, and 7 months, respectively. Generalized linear models with extension to the binomial family and clustered robust standard errors were used to examine differences in the proportion of UTD infants between preepidemic and either epidemic or postepidemic points. The potential modifying effect of pertussis incidence by county was examined. RESULTS: We found no significant difference in statewide UTD status with a pertussis-containing vaccine between preepidemic and either epidemic (absolute difference 2.1%; 95% confidence interval, −1.6 to 5.9) or postepidemic (absolute difference 0.2%; 95% confidence interval, −4.0 to 4.5) time points. There was no significant modification by county pertussis incidence. There was wide variation in the absolute difference in UTD status across counties. CONCLUSIONS: A statewide pertussis epidemic does not appear to have significantly changed the proportion of infants who were UTD with a pertussis-containing vaccine. PMID:25136046

  17. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  18. Housing Insecurity and the Association With Health Outcomes and Unhealthy Behaviors, Washington State, 2011.

    PubMed

    Stahre, Mandy; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Siegel, Paul; Njai, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of associations between housing and health have focused on housing insecurity and health risk behaviors and outcomes. We measured the association between housing insecurity and selected health risk behaviors and outcomes, adjusted for socioeconomic measures, among 8,415 respondents to the 2011 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Housing insecure respondents were about twice as likely as those who were not housing insecure to report poor or fair health status or delay doctor visits because of costs. This analysis supports a call to action among public health practitioners who address disparities to focus on social determinants of health risk behaviors and outcomes. PMID:26160295

  19. Flux and instrumentation upgrade for the epithermal neutron beam facility at Washington State University.

    PubMed

    Nigg, D W; Venhuizen, J R; Wemple, C A; Tripard, G E; Sharp, S; Fox, K

    2004-11-01

    An epithermal neutron beam facility for preclinical neutron capture therapy research has been constructed at the Washington State University TRIGA research reactor installation. Subsequent to a recent upgrade, this new facility offers a high-purity epithermal beam with intensity on the order of 1.2x10(9)n/cm(2)s. Key features include a fluoride-based design for the neutron filtering and moderating components as well as a novel collimator design that allows ease of assembly and disassembly of the beamline components. PMID:15308181

  20. Flux and Instrumentation Upgrade for the Epithermal Neutron Beam Facility at Washington State University

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; J.R. Venhuizen; C.E. Wemple; G. E. Tripard; S. Sharp; K. Fox

    2004-11-01

    An epithermal neutron beam facility for preclinical neutron capture therapy research has been constructed at the Washington State University TRIGA research reactor installation. Subsequent to a recent upgrade, this new facility offers a high-purity epithermal beam with intensity on the order of 1.2×109 n/cm2 s. Key features include a fluoride-based design for the neutron filtering and moderating components as well as a novel collimator design that allows ease of assembly and disassembly of the beamline components.

  1. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2014-12-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  2. Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halpenny, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

  3. ADULT CADDISFLY (TRICHOPTERA) PHENOLOGY AT THE HANFORD REACH NATIONAL MONUMENT, WASHINGTON STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, Richard S.; Ruiter, David E.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2006-01-05

    Adult caddisflies were sampled on the Wahluke Wildlife Area and Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge subunits of the newly created (2000) Hanford Reach National Monument using 15-watt ''black lights'' from April 2002 through April 2003. A diverse fauna consisting of nine families, 21 genera, and 33 species were collected. Protoptila Coloma Ross, Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ceraclea alagma (Ross), Nectopsych Iahontanensis Haddock Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen), and Ylodes reuteri (MacLachlan) represent new records for Washington State. Species composition and phenology are presented in tabular form.

  4. Sudden, probably coseismic submergence of Holocene trees and grass in coastal Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, B.F.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Growth-position plant fossils in coastal Washington State imply a suddenness of Holocene submergence that is better explained by coseismic lowering of the land than by decade- or century-long rise of the sea. Growth-position fossils implying sudden submergence include the stems and leaves of salt-marsh grass entombed in tide-flat mud close to 300 yr ago and roughly 1700 and 3100 yr ago. In some places the stems and leaves close to 300 yr old are surrounded by sand left by an extraordinary, landward-directed surge - probably a tsunami from a great thrust earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone. -from Authors

  5. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  6. Screening tests for the rapid detection of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L; Moore, Leslie K; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L

    2013-10-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test "pre-harvest" shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer's recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  7. Employment outcomes among AFDC recipients treated for substance abuse in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Wickizer, T M; Campbell, K; Krupski, A; Stark, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, Congress passed sweeping welfare reform, abolishing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Each state now administers its own welfare-to-work program under broad federal guidelines, which require eligible adult recipients to work or perform community service. High-risk welfare recipients, especially those with chemical dependency problems, face significant obstacles in their efforts to achieve greater self-sufficiency under the new welfare-to-work programs. State databases were used to track employment outcomes for AFDC clients admitted to treatment for chemical dependency in Washington State during a two-year period. Exposure to treatment was associated with a greater likelihood of becoming employed and with increased earnings for those who became employed. Ensuring that welfare recipients with substance abuse problems have access to appropriate treatment and vocational services is critical if welfare-to-work programs are to promote greater economic self-sufficiency. PMID:11191450

  8. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  9. Use and selection of brood-rearing habitat by Sage Grouse in south central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sveum, C.M.; Crawford, J.A.; Edge, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) brood-habitat use was examined during 1992 and 1993 at the Yakima Training Center in Yakima and Kittitas counties, Washington. During the 2 yr we followed 38 broods, of which 12 persisted to 1 August (x?? = approximately 1.5 chicks/brood). Food forb cover was greater at all brood locations than at random locations. Hens with broods in big sagebrush/bunchgrass habitat (Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum) selected for greater food forb cover, total forb cover, and lower shrub heights; broods in altered big sagebrush/bunchgrass habitats selected greater tall grass cover and vertical cover height; broods in grassland showed no preference for any measured vegetation characteristics. During the early rearing period (post-hatching-6 wk) each year, broods selected sagebrush/bunchgrass. Broods in 1993 made greater use of grasslands than in 1992 and selected grassland during the late brood-rearing period (7-12 wk). Broods selected for sagebrush/bunchgrass during midday, but 52% of brood locations in the afternoon were in grassland. Tall grass cover was greater at morning (0500-1000 h) and afternoon (1501-2000 h) brood locations than at midday (1001-1500 h) and random locations. Midday brood locations had greater shrub cover and height than morning and afternoon locations. Selection of habitat components was similar to the results of other studies, but habitat conditions coupled with a possible lack of 'alternate brood-rearing cover types resulted in low survival of chicks.

  10. The 1983 Temperature Gradient and Heat Flow Drilling Project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-11-01

    During the Summer of 1983, the Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources carried out a three-hole drilling program to collect temperature gradient and heat flow information near potential geothermal resource target areas. The project was part of the state-coupled US Department of Energy Geothermal Program. Richardson Well Drilling of Tacoma, Washington was subcontracted through the State to perform the work. The general locations of the project areas are shown in figure 1. The first hole, DNR 83-1, was located within the Green River valley northwest of Mount St. Helens. This site is near the Green River Soda Springs and along the projection of the Mount St. Helens--Elk Lake seismic zone. The other two holes were drilled near Mount Baker. Hole DNR 83-3 was sited about 1/4 km west of the Baker Hot Springs, 10.5 km east of Mount Baker, while hole DNR 83-5 was located along Rocky Creek in the Sulphur Creek Valley. The Rocky Creek hole is about 10 km south-southwest of the peak. Two other holes, DNR 83-2 and DNR 83-4, were located on the north side of the Sulphur Creek Valley. Both holes were abandoned at early stages of drilling because of deep overburden and severe caving problems. The sites were apparently located atop old landslide deposits.

  11. Food access and cost in American Indian communities in Washington State.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Meghan; Buchwald, Dedra S; Duncan, Glen E

    2011-09-01

    Limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost may influence eating behaviors and, ultimately, obesity. This study examined the number and type of food stores (convenience, grocery, supermarket) on federal reservations in Washington State, and the availability and cost of foods in the US Department of Agriculture Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit market basket, to describe the food environment of American Indians. Stores were identified by telephone survey of tribal headquarters, a commercial database, and on-site visitation. Foods were assessed using a standardized instrument containing 68 items in seven major food groups during April and May 2009. Store type and availability and cost of foods were recorded on a checklist. Fifty stores were identified on 22 American Indian reservations, including 25 convenience, 16 grocery, and 9 supermarkets. Across all stores, about 38% of checklist items were available, with supermarkets having the most and convenience stores the fewest. Foods from the dairy and sugars/sweets groups were the most prevalent, while fresh fruits/vegetables were the least. Cost of the most commonly available items was lowest in supermarkets. Seventeen reservations did not have a supermarket on their reservation, and the nearest off-reservation supermarket was about 10 miles from the tribe's headquarters, which was used as the standard for distance calculations. These results demonstrate that American Indians living on federal reservations in Washington State may have limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost. PMID:21872701

  12. Notes on the Life History of Macaria curvata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Southcentral Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, Dennis L.; Driver, Crystal J.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Zack, Richard S.

    2006-06-09

    Macaria curvata (Grote) (Geometridae;Ennomine) is a common species found in arid habitats of the western United States and Canada. Intensive light trapping found the moth to be one of the most commonly collected throughout the Hanford Site of southcentral Washington State. To provide larvae and adults for concurrent studies, a laboratory colony of M. curvata was established and maintained. Live, wild females were collected and allowed to oviposite on their food plant, rubber rabbitbrush (Ericameria nauseosa var. speciosa (Hutt.) Nesom % Baird). In our southcentral Washington study area, adults generally emerge in late March and complete 4 - 5 generations throughout the season until early October when they overwinter in the pupal stage. Eggs are laid on the leaves and stems of the host plant, hatching in 6 - 10 days. The larvae undergo five instars before pupation takes place in the soil. Adult females produce and average of 131 eggs (SD = 62, N = 45). Adult females have an average wingspan of 23.4 mm (+-1.23 mm, N = 31) while males have a wingspan of 24.3 mm (+-1.3 mm, N = 55).

  13. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-12-31

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher.

  14. Central Hyperadrenergic State After Lightning Strike

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay K.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H.; Seime, Richard J.; Craft, Jennifer M.; Staab, Jeffrey P.; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Methods Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. Results A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. Interpretation The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation were highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the CNS or a secondary response is open to speculation. PMID:23761114

  15. Cultural Norms in Conflict: Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Immigrants in Rural Washington State.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Sarah; Thompson, Beti; Escareño, Monica; Duggan, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards breastfeeding among Hispanic women living in rural Washington State. Methods Twenty parous Hispanic women of low acculturation, aged 25-48 years and residents in rural Washington State participated in an exploratory, face-to-face interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Nine emergent themes were grouped into three overarching categories: (1) Breast is best; (2) Hispanic cultural and familial expectations to breastfeed; and (3) Adapting to life in the United States: cultural norms in conflict. Women said they were motivated to breastfeed because of their knowledge and observations of its health benefits for mother and child. They said breastfeeding is ingrained in their Hispanic cultural heritage, and infant feeding choices of female family members were particularly influential in women's own decision to breastfeed. Women said they experienced embarrassment about breastfeeding in the United States and as a result, often chose to initiate formula feeding as a complement so as to avoid feelings of shame. Additionally, they faced economic pressure to work, key barriers for continued breastfeeding among Hispanics in the United States. Conclusions for Practice Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child and longstanding cultural practices of breastfeeding are not enough to encourage exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among this rural Hispanic population. Continued support through family-level interventions as well as work place policies that encourage breastfeeding are needed for rural Hispanics to reach optimal breastfeeding rates. PMID:27021068

  16. 77 FR 46117 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...; Port Gamble Indian Community of the Port Gamble Reservation, Washington; Puyallup Tribe of the Puyallup... Idaho); Nooksack Indian Tribe of Washington; Port Gamble Indian Community of the Port Gamble...

  17. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. 

  18. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout.

    PubMed

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-06-13

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. PMID:23759556

  19. Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Hardy, F Joan

    2015-04-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  20. 76 FR 58034 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ..., University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... of Washington, Box 353010, Seattle, WA 98195-3010, telephone (206) 685-3849. SUPPLEMENTARY... funerary objects in the possession of the Burke Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. The...

  1. 76 FR 58033 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ..., University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Lape, Burke Museum, University of Washington, Box 353010, Seattle, WA 98195-3010, telephone (206) 685... in the possession of the Burke Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. The human remains...

  2. Improving the quality of workers' compensation health care delivery: the Washington State Occupational Health Services Project.

    PubMed

    Wickizer, T M; Franklin, G; Plaeger-Brockway, R; Mootz, R D

    2001-01-01

    This article has summarized research and policy activities undertaken in Washington State over the past several years to identify the key problems that result in poor quality and excessive disability among injured workers, and the types of system and delivery changes that could best address these problems in order to improve the quality of occupational health care provided through the workers' compensation system. Our investigations have consistently pointed to the lack of coordination and integration of occupational health services as having major adverse effects on quality and health outcomes for workers' compensation. The Managed Care Pilot Project, a delivery system intervention, focused on making changes in how care is organized and delivered to injured workers. That project demonstrated robust improvements in disability reduction; however, worker satisfaction suffered. Our current quality improvement initiative, developed through the Occupational Health Services Project, synthesizes what was learned from the MCP and other pilot studies to make delivery system improvements. This initiative seeks to develop provider incentives and clinical management processes that will improve outcomes and reduce the burden of disability on injured workers. Fundamental to this approach are simultaneously preserving workers' right to choose their own physician and maintaining flexibility in the provision of individualized care based on clinical need and progress. The OHS project then will be a "real world" test to determine if aligning provider incentives and giving physicians the tools they need to optimize occupational health delivery can demonstrate sustainable reduction in disability and improvements in patient and employer satisfaction. Critical to the success of this initiative will be our ability to: (1) enhance the occupational health care management skills and expertise of physicians who treat injured workers by establishing community-based Centers of Occupational

  3. Geologic map of the Simcoe Mountains Volcanic Field, Main Central Segment, Yakama Nation, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Lava compositions other than various types of basalt are uncommon here. Andesite is abundant on and around Mount Adams but is very rare east of the Klickitat River. The only important nonbasaltic composition in the map area is rhyolite, which crops out in several patches around the central highland of the volcanic field, mainly in the upper canyons of Satus and Kusshi Creeks and Wilson Charley canyon. Because the rhyolites were some of the earliest lavas erupted here, they are widely concealed by later basalts and therefore crop out only in local windows eroded by canyons that cut through the overlying basalts.

  4. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Hardy, F. Joan

    2015-01-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  5. Determinants of Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibition Among Agricultural Pesticide Handlers in Washington State: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Krenz, Jennifer E.; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Smith, Theresa R.; Cunningham, Rad N.; Fenske, Richard A.; Simpson, Christopher D.; Keifer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides are used widely in agriculture to manage insect pests of economic importance. Agricultural workers are more likely to suffer exposure because of the widespread use of OP/CBs in agriculture, and pesticide-related illnesses among handlers may be more severe when compared to other farm workers. The goal of this study was to identify occupational and personal characteristics associated with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition in participants recruited from the Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program from 2006 to 2011. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study among agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State during the OP/CB spray season (March–July) over a 6-year period (2006–2011). Linear mixed effects regression models were used to evaluate BuChE inhibition in relation to self-reported occupational and personal characteristics. Results: Relative to pre-season baseline levels, the mean decrease in BuChE activity during the OP/CB spray season over all years of the study period was 3.77% (P < 0.001). Greater BuChE inhibition was observed among handlers who reported using multiple OP/CBs (β = −2.70, P = 0.045), mixed or loaded OP/CBs (β = −3.97, P = 0.002), did not store personal protective equipment (PPE) in a locker at work (β = −3.4, P = 0.014), or did not wear chemical-resistant boots (β = −16.6, P < 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions: The Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program has provided a valuable opportunity to evaluate potential sources of OP/CB exposure among agricultural pesticide handlers. Several previously reported associations were confirmed in the current analysis, which included a larger number of pesticide handlers enrolled over a longer time period. The use of multiple OP/CBs and mixing/loading activities were significant risk factors, and the use of chemical-resistant boots and lockers for PPE storage were protective factors

  6. Distribution of asthma by occupation: Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data, 2006–2009

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zihong Joyce; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Bonauto, David K.; Rauser, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Objective Objective: To estimate the prevalence of asthma in workers by occupation in Washington State. Methods: Data from the 2006–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the BRFSS Asthma Call-Back Survey (ACBS) in Washington State (WA) were analyzed. Using state-added and coded Industry and Occupation questions, we calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) for 19 occupational groups. Results: Of the 41 935 respondents who were currently employed during 2006–2009, the prevalence of current asthma was 8.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8–8.5%] When compared with the reference group of executive, administration and managerial occupations, three occupational groups had significantly (p < 0.05) higher PRs of current asthma: “Teachers, all levels, and Counselors’ (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1. 6%); ‘Administrative Support, including Clerical” (PR 1. 5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9%); and “Other Health Services” (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9). Half of the 2511 ACBS respondent workers (55.1%) indicated that they believed exposure at work had caused or worsened their asthma, but only 10.7% had ever spoken with a health care professional about their asthma being work related. Conclusions: Some occupations have a higher prevalence of current asthma than other occupations. The systematic collection of industry and occupation data can help identify worker populations with a high burden of asthma and can be used to target disease prevention efforts as well as to aid clinician recognition and treatment. Workers indicated that work-related asthma exposures are not discussed with their health care provider and this communication gap has implications for asthma management. PMID:24995660

  7. Hospital charges to injured drinking drivers in Washington State: 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    Mueller, B A; Kenaston, T; Grossman, D; Salzberg, P

    1998-09-01

    The Washington State Patrol Crash Database and computerized hospitalization records for 1989-1993 were used to determine total hospital charges billed for motor vehicle collision injuries to drivers whose crash reports contained any indication of alcohol use. In this population-based study, total hospital charges were summed, and mean charges and lengths of stay were computed within alcohol use and insurance coverage status categories in an attempt to evaluate the hospital charges billed to public funding and private insurance. Of the total hospital charges for drivers with injuries from motor vehicle collisions for which a police-reported indicator of alcohol use status was available, 43% (U.S.$64.8 million) were for drivers who reportedly had been drinking. At the time of discharge, Medicaid was identified as the payor for 47% of these hospitalizations. The mean hospital charge billed per collision was greater for drinking (U.S.$18,258) than nondrinking drivers (U.S.$14,181). Drinking drivers also had longer hospital stays, even after adjustment for patient age, gender and injury severity. During this time in Washington state, the average annual amount billed at discharge for initial inpatient care of injuries to drivers who reportedly had been drinking at the time of the motor vehicle collision was U.S.$13 million. This includes only the amount assessed by the hospital at the time of discharge for treatment of the initial injury and does not include other related medical charges for rehabilitation or outpatient care, or for doctors' or laboratory fees. As increasing pressures of managed and capitated care lead to a shift of financial risk from the federal government and insurers to states and providers, the financial burden of specific, potentially preventable conditions such as this will receive greater attention. PMID:9678213

  8. Long-Billed Curlew Breeding Success on Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges, South-Central Washington and North-Central Oregon, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stocking, Jessica; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Holcomb, Neil; Haig, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus) reproductive success was evaluated on the Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges of south-central Washington and north-central Oregon during the 2007 and 2008 breeding seasons. Additionally, we assisted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in collecting information on distribution, abundance, and brood habitat for this shorebird species of conservation concern. A total of 32 breeding pairs were located on the refuges in 2007 and 35 pairs were located in 2008. We monitored 17 nests in 2007 and 23 nests in 2008. Curlew pairs were most abundant on Hanford Reach National Monument in 2007 but more nests were located on Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge in both years, with Columbia National Wildlife Refuge supporting few pairs. Nest success was 23.6 percent in 2007 and 32.9 percent in 2008 after taking into account exposure time and combining data for all the refuges. We were unable to detect any relationship between nest success and habitat type or habitat variables measured. However, our study was the first to document use of agricultural fields on the refuge as curlew nest habitat. We collected 39 and 28 brood locations in 2007 and 2008, respectively, and many observations were likely resightings of the same brood. Broods used a similar variety of habitats as nesting curlew and no clear habitat use pattern was detected.

  9. How I-BEST Works: Findings from a Field Study of Washington State's Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachen, John; Jenkins, Davis; Van Noy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) is an innovative program and strategy developed by the Washington (WA) State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC) in conjunction with the state's 29 community colleges and five technical colleges. Its goal is to increase the rate at which adult basic education and…

  10. Community and Technical College Foundations: The Results of a Survey of Washington State's Community and Technical College Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Henry P., Ed.

    In 1992, all 32 state community and technical colleges in Washington State were contacted to obtain information on the characteristics and activities of the non-profit foundations which have been, or are being, established at each institution. Selected findings include the following: (1) a total of 25 foundations were established between 1963 and…

  11. Children's Access to Health Insurance and Health Status in Washington State: Influential Factors. Research Brief. Publication #2009-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gregory; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Terzian, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Health insurance, and especially coverage for children, has been a subject of recent political debate in Washington State, as well as on the national stage. Policy makers and health care providers can use high-quality state-level data to assess which children lack health insurance and devise possible solutions to address this need. Illustrating…

  12. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 7, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The States of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, which total 248,730 square miles, compose Segment 7 of this Atlas. The area is geologically and topographically diverse and contains a wealth of scenic beauty, natural resources, and ground and surface water that generally are suitable for all uses. Most of the area of Segment 7 is drained by the Columbia River, its tributaries, and other streams that discharge to the Pacific Ocean. Exceptions are those streams that flow to closed basins in southeastern Oregon and northern Nevada and to the Great Salt Lake in northern Utah. The Columbia River is one of the largest rivers in the Nation. The downstream reach of the Columbia River forms most of the border between Oregon and Washington. In 1990, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington had populations of 1.0 million, 2.8 million, and 4.9 million, respectively. The more densely populated parts are in lowland areas and stream valleys. Many of the mountains, the deserts, and the upland areas of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington lack major population centers. Large areas of Idaho and Oregon are uninhabited and are mostly public land (fig. 1) where extensive ground-water development is restricted. Surface water is abundant in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, though not always available when and where needed. In some places, surface water provides much of the water used for public-supply, domestic and commercial, agricultural (primarily irrigation and livestock watering), and industrial purposes. In arid parts of Segment 7, however, surface water has long been fully appropriated, chiefly for irrigation. Ground water is used when and where surface-water supplies are lacking. Ground water is commonly available to shallow wells that are completed in unconsolidated-deposit aquifers that consist primarily of sand and gravel but contain variable quantities of clay and silt. Many large-yield public-supply and irrigation wells and thousands of domestic wells are completed in these types of aquifers

  13. Receiver function studies in the southwestern United States and correlation between stratigraphy and Poisson's ratio, southwestern Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilbride, Fiona Elizabeth Anne

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation consists of two separate lines of research. The first uses the receiver function technique to estimate crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio for three receiver stations in the southwestern United States. One station is located in El Paso because relatively few geophysical experiments have been conducted in the southern Rio Grande rift. Two stations are located on the Colorado Plateau, in an attempt to resolve an ongoing dispute concerning the crustal thickness of this province. The results of the receiver functions studies are used as additional constraints for gravity models along two regional profiles coincident with the much shorter profiles of the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE) that was led by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Colorado Plateau. Because the profiles extend into adjacent provinces, these models are balanced for isostatic equilibrium and are consistent with elevations predicted by buoyancy calculations. The results are most consistent with a thick (≈50 km) crust for the Colorado Plateau and do not support the presence of large lateral thickness variations within the plateau. The second line of research presented also derives Poisson's ratio, in this case from seismic refraction data. The results are used to interpret a structural cross-section in southwest Washington State and to shed light on a feature of low resistivity (1--5 Om) located in the High Cascades (the Southern Washington Cascades Conductor or SWCC). This feature is delineated by the interpretation of magnetotelluric and seismic reflection profiles and has been interpreted to be largely composed of Lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks. Both lines of research estimate Poisson's ratio using dissimilar techniques, but have produced results consistent with one another. Poisson's ratio for quartz-rich rocks (such as sandstones and granites) generally lies between 0.23 and 0.26, as exemplified by the upper crust of the Rio Grande rift, and by sedimentary

  14. Three-Dimensional Groundwater Models of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Chen, Yousu

    2008-09-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed field-scale groundwater flow and transport simulations of the 300 Area to support the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Phase III Feasibility Study. The 300 Area is located in the southeast portion of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. Historical operations involving uranium fuel fabrication and research activities at the 300 Area have contaminated engineered liquid-waste disposal facilities, the underlying vadose zone, and the uppermost aquifer with uranium. The main objectives of this research were to develop numerical groundwater flow and transport models to help refine the site conceptual model, and to assist assessment of proposed alternative remediation technologies focused on the 300 Area uranium plume.

  15. Rapid deterioration of sediment surface habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, as indicated by benthic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Elizabeth A; Martin, Ruth A; Martin, David E; Apple, Jude

    2015-08-15

    Foraminiferal assemblages in sediment grab samples were utilized to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic activities on benthic habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, U.S.A. Seventy-three samples taken in 1987, 1997, 2006 and 2010 yielded 35 species of foraminifera from 28 genera. Assemblage composition and diversity data indicate a marked deterioration between 1987 and 2010, contrary to the published Chemical Index, but analogous to the situation with macrobiota. Correlation of diversity with chemical pollutants and metals did not identify any significant correlations, however, an unrelated but highly relevant study of bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH in Bellingham Bay suggests eutrophication with accompanying hypoxia and acidification may be part of the cause. Thus, the metrics of contamination alone do not adequately characterize habitat viability, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages provide insight into the health of coastal ecosystems. PMID:26059642

  16. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted. PMID:26292206

  17. Working conditions in home care: a survey of Washington state's home care workers.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, R; Gibson, J W; Weatherley, R A

    1994-01-01

    Home care services make it possible for millions of older Americans to continue living in the community. Such services may enhance the recipients' quality of life while providing essential respite to family caregivers. But while there has been increasing recognition of the burden borne by the predominantly female family caregivers, there has been less attention to the plight of the home care workforce. With the growth of the home care industry, the burden of care has to some extent shifted from one category of female caregivers to another. This paper, based on a survey of 16 agencies and 1,900 workers, examines the employment conditions of home care workers in Washington state. The study reveals a pattern of harsh working conditions, low wages, and few benefits. The findings raise questions about the ethics and efficacy of government policies that are based on the exploitation of home care workers. PMID:10134029

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of the Pertussis Epidemic in Washington State in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Katherine E.; Williams, Margaret M.; Cassiday, Pamela K.; Milton, Andrea; Pawloski, Lucia; Harrison, Marsenia; Martin, Stacey W.; Meyer, Sarah; Qin, Xuan; DeBolt, Chas; Tasslimi, Azadeh; Syed, Nusrat; Sorrell, Ronald; Tran, Mike; Hiatt, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Although pertussis disease is vaccine preventable, Washington State experienced a substantial rise in pertussis incidence beginning in 2011. By June 2012, the reported cases reached 2,520 (37.5 cases per 100,000 residents), a 1,300% increase compared with the same period in 2011. We assessed the molecular epidemiology of this statewide epidemic using 240 isolates collected from case patients reported from 19 of 39 Washington counties during 2012 to 2013. The typing methods included pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pertactin gene (prn) mutational analysis. Using the scheme PFGE-MLVA-MLST-prn mutations-Prn deficiency, the 240 isolates comprised 65 distinct typing profiles. Thirty-one PFGE types were found, with the most common types, CDC013 (n = 51), CDC237 (n = 44), and CDC002 (n = 42), accounting for 57% of them. Eleven MLVA types were observed, mainly comprising type 27 (n = 183, 76%). Seven MLST types were identified, with the majority of the isolates typing as prn2-ptxP3-ptxA1-fim3-1 (n = 157, 65%). Four different prn mutations accounted for the 76% of isolates exhibiting pertactin deficiency. PFGE provided the highest discriminatory power (D = 0.87) and was found to be a more powerful typing method than MLVA and MLST combined (D = 0.67). This study provides evidence for the continued predominance of MLVA 27 and prn2-ptxP3-ptxA1 alleles, along with the reemergence of the fim3-1 allele. Our results indicate that the Bordetella pertussis population causing this epidemic was diverse, with a few molecular types predominating. The PFGE, MLVA, and MLST profiles were consistent with the predominate types circulating in the United States and other countries. For prn, several mutations were present in multiple molecular types. PMID:25031439

  19. Laser Altimeter Evaluation of an SRTM DEM for Western Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Harding, D. J.

    2002-05-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and laser altimeter measurements of topography provide complimentary approaches to characterize landforms. Results from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will provide an unprecedented, near-global, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at 30 m resolution using a single pass C-band (5.6 cm wavelength) radar interferometer. In vegetated terrains, the C-band radar energy penetrates part way into vegetation cover. The elevation of the resulting radar phase center, somewhere between the canopy top and underlying ground, depends on the vegetation height, density, structure, and presence or absence of foliage. The high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution achieved by laser altimeters, and their capability to directly measure the vertical distribution of vegetation and underlying ground topography, provides a method to evaluate InSAR representations of topography. In order to provide an independent assessment of SRTM DEM accuracy and error characteristics, a simple but rigorous methodology based on comparisons to airborne and satellite laser altimeter profiles has been developed and tested. Initially, an SRTM DEM produced for a large part of western Washington State by the JPL PI processor has been compared to Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA) and airborne Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery (SLICER) data. The accuracy of the laser altimeter data sets has been previously characterized. For SLICER profiles, each about 40 km long, the mean and standard deviation of elevation differences between the SRTM DEM and SLICER-defined canopy top and ground are computed. The SRTM DEM is usually located between the canopy top and ground. A poor correlation is observed between the per-pixel error estimate provided with the SRTM DEM and the observed SLICER to SRTM elevation differences. In addition to these profile comparisons, a very high resolution DEM acquired by Terrapoint, LLC for the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium

  20. Estimating the Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna M.

    2008-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to relate anthropogenic (manmade) and natural variables to the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water in Washington State. Variables that were analyzed included well depth, ground-water recharge rate, precipitation, population density, fertilizer application amounts, soil characteristics, hydrogeomorphic regions, and land-use types. Two models were developed: one with and one without the hydrogeomorphic regions variable. The variables in both models that best explained the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations (defined as concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen greater than 2 milligrams per liter) were the percentage of agricultural land use in a 4-kilometer radius of a well, population density, precipitation, soil drainage class, and well depth. Based on the relations between these variables and measured nitrate concentrations, logistic regression models were developed to estimate the probability of nitrate concentrations in ground water exceeding 2 milligrams per liter. Maps of Washington State were produced that illustrate these estimated probabilities for wells drilled to 145 feet below land surface (median well depth) and the estimated depth to which wells would need to be drilled to have a 90-percent probability of drawing water with a nitrate concentration less than 2 milligrams per liter. Maps showing the estimated probability of elevated nitrate concentrations indicated that the agricultural regions are most at risk followed by urban areas. The estimated depths to which wells would need to be drilled to have a 90-percent probability of obtaining water with nitrate concentrations less than 2 milligrams per liter exceeded 1,000 feet in the agricultural regions; whereas, wells in urban areas generally would need to be drilled to depths in excess of 400 feet.

  1. Magnetostratigraphy, paleomagnetic correlation, and deformation of Pleistocene deposits in the south central Puget Lowland, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy G.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2002-04-01

    Paleomagnetic results from Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the central Puget Lowland indicate that the region has experienced widespread deformation within the last 780 kyr. Three oriented samples were collected from unaltered fine-grained sediments mostly at sea level to determine the magnetostratigraphy at 83 sites. Of these, 47 have normal, 18 have reversed, and 18 have transitional (8 localities) polarities. Records of reversed- to normal-polarity transitions of the geomagnetic field were found in thick sections of silt near the eastern end of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, and again at Wingehaven Park near the northern tip of Vashon Island. The transitional horizons, probably related to the Bruhnes-Matuyama reversal, apparently fall between previously dated Pleistocene sediments at the Puyallup Valley type section (all reversed-polarity) to the south and the Whidbey Island type section (all normal-polarity) to the north. The samples, in general, are of sufficient quality to record paleosecular variation (PSV) of the geomagnetic field, and a statistical technique is used to correlate horizons with significant agreement in their paleomagnetic directions. Our data are consistent with the broad structures of the Seattle uplift inferred at depth from seismic reflection, gravity, and aeromagnetic profiles, but the magnitude of vertical adjustments is greatly subdued in the Pleistocene deposits.

  2. Access and Diversity in the Running Start Program: A Comparison of Washington's Running Start Program to Other State Level Dual Enrollment Programs Hosted on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990, high school students in Washington have had the choice of earning college credit through the Running Start program. Running start is a dual enrollment and dual credit program that allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college courses at any of Washington's 34 community and technical colleges, Central Washington…

  3. Increasing Information Technology Program Capacity in the Community and Technical College System: Recommendations and Strategies for Closing the Information Technology Skills Gap in Washington State. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardcastle, Alan

    This report offers an economic overview of Washington's information technology (IT) industry, stating that between 1990 and 1997 the state added 36,000 IT jobs and moved the state from 21st to 16th nationally in high-tech employment rankings. Washington also took the lead in high technology salaries, with an average wage of $81,000 in 1997.…

  4. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  5. Washington Latest to Consolidate Early-Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Hoping to break down bureaucracy, use tax dollars more efficiently, and provide a central resource for parents, Washington state has created a new agency to oversee a variety of programs that serve its young children. The Washington Department of Early Learning pulls together more than a dozen services, including child-care licensing, a…

  6. Results of the 1988 geothermal gradient test drilling project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Korosec, M.A.

    1989-05-01

    During late summer and early fall of 1988, the Washington Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DGER) completed drilling eight shallow geothermal gradient test wells in the southern Washington Cascade Range. This report describes the preliminary results of the 1988 drilling and gradient measuring, and summarizes our current perspectives on distribution and magnitude of the geothermal resource potential in the southern Washington Cascades. 18 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Regional Mapping of Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central Puget Sound Region, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, S. P.; Perkins, W. J.

    2005-12-01

    In the late 1980's we began development of a series of regional liquefaction susceptibility maps covering the urban areas of the central Puget Sound region, including the cities of Seattle and Tacoma. In producing these maps we used a standardized approach that utilizes 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping and analyses of geotechnical boring data and allows direct comparison of the liquefaction susceptibility assessments depicted on each map. The geologic units in a study area were grouped based on their geological and engineering characteristics, and a suite of geotechnical borings was compiled for each geologic grouping. A standard engineering analysis was used to calculate factors-of-safety from standard penetration test N-values, sample descriptions, grain-size analyses, and ground-water depths obtained from the compiled geotechnical borings. Liquefaction factors-of-safety were calculated for two magnitude 7.3 earthquake scenarios, one having a 0.15 g peak ground acceleration (PGA), and the other a 0.30 g PGA. The choice of earthquake scenarios is consistent with an intraplate earthquake similar to the 1949 Olympia and 2001 Nisqually events in the Puget Sound region. Using these factor-of-safety calculations we determined the aggregated total thicknesses of liquefiable material for each boring in a geologic grouping, and normalized these data by expressing the aggregated thicknesses as a percentage of the total penetrated thickness. A series of histograms, one for each earthquake scenario, were used to present the distribution of aggregate liquefiable thicknesses and to assign a liquefaction susceptibility to each geologic grouping. We have calibrated our analyses of liquefaction susceptibility using the liquefaction response observed during the Nisqually earthquake. We developed histograms for each geologic grouping using measured PGA's from this event and the geotechnical boring datasets compiled in the production of the previously published liquefaction

  8. Hydrogeochemical and mathematical analyses of aquifer intercommunication, Hanford Site, Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Hanford Site in south-central Washington has served as an integrated nuclear facility since the early 1940s. Pleistocene postglacial flood waters and the ancestral Columbia River flowed through the center of the Hanford Site, carving erosional windows in the geologic unit that separates the two aquifers, thereby creating pathways for the migration to occur. A two fold research approach was applied to studying the problem: mathematical analyses of ground-water flow dynamics, and hydrogeochemical analyses of the ground waters. Data from tracer tests and water-level measurements in wells were used to define the ground-water flow system of the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer. The hydrogeochemical data support the conceptual model of ground-water flow within the Rattlesnake aquifer. Interpretations of the various hydrogeochemical data indicate the same general pattern of mixing of unconfirmed aquifer waters in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer, resulting from aquifer intercommunication. Low levels (below drinking water standards) of tritium and iodine-129 in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer were identified in this mixing area. By applying a two-fold approach to the problem, a defensible conceptual model of ground-water flow and aquifer intercommunication within the study area was developed.

  9. Determination of Urinary Creatinine in Washington State Residents via Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    West, Caroline E; Rhodes, Blaine N

    2014-01-01

    A viable, quick, and reliable method for determining urinary creatinine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and used to evaluate spot urine samples collected for the Washington Environmental Biomonitoring Survey (WEBS): part of the Washington State Department of Health, Public Health Laboratories (PHL). 50 µL of urine was mixed with a 1 : 1 acetonitrile/water solution containing deuterated creatinine as the internal standard and then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode, the transition ions for creatinine and creatinine-d3 were determined to be 114.0 to 44.1 (quantifier), 114.0 to 86.1 (qualifier), and 117.0 to 47.1 (creatinine-d3). The retention time for creatinine was 0.85 minutes. The linear calibration range was 20-4000 mg/L, with a limit of detection at 1.77 mg/L and a limit of quantitation at 5.91 mg/L. LC/MS/MS and the colorimetric Jaffé reaction were associated significantly (Pearson r = 0.9898 and R (2) = 0.9797, ρ ≤ 0.0001). The LC/MS/MS method developed at the PHL to determine creatinine in the spot urine samples had shorter retention times, and was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, and safer than other LC/MS/MS or commercial methods such as the Jaffé reaction or modified versions thereof. PMID:25614740

  10. New insights into the origin of late Neogene sediments in the Umatilla Basin, north-central Oregon and south-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, K.A. ); Tolan, T.L. . Dept. of Geology); Reidel, S.P. )

    1993-04-01

    The study of late Miocene-aged terrigenous clastic sediments in the Umatilla Basin of north-central Oregon and adjacent Klickitat Valley of southern Washington reveal important, previously unrecognized stratigraphic and lithologic trends. These sediments, comprising the upper Ellensburg and the Alkali Canyon Formations (14 to 8.5 Ma) previously have been characterized as basaltic gravels deposited in localized alluvial fans and minor air fall tuffs produced by Cascade volcanism. A minor extrabasinal (exotic) component to these sediments has been noted in some previous studies. The authors' data challenges these interpretations. Pebble counts reveal a variety of exotic clast types, including metavolcanics, laminated metasediments, quartzites, and intermediate to silicic volcanics. This assemblage of lithologies is different than those that characterize the ancestral Columbia and Salmon-Clearwater Rivers. Sedimentologic trends suggest fluvial rather than alluvial fan deposition dominated. They interpret that a major fluvial system flowed from SE to NW across the western third of the Umatilla Basin. This river exited the Umatilla Basin via the Rock Creek water gap in the Columbia Hills, flowed across the Klickitat Valley and the Horse Heaven Hills, and then intersected the ancestral Columbia River. The abundance and stratigraphic distribution of exotic clast types suggests that this river drained terranes south and east of the Blue Mountains and persisted for a significant period of time, from approximately 14.5 to 8.5 Ma.

  11. Supporting Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in General Education Classrooms: A Washington State Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndsen, Maura; Luckner, John

    2012-01-01

    The majority of students who are deaf or hard of hearing currently receive educational services in general education settings. Trends that have led to this shift in placement as well as potential benefits and barriers are presented. A unique partnership between the Washington State Center for Childhood Deafness and Hearing Loss (formerly the…

  12. CRT Coordinator's Operational Manual. A Vocational Education Strategy for Washington State's Small/Rural/Isolated High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blue, James L.; Riggs, Walter A.

    Designed to provide information for local school district personnel in the state of Washington, this Community Resource Trainer (CRT) manual is the product of those school district administrators and coordinators who piloted the CRT Program in three small, rurally isolated high schools between the 1972-73 and 1973-74 school years. Illustrating the…

  13. The Johnson O'Malley Program in the Public Schools of Washington State: Recent Directions in Indian Curricular Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landon, Craig Louis

    Utilizing data from 31 applications for financial assistance from Johnson-O'Malley (JOM) Indian Education Fund for the 1980-81 school year, the study examined the influence of Indian Parent Advisory Committees (PACs) over school curricula and activities supported by JOM funds in Washington State. Applications were surveyed for information relating…

  14. Constructing Relationships between Science and Practice in the Written Science Communication of the Washington State Wine Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Erika Amethyst

    2016-01-01

    Even as deficit model science communication falls out of favor, few studies question how written science communication constructs relationships between science and industry. Here, I investigate how textual microprocesses relate scientific research to industry practice in the Washington State wine industry, helping (or hindering) winemakers and…

  15. 78 FR 46494 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...This rule invites comments on changes to handler reporting and grower diversion requirements prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin (order). The Cherry Industry Administrative Board (Board) locally administers the order. This rule changes the deadline for submitting the handler......

  16. Educating Children with Special Needs in the State of Washington: A Synthesis of Recent Studies. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Roy M.

    The report synthesizes findings of seven studies on educational processes and outcomes of students with special needs in the State of Washington. Studies include a statewide assessment, statewide teacher survey, analysis of participation in categorical programs, evaluation of individual categorical programs, an investigation of an innovative…

  17. Coordination of Instructional Services by Washington State's Educational Service Districts. REL 2015-041

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Mark; Speth, Timothy; Akey, Terri; Krasnoff, Basha; Barton, Rhonda; Singh, Malkeet; Scott, Caitlin; Fantz, Traci

    2014-01-01

    This REL Northwest study looked at the funding, delivery, and coordination of instructional services offered by Washington state's network of nine Educational Service Districts (ESDs). REL Northwest examined 13 statewide teaching and learning support areas, including the percentages of districts served, the funding for each service, and ESD…

  18. The Way We See It: A Survey of Teacher Evaluation Policies and Practices Operant in the State of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James J., Comp.; Parsley, James F., Jr., Comp.

    This paper assesses teacher evaluation policies and practices operant in First Class School Districts in the state of Washington. The data, submitted from mailed questionnaires, deal with a district's assessment policy and specifically include concerns relating to evaluative personnel, procedures, and an evaluative instrument or model.…

  19. First report of zebra chip disease and Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum on potatoes in Oregon and Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August of 2011, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers grown in the lower Columbia Basin of southern Washington State and northern Oregon were observed with internal discolorations suggestive of the zebra chip disease (ZC). Symptoms included brown spots, streaks, and stripes in and near the vascular ...

  20. Integrating Basic Skills and Career-Technical Instruction: Findings from a Field Study of Washington State's I-BEST Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachen, John; Jenkins, Davis; Van Noy, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The federal government and private foundations for education have established postsecondary credential completion as a national imperative. Washington State's Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) model was developed to increase the rate at which basic skills students advance to and succeed in college-level occupational programs,…

  1. Analysis of Body Measurements and Wing Shape to Discriminate Rhagoletis pomonella and Rhagoletis zephyria (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington state.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is a quarantine pest of apple in Washington state, and is morphologically almost indistinguishable from the snowberry maggot fly, R. zephyria Snow, which does not attack apples. Current methods used to distinguish R. pomonella from R. zephyria, such a...

  2. The Development and Implementation of an Integrated Career Education and Placement Program For the Washington State System of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marble, James E.; And Others

    The community colleges in the state of Washington are committed to a Six Year Plan to provide computing and information systems support to all students. The system is intended to make available a broad range of career placement information to assist decision-making, thereby humanizing education by insuring fewer misguided students, counselors and…

  3. Oral History Index. Washington State Oral/Aural History Program, 1974-1977 [And] Oral History Microfiche Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rune, Ann, Comp.

    This is the index to and transcripts of interviews from the Washington State Oral/Aural History Program. The intention of the program was to pay tribute to the national Bicentennial by celebrating the life and community histories of 'common' men, women, and ethnic minorities. The transcripts are available on 297 microfiche. Immigrants, migrants,…

  4. Washington State Even Start 1993-1994: Final Evaluation. A Report to the Office of Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglitzin, Lynne; Wandschneider, Mary

    All 18 Washington State Even Start sites participated in the program's evaluation. Site coordinators administered the assessment and evaluation measures to the adults served by the program and to teachers working with children at both entry and exit from the program. An indepth study was conducted of 134 families for whom there were complete sets…

  5. Phase IV: Educational Needs Assessment For Washington State Students. March 1973. (Summary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillet, Frank B.

    The results of the Washington Elementary Educational Assessment Project (WEEAP) are presented in this report. The purposes of the Assessment project were (1) to assess the reading and mathematics achievement in Washington elementary schools by sampling fourth and sixth grade students in randomly selected school buildings; (2) to identify…

  6. 76 FR 9051 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Completion published in the Federal Register (75 FR 14463, March 25, 2010). Since the time of publication, an..., Olympia, WA and University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY..., WA, and in the physical custody of the University of Washington, Department of Anthropology,...

  7. 76 FR 48177 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Completion (75 FR 14463, March 25, 2010; 76 FR 9051-9052, February 16, 2011). Those individuals have been..., Olympia, WA, and University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park... University of Washington, Department of Anthropology have completed an inventory of human remains and...

  8. 76 FR 76299 - Higher Volume Port Area-State of Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... and within a 50-mile arc measured from Cape Flattery, Washington, to the HVPA. Higher volume port... the HVPA, currently a 50-mile arc centered on the entrance to Port Angeles, Washington, westward to....S. jurisdiction and within a 50-mile arc measured from Cape Flattery to the Strait of Juan de...

  9. Washington State Superintendents and K-12 Online Learning: Leadership Perceptions, Challenges, & Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Glenn E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the perceptions, interpretations, and reactions of K-12 superintendents in Washington in response to the rapid growth of K-12 online learning. A survey instrument with 43 Likert-type items and five open-ended items was sent electronically to all superintendents in Washington during the 2010-11…

  10. The 1985 Geothermal Gradient Drilling Project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, B.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes seven geothermal gradient test holes in the southern Washington Cascade Mountains. The objectives of the drilling program were to: (1) more accurately define the general extent of potential geothermal resources in the southern Washington Cascades, and (2) evaluate specific targets that are geologically and structurally favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources. (ACR)

  11. Longitudinal Effects of School Drug Policies on Student Marijuana Use in Washington State and Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie M.; Catalano, Richard F.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the longitudinal effect of schools’ drug policies on student marijuana use. Methods. We used data from the International Youth Development Study, which surveyed state-representative samples of students from Victoria, Australia, and Washington State. In wave 1 (2002), students in grades 7 and 9 (n = 3264) and a school administrator from each participating school (n = 188) reported on school drug policies. In wave 2 (2003), students reported on their marijuana use. We assessed associations between student-reported and administrator-reported policy and student self-reported marijuana use 1 year later. Results. Likelihood of student marijuana use was higher in schools in which administrators reported using out-of-school suspension and students reported low policy enforcement. Student marijuana use was less likely where students reported receiving abstinence messages at school and students violating school policy were counseled about the dangers of marijuana use. Conclusions. Schools may reduce student marijuana use by delivering abstinence messages, enforcing nonuse policies, and adopting a remedial approach to policy violations rather than use of suspensions. PMID:25790384

  12. Weeds of the Midwestern United States and Central Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book, Weeds of the Central United States and Canada, includes 356 of the most common and/or troublesome weeds of agricultural and natural areas found within the central region of the United States and Canada. The books includes an introduction, a key to plant families contained in the book, glo...

  13. Opioid Prescribing Laws and Emergency Department Guidelines for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Skaer, Tracy L; Nwude, Azuka C

    2016-06-01

    Rising mortality rates, increased opioid prescription abuse, and a perceived need to provide practitioners with structured guidance in opioid prescribing have prompted the Washington State Legislature to establish new legal standards of practice regarding chronic non-cancer pain management. Clinicians are required to conduct a detailed physical examination and health history prior to treatment. Risk assessments for abuse and detailed periodic reviews of treatment are required at least every 6 months. Those considered "high risk" or who have significant psychiatric comorbidities will be required to sign and follow a written agreement or pain contract, obtain their pain prescriptions from a single provider, and submit to biological drug screening. Unless an exemption exists, patients prescribed > 120 mg of morphine-equivalents daily, considered severe pain nonresponders, necessitating dosage escalation, diagnosed with multifaceted mental health-related comorbidities, demonstrating diagnostic ambiguity, and/or requiring significant treatment individualization are referred to a pain specialist. Episodic care settings should refrain from supplying opioids to chronic pain patients whenever possible. The ER is for Emergencies coalition instituted the Seven Best Practices program throughout the state to reduce unnecessary visits, coordinate prescribing practice, reduce Medicaid expenditures, and improve overall patient care. The state reported approximately $33.65 million in savings in 2013 through the use of these practices and converting Medicaid participants from fee-for-service to managed care plans. Similar legislation to complement clinical practice guidelines is expected to be enacted in other states. It is vital that practitioners comprehend the new guidelines and make appropriate adjustments in their opioid prescribing habits. PMID:26369588

  14. Preservice Teachers' Adaptations to Tensions Associated with the edTPA during Its Early Implementation in New York and Washington States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuwissen, Kevin W.; Choppin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The edTPA is a teaching performance assessment (TPA) that the states of New York and Washington implemented as a licensure requirement in 2013. While TPAs are not new modes of assessment, New York and Washington are the first states to use the edTPA specifically as a compulsory, high-stakes policy lever in an effort to strengthen the quality and…

  15. Recent Emergence of Escherichia coli with Cephalosporin Resistance Conferred by blaCTX-M on Washington State Dairy Farms

    PubMed Central

    Sischo, William M.; Jones, Lisa P.; Moore, Dale A.; Ahmed, Sara; Short, Diana M.; Besser, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae-associated blaCTX-M genes have become globally widespread within the past 30 years. Among isolates from Washington State cattle, Escherichia coli strains carrying blaCTX-M (CTX-M E. coli strains) were absent from a set of 2008 isolates but present in a set of isolates from 2011. On 30 Washington State dairy farms sampled in 2012, CTX-M E. coli prevalence was significantly higher on eastern than on northwestern Washington farms, on farms with more than 3,000 adult cows, and on farms that recently received new animals. The addition of fresh bedding to calf hutches at least weekly and use of residual fly sprays were associated with lower prevalence of CTX-M E. coli. In Washington State, the occurrence of human pathogens carrying blaCTX-M genes preceded the emergence of blaCTX-M-associated E. coli in cattle, indicating that these resistance determinants and/or their bacterial hosts may have emerged in human populations prior to their dissemination to cattle populations. PMID:25911480

  16. Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Mid-Adolescent School Performance and Connection: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes.…

  17. Population-Focused Practice Competency Needs Among Public Health Nursing Leaders in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Espina, Christine R; Bekemeier, Betty; Storey-Kuyl, Marni

    2016-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Population-Focused Practice Competency Needs Among Public Health Nursing Leaders in Washington State," found on pages 212-219, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Describe supports and barriers to adopting population-focused care in public health nursing

  18. Proposed center for advanced industrial processes. Washington State University, College of Engineering and Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The DOE proposes to authorize Washington State University (WSU) to proceed with the detailed design, construction, and equipping of the proposed Center for Advanced Industrial Processes (CAIP). The proposed project would involve construction of a three story building containing laboratories, classrooms, seminar rooms, and graduate student and administrative office space. Existing buildings would be demolished. The proposed facility would house research in thermal/fluid sciences, bioengineering, manufacturing processes, and materials processing. Under the {open_quotes}no-action{close_quotes} DOE would not authorize WSU to proceed with construction under the grant. WSU would then need to consider alternatives for proceeding without DOE funds. Such alternatives (including delaying or scaling back the project), would result in a postponement or slight reduction in the minor adverse environmental, safety and health Impacts of the project evaluated in this assessment. More importantly, these alternatives would affect the important environmental, safety, health, and programmatic benefits of the projects. The surrounding area is fully urbanized and the campus is intensely developed around the proposed site. The buildings scheduled for demolition do not meet State energy codes, are not air conditioned, and lack handicapped access. Sensitive resources (historical/archeological, protected species/critical habitats, wetlands/floodplains, national forests/parks/trails, prime farmland and special sources of water) would not be affected as they do not occur on or near the proposed site. Cumulative impacts would be small. The proposed action is not related to other actions being considered under other NEPA reviews. There is no conflict between the proposed action and any applicable Federal, State, regional or local land use plans and policies.

  19. Seismic reflection images beneath Puget Sound, western Washington State: The Puget Lowland thrust sheet hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.L.; Johnson, S.; Potter, C.; Stephenson, W.; Finn, C.

    1997-01-01

    Seismic reflection data show that the densely populated Puget Lowland of western Washington state is underlain by subhorizontal Paleogene and Neogene sedimentary rocks deformed by west and northwest trending faults and folds. From south to north beneath the Lowland, features seen on the seismic data include: the horizontally-stratified, 3.5 km thick Tacoma sedimentary basin; the Seattle uplift with south dipping (???20??) strata on its south flank and steeply (50?? to 90??) north dipping strata and the west-trending Seattle fault on its north flank; the 7.5 km thick, northward-thinning Seattle sedimentary basin; the antiformal Kingston arch; and the northwest trending, transpressional Southern Whidbey Island fault zone (SWIF). Interpreting the uplifts as fault-bend and fault-propagation folds leads to the hypothesis that the Puget Lowland lies on a north directed thrust sheet. The base of the thrust sheet may lie at 14 to 20 km depth within or at the base of a thick block of basaltic Crescent Formation; its edges may be right-lateral strike-slip faults along the base of the Cascade Range on the east and the Olympic Mountains on the west. Our model suggests that the Seattle fault has a long-term slip rate of about 0.25 mm/year and is large enough to generate a M7.6 to 7.7 earthquake.

  20. Seismic reflection images beneath Puget Sound, western Washington State: The Puget Lowland thrust sheet hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Johnson, Samuel; Potter, Christopher; Stephenson, William; Finn, Carol

    1997-12-01

    Seismic reflection data show that the densely populated Puget Lowland of western Washington state is underlain by subhorizontal Paleogene and Neogene sedimentary rocks deformed by west and northwest trending faults and folds. From south to north beneath the Lowland, features seen on the seismic data include: the horizontally-stratified, 3.5 km thick Tacoma sedimentary basin; the Seattle uplift with south dipping (˜20°) strata on its south flank and steeply (50° to 90°) north dipping strata and the west-trending Seattle fault on its north flank; the 7.5 km thick, northward-thinning Seattle sedimentary basin; the antiformal Kingston arch; and the northwest trending, transpressional Southern Whidbey Island fault zone (SWIF). Interpreting the uplifts as fault-bend and fault-propagation folds leads to the hypothesis that the Puget Lowland lies on a north directed thrust sheet. The base of the thrust sheet may lie at 14 to 20 km depth within or at the base of a thick block of basaltic Crescent Formation; its edges may be right-lateral strike-slip faults along the base of the Cascade Range on the east and the Olympic Mountains on the west. Our model suggests that the Seattle fault has a long-term slip rate of about 0.25 mm/year and is large enough to generate a M7.6 to 7.7 earthquake.

  1. Do Drug-Free Workplace Programs Prevent Occupational Injuries? Evidence from Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Wickizer, Thomas M; Kopjar, Branko; Franklin, Gary; Joesch, Jutta

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of a publicly sponsored drug-free workplace program on reducing the risk of occupational injuries. Data Sources Workers' compensation claims data from the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries covering the period 1994 through 2000 and work-hours data reported by employers served as the data sources for the analysis. Study Design We used a pre–post design with a nonequivalent comparison group to assess the impact of the intervention on injury risk, measured in terms of differences in injury incidence rates. Two hundred and sixty-one companies that enrolled in the drug-free workplace program during the latter half of 1996 were compared with approximately 20,500 nonintervention companies. We tested autoregressive, integrated moving-average (ARIMA) models to assess the robustness of our findings. Principal Findings The drug-free workplace intervention was associated (p<.05) with a statistically significant decrease in injury rates for three industry groups: construction, manufacturing, and services. It was associated (p<.05) with a reduction in the incidence rate of more serious injuries involving four or more days of lost work time for two industry groups: construction and services. The ARIMA analysis supported these findings. Conclusions The drug-free workplace program we studied was associated with a selective, industry-specific preventive effect. The strongest evidence of an intervention effect was for the construction industry. Estimated net cost savings for this industry were positive though small in magnitude. PMID:14965079

  2. Terminal Pleistocene change in mammal communities in southeastern Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2014-03-01

    Small mammal communities in western North America experienced declines in taxonomic richness across the late Pleistocene to Holocene transition (PHT), a recent natural global warming event. One community also experienced a decline in evenness and others replaced one species with a congener. Variability in response of small mammal communities to PHT warming is apparent. At the presently arid and xeric Marmes site in the Columbia Basin of southeastern Washington State, megafauna were absent by about 13,000 cal yr BP, evenness of small mammals declined about 11,700 cal yr BP and again about 11,400 cal yr BP whereas richness declined about 11,400 cal BP. Regional faunal turnover was, however, minimal among small-bodied taxa. Local mammal communities are depauperate as a result of megafaunal extinctions and subsequent decreases in small-mammal richness and evenness. The latter chronologically corresponds with a decrease in primary productivity driven by increasing warmth and aridity. More faunas must be studied in order to fully document the range of variability in the responses of mammalian communities to PHT warming. Documentation of patterns in those responses will facilitate understanding and enhance predictive accuracy with respect to responses of mammalian communities to modern global warming.

  3. Savings from new oil furnaces: A study conducted as part of Washington State's Oil Help Program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.

    1989-12-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has been running the Oil Help program for three years. Originally operated as a loan program, Oil Help switched to rebates during the 1987 and 1988. Rebates for oil furnace replacements made up over 70 percent of rebate funds, which totaled about $1.3 million. WSEO Evaluation started research in summer of 1988, with the goal of including 100 new furnace households (with a control group of similar size) in the study. Our intention was to look at long-term oil consumption comparing each household with itself over the two periods. The final study group consists of 43 households and a control group of 87 households. The report begins with a review of related research. A discussion of research methodology, weather normalization procedure, data attrition, and important descriptive details follows. Changes in consumption for the new furnace and control groups are reported and are tested for significance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the cost effectiveness of an oil furnace replacement.

  4. Sudden, probably coseismic submergence of Holocene trees and grass in coastal Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, B.F. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1991-07-01

    Growth-position plant fossils in coastal Washington State imply a suddenness of Holocene submergence that is better explained coseismic lowering of the land than be decade- or century-long rise of the sea. These fossils include western red cedar and Sitka spruce whose death probably resulted from estuarine submergence close to 300 years ago. Rings in eroded, bark-free trunks of the red cedar show that growth remained normal within decades of death. Rings in buried, bark-bearing stumps of the spruce further show normal growth continuing until the year of death. Other growth-position fossils implying sudden submergence include the stems and leaves of salt-marsh grass entombed in tide-flat mud close to 300 years ago and roughly 1,700 and 3,100 years ago. The preservation of these stems and leaves shows that submergence and initial burial outpaced decomposition, which appears to take just a few years in modern salt marshes. In some places the stems and leaves close to 300 year old are surrounded by sand left by an extraordinary, landward-directed surge-probably a tsunami from a great thrust earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone.

  5. Environmental change recorded in sediments from the Marmes rockshelter archaeological site, southeastern Washington state, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckleberry, Gary; Fadem, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    The Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington state contains a > 11 kyr stratigraphic record that was excavated in the 1960s but only recently analyzed in detail. We present the results of physical, chemical, and isotopic analyses of archived Marmes sediments from rockshelter, hillslope, and floodplain locations. Multiple lines of evidence including éboulis production, soil chemistry, and δ13C and δ18O signatures in soil organic matter and calcium carbonate suggest that relatively cool, moist conditions 10,600 to 9700 14C yr BP were followed by relatively warm and dry conditions as early as 9000 14C yr BP. Warm and dry conditions extended to the late Holocene, followed by a return to cooler and moister climate. The limited range of δ13C and δ18O values in Marmes paleosols suggests that the magnitude of moisture and temperature shifts was locally buffered in the lower Snake River Canyon but adequate to generate significant changes in sedimentation and soil formation, possibly due to nonlinear geological and pedological processes. These buffered canyon environments were well suited for establishing residential bases associated with foraging and logistical collecting strategies and may have minimized the influence of climate changes in food resource abundance.

  6. Crustal anisotropy from tectonic tremor under Washington State in the Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesca-Pérez, Eduardo; Ghosh, Abhijit

    2015-04-01

    We present new observations of crustal shear wave anisotropy extracted from nonvolcanic tremor in Cascadia under Washington State. Measurements of crustal anisotropy are extremely sparse and limited in this area mainly due to low level of seismicity. Abundance of tremor activity during slow earthquakes offers a unique opportunity to measure anisotropy parameters of the continental crust using tremor signal. To accomplish this, polarization and splitting analyses of nonvolcanic tremor are performed using three-component broadband seismic stations. Splitting times measurements range between 0.08 and 0.17 s and similar to the splitting magnitude typically observed in the continental crust. Fast direction of shear wave anisotropy generally trends ESE-WNW. Fast polarization directions are, in general, perpendicular to the prevailing maximum compressive stress field but tend to be parallel to several mapped EW and ESE-WNW trending faults in this area. The observed spatial pattern of anisotropy is likely controlled by faulting that accommodates NS compression resulting from the tectonic movement of the Oregon block toward north. Existence of several EW trending crustal faults and source parameters of crustal earthquakes at depth, consistent with the regional stress regime, indicate that these faults may be the dominant factor causing the observed pattern of shear wave anisotropy.

  7. Zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.; McIntire, C.D.; Lienkaemper, G.; Samora, B.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality and zooplankton samples were collected during the ice-free periods between 1988 and 2005 from 103 oligotrophic montane lakes and ponds located in low forest to alpine vegetation zones in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA. Collectively, 45 rotifer and 44 crustacean taxa were identified. Most of the numerically dominant taxa appeared to have wide niche breadths. The average number of taxa per lake decreased with elevation and generally increased as maximum lake depths increased (especially for rotifers). With one exception, fish presence/absence did not explain the taxonomic compositions of crustacean zooplankton assemblages. Many rotifer species were common members of zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds in western North America, whereas the crustacean taxa were common to some areas of the west, but not others. Constraints of the environmental variables did not appear to provide strong gradients to separate the distributions of most zooplankton species. This suggests that interspecific competitive interactions and stochastic processes regulate the taxonomic structures of the zooplankton assemblages at the landscape level. Crustacean species that had broad niche breadths were associated with different rotifer taxa across the environmental gradients. Studies of zooplankton assemblages need to address both crustacean and rotifer taxa, not one or the other.

  8. Geologic processes of accretion in the Cascadia subduction zone west of Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Flueh, E.R.; Scholl, D. W.; Parsons, T.; Wells, R.E.; Trehu, A.; ten Brink, U.; Weaver, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    The continental margin west of Oregon and Washington undergoes a northward transition in morphology, from a relatively narrow, steep slope west of Oregon to a broad, midslope terrace off Washington. Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected over the accretionary complex show that the morphologic transition is accompanied by significant change in accretionary style: West of Oregon the direction of thrust vergence in the wedge toe flip-flops between landward and seaward, whereas off Washington, thrust faults in the toe verge consistently landward, except near the mouth of the Columbia River where detachment folding of accreted sediment is evident. Furthermore, rocks under the broad midslope terrace west of Washington appear to be intruded by diapirs. The combination of detachment folding, diapirs, and landward-vergent thrust faults all suggest that nearly as far landward as the shelf break, coupling along the interplate decollement is, or has been, low, as suggested by other lines of evidence.

  9. 75 FR 65706 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Washington State

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... CONTACT: For FHWA: Ms. Liana Liu, Area Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 711 5. Capital Way, Suite 501, Olympia, WA 98501; telephone 360753-9553; e-mail liana.liu@dot.gov . The FHWA Washington...

  10. The prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Couper, Fiona J; Peterson, Brianna L

    2014-10-01

    In December 2012, the possession and private use of limited quantities of marijuana and marijuana products became legal in the state of Washington. At the same time, the state's driving under the influence statutes were amended to include a per se level of 5 ng/mL delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in whole blood for drivers aged 21 years and older. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of marijuana legalization on the prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases. The prevalence of both active THC and its metabolite carboxy-THC detected in such cases pre-legalization was compared with the prevalence post-legalization. In 2009-2012, the average yearly percentage of cases positive for THC and carboxy-THC was 19.1% (range: 18.2-20.2%) and 27.9% (range: 26.3-28.6%), respectively. In 2013, the percentages had significantly increased to 24.9 and 40.0%, respectively (P < 0.05). The median THC concentration over the 5-year period ranged from 5.2 to 6.3 ng/mL, with individual concentrations ranging up to 90 ng/mL. An average of 56% of cases were at or >5 ng/mL over the 5-year period. The prevalence of alcohol and the majority of other drugs in this same population of suspected impaired drivers submitted for testing did not change during this same 5-year period-marijuana was the only drug to show such an increase in frequency. Further, this observed increase remained after the data had been normalized to account for changes in laboratory testing procedures that occurred during this time period. Future studies need be conducted to ascertain whether the observed increase has had any effect on the incidence of crashes, serious injuries and/or traffic fatalities. PMID:25217548

  11. Getting to code: Economic costs and benefits of developing and implementing Washington State`s Residential Energy Code, 1983-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Byers, R.; Mountjoy-Venning, A.

    1993-07-01

    The nature of residential construction makes it possible to standardize changes in construction practices relatively quickly if they are proven to be easy to implement and are cost-effective. Small increments of energy efficiency in each newly constructed housing unit yield huge systemwide energy savings because large numbers of units are built and they last a long time. For example, about 22,000 electrically heated single and multifamily units were built in Washington in 1992. Although annual expenditures for conservation measures may appear large in their absolute numbers, they are relatively small when viewed against the large, persistent energy savings they produce. An analysis conducted by the Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) that covers the energy conservation efforts for new residential construction in Washington State supports this perspective.

  12. Washington's Infant Toddler Early Intervention Program Study: Enrollment of Washington Children with Disabilities and Special Health Care Needs in Washington State Public Programs. A Comparison of Enrollment Counts on December 1, 1993, May 1, 1995, December 1, 1995, and May 1, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Trisha; And Others

    This document presents tables, graphs, and narrative text that provide information for planning Washington's early intervention programs for infants and toddlers. Data were analyzed on the number and characteristics of infants and toddlers with disabilities and special health problems who were enrolled in Washington State public services at four…

  13. Molecular Characterization, Morphological Characteristics, Virulence, and Geographic Distribution of Rhizoctonia spp. in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil Mohd; Paulitz, Timothy C; Schroeder, Kurtis L; Thomashow, Linda S; Weller, David M

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch, caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-8 and R. oryzae, are chronic and important yield-limiting diseases of wheat and barley in the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States. Major gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases, in part because multiple Rhizoctonia AGs and species can be isolated from the same cereal roots from the field, contributing to the challenge of identifying the causal agents correctly. In this study, a collection totaling 498 isolates of Rhizoctonia was assembled from surveys conducted from 2000 to 2009, 2010, and 2011 over a wide range of cereal production fields throughout Washington State in the PNW. To determine the identity of the isolates, PCR with AG- or species-specific primers and/or DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers was performed. R. solani AG-2-1, AG-8, AG-10, AG-3, AG-4, and AG-11 comprised 157 (32%), 70 (14%), 21 (4%), 20 (4%), 1 (0.2%), and 1 (0.2%), respectively, of the total isolates. AG-I-like binucleate Rhizoctonia sp. comprised 44 (9%) of the total; and 53 (11%), 80 (16%), and 51 (10%) were identified as R. oryzae genotypes I, II, and III, respectively. Isolates of AG-2-1, the dominant Rhizoctonia, occurred in all six agronomic zones defined by annual precipitation and temperature within the region sampled. Isolates of AG-8 also were cosmopolitan in their distribution but the frequency of isolation varied among years, and they were most abundant in zones of low and moderate precipitation. R. oryzae was cosmopolitan, and collectively the three genotypes comprised 37% of the isolates. Only isolates of R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae genotypes II and III (but not genotype I) caused symptoms typically associated with Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch of wheat. Isolates of AG-2-1 caused only mild root rot and AG-I-like binucleate isolates and members of groups AG-3, AG-4, and AG-11 showed only slight or no discoloration

  14. The Wallula fault and tectonic framework of south-central Washington, as interpreted from magnetic and gravity anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wells, Ray E.; Rohay, Alan C.

    2014-06-01

    The Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB) in central Washington has accommodated regional, mostly north-directed, deformation of the Cascadia backarc since prior to emplacement of Miocene flood basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). The YFTB consists of two structural domains. Northern folds of the YFTB strike eastward and terminate at the western margin of a 20-mGal negative gravity anomaly, the Pasco gravity low, straddling the North American continental margin. Southern folds of the YFTB strike southeastward, form part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), and pass south of the Pasco gravity low as the Wallula fault zone. An upper crustal model based on gravity and magnetic anomalies suggests that the Pasco gravity low is caused in part by an 8-km-deep Tertiary basin, the Pasco sub-basin, abutting the continental margin and concealed beneath CRBG. The Pasco sub-basin is crossed by north-northwest-striking magnetic anomalies caused by dikes of the 8.5 Ma Ice Harbor Member of the CRBG. At their northern end, dikes connect with the eastern terminus of the Saddle Mountains thrust of the YFTB. At their southern end, dikes are disrupted by the Wallula fault zone. The episode of NE-SW extension that promoted Ice Harbor dike injection apparently involved strike-slip displacement on the Saddle Mountains and Wallula faults. The amount of lateral shear on the OWL impacts the level of seismic hazard in the Cascadia region. Ice Harbor dikes, as mapped with aeromagnetic data, are dextrally offset by the Wallula fault zone a total of 6.9 km. Assuming that dike offsets are tectonic in origin, the Wallula fault zone has experienced an average dextral shear of 0.8 mm/y since dike emplacement 8.5 Ma, consistent with right-lateral stream offsets observed at other locations along the OWL. Southeastward, the Wallula fault transfers strain to the north-striking Hite fault, the possible location of the M 5.7 Milton-Freewater earthquake in 1936.

  15. Art Bridging Boundaries: Central America and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Shifra M.

    This paper describes the organization, Artists Call, as well as several slides shown during the presentation to illustrate "visual solidarity" between artists of the United States and Central America. In 1983, artists in 27 U.S. cities as well as Paris and Mexico City organized Artists Call against U.S. Intervention in Central America. Numerous…

  16. A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Washington State: 2009-2010 Test. Technical Report #1105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in the state of Washington. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Washington state…

  17. High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Studies of Active Faults: a Case Study from Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberty, L. M.; Pratt, T. L.

    2007-12-01

    In the past five years, new high-resolution seismic surveys have filled in gaps in our understanding of active structures beneath the Puget Lowland region of Washington State. The extensive forests have made recognition of active faults difficult, but new Light Distance and Ranging (LIDAR) detailed topographic data have made a major breakthrough in mapping active faults. Extensive regional and high-resolution marine seismic surveys have been fundamental to understanding the tectonic framework of the area. These marine profiles, however, lack coverage beneath water bodies that large ships cannot navigate and beneath city streets underlain by late Pleistocene glacial deposits that are missing from the waterways. Recent land surveys and profiles in restricted waterways can therefore bridge the gap between paleoseismic and marine geophysical studies, and test elements of models proposed by regional-scale geophysical studies. We have also been venturing into more congested areas to seismically image faults in key urban locations. Results from recent surveys have: 1) documented new faults that had long been suspected in the Olympia area; 2) clarified the relationship between the LIDAR scarps and observed structures across the Tacoma fault zone; 3) provided a window into structures beneath the north and eastern portions of the western Tacoma fault zone; 4) documented deformation along the Seattle fault near a paleoseismic trench; 5) mapped the eastern part the Seattle fault zone beyond its previously mapped limits; and 6) documented multiple fault strands in the Seattle fault zone in the cities of Bellevue and Seattle. The results better constrain interpretations of paleoseismic data collected on these faults, and provide targets for future paleoseismic studies.

  18. Tidally dominated sediment dispersal offshore of a small mountainous river: Elwha River, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidam, E. F.; Ogston, A. S.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Warrick, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Sediment supplied by small mountainous rivers (SMRs) represents a major fraction of the global ocean sediment budget. Studies from the past two decades have shown that much of this sediment is dispersed by episodic wind and wave energy along storm-dominated coasts. In tidally dominated environments, however, different transport styles and deposits may result from persistent tidal dispersal. This study investigates episodic sediment releases generated by dam removal from a SMR in Washington State, in order to evaluate the mechanics of tidally dominated sediment dispersal in an energetic marine environment. The results indicate that asymmetric tidal currents with peak magnitudes of ∼50 to >80 cm/s produce daily sediment export in the direction of the dominant tidal phase (i.e., the semi-diurnal phase with faster currents and longer duration), resulting in dispersal of fluvially derived fine sediment to distal sinks. These effects are observed throughout all seasons in the presence or absence of wave events. During the first two years of dam removal, more than 8 million tonnes of sediment were discharged to the coast. The net result was little to no change in grain size at 10-60 m water depth across >70% of the seabed offshore of the river mouth. Over the remaining ∼2 to 3 km2 of the subaqueous delta, several cm of mud and sand accumulated in a sheltered coastal embayment adjacent to the river mouth. These results demonstrate that SMR discharge events may form patchy, isolated deposits-or even no deposits-along coastlines with strong tidal currents, in contrast to the mid-shelf mud belts formed on storm-dominated shelves. Over longer timescales, knowledge of the erosional capacity of local and regional tidal currents may be key to interpreting the terrestrial event record preserved in (or possibly excluded from) marine SMR deposits.

  19. Seismic attenuation structure of the Seattle Basin, Washington State from explosive-source refraction data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Q.; Wilcock, W.S.D.; Pratt, T.L.; Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    We used waveform data from the 1999 SHIPS (Seismic Hazard Investigation of Puget Sound) seismic refraction experiment to constrain the attenuation structure of the Seattle basin, Washington State. We inverted the spectral amplitudes of compressional- and shear-wave arrivals for source spectra, site responses, and one- and two-dimensional Q-1 models at frequencies between 1 and 40 Hz for P waves and 1 and 10 Hz for S waves. We also obtained Q-1 models from t* values calculated from the spectral slopes of P waves between 10 and 40 Hz. One-dimensional inversions show that Qp at the surface is 22 at 1 Hz, 130 at 5 Hz, and 390 at 20 Hz. The corresponding values at 18 km depth are 100, 440, and 1900. Qs at the surface is 16 and 160 at 1 Hz and 8 Hz, respectively, increasing to 80 and 500 at 18 km depth. The t* inversion yields a Qp model that is consistent with the amplitude inversions at 20 and 30 Hz. The basin geometry is clearly resolved in the t* inversion, but the amplitude inversions only imaged the basin structure after removing anomalously high-amplitude shots near Seattle. When these shots are removed, we infer that Q-1 values may be ???30% higher in the center of the basin than the one-dimensional models predict. We infer that seismic attenuation in the Seattle basin will significantly reduce ground motions at frequencies at and above 1 Hz, partially countering amplification effects within the basin.

  20. Assessing the Thermal Environmental Impacts of an Groundwater Heat Pump in Southeastern Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2012-04-01

    A thermal analysis of a large-scale (e.g., 1900 gpm), open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in southeastern Washington State has been performed using a numerical modeling approach. Water temperature increases at the upgradient extraction wells in the system and at the downgradient Columbia River are potential concerns, especially since heat rejection to the subsurface will occur year-round. Hence, thermal impacts of the open-loop GSHP were investigated to identify operational scenarios that minimized downgradient environmental impacts at the river, and upgradient temperature drift at the production wells. Simulations examined the sensitivity of the system to variations in pumping rates and injected water temperatures, as well as to hydraulic conductivity estimates of the aquifer. Results demonstrated that both downgradient and upgradient thermal impacts were more sensitive to injection flow rates than estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Higher injection rates at lower temperatures resulted in higher temperature increases at the extraction wells but lower increases at the river. Conversely, lower pumping rates and higher injected water temperatures resulted in a smaller temperature increase at the extraction wells, but higher increases at the river. The scenario with lower pumping rates is operationally more efficient, but does increase the likelihood of a thermal plume discharging into the Columbia River. However, this impact would be mitigated by mixing within the hyporheic zone and the Columbia River. The impact under current operational conditions is negligible, but future increases in heat rejection could require a compromise between maximizing operational efficiency and minimizing temperature increases at the shoreline.

  1. Brucella pinnipedialis infections in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) from Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    Lambourn, Dyanna M; Garner, Michael; Ewalt, Darla; Raverty, Stephen; Sidor, Inga; Jeffries, Steven J; Rhyan, Jack; Gaydos, Joseph K

    2013-10-01

    In 1994 a novel Brucella sp., later named B. pinnipedialis, was identified in stranded harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). This Brucella sp. is a potential zoonotic pathogen and is capable of causing disease in domestic animals. Serologic, microbiologic, and pathologic data collected from live captured and stranded harbor seals were used to better describe the epizootiology of B. pinnipedialis in harbor seals from Washington State, USA, in 1994 through 2006. We found no sex predilection in harbor seal exposure or infection with B. pinnipedialis but noted a significant difference in prevalence among age classes, with weaned pups, yearlings, and subadults having highest exposure and infection. The most common postmortem finding in 26 Brucella-positive animals (culture and/or PCR) was verminous pneumonia due to Parafilaroides spp. or Otostrongulus circumlitus. Our data are consistent with exposure to B. pinnipedialis post-weaning, and it is likely that fish or invertebrates and possibly lungworms are involved in the transmission to harbor seals. Brucella pinnipedialis was cultured or detected by PCR from seal salivary gland, lung, urinary bladder, and feces, suggesting that wildlife professionals working with live, infected seals could be exposed to the bacterium via exposure to oral secretions, urine, or feces. Endangered sympatric wildlife species could be exposed to B. pinnipedialis via predation on infected seals or through a common marine fish or invertebrate prey item involved in its transmission. More work is required to elucidate further potential fish or invertebrates that could be involved in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to harbor seals and better understand the potential risk they could pose to humans or sympatric endangered species who also consume these prey items. PMID:24502708

  2. Nitrogen deposition effects on diatom communities in lakes from three National Parks in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, Richard W.; Enache, Mihaela; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Moran, Patrick W.; Foreman, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document if lakes in National Parks in Washington have exceeded critical levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, as observed in other Western States. We measured atmospheric N deposition, lake water quality, and sediment diatoms at our study lakes. Water chemistry showed that our study lakes were ultra-oligotrophic with ammonia and nitrate concentrations often at or below detection limits with low specific conductance (−1 year−1 and were variable both within and across the parks. Diatom assemblages in a single sediment core from Hoh Lake (Olympic National Park) displayed a shift to increased relative abundances of Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria tenera beginning in the 1969–1975 timeframe, whereas these species were not found at the remaining (nine) sites. These diatom species are known to be indicative of N enrichment and were used to determine an empirical critical load of N deposition, or threshold level, where changes in diatom communities were observed at Hoh Lake. However, N deposition at the remaining nine lakes does not seem to exceed a critical load at this time. At Milk Lake, also in Olympic National Park, there was some evidence that climate change might be altering diatom communities, but more research is needed to confirm this. We used modeled precipitation for Hoh Lake and annual inorganic N concentrations from a nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program station, to calculate elevation-corrected N deposition for 1980–2009 at Hoh Lake. An exponential fit to this data was hindcasted to the 1969–1975 time period, and we estimate a critical load of 1.0 to 1.2 kg N ha−1 year−1 for wet deposition for this lake.

  3. Mapping Precipitation Patterns from the Stable Isotopic Composition of Surface Waters: Olympic Peninsula, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, A. M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Available data indicate that large and persistent precipitation gradients are tied to topography at scales down to a few kilometers, but precipitation patterns in the majority of mountain ranges are poorly constrained at scales less than tens of kilometers. A lack of knowledge of precipitation patterns hampers efforts to understand the processes of orographic precipitation and identify the relationships between geomorphic evolution and climate. A new method for mapping precipitation using the stable isotopic composition of surface waters is tested in the Olympic Mountains of Washington State. Measured δD and δ18O of 97 samples of surface water are linearly related and nearly inseparable from the global meteoric water line. A linear orographic precipitation model extended to include in effects of isotopic fractionation via Rayleigh distillation predicts precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of surface water. Seven parameters relating to the climate and isotopic composition of source water are used. A constrained random search identifies the best-fitting parameter set. Confidence intervals for parameter values are defined and precipitation patterns are determined. Average errors for the best-fitting model are 4.8 permil in δD. The difference between the best fitting model and other models within the 95% confidence interval was less than 20%. An independent high-resolution precipitation climatology documents precipitation gradients similar in shape and magnitude to the model derived from surface water isotopic composition. This technique could be extended to other mountain ranges, providing an economical and fast assessment of precipitation patterns requiring minimal field work.

  4. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate achievements along…

  5. Savings from new oil furnaces: A study conducted as part of Washington State`s Oil Help Program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.

    1989-12-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has been running the Oil Help program for three years. Originally operated as a loan program, Oil Help switched to rebates during the 1987 and 1988. Rebates for oil furnace replacements made up over 70 percent of rebate funds, which totaled about $1.3 million. WSEO Evaluation started research in summer of 1988, with the goal of including 100 new furnace households (with a control group of similar size) in the study. Our intention was to look at long-term oil consumption comparing each household with itself over the two periods. The final study group consists of 43 households and a control group of 87 households. The report begins with a review of related research. A discussion of research methodology, weather normalization procedure, data attrition, and important descriptive details follows. Changes in consumption for the new furnace and control groups are reported and are tested for significance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the cost effectiveness of an oil furnace replacement.

  6. Washington State Recreational Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Perceptions, Knowledge, and Discussions in a Sample of Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B.; Ringle, Jay L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In November 20012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. Objective We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State’s recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Methods Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11th grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Results Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws. PMID:25671633

  7. Geodetic strain measurements in Washington.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Lisowski, M.; Prescott, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two new geodetic measurements of strain accumulation in the state of Washington for the interval 1972-1979 are reported. Near Seattle the average principal strain rates are 0.07 + or - 0.03 mu strain/yr N19oW and -0.13 + or - 0.02 mu strain/yr N71oE, and near Richland (south central Washington) the average principal strain rates are -0.02 + or - 0.01 mu strain/yr N36oW and -0.04 + or - 0.01 mu strain/yr N54oE. Extension is taken as positive, and the uncertainties quoted are standard deviations. A measurement of shear strain accumulation (dilation not determined) in the epoch 1914- 1966 along the north coast of Vancouver Island by the Geodetic Survey of Canada indicates a marginally significant accumulation of right-lateral shear (0.06 + or - 0.03 mu rad/yr) across the plate boundary (N40oW strike). Although there are significant differences in detail, these strain measurements are roughly consistent with a crude dislocation model that represents subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate. The observed accumulation of strain implies that large, shallow, thrust earthquakes should be expected off the coast of Washington and British Columbia. However, this conclusion is not easily reconciled with either observations of elevation change along the Washington coast or the focal mechanism solutions for shallow earthquakes in Washington. -Authors

  8. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  9. Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, S.; Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Drouillard, K.G.; Haffner, G.D.; Letcher, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use chlorophenoxy herbicides including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, triclopyr, dicamba, dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal), and the metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and the fungicide, chlorothalonil, were investigated in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected from 15 sites from five study areas Puget Sound/Seattle area of Washington State, USA. DCPA differs from acidic chlorophenoxy herbicides, and is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid or acid metabolites, and thus we developed a new method. Of the 12 chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil analyzed only DCPA could be quantified at six of these sites (2.0 to 10.3 pg/g fresh weight). However, higher levels (6.9 to 85.5 pg/g fresh weight) of the unexpected DCPA structural isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) were quantified in eggs from all sites. diMe-TCP concentrations tended to be higher in eggs from the Everett Harbor area. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercially available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. Regardless, these findings indicate that DCPA and diMe-TCP can be accumulated in the food chain of fish-eating osprey, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the general reproductive health of this osprey population. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shaogang; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas; Letcher, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Current-use chlorophenoxy herbicides including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, triclopyr, dicamba, dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal), and the metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and the fungicide, chlorothalonil, were investigated in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected from 15 sites from five study areas Puget Sound/Seattle area of Washington State, USA. DCPA differs from acidic chlorophenoxy herbicides, and is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid or acid metabolites, and thus we developed a new method. Of the 12 chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil analyzed only DCPA could be quantified at six of these sites (2.0 to 10.3 pg/g fresh weight). However, higher levels (6.9 to 85.5 pg/g fresh weight) of the unexpected DCPA structural isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) were quantified in eggs from all sites. diMe-TCP concentrations tended to be higher in eggs from the Everett Harbor area. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercially available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. Regardless, these findings indicate that DCPA and diMe-TCP can be accumulated in the food chain of fish-eating osprey, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the general reproductive health of this osprey population. PMID:16707197

  11. The Cashmere Program--An Approach to Agriculture Career Education In Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockle, James

    1978-01-01

    Senior agriculture students in the "Careers in Agriculture" program at Cashmere (Washington) High School made arranged visits to community agriculture-related businesses, where they collected information about occupations with interviews, cameras, and tape recorders; they later organized their material into slide-tape presentations for school and…

  12. Mycoflora of seed of common teasel (Dipsacus fullonum) in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of standing common teasel (Dipsacus fullonum) were harvested in January 2007 in Pullman, Washington, and divided into two categories, symptomatic versus asymptomatic, on the basis of signs of fungal colonization at 10-50X magnification. The most common signs were pseudothecia of Davidiella ta...

  13. First report of powdery mildew of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) caused by Leveillula taurica in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea is an important grain legume worldwide, and an important rotational and specialty crop in the US. In October 2007, powdery mildew was found on chickpea plants in a field near Pullman, Washington. Typical powdery mildew symptoms and signs were observed on petioles and adaxial leaf surfaces....

  14. Workforce Training Results 1998. An Evaluation of Washington State's Workforce Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This second biennial outcome evaluation analyzes results of nine programs in Washington's work force training system that account for approximately 90 percent of public spending and recommends areas for improvement. Findings are from: program records on over 65,000 individuals who left one of the programs during the 1995-96 school year; mail…

  15. School Transitions: A Qualitative Study of the Supports Provided by Washington State Special Education Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of special education administrators in the transition planning process for children with disabilities ages 3-21 in selected Washington school districts. A basic qualitative study was selected to construct meaning from a described phenomenon. The study sought to identify and explain how special education…

  16. Observations on the nesting biology of Andrena (Plastandrena) prunorum Cockerell in Washington State (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nesting and associated behaviors of Andrena (Plastandrena) prunorum Cockerell were studied at two sites in western Washington: a suburban lawn and a vacant lot. A maximum of five nests, usually well separated from one another, was found at a given site and year. Nest and cell structure at both sites...

  17. Educational Preparation for the Role of the School Nurse: Perceptions of School Nurses in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the perceptions of currently practicing school nurses regarding their baccalaureate nursing education and determine if they felt adequately prepared to effectively practice in the role of a school nurse. A descriptive, quantitative on-line survey was conducted of Washington State…

  18. "Good Teaching for All Students?": Sheltered Instruction Programming in Washington State Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Crissa; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    Many in the field of language policy have called for studies that connect policy texts at the macro level with their interpretations in districts, schools, and classrooms at the micro level. The purpose of this study is to trace Washington's educational language policy through the layers of interpretation to educational practice to see how…

  19. 78 FR 14951 - State of Washington; Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... authority from the Department of Ecology to the Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council to issue UIC permits... telephone number for the Library is (206) 553-1289. (2) Washington Department of Ecology, Water Quality... Environmental Protection Agency, and MOUs between the Department of Ecology and the Department of Health;...

  20. Will Seniority-Based Layoffs Undermine School Improvement Efforts in Washington State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robin; DeArmond, Michael; Sepe, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    A new analysis finds that policies known as "last in, first out" may disproportionately affect schools receiving federal School Improvement Grants (SIGs). A centerpiece of U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan's school reform agenda, SIG funds are intended to transform or turn around chronically failing schools. Analyzing Washington State…

  1. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges: Academic Year Report 2013-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "Academic Year Report 2013-14" provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in Washington's community and technical colleges for the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel, and…

  2. Meeting Students' Goals & Public Expectations. Washington State Community and Technical Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This accountability report is the first in a series of progress reports describing how Washington's community and technical colleges have met their goals for educational programs, student achievement, and responsiveness to their communities. The strengths of the community and technical colleges are preparing a skilled workforce, providing access…

  3. 78 FR 11675 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Tribe of the Makah Indian Reservation; Port Gamble Band of S'Klallam Indians (previously listed as Port Gamble Indian Community of the Port Gamble Reservation, Washington); Quileute Tribe of the Quileute...; Port Gamble Band of S'Klallam Indians (previously listed as Port Gamble Indian Community of the...

  4. Plastic in surface waters of the Inside Passage and beaches of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Davis, Wallace; Murphy, Anne G

    2015-08-15

    We summarize results of two independent studies on plastic pollution in the marine environment that overlap in time and space. One study evaluated the abundance of anthropogenic debris on 37 sandy beaches bordering the Salish Sea in Washington State while the other characterized plastic debris in surface waters of the Salish Sea and the Inside Passage to Skagway, Alaska. Both studies concluded that foam, primarily expanded polystyrene was the dominant pollutant. Plastic was found in surface waters the full length of the Inside Passage but was concentrated near harbors. At the wrack line, an average square meter of Washington's 1180km of sandy beaches in the Salish Sea had 61 pieces of anthropogenic debris weighing approximately 5g. The total loading for the entire 1m wide band is estimated to be 72,000,000 pieces and 5.8metric tons. Most anthropogenic debris on beaches is generated within the region. PMID:26099788

  5. Development and testing of method for assessing and mapping agricultural areas susceptible to atrazine leaching in the state of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Frank D.

    2003-01-01

    In a joint effort by the Washington State Department of Agriculture, the Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Environmental Protection Agency's Pesticide Root Zone Model and a Geographic Information System were used to develop and test a method for screening and mapping the susceptibility of ground water in agricultural areas to pesticide contamination. The objective was to produce a map that would be used by the Washington State Department of Agriculture to allocate resources for monitoring pesticide levels in ground water. The method was tested by producing a map showing susceptibility to leaching of the pesticide atrazine for the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project, which encompasses an area of intensive agriculture in eastern Washington. The reliability of the atrazine map was assessed by using statistical procedures to determine whether the median of the percentage of atrazine simulated to leach below the root zone in wells where atrazine was detected was statistically greater than the median percentage at wells where atrazine was not detected (at or above 0.001 microgram per liter) in 134 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey. A statistical difference in medians was not found when all 134 wells were compared. However, a statistical difference was found in medians for two subsets of the 134 wells that were used in land-use studies (studies examining the quality of ground water beneath specific crops). The statistical results from wells from the land-use studies indicate that the model potentially can be used to map the relative susceptibility of agricultural areas to atrazine leaching. However, the distinction between areas of high and low susceptibility may not yet be sufficient to use the method for allocating resources to monitor water quality. Several options are offered for improving the reliability of future simulations.

  6. Comparison of the Nutritional Status of Overseas Refugee Children with Low Income Children in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hahn, Elizabeth E.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Hoopes, Andrea J.; Matheson, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent that the dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition affects refugee children before resettlement in the US is not well described. Objective To describe the prevalence of wasting, stunting, overweight, and obesity among refugee children ages 0–10 years at their overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in Washington State (WA), and to compare the nutritional status of refugee children with that of low-income children in WA. Methods We analyzed anthropometric measurements of 1047 refugee children ages 0–10 years old to assess their nutritional status at the overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in WA from July 2012—June 2014. The prevalence estimates of the nutritional status categories were compared by country of origin. In addition, the nutritional status of refugee children age 0–5 years old were compared to that of low-income children in WA from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Results A total of 982 children were eligible for the study, with the majority (65%) from Somalia, Iraq and Burma. Overall, nearly one-half of all refugee children had at least one form of malnutrition (44.9%). Refugee children ages 0–10 years were affected by wasting (17.3%), stunting (20.1%), overweight (7.6%) and obesity (5.9%). Among children 0–5 years old, refugee children had a significantly higher prevalence of wasting (14.3% versus 1.9%, p<0.001) and stunting (21.3% versus 5.5%, p<0.001), and a lower prevalence of obesity (6.2% versus 12.9%, p<0.001) than low-income children in WA. Conclusion The dual burden of under- and over-nutrition among incoming refugee children as well as their overall difference in prevalence of nutritional status categories compared to low-income children in WA provides evidence for the importance of tailored interventions to address the nutritional needs of refugee children. PMID:26808275

  7. Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Diatom Communities in Lakes from Three National Parks in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Sheibley, Richard W; Enache, Mihaela; Swarzenski, Peter W; Moran, Patrick W; Foreman, James R

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document if lakes in National Parks in Washington have exceeded critical levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, as observed in other Western States. We measured atmospheric N deposition, lake water quality, and sediment diatoms at our study lakes. Water chemistry showed that our study lakes were ultra-oligotrophic with ammonia and nitrate concentrations often at or below detection limits with low specific conductance (<100 μS/cm), and acid neutralizing capacities (<400 μeq/L). Rates of summer bulk inorganic N deposition at all our sites ranged from 0.6 to 2.4 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and were variable both within and across the parks. Diatom assemblages in a single sediment core from Hoh Lake (Olympic National Park) displayed a shift to increased relative abundances of Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria tenera beginning in the 1969-1975 timeframe, whereas these species were not found at the remaining (nine) sites. These diatom species are known to be indicative of N enrichment and were used to determine an empirical critical load of N deposition, or threshold level, where changes in diatom communities were observed at Hoh Lake. However, N deposition at the remaining nine lakes does not seem to exceed a critical load at this time. At Milk Lake, also in Olympic National Park, there was some evidence that climate change might be altering diatom communities, but more research is needed to confirm this. We used modeled precipitation for Hoh Lake and annual inorganic N concentrations from a nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program station, to calculate elevation-corrected N deposition for 1980-2009 at Hoh Lake. An exponential fit to this data was hindcasted to the 1969-1975 time period, and we estimate a critical load of 1.0 to 1.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) for wet deposition for this lake. PMID:24578586

  8. High Resolution Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Southern Whidbey Island fault, Northwest Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, K. M.; Liberty, L. M.; Pratt, T. L.

    2006-12-01

    The Southern Whidbey Island fault (SWIF) is an active fault between the Seattle and Everett Basins in northwest Washington State. Marine seismic and geologic data characterize the SWIF as sub-parallel, northwest trending reverse faults that may extend over a 100 km distance and may be capable of producing M 7 or greater earthquakes. We acquired two land-based seismic transects crossing LIDAR and magnetic lineaments associated with the SWIF near Woodinville, WA, to relate surface scarps to subsurface structures and to characterize deformation in the upper 0.5 km of strata. Nearby borehole data place Pleistocene and younger deposits at depths less than 0.2 km, with Tertiary and older strata identified below. The 2 km, north-south Crystal Lake transect crosses the surface locations of LIDAR and magnetic lineaments and shows reverse faulting that offsets Tertiary and younger strata in a zone that extends more than 1.25 km. In contrast, we interpret relatively undeformed, flat lying Tertiary strata at depths of 0.1 to 0.2 km south of the observed surface lineaments. In the 3 km, east-west Woodinville transect, we identify reverse faulting and folding that forms a small 0.75 km-wide graben within a broader deformation zone. These anomalies are on strike with the LIDAR and magnetic lineaments identified near Crystal Lake. The presence of a small graben in the SWIF is consistent with models that hypothesize strike-slip motion on the fault system, with curvature of adjacent fault strands forming a small pull-apart basin. Our observations suggest that other magnetic lineaments in the region also are likely associated with fault strands. We acquired three additional transects upwards of 30 km southeast of Woodinville to determine whether the SWIF extends beyond surface lineaments and potentially merging with the Seattle Fault. Our preliminary analysis shows faulted Tertiary and younger strata on these profiles. If the observed fault strands on these transects are related to

  9. Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae), captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington state, U.S.A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...

  10. Effect of pH on the growth of Rhizoctonia spp. from cereal-based cropping systems in eastern Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 and Rhizoctonia oryzae are serious root diseases in dryland cereal production in Washington State. Isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. from fields with different cropping histories in the low- (12 inches) precipitation zones...

  11. Extension of the telluride erosion surface to Washington State, and its regional and tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresens, Randall L.

    1981-11-01

    lags. A great deal of scattered geologic evidence suggests a major global event at about 40 m.y. BP. The timing does not always precisely correlate with the timing of events in western North America, which suggests that the 40 m.y. tectonic transition was spread over several millions of years: A most impressive global impact of the 40 m.y. transition is the largest drop in eustatic sealevel at about 30 m.y. BP. The 40 m.y. tectonic transition profoundly altered geologic history, including the development of continental landscapes, global sea-level, and global climate. Classical stratigraphic studies remain the best way of documenting its effect on the continental surface. The small remnant of Oligocene rocks in central Washington, overlooked in early reconnaissance studies, is of great geologic significance. Other undiscovered remnants probably exist in western North America.

  12. Ammonium carbonate is more attractive than apple and hawthorn fruit volatile lures to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Nash, Meralee J; Goughnour, Robert B; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In the eastern United States where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonella. However, the opposite may be true in the western United States. Here, we determined whether newly identified western apple and western hawthorn fruit volatiles are more attractive than ammonium carbonate (AC) to R. pomonella in apple, black hawthorn, and ornamental hawthorn trees in western Washington State. In all three host trees, sticky red sphere or yellow panel traps baited with AC generally caught more flies than traps baited with lures containing the four newly developed fruit blends (modified eastern apple, western apple, western ornamental hawthorn, and western black hawthorn) or two older blends (eastern apple and eastern downy hawthorn). Fruit volatiles also displayed more variation among trapping studies conducted at different sites, in different host trees, and across years than AC. The results imply that traps baited with AC represent the best approach to monitoring R. pomonella in Washington State. PMID:24915519

  13. Anatomy of a Complex Fault Zone: Land Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Tacoma Fault Zone, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, K.; Liberty, L. M.; Pratt, T. L.

    2005-12-01

    Preliminary interpretations of new land-based seismic reflection images across the Tacoma fault zone in western Washington State document a complex pattern of faulting and folding. The Tacoma fault zone bounds gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies for 50 km across the central Puget Lowland west of the city of Tacoma, and tomography data suggest there is as much as 6 km of post-Eocene uplift of the hanging wall relative to Tacoma basin sediments to the south. We acquired four north-south seismic reflection profiles to define the character and tectonic history of the Tacoma fault zone. The 6-km long Powerline Road profile, located west of Case Inlet, perpendicularly crosses the 4-km-long Catfish Lake scarp discerned from Lidar data and trenching. The profile shows flat-lying strata on the south, but the north part of the profile is dominated by south-dipping Tertiary and older strata that appear to form the limb of an anticline. There appears to be at least one, and likely two faults in the Tertiary and older strata, although it is not clear these faults penetrate the shallowest Pleistocene strata. The 8.5-km long Carney Lake profile is located east of Case Inlet and spans two scarps imaged on Lidar data. This profile shows a similar geometry to the Powerline Road profile, folded and faulted Tertiary and older strata adjacent to flat-lying marine sediments of the Tacoma Basin. The 9-km long Bethel-Burley profile across the east portion of the Tacoma fault near Gig Harbor shows a significantly different reflector geometry than the profiles to the west. The Bethel-Burley profile is dominated by a strong, south-dipping reflection that becomes a prominent arch near the north end of the section. The strength of the reflector suggests that it marks the top of the Eocene basement rocks. South-dipping strata on this profile match those imaged on marine profiles from Carr Inlet. The new seismic reflection data support an interpretation in which the north edge of the Tacoma basin

  14. Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

  15. Forecasting damaging earthquakes in the central and eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, S.P.; Bollinger, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of seismograph network data, earthquake catalogs from 1727 to 1982, and paleoseismic data for the central and eastern United States indicate that the Poisson probability of a damaging earthquake (magnitude ??? 6.0) occurring during the next 30 years is at a moderate to high level (0.4 to 0.6). When differences in seismic wave attenuation are taken into account, the central and eastern United States has approximately two-thirds the likelihood of California to produce an earthquake with comparable damage area and societal impact within the next 30 years.

  16. Forecasting damaging earthquakes in the central and eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nishenko, S P; Bollinger, G A

    1990-09-21

    Analysis of seismograph network data, earthquake catalogs from 1727 to 1982, and paleoseismic data for the central and eastern United States indicate that the Poisson probability of a damaging earthquake (magnitude >/= 6.0) occurring during the next 30 years is at a moderate to high level (0.4 to 0.6). When differences in seismic wave attenuation are taken into account, the central and eastern United States has approximately two-thirds the likelihood of California to produce an earthquake with comparable damage area and societal impact within the next 30 years. PMID:17812170

  17. Hospital charges for people with AIDS in Washington State: utilization of a statewide hospital discharge data base.

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, W E; Hopkins, S G; Honey, J; Harwell, J D; Shoemaker, P C; Kobayashi, J M

    1988-01-01

    We analyzed Washington State inpatient hospital utilization for 165 AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) cases with 344 hospitalizations from July 1984 through December 1985. We found that mean charges per hospitalization were $9,166 and mean length of stay was 13.3 days. In addition, evaluation of two diagnosis-related groups (DRGs 079 and 398) commonly used for AIDS hospitalizations showed that AIDS hospitalizations were substantially more expensive than non-AIDS hospitalizations within the same diagnosis-related group. AIDS-specific diagnosis-related groups may be necessary to achieve a balance between inpatient charges and reimbursements. PMID:3133953

  18. Initial Performance Characterization for a Thermalized Neutron Beam for Neutron Capture Therapy Research at Washington State University

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; P.E> Sloan; J.R. Venhuizen; C.A. Wemple

    2005-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Washington State University (WSU) have constructed a new epithermal-neutron beam for collaborative Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) preclinical research at the WSU TRIGATM research reactor facility1. More recently, additional beamline components were developed to permit the optional thermalization of the beam for certain types of studies where it is advantageous to use a thermal neutron source rather than an epithermal source. This article summarizes the results of some initial neutronic performance measurements for the thermalized system, with a comparison to the expected performance from the design computations.

  19. Community Perspectives on Drug/Alcohol Use, Concerns, Needs and Resources In Four Washington State Tribal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Radin, Sandra M.; Kutz, Stephen H.; LaMarr, June; Vendiola, Diane; Vendiola, Michael; Wilbur, Brian; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Donovan, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Community-university teams investigated substance use, abuse, and dependence (SUAD) and related concerns, needs, strengths, and resources in four Washington State Tribal communities. 153 key community members shared their perspectives through 43 semi-structured interviews and 19 semi-structured focus groups. Qualitative data analysis revealed robust themes: prescription medications and alcohol were perceived as most prevalent and concerning; family and peer influences and emotional distress were prominent perceived risk factors; and SUAD intervention resources varied across communities. Findings may guide future research and the development of much needed strength-based, culturally appropriate, and effective SUAD interventions for American Indians, Alaska Natives, and their communities. PMID:25560464

  20. Booker T. Washington Rediscovered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieze, Michael Scott, Ed.; Gasman, Marybeth, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Booker T. Washington, a founding father of African American education in the United States, has long been studied, revered, and reviled by scholars and students. Born into slavery, freed and raised in the Reconstruction South, and active in educational reform through the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Washington sought to use…

  1. Evidence for great holocene earthquakes along the outer coast of washington state.

    PubMed

    Atwater, B F

    1987-05-22

    Intertidal mud has buried extensive, well-vegetated lowlands in westernmost Washington at least six times in the past 7000 years. Each burial was probably occasioned by rapid tectonic subsidence in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 meters. Anomalous sheets of sand atop at least three of the buried lowlands suggest that tsunamis resulted from the same events that caused the subsidence. These events may have been great earthquakes from the subduction zone between the Juan de Fuca and North America plates. PMID:17812748

  2. U. S. Geological Survey begins seismic ground response experiments in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, A.C.; King, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The men were Denver-based U.S Geological Survey (USGS) geophysicists working on the Urban Hazards Field Investigations project. On the previous day they had recorded two events on their seismographs-a distant nuclear explosion in Nevada and a blast at amine near Centralia, Washington. On another day, they used seismic refraction equipment to locate the depth of bedrock and seismic velocity to it at several locations in West Seattle and in the Seward Park-Brighton district of southeast Seattle. 

  3. Summary of geothermal exploration activity in the state of Washington from 1978 to 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the course of conducting the statewide reconnaissance study of Washington's potential geothermal resources, several specific areas and broader regions have been identified as targets which warrant a more concentrated effort. Over the past three years, the program has continued to identify new sites, but has concentrated on better defining the resource potential of the best areas. The locations of these geothermal areas are shown, and the level of progress for each area is shown, expressed as a percentage of completion for the various exploration tasks. Descriptions of the geothermal target areas are presented.

  4. Employment Opportunties, Job Satisfaction, and Migration among Young Adults from Nonmetropolitan Washington. College of Agriculture Research Center, Washington State University, Bulletin 873.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Donald A.; Price, Dorothy Z.

    A study evaluated career attainment and job satisfaction of young adults from nonmetropolitan Washington and identified factors influencing them. Results were based on data collected in a 1973 mail survey of members of high school classes graduating in 1965 and 1966. Career attainment was measured by occupation, earnings, place of work, and…

  5. Comparison of Examination-Based and Self-Reported Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease, Washington State, 2006–2007

    PubMed Central

    Bensley, Lillian; Ossiander, Eric M.; Krueger, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, hypertension, and high cholesterol are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which accounts for approximately 20% of deaths in Washington State. For most states, self-reports from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) provide the primary source of information on these risk factors. The objective of this study was to compare prevalence estimates of self-reported obesity, hypertension, and high cholesterol with examination-based measures of obesity, hypertension, and high-risk lipid profiles. Methods During 2006–2007, the Washington Adult Health Survey (WAHS) included self-reported and examination-based measures of a random sample of 672 Washington State residents aged 25 years or older. We compared WAHS examination-based measures with self-reported measures from WAHS and the 2007 Washington BRFSS (WA-BRFSS). Results The estimated prevalence of obesity from WA-BRFSS (27.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 26.3%–27.8%) was lower than estimates derived from WAHS physical measurements (39.2%; 95% CI, 33.6%–45.1%) (P < .001). Prevalence estimates of hypertension based on self-reports from WA-BRFSS (28.1%; 95% CI, 27.4%–28.8%) and WAHS (33.4%; 95% CI, 29.4%–37.7%) were similar to the examination-based estimate (29.4%; 95% CI, 25.8%–33.4%). Prevalence estimates of high cholesterol based on self-reports from WA-BRFSS (38.3%; 95% CI, 37.5%–39.2%) and WAHS (41.8%; 95% CI, 35.8%–48.1%) were similar; both were lower than the examination-based WAHS estimate of high-risk lipid profiles (59.2%; 95% CI, 54.2%–64.2%) (P < .001). Conclusion Self-reported heights and weights underestimate the prevalence of obesity. The prevalence of self-reported high cholesterol is significantly lower than the prevalence of high-risk lipid profiles. Periodic examination-based measurement provides perspective on routinely collected self-reports. PMID:22721502

  6. Interdecadal variations of annual precipitation in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hu, Q.; Woodruff, C.M.; Mudrick, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    Century-long annual precipitation time series at 168 stations in the central United States are analyzed with special attention given to interdecadal variations. The results show statistically significant precipitation variations of interdecadal timescales in the region. In particular, one variation has a quasi 20-yr period, and another one possesses a quasi 12-yr period.

  7. Geospeedometry and the metamorphic history of the Late Cretaceous Chiwaukum Schist, west central Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.A. . Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences); Lasaga, A.C.; Ague, J.J.; Brandon, M.T. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Chiwaukum Schist on the NE side of the Late Cretaceous Mount Stuart batholith (MSB) shows evidence of a low-P contact metamorphism, followed by a higher-P amphibolite-facies regional metamorphism (Evans and Berti, 1986). Samples were collected from this contact zone in order to quantify the time-temperature history of the schist using the geospeedometry method of Lasaga (1983). Pseudomorphic textures and garnet-aluminosilicate-plagioclase (GASP) geobarometry within some samples show an increase in pressure during crystal growth, consistent with the interpretation of Evans and Berti (1986), that regional metamorphism followed intrusion of the MSB. Geospeedometry exploits the kinetics of diffusion associated with the thermo-barometric exchange reactions in order to determine the retrograde cooling history of a metamorphic rock. This technique was applied using Fe-Mg diffusion between garnet and biotite as defined by that geothermometer. Modeling results indicate that the region was exhumed and cooled from about 22 km and 610 C to about 8 km and 525 C, in a period of about 2.5 Myr. The average exhumation rate is 5.6 km/Myr. These results are consistent with existing isotopic ages, which indicate that the northeast MSB was intruded at about 95 Ma (K/Ar hornblende and U/Pb zircon) and that the Chiwaukum Schist cooled through temperatures of about 350 C at 86 to 83 Ma (K/Ar muscovite). Rapid unroofing appears to follow shortly after the climax of crustal thickening within the Cascade metamorphic core and may be related to erosional and/or tectonic denudation within a mountainous collisional orogen.

  8. Phenazine-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.: Diversity and biogeography in central Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strains of the rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens produce redox-active phenazine antibiotics that suppress a wide variety of soilborne plant pathogens. Our laboratory recently detected these bacteria a population levels up to 106 colony-forming units (cfu) per gram of root (fresh weight)...

  9. Washington state basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-07-01

    This report on Washington is one of a series intended to preserve the data collected for GEOTHERM and make the data available to the public. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Washington. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both in decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C).

  10. Washington, DC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Citizens of the United States vote today (November 7, 2000) to determine who will be the next president and vice president of the country, as well as who will fill a number of congressional and senate seats that are up for election. This image of the U.S. capital city-Washington, D.C.-was acquired on June 1 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), a Japanese sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The scene encompasses an area 14 km wide by 13.7 km tall, and was made using a combination of ASTER's visible and near-infrared channels. In this image, vegetation appears red, buildings and paved areas appear light blue, and the waters of the Anacostia and Potomac Rivers are dark grey. ASTER's 15-meter spatial resolution allows us to see individual buildings, including the White House, the Jefferson Memorial, and the Washington Monument with its shadow. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  11. Agreement. Central State University and the American Association of University Professors, Central State University Chapter. 1985-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central State Univ., Edmond, OK.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Central State University and the university's chapter (295 members) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP), covering the period 1985-1988, is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: academic freedom, nondiscrimination, affirmative action plans, maintenance of practices,…

  12. Persistence of DDT and metabolites in wildlife from Washington State orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Stafford, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Residues of the DDT group, particularly p,p'-DDT (DDT) were detected in high or unusual amounts in some wildlife samples collected in fruit orchards near Wenatchee, Washington from 1979 to 1983. Samples of birds contained p,p'-DDE (DDE) and DDT in ratios (DDE:DDT) as low as 2.6:1 in eggs and 1.9:1 in brains. An unexpectedly high number (about 50%) of some samples, such as fat of adult waterfowl, contained unusually low DDE:DDT ratios (1000 kg/ha over this period. Considerable wildlife mortality from DDT was documented during the period of intensive use, but only one DDT-related mortality was recorded during this study. The possible origin of the residues is discussed. Occurrence of DDT and its metabolites in resident wildlife and its food indicates continuing contamination that probably originates largely from past legal applications in the orchard system.

  13. Compilation of 29 sonic and density logs from 23 oil test wells in western Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Ruebel, April L.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional velocity models for Puget Sound provide a means for better understanding the lateral variations in strong ground motions recorded during local earthquakes in Puget Lowland. We have compiled 29 sonic and density logs from 23 oil test wells to help us determine the geometry and physical properties of the Cenozoic basins in western Washington. The maximum depths sampled by the test wells are between 0.47 and 4.04 km. These well logs sample Quaternary to Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. This report presents the locations, elevations, depths, stratigraphic and other information about the test wells, and provides plots showing the density and sonic velocities as a function of depth for each well log. We also present two-way travel times calculated from the sonic velocities.

  14. Changing concepts of geologic structure and the problem of siting nuclear reactors: examples from Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Tabor, R.W.

    1986-09-01

    The conflict between regulation and healthy evolution of geological science has contributed to the difficulties of siting nuclear reactors. On the Columbia Plateau in Washington, but for conservative design of the Hanford reactor facility, the recognition of the little-understood Olympic-Wallowa lineament as a major, possibly still active structural alignment might have jeopardized the acceptability of the site for nuclear reactors. On the Olympic Peninsula, evolving concepts of compressive structures and their possible recent activity and the current recognition of a subducting Juan de Fuca plate and its potential for generating great earthquakes - both concepts little-considered during initial site selection - may delay final acceptance of the Satsop site. Conflicts of this sort are inevitable but can be accommodated if they are anticipated in the reactor-licensing process. More important, society should be increasing its store of geologic knowledge now, during the current recess in nuclear reactor siting.

  15. Elevation dependence of winter wheat production in eastern Washington state with climate change: A methodological study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Brown, Robert A.; Ghan, Steven J.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Leung, Lai R.

    2002-07-01

    Crop growth models, used in climate change impact assessments to project production on a local scale, can obtain the daily weather information to drive them from models of the Earth's climate. General Circulation Models (GCMs) provide weather information for the entire globe but often cannot depict details of regional climates especially where complex topography plays an important role in weather patterns. The U.S. Pacific Northwest is an important wheat growing region where climate patterns are difficult to resolve with a coarse scale GCM. Here, we use the PNNL Regional Climate Model (RCM) which uses a sub-grid parameterization to resolve the complex topography and simulate meteorology to drive the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator crop model. We simulated winter wheat production in eastern Washington for current climate conditions and a 2xCO2 'greenhouse' scenario of climate change. Dryland wheat yields for the baseline climate averaged 4.52 Mg ha-1 across the study region. Yields were zero at high elevations where temperatures were too low to allow the crops to mature. The highest yields (7.32 Mg ha-1) occurred at intermediate elevations with sufficient precipitation and mild temperatures. Mean yield of dryland winter wheat increased to 5.45 Mg ha-1 for the 2xCO2 climate, which was markedly warmer and wetter. Simulated yields of irrigated wheat were generally higher than dryland yields and followed the same pattern but were, of course, less sensitive to increases in precipitation. Increases in dryland and irrigated wheat yields were due, principally, to decreases in the frequency of temperature and water stress. This study shows that the elevation of a farm is a more important determinant of yield than farm location in eastern Washington and that climate changes would affect wheat yields at all farms in the study.

  16. 78 FR 26417 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Transportation Project in Washington State

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... time period still applies. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Liana Liu, Area Engineer, North Central and... 98501-0943, telephone: (360) 753-9553, email address: Liana.Liu@dot.gov ; or Jason Smith,...

  17. Booker T. Washington and the Political Economy of Black Education in the United States, 1880-1915.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marable, Manning

    1986-01-01

    The author provides a scholarly analysis of Black education in the U.S. between 1880 and 1915. The article examines Booker T. Washington's establishment of the Tuskegee Institute, Washington's philosophy of racial accommodation, contradictions in the Tuskegee approach, and the weakness of Washington's economic strategy. (CT)

  18. Natural Hazard Assessment and Communication in the Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Lynch, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the central United States, natural hazards, such as floods, tornados, ice storms, droughts, and earthquakes, result in significant damages and losses of life every year. For example, the February 5-6, 2008 tornado touched down in nine states (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee), killing 57, injuring 350, and causing more than 1.0 billion in damages. The January 2009 ice storm struck Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, and West Virginia, killing 36 and causing more than 1.0 billion in damages. It is a great challenge for the society to develop an effective policy for mitigating these natural hazards in the central United States. However, the development of an effective policy starts with a good assessment of the natural hazards. Scientists play a key role in assessing the natural hazards. Therefore, scientists play an important role in the development of an effective policy for the natural hazard mitigation. It is critical for scientists to clearly define, quantify, and communicate the hazard assessments, including the associated uncertainties which are a key factor in policy decision making, to end-users. Otherwise, end-users will have difficulty understanding and using the information provided. For example, ground motion hazard maps with 2, 5, and 10 percent probabilities of exceedance (PE) in 50 years in the central United States have been produced for seismic hazard mitigation purpose. End-users have difficulty understanding and using the maps, however, which has led to either indecision or ineffective policy for seismic hazard mitigation in many communities in the central United States.

  19. Timeliness and Data Element Completeness of Immunization Data in Washington State in 2010: a Comparison of Data Exchange Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Rebecca A; Revere, Debra; Altamore, Rita; Abernethy, Neil F.; Lober, William B

    2012-01-01

    Health information systems receive data through various methods. These data exchange methods have the potential to influence data quality. We assessed a de-identified 2010 dataset including 757,476 demographic records and 2,634,101 vaccination records from Washington State’s Immunization Information System (IIS) to describe timeliness and completeness of IIS data across several data exchange methods: manual entry, HL7, and flat file upload. Overall, manually-entered data and HL7 records were more timely than records imported as flat files. Completeness, though very high overall, was slightly higher for records arriving via flat file. Washington State IIS users, including clinicians and public health, rely on its data to inform patient care and determine population coverage of immunizations. Our results suggest that although data element completeness in systems like Washington’s IIS will likely not be immediately or significantly impacted by provider’s migration to HL7 connections with IISs, timeliness could be substantially improved when using HL7 connections. PMID:23304304

  20. The changing nature of flooding across the central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallakpour, Iman; Villarini, Gabriele

    2015-03-01

    In the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, flooding has taken a devastating societal and economic toll on the central United States, contributing to dozens of fatalities and causing billions of dollars in damage. As a warmer atmosphere can hold more moisture (the Clausius-Clapeyron relation), a pronounced increase in intense rainfall events is included in models of future climate. Therefore, it is crucial to examine whether the magnitude and/or frequency of flood events is remaining constant or has been changing over recent decades. If either or both of these attributes have changed over time, it is imperative that we understand the underlying mechanisms that are responsible. Here, we show that while observational records (774 stream gauge stations) from the central United States present limited evidence of significant changes in the magnitude of floodpeaks, strong evidence points to an increasing frequency of flooding. These changes in flood hydrology result from changes in both seasonal rainfall and temperature across this region.

  1. 22 CFR Appendix D to Part 62 - Annual Report-Exchange Visitor Program Services (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... insurance requirement (22 CFR 514.14). I also certify that the information contained in this report is... (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547, (202-401-7964) D Appendix D to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Pt. 62, App....

  2. 22 CFR Appendix D to Part 62 - Annual Report-Exchange Visitor Program Services (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... insurance requirement (22 CFR 514.14). I also certify that the information contained in this report is... (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547, (202-401-7964) D Appendix D to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Pt. 62, App....

  3. 22 CFR Appendix D to Part 62 - Annual Report-Exchange Visitor Program Services (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... insurance requirement (22 CFR 514.14). I also certify that the information contained in this report is... (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547, (202-401-7964) D Appendix D to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Pt. 62, App....

  4. What's It All About? Survival Through Education. A Proposal for the Creation and Implementation of Environmental Education in the Northwest Region of Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklin, William J.

    A request for the creation and implementation of environmental education in the northwest region of Washington state is prepared in this project proposal. Designed as a model to aid in the development of a state plan for environmental education, this interdisciplinary, field- and people-oriented project of the Northwest Environmental Education…

  5. Washington State Student Achievement Initiative: Achievement Points Analysis for Academic Years 2007-2011. CCRC-IHELP Student Achievement Initiative Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges launched the Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), a system-wide policy to reward colleges for improvements in student achievement. Under the SAI, since 2009, the state has awarded some funds based on how much colleges have increased student achievement relative to their own…

  6. 22 CFR Appendix D to Part 62 - Annual Report-Exchange Visitor Program Services (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... insurance requirement (22 CFR 514.14). I also certify that the information contained in this report is... (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547, (202-401-7964) D Appendix D to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Pt. 62, App....

  7. 22 CFR Appendix D to Part 62 - Annual Report-Exchange Visitor Program Services (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance requirement (22 CFR 514.14). I also certify that the information contained in this report is... (GC/V), Department of State, Washington, DC 20547, (202-401-7964) D Appendix D to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Pt. 62, App....

  8. The State of Digital Preservation: An International Perspective. Conference Proceedings (1st, Washington, D.C., April 24-25, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    In this collection of papers presented at "The State of Digital Preservation: An International Perspective" conference (Washington, DC, April 24-25, 2002), leading experts from the United States, the Netherlands, and Australia describe current practices and challenges in digital preservation. Contents include: "Introduction: The Changing…

  9. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at one- and two-year follow-up in Washington, United States and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students (N = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004 (Grade 9 [G9]). Rates of lifetime, current, frequent, and heavy episodic alcohol use were higher in Victoria than Washington State, whereas rates of five antisocial behaviors were generally comparable across states. After controlling for established risk factors, few associations between alcohol use and antisocial behavior remained, except that G7 current use predicted G8 police arrests and stealing and G9 carrying a weapon and stealing; G7 heavy episodic use predicted G8 and G9 police arrests; and G7 lifetime use predicted G9 carrying a weapon. Hence, risk factors other than alcohol were stronger predictors of antisocial behaviors. PMID:25132702

  10. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-04-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at one- and two-year follow-up in Washington, United States and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students (N = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004 (Grade 9 [G9]). Rates of lifetime, current, frequent, and heavy episodic alcohol use were higher in Victoria than Washington State, whereas rates of five antisocial behaviors were generally comparable across states. After controlling for established risk factors, few associations between alcohol use and antisocial behavior remained, except that G7 current use predicted G8 police arrests and stealing and G9 carrying a weapon and stealing; G7 heavy episodic use predicted G8 and G9 police arrests; and G7 lifetime use predicted G9 carrying a weapon. Hence, risk factors other than alcohol were stronger predictors of antisocial behaviors. PMID:25132702

  11. Multiple sources for late-Holocene tsunamis at Discovery Bay, Washington State, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, H.F.L.; Hutchinson, I.; Nelson, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Nine muddy sand beds interrupt a 2500-yr-old sequence of peat deposits beneath a tidal marsh at the head of Discovery Bay on the south shore of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. An inferred tsunami origin for the sand beds is assessed by means of six criteria. Although all the sand beds contain marine diatoms and almost all the beds display internal stratification, the areal extent of the oldest beds is too limited to confirm their origin as tsunami deposits. The ages of four beds overlap with known late-Holocene tsunamis generated by plate-boundary earthquakes at the Cascadia subduction zone. Diatom assemblages in peat deposits bracketing these four beds do not indicate concurrent change in elevation at Discovery Bay. Diatoms in the peat bracketing a tsunami bed deposited about 1000 cal. yr BP indicate a few decimeters of submergence, suggesting deformation on a nearby upper-plate fault. Other beds may mark tsunamis caused by more distant upper-plate earthquakes or local submarine landslides triggered by earthquake shaking. Tsunamis from both subduction zone and upper-plate sources pose a significant hazard to shoreline areas in this region.

  12. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  13. Addressing barriers to perinatal care: a case study of the Access to Maternity Care Committee in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Schleuning, D; Rice, G; Rosenblatt, R A

    1991-01-01

    Access to obstetrical services has deteriorated in recent years, as large numbers of physicians have discontinued or restricted obstetrical practice. In Washington State, one response to this access crisis has been the establishment of the Access to Maternity Care Committee (AMCC), an ad hoc group composed primarily of private sector obstetrical providers and representatives of State government responsible for the delivery of health care to women and children. The major objectives of the AMCC is to improve access to obstetrical services for socially vulnerable women, both rural inhabitants and the medically indigent. The committee has been successful in serving as a forum in which to resolve many of the administrative problems that have arisen between private sector obstetrical providers and the State's Medicaid Program, the major source of payment for the one-third of pregnant women who are medically indigent. Building upon the trust that the committee members developed in working together, the AMCC served as a major force in persuading the State legislature to expand substantially its investment in perinatal care by increasing Medicaid eligibility, raising provider reimbursement, and improving social service for pregnant women. Such ad hoc coalitions between the private and public sector may be quite effective in addressing obstetrical access problems in other States. PMID:1899939

  14. 76 FR 58031 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... (NIC) describing 4 individuals and 42 associated funerary objects removed from the Cedar Cave site was published in the Federal Register [72 FR 52391-52392, September 13, 2007]. The Burke Museum and Central... Items In 1953-1954, human remains were removed from the Cedar Cave Site (45-KT-20), in Kittitas...

  15. Teachers' Response to Standards-Based Reform: Probing Reform Assumptions in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Hilary; Knapp, Michael S.; Elfers, Ana M.

    2008-01-01

    Because teachers' efforts are central to the success of standards-based reform, it behooves the policy community to look carefully at the beliefs about instruction that are rooted in this reform theory. Building on teacher-centric research on standards-based reform and ideas about teaching practice from research on multicultural education, this…

  16. Digital representation of the Washington state geologic map: a contribution to the Interior Columbia River Basin Ecosystem Management Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Johnson, Bruce R.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the digital representation of the Washington state geologic map (Hunting and others, 1961). This report contains an explantion of why the data were prepared, a description of the digital data, and information on obtaining the digital files. This report is one in a series of digital maps, data files, and reports generated by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide geologic process and mineral resource information to the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). The various digital maps and data files are being used in a geographic information system (GIS)-based ecosystem assessment including an analysis of diverse questions relating to past, present, and future conditions within the general area of the Columbia River Basin east of the Cascade Mountains.

  17. Computational and experimental physics performance characterization of the neutron capture therapy research facility at Washington State Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Nigg, D. W.; Sloan, P. E.; Venhuizen, J. R.; Wemple, C. A.; Tripard, G. E.; Fox, K.; Corwin, E.

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the final beam characterization measurements for a dual mode epithermal-thermal beam facility for neutron capture therapy research that was recently constructed at the Washington State Univ. TRIGA{sup TM} research reactor. The results show that the performance of the beam facility is consistent with the design computations and with international standards for the intended application. A useful epithermal neutron flux of 1.3 x 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}-s is produced at the irradiation point with the beam in epithermal mode and shaped by a 10-cm circular aperture plate. When the beam is thermalized with approximately 34 cm of heavy water, the useful thermal flux at the irradiation point is approximately 3.5 x 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}-s. The new WSU facility is one of only two such installations currently operating in the US. (authors)

  18. Innovation in patient-centered care: lessons from a qualitative study of innovative health care organizations in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations – from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Results Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Conclusions Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets and addressing conditions for

  19. Active Structures in the Georgia Basin, NW Washington State, USA, and SW British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivka, P.; Riedel, M.; Pratt, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Georgia basin is a local depression in the Cascadia forearc straddling the USA-Canadian border that hosts Canada's largest west coast population. The basin contains late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments overlying a thick sequence of Eocene and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and is currently experiencing N-S shortening. Tectonic structures capable of accommodating this N-S shortening are recognized in Oregon and Washington; however, none have been identified in southwest Canada despite multiple independent geodetic studies indicating that shortening continues further north. This conflict of observed shortening over a region without recognized active structures suggests that seismic hazard may be underestimated in Canada. We combine multiple seismic reflection surveys and multibeam bathymetry with published geophysical data and on-shore mapping to identify active structures and assess seismic hazard. Reflection datasets span the USA-CA border and include those from the deep 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigations of Puget Sound (SHIPS), high resolution 2002 SHIPS, localized sparker, and deep industry lines. These data are augmented by digitized paper records of past reflection surveys. The 1998 SHIPS and industry lines show strong reflections of folded and faulted Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary bedrock to 5 km depth. Shallow sediment deformation is imaged on the 2002 SHIPS and sparker lines. Combining these profiles, bathymetry, and surficial bedrock mapping in a 3-D interpretation program facilitated the correlation of features across multiple 2-D seismic lines, allowing us to interpret four new regional stratigraphic and tectonic characteristics. (1) The 1997 ML4.6 Gabriola Island earthquake was a north-side up thrust event occurring 30 km west of Vancouver at ~3.5 km depth. The event was previously correlated with a zone of low coherence on the SHIPS 1998 line. We reprocessed the line and imaged distinct reflector terminations. A generally E-W strike is

  20. Active faulting on the Wallula fault within the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL), eastern Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Lasher, J. P.; Barnett, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Several studies over the last 40 years focused on a segment of the Wallula fault exposed in a quarry at Finley, Washington. The Wallula fault is important because it is part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), a ~500-km-long topographic and structural lineament extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Walla Walla, Washington that accommodates Basin and Range extension. The origin and nature of the OWL is of interest because it contains potentially active faults that are within 50 km of high-level nuclear waste facilities at the Hanford Site. Mapping in the 1970's and 1980's suggested the Wallula fault did not offset Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits and is therefore inactive. New exposures of the Finley quarry wall studied here suggest otherwise. We map three main packages of rocks and sediments in a ~10 m high quarry exposure. The oldest rocks are very fine grained basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (~13.5 Ma). The next youngest deposits include a thin layer of vesicular basalt, white volcaniclastic deposits, colluvium containing clasts of vesicular basalt, and indurated paleosols. A distinct angular unconformity separates these vesicular basalt-bearing units from overlying late Pleistocene flood deposits, two colluvium layers containing angular clasts of basalt, and Holocene tephra-bearing loess. A tephra within the loess likely correlates to nearby outcrops of Mazama ash. We recognize three styles of faults: 1) a near vertical master reverse or oblique fault juxtaposing very fine grained basalt against late Tertiary-Holocene deposits, and marked by a thick (~40 cm) vertical seam of carbonate cemented breccia; 2) subvertical faults that flatten upwards and displace late Tertiary(?) to Quaternary(?) soils, colluvium, and volcaniclastic deposits; and 3) flexural slip faults along bedding planes in folded deposits in the footwall. We infer at least two Holocene earthquakes from the quarry exposure. The first Holocene earthquake deformed

  1. Seismic amplification within the Seattle Basin, Washington State: Insights from SHIPS seismic tomography experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Miller, K.C.; Pratt, T.L.; Trehu, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that the Seattle sedimentary basin, underlying Seattle and other urban centers in the Puget Lowland, Washington, amplifies long-period (1-5 sec) weak ground motions by factors of 10 or more. We computed east-trending P- and S-wave velocity models across the Seattle basin from Seismic Hazard Investigations of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiments to better characterize the seismic hazard the basin poses. The 3D tomographic models, which resolve features to a depth of 10 km, for the first time define the P- and S-wave velocity structure of the eastern end of the basin. The basin, which contains sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Holocene, is broadly symmetric in east-west section and reaches a maximum thickness of 6 km along our profile beneath north Seattle. A comparison of our velocity model with coincident amplification curves for weak ground motions produced by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake suggests that the distribution of Quaternary deposits and reduced velocity gradients in the upper part of the basement east of Seattle have significance in forecasting variations in seismic-wave amplification across the basin. Specifically, eastward increases in the amplification of 0.2- to 5-Hz energy correlate with locally thicker unconsolidated deposits and a change from Crescent Formation basement to pre-Tertiary Cascadia basement. These models define the extent of the Seattle basin, the Seattle fault, and the geometry of the basement contact, giving insight into the tectonic evolution of the Seattle basin and its influence on ground shaking.

  2. Combined Active and Passive Seismic Methods To Characterize Strongmotion Sites in Washington and Oregon, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pileggi, D.; Cakir, R.; Lunedei, E.; Albarello, D.; Walsh, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the shear-wave velocity profile at strongmotion station sites is important for calibrating accelerograms in terms of local site effects. Surface-wave seismic prospecting methods (both in active and passive configurations) provide an effective tool for an inexpensive and deep penetrating seismic characterization of subsoil. We used a combination of active (Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves, MASW) and passive (Extended Spectral AutoCorrelation, ESAC) array techniques along with the single-station ambient vibration measurements (Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratios - HVSR) to characterize strong-motion sites in Washington and Oregon. The MASW analysis was used to better constrain the shallowest part of the Vs profile, while effective dispersion curve provided by ESAC and HVSR data allow us to extend the survey downwards (up to hundred meters of depth). The combined use of these data in the frame of global-search inversion algorithms (Genetic Algorithms) allows us to manage the extreme non-linearity of the inverse problem and mitigate problems associated with the non-uniqueness of the solution. A strict synergy between geologic surveys, boreholes (when the latter was available) and seismic surveys allows a further reduction of relevant uncertainties. Preliminary results show that; i) this combined methodology is a practical, inexpensive, and fast way to characterize multiple strong motion sites; ii) local geology and/or borehole information was combined to better constrain the inversion and to reduce the uncertainty in velocity profiles; and, iii) this combined methodology gives additional information of shear-wave velocities at greater depths.

  3. Regional Hydraulic Geometry Curves of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Chelan and King Counties, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperi, J. T.; McClung, J. M.; Hanson, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service has developed regional hydraulic geometry curves relating drainage area to bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area for the east and west sides of the northern Cascade Mountains in Chelan and King Counties, Washington. NRCS surveyed 10 channel reaches with drainage areas from 1 to 1000 square miles within the Wenatchee River drainage of Chelan County and 10 channel reaches with drainage areas of 1 to 100 square miles within the Cedar and Green River drainages of King County. Selection criteria for stream reaches required a minimum of 20 years of USGS stream gage discharge records, unregulated flows and safe access. Survey data were collected with a Sokkia Total Station during low flow conditions from August 2004 to September 2005. NRCS measured a channel cross-section at each of the USGS stream gage sites and two or three additional cross-sections up and downstream. The authors also collected samples of bed material for gradation analysis and estimation of Manning's roughness coefficient, n. Bankfull elevations were estimated based on visual identification of field indicators and USGS flood discharges for the 50% exceedance probability event. Field data were evaluated with the Ohio DNR Reference Reach spreadsheet to determine bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area. We applied a simple linear regression to the data following USGS statistical methods to evaluate the closeness of fit between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions. The resulting R2 values of 0.83 to 0.93 for the eastern Cascade data of Chelan County and 0.71 to 0.88 for the western Cascade data of King County indicate a close association between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions for these two sets of data.

  4. Plant hydraulics as a central hub integrating plant and ecosystem function: meeting report for 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' (Washington, DC, May 2015).

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Ball, Marilyn C; Brodersen, Craig; Davis, Stephen D; Des Marais, David L; Donovan, Lisa A; Givnish, Thomas J; Hacke, Uwe G; Huxman, Travis; Jansen, Steven; Jacobsen, Anna L; Johnson, Daniel M; Koch, George W; Maurel, Christophe; McCulloh, Katherine A; McDowell, Nate G; McElrone, Andrew; Meinzer, Frederick C; Melcher, Peter J; North, Gretchen; Pellegrini, Matteo; Pockman, William T; Pratt, R Brandon; Sala, Anna; Santiago, Louis S; Savage, Jessica A; Scoffoni, Christine; Sevanto, Sanna; Sperry, John; Tyerman, Stephen D; Way, Danielle; Holbrook, N Michele

    2016-09-01

    Water plays a central role in plant biology and the efficiency of water transport throughout the plant affects both photosynthetic rate and growth, an influence that scales up deterministically to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, hydraulic traits mediate the ways in which plants interact with their abiotic and biotic environment. At landscape to global scale, plant hydraulic traits are important in describing the function of ecological communities and ecosystems. Plant hydraulics is increasingly recognized as a central hub within a network by which plant biology is connected to palaeobiology, agronomy, climatology, forestry, community and ecosystem ecology and earth-system science. Such grand challenges as anticipating and mitigating the impacts of climate change, and improving the security and sustainability of our food supply rely on our fundamental knowledge of how water behaves in the cells, tissues, organs, bodies and diverse communities of plants. A workshop, 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' supported by the National Science Foundation, was held in Washington DC, 2015 to promote open discussion of new ideas, controversies regarding measurements and analyses, and especially, the potential for expansion of up-scaled and down-scaled inter-disciplinary research, and the strengthening of connections between plant hydraulic research, allied fields and global modelling efforts. PMID:27037757

  5. Paleoecological and biogeographical implications of late Pleistocene noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) in eastern Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2011-01-01

    A mandible identified as noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) recovered from sediments dating to 11,800 cal yr BP and a humerus identified as M. a. cf. nobilis recovered from sediments dating from 13,100 to 12,500 cal yr BP at the Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington represent the first record of this taxon in the state. Mammalian taxa associated with the Marmes Rockshelter noble marten represent a diversity of open mesic habitats corroborating earlier analyses of other records of the noble marten in the western United States and exemplify how paleozoologists determine the ecology and environmental predilections of extinct taxa. The recovery site represents the topographically lowest record of this species in western North America and the farthest north record in the United States. Future research should examine known late-Quaternary Martes spp. remains from British Columbia and Alberta to fill in the 2200-km geographic gap in the known distribution of this taxon between a record in the northern Yukon and those in the western United States, and to refine our knowledge of noble marten paleoecology.

  6. Agricultural pesticide applications and observed concentrations in surface waters from four drainage basins in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, R.J.; Ebbert, J.C.; Roberts, L.M.; Ryker, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the use and occurrence of agricultural pesticides were investigated in four drainage basins--two dominated by irrigated agriculture and two by dryland agriculture--in the Central Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington. For this study, 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites were selected for analysis from a list of nearly 400 compounds commonly used in the United States. Pesticide-use data included estimates of the total quantity of herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides applied to croplands in each of the four drainage basins and reported times of application for selected pesticides. Pesticide-occurrence data included concentrations of pesticides in samples collected at one surface-water site at or near the outflow of each of the four drainage basins, where surface waters were sampled one to five times a month from March 1993 through May 1994. Of the 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites targeted for analysis, a total of 45 different compounds were detected in samples from the four sites, ranging in concentration from at or near the limit of detection (as low as 0.001 microgram per liter) to a maximum of 8.1 micrograms per liter. None of the concentrations of pesticides exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water standards, but concentrations of five pesticides exceeded the USEPA freshwater-chronic criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Forty-one different pesticides or pesticide metabolites were detected in surface waters sampled at the two sites representing irrigated agriculture drainage basins. The herbicides atrazine, DCPA, and EPTC were detected most frequently at the two sampling sites. Not all pesticides that were applied were detected, however. For example, disulfoton, phorate, and methyl parathion accounted for 15 percent of the insecticides applied in the two irrigated drainage basins, yet none of these pesticides were detected in

  7. A Brief History of the Resting State: the Washington University Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a history of the concepts and developments that have led us to focus on the resting state as an object of study. We then discuss resting state research performed in our laboratory since 2005 with an emphasis on papers of particular interest. PMID:22266172

  8. Core 24 Implementation Task Force Final Report to the Washington State Board of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The State Board of Education (SBE) created the Core 24 Implementation Task Force (ITF) to examine the implementation issues associated with the Core 24 high school graduation requirements framework, passed by the State Board of Education (SBE) in July 2008. The SBE chartered the ITF to advise the SBE on strategies needed to implement the…

  9. Washington Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David M.; Boboltz, David

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Washington Correlator for 2012. The Washington Correlator provides up to 80 hours of attended processing per week plus up to 40 hours of unattended operation, primarily supporting Earth Orientation and astrometric observations. In 2012, the major programs supported include the IVS-R4, IVS-INT, APSG, and CRF observing sessions.

  10. Contaminants in eggs of colonial waterbirds and hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme levels in pipped tern embryos, Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Henny, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) collected in 1991 from nesting colonies on Crescent Island (Columbia River) and the Potholes Reservoir in south central Washington generally contained low residues of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in pipped embryos of Forster's terns from the two colonies seemed unaffected by contaminants. At Crescent Island, examination of 23 Forster's tern eggs with large embryos (19 viable [10 pipped] and four dead [two pipped]) revealed developmental abnormalities in two viable pipped embryos (missing maxilla and deformed pelvic girdle) and a viable prepipping embryos (shortened beak). Our limited sample sizes and number of compounds analyzed preclude us from determining whether or not the abnormalities are related to contaminants. No abnormalities were noted in 10 pipped eggs (nine viable and one dead at collection) of Forster's terns collected from the Potholes Reservoir colony. Eggs of Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) collected from Crescent Island in 1991 also contained generally low residues of contaminants, only one developmental abnormality was noted, and limited data indicated that cytochrome P450 enzyme activity apparently was unaffected by contaminants. Organochlorine contaminants were generally low in addled eggs of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) collected from Crescent Island in 1994

  11. Contaminants in eggs of colonial waterbirds and hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme levels in pipped tern embryos, Washington State.

    PubMed

    Blus, L J; Melancon, M J; Hoffman, D J; Henny, C J

    1998-10-01

    Eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) collected in 1991 from nesting colonies on Crescent Island (Columbia River) and the Potholes Reservoir in south central Washington generally contained low residues of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in pipped embryos of Forster's terns from the two colonies seemed unaffected by contaminants. At Crescent Island, examination of 23 Forster's tern eggs with large embryos (19 viable [10 pipped] and four dead [two pipped]) revealed developmental abnormalities in two viable pipped embryos (missing maxilla and deformed pelvic girdle) and a viable prepipping embryo (shortened beak). Our limited sample sizes and number of compounds analyzed preclude us from determining whether or not the abnormalities are related to contaminants. No abnormalities were noted in 10 pipped eggs (nine viable and one dead at collection) of Forster's terns collected from the Potholes Reservoir colony. Eggs of Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) collected from Crescent Island in 1991 also contained generally low residues of contaminants, only one developmental abnormality was noted, and limited data indicated that cytochrome P450 enzyme activity apparently was unaffected by contaminants. Organochlorine contaminants were generally low in addled eggs of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) collected from Crescent Island in 1994. PMID:9732482

  12. Analysis of High Precision GPS Time Series and Strain Rates for the Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of Washington State Prospects Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-22

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time series from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earthscope’s Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Central Washington University’s Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA). GPS station velocities were used to infer strain rates using the ‘splines in tension’ method. Strain rates were derived separately for subduction zone locking at depth and block rotation near the surface within crustal block boundaries.

  13. Peeking below Columbia River flood basalts with high-resolution aeromagnetic data: implications for central Washington earthquake hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Wells, R. E.; Weaver, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    The largest crustal earthquake in Washington's recorded history (M 6.8) occurred in 1872 in the vicinity of Lake Chelan. Numerous smaller earthquakes (>1000 earthquakes since 1971 with 1.0 ≤ MW ≤ 4.3) continue to occur 20 km south of Lake Chelan near the town of Entiat, yet little is known about active structures responsible for this ongoing deformation. A 2011 aeromagnetic survey may provide insights. The survey was flown with a fixed-wing aircraft along flight lines spaced 400 m apart and at an altitude 250 m above terrain or as low as safely possible. The survey illuminates two distinct magnetic patterns. Northwest of Entiat, broad, subdued magnetic anomalies are caused by weakly magnetic, pre-Tertiary basement rocks striking generally NW. Magnetic lineaments are associated, for example, with the NW-striking Entiat fault, the structural margin of the Chiwaukum graben, which is well represented by gravity anomalies. Southeast of Entiat, high-amplitude, short-wavelength magnetic anomalies are caused by strongly magnetic rocks of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) exposed throughout this region. Northwest-striking basement anomalies, so clear NW of Entiat, are not obvious SE of Entiat, yet there is no reason to believe basement structures do not extend beneath CRBG. We used matched filtering methods to illuminate the crustal framework of the Entiat earthquakes beneath CRBG. We selected two sub regions, one over pre-Tertiary basement NW of Entiat (sub region 1), the other over CRBG SE of Entiat (sub region 2). We modeled each sub region by fitting layer parameters to power spectra determined from magnetic anomalies (Phillips, 2007). A strongly magnetic layer was determined 470 m below the aircraft in sub region 2, which we interpret as the average top of CRBG. This interpretation is supported by the absence of a similar magnetic layer in sub region 1, where CRBG is in fact absent. Using this determination, we designed a matched filter to subdue

  14. Washington Community Colleges Factbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Terre; Story, Sherie

    Detailed information on the 27 state-supported community colleges in Washington is presented in six sections. The first section, containing general information, describes the state system organization, lists the individual colleges, and reviews the roles of state agencies and presents a history of the system. A section on student information…

  15. Washington School Finance Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    The proportion of state funding for public schools in Washington is among the highest in the nation: about 75 percent of school-district General Fund revenue comes from the state. Almost 60 percent of all state General Fund expenditures are for education (about 46 percent for grades K-12 and 12 percent for higher education). The state…

  16. The south-central United States magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starich, P. J.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    A positive magnetic anomaly, which dominates the MAGSAT scalar field over the south-central United States, results from the superposition of magnetic effects from several geologic sources and tectonic structures in the crust. The highly magnetic basement rocks of this region show good correlation with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity and predominantly negative free-air gravity anomalies, all of which are useful constraints for modeling the magnetic sources. The positive anomaly is composed of two primary elements. The western-most segment is related to middle Proterozoic granite intrusions, rhyolite flows and interspersed metamorphic basement rocks in the Texas panhandle and eastern New Mexico. The anomaly and the magnetic crust are bounded to the west by the north-south striking Rio Grande Rift. The anomaly extends eastward over the Grenville age basement rocks of central Texas, and is terminated to the south and east by the buried extension of the Ouachita System. The northern segment of the anomaly extends eastward across Oklahoma and Arkansas to the Mississippi Embayment. It corresponds to a general positive magnetic region associated with the Wichita Mountains igneous complex in south-central Oklahoma and 1.2 to 1.5 Ga. felsic terrane to the north.

  17. Net Impact and Benefit-Cost Estimates of the Workforce Development System in Washington State. Upjohn Institute Technical Report No. TR06-020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Kevin; Huang, Wei-Jang

    2006-01-01

    This study estimates the net impacts and private and social benefits and costs of 11 workforce development programs administered in Washington State. Six of the programs serve job-ready adults: Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Title I-B Adult programs, WIA Title I-B Dislocated Worker programs, Community and Technical College Job Preparatory…

  18. COMMUNITY COLLEGE ACT OF 1967. WASHINGTON STATE LEGISLATURE ENGROSSED SUBSTITUTE HOUSE BILL NUMBER 548, CHAPTER 8, LAWS, EXTRAORDINARY SESSION, 1967. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Legislature, Olympia.

    THIS BILL, ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON, IS KNOWN AS THE "COMMUNITY COLLEGE ACT OF 1967." IT AMENDS EXISTING LEGISLATION TO BRING IT MORE IN KEEPING WITH PRESENT-DAY REQUIREMENTS FOR A JUNIOR COLLEGE SYSTEM. ITS PURPOSE IS TO (1) OFFER A POST-HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION TO EVERY CITIZEN, REGARDLESS OF BACKGROUND OR EXPERIENCE,…

  19. Assessment of the Joint Food Science Curriculum of Washington State University and the University of Idaho by Graduates and Their Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Stephanie; McCurdy, Alan; Roy, Sharon; Smith, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two recent graduates from the joint food science program of Washington State Univ. (WSU) and The Univ. of Idaho (UI) and 12 of their employers participated in a survey study to assess food science program outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the joint curriculum in its ability to prepare undergraduate students for critical…

  20. Assessing the Relationship between Teacher Performance on Washington State's ProTeach Portfolio and Student Test Performance. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2014-­2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, James; Goldhaber, Dan

    2014-01-01

    As part of Washington State's efforts to ensure and improve the quality of the teacher workforce, the Professional Educator Standards Board (PESB), with assistance from Educational Testing Services (ETS), has recently introduced a new, evidence-based assessment of teachers called the ProTeach Portfolio. The development of ProTeach was mandated by…

  1. Public Broadcasting and Educational Television: A Report to the Washington State Legislature by the Subcommittee on Educational Television and Libraries of the Joint Committee on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, R. G.; Boice, Eldon G.

    During the years 1967-69, the Instruction Subcommittee of the Joint Committee on Education held a series of hearings to pinpoint the financial and organizational problems of educational television in the state of Washington. The problems revealed by this investigation prompted the Subcommittee to contract with Dr. Kenneth Christiansen, Director of…

  2. Valley fever: finding new places for an old disease: Coccidioides immitis found in Washington State soil associated with recent human infection.

    PubMed

    Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Hurst, Steven; Hill, Heather; Gade, Lalitha; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Ralston, Cindy; Roe, Chandler; Barker, Bridget M; Goldoft, Marcia; Keim, Paul; Wohrle, Ron; Thompson, George R; Engelthaler, David M; Brandt, Mary E; Chiller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We used real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture to demonstrate persistent colonization of soils by Coccidioides immitis, an agent of valley fever, in Washington State linked to recent human infections and located outside the endemic range. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed genetic identity between isolates from soil and one of the case-patients. PMID:25165087

  3. Do Bonuses Affect Teacher Staffing and Student Achievement in High-Poverty Schools? Evidence from an Incentive for National Board Certified Teachers in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, James; Goldhaber, Dan

    2015-01-01

    We study a teacher incentive policy in Washington State that awards a financial bonus to National Board Certified Teachers who teach in high-poverty schools. We study the effects of the policy on student achievement and teacher staffing using a regression discontinuity design that exploits the fact that eligibility for the bonus is based on the…

  4. Contributions of Dr. George Washington Carver to global food security: historical reflections of Dr. Carver’s fungal plant disease survey in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. George Washington Carver was a world renowned scientist whose research in the agricultural sciences in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s was critical for improving the living standards of American farmers especially in the southern United States. Although best known for developing the many uses o...

  5. The Willapa Bay Oyster Reserves in Washington State: Fishery collapse, creating a sustainable replacement, and the potential for habitat conservation and restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oysters have been an important resource in Washington state since the mid 1800’s and are intimately associated with recent history of the Willapa Bay estuary just as they have defined social culture around much larger US east coast systems. The Willapa Bay oyster reserves were set aside to preserve...

  6. On the Road to Second-Order Change: What Washington State Educators Say about Collaboration, Instructional Enhancement, and Fundamental Change. Research Report #11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington School Research Center, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of recent educational reform efforts in Washington State and to determine what educators believe to be the most important future areas of focus. In particular, the researchers wanted to determine whether school-wide improvement efforts (i.e. School Improvement Plans (SIPs), School Improvement…

  7. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  8. The south-central United States magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Starich, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The South-Central United States Magnetic Anomaly is the most prominent positive feature in the MAGSAT scalar magnetic field over North America. The anomaly correlates with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity, negative free air gravity anomalies and an extensive zone of Middle Proterozoic anorogenic felsic basement rocks. Spherical dipole source inversion of the MAGSAT scalar data and subsequent calculation of reduced to pole and derivative maps provide constraints for a crustal magnetic model which corresponds geographically to the extensive Middle Proterozoic felsic rocks trending northeasterly across the United States. These felsic rocks contain insufficient magnetization or volume to produce the anomaly, but are rather indicative of a crustal zone which was disturbed during a Middle Proterozoic thermal event which enriched magnetic material deep in the crust.

  9. The south-central United States magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starich, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    The South-Central United States Magnetic Anomaly is the most prominent positive feature in the MAGSAT scalar magnetic field over North America. The anomaly correlates with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity, negative free-air gravity anomalies and an extensive zone of Middle Proterozoic anorogenic felsic basement rocks. Spherical dipole source inversion of the MAGSAT scalar data and subsequent calculation of reduced-to-pole and derivative maps provide additional constraints for a crustal magnetic model which corresponds geographically to the extensive Middle Proterozoic felsic rocks trending northeasterly across the United States. These felsic rocks contain insufficient magnetization or volume to produce the anomaly, but are rather indicative of a crustal zone which was disturbed during a Middle Proterozoic thermal event which enriched magnetic material deep in the crust.

  10. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the upper Yakima River Basin, Kittitas County, central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Ely, D. Matthew; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology, hydrology, and geochemistry of groundwater and surface water in the upper (western) 860 square miles of the Yakima River Basin in Kittitas County, Washington, were studied to evaluate the groundwater-flow system, occurrence and availability of groundwater, and the extent of groundwater/surface-water interactions. The study area ranged in altitude from 7,960 feet in its headwaters in the Cascade Range to 1,730 feet at the confluence of the Yakima River with Swauk Creek. A west-to-east precipitation gradient exists in the basin with the western, high-altitude headwaters of the basin receiving more than 100 inches of precipitation per year and the eastern, low-altitude part of the basin receiving about 20 inches of precipitation per year. From the early 20th century onward, reservoirs in the upper part of the basin (for example, Keechelus, Kachess, and Cle Elum Lakes) have been managed to store snowmelt for irrigation in the greater Yakima River Basin. Canals transport water from these reservoirs for irrigation in the study area; additional water use is met through groundwater withdrawals from wells and surface-water withdrawals from streams and rivers. Estimated groundwater use for domestic, commercial, and irrigation purposes is reported for the study area. A complex assemblage of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous bedrock underlies the study area. In a structural basin in the southeastern part of the study area, the bedrock is overlain by unconsolidated sediments of glacial and alluvial origin. Rocks and sediments were grouped into six hydrogeologic units based on their lithologic and hydraulic characteristics. A map of their extent was developed from previous geologic mapping and lithostratigraphic information from drillers’ logs. Water flows through interstitial space in unconsolidated sediments, but largely flows through fractures and other sources of secondary porosity in bedrock. Generalized groundwater-flow directions within the

  11. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  12. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  13. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  14. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  15. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  16. Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

  17. Washington Rises: Public Financial Support for Intellectual Disability in the United States, 1955-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, David

    2007-01-01

    Public financial support for intellectual disability in the United States grew from 2.3 billion in 1955 to 82.6 billion in 2004, and the federal government emerged during this period as the principal provider of such support. Notwithstanding this unprecedented growth in financial support, many inequities persist today in the distribution of…

  18. Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM[R] Math: Washington State. Technical Report #1008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention framework. Educators using easyCBM[R] are often interested in using the results to predict students' state test performance. In the following technical document, we report diagnostic efficiency statistics using a sample…

  19. 78 FR 4804 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma-Pierce County Nonattainment Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... concentrations (62 FR 38652). EPA established the standards based on significant evidence and numerous health... and health studies (71 FR 61144). Following promulgation of a new or revised NAAQS, EPA is required by... 2.5 standard (74 FR 58688; published on November 13, 2009). Under the CAA, states are required...

  20. 78 FR 79652 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Washington: State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... and 61 FR 25580. Lastly, Ecology requested EPA approval of the state annual sulfur dioxide air quality... approved into the SIP on January 15, 1993 (58 FR 4578). Ecology asked the EPA to remove Chapter 173-470... per million (ppm) and 9 ppm, not to be exceeded more than once per year. See 50 FR 37501. In...