Sample records for centralization ratio fcr

  1. Formant Centralization Ratio (FCR): A proposal for a new acoustic measure of dysarthric speech

    PubMed Central

    Sapir, Shimon; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Spielman, Jennifer L.; Fox, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The vowel space area (VSA) has been used as an acoustic metric of dysarthric speech, but with varying degrees of success. Here we test an alternative metric -- Formant centralization ratio (FCR) -- that is hypothesized to more effectively differentiate dysarthric from healthy speech and register treatment effects. Methods Speech recordings of 38 individuals with idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) and dysarthria (19 of whom received one month of intensive speech therapy (LSVT® LOUD)) and 14 healthy controls were acoustically analyzed. Vowels were extracted from short phrases. The same vowel-formant elements were used to construct the FCR, expressed as (F2u+F2𝔞+F1i+F1u)/(F2i+F1𝔞), the VSA, expressed as ABS((F1i*(F2𝔞–F2u)+F1𝔞*(F2u–F2i)+F1u*(F2i–F2𝔞))/2), a logarithmically scaled version of the VSA (LnVSA), and the F2i/F2u ratio. Results Unlike the VSA and the LnVSA, the FCR and F2i/F2u robustly differentiated dysarthric from healthy speech and were not gender-sensitive. All metrics effectively registered treatment effects and were strongly correlated with each other. Conclusions Albeit preliminary, the present findings indicate that the FCR is a sensitive, valid and reliable acoustic metric for distinguishing dysarthric from normal speech and for monitoring treatment effects, probably so because of reduced sensitivity to inter-speaker variability and enhanced sensitivity to vowel centralization. PMID:19948755

  2. Taxonomic and gene-centric metagenomics of the fecal microbiome of low and high feed conversion ratio (FCR) broilers.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Shah, T M; Reddy, Bhaskar; Deshpande, S; Rank, D N; Joshi, C G

    2014-02-01

    Individual weight gain in broiler growers appears to vary, which may in part be due to variation in their gut microbiota. In this paper we analyse the fecal microbiota of low and high feed conversion ratio (FCR) broilers. After shotgun sequencing of the fecal microbiome, we used the SEED database to identify the microbial diversity and metabolic potential in low and high FCR birds. The domain-level breakdown of our samples was bacteria (>95 %), eukaryotes (>2 %), archaea (>0.2 %), and viruses (>0.2 %). At the phylum level, Proteobacteria (78.83 % in low and 52.04 % in high FCR), Firmicutes (11.97 % in low and 27.53 % in high FCR) and Bacteroidetes (7.10 % in low FCR and 17.53 % in high FCR) predominated in the fecal microbial community. Poultry fecal metagenomes revealed the sequences related to 33 genera in both low and high FCR with significantly different proportion. Functional analysis revealed that genes for the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and derivatives and protein metabolism were most abundant in SEED subsystem in both samples. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Indeed, genes associated with sulphur assimilation, flagellum and flagellar motility were over represented in low FCR birds. This information could help in developing strategies to improve feed efficiency and feed formulation for broiler chickens. PMID:24136777

  3. Formant Centralization Ratio: A Proposal for a New Acoustic Measure of Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapir, Shimon; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Spielman, Jennifer L.; Fox, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The vowel space area (VSA) has been used as an acoustic metric of dysarthric speech, but with varying degrees of success. In this study, the authors aimed to test an alternative metric to the VSA--the "formant centralization ratio" (FCR), which is hypothesized to more effectively differentiate dysarthric from healthy speech and register…

  4. Evaluation of Fc-receptor positive (FcR+) and negative (FcR-) monocyte subsets in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, C; Sendtner, R; Zimmer, S; Walz, A; Hültner, L; Faist, E

    1999-04-01

    The monocyte/macrophage (Mphi is central in the regulation of the immune response in states of trauma and sepsis. Because monocyte subsets, characterized by expression of the Fc-receptor (FcR), were shown to play distinct immunologic roles in trauma, it was the objective of this study to assess insights into the functional role of FcR positive (FcR+) and negative (FcR-) subclasses in surgical sepsis. In a prospective study, peripheral blood Mphi from 20 septic patients and 10 healthy volunteers were evaluated on consecutive days after the onset of sepsis. FcR+/- subsets were separated by rosetting with antibody-coated human erythrocytes. Receptor expression and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines were used to evaluate the functional role of these cells. We demonstrated a significant monocytosis (350%; p<.01) and suppression of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA-DR) expression (35%; p<.05). Synthesis of Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta; e.g., Day 1: 230+/-30 pg/mL) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6; e.g., Day 1: 1920+/-350 U/mL) were significantly higher (p<.05) in FcR+ subsets than in controls (IL-1beta: 100+/-5 pg/mL; IL-6: 353+/-75 U/mL). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was elevated in FcR+ monocytes but did not reach a significant value. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) synthesis showed only on Day 1 and in controls significant differences in FcR+ and FcR- cells (Day1: FcR-: 19.6+/-4.1 nM; FcR+: 9+/-4.3 nM). Sepsis results in a significant shift toward FcR+ monocytes. This cell population is characterized by high proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. The extent of this shift seems to identify a group of high risk septic patients that might benefit from immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:10220297

  5. FCR STEM Conference 2014 Tad Watanabe

    E-print Network

    Watanabe, Tad

    /development, deepening the understanding of the true nature of a particular kyozai, planning a lesson with a particular deeply examining kyozai to fully understand its nature and purpose plan a lesson using a particularFCR STEM Conference 2014 Tad Watanabe http://science.kennesaw.edu/~twatanab/ #12; #12; #12; #12

  6. FcR Activation Regulates Inflammation-Associated Squamous Carcinogenesis

    E-print Network

    Dalang, Robert C.

    FcR Activation Regulates Inflammation-Associated Squamous Carcinogenesis Pauline Andreu1,5, Magnus tissues by immune cells remain obscure. Using the K14-HPV16 mouse model of squamous carcinogenesis, we

  7. An Exploratory Pilot Study of Genetic Marker for IgE-Mediated Allergic Diseases with Expressions of Fc?R1? and C?

    PubMed Central

    Liao, En-Chih; Chang, Ching-Yun; Hsieh, Chia-Wei; Yu, Sheng-Jie; Yin, Sui-Chu; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2015-01-01

    The high affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor-Fc?R1 is mainly expressed on the surface of effector cells. Cross-linking of IgE Abs bound to Fc?R1 by multi-valent antigens can induce the activation of these cells and the secretion of inflammatory mediators. Since Fc?R1 plays a central role in the induction and maintenance of allergic responses, this study aimed to investigate the association of Fc?R1 with the allergic phenotype of C? expression and cytokine and histamine release from peripheral leukocytes. Peripheral leukocytes from 67 allergic and 50 non-allergic subjects were used for genotyping analysis. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used for C? expression and ELISpot analysis, while polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) were used for histamine release. The association between genotype polymorphism of the Fc?R1? promoter region (rs2427827 and rs2251746) and allergic features of C? expression and histamine were analyzed, and their effects on leukocytes function were compared with wild type. The genotype polymorphisms of Fc?R1? promoter region with CT and TT in rs2427827 and TC in rs2251746 were significantly higher in allergic patients than in non-allergic controls. Patients with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of Fc?R1? promoter region had high levels of total IgE, mite-specific Der p 2 (Group 2 allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus)-specific IgE and IgE secretion B cells. The mRNA expression of Fc?R1? was significantly increased after Der p2 stimulation in PBMCs with SNPs of the Fc?R1? promoter region. Despite the increased C? mRNA expression in PBMCs and histamine release from PMNs and the up-regulated mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretions after Der p2 stimulation, there was no statistically significant difference between SNPs of the Fc?R1? promoter region and the wild type. SNPs of Fc?R1? promoter region were associated with IgE expression, IgE producing B cells, and increased Der p2-induced Fc?R1? mRNA expression. These SNPs may be used as a disease marker for IgE-mediated allergic inflammation caused by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. PMID:25923080

  8. Flight directors Castle and Dittemore discuss STS-34 mission in JSC MCC FCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Flight directors Robert E. Castle, Jr (left) and Ronald D. Dittemore discuss STS-34 mission at their console in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR). In the background are the FCR large screens which display flight data.

  9. Central Elemental Abundance Ratios in the Perseus Cluster: Resonant Scattering or SN IA Enrichment?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato A. Dupke; Keith A. Arnaud

    2001-01-01

    We have determined abundance ratios in the core of the Perseus Cluster for several elements. These ratios indicate a central dominance of Type 1a supernova (SN Ia) ejecta similar to that found for A496, A2199, and A3571. Simultaneous analysis of ASCA spectra from SIS1, GIS2, and GIS3 shows that the ratio of Ni to Fe abundances is ~3.4+\\/-1.1 times solar

  10. Central Elemental Abundance Ratios In the Perseus Cluster: Resonant Scattering or SN Ia Enrichment?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupke, Renato A.; Arnaud, Keith; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have determined abundance ratios in the core of the Perseus Cluster for several elements. These ratios indicate a central dominance of Type 1a supernova (SN Ia) ejects similar to that found for A496, A2199 and A3571. Simultaneous analysis of ASCA spectra from SIS1, GIS2, and GIS3 shows that the ratio of Ni to Fe abundances is approx. 3.4 +/- 1.1 times solar within the central 4'. This ratio is consistent with (and more precise than) that observed in other clusters whose central regions are dominated by SN Ia ejecta. Such a large Ni overabundance is predicted by "convective deflagration" explosion models for SNe Ia such as W7 but is inconsistent with delayed detonation models. We note that with current instrumentation the Ni K(alpha) line is confused with Fe K(beta) and that the Ni overabundance we observe has been interpreted by others as an anomalously large ratio of Fe K(beta) to Fe K(alpha) caused by resonant scattering in the Fe K(alpha) line. We argue that a central enhancement of SN Ia ejecta and hence a high ratio of Ni to Fe abundances are naturally explained by scenarios that include the generation of chemical gradients by suppressed SN Ia winds or ram pressure stripping of cluster galaxies. It is not necessary to suppose that the intracluster gas is optically thick to resonant scattering of the Fe K(alpha) line.

  11. Central Elemental Abundance Ratios in the Perseus Cluster: Resonant Scattering or SN IA Enrichment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupke, Renato A.; Arnaud, Keith A.

    2001-02-01

    We have determined abundance ratios in the core of the Perseus Cluster for several elements. These ratios indicate a central dominance of Type 1a supernova (SN Ia) ejecta similar to that found for A496, A2199, and A3571. Simultaneous analysis of ASCA spectra from SIS1, GIS2, and GIS3 shows that the ratio of Ni to Fe abundances is ~3.4+/-1.1 times solar within the central 4'. This ratio is consistent with (and more precise than) that observed in other clusters whose central regions are dominated by SN Ia ejecta. Such a large Ni overabundance is predicted by ``convective deflagration'' explosion models for SNe Ia such as W7 but is inconsistent with delayed detonation models. We note that with current instrumentation the Ni K? line is confused with Fe K? and that the Ni overabundance we observe has been interpreted by others as an anomalously large ratio of Fe K? to Fe K? caused by resonant scattering in the Fe K? line. We argue that a central enhancement of SN Ia ejecta and hence a high ratio of Ni to Fe abundances are naturally explained by scenarios that include the generation of chemical gradients by suppressed SN Ia winds or ram pressure stripping of cluster galaxies. It is not necessary to suppose that the intracluster gas is optically thick to resonant scattering of the Fe K? line.

  12. Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    This "homework help" lesson introduces students to ratios, ratio language, equivalent ratios, and allows students to practice with a set of problems at the end. The lesson is divided into four parts: First Glance, In Depth, Examples, and Workout.

  13. Lead isotope ratios in the urban air of eastern and central Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hitoshi; Machida, Toshinobu; Tanaka, Atsushi; Vera, Yelpatievskiy Pavel; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    In order to characterize airborne lead in eastern and central Russian cities in terms of lead isotope ratios, aerosol samples were collected at six selected cities and Moscow, and their lead concentrations and isotope ratios were studied by comparing them to the data of ore lead used in Russia. All eastern Russian cities (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk and Yakutsk) were found to have isotope ratios similar to those of ore leads in Kazakhstan, the major lead producer for Russia. Samples collected in Moscow also showed isotope ratios similar to those of eastern Russian cities. The contribution from coal combustion to airborne lead was considered to be small even in winter, in these cities. This observation suggested that the origin of lead in these Russian atmosphere regions is closely related to the lead products (e.g. leaded gasoline). The lead isotope ratios in three eastern Russian cities were very close to the value for Russian air mass reported previously in Japan, which were also in good agreement with the same observation in Sweden. However, considerably different lead isotope ratios were observed in central Russian cities, Kemerovo and Nizhnevartovsk, indicating that specific lead emissions, such as industrial activities using Precambrian-age ores or unique leaded gasoline, might contribute to the atmospheric lead.

  14. Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-07-23

    This set of instructional materials and problems helps students understand ratios and proportions, starting with a simple review and progressing into the more advanced territory of similar triangles. The first three pages introduce ratios, proportions, and checking proportionality and the last four pages present mathematical and real-world problems for students to solve given their understanding of ratios and proportions.

  15. Particle ratios from central img1.gif collisions at the CERN SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneta, M.; NA44 Collaboration; Bearden, I. G.; Bøggild, H.; Boissevain, J.; Dodd, J.; Erazmus, B.; Esumi, S.; Fabjan, C. W.; Ferenc, D.; Fields, D. E.; Franz, A.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Hansen, A. G.; Hansen, O.; Hardtke, D.; van Hecke, H.; Holzer, E. B.; Humanic, T. J.; Hummel, P.; Jacak, B. V.; Jayanti, R.; Kaneta, M.; Kopytine, M.; Leltchouk, M.; Ljubicic, A.; Lørstad, B.; Maeda, N.; Medvedev, A.; Murray, M.; Nishimura, S.; Ohnishi, H.; Paic, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Piuz, F.; Pluta, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Potekhin, M.; Poulard, G.; Reichhold, D.; Sakaguchi, A.; Simmon-Gillo, J.; Schmidt-Sørensen, J.; Sondheim, W.; Spegel, M.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sumi, Y.; Willis, W. J.; Wolf, K.; Xu, N.; Zachary, D. S.

    1997-12-01

    We will address the physics of img4.gif and img5.gif ratios measured in img6.gif collisions as a function of centrality and transverse momentum. We observe little significant centrality dependence in neither img4.gif nor img5.gif ratios and they are almost constant as a function of img9.gif. In addition to the chemical freeze-out temperature img10.gif, we extract the chemical potentials for both light and strange quarks (img11.gif and img12.gif) by comparing the present data with simple model predictions. img10.gif is greater than the thermal freeze-out temperature which is extracted from the transverse momentum distribution of charged hadrons.

  16. Assessing the Necessity of the Standardized Infection Ratio for Reporting Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Saman, Daniel M.; Kavanagh, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    This brief article presents results that support the contention that risk adjustment via the standardized infection ratio (SIR) for the reporting of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) may be no more predictive than standard rate adjustments utilizing CLABSIs per central line days (i.e., CLABSI rates). Recent data posted on the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Hospital Compare website showed that nearly 70% of 1721 reporting hospitals with at least 1000 central line days had five or fewer infections during 2011. These hospitals had 39.3% of the total central line days and a significantly lower SIR than poorer performing hospitals with six or more CLABSIs (p<0.0001). In addition, 19 hospitals are presented which had central line days between 9000 to over 22,000 that also had zero to three CLABSIs. Some of these hospitals were university referral centers and inner city facilities. There was great variation of CLABSI cases among US hospitals. Evidence is mounting that all hospitals should be able to achieve a near zero incidence of CLABSIs and that these infections may in fact be near ‘never events’, which begs whether risk adjustment with the SIR is needed and whether it adds more information than does rate adjustment using CLABSI rates. PMID:24223966

  17. Kaon and proton ratios from central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearden, I. G.; Bøggild, H.; Boissevain, J.; Dodd, J. R.; Erazmus, B.; Esumi, S.; Fabjan, C. W.; Ferenc, D.; Fields, D. E.; Franz, A.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Hamelin, M.; Hansen, A. G.; Hansen, O.; Hardtke, D.; van Hecke, H.; Holzer, E. B.; Humanic, T.; Hummel, P.; Jacak, B. V.; Jayanti, R.; Kaimi, K.; Kaneta, M.; Kopytine, M.; Leltchouk, M.; Ljubicic, A., Jr.; Lørstad, B.; Maeda, N.; Malina, R.; Murray, M.; Ohnishi, H.; Paic, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Piuz, F.; Pluta, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Potekhin, M.; Poulard, G.; Reichhold, D.; Sakaguchi, A.; Schmidt-Sørensen, J.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Sondheim, W.; Spegel, M.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sumi, Y.; Willis, W. J.; Wolf, K. L.; Xu, N.; Zachary, D. S.

    1998-08-01

    K-/K+ and p¯/p ratios measured in 158A.GeV Pb+Pb collisions are shown as a function of transverse momentum PT and centrality in top 8.5% central region. Little centrality dependence of the K-/K+ and p¯/p ratios is observed. The transverse mass mT distribution and dN/dy of K+, K-, p and p¯ around mid-rapidity are obtained. The temperature Tch and the chemical potentials for both light and strange quarks (?q, ?s) at chemical freeze-out are determined by applying simple thermodynamical model to the present data. The resultant ?q, ?s and Tch are compared with those obtained from similar analysis of SPS S+A and AGS Si+A data. The chemical freeze-out temperature Tch at CERN energies is higher than thermal freeze-out temperature Tfo which is extracted from mT distribution of charged hadrons. At AGS energies Tch is close to Tfo.

  18. C/O and N/O ratios in planetary nebulae with [WC] central stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, J.; Peña, M.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Morisset, C.

    2014-04-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) around [WR] central stars (WRPNe) constitute a particular photoionized nebula class, representing about 10-15% of the PNe with known progenitor. We have studied 14 of them, detecting a large number of optical recombination lines (ORLs) from different ions of O and C (O+, O++, C++, C+3). This allows us to determine the C/O ratio, which is of paramount importance to constraint stellar evolution models. We have compared the obtained N/O and C/O ratios obtained with those derived from stellar evolution models, and we estimate that about half of our PNe have progenitors with initial masses similar to or larger than 4 Msun . These results are consistent with the results obtained from an independent analysis by Górny & García-Hernández (2014).

  19. Long-term results of first salvage treatment in CLL patients treated initially with FCR (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab)

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Constantine S.; O’Brien, Susan; Plunkett, William; Wierda, William; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wang, Xuemei; Do, Kim-Anh; Cortes, Jorge; Khouri, Issa; Kantarjian, Hagop; Lerner, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Although fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) together are established as a standard first-line treatment of younger patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), there is little information to guide the management of patients with CLL refractory to, or who have relapsed after, receiving frontline FCR treatment. To define optimal salvage strategy and identify patients unsuitable for retreatment with FCR, we examined the survival and treatment outcome of 300 patients enrolled in a phase 2 study of FCR. After a median 142 months of follow-up, 156 patients developed progressive CLL, with a median survival of 51 months after disease progression. The duration of first remission (REM1) was a key determinant of survival after disease progression and first salvage. Patients with a short REM1 (<3 years) had a short survival period, irrespective of salvage therapy received; these patients have high unmet medical needs and are good candidates for investigation of novel therapies. In patients with a long REM1 (?3 years), salvage treatment with either repeat FCR or lenalidomide-based therapy results in subsequent median survival exceeding 5 years; for these patients, FCR rechallenge represents a reasonable standard of care. PMID:25281606

  20. Tpl2 kinase regulates Fc?R signaling and immune thrombocytopenia in mice.

    PubMed

    Kyrmizi, Irene; Ioannou, Marianna; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Tsichlis, Philip N; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Tassiulas, Ioannis

    2013-10-01

    The MAPK3 Tpl2 controls innate and adaptive immunity by regulating TLR, TNF-?, and GPCR signaling in a variety of cell types. Its ablation gives rise to an anti-inflammatory phenotype characterized by resistance to LPS-induced endotoxin shock, DSS-induced colitis, and TNF-?-induced IBD. Here, we address the role of Tpl2 in autoimmunity. Our data show that the ablation and the pharmacological inhibition of Tpl2 protect mice from antiplatelet antibody-induced thrombocytopenia, a model of ITP. Thrombocytopenia in this model and in ITP is caused by phagocytosis of platelets opsonized with antiplatelet antibodies and depends on Fc?R activation in splenic and hepatic myeloid cells. Further studies explained how Tpl2 inhibition protects from antibody-induced thrombocytopenia, by showing that Tpl2 is activated by Fc?R signals in macrophages and that its activation by these signals is required for ERK activation, cytoplasmic Ca(2+) influx, the induction of cytokine and coreceptor gene expression, and phagocytosis. PMID:23898046

  1. Tpl2 kinase regulates Fc?R signaling and immune thrombocytopenia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kyrmizi, Irene; Ioannou, Marianna; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Boumpas, Dimitrios T.; Tassiulas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The MAPK3 Tpl2 controls innate and adaptive immunity by regulating TLR, TNF-?, and GPCR signaling in a variety of cell types. Its ablation gives rise to an anti-inflammatory phenotype characterized by resistance to LPS-induced endotoxin shock, DSS-induced colitis, and TNF-?-induced IBD. Here, we address the role of Tpl2 in autoimmunity. Our data show that the ablation and the pharmacological inhibition of Tpl2 protect mice from antiplatelet antibody-induced thrombocytopenia, a model of ITP. Thrombocytopenia in this model and in ITP is caused by phagocytosis of platelets opsonized with antiplatelet antibodies and depends on Fc?R activation in splenic and hepatic myeloid cells. Further studies explained how Tpl2 inhibition protects from antibody-induced thrombocytopenia, by showing that Tpl2 is activated by Fc?R signals in macrophages and that its activation by these signals is required for ERK activation, cytoplasmic Ca2+ influx, the induction of cytokine and coreceptor gene expression, and phagocytosis. PMID:23898046

  2. Allergy-Associated FcR? Is a Molecular Amplifier of IgE and IgG-Mediated In Vivo Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Dombrowicz; Siqi Lin; Véronique Flamand; Anna T Brini; Beverly H Koller; Jean-Pierre Kinet

    1998-01-01

    A role for the Fc receptor ? chain (FcR?) in the pathogenesis of allergy has been suggested by genetic studies. FcR? is a subunit common to the high-affinity IgE (Fc?RI) and low-affinity IgG (Fc?RIII) receptors, both of which contribute to the initiation of allergic reactions. Current in vitro data suggest that FcR? can function as either a positive or negative

  3. Search for Quark Compositeness with the Dijet Centrality Ratio in pp Collisions at s?=7??TeV

    E-print Network

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg A.; Murray, Michael J.; Noonan, Danny; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen J.; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.

    2010-12-20

    of 2.9??pb?1 collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of the dijets, is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dijet system and is found to agree with the predictions...

  4. The relationship between accommodative amplitude and the ratio of central lens thickness to its equatorial diameter in vertebrate eyes

    PubMed Central

    Schachar, Ronald A; Pierscionek, Barbara K; Abolmaali, Ali; Le, Tri

    2007-01-01

    Aim To determine the relationship between accommodative amplitude and central lens thickness/equatorial lens diameter (CLT/ELD) ratio in vertebrates. Methods Midsagittal sections of lenses from fixed, post mortem eyes from 125 different vertebrate species were photographed. Their CLT/ELD ratios were correlated with independently published measurements of their accommodative amplitudes. Using the non?linear finite element method (FEM), the efficiency of zonular traction (the absolute change in central radius of curvature per unit force [|?CR|/F]) for model lenses with CLT/ELD ratios from 0.45 to 0.9 was determined. Results Vertebrates with CLT/ELD ratios ?0.6 have high accommodative amplitudes. Zonular traction was found to be most efficient for those model lenses having CLT/ELD ratios ?0.6. Conclusions Vertebrates with lenses that have CLT/ELD ratios ?0.6 – i.e. “long oval” shapes – have the greatest accommodative amplitudes; e.g. primates, diving birds and diurnal birds of prey. Vertebrates that have oval or spherical shaped lenses, like owls and most mammals, have low accommodative amplitudes. Zonular traction was found to be most efficient when applied to model lenses with CLT/ELD ratios ?0.6. The implications of these findings on the mechanism of accommodation are discussed. PMID:17050574

  5. Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) plus GM-CSF as frontline treatment for patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Paolo; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lerner, Susan; O’Brien, Susan; Wierda, William; Keating, Michael J; Faderl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    FCR, the standard of care for frontline treatment of CLL patients, is associated with a high rate of neutropenia and infectious complications. GM-CSF reduces myelosuppression and can potentiate rituximab activity. We conducted a clinical trial combining GM-CSF with FCR for frontline treatment of 60 CLL patients. Eighty-six percent completed all 6 courses and 18% discontinued GM-CSF for toxicity; grade 3–4 neutropenia was observed in 30% of cycles, and severe infections in 16% of cases. ORR was 100%. Both median EFS and OS have not been reached. Longer EFS was associated with favorable cytogenetic. GM-CSF led to a lower frequency of infectious complications than the historical FCR group, albeit similar EFS and OS. PMID:23808813

  6. Improved automatic adjustment of density and contrast in FCR system using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeo, Hideya; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Masamitsu; Kato, Hisatoyo

    1994-05-01

    FCR system has an automatic adjustment of image density and contrast by analyzing the histogram of image data in the radiation field. Advanced image recognition methods proposed in this paper can improve the automatic adjustment performance, in which neural network technology is used. There are two methods. Both methods are basically used 3-layer neural network with back propagation. The image data are directly input to the input-layer in one method and the histogram data is input in the other method. The former is effective to the imaging menu such as shoulder joint in which the position of interest region occupied on the histogram changes by difference of positioning and the latter is effective to the imaging menu such as chest-pediatrics in which the histogram shape changes by difference of positioning. We experimentally confirm the validity of these methods (about the automatic adjustment performance) as compared with the conventional histogram analysis methods.

  7. Effects of altered Fc?R binding on antibody pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Leabman, Maya K; Meng, Y Gloria; Kelley, Robert F; DeForge, Laura E; Cowan, Kyra J; Iyer, Suhasini

    2013-01-01

    Antibody interactions with Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs), like Fc?RIIIA, play a critical role in mediating antibody effector functions and thereby contribute significantly to the biologic and therapeutic activity of antibodies. Over the past decade, considerable work has been directed towards production of antibodies with altered binding affinity to Fc?Rs and evaluation of how the alterations modulate their therapeutic activity. This has been achieved by altering glycosylation status at N297 or by engineering modifications in the crystallizable fragment (Fc) region. While the effects of these modifications on biologic activity and efficacy have been examined, few studies have been conducted to understand their effect on antibody pharmacokinetics (PK). We present here a retrospective analysis in which we characterize the PK of three antibody variants with decreased Fc?R binding affinity caused by amino acid substitutions in the Fc region (N297A, N297G, and L234A/L235A) and three antibody variants with increased Fc?RIIIA binding affinity caused by afucosylation at N297, and compare their PK to corresponding wild type antibody PK in cynomolgus monkeys. For all antibodies, PK was examined at a dose that was known to be in the linear range. Since production of the N297A and N297G variants in Chinese hamster ovary cells results in aglycosylated antibodies that do not bind to Fc?Rs, we also examined the effect of expression of an aglycosylated antibody, without sequence change(s), in E. coli. All the variants demonstrated similar PK compared with that of the wild type antibodies, suggesting that, for the six antibodies presented here, altered Fc?R binding affinity does not affect PK. PMID:24492343

  8. Search for Quark Compositeness with the Dijet Centrality Ratio in $pp$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2010-12-01

    A search for quark compositeness in the form of quark contact interactions, based on hadronic jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV, is described. The data sample of the study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 inverse picobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of the dijets, is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dijet system and is found to agree with the predictions of the Standard Model. A statistical analysis of the data provides a lower limit on the energy scale of quark contact interactions. The sensitivity of the analysis is such that the expected limit is 2.9 TeV; because the observed value of the centrality ratio at high invariant mass is below the expectation, the observed limit is 4.0 TeV at the 95% confidence level.

  9. Search for quark compositeness with the dijet centrality ratio in pp collisions at ?s=7 TeV.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hartl, C; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kiesenhofer, W; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Gonzalez, J Suarez; Benucci, L; Ceard, L; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Devroede, O; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Hreus, T; Marage, P E; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Costantini, S; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Walsh, S; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; De JesusDamiao, D; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; Da Costa, E M; Martins, C De Oliveira; De Souza, S Fonseca; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Oguri, V; Goicochea, J M Otalora; Da Silva, W L Prado; Santoro, A; Do Amaral, S M Silva; Sznajder, A; De Araujo, F Torres Da Silva; Dias, F A; Dias, M A F; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Marinho, F; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dyulendarova, M; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Yang, M; Zang, J; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Li, W; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Cabrera, A; Moreno, B Gomez; Rios, A A Ocampo; Oliveros, A F Osorio; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Attikis, A; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Abdel-basit, A; Assran, Y; Mahmoud, M A; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Azzolini, V; Eerola, P; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Broutin, C; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Wyslouch, B; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Cardaci, M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Ferro, C; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Greder, S; Juillot, P; Karim, M; Le Bihan, A-C; Mikami, Y; Van Hove, P; Fassi, F; Mercier, D; Baty, C; Beaupere, N; Bedjidian, M; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Boumediene, D; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Falkiewicz, A; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sordini, V; Tosi, S; Tschudi, Y; Verdier, P; Xiao, H; Roinishvili, V; Anagnostou, G; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Jussen, R; Klein, K; Merz, J; Mohr, N; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Ata, M; Bender, W; Erdmann, M; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Klimkovich, T; Klingebiel, D; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Magass, C; Masetti, G; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Steggemann, J; Teyssier, D; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Ahmad, W Haj; Heydhausen, D; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Pooth, O; Rennefeld, J; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Thomas, M; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Martin, M Aldaya; Behrenhoff, W; Behrens, U; Bergholz, M; Borras, K; Cakir, A; Campbell, A; Castro, E

    2010-12-31

    A search for quark compositeness in the form of quark contact interactions, based on hadronic jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at ?s=7 TeV, is described. The data sample of the study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 pb(-1) collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of the dijets, is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dijet system and is found to agree with the predictions of the standard model. A statistical analysis of the data provides a lower limit on the energy scale of quark contact interactions. The sensitivity of the analysis is such that the expected limit is 2.9 TeV; because the observed value of the centrality ratio at high invariant mass is below the expectation, the observed limit is 4.0 TeV at the 95% confidence level. PMID:21231646

  10. Supervised classifications of Landsat TM band ratio images and Landsat TM band ratio image with radar for geological interpretations of central Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inzana, Jennifer; Kusky, Tim; Higgs, Gary; Tucker, Robert

    2003-08-01

    Landsat TM and radar JERS-1 SAR (L-Band) imagery of the Itremo area, central Madagascar, were processed to emphasize structural geology features including folded quartzite ridges and plutons. TM band ratios 5/7, 5/1, 5/4?3/4 were assigned to RGB. Band 5/7 highlights pelitic schist, band 5/1 emphasizes mafic igneous rocks, and 5/4?3/4 distinguishes mafic from non-mafic rocks. In a second technique, band 5/7 was replaced with registered L-band radar imagery because radar is useful for differentiating between granite, granodiorite, diorite and serpentinite. The last technique evaluated in this study used the spectral information from the radar image as well as the 5/7, 5/1, 5/4?3/4 band ratio bands. Supervised classification training sites were selected using nine classes (clouds, quartzite, schist, gneiss, gabbro and basalt, granite, vegetation, water, and cloud shadows). The band ratio classification results are fairly accurate (a confusion matrix shows an accuracy of 89.346) and correspond well with geologic maps of the area showing complexly refolded nappes of quartzite, carbonate, schist, gneiss and gabbro, intruded by late granites. The radar, 5/1, 5/4?3/4 classification (accuracy of 89.04) shows significant differences from the band ratio classification, with fewer schist pixels displayed in the radar, 5/1, 5/4?3/4 classification, but with greater resolution of structural features including faults, fold nappes, and foliations. More pixels are displayed as mafic gneiss, and fewer quartzites appear in the radar classification. Some areas classified as quartzite in the first classification (and on the geologic maps) were classified as clouds in the radar/band ratio classification. This indicates that the 5/7 band contains significant spectral information that the radar band does not contain, which aided in mapping quartzite. This comparison illustrates that combined use of TM band ratioing merged with radar imagery can emphasize both spectral and textural features that aid geologic mapping using supervised classifications. A third technique was examined where a supervised classification was performed on an image containing the 5/7, 5/1, 5/4?3/4, and radar bands. The confusion matrix for this classification produced an accuracy of 91.23 which was better than either the 5/7, 5/1, 5/4?3/4 or the radar, 5/1, 5/4?3/4. It is preferable to keep all band ratio bands and the radar band to produce the most complete supervised classification image for geological feature discrimination.

  11. Intake-to-delivered-energy ratios for central station and distributed electricity generation in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garvin A. Heath; William W. Nazaroff

    2007-01-01

    In previous work, we showed that the intake fraction (iF) for nonreactive primary air pollutants was 20 times higher in central tendency for small-scale, urban-sited distributed electricity generation (DG) sources than for large-scale, central station (CS) power plants in California [Heath, G.A., Granvold, P.W., Hoats, A.S., Nazaroff, W.W., 2006. Intake fraction assessment of the air pollutant exposure implications of a

  12. Search for Quark Compositeness with the Dijet Centrality Ratio in pp Collisions at s=7TeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Khachatryan; A. M. Sirunyan; A. Tumasyan; W. Adam; T. Bergauer; M. Dragicevic; J. Erö; C. Fabjan; M. Friedl; R. Frühwirth; V. M. Ghete; J. Hammer; S. Hänsel; C. Hartl; M. Hoch; N. Hörmann; J. Hrubec; M. Jeitler; G. Kasieczka; W. Kiesenhofer; M. Krammer; D. Liko; I. Mikulec; M. Pernicka; H. Rohringer; R. Schöfbeck; J. Strauss; A. Taurok; F. Teischinger; W. Waltenberger; G. Walzel; E. Widl; C.-E. Wulz; V. Mossolov; N. Shumeiko; J. Suarez Gonzalez; L. Benucci; L. Ceard; E. A. de Wolf; X. Janssen; T. Maes; L. Mucibello; S. Ochesanu; B. Roland; R. Rougny; M. Selvaggi; H. van Haevermaet; P. van Mechelen; N. van Remortel; V. Adler; S. Beauceron; S. Blyweert; J. D'Hondt; O. Devroede; A. Kalogeropoulos; J. Maes; M. Maes; S. Tavernier; W. van Doninck; P. van Mulders; G. P. van Onsem; I. Villella; O. Charaf; B. Clerbaux; G. de Lentdecker; V. Dero; A. P. R. Gay; G. H. Hammad; T. Hreus; P. E. Marage; L. Thomas; C. Vander Velde; P. Vanlaer; J. Wickens; S. Costantini; M. Grunewald; B. Klein; A. Marinov; D. Ryckbosch; F. Thyssen; M. Tytgat; L. Vanelderen; P. Verwilligen; S. Walsh; N. Zaganidis; S. Basegmez; G. Bruno; J. Caudron; J. de Favereau de Jeneret; C. Delaere; P. Demin; D. Favart; A. Giammanco; G. Grégoire; J. Hollar; V. Lemaitre; O. Militaru; S. Ovyn; D. Pagano; A. Pin; K. Piotrzkowski; L. Quertenmont; N. Schul; N. Beliy; T. Caebergs; E. Daubie; G. A. Alves; D. de Jesusdamiao; M. E. Pol; M. H. G. Souza; W. Carvalho; E. M. da Costa; C. de Oliveira Martins; S. Fonseca de Souza; L. Mundim; H. Nogima; V. Oguri; J. M. Otalora Goicochea; W. L. Prado da Silva; A. Santoro; S. M. Silva Do Amaral; A. Sznajder; F. Torres da Silva de Araujo; F. A. Dias; M. A. F. Dias; T. R. Fernandez Perez Tomei; E. M. Gregores; F. Marinho; S. F. Novaes; Sandra S. Padula; N. Darmenov; L. Dimitrov; V. Genchev; P. Iaydjiev; S. Piperov; M. Rodozov; S. Stoykova; G. Sultanov; V. Tcholakov; R. Trayanov; I. Vankov; M. Dyulendarova; R. Hadjiiska; V. Kozhuharov; L. Litov; E. Marinova; M. Mateev; B. Pavlov; P. Petkov; J. G. Bian; G. M. Chen; H. S. Chen; C. H. Jiang; D. Liang; S. Liang; J. Wang; X. Wang; Z. Wang; M. Yang; J. Zang; Z. Zhang; Y. Ban; S. Guo; Z. Hu; W. Li; Y. Mao; S. J. Qian; H. Teng; B. Zhu; A. Cabrera; B. Gomez Moreno; A. A. Ocampo Rios; A. F. Osorio Oliveros; J. C. Sanabria; N. Godinovic; D. Lelas; K. Lelas; R. Plestina; D. Polic; I. Puljak; Z. Antunovic; M. Dzelalija; V. Brigljevic; S. Duric; K. Kadija; S. Morovic; A. Attikis; R. Fereos; M. Galanti; J. Mousa; C. Nicolaou; F. Ptochos; P. A. Razis; H. Rykaczewski; A. Abdel-Basit; Y. Assran; M. A. Mahmoud; A. Hektor; M. Kadastik; K. Kannike; M. Müntel; M. Raidal; L. Rebane; V. Azzolini; P. Eerola; S. Czellar; J. Härkönen; A. Heikkinen; V. Karimäki; R. Kinnunen; J. Klem; M. J. Kortelainen; T. Lampén; K. Lassila-Perini; S. Lehti; T. Lindén; P. Luukka; T. Mäenpää; E. Tuominen; J. Tuominiemi; E. Tuovinen; D. Ungaro; L. Wendland; K. Banzuzi; A. Korpela; T. Tuuva; D. Sillou; M. Besancon; M. Dejardin; D. Denegri; B. Fabbro; J. L. Faure; F. Ferri; S. Ganjour; F. X. Gentit; A. Givernaud; P. Gras; G. Hamel de Monchenault; P. Jarry; E. Locci; J. Malcles; M. Marionneau; L. Millischer; J. Rander; A. Rosowsky; M. Titov; P. Verrecchia; S. Baffioni; L. Bianchini; M. Bluj; C. Broutin; P. Busson; C. Charlot; L. Dobrzynski; R. Granier de Cassagnac; M. Haguenauer; P. Miné; C. Mironov; C. Ochando; P. Paganini; D. Sabes; R. Salerno; Y. Sirois; C. Thiebaux; B. Wyslouch; A. Zabi; J.-L. Agram; J. Andrea; A. Besson; D. Bloch; D. Bodin; J.-M. Brom; M. Cardaci; E. C. Chabert; C. Collard; E. Conte; F. Drouhin; C. Ferro; J.-C. Fontaine; D. Gelé; U. Goerlach; S. Greder; P. Juillot; M. Karim; A.-C. Le Bihan; Y. Mikami; P. van Hove; F. Fassi; D. Mercier; C. Baty; N. Beaupere; M. Bedjidian; O. Bondu; G. Boudoul; D. Boumediene; H. Brun; N. Chanon; R. Chierici; D. Contardo; P. Depasse; H. El Mamouni; A. Falkiewicz; J. Fay; S. Gascon; B. Ille; T. Kurca; T. Le Grand; M. Lethuillier; L. Mirabito; S. Perries; V. Sordini; S. Tosi; Y. Tschudi; P. Verdier; H. Xiao; V. Roinishvili; G. Anagnostou; M. Edelhoff; L. Feld; N. Heracleous; O. Hindrichs; R. Jussen; K. Klein; J. Merz; N. Mohr; A. Ostapchuk; A. Perieanu; F. Raupach; J. Sammet; S. Schael; D. Sprenger; H. Weber; M. Weber; B. Wittmer; M. Ata; W. Bender; M. Erdmann; J. Frangenheim; T. Hebbeker; A. Hinzmann; K. Hoepfner; C. Hof; T. Klimkovich; D. Klingebiel; P. Kreuzer; D. Lanske; C. Magass; G. Masetti; M. Merschmeyer; A. Meyer; P. Papacz; H. Pieta; H. Reithler; S. A. Schmitz; L. Sonnenschein; J. Steggemann; D. Teyssier; M. Bontenackels; M. Davids; M. Duda; G. Flügge; H. Geenen; M. Giffels; W. Haj Ahmad; D. Heydhausen; T. Kress; Y. Kuessel; A. Linn; A. Nowack; L. Perchalla; O. Pooth; J. Rennefeld; P. Sauerland; A. Stahl; M. Thomas; D. Tornier; M. H. Zoeller; M. Aldaya Martin; W. Behrenhoff; U. Behrens; M. Bergholz

    2010-01-01

    A search for quark compositeness in the form of quark contact interactions, based on hadronic jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV, is described. The data sample of the study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9pb-1 collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of the dijets, is

  13. Luminous Infrared Galaxies with the Submillimeter Array: I. Survey Overview and the Central Gas to Dust Ratio

    E-print Network

    Christine D. Wilson; Glen R. Petitpas; Daisuke Iono; Andrew J. Baker; Alison B. Peck; Melanie Krips; Bradley Warren; Jennifer Golding; Adam Atkinson; Lee Armus; T. J. Cox; Paul Ho; Mika Juvela; Satoki Matsushita; J. Christopher Mihos; Ylva Pihlstrom; Min S. Yun

    2008-06-18

    We present new data obtained with the Submillimeter Array for a sample of fourteen nearby luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The galaxies were selected to have luminosity distances D 11.4. The galaxies were observed with spatial resolutions of order 1 kpc in the CO J=3-2, CO J=2-1, 13CO J=2-1, and HCO+ J=4-3 lines as well as the continuum at 880 microns and 1.3 mm. We have combined our CO and continuum data to measure an average gas-to-dust mass ratio of 120 +/- 28 (rms deviation 109) in the central regions of these galaxies, very similar to the value of 150 determined for the Milky Way. This similarity is interesting given the more intense heating from the starburst and possibly accretion activity in the luminous infrared galaxies compared to the Milky Way. We find that the peak H_2 surface density correlates with the far-infrared luminosity, which suggests that galaxies with higher gas surface densities inside the central kiloparsec have a higher star formation rate. The lack of a significant correlation between total H_2 mass and far-infrared luminosity in our sample suggests that the increased star formation rate is due to the increased availability of molecular gas as fuel for star formation in the central regions. In contrast to previous analyses by other authors, we do not find a significant correlation between central gas surface density and the star formation efficiency, as trace by the ratio of far-infrared luminosity to nuclear gas mass. Our data show that it is the star formation rate, not the star formation efficiency, that increases with increasing central gas surface density in these galaxies.

  14. Association between wind-up ratio and central serotonergic function in healthy subjects and depressed patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Idun Uhl; Elena K. Krumova; Sabrina Regeniter; Karl-Jürgen Bär; Christine Norra; Helmut Richter; Hans-Jörg Assion; Andrea Westermann; Georg Juckel; Christoph Maier

    2011-01-01

    Temporal summation of C-fiber evoked responses generates an increase in action potential discharge in second-order neurons and in perceived pain intensity (wind-up). This may be related to the central serotonergic system which modulates and partly inhibits sensory input. Aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between wind-up and serotonergic activity using loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP).

  15. Broadly neutralizing hemagglutinin stalk–specific antibodies require Fc?R interactions for protection against influenza virus in vivo

    PubMed Central

    DiLillo, David J; Tan, Gene S; Palese, Peter; Ravetch, Jeffrey V

    2014-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses have traditionally been thought to provide protection exclusively through their variable region; the contributions of mechanisms conferred by the Fc domain remain controversial. We investigated the in vivo contributions of Fc interactions with their cognate receptors for a collection of neutralizing anti-influenza antibodies. Whereas five broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) targeting the conserved stalk region of hemagglutinin (HA) required interactions between the antibody Fc and Fc receptors for IgG (Fc?Rs) to confer protection from lethal H1N1 challenge, three strain-specific monoclonal Abs (mAbs) against the variable head domain of HA were equally protective in the presence or absence of Fc?R interactions. Although all antibodies blocked infection, only anti-stalk bNAbs were capable of mediating cytotoxicity of infected cells, which accounts for their Fc?R dependence. Immune complexes generated with anti–HA stalk mAb efficiently interacted with Fc?Rs, but anti–HA head immune complexes did not. These results suggest that Fc?R binding capacity by anti-HA antibodies was dependent on the interaction of the cognate Fab with antigen. We exploited these disparate mechanisms of mAb-mediated protection to reengineer an anti-stalk bNAb to selectively enhance Fc?R engagement to augment its protective activity. These findings reveal a previously uncharacterized property of bNAbs and guide an approach toward enhancing mAb-mediated antiviral therapeutics. PMID:24412922

  16. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969–1977 for 239+240Pu activity concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that 239+240Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 –1.46 mBq g?1, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 ± 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of 241Pu using the 241Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released 241Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited 241Pu in the last decades. PMID:25881009

  17. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969-1977 for 239+240Pu activity concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that 239+240Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 -1.46 mBq g-1, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 +/- 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of 241Pu using the 241Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released 241Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited 241Pu in the last decades.

  18. Luminous Infrared Galaxies with the Submillimeter Array: I. Survey Overview and the Central Gas to Dust Ratio

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Christine D; Iono, Daisuke; Baker, Andrew J; Peck, Alison B; Krips, Melanie; Warren, Bradley; Golding, Jennifer; Atkinson, Adam; Armus, Lee; Cox, T J; Ho, Paul; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, Satoki; Mihos, J Christopher; Pihlstrom, Ylva; Yun, Min S

    2008-01-01

    We present new data obtained with the Submillimeter Array for a sample of fourteen nearby luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The galaxies were selected to have luminosity distances D 11.4. The galaxies were observed with spatial resolutions of order 1 kpc in the CO J=3-2, CO J=2-1, 13CO J=2-1, and HCO+ J=4-3 lines as well as the continuum at 880 microns and 1.3 mm. We have combined our CO and continuum data to measure an average gas-to-dust mass ratio of 120 +/- 28 (rms deviation 109) in the central regions of these galaxies, very similar to the value of 150 determined for the Milky Way. This similarity is interesting given the more intense heating from the starburst and possibly accretion activity in the luminous infrared galaxies compared to the Milky Way. We find that the peak H_2 surface density correlates with the far-infrared luminosity, which suggests that galaxies with higher gas surface densities inside the central kiloparsec have a higher star formation rate. The lack of a significant co...

  19. U-shaped association between central body fat and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and microalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obese and overweight patients has increased dramatically worldwide. Both are common risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) as indicated by a diminished estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or microalbuminuria. This study aimed to investigate whether anthropometric parameters [waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI)] are associated with renal function in a population-based study of Caucasian subjects. Methods Data from 3749 subjects (1825 women) aged 20 to 81 years from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were analysed. Renal indices, including the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR), microalbuminuria, eGFR and CKD, were studied. Parameters of anthropometry (WC, WHtR and BMI) were categorised into sex-specific quintiles. Results Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models, adjusting for age, sex, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, revealed that a high and low WC or WHtR and low BMI were independently related to a higher uACR. Logistic regression models confirmed these results with respect to uACR and showed that subjects with a high or low WC or a high WHtR had increased odds of microalbuminuria. The ANOVA models revealed no relations of the investigated anthropometric parameters with eGFR. However, subjects with high values for these parameters had increased odds of CKD. Conclusions Our results demonstrate U-shaped associations between markers of central fat distribution and uACR or microalbuminuria in the general population, suggesting that both obese and very thin subjects have a higher risk of renal impairment. PMID:23594567

  20. var gene transcription and PfEMP1 expression in the rosetting and cytoadhesive Plasmodium falciparum clone FCR3S1.2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum is in part due to the ability of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC) to adhere to intra-vascular host cell receptors and serum-proteins. Binding of the pRBC is mediated by Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a large multi-variant molecule encoded by a family of ?60 var genes. Methods The study of var gene transcription in the parasite clone FCR3S1.2 was performed by semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression of the major PfEMP1 in FCR3S1.2 pRBC was analysed with polyclonal sera in rosette disruption assays and immunofluorecence. Results Transcripts from var1 (FCR3S1.2var1; IT4var21) and other var genes were detected by semi-quantitative PCR but results from qPCR showed that one var gene transcript dominated over the others (FCR3S1.2var2; IT4var60). Antibodies raised in rats to the recombinant NTS-DBL1? of var2 produced in E. coli completely and dose-dependently disrupted rosettes (?95% at a dilution of 1/5). The sera reacted with the Maurer's clefts in trophozoite stages (IFA) and to the infected erythrocyte surface (FACS) indicating that FCR3S1.2var2 encodes the dominant PfEMP1 expressed in this parasite. Conclusion The major transcript in the rosetting model parasite FCR3S1.2 is FCR3S1.2var2 (IT4var60). The results suggest that this gene encodes the PfEMP1-species responsible for the rosetting phenotype of this parasite. The activity of previously raised antibodies to the NTS-DBL1? of FCR3S1.2var1 is likely due to cross-reactivity with NTS-DBL1? of the var2 encoded PfEMP1. PMID:21266056

  1. Chemoimmunotherapy with oral low-dose fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (old-FCR) as treatment for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Gozzetti, Alessandro; Candi, Veronica; Fabbri, Alberto; Schiattone, Luana; Cencini, Emanuele; Lauria, Francesco; Frasconi, Adele; Crupi, Rosaria; Raspadori, Donatella; Papini, Giulia; Defina, Marzia; Bartalucci, Giulia; Bocchia, Monica

    2014-08-01

    Median age at diagnosis for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients is now 72 years, thus a consistent number of patients may not tolerate standard doses i.v. of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR), the best available therapy, due to unacceptable myelotoxicity and risk of severe infections. We studied safety and efficacy of the addition of rituximab to the oral low-dose FC regimen (old-FCR) in a selected population of 30 elderly (median age 75, 15 untreated, 15 treated with 1 prior therapy) CLL patients. Complete remission (CR) rate was 80% in the untreated patients (overall response rate, ORR 93%), and 30% in pretreated patients (ORR 74%). Progression free survivals (PFS) were 45 months and 30 months in the untreated and treated patients, respectively. In patients achieving CR, old-FCR led to PFS of 67 months. Moreover, haematological toxicity was mild (grade 3-4: 15%) and patients were treated mostly in outpatient clinic. Old-FCR could be a good therapy option for elderly CLL patients outside clinical trials, larger studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24934847

  2. First Measurement of the Ratio of Central-Electron to Forward-Electron W Partial Cross Sections in pp¯ Collisions at s=1.96TeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abulencia; J. Adelman; T. Affolder; T. Akimoto; M. G. Albrow; S. Amerio; D. Amidei; A. Anastassov; K. Anikeev; A. Annovi; J. Antos; M. Aoki; G. Apollinari; T. Arisawa; A. Artikov; W. Ashmanskas; A. Attal; A. Aurisano; F. Azfar; P. Azzi-Bacchetta; P. Azzurri; N. Bacchetta; W. Badgett; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; S. Baroiant; V. Bartsch; G. Bauer; P.-H. Beauchemin; F. Bedeschi; S. Behari; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; A. Belloni; D. Benjamin; A. Beretvas; J. Beringer; T. Berry; A. Bhatti; M. Binkley; D. Bisello; I. Bizjak; R. E. Blair; C. Blocker; B. Blumenfeld; A. Bocci; A. Bodek; V. Boisvert; G. Bolla; A. Bolshov; D. Bortoletto; J. Boudreau; A. Boveia; B. Brau; L. Brigliadori; C. Bromberg; E. Brubaker; J. Budagov; H. S. Budd; S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; P. Bussey; A. Buzatu; K. L. Byrum; S. Cabrera; M. Campanelli; M. Campbell; F. Canelli; A. Canepa; S. Carillo; D. Carlsmith; R. Carosi; S. Carron; B. Casal; M. Casarsa; A. Castro; P. Catastini; D. Cauz; M. Cavalli-Sforza; A. Cerri; L. Cerrito; S. H. Chang; Y. C. Chen; M. Chertok; G. Chiarelli; G. Chlachidze; F. Chlebana; I. Cho; K. Cho; D. Chokheli; J. P. Chou; G. Choudalakis; S. H. Chuang; K. Chung; W. H. Chung; Y. S. Chung; M. Cilijak; C. I. Ciobanu; M. A. Ciocci; A. Clark; D. Clark; M. Coca; G. Compostella; M. E. Convery; J. Conway; B. Cooper; K. Copic; M. Cordelli; G. Cortiana; F. Crescioli; C. Cuenca Almenar; J. Cuevas; R. Culbertson; J. C. Cully; S. Daronco; M. Datta; S. D'Auria; T. Davies; D. Dagenhart; P. de Barbaro; S. de Cecco; A. Deisher; G. de Lentdecker; G. de Lorenzo; M. Dell'Orso; F. Delli Paoli; L. Demortier; J. Deng; M. Deninno; D. de Pedis; P. F. Derwent; G. P. Di Giovanni; C. Dionisi; B. di Ruzza; J. R. Dittmann; M. D'Onofrio; C. Dörr; S. Donati; P. Dong; J. Donini; T. Dorigo; S. Dube; J. Efron; R. Erbacher; D. Errede; S. Errede; R. Eusebi; H. C. Fang; S. Farrington; I. Fedorko; W. T. Fedorko; R. G. Feild; M. Feindt; J. P. Fernandez; R. Field; G. Flanagan; R. Forrest; S. Forrester; M. Franklin; J. C. Freeman; I. Furic; M. Gallinaro; J. Galyardt; J. E. Garcia; F. Garberson; A. F. Garfinkel; C. Gay; H. Gerberich; D. Gerdes; S. Giagu; P. Giannetti; K. Gibson; J. L. Gimmell; C. Ginsburg; N. Giokaris; M. Giordani; P. Giromini; M. Giunta; G. Giurgiu; V. Glagolev; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; N. Goldschmidt; J. Goldstein; A. Golossanov; G. Gomez; G. Gomez-Ceballos; M. Goncharov; O. González; I. Gorelov; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; A. Gresele; S. Grinstein; C. Grosso-Pilcher; U. Grundler; J. Guimaraes da Costa; Z. Gunay-Unalan; C. Haber; K. Hahn; S. R. Hahn; E. Halkiadakis; B.-Y. Han; J. Y. Han; R. Handler; F. Happacher; K. Hara; D. Hare; M. Hare; S. Harper; R. F. Harr; R. M. Harris; M. Hartz; K. Hatakeyama; J. Hauser; C. Hays; M. Heck; A. Heijboer; B. Heinemann; J. Heinrich; C. Henderson; M. Herndon; J. Heuser; D. Hidas; C. S. Hill; D. Hirschbuehl; A. Hocker; A. Holloway; S. Hou; M. Houlden; S.-C. Hsu; B. T. Huffman; R. E. Hughes; U. Husemann; J. Huston; J. Incandela; G. Introzzi; M. Iori; A. Ivanov; B. Iyutin; E. James; D. Jang; B. Jayatilaka; D. Jeans; E. J. Jeon; S. Jindariani; W. Johnson; M. Jones; K. K. Joo; S. Y. Jun; J. E. Jung; T. R. Junk; T. Kamon; P. E. Karchin; Y. Kato; Y. Kemp; R. Kephart; U. Kerzel; V. Khotilovich; B. Kilminster; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; J. E. Kim; M. J. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; N. Kimura; L. Kirsch; S. Klimenko; M. Klute; B. Knuteson; B. R. Ko; K. Kondo; D. J. Kong; J. Konigsberg; A. Korytov; A. V. Kotwal; A. C. Kraan; J. Kraus; M. Kreps; J. Kroll; N. Krumnack; M. Kruse; V. Krutelyov; T. Kubo; S. E. Kuhlmann; T. Kuhr; N. P. Kulkarni; Y. Kusakabe; S. Kwang; A. T. Laasanen; S. Lai; S. Lami; S. Lammel; M. Lancaster; R. L. Lander; K. Lannon; A. Lath; G. Latino; I. Lazzizzera; T. Lecompte; J. Lee; Y. J. Lee; S. W. Lee; R. Lefèvre; N. Leonardo; S. Leone; S. Levy; J. D. Lewis; C. Lin; M. Lindgren; E. Lipeles; A. Lister; D. O. Litvintsev; T. Liu; N. S. Lockyer; A. Loginov; M. Loreti; R.-S. Lu; D. Lucchesi; P. Lujan; P. Lukens; G. Lungu; L. Lyons; J. Lys; R. Lysak; E. Lytken; P. Mack; D. MacQueen; R. Madrak; K. Maeshima; K. Makhoul; T. Maki; P. Maksimovic; S. Malde; S. Malik; G. Manca; A. Manousakis; F. Margaroli; R. Marginean; C. Marino; A. Martin; M. Martin; V. Martin; M. Martínez; R. Martínez-Ballarín; T. Maruyama; P. Mastrandrea; T. Masubuchi; H. Matsunaga; M. E. Mattson; R. Mazini; P. Mazzanti; K. S. McFarland; P. McIntyre; R. McNulty; A. Mehta; P. Mehtala; S. Menzemer; A. Menzione; P. Merkel; C. Mesropian; A. Messina; T. Miao; N. Miladinovic; J. Miles; R. Miller; C. Mills; M. Milnik; A. Mitra; G. Mitselmakher; A. Miyamoto; S. Moed; N. Moggi; B. Mohr; C. S. Moon; R. Moore; M. Morello; P. Movilla Fernandez; J. Mülmenstädt; A. Mukherjee; Th. Muller; R. Mumford; P. Murat; M. Mussini; J. Nachtman; A. Nagano; J. Naganoma; K. Nakamura; I. Nakano; A. Napier; V. Necula

    2007-01-01

    We present a measurement of sigma(pp¯-->W)×B(W-->enu) at s=1.96TeV, using electrons identified in the forward region (1.2<|eta|<2.8) of the CDF II detector, in 223pb-1 of data. We measure sigma×B=2796±13(stat)-90+95(syst)±162(lum)pb. Combining this result with a previous CDF measurement obtained using electrons in the central region (|eta|≲1), we present the first measurement of the ratio of central-electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections

  3. Variation of Rb\\/Sr Ratios in the Loess-Paleosol Sequences of Central China during the Last 130,000 Years and Their Implications for Monsoon Paleoclimatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Chen; Zhisheng An; John Head

    1999-01-01

    Rb, Sr, and magnetic susceptibility have been measured in the last interglacial–glacial loess profiles at Luochuan and Huanxian, central China. A high degree of similarity between the parameters in both profiles suggests that variations of Rb\\/Sr ratios in the sequence can be regarded as an indicator of East Asian summer monsoon strength. Matching the Rb\\/Sr record with the SPECMAP ?18O

  4. Energy dependence of particle ratio fluctuations in central Pb+Pb collisions from $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} =$~6.3 to 17.3 GeV

    E-print Network

    NA49 Collaboration

    2009-06-30

    We present measurements of the energy dependence of event-by-event fluctuations in the K/pi and (p + \\bar{p})/pi multiplicity ratios in heavy ion collisions at the CERN SPS. The particle ratio fluctuations were obtained for central Pb+Pb collisions at five collision energies, \\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}, between 6.3 and 17.3 GeV. After accounting for the effects of finite-number statistics and detector resolution, we extract the strength of non-statistical fluctuations at each energy. For the K/pi ratio, larger fluctuations than expected for independent particle production are found at all collision energies. The fluctuations in the (p + \\bar{p})/pi ratio are smaller than expectations from independent particle production, indicating correlated pion and proton production from resonance decays. For both ratios, the deviation from purely statistical fluctuations shows an increase towards lower collision energies. The results are compared to transport model calculations, which fail to describe the energy dependence of the K/pi ratio fluctuations.

  5. First Measurement of the Ratio of Central-Electron to Forward-Electron W Partial Cross Sections in pp¯ Collisions at s=1.96TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M. G.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Aoki, M.; Apollinari, G.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Azzurri, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Baroiant, S.; Bartsch, V.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Belloni, A.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beringer, J.; Berry, T.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bolla, G.; Bolshov, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carillo, S.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, I.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Choudalakis, G.; Chuang, S. H.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Cilijak, M.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Coca, M.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooper, B.; Copic, K.; Cordelli, M.; Cortiana, G.; Crescioli, F.; Almenar, C. Cuenca; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Daronco, S.; Datta, M.; D'Auria, S.; Davies, T.; Dagenhart, D.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lentdecker, G.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Delli Paoli, F.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; de Pedis, D.; Derwent, P. F.; Giovanni, G. P. Di; Dionisi, C.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dörr, C.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Donini, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Forrester, S.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia, J. E.; Garberson, F.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Gay, C.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Goldstein, J.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, K.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamilton, A.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Handler, R.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harper, S.; Harr, R. F.; Harris, R. M.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauser, J.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J.; Henderson, C.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Holloway, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huffman, B. T.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; Iyutin, B.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeans, D.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kemp, Y.; Kephart, R.; Kerzel, U.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Klute, M.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, B. R.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kraan, A. C.; Kraus, J.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kubo, T.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kusakabe, Y.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lai, S.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, S. W.; Lefèvre, R.; Leonardo, N.; Leone, S.; Levy, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.; Lin, C. S.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Loreti, M.; Lu, R.-S.; Lucchesi, D.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lyons, L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Mack, P.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maki, T.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marginean, R.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, M.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Maruyama, T.; Mastrandrea, P.; Masubuchi, T.; Matsunaga, H.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazini, R.

    2007-06-01

    We present a measurement of ?(pp¯?W)×B(W?e?) at s=1.96TeV, using electrons identified in the forward region (1.2<|?|<2.8) of the CDF II detector, in 223pb-1 of data. We measure ?×B=2796±13(stat)-90+95(syst)±162(lum)pb. Combining this result with a previous CDF measurement obtained using electrons in the central region (|?|?1), we present the first measurement of the ratio of central-electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections Rexp?=0.925±0.006(stat)±0.032(syst), consistent with theoretical predictions using Coordinated Theoretical-Experimental Project on QCD (CTEQ) and Martin-Roberts-Stirling-Thorne (MRST) parton distribution functions.

  6. A PKC-SHP1 signaling axis desensitizes Fc? receptor signaling by reducing the tyrosine phosphorylation of CBL and regulates Fc?R mediated phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fc? receptors mediate important biological signals in myeloid cells including the ingestion of microorganisms through a process of phagocytosis. It is well-known that Fc? receptor (Fc?R) crosslinking induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of CBL which is associated with Fc?R mediated phagocytosis, however how signaling molecules coordinate to desensitize these receptors is unclear. An investigation of the mechanisms involved in receptor desensitization will provide new insight into potential mechanisms by which signaling molecules may downregulate tyrosine phosphorylation dependent signaling events to terminate important signaling processes. Results Using the U937IF cell line, we observed that Fc?R1 crosslinking induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of CBL, which is maximal at 5 min. followed by a kinetic pattern of dephosphorylation. An investigation of the mechanisms involved in receptor desensitization revealed that pretreatment of U937IF or J774 cells with PMA followed by Fc? receptor crosslinking results in the reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of CBL and the abrogation of downstream signals, such as CBL-CRKL binding, Rac-GTP activation and the phagocytic response. Pretreatment of J774 cells with GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor was observed to block dephosphorylation of CBL and rescued the phagocytic response. We demonstrate that the PKC induced desensitization of Fc?R/ phagocytosis is associated with the inactivation of Rac-GTP, which is deactivated in a hematopoietic specific phosphatase SHP1 dependent manner following ITAM stimulation. The effect of PKC on Fc?R signaling is augmented by the transfection of catalytically active SHP1 and not by the transfection of catalytic dead SHP1 (C124S). Conclusions Our results suggest a functional model by which PKC interacts with SHP1 to affect the phosphorylation state of CBL, the activation state of Rac and the negative regulation of ITAM signaling i.e. Fc? receptor mediated phagocytosis. These findings suggest a mechanism for Fc? receptor desensitization by which a serine-threonine kinase e.g. PKC downregulates tyrosine phosphorylation dependent signaling events via the reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of the complex adapter protein, CBL. PMID:24886428

  7. Age, growth, sex ratio, and maturity of the whitefish in central Green Bay and adjacent waters of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mraz, Donald

    1964-01-01

    This study is based on 1,023 whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)--819 in seven samples from five localitites in central Green Bay in 1948-49 and 1851-52 and 204 in a single 1948 collection from northwestern Lake Michigan proper. Records of age indicated unusual strength for only one year class--1943 which strongly dominated the 1948 sample from Lake Michigan and the 1949 sample from Green Bay and was well represented in the 1948 collection from green Bay. Collection of 1951-52 without exception were dominated by age group III. Length distributions of samples varied widely according to the age composition. Among fish more than 2 years old, the length distributions of age groups overlapped broadly. Several 1-inch intervals included fish of four age groups. The length-weight relation varied considerably among central Green Bay samples, but differences among localitites were nearly equalled by the year-to-year difference at a single locality. Lake Michigan whitefish were generally lighter than those from Green Bay. Weight increased to the 3.386 power of length in Green Bay (combined samples) and the 3.359 power in Lake Michigan. Growth in length, calculated by direct proportion from diameter measurements of growth fields on scales, differed among localities in central Green Bay and between samples of different years at a single locality. If permanent locality differences exist they are not large and can be obscured by the evident annual fluctuations of growth. The grand average calculated length of Green Bay whitefish (combined collections) exceeded that of Lake Michigan fish in all years of life. The advantage was greatest (2.2 inches) at 3 years (calculated lengths of 16.0 inches and 13.8 inches) and subsequently declined to 0.5 inch at 9 years (lengths of 24.6 and 24.1 inches). Both groups reached the minimum legal length of 17 inches during the fourth growing season. Green Bay whitefish also had the larger calculated weights. The advantage reached 9.3 ounces in 3 years (calculated weights of 22.4 and 13.1 ounces). In years of life 4-9, the weight advantage over Lake Michigan fish ranged from 8.7 ounces, (seventh year; weights of 74.4 and 65.7 ounces) to 12.2 ounces (ninth year; weights of 96.2 and 84.0 ounces). Comparison of growth of whitefish at four localities in northern Lake Michigan indicates that fastest growth is in central Green Bay and slowest near the Fox Islands. Growth is intermediate and similar in northwestern Lake Michigan proper and sorthern Green Bay. Youngest mature male whitefish in green Bay belonged to age group II and youngest mature females to age group III. All IV-group fish were mature. Shortest mature males were at 14.5-14.9 inches and shortest mature females at 16.5-16.9 inches. All males longer than 17.9 inches and all females longer than 18.4 inches were mature.

  8. A Human Platelet Receptor Protein Microarray Identifies the High Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor Subunit ? (Fc?R1?) as an Activating Platelet Endothelium Aggregation Receptor 1 (PEAR1) Ligand*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi; Vandenbriele, Christophe; Kauskot, Alexandre; Verhamme, Peter; Hoylaerts, Marc F.; Wright, Gavin J.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies to identify loci responsible for platelet function and cardiovascular disease susceptibility have repeatedly identified polymorphisms linked to a gene encoding platelet endothelium aggregation receptor 1 (PEAR1), an “orphan” cell surface receptor that is activated to stabilize platelet aggregates. To investigate how PEAR1 signaling is initiated, we sought to identify its extracellular ligand by creating a protein microarray representing the secretome and receptor repertoire of the human platelet. Using an avid soluble recombinant PEAR1 protein and a systematic screening assay designed to detect extracellular interactions, we identified the high affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor subunit ? (Fc?R1?) as a PEAR1 ligand. Fc?R1? and PEAR1 directly interacted through their membrane-proximal Ig-like and 13th epidermal growth factor domains with a relatively strong affinity (KD ? 30 nm). Precomplexing Fc?R1? with IgE potently inhibited the Fc?R1?-PEAR1 interaction, and this was relieved by the anti-IgE therapeutic omalizumab. Oligomerized Fc?R1? potentiated platelet aggregation and led to PEAR1 phosphorylation, an effect that was also inhibited by IgE. These findings demonstrate how a protein microarray resource can be used to gain important insight into the function of platelet receptors and provide a mechanistic basis for the initiation of PEAR1 signaling in platelet aggregation. PMID:25713122

  9. Composition of the crust and upper-mantle in the Central Andes (19°30'S) inferred from P wave velocity and Poisson's ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbath, C.; Masson, F.

    2000-12-01

    The present-day crustal structure of the Andean chain results from deformation processes and magmatic activity since the onset of subduction. One line of investigation to resolve questions about the mechanism of crustal thickening is to get information about the composition of the crust and upper-mantle by imaging the structures in velocity and Poisson's ratio (or Vp/ Vs). A high density seismic network was operated during six months in 1994 across the whole Andean chain. The P and S travel times of the best located local earthquakes, mainly situated in the subduction zone, have been inverted for Vp and Vp/ Vs using Thurber's 3D iterative simultaneous inversion method. The resulting models, giving short-scale information about the crustal and upper-mantle composition, provide new limits on the respective involvement of crustal shortening and magmatism in the thickening of the Andean crust. Beneath the Western Cordillera, the seismic properties are well explained by typical active volcanic arc processes, and the thickening of the crust is explained by magmatic addition. Conversely, beneath the Central Altiplano Basin and the Eastern Cordillera, our results preclude significant volume of magmatic addition from the mantle and reinforce crustal shortening as the main thickening process. Moreover, cratonic lower crust and subcontinental lithospheric upper-mantle are observed under the Eastern Cordillera up to 67°W, evidence of the underthrusting of the Brazilian craton, which drives the crustal shortening. Beneath the Central Altiplano Basin, a thin lithospheric mantle is observed above a well marked asthenospheric wedge which extends in depth below the western part of the Eastern Cordillera. Thus partial melt is observed in the shallow mantle west of the Western Cordillera up to the Brazilian craton.

  10. The effects of essential oils BIOMIN PEP MGE on weight gain feed conversion ratio and survival of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of matrix encapsulated essential oils (Biomin® P.E.P. MGE) on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and survival of channel catfish. Five hundred catfish (32.4 ± 1.7 g/fish) were randomly assigned to two treatments with five replicate tanks/tre...

  11. A measurement of the e/{pi} ratio difference between short (250 ns) and long (2.2 {mu}s) integration times with the D0 uranium-liquid argon central calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, B.

    1992-12-31

    The difference of the ratios of the high energy electron and pion responses(e/{pi}) in the DO Uranium-liquid Argon central calorimeter is measured using the DO calorimeter trigger readout (short integration time: 250 ns) and precision readout (long integration time: 2.2 {mu}s). This measurement found a 5% difference in the e/{pi} ratio between short and long integration times, with estimated uncertainty of 2.3%.

  12. Neutrophils in autoantibody-mediated arthritis: critical producers of FcR? , the receptor for C5a, and LFA-1

    PubMed Central

    Monach, Paul A; Nigrovic, Peter A; Chen, Mei; Hock, Hanno; Lee, David M; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Objective Neutrophils represent a prominent component of inflammatory joint effusions and are required for synovial inflammation in mouse models, but mechanisms are poorly understood. We developed a system to test the importance of production of specific factors by neutrophils in a mouse model of arthritis. Methods Neutrophil-deficient Gfi-1?/? mice were sub-lethally irradiated, then engrafted with donor bone-marrow cells (BMC), which resulted in production of mature neutrophils within two weeks. By reconstituting with BMC from mice lacking selected pro-inflammatory factors, mice specifically lacking these factors on neutrophils were generated. Arthritis was initiated by transfer of K/BxN serum to identify the role of defined neutrophil factors on arthritis incidence and severity. Results Neutrophils lacking the signaling chain of stimulatory Fc receptors (FcR? ?/?) were unable to elicit arthritis, but neutrophils lacking Fc? RIII still did so. Neutrophils lacking the chemotactic or adhesion receptors C5aR or CD11a/LFA-1 also failed to initiate arthritis but could enter joints in which inflammation had been initiated by wild-type neutrophils. Neutrophils unable to produce interleukin-1 ? and ? (IL-1?? ?/?) or leukotrienes (5-LO?/?) produced arthritis of intermediate severity. Inability of neutrophils to make tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or to express receptors for TNF or IL-1, had no effect on arthritis. Conclusion A novel transfer system was developed to identify neutrophil production of FcR? , C5aR, and CD11a/LFA-1 as critical components of autoantibody-mediated arthritis. Neutrophil production of IL-1 and leukotriene B4 likely contributes to inflammation but is not essential. Molecular requirements for neutrophil influx into joints become more permissive after inflammation is initiated. PMID:20191628

  13. Influence of recent vegetation on labile and recalcitrant carbon soil pools in central Queensland, Australia: evidence from thermal analysis-quadrupole mass spectrometry-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Krull, Evelyn S; Bol, Roland; Manning, David A C

    2008-06-01

    The effect of a recent vegetation change (<100 years) from C(4) grassland to C(3) woodland in central Queensland, Australia, on soil organic matter (SOM) composition and SOM dynamics has been investigated using a novel coupled thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry-quadrupole.mass spectrometry-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (TG-DSC-QMS-IRMS) system. TG-DSC-QMS-IRMS distinguishes the C isotope composition of discrete SOM pools, showing changes in labile, recalcitrant and refractory carbon in the bulk soil and particle size fractions which track the vegetation changes. Analysis of evolved gases (by QMS) from thermal decomposition, rather than observed weight loss, proved essential in determining the temperature at which SOM decomposes, because smectite and kaolinite clays contribute to observed weight losses. The delta(13)C analyses of the CO(2) evolved at different temperatures for bulk soil and particle size-separates showed that most of the labile SOM under the more recent woody vegetation was C(3)-derived carbon whereas the delta(13)C values in the recalcitrant SOM showed greater C(4) contributions. This indicated a shift from grass (C(4))- to tree (C(3))-derived carbon in the woodland, which was also supported by the two-phase (13)C enrichment with depth, i.e. C(3) vegetation dominated the top soil (0-10 cm), but the C(4) contribution increased with depth (more gradual). This is perturbed by the inclusion of charcoal from forest fires ((14)C age incursions) and by the deep incorporation of C(3) carbon due to root penetration. PMID:18446757

  14. Estimation of the Optimal Ratio of Standardized Ileal Digestible Threonine to Lysine for Finishing Barrows Fed Low Crude Protein Diets

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chunyuan; Zhang, Shihai; Zhang, Guijie; Zhang, Fengrui; Chu, Licui; Qiao, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) requirement and the ideal SID threonine (Thr) to Lys ratio for finishing barrows. In Exp. 1, 120 barrows with an average body weight of 72.8±3.6 kg were allotted to one of six dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design conducted for 35 d. Each diet was fed to five pens of pigs containing four barrows. A normal crude protein (CP) diet providing 15.3% CP and 0.71% SID Lys and five low CP diets providing 12% CP with SID Lys concentrations of 0.51, 0.61, 0.71, 0.81 and 0.91% were formulated. Increasing the SID Lys content of the diet resulted in an increase in weight gain (linear effect p = 0.04 and quadratic effect p = 0.08) and an improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linear effect p = 0.02 and quadratic effect p = 0.02). For weight gain and FCR, the estimated SID Lys requirement of finishing barrows were 0.71 and 0.71% (linear broken-line analysis), 0.79 and 0.78% (quadratic analysis), respectively. Exp. 2 was a 26 d dose-response study using SID Thr to Lys ratios of 0.56, 0.61, 0.67, 0.72 and 0.77. A total of 138 barrows weighing 72.5±4.4 kg were randomly allotted to receive one of the five diets. All diets were formulated to contain 0.61% SID Lys (10.5% CP), which is slightly lower than the pig’s requirement. Weight gain was quadratically (p = 0.03) affected by SID Thr to Lys ratio while FCR was linearly improved (p = 0.02). The SID Thr to Lys ratios for maximal weight gain and minimal FCR and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) were 0.67, 0.71 and 0.64 using a linear broken-line model and 0.68, 0.78 and 0.70 using a quadratic model, respectively. Based on the estimates obtained from the broken-line and quadratic analysis, we concluded that the dietary SID Lys requirement for both maximum weight gain and minimum FCR was 0.75%, and an optimum SID Thr to Lys ratio was 0.68 to maximize weight gain, 0.75 to optimize FCR and 0.67 to minimize SUN for finishing barrows. PMID:25049898

  15. FEED CONVERSION RATIO OF MAJOR CARP CIRRHINUS MRIGALA FINGERLINGS FED ON COTTON SEED MEAL, FISH MEAL AND BARLEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jabeen; M. Salim; P. Akhtar

    A six-week experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on cotton seed meal (35.69% CP), fish meal (50.41% CP) and barley (9.98% CP). The ingredients were supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. Twenty fingerlings were randomly stocked in each

  16. Lipid D\\/H Ratios from Multiple Sources and Deposits Indicate Drier Little Ice Age at Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W), Central Pacific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Muegler; D. Sachse; J. P. Sachs

    2010-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity of biomarker D\\/H ratios from two distinct climate archives, a lake and a peat bog on the Tropical Pacific Island of Terrania, compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as deltaD values) were determined on lipid biomarkers from various biological sources deposited in the two climate archives. At present, Terrania or Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W) permanently lies in

  17. Partitioning of atmospheric carbon dioxide over Central Europe: insights from combined measurements of CO2 mixing ratios and their carbon isotope composition.

    PubMed

    Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Jelen, Dorota; Galkowski, Michal; Kuc, Tadeusz; Necki, Jaroslaw; Chmura, Lukasz; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Jasek, Alina; Rozanski, Kazimierz

    2012-09-01

    Regular measurements of atmospheric CO (2) mixing ratios and their carbon isotope composition ((13)C/(12)C and (14)C/(12)C ratios) performed between 2005 and 2009 at two sites of contrasting characteristics (Krakow and the remote mountain site Kasprowy Wierch) located in southern Poland were used to derive fossil fuel-related and biogenic contributions to the total CO (2) load measured at both sites. Carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere, not coming from fossil fuel and biogenic sources, was considered 'background' CO (2). In Krakow, the average contribution of fossil fuel CO (2) was approximately 3.4%. The biogenic component was of the same magnitude. Both components revealed a distinct seasonality, with the fossil fuel component reaching maximum values during winter months and the biogenic component shifted in phase by approximately 6 months. The partitioning of the local CO (2) budget for the Kasprowy Wierch site revealed large differences in the derived components: the fossil fuel component was approximately five times lower than that derived for Krakow, whereas the biogenic component was negative in summer, pointing to the importance of photosynthetic sink associated with extensive forests in the neighbourhood of the station. While the presented study has demonstrated the strength of combined measurements of CO (2) mixing ratios and their carbon isotope signature as efficient tools for elucidating the partitioning of local atmospheric CO (2) loads, it also showed the important role of the land cover and the presence of the soil in the footprint of the measurement location, which control the net biogenic surface CO (2) fluxes. PMID:22472094

  18. Three-dimensional models of P wave velocity and P-to-S velocity ratio in the southern central Andes by simultaneous inversion of local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeber, Frank M.; Asch, Günter

    1999-09-01

    The PISCO'94 (Proyecto de Investigatión Sismológica de la Cordillera Occidental, 1994) seismological network of 31 digital broad band and short-period three-component seismometers was deployed in northern Chile between the Coastal Cordillera and the Western Cordillera. More than 5300 local seismic events were observed in a 100 day period. A subset of high-quality P and S arrival time data was used to invert simultaneously for hypocenters and velocity structure. Additional data from two other networks in the region could be included. The velocity models show a number of prominent anomalies, outlining an extremely thickened crust (about 70 km) beneath the forearc region, an anomalous crustal structure beneath the recent magmatic arc (Western Cordillera) characterized by very low velocities, and a high-velocity slab. A region of an increased Vp/Vs ratio has been found directly above the Wadati-Benioff zone, which might be caused by hydration processes. A zone of lower than average velocities and a high Vp/Vs ratio might correspond to the asthenospheric wedge. The upper edge of the Wadati-Benioff zone is sharply defined by intermediate depth hypocenters, while evidence for a double seismic zone can hardly be seen. Crustal events between the Precordillera and the Western Cordillera have been observed for the first time and are mainly located in the vicinity of the Salar de Atacama down to depths of about 40 km.

  19. Central Nervous System Effects of the Second-Generation Antihistamines Marketed in Japan -Review of Inter-Drug Differences Using the Proportional Impairment Ratio (PIR)-

    PubMed Central

    Isomura, Tatsuya; Kono, Takeshi; Hindmarch, Ian; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Murakami, Aya; Inuzuka, Kyoko; Kawana, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Background Second-generation antihistamines (AHs) have, in general, fewer sedative effects than the first-generation. However, important inter-drug differences remain in the degree of cognitive and/or psychomotor impairment. The extent to which a particular compound causes disruption can be conveniently compared, to all other AHs, using the Proportional Impairment Ratio (PIR). Although the PIR can differentiate the relative impairment caused by individual drugs, there is no indication of the reliability of the ratios obtained. Objective To calculate the PIRs –together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), as an index of reliability– and compare AHs currently, or soon to be, available in Japan, with respect to their intrinsic capacity to cause impairment. Methods Results from studies of cetirizine, desloratadine, ebastine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, loratadine, mequitazine, and olopatadine were included in the PIR calculations. All data utilised came from crossover studies in healthy volunteers which were randomised and placebo and positive-internal controlled. Existing databases from studies reporting the sedative effects of AHs on objective (speed, accuracy, memory) and subjective (feeling) psychometrics were augmented, via results from suitable studies published after the previous reviews. The null value for a PIR was one. Results A total of 45 studies were finally included for this review. Of the AHs assessed, fexofenadine, ebastine, and levocetirizine showed a PIR for objective tests of 0. However, only fexofenadine (PIR?=?0.49) had an upper limit of the 95% CI of less than 1. Fexofenadine, levocetirizine, desloratadine, olopatadine, loratadine, and mequitazine all had a PIR for subjective ratings of 0, but the upper limits of the 95% CIs were all in excess of 1, although fexofenadine (PIR?=?2.57) was the lowest. Conclusions The results show that there are differences between second-generation AHs in the extent of sedation produced. However, subjective ratings indicate that patients may not necessarily be aware of this. PMID:25501360

  20. Lipid D/H Ratios from Multiple Sources and Deposits Indicate Drier Little Ice Age at Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W), Central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muegler, I.; Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    To compare the sensitivity of biomarker D/H ratios from two distinct climate archives, a lake and a peat bog on the Tropical Pacific Island of Terrania, compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as ?D values) were determined on lipid biomarkers from various biological sources deposited in the two climate archives. At present, Terrania or Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W) permanently lies in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and receives an annual precipitation of 2,903 mm. The interior of this lens shaped island contains a freshwater lake and peat bogs. Previous studies on the lake sediments found evidence for a substantially drier climate at times during the Little Ice Age (AD 1400-1850) based on the lithologic transition from modern freshwater sediments to a sequence of pure cyanobacterial mat in concert with ?D values from total lipid extracts (Sachs et al., 2009). Here we report on ?D values from lipids of various sources: dinoflagellate algae (dinosterol and a saturated C30 sterol (4? -methyl-24-ethyl-5? -cholestan-3?-ol), microbial sources (diploptene and nC21 alkane) and higher plants (fern-7-ene, ?-sitosterol and stigmastanol). Mean ?D values from all lipids, measured in both archives, are significantly enriched in deuterium by between 22 and 86‰ during previously inferred drier climate conditions and simultaneously record the transition towards a freshwater lake at around AD1550. Measured ?D values of all lipids cover a wide range from -281‰ to -105‰ during freshwater deposition and from -185‰ to -50‰ when climate was drier. In agreement with the observed isotopic difference between lipids produced via the acetogenic and the mevalonic acid biosynthetic pathway ?D values for algae and higher plant sterols are depleted in deuterium relative to the nC21 alkane by 150‰ on average. The consistent ?D values from dinosterol and 4? -methyl-24-ethyl-5? -cholestan-3?-ol from the lake and peat deposits signify the robustness of these lipid ?D values to indicate hydrologic changes in the sedimentary record. ?D values among lipids of similar and disparate sources and/or biosynthetic origin from Washington Island lake (AD ~ 800-1550) and peat bog (AD~1200-1660) sediments are significantly enriched in deuterium prior to AD 1560/1640 and thus both suggest drier climate conditions resembling today’s environmental and depositional setting at Christmas Island which is located 300km SSE of Washington Island beyond the influence of the ITCZ.

  1. Rod Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2013-01-01

    This activity builds student knowledge of ratios by using Cuisenaire rods to determine proportion and form equivalent ratios. Students may use the Cuisenaire rod environment embedded in this resource or they may use actual Cuisenaire rods depending on preference/ability/accessibility. This resource includes teacher notes, solution, and suggestions for questioning.

  2. Lightning Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using satellites and ground-based detection instruments, researchers have now mapped out lightning ratios for the continental United States. The Lightning Ratios site, from Space Science News (NASA), provides recent data in the form of a vibrant color map (.pdf or .jpg) of cloud-to-cloud lightning to cloud-to-ground lightning over the continental United States.

  3. Variations in the elemental ratio of organic matter in the central Baltic Sea: Part I-Linking primary production to remineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreus, Markus; Schartau, Markus; Engel, Anja; Nausch, Monika; Voss, Maren

    2015-06-01

    For most marine ecosystems the growth of diazotrophic cyanobacteria and the associated amount of nitrogen fixation are regulated by the availability of phosphorus. The intensity of summer blooms of nitrogen (N2) fixing algae in the Baltic Sea is assumed to be determinable from a surplus of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) that remains after the spring bloom has ended. But this surplus DIP concentration is observed to continuously decrease at times when no appreciable nitrogen fixation is measured. This peculiarity is currently discussed and has afforded different model interpretations for the Baltic Sea. In our study we propose a dynamical model solution that explains these observations with variations of the elemental carbon-to-nitrogen-to-phosphorus (C:N:P) ratio during distinct periods of organic matter production and remineralization. The biogeochemical model resolves seasonal C, N and P fluxes with depth at the Baltic Sea monitoring site BY15, based on three assumptions: (1) DIP is utilized by algae though not needed for immediate growth, (2) the uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is hampered when the algae's phosphorus (P) quota is low, and (3) carbon assimilation continues at times of nutrient depletion. Model results describe observed temporal variations of DIN, DIP and chlorophyll-a concentrations along with partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). In contrast to other model studies, our solution does not require N2 fixation to occur shortly after the spring bloom to explain DIP drawdown and pCO2 levels. Model estimates of annual N2 fixation are 297 ± 24 mmol Nm-2a-1. Estimates of total production are 14200 ± 700 mmol Cm-2a-1, 1400 ± 70 mmol Nm-2a-1, and 114 ± 5 mmol Pm-2a-1 for the upper 50 m. The models C, N and P fluxes disclose preferential remineralization of P and of organic N that was introduced via N2 fixation. Our results are in support of the idea that P uptake by phytoplankton during the spring bloom contributes to the consecutive availability of labile dissolved organic phosphorus (LDOP). The LDOP is retained within upper layers and its remineralization affects algal growth in summer, during periods of noticeable N2 fixation.

  4. Reconstructing C3 and C4 vegetation cover using n-alkane carbon isotope ratios in recent lake sediments from Cameroon, Western Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Yannick; Schefuß, Enno; Schwab, Valérie F.; Garreta, Vincent; Gleixner, Gerd; Vincens, Annie; Todou, Gilbert; Séné, Olivier; Onana, Jean-Michel; Achoundong, Gaston; Sachse, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Trees and shrubs in tropical Africa use the C3 cycle as a carbon fixation pathway during photosynthesis, while grasses and sedges mostly use the C4 cycle. Leaf-wax lipids from sedimentary archives such as the long-chain n-alkanes (e.g., n-C27 to n-C33) inherit carbon isotope ratios that are representative of the carbon fixation pathway. Therefore, n-alkane ?13C values are often used to reconstruct past C3/C4 composition of vegetation, assuming that the relative proportions of C3 and C4 leaf waxes reflect the relative proportions of C3 and C4 plants. We have compared the ?13C values of n-alkanes from modern C3 and C4 plants with previously published values from recent lake sediments and provide a framework for estimating the fractional contribution (areal-based) of C3 vegetation cover (fC3) represented by these sedimentary archives. Samples were collected in Cameroon, across a latitudinal transect that accommodates a wide range of climate zones and vegetation types, as reflected in the progressive northward replacement of C3-dominated rain forest by C4-dominated savanna. The C3 plants analysed were characterised by substantially higher abundances of n-C29 alkanes and by substantially lower abundances of n-C33 alkanes than the C4 plants. Furthermore, the sedimentary ?13C values of n-C29 and n-C31 alkanes from recent lake sediments in Cameroon (-37.4‰ to -26.5‰) were generally within the range of ?13C values for C3 plants, even when from sites where C4 plants dominated the catchment vegetation. In such cases simple linear mixing models fail to accurately reconstruct the relative proportions of C3 and C4 vegetation cover when using the ?13C values of sedimentary n-alkanes, overestimating the proportion of C3 vegetation, likely as a consequence of the differences in plant wax production, preservation, transport, and/or deposition between C3 and C4 plants. We therefore tested a set of non-linear binary mixing models using ?13C values from both C3 and C4 vegetation as end-members. The non-linear models included a sigmoid function (sine-squared) that describes small variations in the fC3 values as the minimum and maximum ?13C values are approached, and a hyperbolic function that takes into account the differences between C3 and C4 plants discussed above. Model fitting and the estimation of uncertainties were completed using the Monte Carlo algorithm and can be improved by future data addition. Models that provided the best fit with the observed ?13C values of sedimentary n-alkanes were either hyperbolic functions or a combination of hyperbolic and sine-squared functions. Such non-linear models may be used to convert ?13C measurements on sedimentary n-alkanes directly into reconstructions of C3 vegetation cover.

  5. Anti-inflammatory properties of human serum IgA: induction of IL-1 receptor antagonist and Fc?R (CD89)-mediated down-regulation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and IL-6 in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    WOLF, H M; HAUBER, I; GULLE, H; SAMSTAG, A; FISCHER, M B; AHMAD, R U; EIBL, M M

    1996-01-01

    A deregulated expression and/or release of large amounts of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF-? accounts for most pathophysiological events in a variety of systemic inflammatory diseases, the effect being mediated by the interaction of these cytokines with their respective receptors. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), mainly produced by monocytes/macrophages, is an inhibitor of IL-1 activity. The present study shows that human serum IgA induces significant IL-1Ra release in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and adherent monocytes. IgA induced higher levels of IL-1Ra than Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) expressing lipopolysaccharide (LPS), purified LPS or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), without induction of IL-1? release, and even inhibited LPS-induced IL-1? release. Induction of IL-1Ra by IgA could be detected both at the mRNA and protein levels in resting and activated monocytes. Ligation of Fc?R with MoAb MY-43 or treatment with human serum IgA induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in human monocytes, and herbimycin A, a specific inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinase activity, inhibited IgA-induced IL-1Ra production, suggesting that Fc?R-mediated induction of tyrosine phosphorylation is required for the IgA-induced stimulation of IL-1Ra release. In addition, triggering of Fc?R with MoAb specifically down-regulated TNF-? and IL-6 release in human monocytes activated with Hib. By the induction of IL-1Ra and down-regulation of the release of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6, interaction of IgA with human monocytes may actively contribute to the regulation of the inflammatory response. PMID:8809146

  6. Circulating CD52 and CD20 levels at end of treatment predict for progression and survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR)

    PubMed Central

    Alatrash, Gheath; Albitar, Maher; O'Brien, Susan; Wang, Xuemei; Manshouri, Taghi; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Lerner, Susan; Keating, Michael J.; Wierda, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary CD52 and CD20 antigens are important therapeutic targets for the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) alemtuzumab and rituximab respectively. Circulating CD52 (cCD52) and CD20 (cCD20) have prognostic utility in lymphoid malignancies. The efficacy of mAb therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) may be adversely affected by cCD52 or cCD20. In this report, blood and bone marrow (BM) cCD52 and cCD20 were measured at response assessment in previously treated (N = 235) patients with CLL who received fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR). Univariate and multivariate statistical models evaluated correlations of pre- and response variables with progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Response variables included 1996 National Cancer Institute-Working Group (NCI-WG) response, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGHV) in BM, and cCD52 and cCD20 levels (blood and BM) at response assessment. Using multivariate analysis, response blood and BM cCD52, blood cCD20, and NCI-WG response were significant independent predictors of PFS. At the time of response assessment, BM cCD52 correlated with OS in univariate analysis. cCD52 and cCD20, therefore appear useful in predicting survival and may be important for monitoring patients following salvage FCR (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab) therapy. These data further indicate that plasma may be a good target to evaluate for minimal residual disease using cCD52/cCD20 levels. PMID:19895616

  7. Feeding of by-products completely replaced cereals and pulses in dairy cows and enhanced edible feed conversion ratio.

    PubMed

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2015-02-01

    When fed human-edible feeds, such as grains and pulses, dairy cows are very inefficient in transforming them into animal products. Therefore, strategies to reduce human-edible inputs in dairy cow feeding are needed to improve food efficiency. The aim of this feeding trial was to analyze the effect of the full substitution of a common concentrate mixture with a by-product concentrate mixture on milk production, feed intake, blood values, and the edible feed conversion ratio (eFCR), defined as human-edible output per human edible input. The experiment was conducted as a change-over design, with each experimental period lasting for 7wk. Thirteen multiparous and 5 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments. Treatments consisted of a grass silage-based forage diet supplemented with either conventional ingredients or solely by-products from the food processing industry (BP). The BP mixture had higher contents of fiber and ether extract, whereas starch content was reduced compared with the conventional mixture. Milk yield and milk solids were not affected by treatment. The eFCR in the BP group were about 4 and 2.7 times higher for energy and protein, respectively. Blood values did not indicate negative effects on cows' metabolic health status. Results of this feeding trial suggest that by-products could replace common concentrate supplements in dairy cow feeding, resulting in an increased eFCR for energy and protein which emphasizes the unique role of dairy cows as net food producers. PMID:25483200

  8. Absence of Fc epsilonRI alpha chain results in upregulation of Fc gammaRIII-dependent mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis. Evidence of competition between Fc epsilonRI and Fc gammaRIII for limiting amounts of FcR beta and gamma chains.

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowicz, D; Flamand, V; Miyajima, I; Ravetch, J V; Galli, S J; Kinet, J P

    1997-01-01

    In mouse mast cells, both Fc epsilonRI and Fc gammaRIII are alpha beta gamma2 tetrameric complexes in which different alpha chains confer IgE or IgG ligand recognition while the signaling FcR beta and gamma chains are identical. We used primarily noninvasive techniques (changes in body temperature, dye extravasation) to assess systemic anaphylactic responses in nonanesthetized wild-type, Fc epsilonRI alpha chain -/- and FcR gamma chain -/- mice. We confirm that systemic anaphylaxis in mice can be mediated largely through IgG1 and Fc gammaRIII and we provide direct evidence that these responses reflect activation of Fc gammaRIII rather than Fc gammaRI. Furthermore, we show that Fc gammaRIII-dependent responses are more intense in normal than in congenic mast cell-deficient KitW/KitW-v mice, indicating that Fc gammaRIII responses have mast cell-dependent and -independent components. Finally, we demonstrate that the upregulation of cell surface expression of Fc gammaRIII seen in Fc epsilonRI alpha chain -/- mice corresponds to an increased association of Fc gammaRIII alpha chains with FcR beta and gamma chains and is associated with enhanced Fc gammaRIII-dependent mast cell degranulation and systemic anaphylactic responses. Therefore, the phenotype of the Fc epsilonRI alpha chain -/- mice suggests that expression of Fc epsilonRI and Fc gammaRIII is limited by availability of the FcR beta and gamma chains and that, in normal mice, changes in the expression of one receptor (Fc epsilonRI) may influence the expression of functional responses dependent on the other (Fc gammaRIII). PMID:9062349

  9. Learning About Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hadley

    2005-06-17

    Ratios appear in everyday life, but what exactly is a ratio. This lesson will help you understand what is a ratio and what to do with a ratio. What is a ratio? Dr. Math gives a pretty good explanation on these sites What is a ratio? Ratios as Fractions Figuring Ratios Writing Ratios Ratios Use this site to explore ratios using pictures All About Ratios Now that you have a little understanding here are some in-class activities that your teacher can help you with ...

  10. Freedom of information applications as an "evergreening" tactic: Secretary, Department of Health and Ageing v iNOVA Pharmaceuticals (Australia) Pty Ltd (2010) 191 FCR 573; [2010] FCA 1442.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Faunce, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    A recent decision of the Federal Court of Australia illustrates how patent-holding pharmaceutical companies are attempting to use Australia's Freedom of Information Act 1982 (Cth) to force Australian safety, quality and efficacy regulators to disclose whether generic competitors are attempting to enter the market. In Secretary, Department of Health and Ageing v iNova Pharmaceuticals (Australia) Pty Ltd (2010) 191 FCR 573; [2010] FCA 1442 a single judge of the Federal Court overturned a decision of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal (AAT) that would have compelled the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) to reveal whether they were in possession of an application to register generic versions of two iNova products: imiquimod and phentermine. In its justification to the AAT for refusing to confirm or deny the existence of any application, the TGA argued that to reveal the existence of such a document would prejudice the proper administration of the National Health Act 1953 (Cth) as it could compromise the listing of a generic on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. The AAT failed to appreciate the extent to which this revelation to a competitor would have undercut 2004 amendments to the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 (Cth) that provided penalties for evergreening tactics involving TGA notifications to drug patent-holders and 2006 amendments to the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) which protected the right of generic manufacturers to "springboard". The decision of the Federal Court is one of the first to explore the use of freedom of information legislation by patent-holders as a potential "evergreening" technique to prolong royalties by marginalising generic competition. Because of the significant amounts of money involved in ensuring rapid market entry of low-cost generic products, the issue has considerable public health significance. PMID:21988009

  11. Ratios For All Occasions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Terese Herrera

    This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards.A central theme in the middle school mathematics curriculum, proportional reasoning is based on making sense of ratios in a variety of contexts. The resources chosen for this unit provide practice in solving problems, often informally, in the format of games, hands-on modeling, mapmaking, and questions selected for their interest for students. As students work through the activities, they will exercise reasoning about basic proportions as ell as further develop their knowledge of the relationship between fractions and percents.The section titled Background Resources for Teachers contains links to workshop sessions, developed for teachers, on the mathematical content of the unit. Ratios in Childrens Books identifies three picture books that entertain while they explore scale and proportion. In the final section, we look at the coverage of proportionality at the iddle level in the NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics.

  12. Use of the 87Sr\\/ 86Sr isotopic ratio as an environmental tracer: an example of the application to the Fossil Forest of the Dunarobba (FFD) sedimentary system near Aviglano Umbro (Terni—Central Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Barbieri

    2002-01-01

    A recent discovery of Pliocene tree trunks (Taxodium, Glyptostrobus or Sequoia) perfectly preserved in the fluvial lacustrine sediments deposited in the old Tiberin Lake (near the town of Dunarobba, Central Italy) has led to the study of the conditions responsible for the trunks preservation. The present work has applied Sr isotope techniques to examine and confirm fluid migration in the

  13. First measurement of the ratio of central-electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abulencia; J. Adelman; T. Affolder; T. Akimoto; M. G. Albrow; S. Amerio; D. Amidei; A. Anastassov; K. Anikeev; A. Annovi; J. Antos; M. Aoki; G. Apollinari; T. Arisawa; A. Artikov; W. Ashmanskas; A. Attal; A. Aurisano; F. Azfar; P. Azzi-Bacchetta; P. Azzurri; N. Bacchetta; W. Badgett; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; S. Baroiant; V. Bartsch; G. Bauer; P. H. Beauchemin; F. Bedeschi; S. Behari; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; A. Belloni; D. Benjamin; A. Beretvas; J. Beringer; T. Berry; A. Bhatti; M. Binkley; D. Bisello; I. Bizjak; R. E. Blair; C. Blocker; B. Blumenfeld; A. Bocci; A. Bodek; V. Boisvert; G. Bolla; A. Bolshov; D. Bortoletto; J. Boudreau; A. Boveia; B. Brau; L. Brigliadori; C. Bromberg; E. Brubaker; J. Budagov; H. S. Budd; S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; P. Bussey; A. Buzatu; K. L. Byrum; S. Cabrera; M. Campanelli; M. Campbell; F. Canelli; A. Canepa; S. Carillo; D. Carlsmith; R. Carosi; S. Carron; B. Casal; M. Casarsa; A. Castro; P. Catastini; D. Cauz; M. Cavalli-Sforza; A. Cerri; L. Cerrito; S. H. Chang; Y. C. Chen; M. Chertok; G. Chiarelli; G. Chlachidze; F. Chlebana; I. Cho; K. Cho; D. Chokheli; J. P. Chou; G. Choudalakis; S. H. Chuang; K. Chung; W. H. Chung; Y. S. Chung; M. Cilijak; C. I. Ciobanu; M. A. Ciocci; A. Clark; D. Clark; M. Coca; G. Compostella; M. E. Convery; J. Conway; B. Cooper; K. Copic; M. Cordelli; G. Cortiana; F. Crescioli; C. C. Almenar; J. Cuevas; R. Culbertson; J. C. Cully; S. DaRonco; M. Datta; S. DAuria; T. Davies; D. Dagenhart; P. de Barbaro; S. De Cecco; A. Deisher; G. De Lentdecker; G. De Lorenzo; M. DellOrso; F. D. Paoli; L. Demortier; J. Deng; M. Deninno; D. De Pedis; P. F. Derwent; G. P. Di Giovanni; C. Dionisi; B. Di Ruzza; J. R. Dittmann; M. DOnofrio; C. Dorr; S. Donati; P. Dong; J. Donini; T. Dorigo; S. Dube; J. Efron; R. Erbacher; D. Errede; S. Errede; R. Eusebi; H. C. Fang; S. Farrington; I. Fedorko; W. T. Fedorko; R. G. Feild; M. Feindt; J. P. Fernandez; R. Field; G. Flanagan; R. Forrest; S. Forrester; M. Franklin; J. C. Freeman; I. Furic; M. Gallinaro; J. Galyardt; J. E. Garcia; F. Garberson; A. F. Garfinkel; C. Gay; H. Gerberich; D. Gerdes; S. Giagu; P. Giannetti; K. Gibson; J. L. Gimmell; C. Ginsburg; N. Giokaris; M. Giordani; P. Giromini; M. Giunta; G. Giurgiu; V. Glagolev; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; N. Goldschmidt; J. Goldstein; A. Golossanov; G. Gomez; G. Gomez-Ceballos; M. Goncharov; O. Gonzalez; I. Gorelov; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; A. Gresele; S. Grinstein; C. Grosso-Pilcher; U. Grundler; J. G. da Costa; Z. Gunay-Unalan; C. Haber; K. Hahn; S. R. Hahn; E. Halkiadakis; B. Y. Han; J. Y. Han; R. Handler; F. Happacher; K. Hara; D. Hare; M. Hare; S. Harper; R. F. Harr; R. M. Harris; M. Hartz; K. Hatakeyama; J. Hauser; C. Hays; M. Heck; A. Heijboer; B. Heinemann; J. Heinrich; C. Henderson; M. Herndon; J. Heuser; D. Hidas; C. S. Hill; D. Hirschbuehl; A. Hocker; A. Holloway; S. Hou; M. Houlden; S. C. Hsu; B. T. Huffman; R. E. Hughes; U. Husemann; J. Huston; J. Incandela; G. Introzzi; M. Iori; A. Ivanov; B. Iyutin; E. James; D. Jang; B. Jayatilaka; D. Jeans; E. J. Jeon; S. Jindariani; W. Johnson; M. Jones; K. K. Joo; S. Y. Jun; J. E. Jung; T. R. Junk; T. Kamon; P. E. Karchin; Y. Kato; Y. Kemp; R. Kephart; U. Kerzel; V. Khotilovich; B. Kilminster; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; J. E. Kim; M. J. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; N. Kimura; L. Kirsch; S. Klimenko; M. Klute; B. Knuteson; B. R. Ko; K. Kondo; D. J. Kong; J. Konigsberg; A. Korytov; A. V. Kotwal; A. C. Kraan; J. Kraus; M. Kreps; J. Kroll; N. Krumnack; M. Kruse; V. Krutelyov; T. Kubo; S. E. Kuhlmann; T. Kuhr; N. P. Kulkarni; Y. Kusakabe; S. Kwang; A. T. Laasanen; S. Lai; S. Lami; S. Lammel; M. Lancaster; R. L. Lander; K. Lannon; A. Lath; G. Latino; I. Lazzizzera; T. LeCompte; J. Lee; Y. J. Lee; S. W. Lee; R. Lefevre; N. Leonardo; S. Leone; S. Levy; J. D. Lewis; C. Lin; M. Lindgren; E. Lipeles; A. Lister; D. O. Litvintsev; T. Liu; N. S. Lockyer; A. Loginov; M. Loreti; R. S. Lu; D. Lucchesi; P. Lujan; P. Lukens; G. Lungu; L. Lyons; J. Lys; R. Lysak; E. Lytken; P. Mack; D. MacQueen; R. Madrak; K. Maeshima; K. Makhoul; T. Maki; P. Maksimovic; S. Malde; S. Malik; G. Manca; A. Manousakis; F. Margaroli; R. Marginean; C. Marino; A. Martin; M. Martin; V. Martin; M. Martinez; R. Martinez-Ballarin; T. Maruyama; P. Mastrandrea; T. Masubuchi; H. Matsunaga; M. E. Mattson; R. Mazini; P. Mazzanti; K. S. McFarland; P. McIntyre; R. McNulty; A. Mehta; P. Mehtala; S. Menzemer; A. Menzione; P. Merkel; C. Mesropian; A. Messina; T. Miao; N. Miladinovic; J. Miles; R. Miller; C. Mills; M. Milnik; A. Mitra; G. Mitselmakher; A. Miyamoto; S. Moed; N. Moggi; B. Mohr; C. S. Moon; R. Moore; M. Morello; P. M. Fernandez; J. Mulmenstadt; A. Mukherjee; T. Muller; R. Mumford; P. Murat; M. Mussini; J. Nachtman; A. Nagano; J. Naganoma; K. Nakamura; I. Nakano; A. Napier; V. Necula; C. Neu; M. S. Neubauer; J. Nielsen

    2007-01-01

    We present a measurement of sigma(p (p) over bar -> W)xB(W -> e nu) at root s=1.96 TeV, using electrons identified in the forward region (1.2 <|eta|< 2.8) of the CDF II detector, in 223 pb(-1) of data. We measure sigma xB=2796 +\\/- 13(stat)(-90)(+95)(syst)+\\/- 162(lum) pb. Combining this result with a previous CDF measurement obtained using electrons in the central

  14. Ratios and Proportions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-02-02

    In this learning object from Wisc-Online, students will examine ratios and proportions. The unit's activities include defining ratios and proportions, simplifying ratios, solving problems using proportions and answering practice questions.

  15. First Measurement of the Ratio of Central-Electron to Forward-Electron W Partial Cross Sections in p-pbar Collisions at sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV

    E-print Network

    CDF Collaboration

    2007-11-07

    We present a measurement of sigma(p-pbar -> W) x B(W->enu) at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV, using electrons identified in the forward region (1.2 electrons in the central region (|eta|electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections R_exp=0.925+-0.006(stat)+-0.032(syst), consistent with theoretical predictions using Coordinated Theoretical-Experimental Preoject on QCD (CTEQ) and Martin-Roberts-Stirling-Thorne (MRST) parton distribution functions.

  16. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  17. Bicycle Gears- Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    Students experiment with and learn about the gear ratios on a bicycle—thus enhancing their understanding of circumference of a circle, proportions, etc. Actual gear ratio would be the ratio between the front and rear sprocket, NOT between pedal and rear wheel.

  18. The Strehl Ratio in Adaptive Optics Images: Statistics and Estimation

    E-print Network

    Rémi Soummer; André Ferrari

    2007-06-12

    Statistical properties of the intensity in adaptive optics images are usually modeled with a Rician distribution. We study the central point of the image, where this model is inappropriate for high to very high correction levels. The central point is an important problem because it gives the Strehl ratio distribution. We show that the central point distribution can be modeled using a non-central Gamma distribution.

  19. Detection strategies for extreme mass ratio inspirals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil J. Cornish

    2011-01-01

    The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near-horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and

  20. Influence of initial size on higher cumulant ratios of net-proton number fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Xiong, Fengbo; Li, Lin; Li, Zhiming; Wu, Yuanfang

    2013-01-01

    With the help of AMPT default model, we study the influence of initial size (centrality of collisions) on higher cumulant ratios of net-proton distributions. If the centrality is presented by impact parameter, there is a strong centrality dependent, in particular, in those peripheral collisions. This dependence is slightly reduced if the centrality is presented by number of participant, or charged multiplicity. However, the dynamical ratios are almost centrality independent. So the centrality dependence of dynamical ratios at RHIC beam energy scan are presented.

  1. Likelihood Ratio Tests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Siegrist, Kyle

    This page, created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama - Huntsville, introduces likelihood ratio tests by giving the Neyman-Pearson lemma and several examples. The examples include a gamma model, a binomial model, and a nonparametric model. The page concludes with a definition of the generalized likelihood ratio test.

  2. Baseball Lab (Ratios)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Using batting averages, students will create ratios and convert them to rounded decimals (3 places). In addition, they will take decimals and determine several possible equivalent ratios. Then using the relationship that batting average = hits/at bats, the students can use proportions or equations to find either the number of hits or the number of at bats for a given situations.

  3. The Ratio Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, James A.; Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja van den

    1995-01-01

    Examines the use of a ratio table for developing students' conceptual understanding of rational number. The ratio table is an alternative to cross-multiplication and can utilize both additive and multiplicative strategies. It organizes numbers and keeps track of operations and results, which aids the teacher in assessment. (MLB)

  4. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Colchin, R.J.; Carolan, P.G.; Duck, R.; Edlington, T.; Erents, S.K.; Ferreira, J.; Fielding, S.J.; Gibson, K.; Goodall, D.H.J.; Gryaznevich, M.; Hender, T.C.; Hugill, J.; Jenkins, I.; Li, J.; Manhood, S.J.; Parham, B.J.; Robinson, D.C.; Singleton, M.; Sykes, A.; Todd, T.N.; Turner, M.F.; Valovic, M.; Walsh, M.; Wilson, H.R. (AEA Fusion Technology, Culham Laboratory (EURATOM/UKAEA Association), Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom))

    1993-07-01

    Low-aspect-ratio tokamaks offer both the economic advantage of smaller size and a number of physics advantages which are not available at conventional aspect ratio. The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START) [[ital Fusion] [ital Technology] 1990, edited by B. E. Keen, M. Huguet, and R. Hemsworth (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), Vol. 1, p. 353] was conceived as a first substantial test of tokamak plasma behavior at low aspect ratio. It has achieved plasma currents up to 200 kA, peak densities of [similar to]2[times]10[sup 20] m[sup [minus]3] and central electron temperatures of [similar to]500 eV at an aspect ratio of 1.3--1.5. Central beta values of [similar to]13% have been measured and the volume-averaged beta [l angle][beta][r angle] can approach the Troyon limit. Plasmas are naturally elongated ([kappa][approx lt]2.0) and are vertically stable without feedback control. Major disruptions have not been observed at low aspect ratios ([ital A][le]2.0).

  6. Deformation mechanisms in negative Poisson's ratio materials - Structural aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakes, R.

    1991-01-01

    Poisson's ratio in materials is governed by the following aspects of the microstructure: the presence of rotational degrees of freedom, non-affine deformation kinematics, or anisotropic structure. Several structural models are examined. The non-affine kinematics are seen to be essential for the production of negative Poisson's ratios for isotropic materials containing central force linkages of positive stiffness. Non-central forces combined with pre-load can also give rise to a negative Poisson's ratio in isotropic materials. A chiral microstructure with non-central force interaction or non-affine deformation can also exhibit a negative Poisson's ratio. Toughness and damage resistance in these materials may be affected by the Poisson's ratio itself, as well as by generalized continuum aspects associated with the microstructure.

  7. $K^-/K^+$ ratios in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    E-print Network

    G. Q. Li; G. E. Brown

    1998-04-07

    We study $K^-/K^+$ ratios as a function of centrality (participant nucleon number), transverse mass ($m_t$), and rapidity, in heavy-ion collisions at beam energies between 1A and 2A GeV. We use the relativistic transport model that includes expicitly the strangeness degrees of freedom and consider two scenarios for kaon properties in dense matter, one with and one without medium modifications of their properties. In both scenarios, The $K^-/K^+$ ratio does not change very much with the centrality, while the $K/\\pi$ and ${\\bar K}/\\pi$ ratios increase with increasing centrality. Significant differences are predicted, both in magnitudes and shapes, for the $m_t$ spectra and rapidity distributions of $K^-/K^+$ ratio. Experimental measurement of these ratios, currently under investigation by the FOPI, KaoS, E866, and E895 collaborations, will be useful in revealing the kaon in-medium properties.

  8. Rhombus Ratio Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Presented are four activities which allow students to work with rhombus patterns. These activities encourage students to search for, test, and verify patterns and to also practice computation and work with ratios. Diagrams needed for each activity are included. (KR)

  9. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muccio, Zeland; Jackson, Glen P

    2009-02-01

    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialized technique used to provide information about the geographic, chemical, and biological origins of substances. The ability to determine the source of an organic substance stems from the relative isotopic abundances of the elements which comprise the material. Because the isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen can become locally enriched or depleted through a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic factors, measurement of the isotope ratios can be used to differentiate between samples which otherwise share identical chemical compositions. Several sample introduction methods are now available for commercial isotope ratio mass spectrometers. Combustion is most commonly used for bulk isotopic analysis, whereas gas and liquid chromatography are predominately used for the real-time isotopic analysis of specific compounds within a mixture. Here, highlights of advances in instrumentation and applications within the last three years are provided to illustrate the impact of this rapidly growing area of research. Some prominent new applications include authenticating organic food produce, ascertaining whether or not African elephants are guilty of night-time raids on farmers' crops, and linking forensic drug and soil samples from a crime scene to a suspected point of origin. For the sake of brevity, we focus this Minireview on the isotope ratio measurements of lighter-elements common to organic sources; we do not cover the equally important field of inorganic isotope ratio mass spectrometry. PMID:19173039

  10. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePLUS

    Central line-associated bloodstream infection; CLABSI; Peripherally inserted central catheter - infection; PICC - infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection

  11. ATE Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ATE Central is a freely available online portal and collection of materials and services that highlight the work of the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) projects and centers. These National Science Foundation funded initiatives work with educators from two-year colleges to develop and implement ideas for improving the skills of technicians and the educators who teach them. ATE Central is designed to help educators, students, and the general public to learn about, and use materials from, the entire depth and breadth of the Advanced Technological Education program.ATE Central helps direct users to a full range of high-impact ATE resources available online, including curricula, learning objects, and podcasts. The portal aggregates information about the materials developed by ATE centers and projects, and organizes them using subject taxonomies, context appropriate keywords, and other digital cataloging techniques.

  12. High pressure ratio turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Woollenweber, W.E.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a turbocharger system for an internal combustion engine. It comprises means forming a turbine adapted to be driven by exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine comprising: a turbine wheel having a central core and outwardly extending vanes, the turbine wheel being rotatable about a central axis; a meridionally divided volute for exhaust gas surrounding the turbine wheel, the meridionally divided volute including a divider wall defining first and second volute passageways with openings at the turbine wheel; means forming a high-pressure compressor driven by the turbine means, the high-pressure compressor comprising: rotating compressor blades, the compressor blades adapted to be driven in rotation about the central axis by the turbine means to deliver a flow of air at high pressures for an internal combustion engine, and blades being moveable about longitudinal axes generally transverse to the central axis to impart positive or negative pre-whirl motion to the air leaving the stator blades prior to entering the rotating blades of the compressor stage; closure means for providing a flow of engine exhaust gas from one of the first and second volute passageways into the turbine wheel; and a control means for operating the closure means and the stator blades in synchronization.

  13. Engineering Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Engineering Central website provides a plethora of listings of employment resources for engineers. The website allows users to submit their resume to a resume bank, browse through entry-level jobs, as well as post jobs online. Several links that point to other engineering resources are also provided.

  14. Central Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  15. @central park

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Central Park Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to restoring, improving, and managing Central Park's grounds and facilities, offers this "official" site, which contains a wealth of information about what is arguably the world's most famous city park. Each of the site's sections contains useful or interesting information; the Then & Now section, for instance, offers an overview of Central Park's history, a bibliography with 43 entries for those seeking further information, and a list of movies with scenes set in the park. Another highlight of the site is the Virtual Park, which consists of a set of clickable maps through which users can explore 72 points of interest, each described in the affectionate style of a travel guidebook. The site's other sections include such features as events schedules, press releases, information on when and where particular varieties of flowers bloom, and a section devoted entirely to activities for families and children. This site will be especially useful to those who are planning a visit to Central Park, but other users will likely find it informative and entertaining as well.

  16. A Recipe for Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Many learners still struggled to appreciate, and understand the difference between, the concepts of fractions and ratio. This is not just a UK phenomenon, which is demonstrated here by the use of a resource developed by the Wisconsin Centre for Education, in association with the Freudenthal Institute of the University of Utrecht, with a group of…

  17. The Likelihood Ratio Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Don

    This module, created by Don Johnson of Rice University, provides an explanation and an example of the likelihood ratio test. Topics include: decision regions, Bayes' decision criterion, Bayes' cost, and likelihood function. The site is enhanced by Johnson's use of graphic and numerical demonstrations to better explain his points. Additionally, a PDF attachment providing an in-depth explanation is also featured.

  18. Digit ratio in birds.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Michael P; Thorpe, Patrick A; Brown, Barbara M; Sian, Katie

    2008-12-01

    The Homeobox (Hox) genes direct the development of tetrapod digits. The expression of Hox genes may be influenced by endogenous sex steroids during development. Manning (Digit ratio. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002) predicted that the ratio between the lengths of digits 2 (2D) and 4 (4D) should be sexually dimorphic because prenatal exposure to estrogens and androgens positively influence the lengths of 2D and 4D, respectively. We measured digits and other morphological traits of birds from three orders (Passeriformes, house sparrow, Passer domesticus; tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor; Pscittaciformes, budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulates; Galliformes, chicken, Gallus domesticus) to test this prediction. None were sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D and there were no associations between 2D:4D and other sexually dimorphic traits. When we pooled data from all four species after we averaged right and left side digits from each individual and z-transformed the resulting digit ratios, we found that males had significantly larger 2D:4D than did females. Tetrapods appear to be sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D with 2D:4D larger in males as in some birds and reptiles and 2D:4D smaller in males as in some mammals. The differences between the reptile and mammal lineages in the directionality of 2D:4D may be related to the differences between them in chromosomal sex determination. We suggest that (a) natural selection for a perching foot in the first birds may have overridden the effects of hormones on the development of digit ratio in this group of vertebrates and (b) caution be used in making inferences about prenatal exposure to hormones and digit ratio in birds. PMID:18833568

  19. Odor Concentration Invariance by Chemical Ratio Coding

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Naoshige; Mainen, Zachary F.

    2007-01-01

    Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:18958244

  20. Central Africa

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Begun in 1996, the International Crisis Group's (ICG) Central Africa Project analyzes political and ethnic conflict within and between the nations that straddle mid-Africa, including the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi, Angola, Uganda, and Rwanda. As part of that effort ICG has released over twelve full text reports in the last year (a few in French only). The two most recent in-depth reports are: "Africa's Seven-Nation War," which examines how the armies of seven African nations have been drawn into the rebellion against DRC President Laurent Dsir Kabila; and "How Kabila Lost His Way," which traces the foundation of the Kabila regime and seeks to discover why it has engendered both internal and external opposition. Well-researched and fully footnoted, yet written with a non-specialist audience in mind, these reports are a good resource for both students and general readers with an interest in the current situation in Central Africa.

  1. Displacement and Velocity Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bourassa, James

    This interactive presentation, created by James Bourassa and John Rosz for the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses displacement and velocity ratios. Bourassa and Rosz begin by providing detailed definitions of both topics and then provide mathematical examples of each. Once this basic explanation is complete, the authors allow students to practice these theories in a set of self-correcting quiz questions. Bourassa and Rosz explain each using helpful interactive flash animations. These are not only useful in explanation, but they allow the student to more fully engage with the topic. Overall, this is a nice introduction to the physical and mathematical concepts of displacement and velocity ratios. This could be a valuable learning resource in everything from a physics to a technical education classroom.

  2. PE Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Virginia Polytechnic Institute Health and Physical Education Program developed this site, a clearinghouse of information about K-12 physical education and health. An extensive list of lesson plans and assessment ideas, arranged topically and by grade level, is the focal point of this site; the Classroom Teacher Lesson Ideas uses PE "across the curriculum" to help students learn concepts in other subjects. PE Central provides information for PE professionals on relevant journals, job announcements, and equipment purchases, among other topics.

  3. Ratios and Proportions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Douglas Jensen

    2005-01-01

    This interactive slideshow explains the notion of ratios and proportions, how to write the, and how to find them. There are practice problems which walk visitors through each step of the process, including reducing answers to simplest terms, in which students are asked to calculate the rate of grass seed coverage per square foot and find the miles per gallon fuel use of a car. The lesson continues on to introduce proportion and work through practice problems in the same fashion.

  4. PROPORTIONS and RATIOS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Squire

    2009-04-13

    Using what you already know and the text, can you solve these problems? Just by looking at the titles below, describe in your journal what you think each activity is going to be about and how it relates to proportions and ratios. Which tastes juicier? Statue of Liberty : is the Statue of Liberty's nose too long? Describe in your journal how your favorite question above was answered. Also, include any fun facts you learned along the way. What ...

  5. Thinking Blocks: Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This set of six interactive Flash activities gives students an opportunity to visually model and calculate the unknown quantity from ratios and other information, all in the context of solving word problems. A video demonstration introduces each method, and then students work on modeling and solving five problems. Students can check their modeling of the problem at intermediate stages. Teachers can track a student's progress throughout the problem set.

  6. IPO Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IPO (Initial Public Offerings) Central, provided by The Reference Press, contains a wealth of information on IPOs. It features a complete list of companies that "filed for an initial public offering of common stock on or after May 6, 1996, the first day that all US companies were required to file electronically," along with EDGAR Online SEC filings. This directory can be accessed alphabetically or by date, and the latest filings are available under a separate menu item. IPO Central also highlights one featured IPO per week, with a free link to a Hoover Online profile on that company. "The Insider" offers short analytical columns on IPOs, and the "Beginner's Guide" has links to basic IPO information to help the novice. The site also offers links to other IPO-related sites. IPO Central does not at this time offer a searchable interface to its directory, but the providers promise improved search features soon. Note that listings are removed from the directory after six months and that EDGAR Online is in no way related to SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) EDGAR.

  7. Central Black Hole Growth in Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy S. Hamilton; E. Boldt

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of the change in galaxies' central black hole to bulge mass ratios with galaxy age. We find an steep growth in the average mass ratio among young galaxies, which flattens as we look towards older stellar populations. The galaxies do not cluster near the average but fill an envelope whose limits show this trend. The trend

  8. Handy Measuring Ratio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-23

    In this activity, learners use their hands as tools for indirect measurement. Learners explore how to use ratios to calculate the approximate height of something that can't be measured directly by first measuring something that can be directly measured. This activity can also be used to explain how scientists use indirect measurement to determine distances between things in the universe that are too far away, too large or too small to measure directly (i.e. diameter of the moon or number of bacteria in a volume of liquid).

  9. Neuropsychology Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Browndyke, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    Neuropsychology Central is devoted to the subject of - "Neuropsychology, a new branch of science with the specific and unique aim of investigating the role of individual brain systems in complex forms of mental activity." - A.R. Luria "The Working Brain" The page aims to describe the importance of neuropsychology as a science of brain and behavior, and to act as a resource for the professional and layperson alike. See links to current technology for brain imaging, and sections covering different aspects of this ever growing field such as cognitive, developmental, and geriatric Neuropsychology. In addition, a reader survey is included to facilitate the expansion of the site.

  10. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafever, A. E. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  11. Analysis of Ratios in Multivariate Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Hannes; Leuenberger, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of ratios of body measurements is deeply ingrained in the taxonomic literature. Whether for plants or animals, certain ratios are commonly indicated in identification keys, diagnoses, and descriptions. They often provide the only means for separation of cryptic species that mostly lack distinguishing qualitative characters. Additionally, they provide an obvious way to study differences in body proportions, as ratios reflect geometric shape differences. However, when it comes to multivariate analysis of body measurements, for instance, with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or principal component analysis (PCA), interpretation using body ratios is difficult. Both techniques are commonly applied for separating similar taxa or for exploring the structure of variation, respectively, and require standardized raw or log-transformed variables as input. Here, we develop statistical procedures for the analysis of body ratios in a consistent multivariate statistical framework. In particular, we present algorithms adapted to LDA and PCA that allow the interpretation of numerical results in terms of body proportions. We first introduce a method called the “LDA ratio extractor,” which reveals the best ratios for separation of two or more groups with the help of discriminant analysis. We also provide measures for deciding how much of the total differences between individuals or groups of individuals is due to size and how much is due to shape. The second method, a graphical tool called the “PCA ratio spectrum,” aims at the interpretation of principal components in terms of body ratios. Based on a similar idea, the “allometry ratio spectrum” is developed which can be used for studying the allometric behavior of ratios. Because size can be defined in different ways, we discuss several concepts of size. Central to this discussion is Jolicoeur's multivariate generalization of the allometry equation, a concept that was derived only with a heuristic argument. Here we present a statistical derivation of the allometric size vector using the method of least squares. The application of the above methods is extensively demonstrated using published data sets from parasitic wasps and rock crabs. PMID:21828084

  12. Comparison of Some Ratio Estimators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myint Tin

    1965-01-01

    In this article, four ratio estimators designated as simple, Quenouille's, Beale's and modified ratio estimators are compared with respect to bias, efficiency, approach to normality and computational convenience. They are shown to be asymptotically minimum variance bound estimators. Some additional ratio estimators are discussed briefly and compared with these. Quenouille's, Beale's, and modified ratio estimators are found to be more

  13. Ratio estimation in SIMS analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Ogliore; G. R. Huss; K. Nagashima

    2011-01-01

    The determination of an isotope ratio by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) traditionally involves averaging a number of ratios collected over the course of a measurement. We show that this method leads to an additive positive bias in the expectation value of the estimated ratio that is approximately equal to the true ratio divided by the counts of the denominator

  14. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  15. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    PubMed

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 ± 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens. PMID:25495676

  16. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  17. Temperature-insensitive line ratios

    E-print Network

    Kesich, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    We develop method to extract elemental abundance ratios using temperature-insensitive ratios of x-ray line fluxes for a collisionally ionized plasma. This method is then refined using more realistic plasma models for coronae ...

  18. An urn model and the odds ratio-based design for clinical trials

    E-print Network

    Volkov, Stanislav

    An urn model and the odds ratio-based design for clinical trials Gopal K. Basak , Atanu Biswas for using the odds ratio-based adaptive designs. Key words and phrases: adaptive designs, Central Limit Theorem, limiting allocation probability, odds ratio estimates, play-the-winner rule. AMS subject

  19. Poisson's ratio and crustal seismology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolas I. Christensen

    1996-01-01

    New measurements of compressional and shear wave velocities to hydrostatic pressures of 1 GPa are summarized for 678 rocks. Emphasis was placed on obtaining high-accuracy velocity measurements, which are shown to be critical in calculating Poisson's ratios from velocities. The rocks have been divided into 29 major groups for which velocities, velocity ratios, and Poisson's ratios are presented at several

  20. Glass Ratio Glass Ratio pentane (tech) ethyl ether

    E-print Network

    Turro, Claudia

    Glass Ratio Glass Ratio pentane (tech) ethyl ether Petroleum Ether (30-60) 2-methyl-THF 2-methylpentane ethyl ether/isopentane 1:1, 1:2 3-methylpentane ethyl ether/methylcyclohexane 2:3 3-ethylpentane propyl ether/pentane 2:1 2,3-dimethylpentane EtOH 3-methylhexane glycerol 4-methylheptane 1-propanol 3

  1. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  2. The sex ratio in anencephaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W H James

    1979-01-01

    A review of the data supports the suggestion of Knox (1974) that the sex ratio and incidence of anencephalics vary together within populations, as they are known to do between populations. There seems some doubts, though, whether Knox was correct in hypothesising that the sex ratio of anencephalics varies with their incidence in relation to the dizygotic twinning rate. The

  3. Likelihood Ratio Detection and Tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Stone

    2009-01-01

    Likelihood Ratio Detection and Tracking (LRDT) is an extension of Bayesian tracking that simultaneously estimates whether a target is present and its state if present. It is particularly suited to difficult detection and tracking situations involving low signal-to-noise ratios or high clutter density. LRDT extends the basic Bayes Markov single target recursion by adding a null state to represent the

  4. The Gyromagnetic Ratio of Supermalloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Scott

    1953-01-01

    The gyromagnetic ratio of supermalloy has been determined by a highly refined magneto-mechanical method. The value obtained is 1.030+\\/-0.001 times the mass-to-charge ratio of the electron. Within the limits of experimental error, this is the same value as has recently been reported for pure iron.

  5. North America Europe Central &

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Matthew

    1 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa Population (100 millions) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa

  6. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  7. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  8. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  9. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  10. Fe/Ni ratio in the Ant Nebula Mz 3

    E-print Network

    Y. Zhang; X. -W. Liu

    2006-05-06

    We have analyzed the [Fe II] and [Ni II] emission lines in the bipolar planetary nebula Mz~3. We find that the [Fe II] and [Ni II] lines arise exclusively from the central regions. Fluorescence excitation in the formation process of these lines is negligible for this low-excitation nebula. From the [Fe II]/[Ni II] ratio, we obtain a higher Fe/Ni abundance ratio with respect to the solar value. The current result provides further supporting evidence for Mz 3 as a symbiotic Mira.

  11. OPERATOR INTERACTION WITH CENTRALIZED VERSUS DECENTRALIZED UAV ARCHITECTURES

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    1 OPERATOR INTERACTION WITH CENTRALIZED VERSUS DECENTRALIZED UAV ARCHITECTURES Affiliation M research activity attempting to streamline Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations and reduce staffing in order to invert the current many-to-one ratio of operators to vehicles. Centralized multiple UAV

  12. System and rapidity dependence of baryon to meson ratios at RHIC

    E-print Network

    Eun-Joo Kim

    2005-10-03

    The rapidity and centrality dependence of baryon to meson ratios in Au$+$Au, Cu$+$Cu and p$+$p collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV at RHIC is presented. The $\\bar{p}/\\pi^{-}$ ratios are founded to be independent of collision system at a fixed $$ at mid- and forward rapidities.

  13. The Poisson ratio for an FCC Lennard-Jones solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesnel, D. J.; Rimai, D. S.; DeMejo, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Poisson ratio, ?, of an FCC lattice was calculated along the 100 crystal axis, assuming that the atoms interact via a Lennard-Jones potential. It was found that such a lattice obeys the Cauchy relations and that ? equals 0.347. This is in contrast with the notion based on historical work, that the Poisson ratio for lattices held together by central forces equals 0.25. By using the averaging schemes of Reuss, Voigt and Hill [R. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond.A65, 349-354 (1952)] and Hashin and Strikman [ J. Mech. Phys. Solids10, 335-342, 343-352 (1962)], it is shown that, for an ideal polycrystalline material which obeys the Cauchy relations, ? equals 0.25. These results suggest that Poisson's original findings, based on summation of intermolecular forces over all possible orientations, are the result of the constraints imposed by both isotropy and central potential interactions of the atoms.

  14. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePLUS

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... Catheters are used when you need medical treatment over a long period of time. For example, you ...

  15. Central Limit Theorem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David M. Lane

    This site from David Lane features a description of the central limit theorem used in statistics. Examples of frequency distributions are shown, and there is also a link to an interactive demonstration of the central limit theorem.

  16. Discovering Phi: The Golden Ratio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students discover the mathematical constant phi, the golden ratio, through hands-on activities. They measure dimensions of "natural objects"—a star, a nautilus shell and human hand bones—and calculate ratios of the measured values, which are close to phi. Then students learn a basic definition of a mathematical sequence, specifically the Fibonacci sequence. By taking ratios of successive terms of the sequence, they find numbers close to phi. They solve a squares puzzle that creates an approximate Fibonacci spiral. Finally, the instructor demonstrates the rule of the Fibonacci sequence via a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robot equipped with a pen. The robot (already created as part of the companion activity, The Fibonacci Sequence & Robots) draws a Fibonacci spiral that is similar to the nautilus shape.

  17. Isotopic ratios in planetary atmospheres.

    PubMed

    de Bergh, C

    1995-03-01

    Recent progress on measurements of isotopic ratios in planetary or satellite atmospheres include measurements of the D/H ratio in the methane of Uranus, Neptune and Titan and in the water of Mars and Venus. Implications of these measurements on our understanding of the formation and evolution of the planets and satellite are discussed. Our current knowledge of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios in the atmospheres of these planets, as well as on Jupiter and Saturn, is also reviewed. We finally show what progress can be expected in the very near future due to some new ground-based instrumentation particularly well suited to such studies, and to forthcoming space missions. PMID:11539257

  18. Central and peripheral demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Gulati, Natasha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Several conditions cause damage to the inherently normal myelin of central nervous system, perepheral nervous system or both central and perepheral nervous system and hence termed as central demyelinating diseases, perepheral demyelinating diseases and combined central and perepheral demyelinating diseases respectively. Here we analysed and foccused on the etiology, prevalance, incidence and age of these demyelinating disorders. Clinical attention and various diagnostic tests are needed to adequately assess all these possibilities. PMID:24741263

  19. Two-stage treatment reduces water/oil ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, F.; Dairymple, D. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (US)); McKown, K.; Matthews, B. (Halliburton Services, KS (US))

    1990-09-10

    This paper reports how a treatment of amphoteric polymer followed by chrome-complexed anionic polyacrylamide has successfully decreased the water/oil (WOR) ratio of wells producing from the Arbuckle dolomite formation in central Kansas. This technique, the fractured-matrix, water-control (FMWC) treatment, is designed to alter both primary and secondary permeability to water production. In 10 treated wells, the average WOR was reduced by a factor of five.

  20. Generic, Long, High Mass Ratio Binary Black Hole Inspiral Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Lewis, Adam; Pfeiffer, Harald; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We present for the first time high mass ratio (q = 5 and q = 7), long (40 - 50 pericenter passages), eccentric and precessing binary black hole inspirals. These inspirals are well suited for comparison to both analytic Post-Newtonian theory and to the motion of a small mass around a central black hole with gravitational self-force corrections. We discuss the properties of these inspirals, our initial comparisons, and future directions.

  1. European Central Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

  2. Surface to Volume Ratio Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    By the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, this two-part laboratory activity was designed to complement any chemistry unit on catalysts to "help students understand how nanoparticles may be more effective catalysts by investigating how the surface area-to-volume ratio of a substance is affected as its shape changes." On this site, educators can find both the teacher and student instructions for preparing and presenting the laboratory with objectives, time periods, materials, procedures, example answers, and much more. It is a ready-to-use lesson to help students understand catalysts and surface to volume ratio at molecular and atomic levels.

  3. Nestling sex ratio variation in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker ( Melanerpes formicivorus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter D. Koenig; Mark T. Stanback; Joseph Haydock; Femmie Kraaijeveld-Smit

    2001-01-01

    We examined sex ratio variation in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) over a 27-year period in central coastal California. The sex ratio of eggs is even or possibly biased toward females. However, hatching asynchrony and brood reduction differentially favor the slightly larger males such that the sex ratio when young become self-sufficient is 54.0% males, slightly but significantly

  4. Empirical Likelihood Ratio Confidence Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Art Owen

    1990-01-01

    An empirical likelihood ratio function is defined and used to obtain confidence regions for vector valued statistical functionals. The result is a nonparametric version of Wilks' theorem and a multivariate generalization of work by Owen. Cornish-Fisher expansions show that the empirical likelihood intervals for a one dimensional mean are less adversely affected by skewness than are those based on Student's

  5. Lower partial moment hedge ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babak Eftekhari

    1998-01-01

    Some investors may benefit from using measures of risk other than the variance in their investment decisions, specially if they are concerned with minimizing the downside risk of their portfolios. An accessible numerical method for calculating hedge ratios given any measure of risk is presented. The method is applied to the FTSE-100 index and the futures on FTSE-100, using a

  6. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Mendler

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy

  7. A Ratio Explanation for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riss, Pam Helfers

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on physical anthropology activities for teaching students about evolution. Using evidence found in hominid skulls, students conduct investigations that involve calculating ratios. Eight full-page photographs of skulls from the program Stones and Bones are included. (PR)

  8. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  9. Air/fuel ratio regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Simko, A.

    1980-07-22

    A description is given of an air/fuel ratio regulator for use with the fuel injection control system of an internal combustion engine of the spark ignition type having an air and exhaust gas (gas) induction passage open at one end to air at ambient pressure level and connected at its other end to the engine combustion chamber to be subject to manifold vacuum changes therein, a throttle valve rotatably mounted for movement across the passage to control the gas flow therethrough, exhaust gas recirculation (egr) passage means connecting engine exhaust gases to the induction passage above the closed position of the throttle valve, an egr flow control valve mounted in the egr passage means for movement between open and closed postions to control the volume of egr gas flow, an engine speed responsive positive displacement type fuel injection pump having a fuel flow output to the engine that varies in direct proportion to changes in engines speed to match fuel flow and mass airflow through the induction system of the engine over the entire speed and load range of the engine to maintain the intake mixture ratio of air to fuel constant, the pump having a fuel flow control lever movable to vary the fuel rate of flow, the regulator being characterized by engine manifold vacuum responsive first servo means operably connected to the fuel control lever for maintaining a constant air/fuel (A/F) ratio by changing fuel output as a function of changing manifold vacuum and air flow upon opening of the throttle valve, a fuel enrichment control lever operably connected to the pump control lever and movable to modify the position of the pump lever dictated by the first servo means to change the A/F ratio, and further means responsive to engine operating conditions for moving the fuel enrichment control lever to provide the changed A/F ratio.

  10. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  11. Martian Central Pit Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillman, E.; Barlow, N. G.

    2005-01-01

    Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ( floor pits ) as well as on top of central peaks ( summit pits ). Wood et al. [1] proposed that degassing of subsurface volatiles during crater formation produced central pits. Croft [2] argued instead that central pits might form during the impact of volatile-rich comets. Although central pits are seen in impact craters on icy moons such as Ganymede, they do show some significant differences from their martian counterparts: (a) only floor pits are seen on Ganymede, and (b) central pits begin to occur at crater diameters where the peak ring interior morphology begins to appear in terrestrial planet craters [3]. A study of craters containing central pits was conducted by Barlow and Bradley [4] using Viking imagery. They found that 28% of craters displaying an interior morphology on Mars contain central pits. Diameters of craters containing central pits ranged from 16 to 64 km. Barlow and Bradley noted that summit pit craters tended to be smaller than craters containing floor pits. They also noted a correlation of central pit craters with the proposed rings of large impact basins. They argued that basin ring formation fractured the martian crust and allowed subsurface volatiles to concentrate in these locations. They favored the model that degassing of the substrate during crater formation was responsible for central pit formation due to the preferential location of central pit craters along these basin rings.

  12. Models of Ratio Schedule Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bizo, Lewis A.; Killeen, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    Predictions of P. R. Killeen's (1994) mathematical principles of reinforcement were tested for responding on ratio reinforcement schedules. The type of response key, the number of sessions per condition, and first vs. second half of a session had negligible effects on responding. Longer reinforcer durations and larger grain types engeridered more responding, affecting primarily the parameter a (specific activation). Key pecking was faster than treadle pressing, affecting primarily the parameter ? (response time). Longer intertrial intervals led to higher overall response rates and shorter postreinforcement pauses and higher running rates, and ruled out some competing explanations. The treadle data required a distinction between the energetic requirements and rate-limiting properties of extended responses. The theory was extended to predict pause durations and run rates on ratio schedules. PMID:9206029

  13. Rates, Ratios, Percents, and Proportions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    hbinggeli

    2010-10-22

    Each of these sites will help you get better with percentages, rates, ratios, and solving proportions by cross-multiplying. 1. Begin by comparing fractions to decimals and to percentages. These two sites are similar. Pick one and practice it for a few minutes. Fraction-Decimal-Percent Chart or Percents-Fractions-Decimals (2) 2. Next, try to solve these percentage word problems. To find the problems, scroll down to the bottom of the page to the "Exercises." ...

  14. The midbrain to pons ratio

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Luke A.; Jäger, Hans R.; Paviour, Dominic C.; O’Sullivan, Sean S.; Ling, Helen; Williams, David R.; Kallis, Constantinos; Holton, Janice; Revesz, Tamas; Burn, David J.; Yousry, Tarek; Lees, Andrew J.; Fox, Nick C.; Micallef, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: MRI-based measurements used to diagnose progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) typically lack pathologic verification and are not easy to use routinely. We aimed to develop in histologically proven disease a simple measure of the midbrain and pons on sagittal MRI to identify PSP. Methods: Measurements of the midbrain and pontine base on midsagittal T1-weighted MRI were performed in confirmed PSP (n = 12), Parkinson disease (n = 2), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) (n = 7), and in controls (n = 8). Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, cutoff values were applied to a clinically diagnosed cohort of 62 subjects that included PSP (n = 21), Parkinson disease (n = 10), MSA (n = 10), and controls (n = 21). Results: The mean midbrain measurement of 8.1 mm was reduced in PSP (p < 0.001) with reduction in the midbrain to pons ratio (PSP smaller than MSA; p < 0.001). In controls, the mean midbrain ratio was approximately two-thirds of the pontine base, in PSP it was <52%, and in MSA the ratio was greater than two-thirds. A midbrain measurement of <9.35 mm and ratio of 0.52 had 100% specificity for PSP. In the clinically defined group, 19 of 21 PSP cases (90.5%) had a midbrain measurement of <9.35 mm. Conclusions: We have developed a simple and reliable measurement in pathologically confirmed disease based on the topography of atrophy in PSP with high sensitivity and specificity that may be a useful tool in the clinic. PMID:23616165

  15. Sex ratios in bumble bees

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, A. F. G.

    1997-01-01

    The median proportion of investment in females among 11 populations of seven bumble bee (Bombus) species was 0.32 (range 0.07 to 0.64). By contrast, two species of workerless social parasites in the related genus Psithyrus had female-biased sex allocation, the reasons for which remain unclear. Male-biased sex allocation in Bombus contradicts the predictions of Trivers and Hare's sex ratio model for the social Hymenoptera, which are that the population sex investment ratio should be 0.5 (1:1) under queen control and 0.75 (3:1 females:males) under worker control (assuming single, once-mated, outbred queens and non-reproductive workers). Male bias in Bombus does not appear to be either an artefact, or purely the result of symbiotic sex ratio distorters. According to modifications of the Trivers–Hare model, the level of worker male-production in Bombus is insufficient to account for observed levels of male bias. There is also no evidence that male bias arises from either local resource competition (related females compete for resources) or local mate enhancement (related males cooperate in securing mates). Bulmer presented models predicting sexual selection for protandry (males are produced before females) in annual social Hymenoptera and, as a consequence (given some parameter values), male-biased sex allocation. Bumble bees fit the assumptions of Bulmer's models and are protandrous. These models therefore represent the best current explanation for the bees' male-biased sex investment ratios. This conclusion suggests that the relative timing of the production of the sexes strongly influences sex allocation in the social Hymenoptera.

  16. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification ratios. 400.162 Section 400.162 Agriculture...Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification ratios. The sixteen qualification ratios include: (a) Eleven National...

  17. 34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial ratios. 668.172 Section 668.172 Education...Financial Responsibility § 668.172 Financial ratios. (a) Appendices A and B, ratio methodology. As provided under...

  18. Detection strategies for extreme mass ratio inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Neil J.

    2011-05-01

    The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near-horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for tens of thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an exhaustive grid-based matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here I describe an alternative approach that employs a hybrid between genetic algorithms and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques, along with several time-saving techniques for computing the likelihood function. This approach has proven effective at the blind extraction of relatively weak EMRI signals from simulated LISA data sets.

  19. Detection Strategies for Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals

    E-print Network

    N. J. Cornish

    2010-10-16

    The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for hundreds to thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an exhaustive grid-based matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here I describe an alternative approach that employs a hybrid between Genetic Algorithms and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, along with several time saving techniques for computing the likelihood function. This approach has proven effective at the blind extraction of relatively weak EMRI signals from simulated LISA data sets.

  20. Is bank supervision central to central banking?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

    1999-01-01

    Recently, several central banks have lost their bank supervisory responsibilities, in part because it has not been shown that supervisory authority improves the conduct of monetary policy. This paper finds that confidential bank supervisory information could help the Board staff more accurately forecast important macroeconomic variables and is used by FOMC members to guide monetary policy. These findings suggest that

  1. An assessment of the cord blood:maternal blood methylmercury ratio: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Alan H; Smith, Andrew E

    2003-01-01

    In the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose (RfD) for methylmercury, the one-compartment pharmacokinetic model is used to convert fetal cord blood mercury (Hg) concentration to a maternal intake dose. This requires a ratio relating cord blood Hg concentration to maternal blood Hg concentration. No formal analysis of either the central tendency or variability of this ratio has been done. This variability contributes to the overall variability in the dose estimate. A ratio of 1.0 is implicitly used in the model, but an uncertainty factor adjustment is applied to the central tendency estimate of dose to address variability in that estimate. Thus, incorporation of the cord:maternal ratio and its variability into the estimate of intake dose could result in a significant change in the value of the RfD. We analyzed studies providing data on the cord:maternal blood Hg ratio and conducted a Monte Carlo-based meta-analysis of 10 studies meeting all inclusion criteria to generate a comprehensive estimate of the central tendency and variability of the ratio. This analysis results in a recommended central tendency estimate of 1.7, a coefficient of variation of 0.56, and a 95th percentile of 3.4. By analogy to the impact of the similar hair:blood Hg ratio on the overall variability in the dose estimate, incorporation of the cord:maternal ratio may support a 3-fold uncertainty factor adjustment to the central tendency estimate of dose to account for pharmacokinetic variability. Whether the information generated in this analysis is sufficient to warrant a revision to the RfD will depend on the outcome of a comprehensive reanalysis of the entire one-compartment model. We are currently engaged in such an analysis. PMID:12948885

  2. Central Southern Thai Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaewkhao, Uthai; Kiatboonyarit, Tawan

    The dictionary for Central to Southern varieties of Thai is designed as a reference for use by Peace Corps volunteers assigned to southern Thailand. An introductory section gives an overview of the dictionary's content and design and some notes on tone patterns and spelling variation in the Central and Southern varieties. Most of the words…

  3. Central American update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    The Central American Energy Resources Project is designed to help the countries of Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama develop their geothermal resources. Auxiliary project goals are to increase economic development and employment in Central America; to provide a scientific basis for the private sector to develop natural resources; and to provide scientific training to in-country scientists, engineers,

  4. GRB brightness ratio distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laros, J. G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this analysis is to obtain insight into whether positionally close pairs of GRBs are due to repetitions, clustering, or random chance. We consider the Brightness Ratio Distribution (BRD) of pairs of events. Here, brightness is used as a generic term for any quantity related to the observed intensity of an event. The BRD has the interesting property that if one can select pairs whose components are at the same distance-such as, by considering only close-together pairs-then the distance dependence ``drops out'' of each brightness ratio and the BRD becomes narrower because its width no longer has a component caused by the sources' differing distances. We have begun to apply this analysis to the BATSE events for which location and brightness data are available, comparing the BRD for close-together event pairs to the BRDs for the other (presumedly unrelated) pairs. Preliminary results do not show any clear indication that close-together pairs are related. However, this work is at a very early stage with regard to optimizing the method and understanding its properties.

  5. System-size dependence of particle-ratio fluctuations in Pb + Pb collisions at 158A GeV

    E-print Network

    Roland, Christof E.

    New measurements by the NA49 experiment of the centrality dependence of event-by-event fluctuations of the particle yield ratios (K[superscript +]+K[superscript -])/(?[superscript +]+?[superscript -]), (p+p? )/(?[superscript ...

  6. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  7. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  8. Likelihood ratios for DNA identification.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, A; Morton, N E

    1994-01-01

    Likelihood ratio (LR) tests are provided for the three alternatives to DNA identity: exclusion, coincidence, and kinship. The coincidence test uses the radius of coalescence to conserve the observed frequency of single band phenotypes. Genotype probabilities under kinship are derived for mating groups, specified relatives, and structured populations; and unbiased estimates of the genetic parameters are provided. The LR is made robust to gene frequency errors by specifying the mean matching probability, and the tolerable loss of information this entails is determined by LR theory. This straightforward application of the seminal work of Jerzy Neyman and Sewall Wright strongly supports the use of LRs and kinship for presentation of DNA evidence by expert witnesses and committees. PMID:8016106

  9. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  10. Influence of neutron-skin thickness on the ?-/?+ ratio in Pb + Pb collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Gao-Feng; Li, Bao-An; Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2014-07-01

    Within an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model (IBUU11) using as an input nucleon density profiles from Hartree-Fock calculations based on a modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we study the influence of the uncertainty of the neutron skin thickness on the ?-/?+ ratio in both central and peripheral Pb + Pb collisions at beam energies of 400 MeV/nucleon and 1000 MeV/nucleon. Within the current experimental uncertainty range of neutron skin in Pb208, while the neutron skin effect on the ?-/?+ ratio is negligible in central reactions at both energies, it increases gradually with increasing impact parameter and becomes comparable with or even larger than the symmetry energy effect in peripheral collisions especially at 400 MeV/nucleon. Moreover, we find that while the ?-/?+ ratio is larger with a softer Esym(?) in central collisions, above certain impact parameters depending on the size of the neutron skin, a stiffer Esym(?) can lead to a larger ?-/?+ ratio as most of the pions are produced at densities below the saturation density in these peripheral reactions. Therefore, a clear impact parameter selection is important to extract reliable information about the Esym(?) at suprasaturation densities (size of neutron skin) from the ?-/?+ ratio in central (peripheral) heavy-ion collisions.

  11. Central nervous system

    MedlinePLUS

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for the entire nervous system, and control all the workings of your body.

  12. Central serous choroidopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... up without treatment in 1 or 2 months. Laser treatment or photodynamic therapy to seal the leak may ... small number of people will have complications from laser treatment that impair their central vision. That is why ...

  13. Probability: Central limit theorem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-06-21

    After heuristically deriving Stirling's approximation in the first video segment, we outline a simple example of the central limit theorem for the case of the binomial distribution. In the final segment, we explain how the central limit theorem is used to suggest that physical experiments are characterized by normally-distributed (Gaussian) fluctuations while fluctuations in biological experiments are said to fill out log-normal distributions.

  14. Central core disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Jungbluth

    2007-01-01

    Central core disease (CCD) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical\\u000a features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies.\\u000a CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal\\u000a weakness pronounced in the hip girdle;

  15. Isolated central vestibular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Isolated vestibular syndrome may occur all along the vestibular pathways from the peripheral labyrinth to the brain. By virtue of recent developments in clinical neurotology and neuroimaging, however, diagnosis of isolated central vestibulopathy is increasing. Here, we review five distinct syndromes of isolated central vestibular syndrome from lesions restricted to the vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, the flocculus, the tonsil, and the nodulus, and introduce a new vestibular syndrome from isolated involvement of the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Decreased responses to head impulses do not exclude a central lesion as a cause of isolated vestibular syndrome. Brain imaging, including diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may be falsely negative during the acute phase in patients with isolated vestibular syndrome because of a stroke. Central signs should be sought carefully in patients with isolated vertigo, even when the patients show the features of peripheral vestibulopathy and negative MRIs. Recognition of these isolated central vestibular syndromes would aid in defining the lesions responsible for various vestibular manifestations in central vestibulopathy. PMID:25735822

  16. Central line sepsis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kimberly K

    2003-01-01

    Since 1980, the placement of central venous access devices has become routine, and these catheters have been of great benefit in the treatment of patients with cancer. Unfortunately, central venous catheters have not been without complications. Central line sepsis has been reported to be one of the most frequently occurring complications, and although it is extremely costly to treat, more importantly, this condition is potentially life threatening to patients. Developing strategies that would prevent central line catheter infections has been a continual challenge for healthcare providers. Studies have been conducted on the use of catheters with antiseptic coatings, antimicrobial coatings, impregnated antimicrobial cuffs, prophylactic antibiotic therapy, antibiotic locks, use of antithrombolytics, different exit site dressings, and the use of various disinfectants for cleansing catheter exit sites. Healthcare providers, including oncology nurses, need to be knowledgeable concerning potential sources of infection and factors that may lead to central line sepsis (Chaiyakunapruk, Veenstra, Lipsky, & Saint, 2002; Darouiche et al., 1999; Little & Palmer, 1998; Veenstra, Saint, Saha, Lumley, & Sullivan, 1999). They need to advocate for the use of sterile technique during catheter insertion and aseptic technique when routine maintenance is provided and be aware of the standard treatments for and potential outcomes of central line catheter infections. In addition, oncology nurses should be encouraged to support and participate in controlled, randomized studies that may provide scientific-based practices that decrease the number of catheter-related infections in the future. PMID:12696220

  17. Conductance Ratios and Cellular Identity

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Amber E.; Prinz, Astrid A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that coordinated expression of ion channels plays a role in constraining neuronal electrical activity. In particular, each neuronal cell type of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion exhibits a unique set of positive linear correlations between ionic membrane conductances. These data suggest a causal relationship between expressed conductance correlations and features of cellular identity, namely electrical activity type. To test this idea, we used an existing database of conductance-based model neurons. We partitioned this database based on various measures of intrinsic activity, to approximate distinctions between biological cell types. We then tested individual conductance pairs for linear dependence to identify correlations. Contrary to experimental evidence, in which all conductance correlations are positive, 32% of correlations seen in this database were negative relationships. In addition, 80% of correlations seen here involved at least one calcium conductance, which have been difficult to measure experimentally. Similar to experimental results, each activity type investigated had a unique combination of correlated conductances. Finally, we found that populations of models that conform to a specific conductance correlation have a higher likelihood of exhibiting a particular feature of electrical activity. We conclude that regulating conductance ratios can support proper electrical activity of a wide range of cell types, particularly when the identity of the cell is well-defined by one or two features of its activity. Furthermore, we predict that previously unseen negative correlations and correlations involving calcium conductances are biologically plausible. PMID:20628472

  18. Imaging changes in the cytosolic ATP-to-ADP ratio

    PubMed Central

    Tantama, Mathew; Yellen, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a central metabolite that plays fundamental roles as an energy transfer molecule, a phosphate donor, and a signaling molecule inside cells. The phosphoryl group transfer potential of ATP provides a thermodynamic driving force for many metabolic reactions, and phosphorylation of both small metabolites and large proteins can serve as a regulatory modification. In the process of phosphoryl transfer from ATP, the diphosphate ADP is produced, and as a result, the ATP-to-ADP ratio is an important physiological control parameter. The ATP-to-ADP ratio is directly proportional to cellular energy charge and phosphorylation potential. Furthermore, several ATP-dependent enzymes and signaling proteins are regulated by ADP, and their activation profiles are a function of the ATP-to-ADP ratio. Finally, regeneration of ATP from ADP can serve as an important readout of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. We therefore developed a genetically-encoded fluorescent biosensor tuned to sense ATP-to-ADP ratios in the physiological range of healthy mammalian cells. Here we present a protocol for using this biosensor to visualize energy status using live-cell fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25416365

  19. No evidence of skewed secondary sex ratios in nestlings of the Common Raven ( Corvus corax )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sascha Rösner; Kirsten Bogatz; Hendrik Trapp; Thomas Grünkorn; Roland Brandl

    2009-01-01

    Many bird species adjust their offspring sex ratio as a response to environmental conditions or sexual dimorphism in size\\u000a and dispersal. Offspring sex ratios may therefore vary among populations depending on the different demographic and ecological\\u000a trajectories. We sampled Common Raven Corvus corax nestlings close to the fledging stage from three Central European regions to test for skewed secondary sex

  20. POLLINATION INTENSITY INFLUENCES SEX RATIOS IN DIOECIOUS RUMEX NIVALIS, A WIND-POLLINATED PLANT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivana Stehlik; Spencer C. H. Barrett

    2006-01-01

    Determining the mechanisms governing sex-ratio variation in dioecious organisms represents a central problem in evolutionary biology. It has been proposed that in plants with sex chromosomes competition between pollen tubes of female- versus male-determining microgametophytes (certation) causes female-biased primary sex ratios. Experimental support for this hypothesis is limited and recent workers have cast doubt on whether pollen-tube competition can modify

  1. Waist to height ratio is correlated with height in US children and adolescents age 2-18y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-height ratio, however, retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to o...

  2. A comprehensive discussion of the birth gender ratio in China.

    PubMed

    Gu, B; Xu, Y

    1994-01-01

    As China's birth rate has declined, its birth gender ratio has increased. The causes were identified as follows: 1) reporting or tabulation errors in birth statistics affecting 50-75% of the increases; 2) induced abortion and the use of ultrasound equipment in fetal sex identification; 3) an unusually higher female death rate due to parental neglect and lack of caring for sick female infants; 4) unreported female adoptions; and 5) infant abandonment and drowning. Since 1993, top leaders within the Party Central Committee and State Family Planning Committee have recognized publicly the serious issue of the birth gender ratio and called for action. International scholars have used the 1987 1% sample data and the 1990 census data to analyze the determinants of the increased birth gender ratio. Population researchers in the US and Australia have identified drowning of female infants as the main reason. Chinese researchers have published in international journals and national demographic journals findings that the phenomenon was not unique to China and related to higher order births. Proposed strategies included expanding the scope of research and focus on regions where the imbalances were particularly high and population size was large. There should be better coordination between state family planning administrative departments and research institutes in policy implementation. In 1989, the birth gender ratio was 113.8 based on a 100% population census, and evidence from more recent surveys has indicated continuation of increases. The China Population Information and Research Center had taken up the challenge and analyzed census data, conducted field studies, analyzed hospital birth registrations, and conducted special investigations in southern Zhejiang Province. The problem of imbalances arose during the 1980s and particularly increased after 1985 above 110. The ratio has been within a normal range for first-borns. The gender ratio has become more abnormal with increasing birth order. In 1989, the first-born sex ratio was 105.2 and the second-born sex ratio was 121.0. This pattern varied across regions. Townships had the highest ratios. The imbalances were observed mostly for women with secondary or lower education and for women of Han nationality. PMID:12319211

  3. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Search Help? Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... UACR Formal name: Urine Albumin; Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Creatinine ; Glucose ; A1c ; Urine Protein ; ...

  4. Medical Loss Ratio (MLR) (Affordable Care Act)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Guidance Stakeholder Engagement Training Resources Medical Loss Ratio Many insurance companies spend a substantial portion of ... quality improvement, also known as the Medical Loss Ratio (MLR). It also requires them to issue rebates ...

  5. Variable mixture ratio performance through nitrogen augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichel, R.; Obrien, C. J.; Bair, E. K.

    1988-01-01

    High/variable mixture ratio O2/H2 candidate engine cycles are examined for earth-to-orbit vehicle application. Engine performance and power balance information are presented for the candidate cycles relative to chamber pressure, bulk density, and mixture ratio. Included in the cycle screening are concepts where a third fluid (liquid nitrogen) is used to achieve a variable mixture ratio over the trajectory from liftoff to earth orbit. The third fluid cycles offer a very low risk, fully reusable, low operation cost alternative to high/variable mixture ratio bipropellant cycles. Variable mixture ratio engines with extendible nozzle are slightly lower performing than a single mixture ratio engine (MR = 7:1) with extendible nozzle. Dual expander engines (MR = 7:1) have slightly better performance than the single mixture ratio engine. Dual fuel dual expander engines offer a 16 percent improvement over the single mixture ratio engine.

  6. BOUNDED COHOMOLOGY AND CROSS RATIOS URSULA HAMENSTADT

    E-print Network

    Hamenstädt, Ursula

    BOUNDED COHOMOLOGY AND CROSS RATIOS URSULA HAMENST¨ADT Abstract. We use cross ratios to describe. The goal of this Date: April 19, 2008. Partially supported by Sonderforschungsbereich 611. 1 #12;2 URSULA

  7. Evolutionarily stable sex ratios and mutation load.

    PubMed

    Hough, Josh; Immler, Simone; Barrett, Spencer C H; Otto, Sarah P

    2013-07-01

    Frequency-dependent selection should drive dioecious populations toward a 1:1 sex ratio, but biased sex ratios are widespread, especially among plants with sex chromosomes. Here, we develop population genetic models to investigate the relationships between evolutionarily stable sex ratios, haploid selection, and deleterious mutation load. We confirm that when haploid selection acts only on the relative fitness of X- and Y-bearing pollen and the sex ratio is controlled by the maternal genotype, seed sex ratios evolve toward 1:1. When we also consider haploid selection acting on deleterious mutations, however, we find that biased sex ratios can be stably maintained, reflecting a balance between the advantages of purging deleterious mutations via haploid selection, and the disadvantages of haploid selection on the sex ratio. Our results provide a plausible evolutionary explanation for biased sex ratios in dioecious plants, given the extensive gene expression that occurs across plant genomes at the haploid stage. PMID:23815649

  8. REPRODUCTION About sex ratio in pigs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    II. - REPRODUCTION About sex ratio in pigs J. LOUGNON, M. PICARD ..1,L.C, fSorric /!(!'('/(!/!r;7!Ct?sex ratio at birth were studied. Combination (4) gave a significantly higher number of males. The lowest sex ratio was registered

  9. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  10. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and...Capital Requirements § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital...3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of core capital to adjusted...

  11. Bidding ratios to predict highway project costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trefor P. Williams

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Ratios were constructed using bidding data for highway construction projects in Texas to study whether there are useful patterns in project bids that are indicators of the project completion cost. The use of the ratios to improve predictions of completed project cost was studied. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Ratios were calculated relating the second lowest bid, mean bid, and maximum

  12. Optimal Hedging Ratio for Pakistan's Wheat Imports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TARIQ ALI; SARFRAZ HASSAN; KHALID MUSHTAQ; KHUDA BAKHSH

    In this paper, optimal hedging ratio is calculated for Pakistan's wheat imports from USA. Price risk faced by various market participants is estimated. Slope coefficient from OLS regression is used to calculate optimal hedging ratio (OHR). Results indicate that FOB and CIF prices of wheat are significantly volatile and need proper management of associated risk. While optimal hedging ratio of

  13. Measurements of the Proton Elastic-Form-Factor Ratio mupGEp\\/GMp at Low Momentum Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B. L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C. E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; H. Kang; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. Lerose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B. E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A. J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

    2007-01-01

    High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, mupGEp\\/GMp, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement,

  14. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  15. Shear Viscosity to Entropy Density Ratio in Six Derivative Gravity

    E-print Network

    Nabamita Banerjee; Suvankar Dutta

    2009-04-01

    We calculate shear viscosity to entropy density ratio in presence of four derivative (with coefficient $\\alpha'$) and six derivative (with coefficient $\\alpha'^2$) terms in bulk action. In general, there can be three possible four derivative terms and ten possible six derivative terms in the Lagrangian. Among them two four derivative and eight six derivative terms are ambiguous, i.e., these terms can be removed from the action by suitable field redefinitions. Rest are unambiguous. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence all the unambiguous coefficients (coefficients of unambiguous terms) can be fixed in terms of field theory parameters. Therefore, any measurable quantities of boundary theory, for example shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, when calculated holographically can be expressed in terms of unambiguous coefficients in the bulk theory (or equivalently in terms of boundary parameters). We calculate $\\eta/s$ for generic six derivative gravity and find that apparently it depends on few ambiguous coefficients at order $\\alpha'^2$. We calculate six derivative corrections to central charges $a$ and $c$ and express $\\eta/s$ in terms of these central charges and unambiguous coefficients in the bulk theory.

  16. Neural correlates of the Pythagorean ratio rules.

    PubMed

    Foss, Alexander H; Altschuler, Eric L; James, Karin H

    2007-10-01

    Millennia ago Pythagoras noted a simple but remarkably powerful rule for the aesthetics of tone combinations: pairs of tones--intervals--with simple ratios such as an octave (ratio 2 : 1) or a fifth (ratio 3 : 2) were pleasant sounding (consonant), whereas intervals with complex ratios such as the major seventh (ratio 243 : 128) were harsh (dissonant). These Pythagorean ratio rules are the building blocks of Western classical music; however, their neurophysiologic basis is not known. Using functional MRI we have found the neurophysiologic correlates of the ratio rules. In musicians, the inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and anterior cingulate respond with progressively more activation to perfect consonances, imperfect consonances and dissonances. In nonmusicians only the right inferior frontal gyrus follows this pattern. PMID:17885594

  17. POWER CENTRALIZED SEMIGROUPS PRIMOZ MORAVEC

    E-print Network

    POWER CENTRALIZED SEMIGROUPS PRIMOZ MORAVEC Abstract. A semigroup is said to be power centralized if for every pair of elements x and y there exists a power of x commuting with y. The structure of power centralized groups and semigroups is investigated. In particular, we characterize 0-simple power centralized

  18. Centralized Mouse Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Leah Rae; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T.

    2013-01-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world. PMID:22945696

  19. The Central Limit Theorem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson-Cook, C.

    The applets in this section of Statistical Java allow you to see how the Central Limit Theorem works. The main page gives the characteristics of five non-normal distributions (Bernoulli, Poisson, Exponential, U-shaped, and Uniform). Users then select one of the distributions and change the sample size to see how the distribution of the sample mean approaches normality. Users can also change the number of samples. To select between the different applets you can click on Statistical Theory, the Central Limit Theorem and then the Main Page. At the bottom of this page you can make your applet selection.

  20. Central American update

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1987-07-01

    The Central American Energy Resources Project is designed to help the countries of Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama develop their geothermal resources. Auxiliary project goals are to increase economic development and employment in Central America; to provide a scientific basis for the private sector to develop natural resources; and to provide scientific training to in-country scientists, engineers, and technicians. The energy resources project began in March 1985. The progress being made in El Salvador (production well logging and geophysical operations), Panama (site selection for the first temperature-gradient well), and Honduras (well drilling of temperature-gradient wells) is summarized.

  1. Survey of Use of Student-Faculty Ratios for Budgeting Purposes in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Div. of the Budget, Albany.

    The overriding reason for this analysis centers on the widespread, but varied, application of student-faculty ratios (SFR) as a contributing factor in determining the faculty budgeting requirements of public and private institutions. A survey was conducted among heads of state budget offices, heads of central administration for university systems,…

  2. Central sensitization in humans: assessment and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    It is evident that chronic pain can modify the excitability of central nervous system which imposes a specific challenge for the management and for the development of new analgesics. The central manifestations can be difficult to quantify using standard clinical examination procedures, but quantitative sensory testing (QST) may help to quantify the degree and extend of the central reorganization and effect of pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, QST may help in optimizing the development programs for new drugs.Specific translational mechanistic QST tools have been developed to quantify different aspects of central sensitization in pain patients such as threshold ratios, provoked hyperalgesia/allodynia, temporal summation (wind-up like pain), after sensation, spatial summation, reflex receptive fields, descending pain modulation, offset analgesia, and referred pain areas. As most of the drug development programs in the area of pain management have not been very successful, the pharmaceutical industry has started to utilize the complementary knowledge obtained from QST profiling. Linking patients QST profile with drug efficacy profile may provide the fundamentals for developing individualized, targeted pain management programs in the future. Linking QST-assessed pain mechanisms with treatment outcome provides new valuable information in drug development and for optimizing the management regimes for chronic pain. PMID:25846615

  3. Stable Isotope Analysis of a Middle Woodland Population from North Central Kansas

    E-print Network

    Kauffman, Greg

    2013-08-31

    This study sought to examine the paleodiet and temporality of a Middle Woodland group from five sites in north central Kansas. This goal was accomplished by submitting 21 samples for stable isotope ratios analysis (SIRA) ...

  4. Channeling the Central Dogma

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? O'Leary et al. address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma. PMID:24853932

  5. Education in Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, George R.; Waggoner, Barbara Ashton

    The first chapter of this book describes the physical and cultural environment of Central America and includes analytical comments showing the complexity of the problems confronting the region. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are then treated in separate chapters including: 1) political, economic, social and…

  6. Central Administration. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

    Because the configuration of the central administration of Duke University has recently been modified, this report was prepared: (1) to describe the changes and rearrangements thus far introduced; (2) to propose desirable clarifications not yet provided; (3) to recommend certain additional changes where these may already appear to be needed; and…

  7. Central Authority and Order

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Erikson; Joseph M. Parent

    2007-01-01

    Strong central authorities are able to effectively manage costly defection, but are unable to adequately address lesser conflicts because of limits to their ability to monitor and enforce. We argue, counterintuitively, that these limitations build coop- eration and trust among subordinates:the limitations contribute to the production of order. First, limits to authority leave space for locally informed decentralized enforce- ment.

  8. Central pain control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Calvino; Rose Marie Grilo

    2006-01-01

    We describe the anatomic and physiological components involved in pain physiology, with the goal of providing readers with the background information needed to understand central pain control mechanisms. These include spinal segmental controls, supraspinal excitatory and inhibitory controls, and diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs). Pain is a subjective sensation produced by an emotionally unpleasant experience considered to originate in adaptive

  9. A quarterly and Central

    E-print Network

    A quarterly report on employment and office markets in Northern and Central New Jersey May 2008- plications for the state's office markets. This year has every indication of being a very difficult and New Jersey's plan to purchase a $60 million lease on the Northeast Auto Marine Terminal in Jersey City

  10. [Central African Republique].

    PubMed

    The capital of Central African Republic is Bangui. As of 1995, Central African Republic had a population of 3.3 million governed by a presidential regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $1.2 billion and $370. Per capita income declined by 2.8% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Central African Republic owed $890.6 million, then being serviced at $79.6 million. For the same year, Central African Republic exported $185.5 million in goods and services and imported $280.4 million. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 2.4% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 49.4 years, the infant mortality rate was 102 per 1000 births, 45% had access to health services, and 24% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347082

  11. Central American resource studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Van Eeckhout; A. W. Laughlin

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This

  12. Central Idaho Debris Flow

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    During August 2013, the Beaver Creek wildfire burned more than 114,000 acres in south-central Idaho. Shortly after the fire was contained, heavy rainfall triggered numerous debris flows, including this one in Badger Gulch. USGS hydrologists Dave Evetts (left) and Jake Jacobson examine the debris flo...

  13. Origin of Lead in Eight Central European Peat Bogs Determined

    E-print Network

    Wieder, R. Kelman

    Research Origin of Lead in Eight Central European Peat Bogs Determined from Isotope Ratios was identified in 210Pb-dated profiles through eight peat bogs distributed over an area of 60 000 km2 with Germany, Austria, and Poland. Basal peat 14C-dated at 11 000 years BP had a relatively high 206Pb/207Pb

  14. A global inventory of central pit craters on the Moon: Distribution, morphology, and geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhiyong; Zeng, Zuoxun; Komatsu, Goro

    2014-01-01

    The origin of central pit craters on the Moon has long been an enigma, and a primary reason is that their geographic distribution and morphometric characteristics were unknown. We investigated a global inventory of lunar central pit craters using high-resolution image and topography data obtained from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. 56 certain and 35 probable central pit craters are found on both the lunar maria and highlands. The certain pit craters are ˜9-57 km in diameter. The average diameter ratio between the central pits and their parent craters is ˜0.12 and the average depth/diameter ratio for the central pits is ˜0.072. With irregular-shaped rims, the central pits have conical profiles and some have flat floors. The central pits occur on both crater floors and central peaks. The floor pits are generally larger, deeper, and with more irregular shape compared with summit pits. Both the summit and floor pit craters have formed in every lunar stratigraphic epoch from Nectarian to Copernican. Target properties of background terrains affect the morphology and size of central pits, but they do not determine whether or not a central pit forms during a cratering event. The lunar central pits may have formed by deformation of central peaks caused by some mechanical processes during or soon after the cratering process of their parent craters.

  15. Separated response function ratios in exclusive, forward ?(±) electroproduction.

    PubMed

    Huber, G M; Blok, H P; Butuceanu, C; Gaskell, D; Horn, T; Mack, D J; Abbott, D; Aniol, K; Anklin, H; Armstrong, C; Arrington, J; Assamagan, K; Avery, S; Baker, O K; Barrett, B; Beise, E J; Bochna, C; Boeglin, W; Brash, E J; Breuer, H; Chang, C C; Chant, N; Christy, M E; Dunne, J; Eden, T; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Gibson, E F; Gilman, R; Gustafsson, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Jackson, H; Jin, S; Jones, M K; Keppel, C E; Kim, P H; Kim, W; King, P M; Klein, A; Koltenuk, D; Kovaltchouk, V; Liang, M; Liu, J; Lolos, G J; Lung, A; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Matsumura, A; McKee, D; Meekins, D; Mitchell, J; Miyoshi, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Mueller, B; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Okayasu, Y; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C; Pitz, D; Potterveld, D; Punjabi, V; Qin, L M; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Roos, P G; Sarty, A; Shin, I K; Smith, G R; Stepanyan, S; Tang, L G; Tadevosyan, V; Tvaskis, V; van der Meer, R L J; Vansyoc, K; Van Westrum, D; Vidakovic, S; Volmer, J; Vulcan, W; Warren, G; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yan, C; Zhao, W-X; Zheng, X; Zihlmann, B

    2014-05-01

    The study of exclusive ?(±) electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio RL=?L(?-)/?L(?+) is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of RT=?T(?-)/?T(?+) from unity at small -t, to 1/4 at large -t, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Furthermore, the mentioned ratios may show an earlier approach to perturbative QCD than the individual cross sections. We have performed the first complete separation of the four unpolarized electromagnetic structure functions above the dominant resonances in forward, exclusive ?(±) electroproduction on the deuteron at central Q(2) values of 0.6, 1.0, 1.6??GeV(2) at W=1.95??GeV, and Q(2)=2.45??GeV(2) at W=2.22??GeV. Here, we present the L and T cross sections, with emphasis on RL and RT, and compare them with theoretical calculations. Results for the separated ratio RL indicate dominance of the pion-pole diagram at low -t, while results for RT are consistent with a transition between pion knockout and quark knockout mechanisms. PMID:24856691

  16. Separated Response Function Ratios in Exclusive, Forward ?± Electroproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, G. M.; Blok, H. P.; Butuceanu, C.; Gaskell, D.; Horn, T.; Mack, D. J.; Abbott, D.; Aniol, K.; Anklin, H.; Armstrong, C.; Arrington, J.; Assamagan, K.; Avery, S.; Baker, O. K.; Barrett, B.; Beise, E. J.; Bochna, C.; Boeglin, W.; Brash, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Chang, C. C.; Chant, N.; Christy, M. E.; Dunne, J.; Eden, T.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Gibson, E. F.; Gilman, R.; Gustafsson, K.; Hinton, W.; Holt, R. J.; Jackson, H.; Jin, S.; Jones, M. K.; Keppel, C. E.; Kim, P. H.; Kim, W.; King, P. M.; Klein, A.; Koltenuk, D.; Kovaltchouk, V.; Liang, M.; Liu, J.; Lolos, G. J.; Lung, A.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Matsumura, A.; McKee, D.; Meekins, D.; Mitchell, J.; Miyoshi, T.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Mueller, B.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Okayasu, Y.; Pentchev, L.; Perdrisat, C.; Pitz, D.; Potterveld, D.; Punjabi, V.; Qin, L. M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reinhold, J.; Roche, J.; Roos, P. G.; Sarty, A.; Shin, I. K.; Smith, G. R.; Stepanyan, S.; Tang, L. G.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tvaskis, V.; van der Meer, R. L. J.; Vansyoc, K.; Van Westrum, D.; Vidakovic, S.; Volmer, J.; Vulcan, W.; Warren, G.; Wood, S. A.; Xu, C.; Yan, C.; Zhao, W.-X.; Zheng, X.; Zihlmann, B.; Jefferson Lab F? Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    The study of exclusive ?± electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio RL=?L?-/?L?+ is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of RT=?T?-/?T?+ from unity at small -t, to 1/4 at large -t, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Furthermore, the mentioned ratios may show an earlier approach to perturbative QCD than the individual cross sections. We have performed the first complete separation of the four unpolarized electromagnetic structure functions above the dominant resonances in forward, exclusive ?± electroproduction on the deuteron at central Q2 values of 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 GeV2 at W =1.95 GeV, and Q2=2.45 GeV2 at W =2.22 GeV. Here, we present the L and T cross sections, with emphasis on RL and RT, and compare them with theoretical calculations. Results for the separated ratio RL indicate dominance of the pion-pole diagram at low -t, while results for RT are consistent with a transition between pion knockout and quark knockout mechanisms.

  17. The effect of sex ratios on suicide.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    Whereas sex ratios are likely to affect the likelihood of marriage, how sex ratios affect health and survival is underexplored. This study uses suicide as a measure of mental health and examines how suicides are affected by sex ratios. As women tend to marry men older than themselves, shrinking populations will lead to higher sex ratios (i.e., higher proportions of men) in the marriage market. Using data from Japan, I find that high sex ratios, both early-life and current, are correlated with higher male suicide rates, whereas female suicide rates are generally not affected. The results of this study have important implications for public health in countries where imbalanced sex ratios are a concern. PMID:23943552

  18. CLOUDY modeling of weird Far-IR emission in the central zone of the Helix Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, Adrienne; Speck, Angela

    We present the results of CLOUDY modeling of the central zone of the Helix Nebula. Our aim was to match the observed, excess far-infrared emission. Our best fit models fill the central zone with 1?m-sized grains, with a gas-to-dust ratio of 500, where precise composition is unimportant. We speculate on the origin of these grains.

  19. Central Limit Theorem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lowry, Richard

    This website, created by Richard Lowry of Vassar College, illustrates the central limit theorem by allowing the user to increase the number of samples in increments of 100, 1,000, or 10,000. The sample size can be changed and these changes will then be reflected in the distribution. Overall, this is a great interactive resource for students wanting to engage more in their study of statistics.

  20. Central giant cell lesion.

    PubMed

    Valentine, James C; Nelson, Brenda L

    2011-12-01

    A classic case of central giant cell lesion (CGCL) is presented with emphasis on clinical, radiologic, and histologic features. The differential is discussed including peripheral giant cell granuloma, brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism, and giant cell tumor of bone. The molecular pathway of osteoclastogenesis is selectively reviewed and applied to suggest possible etiologies of the giant cell lesions. CGCL syndromes and treatment are also discussed. PMID:21898170

  1. The Divine Ratio and Golden Rectangles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martin

    1982-01-01

    The material examines aspects of Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, the generation of the Divine Ratio, and the nature of this ratio in golden rectangles, triangles, and figures made up of golden triangles. It is noted Lucas sequence is formed like Fibonacci but has one and three as the first elements. (Author/MP)

  2. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  3. Thermal photons to dileptons ratio at LHC

    E-print Network

    Jajati K. Nayak; Jan-e Alam; Sourav Sarkar; Bikash Sinha

    2007-05-24

    It is shown that the ratio of transverse momentum (p_T) distribution of thermal photons to dileptons produced in heavy ion collisions reaches a plateau above p_T=1 GeV. We argue that the value of the ratio in the plateau region can be used to estimate the initial temperature.

  4. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  5. CCSSM Challenge: Graphing Ratio and Proportion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastberg, Signe E.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Mintos, Alexia; Krawczyk, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    A renewed emphasis was placed on ratio and proportional reasoning in the middle grades in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). The expectation for students includes the ability to not only compute and then compare and interpret the results of computations in context but also interpret ratios and proportions as they are…

  6. Sustainable sex ratio in lattice populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tainaka, K.; Hayashi, T.; Yoshimura, J.

    2006-05-01

    We present a lattice model of mating populations. Simulation is performed by two different methods: local and global interactions. Simulation results account for the reason why the observed sex ratio is nearly one half in many animals. The male-biased sex ratio, such as in human populations, is also explained.

  7. Sex ratios in pheasant research and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, F.H.

    1952-01-01

    Sex ratios are of primary importance in interpretation of extensive studies of pheasant populations. They are necessary for converting crowing-cock indices to population estimates even where annual trends are to be studied in the same area. Reliability of population estimates from hunting season kill of pheasants suffers primarily from inability to estimate sex ratios accurately. Fall sex ratio is an index to production and where adult sex ratios are divergent can serve as a good check on production per hen. Age ratios of cocks cannot be interpreted directly as an index of productivity, even within the boundaries of one state, unless adult sex ratios are known. The relationship between observed and actual sex ratio varies significantly from season to season and according to the method of observation. In view of their importance in population studies and the lack of reliability of present methods, it is believed that intensive studies on techniques for obtaining sex ratios are a major need in pheasant research.

  8. HIT RATIO OF DYNAMICALLY PROGRAMMABLE CACHE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mouna Nakkar

    2004-01-01

    Dynamically Programmable Cache is a Reconfigurable Cache designed for General Purpose Microprocessor with multimedia applications. This paper evaluates the performance of DPC as a coprocessor accelerator with FPGA fabric integrated on it. DPC stores its FPGA configurations in the cache, which may affect the hit\\/miss ratio of this cache. This paper shows small effect induced on the miss ratio due

  9. Effects of Thermal Conductivity Ratio in

    E-print Network

    Effects of Thermal Conductivity Ratio in Helium-Cooled Divertors B. H. Mills J. D. Rader D. L conductivity ratio Verify previous predictions of thermal performance at prototypical conditions and general But He has higher thermal conductivity k Matching Re not sufficient for similarity Multi

  10. Robust estimation of the optimal hedge ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. F. Harris; Jian Shen

    2003-01-01

    When using derivative instruments such as futures in order to hedge a portfolio of risky assets, the primary objective is to estimate the optimal hedge ratio (OHR). When agents have mean-variance utility and the futures price follows a martingale, the OHR is equivalent to the minimum variance hedge ratio, which can be estimated by regressing the spot market return on

  11. Likelihood Ratio Tests for Special Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a general class of special Rasch models for dichotomous item scores is considered. Although Andersen's likelihood ratio test can be used to test whether a Rasch model fits to the data, the test does not differentiate between special Rasch models. Therefore, in this article, new likelihood ratio tests are proposed for testing…

  12. Economy Track: Employment to Population Ratio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Economic Policy Institute

    Time plot compares the employment-population ratio - the broadest measure of people who are working in America. Allows to compare between recessions, also allows to compare between demographic groups -- by sex, race/ethnicity and educational attainment. Also shows the secular trend for employment-population ratio since 1973.

  13. Charge ratio of muons from atmospheric neutrinos

    E-print Network

    Stanev, T

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the intensities and angular distributions of positive and negative muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos. We comment on some sources of uncertainty in the charge ratio. We also draw attention to a potentially interesting signature of neutrino oscillations in the muon charge ratio, and we discuss the prospects for its observation (which are not quite within the reach of currently planned magnetized detectors).

  14. Central American development

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, L.M. [Reid & Priest, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-05-01

    While Asia`s power markets have garnered much of the attention in the global power market, Central America and the Caribbean also present private power developers with opportunities. Each Central American and Caribbean country has approached inependent power project development at its own pace. While some countries in the region have been more aggressive in encouraging independent power, others are still deciding whether and how to allow private deelopment to proceed. While there are clearly significant challenges associated with project development, there are advantages as well. A practical advantage is the fact that the region is geographically consolidated and proximate to the United States. Accordingly, a dveloper with limited resources can nevertheless operate in several markets at the same time. Moreover, because these markets are close, US-based developers have been able to avoid some of the more serious logistical problems that have been encountered in more remote markets, such as China and India. This can also be an advantage to smaller independent developers. Summaries of recent developments in Central America and the Caribbean are preented.

  15. Central core disease

    PubMed Central

    Jungbluth, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    Central core disease (CCD) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies. CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal weakness pronounced in the hip girdle; orthopaedic complications are common and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is a frequent complication. CCD and MHS are allelic conditions both due to (predominantly dominant) mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene, encoding the principal skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel (RyR1). Altered excitability and/or changes in calcium homeostasis within muscle cells due to mutation-induced conformational changes of the RyR protein are considered the main pathogenetic mechanism(s). The diagnosis of CCD is based on the presence of suggestive clinical features and central cores on muscle biopsy; muscle MRI may show a characteristic pattern of selective muscle involvement and aid the diagnosis in cases with equivocal histopathological findings. Mutational analysis of the RYR1 gene may provide genetic confirmation of the diagnosis. Management is mainly supportive and has to anticipate susceptibility to potentially life-threatening reactions to general anaesthesia. Further evaluation of the underlying molecular mechanisms may provide the basis for future rational pharmacological treatment. In the majority of patients, weakness is static or only slowly progressive, with a favourable long-term outcome. PMID:17504518

  16. Central Florida Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Central Florida Memory project was started in 2002 by The University of Central Florida Library, The Orange County Regional History Center, and The Orange County Library System. The intent of the project is "to provide an online platform and focal point for gathering, preserving, and disseminating the documents, artifacts, and stories of the history of Central Florida." Over the past few years, the project has been awarded with additional funding grants from the Institute of Museum and Library Services. Currently, the project site contains over 80,000 images, along with maps, plans, and other documents. Visitors to the homepage will find three primary sections of note: "Collection", "Share", and "Learn". In the "Collection" area, visitors can make their way through postcards, maps, and the "most recent" additions to the site. For people looking for a more organized experience, there's the "Learn" area. Here they can find thematic collections like "Dreams and Schemes", "Roads, Rivers and Rails", and "Critters, Crackers and Cottages". For those looking for a sample search, words like "Deland", "Stetson University", "Orlando", and "pineapple" will return a host of compelling items.

  17. Central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Masterton, R B

    1993-01-01

    A biological view of the central auditory system seems to be replacing the older Galilean or physics-based view as the guide for research in the late 20th century. This emerging view is primarily Darwinian in origin and recognizes that the entire auditory system is an adaptation for extracting information from natural sounds and their sources, usually for the guidance of immediate behavioral action. The fact that natural sounds themselves are almost always transients, too brief in duration to have tonal quality, suggests that the ear is far more of a Fast Fourier Transformer (and less of a Fourier analyzer) than is usually explicitly stated. Since the brief sounds constituting most of the acoustical environment contain critical information for guiding behavioral activity, several further hypotheses regarding the cell-level and tissue-level contributions of the central auditory system also follow. For example, the new view suggests that the central auditory system's role is likely to include the extraction of the behaviorally most important features, aspects, or dimensions of the sources of sounds in addition to, or possibly instead of, the physical dimensions of the sounds themselves. Because this new view has already enjoyed some measure of success and has also suggested a number of new and unusual directions for future research, it may become the dominant theory for research in the 21st century. PMID:8321548

  18. Scavenging ratios based on inflow air concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Dana, M.T.; Lee, R.N.; Slinn, W.G.N.; Thorp, J.M.

    1991-07-01

    Scavenging ratios were calculated from field measurements made during April 1985. Event precipitation samples were collected at the surface, but air chemistry measurements in the air mass feeding the precipitation were made from an aircraft. In contrast, ratios calculated in previous studies have used air concentration and precipitation chemistry data from only surface measurements. Average scavenging ratios were calculated for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, total sulfate, total nitrate, and total ammonium for 5 events; the geometric mean of these scavenging ratios were 8.5 {times} 10{sup 5}, 5.6 {times} 10{sup 6}, 4.3 {times} 10{sup 5}, 3.4 {times} 10{sup 5}, 2.4 {times} 10{sup 6}, and 9.7 {times} 10{sup 4}, respectively. These means are similar to but less variable than previous ratios formed using only surface data.

  19. Poisson's ratio of individual metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Eoin K; Bellew, Allen T; Sader, John E; Boland, John J

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of Poisson's ratio of nanomaterials is extremely challenging. Here we report a lateral atomic force microscope experimental method to electromechanically measure the Poisson's ratio and gauge factor of individual nanowires. Under elastic loading conditions we monitor the four-point resistance of individual metallic nanowires as a function of strain and different levels of electrical stress. We determine the gauge factor of individual wires and directly measure the Poisson's ratio using a model that is independently validated for macroscopic wires. For macroscopic wires and nickel nanowires we find Poisson's ratios that closely correspond to bulk values, whereas for silver nanowires significant deviations from the bulk silver value are observed. Moreover, repeated measurements on individual silver nanowires at different levels of mechanical and electrical stress yield a small spread in Poisson ratio, with a range of mean values for different wires, all of which are distinct from the bulk value. PMID:25000139

  20. Reversal of the /O III/lambda 4363/H sub gamma lambda 4340 ratio in the planetary nebula IC 4997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, W. A.; Hobbs, R. W.; Mccracken, C. W.; Brown, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    Five image-tube spectrograms of the planetary nebula IC 4997 obtained during August 1977 show that the intensity forbidden ratio O III 4363 A/H-gamma 4340 A was equal to unity, but a sixth one obtained in April 1978 showed the ratio to be 0.91. These results represent a significant increase in the intensity ratio, which had been declining from 1895 to 1962 (when it was considerably less than unity), and is interpreted as resulting from a gradual increase in temperature of the nebula's central star accompanied by a transient event which led to a temporarily high value for the ratio in mid-1977.

  1. Evolution of the Central Stars of Young Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajduk, M.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of central stars of planetary nebulae was hitherto documented in just a few cases. We look for evolutionary changes of the [O iii] 5007 Å line flux in the spectra of planetary nebulae. We compared nebular fluxes collected over a time interval of a decade or more. We used literature data and newly obtained spectra. A grid of Cloudy models was computed using existing evolutionary models and compared with the observations. The observed evolution of the [O iii] 5007 Å/rmH? line flux ratio is consistent with the evolutionary model calculations for H-rich central stars. Low-excitation planetary nebulae with [WR]-type and wels central stars show slower evolution than their coutnerparts containing H-rich central stars.

  2. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

    1986-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  3. Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    this report as follows: Kaduwela, A. P. 2004. Central California Ozone Study. California Energy Commission/Agricultural/Water End-Use Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies The Central California Ozone Study is the final report for the Central California Ozone Study, Interagency Agreement 700-98-027, between

  4. Optimal dispersion and central places

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Curtin; Richard L. Church

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents research into optimal dispersion models as applied to central places. The literature regarding location optimization and central places is reviewed and the motivation for employing dispersion models is identified. Models that employ the objective of maximal dispersion in the context of central places are formulated and solved in the context of both single- and multiple-good systems. Two

  5. CALIPSO Lidar Ratio Retrieval Over the Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josset, Damien B.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali H.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2011-01-01

    We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type

  6. Influence of neutron skin thickness on $\\pi^{-}/\\pi^{+}$ ratio in Pb+Pb collisions

    E-print Network

    Wei, Gao-Feng; Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Within an isospin and momentum dependent transport model IBUU11 using as an input nucleon density profiles from Hartree-Fock calculations based on a modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we study the influence of the uncertainty of the neutron skin thickness on the $\\pi^{-}/\\pi^{+}$ ratio in both central and peripheral Pb+Pb collisions at beam energies of 400 MeV/nucleon and 1000 MeV/nucleon. Within the current experimental uncertainty range of neutron skin in $^{208}$Pb, while the neutron skin effect on the \\rpi ratio is negligible in central reactions at both energies, it increases gradually with increasing impact parameter and becomes comparable with or even larger than the symmetry energy effect in peripheral collisions especially at 400 MeV/nucleon. Moreover, we found that while the \\rpi ratio is larger with a softer \\esym in central collisions, above certain impact parameters depending on the size of the neutron skin, a stiffer \\esym can lead to a larger \\rpi ratio as most of the pions are produced at densi...

  7. PEN experiment: a measurement of ?+ -->e+?e (?) branching ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frlez, Emil; PEN Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The experimental ?+ -->e+?e (?) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of ?B / B = 3 . 3 .10-3 to ~ 5 .10-4 using a stopped pion beam. During runs in 2008-2010, PEN has acquired over 2 .107 ?e 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with a plastic scintillator hodoscope, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. We will present a progress report on the PEN analysis. In addition to ?e 2 and the normalizing ? --> ? --> e process, we will discuss radiative pion and muon decays, decays in flight, as well as accidental and hadronic backgrounds. The experimental ?+ -->e+?e (?) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of ?B / B = 3 . 3 .10-3 to ~ 5 .10-4 using a stopped pion beam. During runs in 2008-2010, PEN has acquired over 2 .107 ?e 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with a plastic scintillator hodoscope, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. We will present a progress report on the PEN analysis. In addition to ?e 2 and the normalizing ? --> ? --> e process, we will discuss radiative pion and muon decays, decays in flight, as well as accidental and hadronic backgrounds. Work supported by NSF Grants PHY-0970013, 1307328, and others.

  8. Optimal sampling ratios in comparative diagnostic trials

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ting; Tang, Liansheng Larry; Rosenberger, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A subjective sampling ratio between the case and the control groups is not always an efficient choice to maximize the power or to minimize the total required sample size in comparative diagnostic trials.We derive explicit expressions for an optimal sampling ratio based on a common variance structure shared by several existing summary statistics of the receiver operating characteristic curve. We propose a two-stage procedure to estimate adaptively the optimal ratio without pilot data. We investigate the properties of the proposed method through theoretical proofs, extensive simulation studies and a real example in cancer diagnostic studies. PMID:24948841

  9. Central star formation in S0 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressel, L. L.; Oconnell, R. W.; Telesco, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    As a class, S0 galaxies are characterized by a lack of resolved bright stars in the disk. However, several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that a high rate of star formation is occurring at the centers of some S0 galaxies. Many of the warmest, most powerful far infrared sources in nearby bright galaxies occur in S0 galaxies. (Dressel 1988, Ap. J., 329, L69). The ratios of radio continuum flux to far infrared flux for these S0 galaxies are comparable to the ratios found for spiral galaxy disks and for star-burst galaxies. Very Large Array (VLA) maps of some of these S0 galaxies show that the radio continuum emission originates in the central few kiloparsecs. It is diffuse or clumpy, unlike the radio sources in active S0 galaxies, which are either extremely compact or have jet-lobe structures. Imaging of some of these galaxies at 10.8 microns shows that the infrared emission is also centrally concentrated. Many of the infrared-powerful S0 galaxies are Markarian galaxies. In only one case in this sample is the powerful ultraviolet emission known to be generated by a Seyfert nucleus. Optical spectra of the central few kiloparsecs of these S0 galaxies generally show deep Balmer absorption lines characteristic of A stars, and H beta emission suggestive of gas heated by O stars. A key question to our understanding of these galaxies is whether they really are S0 galaxies, or at least would have been recognized as S0 galaxies before the episode of central star formation began. Some of Nilson's classifications (used here) have been confirmed by Sandage or de Vaucouleurs and collaborators from better plates; some of the galaxies may be misclassified Sa galaxies (the most frequent hosts of central star formation); some are apparently difficult to classify because of mixed characteristics, faint non-S0 features, or peculiarities. More optical imaging is needed to characterize the host galaxies and to study the evolution of their star-forming regions.

  10. Mean and Variance of Ratio Estimators Used in Fluorescence Ratio Imaging

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Mean and Variance of Ratio Estimators Used in Fluorescence Ratio Imaging G.M.P. van Kempen1 * and L: The ratio of two measured fluorescence signals (called x and y) is used in different applications in fluorescence microscopy. Multiple instances of both sig- nals can be combined in different ways to construct

  11. Preference between variable-ratio and fixed-ratio schedules: local and extended relations.

    PubMed Central

    Field, D P; Tonneau, F; Ahearn, W; Hineline, P N

    1996-01-01

    Although it has repeatedly been demonstrated that pigeons, as well as other species, will often choose a variable schedule of reinforcement over an equivalent (or even richer) fixed schedule, the exact nature of that controlling relation has yet to be fully assessed. In this study pigeons were given repeated choices between concurrently available fixed-ratio and variable-ratio schedules. The fixed-ratio requirement (30 responses) was constant throughout the experiment, whereas the distribution of individual ratios making up the variable-ratio schedule changed across phases: The smallest and largest of these components were varied gradually, with the mean variable-ratio requirement constant at 60 responses. The birds' choices of the variable-ratio schedule tracked the size of the smallest variable-ratio component. A minimum variable-ratio component at or near 1 produced strong preference for the variable-ratio schedule, whereas increases in the minimum variable-ratio component resulted in reduced preference for the variable-ratio schedule. The birds' behavior was qualitatively consistent with Mazur's (1984) hyperbolic model of delayed reinforcement and could be described as approximate maximizing with respect to reinforcement value. PMID:8921612

  12. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Floods in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  16. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  17. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Commissioner's (NAIC's) Insurance Regulatory Information System (IRIS) ratios found in §§ 400.170(d...Using the NAIC Insurance Regulatory Information System” distributed by NAIC, 120 West 12th St., Kansas City, MO...

  18. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Commissioner's (NAIC's) Insurance Regulatory Information System (IRIS) ratios found in §§ 400.170(d...Using the NAIC Insurance Regulatory Information System” distributed by NAIC, 120 West 12th St., Kansas City, MO...

  19. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Commissioner's (NAIC's) Insurance Regulatory Information System (IRIS) ratios found in §§ 400.170(d...Using the NAIC Insurance Regulatory Information System” distributed by NAIC, 120 West 12th St., Kansas City, MO...

  20. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Commissioner's (NAIC's) Insurance Regulatory Information System (IRIS) ratios found in §§ 400.170(d...Using the NAIC Insurance Regulatory Information System” distributed by NAIC, 120 West 12th St., Kansas City, MO...

  1. Optimizing combination chemotherapy by controlling drug ratios.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Lawrence D; Janoff, Andrew S

    2007-08-01

    Cancer chemotherapy treatments typically employ drug combinations in which the dose of each agent is pushed to the brink of unacceptable toxicity; however, emerging evidence indicates that this approach may not be providing optimal efficacy due to the manner in which drugs interact. Specifically, whereas certain ratios of combined drugs can be synergistic, other ratios of the same agents may be antagonistic, implying that the most efficacious combinations may be those that utilize certain agents at reduced doses. Advances in nano-scale drug delivery vehicles now enable the translation of in vitro information on synergistic drug ratios into improved anticancer combination therapies in which the desired drug ratio can be controlled and maintained following administration in vivo, so that synergistic effects can be exploited. This "ratiometric" approach to combination chemotherapy opens new opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of existing and future treatment regimens across a spectrum of human diseases. PMID:17827442

  2. Posterior odds ratios for selected regression hypotheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zellner; A. Siow

    1980-01-01

    Summary  Bayesian posterior odds ratios for frequently encountered hypotheses about parameters of the normal linear multiple regression\\u000a model are derived and discussed. For the particular prior distributions utilized, it is found that the posterior odds ratios\\u000a can be well approximated by functions that are monotonic in usual sampling theoryF statistics. Some implications of this finding and the relation of our work

  3. Ultraviolet Emission Line Ratios of Cataclysmic Variables

    E-print Network

    Christopher W. Mauche; Y. Paul Lee; Timothy R. Kallman

    1996-09-20

    We present a statistical analysis of the ultraviolet emission lines of cataclysmic variables (CVs) based on $\\approx 430$ ultraviolet spectra of 20 sources extracted from the International Ultraviolet Explorer Uniform Low Dispersion Archive. These spectra are used to measure the emission line fluxes of N V, Si IV, C IV, and He II and to construct diagnostic flux ratio diagrams. We investigate the flux ratio parameter space populated by individual CVs and by various CV subclasses (e.g., AM Her stars, DQ Her stars, dwarf novae, nova-like variables). For most systems, these ratios are clustered within a range of $\\sim 1$ decade for log Si IV/C IV $\\approx -0.5$ and log He II/C IV $\\approx -1.0$ and $\\sim 1.5$ decades for log N V/C IV $\\approx -0.25$. These ratios are compared to photoionization and collisional ionization models to constrain the excitation mechanism and the physical conditions of the line-emitting gas. We find that the collisional models do the poorest job of reproducing the data. The photoionization models reproduce the Si IV/C IV line ratios for some shapes of the ionizing spectrum, but the predicted N V/C IV line ratios are simultaneously too low by typically $\\sim 0.5$ decades. Worse, for no parameters are any of the models able to reproduce the observed He II/C IV line ratios; this ratio is far too small in the collisional and scattering models and too large by typically $\\sim 0.5$ decades in the photoionization models.

  4. A sex ratio theory of gregarious parasitoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshito Suzuki; Yoh Iwasa

    1980-01-01

    Summary  A mathematical model is constructed to explain a density-dependent increase in the progeny sex ratios of gregarious parasitoids.\\u000a In the model we considered non-cooperative game between females concerned with their own inclusive fitness. Equilibrium progeny\\u000a sex ratios of the first and second females ovipositing on the same host are expressed in terms of the probability of double\\u000a parasitism (p), the

  5. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E. [Computer Vision Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    1994-11-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy.

  6. Sex Ratio Modulators of Egg Parasitoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Russell; Richard Stouthamer

    \\u000a The importance of sex ratio\\u000a s in the biology and biocontrol application of egg parasitoids can be summarized as the cost of producing males. For both\\u000a the biocontrol practitioner and the biocontrol agent a surplus of healthy fecund females is highly desirable. The sex ratio\\u000a investment advice of a biological banker might be to maximize the total number of reproductive

  7. Does inbreeding distort sex-ratios?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Frankham; Jonathan Wilcken

    2006-01-01

    Inbreeding is reputed to distort sex-ratios by reducing the proportion of the homogametic sex. However, many data sets do not show such an effect, and there is a known selective publication bias. To resolve the issue, we (a) developed detailed theoretical expectations for the effects of inbreeding on sex-ratios for autosomal and sex-linked loci with sex-limited effects or with equal

  8. Flexible conversion ratio fast reactors: Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil E. Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar; Anna Nikiforova; Robert Petroski; Eugene Shwageraus; C. J. Fong; Michael J. Driscoll; M. A. Elliott; George Apostolakis

    2009-01-01

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. The performance achievable by the unity conversion ratio cores of these reactors was compared to an existing supercritical carbon dioxide-cooled (S-CO2) fast reactor design and an uprated version of an existing sodium-cooled fast reactor. All concepts have cores rated at 2400MWt. The cores of the liquid-cooled

  9. Africa Research Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Historically, researchers in Europe and the US have had difficulty finding updated information on primary source African collections. African Research Central, hosted by California State University at San Bernardino, seeks to bridge this information gap by offering centralized and frequently updated information on primary source collections, as well as publicizing the needs of the repositories and suggesting a plan of action for concerned researchers. The site is divided into three sections: The Repositories, For Researchers, and For Repository Professionals. The first section serves as a gateway to the archives, libraries, and museums with important collections of African primary sources. The emphasis is on Africa, but European and North American institutions are also listed. Information for institutions includes contact information, access conditions, publications, references, and a preservation wish list. The second section includes a Researcher's Questionnaire and information on how academics can contribute to the preservation of African sources. The Repository Professionals section invites archivists to update information on repositories or add new ones and publicize their preservation needs and desires. Both of the latter sections also offer related links. Future plans for the site include a searchable database, an expanded repository list, and a section for educators.

  10. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Whiting, David A; Olsen, Elise A

    2008-01-01

    A progressive scarring alopecia of the central scalp is commonly seen in young to middle-aged females of African descent. It usually starts at the vertex or mid top of the scalp and gradually spreads centrifugally, hence, the unifying term of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. The clinical pattern is suggestive of female pattern alopecia, but a lack of follicular pores indicative of scarring is present. It can progress for years before slowly burning out. The etiology is unknown but genetic factors may be important. It is often associated with a history of traumatic hairstyling involving heat, traction, and chemicals. However, most patients of African descent without this disorder have similar styling habits. Nonetheless, avoidance of physical and chemical trauma to the scalp hair, the use of suitable shampoos and conditioners, and the encouragement of natural hairstyles may be helpful. Any infection should be treated. Topical or intralesional corticosteroids and systemic antibiotics may be useful and topical minoxidil should be tried with the hope of preventing further scarring and encouraging regrowth of recovering follicles. Current research into the etiology of this disorder will help to foster much-needed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. PMID:18715297

  11. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    PubMed

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis. PMID:19946367

  12. Chapter 30: Crossmatching Data in the VO: BCG Line Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. J.; Krughoff, K. S.

    In this chapter, we will determine the emission line ratios of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) in a sample drawn the Sloan Digital Sky Survey C4 galaxy cluster catalog (Miller et al. 2005). These line ratios can be used to provide some insight on whether these galaxies are star-forming or contain an Active Galactic Nucleus. We will utilize a series of VO tools: Open SkyPortal, TOPCAT and VOPlot. BCGs can be defined in different ways and are often synonymous with brightest central galaxies or even cD galaxies (galaxies with optically extended light envelopes). BCGs are the most massive galaxies and their formation and evolution are a popular and current research topic (Linden et al. 2006, Bernardi et al. 2006, Lauer et al. 2006). They have been studied for some time (Sandage 1972, Ostriker & Tremain 1975, White 1976, Thuan & Romanishin 1981, Merritt 1985, Postman and Lauer 1995, among many others). In this VO research example, our aim is to take a list of galaxies known to lie within the footprint of the SDSS, which provides us with the possibility that some of these galaxies will have measured spectra from the SDSS spectroscopic pipeline. Thus, there is some prerequisite knowledge: 1) Many bright SDSS galaxies have spectra with measured emission line properties; 2) Our catalog of Brightest Cluster Galaxies has some overlap with the SDSS footprint. Taken together, we can crossmatch our catalog to the SDSS spectroscopic galaxy data in order to extract any available emission-line information.

  13. Central waste processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

  14. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios....

  15. The p/pi ratio pT-dependence in the RHIC range od baryo-chemical potential

    E-print Network

    N. Katrynska; P. Staszel

    2008-06-06

    The BRAHMS measurement of proton-to-pion ratios in Au+Au and p+p collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV is presented as a function of transverse momentum and collision centrality within the pseudorapidity range 0 pi ratio measured for Au+Au system at 62.4 GeV, eta = 3.2 reaches astounding value of 8-10 at pT >= 1.5 GeV/c. For these energy and pseudorapidity interval no centrality dependency of p/pi ratio is observed. The baryon-to-meson ratio of nucleus-nucleus data are consistent with results obtained for p+p interactions.

  16. Separated Response Function Ratios in Exclusive, Forward pi^{+/-} Electroproduction

    E-print Network

    G. M. Huber; H. P. Blok; C. Butuceanu; D. Gaskell; T. Horn; D. J. Mack; D. Abbott; K. Aniol; H. Anklin; C. Armstrong; J. Arrington; K. Assamagan; S. Avery; O. K. Baker; B. Barrett; E. J. Beise; C. Bochna; W. Boeglin; E. J. Brash; H. Breuer; C. C. Chang; N. Chant; M. E. Christy; J. Dunne; T. Eden; R. Ent; H. Fenker; E. F. Gibson; R. Gilman; K. Gustafsson; W. Hinton; R. J. Holt; H. Jackson; S. Jin; M. K. Jones; C. E. Keppel; P. H. Kim; W. Kim; P. M. King; A. Klein; D. Koltenuk; V. Kovaltchouk; M. Liang; J. Liu; G. J. Lolos; A. Lung; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; A. Matsumura; D. McKee; D. Meekins; J. Mitchell; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; B. Mueller; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; Y. Okayasu; L. Pentchev; C. Perdrisat; D. Pitz; D. Potterveld; V. Punjabi; L. M. Qin; P. E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; P. G. Roos; A. Sarty; I. K. Shin; G. R. Smith; S. Stepanyan; L. G. Tang; V. Tadevosyan; V. Tvaskis; R. L. J. van der Meer; K. Vansyoc; D. Van Westrum; S. Vidakovic; J. Volmer; W. Vulcan; G. Warren; S. A. Wood; C. Xu; C. Yan; W. -X. Zhao; X. Zheng; B. Zihlmann

    2014-04-15

    The study of exclusive $\\pi^{\\pm}$ electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio $R_L=\\sigma_L^{\\pi^-}/\\sigma_L^{\\pi^+}$ is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of $R_T=\\sigma_T^{\\pi^-}/\\sigma_T^{\\pi^+}$ from unity at small $-t$, to 1/4 at large $-t$, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Furthermore, the mentioned ratios may show an earlier approach to pQCD than the individual cross sections. We have performed the first complete separation of the four unpolarized electromagnetic structure functions above the dominant resonances in forward, exclusive $\\pi^{\\pm}$ electroproduction on the deuteron at central $Q^2$ values of 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 GeV$^2$ at $W$=1.95 GeV, and $Q^2=2.45$ GeV$^2$ at $W$=2.22 GeV. Here, we present the $L$ and $T$ cross sections, with emphasis on $R_L$ and $R_T$, and compare them with theoretical calculations. Results for the separated ratio $R_L$ indicate dominance of the pion-pole diagram at low $-t$, while results for $R_T$ are consistent with a transition between pion knockout and quark knockout mechanisms.

  17. Hedging and Optimal Hedge Ratios for International Index Futures Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Few Lee; Kehluh Wang; Yan Long Chen

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study utilizes four static hedging models (OLS Minimum Variance Hedge Ratio, Mean-Variance Hedge Ratio, Sharpe Hedge Ratio, and MEG Hedge Ratio) and one dynamic hedging model (bivariate GARCH Minimum Variance Hedge Ratio) to find the optimal hedge ratios for Taiwan Stock Index Futures, S&P 500 Stock Index Futures, Nikkei 225 Stock Index Futures, Hang Seng Index Futures, Singapore

  18. Central Nervous System Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nabors, Louis Burt; Ammirati, Mario; Bierman, Philip J.; Brem, Henry; Butowski, Nicholas; Chamberlain, Marc C.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Friedman, Allan; Gilbert, Mark R.; Hesser, Deneen; Holdhoff, Matthias; Junck, Larry; Lawson, Ronald; Loeffler, Jay S.; Maor, Moshe H.; Moots, Paul L.; Morrison, Tara; Mrugala, Maciej M.; Newton, Herbert B.; Portnow, Jana; Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Recht, Lawrence; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Sills, Allen K.; Tran, David; Tran, Nam; Vrionis, Frank D.; Wen, Patrick Y.; McMillian, Nicole; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Primary and metastatic tumors of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varied outcomes and management strategies. Recently, improved survival observed in 2 randomized clinical trials established combined chemotherapy and radiation as the new standard for treating patients with pure or mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma harboring the 1p/19q codeletion. For metastatic disease, increasing evidence supports the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in treating patients with multiple metastatic lesions but low overall tumor volume. These guidelines provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this group of diseases based on clinical evidence and panel consensus. This version includes expert advice on the management of low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic gliomas, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and brain metastases. The full online version, available at NCCN.org, contains recommendations on additional subtypes. PMID:24029126

  19. Central solar energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  20. Sucker rod centralizer

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, O.; Newski, A.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a device for centralizing at least one sucker rod within a production pipe downhole in a well and for reducing frictional forces between the pipe and at least one sucker rod. It comprises an elongate, substantially cylindrical body member having a longitudinal axis, a plurality of slots within the member and a rotatable member mounted within each slot, each of the plurality of slots has its major dimension along a first axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body member and is oriented with respect to the other seats so as to form a helicoidal array for maximizing the total surface contact area between the rotatable members and the pipe and for decreasing the forces acting on each rotatable member.

  1. Central Michigan University

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Central Michigan University

    Central Michigan University serves Michigan and the larger community as a doctoral/research intensive public university focused on excellent teaching and student-focused learning. The University is committed to providing a broad range of undergraduate and graduate programs and services to prepare its students for varied roles as responsible citizens and leaders in a democratic and diverse society. Its programs encourage intellectual and moral growth, prepare students for meaningful careers and professions, instill the values of lifelong learning, and encourage civic responsibility, public service and understanding among social groups in a global society. The university emphasizes an undergraduate program that maintains a balance between general education and specialization. In addition to educational depth in at least one academic discipline or professional field, the university provides educational experiences in the arts, humanities, natural and social sciences, global cultures, and issues of race and diversity. The university offers selected high quality graduate programs in traditional disciplines and professional fields. Through its College of Extended Learning, the university provides access to higher education programs and lifelong learning opportunities both nationally and internationally through a variety of innovative instructional methods and schedules designed to meet the demands of adult populations. Central Michigan University encourages research, scholarship and creative activity and promotes the scholarly pursuit and dissemination of new knowledge, artistic production and applied research. Through its support of research, the university enhances the learning opportunities of both its undergraduate and graduate students and promotes economic, cultural and social development. The university?s sense of community is reflected through governance structures that allow broadbased participation, opportunities for close student-faculty interaction, and a rich array of residential and campus-based co-curricular activities. Through its partnerships and outreach efforts, the university promotes learning outsideof the traditional classroom and enhances the general welfare of society.

  2. ENRICHMENT OF THE DUST-TO-GAS MASS RATIO IN BONDI/JEANS ACCRETION/CLOUD SYSTEMS DUE TO UNEQUAL CHANGES IN DUST AND GAS INCOMING VELOCITIES

    E-print Network

    Bellan, Paul M.

    ENRICHMENT OF THE DUST-TO-GAS MASS RATIO IN BONDI/JEANS ACCRETION/CLOUD SYSTEMS DUE TO UNEQUAL The ratio of the Bondi and Jeans lengths is used to develop a cloud-accretion model that describes both an inner Bondi-type regime where gas pressure is balanced by the gravity of a central star and an outer

  3. Autofluorescence ratio imaging of human colonic adenomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaizumi, Katsuichi; Harada, Yoshinori; Wakabayashi, Naoki; Yamaoka, Yoshihisa; Dai, Ping; Tanaka, Hideo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Recently autofluorescence imaging (AFI) endoscopy, visualizing tissue fluorescence in combination with reflected light, has been adopted as a technique for detecting neoplasms in the colon and other organs. However, autofluorescence colonoscopy is not infallible, and improvement of the detection method can be expected to enhance the performance. Colonic mucosa contains metabolism-related fluorophores, such as reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which may be useful for visualizing neoplasia in autofluorescence endoscopy. We examined sliced cross-sections of endoscopically resected tubular adenomas under a microscope. Fluorescence images acquired at 365-nm excitation (F365ex) and 405-nm excitation (F405ex), and reflectance images acquired at 550 nm (R550) were obtained. Fluorescence ratio (F365ex/F405ex) images and reflectance/fluorescence ratio (R550/F405ex) images were calculated from the acquired images. The fluorescence ratio images could distinguish adenomatous mucosa from normal mucosa more clearly than the reflectance/fluorescence ratio images. The results showed that the autofluorescence ratio imaging is a potential technique for increasing the diagnostic power of autofluorescence endoscopy.

  4. Optimal aspect ratio of endocytosed spherocylindrical nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Bing; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zeng, Yan; Mao, Wei; Hu, Lin; Mao, Zong-Liang; Xu, Hou-Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Recent simulations have demonstrated that bioparticle size and shape modulate the process of endocytosis, and studies have provided more quantitative information that the endocytosis efficiency of spherocylindrical bioparticles is decided by its aspect ratio. At the same time, the dimensions of the receptor-ligand complex have strong effects on the size-dependent exclusion of proteins within the cellular environment. However, these earlier theoretical works including simulations did not consider the effects of ligand-receptor complex dimension on the endocytosis process. Thus, it is necessary to resolve the effects of ligand-receptor complex dimension and determine the optimal aspect ratio of spherocylindrical bioparticles in the process of endocytosis. Accordingly, we proposed a continuum elastic model, of which the results indicate that the aspect ratio depends on the ligand-receptor complex dimension and the radius of the spherocylindrical bioparticle. This model provides a phase diagram of the aspect ratio of endocytosed spherocylindrical bioparticles, the larger aspect ratio of which appears in the phase diagram with increasing ligand density, and highlights the bioparticle design.

  5. Localization and centrality in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Travis; Zhang, Xiao; Newman, M. E. J.

    2014-11-01

    Eigenvector centrality is a common measure of the importance of nodes in a network. Here we show that under common conditions the eigenvector centrality displays a localization transition that causes most of the weight of the centrality to concentrate on a small number of nodes in the network. In this regime the measure is no longer useful for distinguishing among the remaining nodes and its efficacy as a network metric is impaired. As a remedy, we propose an alternative centrality measure based on the nonbacktracking matrix, which gives results closely similar to the standard eigenvector centrality in dense networks where the latter is well behaved but avoids localization and gives useful results in regimes where the standard centrality fails.

  6. Optimal dispersion and central places

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Curtin; Richard L. Church

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents research into optimal dispersion models as applied to central places. The literature regarding location\\u000a optimization and central places is reviewed and the motivation for employing dispersion models is identified. Models that\\u000a employ the objective of maximal dispersion in the context of central places are formulated and solved in the context of both\\u000a single- and multiple-good systems. Two

  7. Variable compression ratio internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, P.D.

    1991-01-29

    This patent describes a variable compression ratio internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder, a piston disposed in the cylinder and a cylinder head disposed at one end of the cylinder. The cylinder head has a combustion chamber and a piston chamber contiguous with the top of the cylinder. A movable piston disposed in the piston chamber to change the effective volume of the combustion chamber. A closed end of the piston chamber is connected to one of the engine's source of pressurized fluid. A solenoid valve is disposed between the source of pressurized fluid and the piston chamber. Energization of the solenoid valve is controlled by a controller to open the solenoid valve when the combustion chamber has a low pressure to displace the movable piston to increase the compression ratio of the engine and to open the solenoid valve when the combustion chamber has a high or peak pressure to displace the movable piston to decrease the compression ratio.

  8. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio and Peto's log odds ratio under the general framework of combining CDs

    E-print Network

    Xie, Minge

    Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio and Peto's log odds ratio under the general framework of combining CDs ratio is a special case of combining aCDs and Peto's log odds ratio can also be derived using(1 - p1) . · Objects of interest: odds ratio , log odds ratio = ln . 2. Mantel-Haenszel and Peto methods

  9. Existence of symmetric central configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldi, James

    2015-06-01

    Central configurations have been of great interest over many years, with the earliest examples due to Euler and Lagrange. There are numerous results in the literature demonstrating the existence of central configurations with specific symmetry properties, using slightly different techniques in each. The aim here is to describe a uniform approach by adapting to the symmetric case the well-known variational argument showing the existence of central configurations. The principal conclusion is that there is a central configuration for every possible symmetry type, and for any symmetric choice of masses. Finally the same argument is applied to the class of balanced configurations introduced by Albouy and Chenciner.

  10. Peak-to-average power ratio in high-order OFDM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nati Dinur; Dov Wulich

    2001-01-01

    The problem of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of high-order orthogonal frequency-division modulation (OFDM) is considered. Using results on level crossing of random processes, an upper bound on the probability that the PAPR of an OFDM signal will exceed a given value is derived. Numerical computations are used to show that this bound is tight for low-pass OFDM systems. The central

  11. Raman Lidar Measurements of the Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio Over the Southern Great Plains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner; Lorraine Heilman Brasseur; Wayne F. Feltz; Oleg Dubovik; Tim P. Tooman

    2001-01-01

    We derive profiles of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio, Sa, at 355 nm using aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles measured during 1998 and 1999 by the operational Raman lidar at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Southern Great Plains site in north central Oklahoma. Data from this Raman\\/Rayleigh-Mie lidar, which measures Raman scattering from nitrogen as well as the

  12. Cortisol\\/Dehydroepiandrosterone Ratio and Responses to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ritsner; Anatoly Gibel; Rachel Maayan; Yael Ratner; Edward Ram; Hassan Biadsy; Ilan Modai; Abraham Weizman

    2005-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or their sulfate conjugate (DHEAS) (together abbreviated DHEA(S)) exert multiple effects in the central nervous system, and may be involved in the pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia. This prospective study aimed to investigate whether serum cortisol\\/DHEA(S) molar ratios are associated with response to antipsychotic treatment during the exacerbation of schizophrenia. Serum DHEA(S) and cortisol were determined at baseline, and

  13. Distribution of muscle weakness of central and peripheral origin

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, R; Notermans, N; Wokke, J; van der Graaf, Y; van Gijn, J

    1998-01-01

    According to the established clinical tradition about the distribution of weakness, the ratios of flexor/extensor strength of patients with upper motor neuron lesions are expected to be relatively high for the elbow and wrist and low for the knee. To assess the diagnostic value of these patterns of weakness, muscle strength of 70 patients with limb weakness of central or peripheral origin was measured with a hand held dynamometer. The ratios of flexor/extensor strength at the knee, elbow, and wrist did not differ significantly between patients with central or peripheral origin of muscle weakness. The examination of tendon jerks proved to be of more value as a localising feature. The traditional notion about the distribution of weakness in upper motor neuron lesions may be explained by an intrinsically greater strength in antigravity muscles, together with the effects of hypertonia.?? PMID:9810962

  14. Estimating standardized risk differences from odds ratios.

    PubMed

    Greenland, S; Holland, P

    1991-03-01

    Holland (1989, Biometrics 45, 1009-1016) gave simple formulas for an "adjusted" risk difference based on the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio estimator and its variance. This "adjusted" risk difference is, in general, inconsistent, but Holland's variance formula is an immediate corollary of a more general formula by Greenland (1987, Journal of Chronic Diseases 40, 1087-1094). We show how, under a large-stratum limiting model, one can derive consistent estimators of standardized risk differences from any consistent odds ratio estimator. We also show how one can derive nonparametric standardized estimators under a sparse-data limiting model. PMID:2049505

  15. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  16. Higgs Branching Ratio Measurements at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Hiroaki

    Higgs branching ratio (BR) study is one of the important issue for International Linear Collider (ILC) to reveal the particle mass generation mechanism through the coupling between Higgs and each particle. ILC project is planned to start the center-of-mass (CM) energy of 250 to 500 GeV as 1st stage. Project is also expected to update the CM energy up to 1 TeV to search new physics particles and higher luminosity. In this study, Higgs branching ratios decaying into H to bbar{b},cbar{c},gg,WW* is evaluated at each CM energy using ILC full detector simulation.

  17. Effect of grid aspect ratio on convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buelow, P. E. O.; Venkateswaran, S.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of high-aspect-ratio grids on algorithm convergence are considered by means of vector stability theory and computational experiments. The results indicate that approximately factored implicit schemes experience convergence deterioration because of nonoptimum local time-stepping procedures and increased need for viscous preconditioning. Based on this insight, an enhanced algorithm is devised using improved selection of the local time step, appropriate definition of the viscous preconditioning matrix, and proper implementation of the boundary conditions. The new algorithm provides uniformly efficient convergence at all aspect ratios for both Euler and Navier-Stokes computations for a variety of test problems.

  18. Secular trends in newborn sex ratios.

    PubMed

    Grech, Victor

    2014-11-01

    A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence the male to female ratio at birth, which invariably displays a male excess. This paper will review and amplify recent work by the author, with specific references to individual countries, regions and entire continents in order to provide a global overview of this subject. It will be shown that stress, including stress related to political events, influences this ratio. Man-made radiation is also shown to have played a significant role in relation to the Windscale fire (1957) and Chernobyl (1986). PMID:25219502

  19. On the variability of alligator sex ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Chabreck, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Samples of alligators from wild and 'farm' populations exhibited disproportionate sex ratios. Males predominated among young alligators from wild populations, whereas females were much more abundant than males in the farm population, where resources were superabundant. These results and other considerations lead us to hypothesize that environmental factors influence sex determination in alligators. During favorable environmental conditions natural selection is expected to favor a preponderance of the sex whose individuals exhibit the greater environmentally associated variation in relative fitness. We hypothesize that environmentally associated variation in age at sexual maturity of females produces sufficient variation in relative fitness of females to result in selection for low sex ratios during periods of resource abundance.

  20. The influence of a central groove on static and dynamic characteristics of an annular liquid seal with laminar flow 

    E-print Network

    Graviss, Matthew Sheridan

    2005-08-29

    This thesis provides experimental static and dynamic results for four pairs of seals, including a pair of smooth seals and three pairs of centrally grooved seals. The grooved seals have groove depth to clearance ratios ...

  1. The isotopic composition of strontium in central American ignimbrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pushkar; A. R. McBirney; A. M. Kudo

    1971-01-01

    Voluminous sheets of rhyolitic ignimbrites were crupted during Miocene time in a region of Central America that is underlain\\u000a by a thick sequence of middle Paleozoic and older metamorphic and plutonic rocks. Strontium isotopic ratios of fifteen ignimbrites\\u000a range from 0.7035 to as high as 0.7175. These values are markedly higher than those measured for cale-alkaline lavas of the\\u000a same

  2. Portfolio allocations and the emerging equity markets of Central Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire G. Gilmore; Ginette M. McManus; Ahmet Tezel

    2005-01-01

    We examine the issue of possible diversification benefits into three leading Central European equity markets. We construct portfolios for both US and German investors using various optimization models and several risk measures. We then compare the portfolio out-of-sample performance using Sharpe ratios and the Jobson–Korkie statistic. Our results show that diversification benefits are statistically significant for US investors, but not

  3. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  4. Epidemiologic survey of 196 patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Vanderlaan; Cheryl R. Holbrook; Mei Wang; Andrew Tuell; David Gozal

    2004-01-01

    Summary. Thisstudyexaminedthecross-sectionalmedicalandsocialcharacteristicsofchildren diagnosed with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). A detailed questionnaire was mailed to all families with a child with CCHS who are affiliated with a family network or support group. The questionnaire response rate was >75% (n ¼196). Mean age was 10.22 years ? 6.6 years (SD) (range, 0.4-38 years), with a 1:1 sex ratio. Multisystem involvement was

  5. Planning applications in East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannah, J. W. (principal investigator); Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F.; Millard, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This is a study of applications of ERTS data to planning problems, especially as applicable to East Central Florida. The primary method has been computer analysis of digital data, with visual analysis of images serving to supplement the digital analysis. The principal method of analysis was supervised maximum likelihood classification, supplemented by density slicing and mapping of ratios of band intensities. Land-use maps have been prepared for several urban and non-urban sectors. Thematic maps have been found to be a useful form of the land-use maps. Change-monitoring has been found to be an appropriate and useful application. Mapping of marsh regions has been found effective and useful in this region. Local planners have participated in selecting training samples and in the checking and interpretation of results.

  6. HealthCentral

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    HealthCentral (formerly HealthScout), a news service provided by Rx Remedy, Inc., posts fifteen to twenty short, easy-to-understand articles each day on a variety of medical and health topics in the news. Articles are based on interviews with experts and reports from medical journals, and HealthScout cites sources and provides links to related resources for each. HealthScout also summarizes newswire stories and links to the original newspaper or journal article. A Directory section contains an archive of older articles. Registration is not required to use the site; however, visitors can sign up to receive personalized health or medical news reports by filling out a personal survey. Quick registration allows users to select from nearly 350 topics; "7-Minute Checkup" requires extensive personal information, but provides a choice of over 700 topics and a detailed health-risk assessment based on the user's responses. The site contains a privacy statement and recommends that users select "Switch to Secure Server" [which requires a browser that supports Secure Socket Layers (SSL)] before submitting information. Searches of news sources are performed every four hours, and users can opt to receive email notification when HealthScout posts new information on their topic.

  7. Central Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Touchard, Arturo; Somers, Virend K.; Olson, Lyle J.; Caples, Sean M.

    2009-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (HF), an exceedingly common and costly disease, is frequently seen in association with central sleep apnea (CSA), which often manifests as a periodic breathing rhythm referred to as Cheyne-Stokes respiration. CSA has historically been considered to be a marker of heart disease, since improvement in cardiac status is often associated with the attenuation of CSA. However, this mirroring of HF and CSA may suggest bidirectional importance to their relationship. In fact, observational data suggest that CSA, associated with repetitive oxyhemoglobin desaturations and surges in sympathetic neural activity, may be of pathophysiologic significance in HF outcomes. In light of the disappointing results from the first large trial assessing therapy with continuous positive airway pressure in patients with CSA and HF, further large-scale interventional trials will be needed to assess the role, if any, of CSA treatment on the outcomes of patients with HF. This review will discuss epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations of CSA in the setting of HF. PMID:18574295

  8. Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Males comprised 66 percent of wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups from a saturated, high-density wolf range in northeastern Minnesota, possibly reflecting disproportionate conception of males. Packs from areas of lower wolf density in other areas of Minnesota had equal sex ratios of pups or a disproportionate number of female pups. Captive wolves showed a slight preponderance of male pups.

  9. Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Kuo-Chun

    2010-01-14

    The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0...

  10. Ratio Analysis in Higher Education: Caveat Emptor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Ratio analyses are useful, but care must be taken not to overstate their importance or disregard their limitations. Internally designated, nonstandardized recording techniques in interinstitutional comparisons, inflationary distortions in internal analysis, and judgments made on trends can obstruct the manager's efforts to assess a higher…

  11. Giving More Realistic Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, Pramode Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Trigonometry is a well known branch of Mathematics. The study of trigonometry is of great importance in surveying, astronomy, navigation, engineering, and in different branches of science. This paper reports on the discovery of flaws in the traditional definitions of trigonometric ratios of an angle, which (in most cases) make use of the most…

  12. Flowmeter determines mix ratio for viscous adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.

    1967-01-01

    Flowmeter determines mix ratio for continuous flow mixing machine used to produce an adhesive from a high viscosity resin and aliphatic amine hardener pumped through separate lines to a rotary blender. The flowmeter uses strain gages in the two flow paths and monitors their outputs with appropriate instrumentation.

  13. Thermal evolution and Urey ratio of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesa, A.-C.; Tosi, N.; Grott, M.; Breuer, D.

    2015-05-01

    The upcoming InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission, to be launched in 2016, will carry out the first in situ Martian heat flux measurement, thereby providing an important baseline to constrain the present-day heat budget of the planet and, in turn, the thermal and chemical evolution of its interior. The surface heat flux can be used to constrain the amount of heat-producing elements present in the interior if the Urey ratio (Ur)—the planet's heat production rate divided by heat loss—is known. We used numerical simulations of mantle convection to model the thermal evolution of Mars and determine the present-day Urey ratio for a variety of models and parameters. We found that Ur is mainly sensitive to the efficiency of mantle cooling, which is associated with the temperature dependence of the viscosity (thermostat effect), and to the abundance of long-lived radiogenic isotopes. If the thermostat effect is efficient, as expected for the Martian mantle, assuming typical solar system values for the thorium-uranium ratio and a bulk thorium concentration, simulations show that the present-day Urey ratio is approximately constant, independent of model parameters. Together with an estimate of the average surface heat flux as determined by InSight, models of the amount of heat-producing elements present in the primitive mantle can be constrained.

  14. Sibling sex ratio and male homosexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Suarez; T. R. Przybeck

    1980-01-01

    As an explanation for the increased sex ratio observed in the sibships of male homosexuals, Slater has hypothesized that the increase, itself, may be a causative factor in predisposing a male to homosexual behavior. As a test of this hypothesis, an additive and a multiplicative risk model relating male homosexuality to the sexual configuration of the homosexual's sibship were formulated

  15. Do Credit Spreads Reflect Stationary Leverage Ratios?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Collin-Dufresne; Robert S. Goldstein

    2001-01-01

    Most structural models of default preclude the firm from altering its capital structure. In practice, firms adjust outstanding debt levels in response to changes in firm value, thus generating mean-reverting leverage ratios. We propose a structural model of default with stochastic interest rates that captures this mean reversion. Our model generates credit spreads that are larger for low-leverage firms, and

  16. Busbar for the low aspect ratio device

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Sidorov, M. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The high current required to drive the toroidal field coil of Low Aspect Ratio reactor-size devices (due to the single turn design) results in difficult choices for the electrical bus. In this paper, the implications of both superconducting and resistive busbar are investigated. Special attention is given to the possibility of using a high-Tc busbar. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Aspect Ratio of Thermal Diffusion Chambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Tomlinson; N. Fukuta

    1979-01-01

    The supersaturation distribution inside thermal diffusion chambers of cylindrical symmetry with a linear vertical temperature gradient on the wall was computed with various aspect ratios using the vapor pressure field. The results were compared with previous works. It was shown that the effect of the wall on the supersaturation inside the chamber is much reduced when a linear temperature gradient

  18. Viscosity to entropy ratio at extremality

    E-print Network

    Sayan K. Chakrabarti; Sachin Jain; Sudipta Mukherji

    2010-01-19

    Assuming gauge theory realization at the boundary, we show that the viscosity to entropy ratio is 1/(4 pi) where the bulk is represented by a large class of extremal black holes in anti-de Sitter space. In particular, this class includes multiple R-charged black holes in various dimensions.

  19. Finite sample properties of beale's ratio estimator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Srivastva; T. D. Dwivedi; Y. P. Chaubey; S. Bhatnagar

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the exact blas and mean square error of Beale's ratio estimator are derived under a blvariate normal nlodel in the form of an infinite series. It is found that some conventional large sample approxlmatlons are extremely poor if the relative variance of the auxlllary variable X is large. It is also brought out through this.study that Beale's

  20. Recovering Illumination and Texture Using Ratio Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Troccoli; Peter K. Allen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of factoring illumina- tion and texture from a pair of images of a diffuse object of known geometry. This problem arises frequently in 3D pho- tography applications that use images to acquire photomet- ric properties of a scanned object. Our approach uses the ratio of the images and the geometry information to com-

  1. Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2012-01-01

    Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict. PMID:22426218

  2. Dynamic Correlations and Optimal Hedge Ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles S. Bos; Phillip Gould

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this article is using dynamic correlation models for the calculation of minimum variance hedge ratios between pairs of assets. Finding an optimal hedge requires not only knowledge of the variability of both assets, but also of the co-movement between the two assets. For this purpose, use is made of industry standard methods, like the naive hedging or

  3. Catch to Bycatch Ratios: Comparing Hawaii's Longline

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Catch to Bycatch Ratios: Comparing Hawaii's Longline Fisheries with Others Paul K. Bartram and J. John Kaneko PacMar, Inc. 3615 Harding Avenue, Suite 409 Honolulu, Hawaii SOEST 04-05 JIMAR Contribution finfish bycatch per unit effort estimates (BPUE) for Hawaii pelagic longline fisheries without assistance

  4. Space Elevator Ribbon Mass and Taper Ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Nugent

    Assumptions about tensile strength and density aect the space elevator ribbon taper ratio, and therefore its mass. We examine the technical trade-os between material properties and total mass of a modern space elevator ribbon, and the economic trade-os between ribbon mass, the number of rocket launches required to loft the initial ribbon, and the time required to build the ribbon

  5. Delayed reinforcement and fixed-ratio performance.

    PubMed

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-11-01

    Effects of delayed reinforcement on fixed-ratio (FR) maintained responding of pigeons were investigated. In Experiments 1-3, the delay of reinforcement was increased across successive sessions until pigeons paused for 300?s. Both signaled and unsignaled delays were studied across different conditions. Overall response rates and run rates (timed from the first to last response of a ratio) decreased and postreinforcement pauses increased as delays increased in each experiment. As delays increased, the likelihood of pausing during a ratio run also increased. When these measures were plotted as a function of obtained delays, signaled delays had less of an effect on the above measures than did unsignaled ones. In Experiment 2, delays had a greater effect on the above measures than did a control condition arranging equivalent interreinforcer intervals to those accompanying the delays. Experiments 3 and 4 examined the generality of the effects obtained in the first two experiments. In Experiment 3, delays imposed on FR or yoked-interval schedules had similar behavioral effects. In Experiment 4, effects similar to those found in Experiments 1-3 for 1, 10, and 20-s delays imposed on FR 50 schedules were found when the FR requirement increased across sessions. Despite the different contingencies relating response rate and reinforcement rates on interval and ratio schedules, delays of reinforcement generally affect performance on these schedules similarly. PMID:24037852

  6. Optimal Contracts for Central Bankers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl E Walsh

    1995-01-01

    This paper adopts a principal-agent framework to determine how a central banker's incentives should be structured to induce the socially optimal policy. In contrast to previous findings using ad hoc targeting rules, the inflation bias of discretionary policy is eliminated and an optimal response to shocks is achieved by the optimal incentive contract, even in the presence of private central-bank

  7. Regional Education Profile: Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Profiles of the educational systems in the seven Central American countries are presented, along with an introductory essay by Rene Greenwald, "Higher Education in Central America: Trends and Developments: 1985-86." Country profiles are provided for Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. For each country, an…

  8. Central places in a square

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios S. Dendrinos

    1995-01-01

    Revisiting Hotelling and Central Place Theory in a bounded square surface seems to still be quite insightful and productive. In this short note, it is shown that agglomeration at the center occurs under market conditions involving duopolistic competition, as expected. In an optimum framework, a hierarchy of centers emerges in a number of ways qualitatively different from the classical Central

  9. Focal ratio degradation in lightly fused hexabundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, J. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Lawrence, J. S.; Croom, S. M.

    2014-02-01

    We are now moving into an era where multi-object wide-field surveys, which traditionally use single fibres to observe many targets simultaneously, can exploit compact integral field units (IFUs) in place of single fibres. Current multi-object integral field instruments such as Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph have driven the development of new imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) for multi-object spectrographs. We have characterized the performance of hexabundles with different cladding thicknesses and compared them to that of the same type of bare fibre, across the range of fill fractions and input f-ratios likely in an IFU instrument. Hexabundles with 7-cores and 61-cores were tested for focal ratio degradation (FRD), throughput and cross-talk when fed with inputs from F/3.4 to >F/8. The five 7-core bundles have cladding thickness ranging from 1 to 8 ?m, and the 61-core bundles have 5 ?m cladding. As expected, the FRD improves as the input focal ratio decreases. We find that the FRD and throughput of the cores in the hexabundles match the performance of single fibres of the same material at low input f-ratios. The performance results presented can be used to set a limit on the f-ratio of a system based on the maximum loss allowable for a planned instrument. Our results confirm that hexabundles are a successful alternative for fibre imaging devices for multi-object spectroscopy on wide-field telescopes and have prompted further development of hexabundle designs with hexagonal packing and square cores.

  10. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type of solvent and volume of the solvent used to load pheromone/volatile components onto rubber septa had significant effects on release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ...

  11. Depolarization ratio–effective lidar ratio relation: Theoretical basis for space lidar cloud phase discrimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongxiang Hu

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a technique for cloud phase discrimination based on linear polarization measurements made by space-based lidar. Using CALIPSO Level 2 data products, a 3-dimensional histogram of the depolarization ratio, ?, and the effective lidar ratio, Sc,eff, is derived for all optically thick clouds measured during July 2006. A second histogram is derived using data from early November, 2006.

  12. Ian C.W. Hardy Peter J. Mayhew Sex ratio, sexual dimorphism and mating structure in bethylid wasps

    E-print Network

    Mayhew, Peter

    about mating structure have been central to the development of sex ratio theory. Fisher's expla- nation throughout the whole population (panmixis) while the theory of local mate competition (LMC) (Hamilton 1967, 1979) assumes that mating takes place only among members of ephemeral sub-groups, and predicts

  13. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  14. Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Mathava; Ou, Y.-L. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu City 30010, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.-G., E-mail: jglin@mail.nctu.edu.t [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu City 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture contents (45-75%) and C/N ratios (13.9-19.6). The results indicate that the optimal moisture content for co-composting of food waste and green waste is 60%, and the substrate at a C/N ratio of 19.6 can be decomposed effectively to reduce 33% of total volatile solids (TVS) in 12 days. The TVS reduction can be modeled by using a second-order equation with a good fit. In addition, the compost passes the standard germination index of white radish seed indicating that it can be used as soil amendment.

  15. Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mathava; Ou, Yan-Liang; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2010-04-01

    In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture contents (45-75%) and C/N ratios (13.9-19.6). The results indicate that the optimal moisture content for co-composting of food waste and green waste is 60%, and the substrate at a C/N ratio of 19.6 can be decomposed effectively to reduce 33% of total volatile solids (TVS) in 12days. The TVS reduction can be modeled by using a second-order equation with a good fit. In addition, the compost passes the standard germination index of white radish seed indicating that it can be used as soil amendment. PMID:20034778

  16. CFD assessment of orifice aspect ratio and mass flow ratio on jet mixing in rectangular ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, D. B.; Smith, C. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Isothermal CFD analysis was performed on axially opposed rows of jets mixing with cross flow in a rectangular duct. Laterally, the jets' centerlines were aligned with each other on the top and bottom walls. The focus of this study was to characterize the effects of orifice aspect ratio and jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratio on jet penetration and mixing. Orifice aspect ratios (L/W) of 4-to-1, 2-to-1, and 1-to-1, along with circular holes, were parametrically analyzed. Likewise, jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratios (MR) of 2.0, 0.5, and 0.25 were systematically investigated. The jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio (J) was maintained at 36 for all cases, and the orifice spacing-to-duct height (S/H) was varied until optimum mixing was attained for each configuration. The numerical results showed that orifice aspect ratio (and likewise orifice blockage) had little effect on jet penetration and mixing. Based on mixing characteristics alone, the 4-to-1 slot was comparable to the circular orifice. The 4-to-1 slot has a smaller jet wake which may be advantageous for reducing emissions. However, the axial length of a 4-to-1 slot may be prohibitively long for practical application, especially for MR of 2.0. The jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratio had a more significant effect on jet penetration and mixing. For a 4-to-1 aspect ratio orifice, the design correlating parameter for optimum mixing (C = (S/H)(sq. root J)) varied from 2.25 for a mass flow ratio of 2.0 to 1.5 for a mass flow ratio of 0.25.

  17. CHARACTERIZING TRITIUM WASTE USING HELIUM RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Ovink, R.W.; McMahon, W.J.; Borghese, J.V.; Olsen, K.B.

    2003-02-27

    When routine sampling revealed greatly elevated tritium levels (3.14 x 105 Bq/L [8.5-million pCi/liter]) in the groundwater near a solid waste landfill at the Hanford Site, an innovative technique was used to assess the extent of the plume. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios, relative to ambient air-in-soil gas samples, were used to identify the tritium source and initially delineate the extent of the groundwater tritium plume. This approach is a modification of a technique developed in the late 1960s to age-date deep ocean water as part of the GEOSECS ocean monitoring program. Poreda, et al. (1) and Schlosser, et al. (2) applied this modified technique to shallow aquifers. A study was also conducted to demonstrate the concept of using helium-3 as a tool to locate vadose zone sources of tritium and tracking groundwater tritium plumes at Hanford (3). Seventy sampling points were installed around the perimeter and along four transects downgradient of the burial ground. Soil gas samples were collected, analyzed for helium isotopes, and helium-3/helium-4 ratios were calculated for these 70 points. The helium ratios indicated a vadose zone source of tritium along the northern edge of the burial ground that is likely the source of tritium in the groundwater. The helium ratios also indicate the groundwater plume is traveling east-northeast from the burial ground and that no up-gradient tritium sources are affecting the burial ground. Based on the helium ratio results, six downgradient groundwater sampling locations were identified to verify the tritium plume extent and groundwater tritium concentrations. The tritium results from the initial groundwater samples confirmed that elevated helium ratios were indicative of tritium contamination in the local groundwater. The measurement of helium isotopes in soil gas provided a rapid and cost- effective technique to define the shape and extent of tritium contamination from the burial ground. Using this soil gas sampling approach, the project team was able to identify areas where elevated tritium existed in groundwater without going to the time and expense of conducting conventional groundwater characterization sampling. The savings from this characterization approach were $1.4 million.

  18. Multi-factorial influences on sex ratio: a spatio-temporal investigation of endocrine disruptor pollution and neighborhood stress

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Ewan; Watterson, Andrew; Tyler, Andrew N; McArthur, John; Scott, E Marion

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is suggested the declining male birth proportion in some industrialized countries is linked to ubiquitous endocrine disruptor exposure. Stress and advanced parental age are determinants which frequently present positive findings. Multi-factorial influences on population sex ratio are rarely explored or tested in research. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that dual factors of pollution and population stress affects sex proportion at birth through geographical analysis of Central Scotland. Methods: The study incorporates the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tools to overlay modeled point source endocrine disruptor air emissions with “small-area” data on multiple deprivation (a proxy measurement of stress) and birth sex. Historical review of regional sex ratio trends presents additional data on sex ratio in Scotland to consider. Results: There was no overall concentration in Central Scotland of low sex ratio neighborhoods with areas where endocrine disruptor air pollution and deprivation or economic stress were high. Historical regional trends in Scotland (from 1973), however, do show significantly lower sex ratio values for populations where industrial air pollution is highest (i.e. Eastern Central Scotland). Conclusions: Use of small area data sets and pollution inventories is a potential new method of inquiry for reproductive environmental and health protection monitoring and has produced interesting findings. PMID:25000111

  19. Porous Materials with Omnidirectional Negative Poisson's Ratio

    E-print Network

    Carta, Giorgio; Baldi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an auxetic medium, consisting of a two-dimensional perforated sheet where the holes are arranged in a repetitive pattern. The hexagonal disposition of the perforations makes the medium isotropic in the plane. It is shown that negative values of the Poisson's ratio can be achieved for specific values of the dimensions and orientations of the holes. The results of the numerical simulations are confirmed by experimental tests, in which the Poisson's ratio of each specimen examined is evaluated from the displacement field obtained from the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. The distribution of stresses in the medium is determined directly from photoelastic images. The auxetic structure proposed in this paper is easy to fabricate and can be very useful in several engineering applications.

  20. Element abundance ratios in stellar population modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    I review the implementation of the effects from varying chemical element abundance ratios in stellar population modelling, focusing on ?- and Fe-peak elements. A brief overview of the development of such models over the past 30 years is provided, starting with early work on the identification of relevant absorption features in the spectra of early-type galaxies in the 1980s leading to the most recent developments of the past years. Recent highlights include the adoption of new flux calibrated libraries, the inclusion of a wide range of chemical elements, the calculation of error estimates on the model, and the consideration of element variation effects on full spectra. The calibration of such models with globular clusters and some key results on the element ratios measured in early-type galaxies are presented.

  1. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  2. Method for nanomachining high aspect ratio structures

    DOEpatents

    Yun, Wenbing; Spence, John; Padmore, Howard A.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Howells, Malcolm R.

    2004-11-09

    A nanomachining method for producing high-aspect ratio precise nanostructures. The method begins by irradiating a wafer with an energetic charged-particle beam. Next, a layer of patterning material is deposited on one side of the wafer and a layer of etch stop or metal plating base is coated on the other side of the wafer. A desired pattern is generated in the patterning material on the top surface of the irradiated wafer using conventional electron-beam lithography techniques. Lastly, the wafer is placed in an appropriate chemical solution that produces a directional etch of the wafer only in the area from which the resist has been removed by the patterning process. The high mechanical strength of the wafer materials compared to the organic resists used in conventional lithography techniques with allows the transfer of the precise patterns into structures with aspect ratios much larger than those previously achievable.

  3. Uranium isotope ratio measurements in field settings

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    The authors have developed a technique for uranium isotope ratio measurements of powder samples in field settings. Such a method will be invaluable for environmental studies, radioactive waste operations, and decommissioning and decontamination operations. Immediate field data can help guide an ongoing sampling campaign. The measurement encompasses glow discharge sputtering from pressed sample hollow cathodes, high resolution laser spectroscopy using conveniently tunable diode lasers, and optogalvanic detection. At 10% {sup 235}U enrichment and above, the measurement precision for {sup 235}U/({sup 235}U+{sup 238}U) isotope ratios was {+-}3%; it declined to {+-}15% for 0.3% (i.e., depleted) samples. A prototype instrument was constructed and is described.

  4. Central Dynamics of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyola, Eva; Baumgardt, H.

    2007-12-01

    Globular clusters have historically been classified into two groups due to their dynamical state. They are considered to be either pre-core-collapse or post-core-collapse systems. Clusters are considered as post-core-collapse when they show concentrated surface brightness profiles, with a steep central cusp; while pre-core collapse clusters are less concentrated and have flat central cores. Recent observational results show that some clusters have central surface brightness profiles with intermediate central slopes, showing shallow cusps. These observations could be explained by the presence of a single or a binary intermediate mass black hole in the center of the clusters. In this work, we create realistic synthetic images from the output of N-body models. The images attempt to mock the resolution and point spread function of the high resolution cameras on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The models are created with and without central black holes, where the no black hole models are allowed to reach core-collapse. We measure surface brightness profiles both from integrated light and from star counts. From the profiles, we obtain parameters such as central surface brightness slope, core radius, and half light radius. We also test how well a King model describes each profile. We find that the black hole models produce shallow cusps if the black hole is larger than a certain mass; while models without central black holes produce more concentrated profiles. This approach, allows to make a thorough comparison between observations and models.

  5. Weighted ratio estimation in agricultural surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan H. Feiveson

    1984-01-01

    A major problem with satellite-sensed agricultural surveys is loss of data due to cloud cover. The Large Area Crop Inventory Ex¬periment (LACIE) run by three Federal agencies (NASA, NOAA, and USDA) in the years 1974-1977 used a ratioing approach to account for missing data. This approach is found to be reasonable in that it is unbiased with respect to a

  6. Electronic branching ratio of the tau lepton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ammar; P. Baringer; D. Coppage; R. Davis; M. Kelly; N. Kwak; H. Lam; S. Ro; Y. Kubota; M. Lattery; J. K. Nelson; D. Perticone; R. Poling; S. Schrenk; R. Wang; M. S. Alam; I. J. Kim; B. Nemati; V. Romero; C. R. Sun; P.-N. Wang; M. M. Zoeller; G. Crawford; R. Fulton; K. K. Gan; H. Kagan; R. Kass; J. Lee; R. Malchow; F. Morrow; M. K. Sung; J. Whitmore; P. Wilson; F. Butler; X. Fu; G. Kalbfleisch; M. Lambrecht; P. Skubic; J. Snow; P.-L. Wang; D. Bortoletto; D. N. Brown; J. Dominick; R. L. McIlwain; D. H. Miller; M. Modesitt; E. I. Shibata; S. F. Schaffner; I. P. J. Shipsey; M. Battle; J. Ernst; H. Kroha; S. Roberts; K. Sparks; E. H. Thorndike; C.-H. Wang; R. Stroynowski; M. Artuso; M. Goldberg; T. Haupt; N. Horwitz; R. Kennett; G. C. Moneti; S. Playfer; Y. Rozen; P. Rubin; T. Skwarnicki; S. Stone; M. Thulasidas; W.-M. Yao; G. Zhu; A. V. Barnes; J. Bartelt; S. E. Csorna; V. Jain; T. Letson; M. D. Mestayer; D. S. Akerib; B. Barish; M. Chadha; D. F. Cowen; G. Eigen; J. S. Miller; J. Urheim; A. J. Weinstein; R. J. Morrison; H. Tajima; D. Schmidt; D. Sperka; M. Procario; M. Daoudi; W. T. Ford; D. R. Johnson; K. Lingel; M. Lohner; P. Rankin; J. G. Smith; J. Alexander; C. Bebek; K. Berkelman; D. Besson; T. E. Browder; D. G. Cassel; E. Cheu; D. M. Coffman; P. S. Drell; R. Ehrlich; R. S. Galik; M. Garcia-Sciveres; B. Geiser; B. Gittelman; S. W. Gray; D. L. Hartill; B. K. Heltsley; K. Honscheid; C. Jones; J. Kandaswamy; N. Katayama; P. C. Kim; D. L. Kreinick; G. S. Ludwig; J. Masui; J. Mevissen; N. B. Mistry; S. Nandi; C. R. Ng; E. Nordberg; C. O'grady; J. R. Patterson; D. Peterson; D. Riley; M. Sapper; M. Selen; H. Worden; M. Worris; F. Würthwein; P. Avery; A. Freyberger; J. Rodriguez; J. Yelton; S. Henderson; K. Kinoshita; F. Pipkin; M. Saulnier; R. Wilson; J. Wolinski; D. Xiao; H. Yamamoto; A. J. Sadoff

    1992-01-01

    Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio R=Gamma(tau-->enu¯enutau)\\/Gamma1, where Gamma1 is the tau decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find R=0.2231+\\/-0.0044+\\/-0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the

  7. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry in nutrition research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke

    1994-01-01

    Many of the biochemical pathways and processes that form the foundation of modern nutrition research was elucidated using stable isotopes as physiological tracers. Since the discovery of stable isotopes, improvements and innovations in mass spectrometry and chromatography have led to greatly expanded applications. This research project was designed to evaluate gas chromatography\\/combustion\\/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC\\/C\\/IRMS) as a tool for

  8. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry in nutrition research

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, A.H.

    1994-12-31

    Many of the biochemical pathways and processes that form the foundation of modern nutrition research was elucidated using stable isotopes as physiological tracers. Since the discovery of stable isotopes, improvements and innovations in mass spectrometry and chromatography have led to greatly expanded applications. This research project was designed to evaluate gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) as a tool for isotopic tracer studies and to delineate the operational parameters for the analysis of {sup 13}C-labeled cholesterol, leucine and {alpha}-ketoisocaproate. The same isotope ratio mass spectrometer was then used as the base instrument for the ratio mass spectrometer was then used as the base instrument for the development of two additional inlet systems: a continuous-flow inlet for the analyses of {sup 13}C and {sup 18}O as CO{sub 2} and a filament inlet for on-line combustion and isotopic analysis of non-volatile organic compounds. Each of these three inlets was evaluated and their utility in nutrition research illustrated. GC/C/IRMS was used to analyze cholesterol, leucine and {alpha}-ketoisocaproate with good accuracy, precision and little isotopic memory. For all three compounds the detection limits achieved well surpassed currently used technologies. For compounds that can be well separated by GC, GC/C/IRMS is a valuable analytical tool. The continuous-flow inlet provided good accuracy and precision for measurements of {sup 13}CO{sub 2} from breath tests and {sup 18}O as CO{sub 2} from total energy expenditure tests. Most importantly, the continuous-flow inlet increased sample throughput by at least a factor of three over conventional analytical techniques. The filament inlet provided accurate and precise {sup 13}C ratio measurements of both natural abundance and enriched standards of non-volatile organic compounds of physiological interest.

  9. Distribution of heating in an LVRF bundle due to dysprosium in the central element

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, K.; Buijs, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ont. L5K 1B2 (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The computer code MCNP was used to establish the effect of adding dysprosium to the central pin of the proposed BRUCE-B CANFLEX{sup R} Low-Void-Reactivity Fuel (LVRF) on the heat load of the central pin and the heat balance inside the fuel bundle. The Dy generates heat through radiative capture of thermal neutrons, as well as through beta decay of {sup 165}Dy to {sup 165}Ho. We conclude that for fresh fuel, the presence of Dy contributes 26% of the overall heat to the central pin, and 0.5% to the whole fuel bundle. These percentages decrease to 11% and 0.5% at the end-of-life burnup condition. A second, operational quantity is the HPFP ratio (heating-power to fission-power ratio). This ratio is 1.63 for fresh fuel and decreases to 1.19 for fuel at the end-of-life burnup condition. (authors)

  10. Elemental ratios in stars vs planets

    E-print Network

    Thiabaud, Amaury; Alibert, Yann; Leya, Ingo; Mezger, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Context. The chemical composition of planets is an important constraint for planet formation and subsequent differentiation. While theoretical studies try to derive the compositions of planets from planet formation models in order to link the composition and formation process of planets, other studies assume that the elemental ratios in the formed planet and in the host star are the same. Aims. Using a chemical model combined with a planet formation model, we aim to link the composition of stars with solar mass and luminosity with the composition of the hosted planets. For this purpose, we study the three most important elemental ratios that control the internal structure of a planet: Fe/Si, Mg/Si, and C/O. Methods. A set of 18 different observed stellar compositions was used to cover a wide range of these elemental ratios. The Gibbs energy minimization assumption was used to derive the composition of planets, taking stellar abundances as proxies for nebular abundances, and to generate planets in a self-consi...

  11. Ocean nutrient ratios governed by plankton biogeography.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas S; Deutsch, Curtis

    2010-09-30

    The major nutrients nitrate and phosphate have one of the strongest correlations in the sea, with a slope similar to the average nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) content of plankton biomass (N/P = 16:1). The processes through which this global relationship emerges despite the wide range of N/P ratios at the organism level are not known. Here we use an ocean circulation model and observed nutrient distributions to show that the N/P ratio of biological nutrient removal varies across latitude in Southern Ocean surface waters, from 12:1 in the polar ocean to 20:1 in the sub-Antarctic zone. These variations are governed by regional differences in the species composition of the plankton community. The covariation of dissolved nitrate and phosphate is maintained by ocean circulation, which mixes the shallow subsurface nutrients between distinct biogeographic provinces. Climate-driven shifts in these marine biomes may alter the mean N/P ratio and the associated carbon export by Southern Ocean ecosystems. PMID:20882009

  12. Variation of equivalence ratio and element ratios in low-pressure premixed flames of aliphatic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    C. J. Pope; J. A. Miller

    2000-03-14

    In previously published work it was found that the element ratios (such as C/O, H/O, H/C) and the equivalence ratio all varied in the flame zone of a low-pressure premixed fuel-rich benzene/oxygen/argon laminar flat flame. These variations were seen from analyses of both the data and detailed kinetic modeling. In the present work, seven additional flames were analyzed in the same manner, including five flames with a single hydrocarbon fuel (methane, acetylene, ethylene, allene, and propene) and two flames with a mixture of fuels (acetylene/allene, hydrogen/allene). All the flames had argon as the diluent, with pressures between 20 and 37.5 Torr, equivalence ratios between 1.6 and 2.5, cold gas velocities between 42 and 126 cm/sec. All of these flames showed variations in the element ratios and equivalence ratios. Furthermore, these variations changed in a consistent pattern with respect to the molecular weight of the fuel. In the flame zone, the percent change in the H/O, C/O and equivalence ratios increased with increasing molecular weight of the fuel, except for the hydrogen/allene flame in which the C/O ratio first increases, then decreases in the flame zone. Also, unlike all the other hydrocarbon flames, the C/O ratio decreases below its inlet value for the methane flame. The H/O and equivalence ratios decrease below their inlet values for the hydrogen/allene flame. These results are explained in terms of differential diffusion effects between the products and the reactants, which increase as the fuel becomes increasingly heavier than the major carbon- and hydrogen-containing products.

  13. 42 CFR 403.256 - Loss ratio supporting data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loss ratio supporting data. 403.256 Section 403...Policies Voluntary Certification Program: Loss Ratio Provisions § 403.256 Loss ratio supporting data. (a) For purposes of...

  14. 77 FR 74662 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...INSURANCE CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance...ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013...designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio (DRR) for the Deposit Insurance...

  15. 76 FR 77229 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...INSURANCE CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance...ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012...designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio (DRR) for the Deposit Insurance...

  16. 78 FR 62633 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...INSURANCE CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance...ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014...designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio (DRR) for the Deposit Insurance...

  17. 42 CFR 403.250 - Loss ratio calculations: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loss ratio calculations: General provisions. 403.250...Policies Voluntary Certification Program: Loss Ratio Provisions § 403.250 Loss ratio calculations: General provisions. (a)...

  18. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section 26.2642-5 ...1986 § 26.2642-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip becomes...

  19. 42 CFR 403.256 - Loss ratio supporting data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Loss ratio supporting data. 403.256 Section 403.256 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...256 Loss ratio supporting data. (a) For purposes of...submit the following loss ratio data to CMS for review—...

  20. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Melen, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors.

  1. Output ratios in a miniphantom for asymmetric fields shaped by a multileaf collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georg, D.; Garibaldi, C.; Dutreix, A.

    1997-11-01

    The integrated GE multileaf collimator (MLC) provides the ability to achieve `double' asymmetric fields: each of the 64 leaves allow an over-axis travel of 10 cm and the Y-jaws allow 20 cm. A formalism has recently been proposed by the authors to calculate the output ratio in a miniphantom for this type of MLC by the product of independent leaf and jaw correction factors. The original proposed formalism was restricted to regular or irregular fields including the collimator rotational axis. Introducing `reduced coordinates' for the correction factors in the present work this formalism is extended to asymmetric fields where central leaves or jaws overlap the collimator axis. The extended formalism is applied to asymmetric square, rectangular and irregular fields. For all fields checked at a given off-axis position, measured and calculated output ratios agree within 1% for 6, 18 and 25 MV photon beams. To relate output ratios normalized to off-axis points with output ratios on-axis, off-axis ratios are derived from film and miniphantom measurements. Both off-axis ratios agree to within 1% for 6 and 25 MV photon beams; a maximum deviation of 1.3% is observed at 18 MV. Calculated products of output ratios and off-axis ratios derived from films are compared with measurements for asymmetric square, rectangular and irregular fields, and agree mostly within 1% for all energies checked; maximum deviations of 1.3 and 1.6% are observed for 6 and 18 MV photon beams.

  2. Noise of Embedded High Aspect Ratio Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2011-01-01

    A family of high aspect ratio nozzles were designed to provide a parametric database of canonical embedded propulsion concepts. Nozzle throat geometries with aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were chosen, all with convergent nozzle areas. The transition from the typical round duct to the rectangular nozzle was designed very carefully to produce a flow at the nozzle exit that was uniform and free from swirl. Once the basic rectangular nozzles were designed, external features common to embedded propulsion systems were added: extended lower lip (a.k.a. bevel, aft deck), differing sidewalls, and chevrons. For the latter detailed Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were made to predict the thrust performance and to optimize parameters such as bevel length, and chevron penetration and azimuthal curvature. Seventeen of these nozzles were fabricated at a scale providing a 2.13 inch diameter equivalent area throat." ! The seventeen nozzles were tested for far-field noise and a few data were presented here on the effect of aspect ratio, bevel length, and chevron count and penetration. The sound field of the 2:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet was very nearly axisymmetric, but the 4:1 and 8:1 were not, the noise on their minor axes being louder than the major axes. Adding bevel length increased the noise of these nozzles, especially on their minor axes, both toward the long and short sides of the beveled nozzle. Chevrons were only added to the 2:1 rectangular jet. Adding 4 chevrons per wide side produced some decrease at aft angles, but increased the high frequency noise at right angles to the jet flow. This trend increased with increasing chevron penetration. Doubling the number of chevrons while maintaining their penetration decreased these effects. Empirical models of the parametric effect of these nozzles were constructed and quantify the trends stated above." Because it is the objective of the Supersonics Project that future design work be done more by physics-based computations and less by experiments, several codes under development were evaluated against these test cases. Preliminary results show that the RANS-based code JeNo predicts the spectral directivity of the low aspect ratio jets well, but has no capability to predict the non-axisymmetry. An effort to address this limitations, used in the RANS-based code of Leib and Goldstein, overpredicted the impact of aspect ratio. The broadband shock noise code RISN, also limited to axisymmetric assumptions, did a good job of predicting the spectral directivity of underexpanded 2:1 cold jet case but was not as successful on high aspect ratio jets, particularly when they are hot. All results are preliminary because the underlying CFD has not been validated yet. An effort using a Large Eddy Simulation code by Stanford University predicted noise that agreed with experiments to within a few dB.

  3. Central-Office Real Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to upgrade a school district's central-office facilities without incurring taxpayer enmity. Includes case studies from Harford County, Maryland; Orange and Broward Counties, Florida; South Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Mt. Baker, Washington; Chicago, Illinois; and Rochester, New Hampshire. (PKP)

  4. Make tomorrow better. Student Central

    E-print Network

    Make tomorrow better. Student Central Office Hours: Monday to Friday, 9.00am-4.45pm Location and fellow students at all times". Almost every day you will be interacting with other people. Interactions

  5. Super Kitchen Centralizes Food Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1975

    1975-01-01

    To centralize food service within the entire Pittsburgh school district, a 90,000-square-foot food service preparation building contains cranes and monorails to move 500-pound capacity vats throughout the kitchen. (Author/MLF)

  6. Freestall Facilities in Central Texas 

    E-print Network

    Stokes, Sandra R.; Gamroth, Mike

    1999-06-04

    Dairy producers in Central Texas will find this information useful in evaluating freestall dairy facilities. Other topics to be considered in evaluating a change in facilities include moisture deficits for the area, labor and investment needs...

  7. Variation of equivalence ratio and element ratios in low-pressure premixed flames of aliphatic fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Pope; J. A. Miller

    2000-01-01

    In previously published work it was found that the element ratios (such as C\\/O, H\\/O, H\\/C) and the equivalence ratio all varied in the flame zone of a low-pressure premixed fuel-rich benzene\\/oxygen\\/argon laminar flat flame. These variations were seen from analyses of both the data and detailed kinetic modeling. In the present work, seven additional flames were analyzed in the

  8. Depolarization ratio-effective lidar ratio relation: Theoretical basis for space lidar cloud phase discrimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongxiang Hu

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a technique for cloud phase discrimination based on linear polarization measurements made by space-based lidar. Using CALIPSO Level 2 data products, a 3-dimensional histogram of the depolarization ratio, delta, and the effective lidar ratio, Sc,eff, is derived for all optically thick clouds measured during July 2006. A second histogram is derived using data from early November, 2006.

  9. Tinnitus in central vestibular disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Patil; S. D. Gosavi

    1989-01-01

    A total of100 patients on whom cranio-corpo-graphy and pure tone audiometry was performed is included in the study. The incidence and nature\\u000a of tinnitus in various central and peripheral dysequilibrium states is analysed. The presence of vestibulo-auditory connection\\u000a at the central level is confirm ed. It is seen that tinnitus does not bear a topodiagnostic relationship to the site of

  10. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  11. Congenital nystagmus and central hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Reynaert, Nele; Braat, Elke; de Zegher, Francis

    2015-01-01

    We observed a male newborn with bilateral nystagmus and central hypothyroidism without hypoprolactinemia due to a deletion of chromosome band Xq26.1q26.2, containing FRMD7 and IGSF1. These two loss-of function mutations are known to cause, respectively, congenital nystagmus and the ensemble of central hypothyroidism, hypoprolactinemia and testicular enlargement. These latter two features may not yet be present in early life. PMID:25780367

  12. Rehabilitation innovations in Central America.

    PubMed

    Couch, R H

    1993-01-01

    In an extensive qualitative research project sponsored by the Partners of the Americas (32 professional and lay people from Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, the United States and the Dominican Republic) employment opportunities were examined for disabled youth in Central America. Despite economic and attitudinal barriers field researchers found innovations in financing, special education and rehabilitation programming, job development and job placement alternatives for those who live with disability in Central America. PMID:8486439

  13. Complications with using ratios for environmental data: Comparing enantiomeric ratios (ERs) and enantiomer fractions (EFs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, E.M.; Helsel, D.R.; Foreman, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    Complications arise when ratios are used to present environmental data because ratios are an unbounded, multiplicative scale that can lead to asymmetrical (skewed) data distributions. Enantiomeric ratios (ERs), historically used in discussions of chiral signatures, often are published as mean ER??single-value standard deviation. Application of statistical summaries, such as the widely used sample mean and standard deviation, to skewed ratio data is misleading and often inappropriate. Comparison of statistically summarized ER and enantiomer fraction (EF) data (which are based on a bounded, additive scale) for a range of hypothetical values reveals substantial discrepancies when conversion between ER and EF formats is used. These discrepancies are largest when the ratio data are greater than one and have large variability, because the data are more skewed. In many cases, the use of fractions instead of ratios can help to minimize misrepresentation of environmental data, including chiral data. The use of nonparametric statistical summaries, e.g., median and percentiles, provides a more robust indicator of the typical value and spread for both ER and EF data. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 34 CFR 303.301 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central directory. 303.301 Section 303.301 Education...Services General § 303.301 Central directory. (a) Each system must include a central directory of information about— (1)...

  15. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central directory. 303.117 Section 303.117 Education...Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is accessible to the general...

  16. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Central directory. 303.117 Section 303.117 Education...Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is accessible to the general...

  17. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central directory. 303.117 Section 303.117 Education...Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is accessible to the general...

  18. 34 CFR 303.301 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Central directory. 303.301 Section 303.301 Education...Services General § 303.301 Central directory. (a) Each system must include a central directory of information about— (1)...

  19. Dorsoventral patterning in the Drosophila central

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Dorsoventral patterning in the Drosophila central nervous system: the intermediate neuroblasts along the dorsoventral axis. In Drosophila the central nervous system develops from three longitudinal within the central nervous system is evolutionarily conserved. [Key Words: vnd; NK2; tinman

  20. Program Building Committee's Central Planning Group. 

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Burl B.; Marshall, Mary G.

    1982-01-01

    and Mary G. Marshall, Extension Program Specialist Program -Building Committee's CENTRAL PLANNING GROUP This leaflet describes the role of the central planning group in the program development process_ The central planning group is the highest...

  1. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Jiroušek; Michal Hájek; Luca Bragazza

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m?2 year?1 in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we

  2. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-23

    The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  3. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

    2010-11-01

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

  4. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steve B. (Livermore, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  5. Approximating Likelihood Ratios with Calibrated Discriminative Classifiers

    E-print Network

    Cranmer, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    In particle physics likelihood ratio tests are established tools for statistical inference. These tests are complicated by the fact that computer simulators are used as a generative model for the data, but they do not provide a way to evaluate the likelihood function. We demonstrate how discriminative classifiers can be used to approximate the likelihood function when a generative model for the data is available for training and calibration. This offers an approach to parametric inference when simulators are used that is complementary to approximate Bayesian computation.

  6. Sex Ratios at Birth and Environmental Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    The relationship between average monthly air temperature and sex ratios at birth (SRB) was analyzed for children born in Germany during the period 1946-1995. Both the absolute temperature and - more markedly - the monthly temperature deviations from the overall mean were significantly positively correlated with the SRB (P<0.01) when temperatures were time-lagged against the SRB data by -10 or -11months. It is concluded that the sex of the offspring is partially determined by environmental temperatures prior to conception.

  7. The AIMSS Project II: dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios across the star cluster-galaxy divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Norris, Mark A.; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Huxor, Avon

    2014-11-01

    The previously clear division between small galaxies and massive star clusters is now occupied by objects called ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) and compact ellipticals (cEs). Here we combine a sample of UCDs and cEs with velocity dispersions from the AIMSS project with literature data to explore their dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios. We confirm that the mass ratios of many UCDs in the stellar mass range 106-109 M? are systematically higher than those for globular clusters which have mass ratios near unity. However, at the very highest masses in our sample, i.e. 109-1010 M?, we find that cE galaxies also have mass ratios of close to unity, indicating their central regions are mostly composed of stars. Suggested explanations for the elevated mass ratios of UCDs have included a variable IMF, a central black hole, and the presence of dark matter. Here we present another possible explanation, i.e. tidal stripping. Under various assumptions, we find that the apparent variation in the mass ratio with stellar mass and stellar density can be qualitatively reproduced by published tidal stripping simulations of a dwarf elliptical galaxy. In the early stages of the stripping process the galaxy is unlikely to be in virial equilibrium. At late stages, the final remnant resembles the properties of ˜107 M? UCDs. Finally, we discuss the need for more detailed realistic modelling of tidal stripping over a wider range of parameter space, and observations to further test the stripping hypothesis.

  8. Thorough tuning of the aspect ratio of gold nanorods using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza; Robatjazi, Hossein; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2013-05-24

    In the present work a central composite design based on response surface methodology (RSM) is employed for fine tuning of the aspect ratios of seed-mediated synthesized gold nanorods (GNRs). The relations between the affecting parameters, including ratio of l-ascorbic acid to Au(3+) ions, concentrations of silver nitrate, CTAB, and CTAB-capped gold seeds, were explored using a RSM model. It is observed that the effect of each parameter on the aspect ratio of developing nanorods highly depends on the value of the other parameters. The concentrations of silver ions, ascorbic acid and seeds are found to have a high contribution in controlling the aspect ratios of NRs. The optimized parameters led to a high yield synthesis of gold nanorods with an ideal aspect ratio ranging from 1 (spherical particle) to 4.9. In addition, corresponding tunable surface Plasmon absorption band has been extended to 880 nm. The resulted nanorods were characterized by UV-visible spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:23663667

  9. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies, California Energy Commission, CEC-200-2009-017-SD #12

  10. Local and regional variations in Central American arc lavas controlled by variations in subducted sediment input

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina C. Patino; Michael J. Carr; Mark D. Feigenson

    2000-01-01

    The sedimentary section (at DSDP Site 495) on the subducting Cocos Plate has large stratigraphic changes in incompatible\\u000a elements and element ratios, the result of early carbonate deposition followed by late hemipelagic deposition. Lavas from\\u000a Central America define both local and regional geochemical trends that reflect the strong influence of the two Cocos Plate\\u000a sediment units. Element ratios with large

  11. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOEpatents

    Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  12. Dynamical fluctuations in baryon-meson ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, A.

    2013-05-01

    The event-by-event dynamical fluctuations in kaon-proton and proton-pion ratios have been studied as a function of the center-of-mass energies of nucleon-nucleon collisions \\sqrt{s}. Based on the changing phase space volume which apparently is the consequence of the phase transition(s) from hadrons to a quark-gluon plasma at large \\sqrt{s}, the single-particle distribution function f is assumed to be modified. Varying f and the phase space volume are implemented in the grand-canonical ensemble, especially at \\sqrt{s}>17 GeV, so that the hadron resonance gas model, when taking into account the experimental acceptance A and the quark phase space occupation factor ?, turns out to be able to reproduce the dynamical fluctuations in (K^++K^-)/(p+\\overline{p}) and (p+\\overline{p})/(\\pi ^++\\pi ^-) ratios over the entire range of \\sqrt{s}. It seems that the applied thermodynamic statistics could come up with a new modification to the Tsallis statistics. Both non-extensivity and changing the phase space are suggested and utilized in the present work.

  13. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  14. Uncorrelated trace ratio linear discriminant analysis for undersampled problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei-Hong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    For linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the ratio trace and trace ratio are two basic criteria generalized from the classical Fisher criterion function, while the orthogonal and uncorrelated constraints are two common conditions imposed on the optimal linear transformation. The ratio trace criterion with both the orthogonal and uncorrelated constraints have been extensively studied in the literature, whereas the trace ratio

  15. Optimal split ratio for permanent magnet brushless motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Pang; Z. Q. Zhu; D. Howe

    2003-01-01

    Split ratio, i.e. the ratio of stator bore diameter to stator outer diameter, can significantly influence the torque capability and efficiency of permanent magnet brushless motors. It has been shown that the optimal split ratio for maximum specific output torque can be derived analytically. In this paper, the optimal split ratio is systematically investigated for both permanent magnet brushless AC

  16. Equations for Predicting Uncompacted Crown Ratio Based on Compacted Crown

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    Equations for Predicting Uncompacted Crown Ratio Based on Compacted Crown Ratio and Tree Attributes as a function of compacted crown ratio, tree diameter, and tree height are developed for the main tree species(4):260-267. Key Words:Crown fire risk, crown base height, cross-validation. The crown ratio of a tree is defined

  17. Effects of a Signaled Delay to Reinforcement in the Previous and Upcoming Ratios on Between-Ratio Pausing in Fixed-Ratio Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Aimee; Foster, T. Mary; Levine, Joshua; Temple, William

    2012-01-01

    Domestic hens responded under multiple fixed-ratio fixed-ratio schedules with equal fixed ratios. One component provided immediate reinforcement and the other provided reinforcement after a delay, signaled by the offset of the key light. The components were presented quasi-randomly so that all four possible transitions occurred in each session.…

  18. Prediction of Central Burst Defects in Copper Wire Drawing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, G. [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, CNRS UMR 8107, Universite de Lille 1, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Paul Langevin, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); NEXANS France, NMC Nexans Metallurgy Centre, Boulevard du Marais, BP39, F-62301 Lens (France); Haddi, A. [Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo-Environnement (LGCgE), Faculte des Sciences Appliquees, Universite d'Artois, F-62400 Bethune (France); Imad, A. [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, CNRS UMR 8107, Universite de Lille 1, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Paul Langevin, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

    2011-01-17

    In this study, the prediction of chevron cracks (central bursts) in copper wire drawing process is investigated using experimental and numerical approaches. The conditions of the chevron cracks creation along the wire axis depend on (i) the die angle, the friction coefficient between the die and the wire, (ii) the reduction in crosssectional area of the wire, (iii) the material properties and (iv) the drawing velocity or strain rate. Under various drawing conditions, a numerical simulation for the prediction of central burst defects is presented using an axisymmetric finite element model. This model is based on the application of the Cockcroft and Latham fracture criterion. This criterion was used as the damage value to estimate if and where defects will occur during the copper wire drawing. The critical damage value of the material is obtained from a uniaxial tensile test. The results show that the die angle and the reduction ratio have a significant effect on the stress distribution and the maximum damage value. The central bursts are expected to occur when the die angle and reduction ratio reach a critical value. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental observations.

  19. The CN/C15N isotopic ratio towards dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hily-Blant, P.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Faure, A.; Le Gal, R.; Padovani, M.

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the origin of the composition of solar system cosmomaterials is a central question, not only in the cosmochemistry and astrochemistry fields, and requires various approaches to be combined. Measurements of isotopic ratios in cometary materials provide strong constraints on the content of the protosolar nebula. Their relation with the composition of the parental dark clouds is, however, still very elusive. In this paper, we bring new constraints based on the isotopic composition of nitrogen in dark clouds, with the aim of understanding the chemical processes that are responsible for the observed isotopic ratios. We have observed and detected the fundamental rotational transition of C15N towards two starless dark clouds, L1544 and L1498. We were able to derive the column density ratio of C15N over 13CN towards the same clouds and obtain the CN/C15N isotopic ratios, which were found to be 500 ± 75 for both L1544 and L1498. These values are therefore marginally consistent with the protosolar value of 441. Moreover, this ratio is larger than the isotopic ratio of nitrogen measured in HCN. In addition, we present model calculations of the chemical fractionation of nitrogen in dark clouds, which make it possible to understand how CN can be deprived of 15N and HCN can simultaneously be enriched in heavy nitrogen. The non-fractionation of N2H+, however, remains an open issue, and we propose some chemical way of alleviating the discrepancy between model predictions and the observed ratios. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe reduced spectra (in FITS format) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A65

  20. Predicting Lumbar Central Canal Stenosis – A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Premchandran, Divya; Mahale, Ajith

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low back pain is a common complaint among adults, worldwide. Lumbar canal stenosis is frequently diagnosed as a cause for low back pain. In this study we evaluate morphometric measures using MRI sections to predict the occurrence of lumbar central canal stenosis. Settings and Design: One hundred and fifty four lumbar spinal MRI sagital and axial section images, 77 males and females each were evaluated from the Department of Radiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University. The study design was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: Various measurements were taken and two constant ratios were calculated. The Canal Body Ratio and the Ratio between the area of the dural sac and the vertebral body was evaluated. Statistical analysis: Unpaired t-test analysis was conducted using SPSS software. Results: A canal body ratio less than 0.6 from L1 to L3 levels and less than 0.5 at L4 and L5 levels were found. The ratio between area of dural sac and vertebral body was found to be a constant at 0.2 at all levels. It was found that maximum central canal stenosis occurred at the L5 lumbar vertebral level in 15.6% males and 13% females. This was followed by stenosis at the L4 and L3 lumbar vertebral levels with 5.1% males having stenosis at both levels and 3.9% and 5.1% females in L4 and L3 lumbar levels respectively. Conclusion: These morphometrical findings of the lumbar vertebrae could be of use in evaluating the possible cases of lumbar canal stenosis. PMID:25584282

  1. Network centrality of metro systems.

    PubMed

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all") unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  2. Network Centrality of Metro Systems

    PubMed Central

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world’s ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no “winner takes all”) unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  3. Cellular dimensions affecting the nucleocytoplasmic volume ratio

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Although it has long been appreciated that larger eukaryotic cells have larger nuclei, little is known about how this size relationship is maintained. Here we describe a method for measuring the aqueous volume ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm, two compartments which are interconnected via the pores in the nuclear envelope. We then use that method to identify proportional cellular dimensions in variously treated cells and in different cell types. Cells were scrape loaded with a mixture of fluorescent dextrans: Texas red dextran, average mol wt = 10,000 (TRDx10), and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran, average mol wt = 70,000 (FDx70). After introduction into the cytoplasmic space, the TRDx10 distributed into both the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas the FDx70 was restricted to cytoplasm, due to size exclusion by the nuclear pores. The aqueous nucleocytoplasmic volume ratio (RN/C) was determined by measuring, from fluorescence images of spread cells, total cellular fluorescence of each of the two probes and the fluorescence ratio of those probes in the cytoplasm. RN/C was unaffected by the measurement procedure or by varying temperatures between 23 degrees and 37 degrees C. Loading excess unlabeled dextrans had little effect on RN/C, with the single exception that high concentrations of large dextrans could lower RN/C in endothelial cells. Expanding intracellular membranous compartments of macrophages by phagocytosis of latex beads decreased RN/C. Expanding the same compartment by pinocytosis of sucrose, which nearly doubled total cell volume, had little effect on RN/C, indicating that nuclear volume was more closely linked to the cytoplasmic volume, exclusive of vesicular organelles, than to total cell volume. RN/C was the same in mononucleate and binucleate endothelial cells. Finally, measurements of RN/C in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, bovine aortic endothelial cells, Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, PtK2 cells, and CV-1 cells revealed that nuclear volume scaled allometrically with cell volume. The allometric relationship indicated that cell volume was proportional to nuclear surface area. PMID:1955464

  4. Perspectives on the basic reproductive ratio

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, J.M; Smith, R.J; Wahl, L.M

    2005-01-01

    The basic reproductive ratio, R0, is defined as the expected number of secondary infections arising from a single individual during his or her entire infectious period, in a population of susceptibles. This concept is fundamental to the study of epidemiology and within-host pathogen dynamics. Most importantly, R0 often serves as a threshold parameter that predicts whether an infection will spread. Related parameters which share this threshold behaviour, however, may or may not give the true value of R0. In this paper we give a brief overview of common methods of formulating R0 and surrogate threshold parameters from deterministic, non-structured models. We also review common means of estimating R0 from epidemiological data. Finally, we survey the recent use of R0 in assessing emerging diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza, a number of recent livestock diseases, and vector-borne diseases malaria, dengue and West Nile virus. PMID:16849186

  5. Horizon ratio bound for inflationary fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Dodelson, Scott; Hui, Lam

    2003-09-26

    We demonstrate that the gravity wave background amplitude implies a robust upper bound on the wavelength-to-horizon ratio at the end of inflation: lambda/H(-1) less than or approximately equal e(60), as long as the cosmic energy density does not drop faster than radiation subsequent to inflation. This limit implies that N, the number of e-folds between horizon exit and the end of inflation for wave modes of interest, is less, similar 60 plus a model-dependent factor-for vast classes of slow-roll models, N less than or approximately equal 67. As an example, this bound solidifies the tension between observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and chaotic inflation with a phi(4) potential by closing the escape hatch of large N (<62). PMID:14525296

  6. Verification of the Surrogate Ratio Method

    E-print Network

    Satoshi Chiba; Osamu Iwamoto

    2010-03-02

    Effects of difference in the spin and parity distributions for the surrogate and neutron-induced reactions are investigated. Without assuming specific (schematic) spin-parity distributions, it was found that the surrogate ratio method can be employed to determine neutron fission and capture cross sections if 1) weak Weisskopf-Ewing condition (defined in this paper) is satisfied, 2) there exist two surrogate reactions whose spin-parity distributions of the decaying nuclei are almost equivalent, and 3) difference of the representative spin values between the neutron-induced and surrogate reactions is no much larger than 10 $\\hbar$. If these conditions are satisfied, we need not to know the spin-parity distributions populated by the surrogate method. Instead, we should just select a pair of surrogate reactions which will populate the similar spin-parity distributions, using targets having similar structure and reactions having the similar reaction mechanisms. Achievable accuracy is estimated to be around 5 and 10 % for fission and capture channels, respectively, for nuclei of the Uranium region. The surrogate absolute method, on the contrary, can be marginally applicable to determination of fission cross sections. However, there will be little hope to apply this method for capture cross section measurements unless the spin-parity distributions in the neutron-induced and surrogate reactions are fairly close to each other or the difference can be corrected theoretically. The surrogate ratio method was shown also to be a robust method in the presence of breakup reactions, again, without assuming specific breakup reaction mechanisms.

  7. Lambda-to-kaon ratio enhancement in heavy ion collisions at several TeV.

    PubMed

    Werner, K

    2012-09-01

    We introduced recently a new theoretical scheme which accounts for hydrodynamically expanding bulk matter, jets, and the interaction between the two. Important for the particle production at intermediate values of transverse momentum (p(t)) are jet hadrons produced inside the fluid. They pick up quarks and antiquarks (or diquarks) from the thermal matter rather than creating them via the Schwinger mechanism-the usual mechanism of hadron production from string fragmentation. These hadrons carry plasma properties (flavor, flow) but also the large momentum of the transversely moving string segment connecting quark and antiquark (or diquark). They therefore show up at quite large values of p(t), not polluted by soft particle production. We will show that this mechanism leads to a pronounced peak in the Lambda-to-kaon ratio at intermediate p(t). The effect increases substantially with centrality, which reflects the increasing transverse size with centrality. PMID:23005282

  8. On the symmetry of proper orthogonal decomposition modes of a low-aspect-ratio plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zongxian; Dong, Haibo

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the symmetry property and corresponding virtual force contribution of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes are numerically investigated for the low-Reynolds number flows passing over a low-aspect-ratio pitching-plunging plate. It is found that the flow and its POD modes have the same reflectional symmetry about the spanwise central plane. However, about the crossflow central plane, the spatio-temporal flow symmetry results in a change of symmetry pattern every two POD modes, which corresponds to odd or even multiples of the vortex shedding frequency. Based on a wake survey method for virtual forces, the POD modes are further classified into two groups, thrust- and lift-producing modes, respectively. Results have also shown that the distinct symmetry properties of these modes can be used to identify the correlation between the wake structure and the hydrodynamic force production.

  9. Geothermal activities in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, J.T.; Hanold, R.J.

    1985-09-11

    The Agency for International Development is funding a new program in energy and minerals for Central America. Geothermal energy is an important component. A country-wide geothermal assessment has started in Honduras, and other assessment activities are in progress or planned for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama. Instrumentation for well logging has been provided to Costa Rica, and a self-contained logging truck will be made available for use throughout Central America. An important objective of this program is to involve the private sector in resource development. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Abyssal benthos of the central Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parulekar, A. H.; Harkantra, S. N.; Ansari, Z. A.; Matondkar, S. G. P.

    1982-12-01

    Quantitative studies of the abyssal benthos (3600 to 5300 m) of the central Indian Ocean show a rich fauna and high standing crops. Density of 3 meiofaunal and 12 macrofaunal taxa are large (2175 to 15233; x = 6441 m -2) Polychaetes (41.6%), peracarid crustaceans (31.7%), ophiuroids (12.2%), echiuroid-bryozoa (9.7%), molluscs (4.8%), and agglutinating rhizopod protozoans form the macrofauna. Meiofaunal taxa are nematodes (69.4%), harpacticoid copepods (26.6%), and ostracods (4%). Meiofauna abundances are positively correlated with distance from shore, whereas the distribution and abundance of macrofauna are independent of variations in depth and distance from the shore. Ratio of macro to meiofauna in the total population is 1 to 31. The benthic standing crop is uniformly high (0.54 to 13.73 g m -2; x = 2.70 g m -2) and many times larger than previously reported for comparable depths in other oceans and from the same region. Biomass values are significantly related to distance from shore and the type of substratum. Contribution of macro and meiofauna to the total standing crop was in the ratio of 31 to 1. High benthic biomass and rich fauna are consequences of high organic production in the euphotic zone. The correlation between biomass of the total oxidizable organic matter in the water column and the benthic standing crop is statistically significant ( r = -0.64) at the P < 0.05 level. Rich fauna and high standing crop were associated with the occurrence of polymetallic nodules.

  11. Renalase regulates peripheral and central dopaminergic activities.

    PubMed

    Quelhas-Santos, Janete; Serrão, Maria Paula; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Pinho, Maria João; Remião, Fernando; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Desir, Gary V; Pestana, Manuel

    2015-01-15

    Renalase is a recently identified FAD/NADH-dependent amine oxidase mainly expressed in kidney that is secreted into blood and urine where it was suggested to metabolize catecholamines. The present study evaluated central and peripheral dopaminergic activities in the renalase knockout (KO) mouse model and examined the changes induced by recombinant renalase (RR) administration on plasma and urine catecholamine levels. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, KO mice presented increased plasma levels of epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) that were accompanied by increases in the urinary excretion of Epi, NE, DA. In addition, the KO mice presented an increase in urinary DA-to-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) ratios without changes in renal tubular aromatic-l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity. By contrast, the in vivo administration of RR (1.5 mg/kg sc) to KO mice was accompanied by significant decreases in plasma levels of Epi, DA, and l-DOPA as well as in urinary excretion of Epi, DA, and DA-to-l-DOPA ratios notwithstanding the accompanied increase in renal AADC activity. In addition, the increase in renal DA output observed in renalase KO mice was accompanied by an increase in the expression of the L-type amino acid transporter like (LAT) 1 that is reversed by the administration of RR in these animals. These results suggest that the overexpression of LAT1 in the renal cortex of the renalase KO mice might contribute to the enhanced l-DOPA availability/uptake and consequently to the activation of the renal dopaminergic system in the presence of renalase deficiency. PMID:25411385

  12. Lower-extremity strength ratios of professional soccer players according to field position.

    PubMed

    Ruas, Cassio V; Minozzo, Felipe; Pinto, Matheus D; Brown, Lee E; Pinto, Ronei S

    2015-05-01

    Ruas, CV, Minozzo, F, Pinto, MD, Brown, LE, and Pinto, RS. Lower-extremity strength ratios of professional soccer players according to field position. J Strength Cond Res 29(5): 1220-1226, 2015-Previous investigators have proposed that knee strength, hamstrings to quadriceps, and side-to-side asymmetries may vary according to soccer field positions. However, different results have been found in these variables, and a generalization of this topic could lead to data misinterpretation by coaches and soccer clubs. Thus, the aim of this study was to measure knee strength and asymmetry in soccer players across different field positions. One hundred and two male professional soccer players performed maximal concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee actions on the preferred and nonpreferred legs at a velocity of 60°·s. Players were divided into their field positions for analysis: goalkeepers, side backs, central backs, central defender midfielders, central attacking midfielders, and forwards. Results demonstrated that only goalkeepers (GK) differed from most other field positions on players' characteristics, and concentric peak torque across muscles. Although all players presented functional ratios of the preferred (0.79 ± 0.14) and nonpreferred (0.75 ± 0.13) legs below accepted normative values, there were no differences between positions for conventional or functional strength ratios or side-to-side asymmetry. The same comparisons were made only between field players, without inclusion of the GK, and no differences were found between positions. Therefore, the hamstrings to quadriceps and side-to-side asymmetries found here may reflect knee strength functional balance required for soccer skills performance and game demands across field positions. These results also suggest that isokinetic strength profiles should be considered differently in GK compared with other field positions due to their specific physiological and training characteristics. PMID:25436632

  13. Analyzing Revenue Contribution Ratios: Net versus Gross Tuition and Fees Revenue Contribution Ratios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans H.; Minter, W. John

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that analysis of tuition and fees revenue contributions can enable colleges and universities to develop pricing, admissions, and student aid policies that produce desired financial outcomes. Long-term trends of three tuition and fees revenue contribution ratios are explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  14. Effects of Ratio Strategies Intervention on Knowledge of Ratio Equivalence for Students with Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Vasquez, Eleazar, III

    2014-01-01

    Students with mathematics learning disabilities have a weak understanding of mathematical concepts that underlie success in Algebra I, such as ratios and proportional reasoning. In this study, researchers used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of a intervention based on a instructional trajectory of how…

  15. Distractor-ratio Effect 1 Running head: DISTRACTOR-RATIO EFFECT

    E-print Network

    Pomplun, Marc

    Conjunctive Visual Search: The Distractor-Ratio Effect Jiye Shen, Eyal M. Reingold Department of Psychology performance in a conjunctive visual search task depends on the relative frequency of two types of distractors search task by demonstrating that saccades were consistently biased towards the smaller subset

  16. Comparison of forest Leaf Area Index retrieval based on simple ratio and reduced simple ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaolong Zhu; Weimin Ju; Jing M. Chen; Yanlian Zhou; Xianfeng Li; Xiaochan Xu

    2010-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an essential parameter for process-based ecological and climate models. Spectral vegetation indices calculated from remote sensing data are widely used for LAI retrieval at large scales. The applicability of two vegetation indices, namely Simple Ratio (SR) and Reduced Simple Ration (RSR), for retrieving LAI at Maoershan mountain in Heilongjiang province of China was investigated through

  17. Single and Central Diffractive Higgs Production at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Ducati, M. B. Gay; Machado, M. M.; Silveira, G. G. [High Energy Physics Phenomenology Group, GFPAE, IF-UFRGS, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    The single and central diffractive production of the Standard Model Higgs boson is computed using the diffractive factorization formalism, taking into account a parametrization for the Pomeron structure function provided by the H1 Collaboration. We compute the cross sections at NLO accuracy for the gluon fusion process, since it is the leading mechanism for the Higgs boson production. The gap survival probability is also introduced to include the rescattering corrections due to spectator particles present in the interaction. The diffractive ratios are predicted for proton-proton collisions at the LHC, since the beam luminosity is favorable to the Higgs boson detection. These results provide updated estimations for the fraction of single and central diffractive events in the LHC kinematical regime.

  18. Soft X-ray holographic microscopy of chromosomes with high aspect ratio pinholes.

    PubMed

    Barth, Ruth; Staier, Florian; Simpson, Todd; Mittler, Silvia; Eisebitt, Stefan; Grunze, Michael; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2010-09-15

    We used digital in-line soft X-ray holography (DIXH) in the Gabor geometry to image human chromosomes. The divergent wave front was generated by diffraction of synchrotron radiation from a high aspect ratio pinhole. As under our experimental conditions the achievable resolution depends on the pinhole radius, high aspect ratio holes with diameters in the 100 nm range were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The central maximum of the obtained Airy pattern was used to image chromosomes prepared from metaphase HeLa cells at experimental resolutions of 370±40 nm with soft X-rays at 260 eV photon energy provided by the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility. PMID:20362633

  19. Measurement of the branching ratio for beta-delayed alpha decay of 16N

    E-print Network

    Refsgaard, J; Dijck, E A; Fynbo, H O U; Lund, M V; Portela, M N; Raabe, R; Randisi, G; Renzi, F; Sambi, S; Sytema, A; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2015-01-01

    While the 12C(a,g)16O reaction plays a central role in nuclear astrophysics, the cross section at energies relevant to hydrostatic helium burning is too small to be directly measured in the laboratory. The beta-delayed alpha spectrum of 16N can be used to constrain the extrapolation of the E1 component of the S-factor; however, with this approach the resulting S-factor becomes strongly correlated with the assumed beta-alpha branching ratio. We have remeasured the beta-alpha branching ratio by implanting 16N ions in a segmented Si detector and counting the number of beta-alpha decays relative to the number of implantations. Our result, 1.49(5)e-5, represents a 25% increase compared to the accepted value and implies an increase of 14% in the extrapolated S-factor.

  20. Use of 35-mm color aerial photography to acquire mallard sex ratio data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, E.L.; Jorde, D.G.; Sease, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A conventional 35-mm camera equipped with an f2.8 135-mm lens and ASA 64 color film was used to acquire sex ratio data on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in the Platte River Valley of south-central Nebraska. Prelight focusing for a distance of 30.5 metres and setting of shutter speed at 1/2000 of a second eliminated focusing and reduced image motion problems and resulted in high-resolution, large-scale aerial photography of small targets. This technique has broad application to the problem of determining sex ratios of various species of waterfowl concentrated on wintering and staging areas. The aerial photographic method was cheaper than the ground ocular method when costs were compared on a per-100 bird basis.

  1. The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio of the Sculptor dwarf galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armandroff, T. E.; Da Costa, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio for 16 K giants in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy are calculated. Spectra at the Ca II triplet are analyzed using cross-correlation techniques in order to obtain the mean velocity of + 107.4 + or - 2.0 km/s. The dimensional velocity dispersion estimated as 6.3 (+1.1, -1.3) km/s is combined with the calculated core radius and observed central surface brightness to produce a mass-to-light ratio of 6.0 in solar units. It is noted that the data indicate that the Sculptor contains a large amount of mass not found in globular clusters, and the mass is either in the form of remnant stars or low-mass dwarfs.

  2. / www.sciencexpress.org / 11 December 2008 / Page 1 / 10.1126/science.1163934 A central goal of evolutionary biology is to identify the

    E-print Network

    Nachman, Michael

    / www.sciencexpress.org / 11 December 2008 / Page 1 / 10.1126/science.1163934 A central goal transmission ratio distorters) are selfish genetic elements that manipulate Mendelian transmission to their own

  3. Predicting the Hydrogen Isotope Ratios of Leaf Waxes Across Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Berke, M. A.; Hambach, B.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes 2H/1H ratios are widely used as a proxy of paleoprecipitation in climate reconstruction. While the broad nature of the relationships between n-alkane ?2H values and climate are appreciated on geologic scales, the quantitative details of what this proxy is reflecting remain ambiguous on plant and ecosystem levels. Areas of uncertainty on these smaller scales of importance to geologic interpretations are both the biosynthetic fractionation and the leaf-growth interval that is recorded by the isotope signal. To clarify these details, we designed a series of experiments in which modern plants were grown under controlled and monitored conditions. To determine the biosynthetic fractionation, we analyzed n-alkanes from plant grown hydroponically on isotopically distinct waters and under contrasting and controlled humidities. We observed ?2H values of n-alkane were linearly related to growth water ?2H values, but with slope differences associated with humidity. These findings suggested leaf water were central controls on ?2H values of n-alkane and support a relatively constant biosynthetic fractionation factor between leaf water and n-alkanes. To determine the interval that the leaf wax isotope signal reflects, we studied a species naturally growing on water with a constant ?2H value. Here we found the ?2H values of n-alkanes recorded only a two-week period during leaf flush and did not vary thereafter. These data indicated the ?2H values of n-alkanes record conditions early in the season, rather than integrating over the entire growing season. Using these data, we are beginning to develop geospatial predictions of the ?2H values of n-alkane across landscapes for given climate conditions, plant phenologies, and ecosystems. These emerging modeling tools may be used to assess modern ecosystem dynamics, to estimate weathering of leaf waxes to geologic repositories, and to define and test paleoclimate reconstructions from the ?2H values of n-alkanes.

  4. p/pi Ratio in Di-Hadron Correlations

    E-print Network

    Misha Veldhoen; for the ALICE Collaboration

    2012-10-08

    Particle ratios are important observables used to constrain models of particle production in heavy-ion collisions. In this work we report on a measurement of the p/pi ratio in the transverse momentum range 2.0 pi ratio in the bulk region is compatible with the p/pi ratio of an inclusive measurement, and is much larger than the p/pi ratio in the jet peak. The p/pi ratio in the jet peak is compatible with a PYTHIA reference, in which fragmentation in the vacuum is the dominant mechanism of particle production.

  5. Central Corneal Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662

  6. Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    Agency 1001 I Street Sacramento, California 95812 Contract No. 700-98-027 Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Marla Mueller, Contract Manager Kelly Birkinshaw LANDING UNIT #1) Draft Source Test Report for the 2000 CENTRAL CALIFORNIA OZONE STUDY May 28, 2002

  7. Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    Agency 1001 I Street Sacramento, California 95812 Contract No. 700-98-027 Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Marla Mueller, Contract Manager Kelly Birkinshaw (PITTSBURG UNIT UNIT #6) Draft Source Test Report for the 2000 CENTRAL CALIFORNIA OZONE STUDY May 28, 2002

  8. Readability of Central Florida Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Phyllis M.

    A study analyzed the readability of seven central Florida newspapers (one of which is a college newspaper) and "USA Today.""Rightwriter," a grammar checker and readability computer program, was used to evaluate front page articles for each of the eight newspapers. The readability formulas invoked in the readability program included the…

  9. Central New York's New Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for an Urban Future, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Conducted in late 2008 in partnership with the Greater Syracuse Chamber of Commerce and the Mohawk Valley Chamber of Commerce, this is the largest survey ever taken of Central New York businesses regarding the English language skills of the area workforce. The online survey was emailed to several hundred local businesses; 126 responses were…

  10. Geothermal initiatives in Central America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Hanold; V. W. Loose; A. W. Laughlin; P. E. Wade

    1986-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development is supporting a new project in energy and resources exploitation for Central America. One of the largest components of the project involves exploration and reservoir development investigations directed at enhancing the production of electricity from the region's geothermal resources. An assessment of the geothermal resources of Honduras is in progress, and interesting geothermal regions

  11. Geothermal activities in Central America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Whetten; R. J. Hanold

    1985-01-01

    The Agency for International Development is funding a new program in energy and minerals for Central America. Geothermal energy is an important component. A country-wide geothermal assessment has started in Honduras, and other assessment activities are in progress or planned for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama. Instrumentation for well logging has been provided to Costa Rica, and a

  12. Central California Action Associates, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sortor, Maia, Comp.

    The overall goal of the Central California Action Associates Inc. (CCAA) program is to provide basic education and pre-vocational training so that migrant and seasonal adult farm workers will be able to upgrade their economic and social lives. Without increased educational attainment, the San Joaquin Valley farm workers face a grim future because…

  13. Central mechanisms of pathological pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohini Kuner

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major challenge to clinical practice and basic science. The peripheral and central neural networks that mediate nociception show extensive plasticity in pathological disease states. Disease-induced plasticity can occur at both structural and functional levels and is manifest as changes in individual molecules, synapses, cellular function and network activity. Recent work has yielded a better understanding of

  14. High-gravity central stars

    E-print Network

    Thomas Rauch

    2006-07-11

    NLTE spectral analyses of high-gravity central stars by means of state-of-the-art model atmosphere techniques provide information about the precursor AGB stars. The hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars allow investigations on the intershell matter which is apparently exhibited at the stellar surface. We summarize recent results from imaging, spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry.

  15. The DO Central Track Trigger

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Graham Wallace; Desai, S.; Cooke, Michael; Connolly, B.; Borcherding, F.; Blazey, G.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Babukhadia, L.; Angstadt, R.; Anderson, John; Olsen, J.

    2004-06-01

    Tracker and Preshower Detectors to generate Level 1 trigger decisions. It also generates lists of seed tracks and preshower clusters that are sent to the Level 1 Moon Trigger, L2 Silicon Track Trigger, and Central and Forward Preshower Level 2...

  16. Geochemistry and geotectonic setting of Late Proterozoic Katangan basic rocks from Kibambale in central Shaba (Zaire)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Kampunzu; M. Kanika; D. Kapenda; K. Tshimanga

    1993-01-01

    The Late Proterozoic Katangan basic rocks (dolerites and basalts) outcropping at Kibambale in central Shaba (Zaire) are classified as extension-related tholeiites. The concentrations of immobile major and trace elements resemble those encountered in Phanerozoic enriched oceanic ridge basalts (E-MORB) emplaced in incipient oceanic rifts such as Red Sea and Tadjura Gulf troughs. This conclusion is also sustained by: elemental ratios

  17. Supine Length, Weight and Head Circumference at Birth in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayatollahi, S. M. T.; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Supine length, weight and head circumferences of 10,241 neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in Arak (central Iran) in 2004 are reported. The mean plus or minus standard deviation of boys' and girls' (p value for sex difference) supine length (mm), weight (g) and head circumference (mm) were estimated as 501 plus or minus 30 and…

  18. F emission in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV\\/u

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Falk Pühlhofer; H. Appelshäuser; J. Bächler; S. J. Bailey; L. S. Barnby; J. Bartke; R. A. Barton; H. Bia?kowska; A. Billmeier; C. O. Blyth; R. Bock; C. Bormann; F. P. Brady; R. Brockmann; R. Brun; P. Bun?i?; H. L. Caines; D. Cebra; G. E. Cooper; J. G. Cramer; P. Csato; J. Dunn; V. Eckardt; F. Eckhardt; M. I. Ferguson; H. G. Fischer; D. Flierl; Z. Fodor; P. Foka; P. Freund; V. Friese; M. Fuchs; F. Gabler; J. Gal; M. Ga?dzicki; E. G?adysz; J. Grebieszkow; J. Günther; J. W. Harris; S. Hegyi; T. Henkel; L. A. Hill; I. Huang; H. Hümmler; G. Igo; D. Irmscher; P. Jacobs; P. G. Jones; K. Kadija; V. I. Kolesnikov; M. Kowalski; B. Lasiuk; P. Lévai; A. I. Malakhov; S. Margetis; C. Markert; G. L. Melkumov; A. Mock; J. Molnár; J. M. Nelson; M. Oldenburg; G. Odyniec; G. Palla; A. D. Panagiotou; A. Petridis; A. Piper; R. J. Porter; A. M. Poskanzer; S. Poziombka; D. J. Prindle; W. Rauch; J. G. Reid; R. Renfordt; W. Retyk; H. G. Ritter; D. Röhrich; C. Roland; G. Roland; H. Rudolph; A. Rybicki; A. Sandoval; H. Sann; A. Yu. Semenov; E. Schäfer; D. Schmischke; N. Schmitz; S. Schönfelder; P. Seyboth; J. Seyerlein; F. Sikler; E. Skrzypczak; G. T. A. Squier; R. Stock; H. Ströbele; I. Szentpetery; J. Sziklai; P. Szymanski; M. Toy; T. A. Trainor; S. Trentalange; T. Ullrich; M. Vassiliou; G. Vesztergombi; D. Vrani?; F. Wang; D. D. Weerasundara; S. Wenig; C. Whitten; T. Wienold; L. Wood; T. A. Yates; J. Zimanyi; X.-Z. Zhu; R. Zybert

    1998-01-01

    Data on ?-production obtained by the CERN NA49 experiment for central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV\\/u are presented. Compared with pp interactions the ?-yield shows substantial strangeness enhancement: the ?\\/? ratio is found to increase by a factor of 2.6 ± 0.6, which is approximately the square of the K\\/? enhancement.

  19. The Potential for Trade between Austria and Five East and Central European Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Egger

    1998-01-01

    This article attempts to assess the potential for foreign trade in five of the ten Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) with the help of a foreign trade model. The main exogenous variables in this model are the size of the countries (sum of GDP of a pair of trading partners as well as the GDP ratio) and each country's

  20. Research Letters Emergence of central mode in the paraelectric phase of

    E-print Network

    Ku?el, Petr

    Research Letters Emergence of central mode in the paraelectric phase of ferroelectric perovskites known that the static permittivity of ferroelectric materials is related to frequencies of all polar of high-density BST ceramics with Ba:Sr ratio ranging from x = 0 to x = 1, prepared by methods described

  1. Factors Contributing to Maternal Mortality in North-Central Nigeria: A Seventeen-year Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IAO Ujah; OA Aisien; JT Mutihir; DJ Vanderjagt; RH Glew; VE Uguru

    Maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria is one of the highest in the world. This paper reports a facility based study in north-central Nigeria to determine the magnitude, trends, causes and characteristics of maternal deaths before and after the launch of the Safe Motherhood Initiative in Nigeria, with a view to suggesting strategic interventions to reduce these deaths. The records of

  2. Central American geologic map project

    SciTech Connect

    Dengo, G.

    1986-07-01

    During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

  3. Hadron production in central heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, R.; Simard, M.

    1984-07-01

    We extend a model developed by Margolis and collaborators to describe inclusive central particle production in p-p scattering at high energy to relativistic ion-ion collisions. We calculate the invariant production rate of any particle of mass m as a function of the temperature. Assuming that a temperature of approximately 130 MeV is reached in Ne-NaF collisions at 2.1 GeV/nucleon, we estimate the ratio sigma(..pi..)/sigma(K)approx.100, to be compared with the experimental value of 70 +- 46.

  4. Ceramic burner having high turndown ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, R.L.

    1987-05-26

    A gas burner is described comprising a gas inlet tube comprising a tubular casting of a castable insulating ceramic material and having a tapered forward end; a ceramic body spaced from, and surrounding, the gas inlet tube, the space therebetween defining a chamber. The ceramic body has a tapered forward end. A hole in the ceramic body serves as an inlet for preheated combustion air into the chamber. The forward ends of the gas inlet tube and the ceramic body taper in the same direction. The space between the tapered forward ends is an annular venturi. The path of the venturi intersects the axis of the gas inlet tube forward of the gas inlet tube so that mixing of the preheated combustion air and the gas occurs forward of the gas inlet tube. The relationship between the cross sectional area of the venturi and the cross sectional area of the gas inlet tube through which the gas flows is such as to provide a high turndown ratio.

  5. Population-Based Placental Weight Ratio Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Erin M.; Koval, John J.; Natale, Renato; Regnault, Timothy; Campbell, M. Karen

    2014-01-01

    The placental weight ratio (PWR) is a health indicator that reflects the balance between fetal and placental growth. The PWR is defined as the placental weight divided by the birth weight, and it changes across gestation. Its ranges are not well established. We aimed to establish PWR distributions by gestational age and to investigate whether the PWR distributions vary by fetal growth adequacy, small, average, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA). The data came from a hospital based retrospective cohort, using all births at two London, Ontario hospitals in the past 10 years. All women who delivered a live singleton infant between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation were included (n = 41441). Nonparametric quantile regression was used to fit the curves. The results demonstrate decreasing PWR and dispersion, with increasing gestational age. A higher proportion of SGA infants have extreme PWRs than AGA and LGA, especially at lower gestational ages. On average, SGA infants had higher PWRs than AGA and LGA infants. The overall curves offer population standards for use in research studies. The curves stratified by fetal growth adequacy are the first of their kind, and they demonstrate that PWR differs for SGA and LGA infants. PMID:24895497

  6. CO Line Ratios in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolowsky, Erik; Leroy, Adam K.; Usero, Antonio; Loeppky, Jason; Walter, Fabian; Wilson, Christine; Heracles Team, Ngls Team

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of low-J CO line excitation across the disks of 40 nearby, star forming galaxies. We combine the HERACLES survey of 12CO(2-1) emission conducted with the IRAM 30-m with the JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey of 12CO(3-2) emission. These data are supplemented with archival 12CO(1-0) data from several facilities. We use a Bayesian formulation to robustly estimate the line ratios R21 = CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) and R32 = CO(3-2)/CO(2-1) in the presence of intrinsic scatter, non-detections, and a small fraction of unreliable data. We find that the canonical value of R21 = 0.7 only typifies galactic centers and that a value of R21 = 0.5 better typifies most galactic disks. We find R32 = 0.5 over a wide range of physical parameters with little change though R21 can vary more significantly. CO excitation is compared to local galactic properties. Of note, we find that star formation rate tracers are most clearly associated with higher values of R21 and R32.

  7. Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, H. G.

    1980-02-12

    An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

  8. Quantification of neocortical ratios in stem primates.

    PubMed

    Long, Adam; Bloch, Jonathan I; Silcox, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Extant euprimates (=crown primates) have a characteristically expanded neocortical region of the brain relative to that of other mammals, but the timing of that expansion in their evolutionary history is poorly resolved. Examination of anatomical landmarks on fossil endocasts of Eocene euprimates suggests that significant neocortical expansion relative to contemporaneous mammals was already underway. Here, we provide quantitative estimates of neocorticalization in stem primates (plesiadapiforms) relevant to the question of whether relative neocortical expansion was uniquely characteristic of the crown primate radiation. Ratios of neocortex to endocast surface areas were calculated for plesiadapiforms using measurements from virtual endocasts of the paromomyid Ignacius graybullianus (early Eocene, Wyoming) and the microsyopid Microsyops annectens (middle Eocene, Wyoming). These data are similar to a published estimate for the plesiadapid, Plesiadapis tricuspidens, but contrast with those calculated for early Tertiary euprimates in being within the 95% confidence intervals for archaic mammals generally. Interpretation of these values is complicated by the paucity of sampled endocasts for older stem primates and euarchontogliran outgroups, as well as by a combination of effects related to temporal trends, allometry, and taxon-unique specializations. Regardless, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift in brain organization occurred in the first euprimates, likely in association with elaborations to the visual system. Am J Phys Anthropol 157:363-373, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25693873

  9. A natural population of the butterfly Eurema hecabe with Wolbachia-induced female-biased sex ratio not by feminization.

    PubMed

    Narita, Satoko; Nomura, Masashi; Kageyama, Daisuke

    2007-04-01

    In butterflies, the adult sex ratio observed in the field is usually male-biased, although the sex ratio of their progeny is 1:1. This is due to the higher motility and larger behavioral range of males than females. As expected, the sex ratio of Eurema hecabe butterflies collected at 6 localities throughout Japan was male-biased. However, in Tsukuba, located in the central part of Japan, the sex ratio was found to be biased toward females. Their progeny reared in the laboratory also exhibited a female-biased sex ratio. A single strain of Wolbachia is considered to be the cause of the sex-ratio distortion, because antibiotic treatment reversed the sex ratio to 1:1, and only a single nucleotide sequence of wsp, a highly variable Wolbachia gene, was detected by molecular analysis. Cytogenetic analysis excluded the possibility of feminization as the underlying mechanism. In addition, when the wild-caught females that had already mated in nature were treated with antibiotics before oviposition, egg-hatch rates were extremely low, suggesting that the same Wolbachia strain also caused cytoplasmic incompatibility. Our findings suggest the possibility that a single strain of Wolbachia induces 2 distinct reproductive manipulations in the same host. PMID:17546095

  10. Ultra-short nacelles for low fan pressure ratio propulsors

    E-print Network

    Peters, Andreas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis addresses the uncharted inlet and nacelle design space for low pressure ratio fans for advanced aeroengines. A key feature in low fan pressure ratio (FPR) propulsors with short inlets and nacelles is the increased ...

  11. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What to Know Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  12. Sex ratios in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi 

    E-print Network

    Reece, S E; Duncan, Alison B; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F

    2003-01-01

    The sex ratios of malaria and related Apicomplexan parasites play a major role in transmission success. Here, we address 2 fundamental issues in the sex ratios of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. First we ...

  13. Functional correlates of central arterial geometric phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Scuteri, A; Chen, C H; Yin, F C; Chih-Tai, T; Spurgeon, H A; Lakatta, E G

    2001-12-01

    We have assessed the functional correlates of common carotid artery (CCA) arterial geometry, derived by combining a measure of vascular mass (VM) with the wall-to-lumen (W/L) ratio in both untreated hypertensive (HT) and normotensive (NT; blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg) subjects of a broad age span (30 to 79 years) of both genders. Brachial systolic, diastolic, and pulse (SBP, DBP, PP) pressures; CCA SBP and PP; CCA diameter (D); intima-media thickness (IMT); relative distensibility; circumferential wall stress (MBPxW/L); fluid shear stress (FSS); strain; augmentation index (AGIh); and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured in 680 NT and 635 untreated HT Taiwanese men and women. Carotid geometric phenotypes (CGPs) were derived from ultrasonographic measures of VM and W/L ratio. A normal CGP (CGP1) was defined as that within the 95th NT percentile of age- and gender-specific VM and W/L means. Three "deviant" CGPs were defined as follows: CGP2 or remodeling, ie, a normal VM coupled with an increased W/L; CGP3 or hypertrophy, ie, an increase in both VM and W/L; and CGP4 or hypertrophy with dilation, ie, an increased VM with normal W/L. The prevalence of specific CGPs in the total sample was 83.4% for CGP1, 5.5% for CGP2, 2.2% for CGP3, and 8.9% for CGP4. Compared with CGP1, all deviant CGPs had increased carotid resistance, had higher CCA circumferential wall stress, and varied in blood flow velocity. Compared with CGP1, CGP2 subjects were more likely to be women (69.3% versus 45.9%), were on average 10 years older, and had similar central and brachial BP levels, PWV, and AGIh but had increased strain, higher distensibility, lower flow, and a higher FSS. CGP3 subjects did not differ in age or gender but had a higher prevalence of HT; higher circumferential stress, PWV, and distensibility; and lower flow, as well as a trend toward higher SBP, PP, and AGIh and lower FSS. CGP4 subjects did not differ in age or gender but exhibited higher AGIh and aortic PWV, lower distensibility and FSS, and unchanged strain and flow. CGP4 was the only deviant CGP in which the average brachial or central arterial pressures were significantly increased. CGP4 subjects also had the highest prevalence of HT among all the CGPs (77.8% versus 45% in CGP1). CGPs exhibit some common mechanical or functional properties but each also exhibits a unique profile. Although differing quantitatively in NT and HT and at young and older age, the characteristic functional profile of a given CGP is preserved, regardless of age or BP status. A normal CGP is characterized by a low circumferential wall stress and high FSS. Each deviant CGP is characterized by a unique combination of increased circumferential wall stress, with variable FSS, strain, distensibility, central BP, and late pressure augmentation. The interplay among these factors, particularly circumferential wall and FSS, likely determines the CGP; conversely, the resultant CGP may modulate the FSS and wall stress for a given pressure and flow. PMID:11751738

  14. Fluorescence Ratio Imaging Of Dynamic Intracellular Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harootunian, Alec T.; Kao, J. P.; Tsien, Roger Y.

    1989-12-01

    Traditional biochemical assays of cellular messengers require grinding up thousands or millions of cells for each data point. Such destructive measurements use up large amounts of tissue, have poor time resolution, and cannot assess heterogeneity between individual cells or dynamic spatial localizations. Recent technical advances now enable important ionic signals to be continuously imaged inside individual living cells with micron spatial resolution and subsecond time resolution. This methodology relies on the molecular engineering of indicator dyes whose fluorescence is strong and highly sensitive to ions such as Ca2+, H+, or Na+. Binding of these ions shifts the fluorescence excitation spectrum of the corresponding indicator. The ratio of excitation amplitudes at two wavelengths measures the free ion concentration while canceling out intensity variations due to nonuniform cell thickness or dye content. By rapidly alternating between the two ion-sensitive excitation wavelengths, a fluorescence microscope equipped with a low-light television camera and digital image processor can produce dynamic images of intracellular messenger levels. In many populations of cells traditionally assumed to be homogeneous, we find that neighboring individual cells can differ enormously in their cytosolic Ca2+ response to agonist stimulation, some ignoring the stimulus, others raising cytosolic Ca2+ transiently, others showing oscillations. Oscillations have been speculated to be important as a basis for frequency-coding of oscillations. Oscillations have been speculated to be important as a basis for frequency-coding of graded inputs; we are investigating the mechanism of their generation using light flashes to generate pulses of intracellular messengers. Spatial gradients of cytosolic Ca t+ within single cells have been observed in embryos during fertilization and development, neurons exposed to electrical or drug stimulation and in cytotoxic T lymphocytes during killing of target cells. Variations of cytosolic pH and free Na+ are especially interesting in epithelia and in cells undergoing mitogenic or oncogenic activation.

  15. Tetraplegia is a risk factor for central sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Bascom, Amy T.; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Badr, M. Safwan

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI); the exact mechanism(s) or the predictors of disease are unknown. We hypothesized that patients with cervical SCI (C-SCI) are more susceptible to central apnea than patients with thoracic SCI (T-SCI) or able-bodied controls. Sixteen patients with chronic SCI, level T6 or above (8 C-SCI, 8 T-SCI; age 42.5 ± 15.5 years; body mass index 25.9 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and 16 matched controls were studied. The hypocapnic apneic threshold and CO2 reserve were determined using noninvasive ventilation. For participants with spontaneous central apnea, CO2 was administered until central apnea was abolished, and CO2 reserve was measured as the difference in end-tidal CO2 (PetCO2) before and after. Steady-state plant gain (PG) was calculated from PetCO2 and VE ratio during stable sleep. Controller gain (CG) was defined as the ratio of change in VE between control and hypopnea or apnea to the ?PetCO2. Central SDB was more common in C-SCI than T-SCI (63% vs. 13%, respectively; P < 0.05). Mean CO2 reserve for all participants was narrower in C-SCI than in T-SCI or control group (?0.4 ± 2.9 vs.?2.9 ± 3.3 vs. ?3.0 ± 1.2 l·min?1·mmHg?1, respectively; P < 0.05). PG was higher in C-SCI than in T-SCI or control groups (10.5 ± 2.4 vs. 5.9 ± 2.4 vs. 6.3 ± 1.6 mmHg·l?1·min?1, respectively; P < 0.05) and CG was not significantly different. The CO2 reserve was an independent predictor of apnea-hypopnea index. In conclusion, C-SCI had higher rates of central SDB, indicating that tetraplegia is a risk factor for central sleep apnea. Sleep-related hypoventilation may play a significant role in the mechanism of SDB in higher SCI levels. PMID:24114704

  16. Droop of the Fractional Turn Ratio Pulse Transformer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gan Kongyin; Li Ming; Shan Lijun; Hu Heping

    2006-01-01

    In order to successfully design a solid-state modulator with the fractional turn ratio transformer for C band magnetron, the parameters of the fractional turn ratio pulse transformer must be chosen carefully. The rise time and fall time of the fractional turn ratio pulse transformer can be calculated the same as the traditional pulse transformer, but its droop cannot be calculated

  17. ODDS, ODDS Ratios and Relative Risk What are ODDS?

    E-print Network

    Priestley, Jennifer Lewis

    ODDS, ODDS Ratios and Relative Risk What are ODDS? Odds, like probability, contain the number it will not be drawn or 4 to 48 or 1:12. The odds in favor of an event or a proposition are expressed as the ratio odds, the ratio is implied, but never actually computed in its reduced form. Odds are expressed as "a

  18. Intransitive Likelihood-Ratio Classifiers Jeff Bilmes and Gang Ji

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    -likelihood ratio and G @DB ¦PI4Q#R ! 7XYV`! 8 is the log prior odds. The strategy proceeds by evaluating 9aIntransitive Likelihood-Ratio Classifiers Jeff Bilmes and Gang Ji Department of Electrical In this work, we introduce an information-theoretic based correction term to the likelihood ratio

  19. Odds Ratio Estimation in Bernoulli Smoothing Spline ANOVA Models

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yuedong

    Odds Ratio Estimation in Bernoulli Smoothing Spline ANOVA Models Yuedong Wang \\Lambda Department the odds ratios based on a SS ANOVA model for binary data and construct Bayesian confidence in­ tervals. We intervals. Our simulations suggest that the odds ratio estimates are quite reasonable in general but may

  20. An Estimate of the Odds Ratio That Always Exists

    E-print Network

    Parzen, Michael

    An Estimate of the Odds Ratio That Always Exists Michael PARZEN , Stuart LIPSITZ, Joseph IBRAHIM, and Neil KLAR This article proposes an estimate of the odds ratio in a (2 £ 2) table obtained from studies estimate of the odds ratio which has such properties is obtained when adding .5 to each cell of the table

  1. 7 CFR 1425.10 - Financial ratio requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial ratio requirement. 1425.10 Section 1425...ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.10 Financial ratio requirement. To be financially able...commodities, CMA's shall have a current ratio of at least 1 dollar of current...

  2. 76 FR 16345 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...741 RIN 3133-AD87 Net Worth and Equity Ratio AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration...definitions of ``net worth'' and ``equity ratio'' in the Federal Credit Union Act. NCUA...regulation and the definition of ``equity ratio'' as it appears in NCUA's...

  3. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1...ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined by subtracting...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5330 - Minimum surplus ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Minimum surplus ratios. 615.5330 Section 615.5330 ...Requirements § 615.5330 Minimum surplus ratios. (a) Total surplus. (1) Each...shall achieve and at all times maintain a ratio of a least 7 percent of total...

  5. 42 CFR 403.215 - Loss ratio standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loss ratio standards. 403.215 Section 403...General Provisions § 403.215 Loss ratio standards. (a) The policy must be...policies. (b) For purposes of loss ratio requirements, policies issued as...

  6. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Stores inventory turnover ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27...109-27.5002 Stores inventory turnover ratio. Comparison of investment in stores...comparison may be expressed either as a turnover ratio (dollar value of issues divided...

  7. 76 FR 60364 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...741 RIN 3133-AD87 Net Worth and Equity Ratio AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration...definitions of ``net worth'' and ``equity ratio'' in the Federal Credit Union Act. Through...regulation and the definition of ``equity ratio'' as it appears in NCUA's...

  8. 26 CFR 1.72-4 - Exclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion ratio. 1.72-4 Section 1.72-4 ...Gross Income § 1.72-4 Exclusion ratio. (a) General rule. (1...o) and § 1.122-1), an exclusion ratio is to be determined for each...

  9. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. 36.44 Section 36.44 Mineral...36.44 Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio. (a) When an engine is delivered...shall be accepted. The maximum fuel : air ratio determined from the exhaust-gas...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615.5335 Banks...Requirements § 615.5335 Bank net collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least 103 percent. (b) At...

  11. Auditory Discrimination of Frequency Ratios: The Octave Singularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnard, Damien; Micheyl, Christophe; Semal, Catherine; Dauman, Rene; Demany, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity to frequency ratios is essential for the perceptual processing of complex sounds and the appreciation of music. This study assessed the effect of ratio simplicity on ratio discrimination for pure tones presented either simultaneously or sequentially. Each stimulus consisted of four 100-ms pure tones, equally spaced in terms of…

  12. DC-to-AC inverter ratio failure detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Failure detection technique is based upon input-output ratios, which is independent of inverter loading. Since inverter has fixed relationship between V-in/V-out and I-in/I-out, failure detection criteria are based on this ratio, which is simply inverter transformer turns ratio, K, equal to primary turns divided by secondary turns.

  13. SEX-RATIO EVOLUTION IN SEX CHANGING ANIMALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Allsop; Stuart A. West

    2004-01-01

    Sex allocation theory is often able to make clear predictions about when individuals should facultatively adjust their offspring sex ratio (proportion male) in response to local conditions, but not the consequences for the overall population sex ratio. A notable exception to this is in sex changing organisms, where theory predicts that: (1) organisms should have a sex ratio biased toward

  14. Sex Ratio of Fetuses during the Second Trimester of Gestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A’kos A. Jakobovits; Antal Jakobovits; Leslie Iffy

    1986-01-01

    The authors have investigated the sex ratio of fetuses between the thirteenth and twenty-fourth menstrual weeks. The study material, consisting of 749 fetuses, was obtained through induced second trimester abortions. The sex ratio of the 749 specimens was 109. The ratio was 129 between the thirteenth and sixteenth weeks, 105.8 between the seventeenth and twentieth weeks, and 94 between the

  15. Swirl ratio effects on tornado-like vortices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pooyan Hashemi-Tari; Roi Gurka; Horia Hangen

    2007-01-01

    The effect of swirl ratio on the flow field for a tornado-like vortex simulator (TVS) is investigated. Different swirl ratios are obtained by changing the geometry and tangential velocity which determine the vortex evolution. Flow visualizations, surface pressure and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are performed in a small TVS for swirl ratios S between 0 and 1. The PIV

  16. Sexual Dimorphism in Digit-length Ratios of Laboratory Mice

    E-print Network

    Breedlove, Marc

    AND S. MARC BREEDLOVE2 * 1 Department of Psychology, University of California­Berkeley, Berkeley ratio compared to women. Prenatal androgens appear to be important in the development of the 2D:4D sex a sex difference in digit ratios. The 2D:4D ratio of adult outbred mice was calculated for both the left

  17. Optical Extinction Ratio Monitoring Techniques Using Optical Spectrum Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Liang Yang; San-Liang Lee

    2007-01-01

    Abstrac An optical extinction ratio monitoring technique for wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network systems is proposed. This technique is based on the optical spectrum analysis. It can accurately measure the optical extinction ratio of optical signals and does not change with the transmission distance. In our experiments, the transient chirp hardly affects the measured results if the optical extinction ratio is

  18. Feedback Stabilization over Signal-to-Noise Ratio Constrained Channels

    E-print Network

    Braslavsky, Julio H.

    that there are limitations on the ability to stabi- lize an unstable plant over a signal-to-noise ratio constrained channelFeedback Stabilization over Signal-to-Noise Ratio Constrained Channels Julio H. Braslavsky Richard constraints on the available data rate. Signal to noise ratio con- straints are one way in which data

  19. 7 CFR 1425.10 - Financial ratio requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Financial ratio requirement. To be financially able to make advances to their members and to market their commodities, CMA's shall have a current ratio of at least 1 dollar of current assets for each 1 dollar of current liabilities (current ratio...

  20. 7 CFR 1425.10 - Financial ratio requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Financial ratio requirement. To be financially able to make advances to their members and to market their commodities, CMA's shall have a current ratio of at least 1 dollar of current assets for each 1 dollar of current liabilities (current ratio...

  1. 7 CFR 1425.10 - Financial ratio requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Financial ratio requirement. To be financially able to make advances to their members and to market their commodities, CMA's shall have a current ratio of at least 1 dollar of current assets for each 1 dollar of current liabilities (current ratio...

  2. 7 CFR 1425.10 - Financial ratio requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Financial ratio requirement. To be financially able to make advances to their members and to market their commodities, CMA's shall have a current ratio of at least 1 dollar of current assets for each 1 dollar of current liabilities (current ratio...

  3. Extraordinary Flux in Sex Ratio Sylvain Charlat,1,2

    E-print Network

    Fullard, James H.

    Extraordinary Flux in Sex Ratio Sylvain Charlat,1,2 * Emily A. Hornett,1 James H. Fullard,3 Neil "selfish" sex-ratio distorters and counteracting suppressor genes has the po- tential to produce rapid flux in sex ratio. Here we document this process in action in a tropical but- terfly and report a transition

  4. BRANCH-TO-STEM DIAMETER RATIO AFFECTS STRENGTH OF ATTACHMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward F. Gilman

    2003-01-01

    Strength of branch attachment in Acer rubrum L. was related to the ratio of diameter of the branch relative to the diameter of the stem to which the branch was attached (aspect ratio). Linear correlation coefficients ranged from -0.25 to -0.90 between aspect ratio and load (force) required to separate branches from stems at the branch union. Slopes of the

  5. Final Report on Isotope Ratio Techniques for Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Meriwether, George H.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2009-07-01

    The Isotope Ratio Method (IRM) is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods.

  6. Sizes of Organisms: The Surface Area: Volume Ratio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-02-03

    This website discusses the surface area to volume ratio and how it limits the size of organisms. The page shows how to calculate this ratio for cubes, and spheres and contains graphs that help clarify how the ratio changes as the size of the object changes.

  7. Integration Of A Large Tip With High Aspect Ratio On An XY-Micro Stage For AFM Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-F. Indermuhle; N. F. de Rooij

    1995-01-01

    SUMMARY Silicon bulk micro machining allows the batch fabrication of miniaturized xy-stages integrating a tip for atomic force sensing, via hole for optical detection and electrostatic comb actuators for lateral scanning. In this paper we present a device which integrates a large tip (about 50 pm high) with high aspect ratio (1.7:l) on the central stage, improving thus significantly the

  8. PN double quantum well resonant interband tunneling diode with peak-to-valley current ratio of 144 at room temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Tsai; Y. K. Su; H. H. Lin; R. L. Wang; T. L. Lee

    1994-01-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of the P-N double quantum well resonant interband tunneling (RIT) diodes in InAlAs-InGaAs system have been improved in this letter. The peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) is as high as 144 at room temperature. As we know, this is the highest room temperature PVCR ever reported in any tunneling devices. Moreover, the influence of the central barrier thickness

  9. Reinforcing Effects of d-Amphetamine: Influence of Novel Ratios on a Progressive-Ratio Schedule

    PubMed Central

    Sevak, Rajkumar J.; Stoops, William W.; Glaser, Paul E.A.; Hays, Lon R.; Rush, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive-ratio schedules are useful for studying reinforcing effects of drugs. Previous human laboratory studies showed that d-amphetamine significantly increased break points relative to placebo levels. However, the magnitude of the increase was modest, which may be attributable to rather high levels of placebo responding. We utilized novel response requirements under the modified progressive-ratio schedule and hypothesized that the altered range of response requirements would decrease responding for placebo and increase responding for d-amphetamine. Eight participants completed the study. The participants first sampled oral doses of d-amphetamine (0, 8, 16 and 24 mg). In subsequent sessions, participants were offered the opportunity to work for the sampled dose on a modified progressive-ratio procedure with response requirements ranging from 400 to 1800 mouse clicks. A battery of participant-rated drug-effect questionnaires, a performance measure and cardiovascular measures were included in orderto characterize more fully the effects of d-amphetamine. Placebo maintained low levels of responding. The intermediate dose of d-amphetamine increased responding significantly above placebo levels. d-Amphetamine produced prototypical subject-rated effects that were an orderly function of dose. The present data suggest that the modified response requirements resulted in lower levels of placebo taking and a larger separation between number of placebo and d-amphetamine capsules earned. PMID:20944503

  10. Central Exclusive Production at RHIC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Wlodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity |#17;| more »1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.« less

  11. Central Exclusive Production at RHIC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adamczyk, Leszek [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science , AGH - University of Science and Technology, Krakow, (Poland); Guryn, Wlodek [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Turnau, Jacek [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow, (Poland)

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity |#17;| < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.

  12. Segetal vegetation of Central Yakutia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Mirkin; N. P. Slepcova; K. E. Kononov

    1988-01-01

    Seven associations of segetal vegetation are distinguished for the vast arable lands of Central Yakutia. Low species richness\\u000a and the prevalence of annual weeds are the main features of these communities. Only two dominant speciesSphallerocarpus gracilis andSaussurea amara represent Asian types of areals. Other dominantsFallopia convolvulus, Elytrigia repens, Chenopodium album, Brassica campestris, Lappula squarrosa, Scutellaria galericulata,\\u000a Thlaspi arvense, Avena fatua

  13. Celtic Sites of Central Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Gutiérrez, Manuel

    This chapter concerns the astronomy practiced by Celtic peoples in some parts of central Iberia, specifically the Vetton and Celtiberian peoples, inhabitants of the so-called Late Iron Age. The construction of some elements of religion or worship was perfectly determined by geometry, topography, and especially astronomy, because their spatial orientation occurs in locations of great interest for maintaining the local calendar. The maintenance of this calendar was probably the primary objective of some of the elements studied.

  14. Rhyolite magmas of central America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. McBirney; D. F. Weill

    1966-01-01

    True rhyolites are found in two contrasting occurrences in Central America: in recent obsidian domes in the basalt-rhyolite\\u000a association of southeastern Guatemala, and in late Tertiary ignimbrites in Honduras and adjacent parts of Nicaragua. Both\\u000a are on the inner side of the main volcanic axis in a region that is visibly underlain by older metamorphic and plutonic rocks.\\u000a They have

  15. The DØ Central Tracker Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repond, Silvia Tentindo

    2002-11-01

    The goals of high energy physicists for the next decade require new designs for the online systems of collider experiments. We describe the new DØ Central Tracker Trigger (CTT) System, which makes heavy use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and digital signal processors (DSP) to allow the system to cope with the greatly increased data rate anticipated at the Fermilab Tevatron. We describe briefly how the CTT system meets the physics goals of the collaboration.

  16. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-08-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus.

  17. Intrashell variations in amino acid concentrations and isoleucine epimerization ratios in fossil Hiatella arctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, Julie K.

    1983-09-01

    Twenty-four valves of fossil Hiatella arctica were analyzed to determine if amino acid ratios varied from one region of a shell to another. The ratio of D-alloisoleucine/L-isoleucine, routinely used as a stratigraphic correlation tool and an indicator of relative age, did not vary significantly between five anatomically different shell parts in Hiatella arctica. Sampling only the hinge or central part of all valves, however, resulted in less variation about the average value. Analyses of only this part of the shell should improve the resolution of stratigraphic units by amino acid geochronology. The absolute concentrations of aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, valine, alloisoleucine, isoleucine, and leucine (in picomoles/milligram of shell) are significantly higher in the hinge and central part of the shell, whereas the outer growth edge appears to have lower levels of amino acids. This is true in both the FREE and TOTAL hydrolysate fractions. The reasons are not clear; however, the high value may be caused by a thin, protein-rich inner layer lining the valve out to the pallial line and/or differences in the proportion of inorganic carbonate to protein produced in different areas during shell growth. Alternatively, it may suggest leaching of the thinner, more vulnerable part of the shell growth edge.

  18. Event-by-event Particle Yield Ratio Fluctuations in the CBM and NA49 Experiments

    E-print Network

    D. Kresan

    2009-08-20

    Non-statistical event-by-event fluctuations are considered an important signal for the critical endpoint of the QCD phase diagram. Event-by-event fluctuations of different observables are thus investigated in detail in current experiments. In this contribution, a study of the centrality dependence of event-by-event fluctuations of particle yield ratios by the NA49 experiment in Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV beam energy is presented for the first time. An increase of the absolute values of dynamical fluctuations towards lower centralities is observed. The influence of resonance decays will be discussed. Event-by-event fluctuations are an important observable to be studied at the future CBM experiment at FAIR. CBM will investigate the intermediate region of the QCD phase diagram in great detail searching for the first order phase transition line and the expected critical endpoint. It is therefore important to investigate the sensitivity of the CBM detector to particle ratio fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at 10-45 AGeV beam energy. Detailed simulation studies will be presented.

  19. Effect of Blend Ratio and Draw Ratio on the Mechanical Properties of PET\\/PP Blended Conjugate Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-An Lin; Chun-Chi Chen; Ta-Chung An

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of blend ratio and draw ratio on the fiber properties of blend fibers composed of poly (ethylene terephthalate), or PET, and polypropylene, or PP, (hereafter referred to as PET\\/PP conjugate fibers). For a comparison, PET and poly (butylene terephthalate), or PBT blends, (hereafter referred to as PET\\/PBT conjugate fibers) are also investigated. Various blend ratios

  20. Essays in monetary policy conduction and its effectiveness: monetary policy rules, probability forecasting, central bank accountability, and the sacrifice ratio

    E-print Network

    Gabriel, Casillas Olvera,

    2004-11-15

    4. Scoring Rules...........................................................................63 5. The Quadratic Probability Rule and the Brier Score..........64 6. Yates? Decomposition of the Brier Score .............................67 7... J. Leatham (Member) (Member) Paul D. Mitchell A. Gene Nelson (Member) (Head of Department) August 2004 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics iii ABSTRACT Essays in Monetary...