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1

Formant Centralization Ratio: A Proposal for a New Acoustic Measure of Dysarthric Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The vowel space area (VSA) has been used as an acoustic metric of dysarthric speech, but with varying degrees of success. In this study, the authors aimed to test an alternative metric to the VSA--the "formant centralization ratio" (FCR), which is hypothesized to more effectively differentiate dysarthric from healthy speech and register…

Sapir, Shimon; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Spielman, Jennifer L.; Fox, Cynthia

2010-01-01

2

Can We Improve Catfish Growth and FCR Through Oxygen Management?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were conducted in 15 1-acre and six ¼-acre ponds over several years to determine the effect of low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on food conversion ratio (FCR), food consumption, growth, and net production of channel catfish. Control ponds in each study were maintained with a minimum D...

3

Response to selection for feed conversion ratio in Japanese quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of selection for 4-wk feed conversion ratio (FCR) on genetic improvement of FCR, BW, weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and residual FI (RFI) in Japanese quail. The F line was selected for reduced FCR and the C line was maintained as a randombred control. In each generation, 35 sires and 70 dams were used as

S. Varkoohi; M. Moradi Shahr Babak; A. Pakdel; A. Nejati Javaremi; A. Kause

2010-01-01

4

Estimation of ideal ratios of methionine and threonine to lysine in starting broiler chicks using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

In a dose-response study, dietary levels of standardized ileal digestible methionine (dMet), lysine (dLys), and threonine (dThr) were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite rotatable design in starting broiler chicks that were feed-deprived 2 d posthatch. In total, 60 floor pens of 6 birds each were assigned to 15 diets of central composite rotatable design containing 5 levels of dMet (0.42-0.58%), dLys (0.88-1.32%), and dThr (0.53-0.87%) from 3 to 16 d of age. Experimental levels of dMet, dLys, and dThr significantly affected bird performance. The second-order models for BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were generated. The response surface analysis showed significant quadratic models for BW gain and FCR. The crossproduct of amino acids was significant for FCR but not significant for BW gain. Canonical analyses on BW gain and FCR models showed that the maximum BW gain at the stationary point may be obtained with 0.54, 1.12, and 0.78% of dMet, dLys, and dThr in the diet, respectively, and the minimum FCR at the stationary point may be obtained with 0.53, 1.13, and 0.75% of dMet, dLys, and dThr in diet, respectively. Estimated ideal ratios of dMet and dThr to dLys were 48 and 70% for BW gain and 47 and 66% for FCR. Canonical analysis revealed the most important amino acids in the models of BW gain and FCR were Lys and Thr, respectively. PMID:22334755

Mehri, M; Davarpanah, A A; Mirzaei, H R

2012-03-01

5

Fc?R Interacts and Cooperates with the B Cell Receptor To Promote B Cell Survival.  

PubMed

The IgM FcR (Fc?R) promotes B cell survival, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We show using Fc?R(-/-) and wild-type mice that Fc?R specifically enhanced B cell survival induced by BCR cross-linking with F(ab')2-anti-IgM Abs while having no effect on survival when the B cells were activated by CD40 ligation or LPS stimulation. Fc?R expression was markedly upregulated by anti-IgM stimulation, which may promote enhanced Fc?R signaling in these cells. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analyses demonstrated that Fc?R colocalized with the BCR on the plasma membrane of primary B cells. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis further revealed that Fc?R physically interacted with the BCR complex. Because NF-?B plays a prominent role in B cell survival, we analyzed whether Fc?R was involved in BCR-triggered NF-?B activation. Fc?R did not affect BCR-triggered I?B? phosphorylation characteristic of the canonical NF-?B activation pathway but promoted the production of the noncanonical NF-?B pathway component p52. Consistent with the elevated p52 levels, Fc?R enhanced BCR-triggered expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-xL. Importantly, Fc?R stimulation alone in the absence of BCR signaling had no effect on either I?B? phosphorylation or the expression of p52 and BCL-xL. Therefore, Fc?R relied on the BCR signal to activate the noncanonical NF-?B pathway and enhance B cell survival. These results reveal a cross-talk downstream of Fc?R and BCR signaling and provide mechanistic insight into Fc?R-mediated enhancement of B cell survival after BCR stimulation. PMID:25732732

Ouchida, Rika; Lu, Qing; Liu, Jun; Li, Yingqian; Chu, Yiwei; Tsubata, Takeshi; Wang, Ji-Yang

2015-04-01

6

[Evaluation of the 1Shot Phantom dedicated to the mammography system using FCR].  

PubMed

Currently daily quality control (QC) tests for mammography systems are generally evaluated by using visual analysis phantoms, which of course means subjective measurement. In our study, however, we evaluated a novel digital phantom, the 1Shot Phantom M plus (1Shot Phantom), together with automatic analysis software dedicated for mammography systems using Fuji computed radiography (FCR). The digital phantom enables objective evaluation by providing for actual physical measurement rather than subjective visual assessment. We measured 1) contrast to noise ratio (CNR), 2) image receptor homogeneity, 3) missed tissue at chest wall side, 4) modulation transfer function (MTF), and 5) geometric distortion utilizing the 1Shot Phantom. We then compared the values obtained using the 1Shot Phantom with values obtained from the European guidelines and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. In addition, we evaluated the convenience of using the digital phantom. The values utilizing the 1Shot Phantom and those from the European guidelines and IEC standards were consistent, but the QC tests for the European guidelines and IEC standards methods took about six hours while the same QC tests using the 1Shot Phantom took 10 minutes or less including exposure of the phantom image, measurement, and analysis. In conclusion, the digital phantom and dedicated software proved very useful and produced improved analysis for mammography systems using FCR in clinical daily QC testing because of their objectivity and substantial time-saving convenience. PMID:19661726

Nagashima, Chieko; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Nagata, Mio; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Sankoda, Katsuhiro; Saotome, Shigeru; Tagi, Masahiro; Kusunoki, Tetsurou

2009-07-20

7

Flight directors Castle and Dittemore discuss STS-34 mission in JSC MCC FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight directors Robert E. Castle, Jr (left) and Ronald D. Dittemore discuss STS-34 mission at their console in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR). In the background are the FCR large screens which display flight data.

1989-01-01

8

Phenology, sex ratios, and population trends of Selasphorus hummingbirds in central coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1980 to 2000, we mist-netted 2412 Allen's Hummingbirds (Selasphorus sasin) and 203 Rufous Hummingbirds (S. rufus) at a site in central coastal California. Adult Allen's occurred from late January to early August and juveniles from early April to early September. Overall ratios of female to male Allen's were 2.5:1 for adults, 1:1.1 for juveniles. The breeding season female-to-male ratio

Steve N. G. Howell; Thomas Gardali

2003-01-01

9

STS-32 flight directors pose for portrait in JSC MCC Bldg 30 FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-32 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, flight directors pose for portrait in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR). Standing in front of the flight director's consoles are (left to right) Alan L. Briscoe, Granvil A. Pennington, and Robert E. Castle, Jr. In the background displayed on the front screens are the ground tracking map and FCR-1 orbiter television (TV) time.

1989-01-01

10

Spatial variations in 3He/4He ratios along a high strain rate zone, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear zone with high strain rates along the Japan Sea coast, the Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone (NKTZ), is considered to be associated with rheological heterogeneities in the lower crust and/or upper mantle. Helium isotope variations along the NKTZ reveal a close association with the geophysical evidence for rheological heterogeneities in the crust and mantle. In the southern NKTZ, the 3He/4He ratios lower than 3.4 Ra (Ra denotes the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.4 × 10-6) could be interpreted as a two-component mixture of helium stored in aqueous fluids driven off the subducting oceanic crust and radiogenic crustal helium. Higher 3He/4He ratios are observed in the central NKTZ where Quaternary volcanoes and high-temperature hot springs are concentrated, suggesting that the 3He emanation manifest in the central NKTZ results from the effective transfer of mantle helium by intrusion and degassing of mantle-derived magma in the crust. In the northern NKTZ where two large inland earthquakes occurred recently, there appears to be many samples with 3He/4He ratios significantly higher than those observed in the fore-arc side of northeast Japan. A plausible source of mantle helium could be attributed to upward mobilization of aqueous fluids generated by dehydration of the subducting Pacific Plate slab.

Umeda, Koji; Kusano, Tomohiro; Ninomiya, Atusi; Asamori, Koichi; Nakajima, Junichi

2013-09-01

11

Assessing the Necessity of the Standardized Infection Ratio for Reporting Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections  

PubMed Central

This brief article presents results that support the contention that risk adjustment via the standardized infection ratio (SIR) for the reporting of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) may be no more predictive than standard rate adjustments utilizing CLABSIs per central line days (i.e., CLABSI rates). Recent data posted on the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Hospital Compare website showed that nearly 70% of 1721 reporting hospitals with at least 1000 central line days had five or fewer infections during 2011. These hospitals had 39.3% of the total central line days and a significantly lower SIR than poorer performing hospitals with six or more CLABSIs (p<0.0001). In addition, 19 hospitals are presented which had central line days between 9000 to over 22,000 that also had zero to three CLABSIs. Some of these hospitals were university referral centers and inner city facilities. There was great variation of CLABSI cases among US hospitals. Evidence is mounting that all hospitals should be able to achieve a near zero incidence of CLABSIs and that these infections may in fact be near ‘never events’, which begs whether risk adjustment with the SIR is needed and whether it adds more information than does rate adjustment using CLABSI rates. PMID:24223966

Saman, Daniel M.; Kavanagh, Kevin T.

2013-01-01

12

Calves' sex ratio in naturally and artificially bred cattle in central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken with the objective to identify some intrinsic (genotype of the cow, estrus time and parity) and extrinsic factors (service type, service time and estrus seasons) that affect calf sex ratio in naturally and artificially bred cattle in the central highlands of Ethiopia. A total of 4657 calving events were extracted from the long-term dairy cattle genetic improvement experiment at Holetta Agricultural Research Center. Factors that affect the logit of the probability of a female calf being born were obtained by using PROC GENMODE in Statistical Analysis System. Moreover, multivariate analysis was performed using PROC LOGISTIC procedure using forward selection procedure. Accordingly, genotype of the cow, parity, estrus season, and service type had considerable influences on calf sex ratio. However, estrus time and service time did not affect calf sex ratio (?(2) = 0.83 and 0.79, respectively). In Ethiopia, smallholder dairy farmers often complain that artificial insemination (AI) skewed to producing more male calves. However, our study showed that AI did not alter female-to-male calf sex ratio. On the contrary, natural mating increases the probability of female calves born (odds ratio 1.38) over AI. Heifer/cows that showed estrus and bred during the harsh seasons of the years produced more female calves than those that bred during the good seasons of the year. This strongly agreed with Trivers and Willard sex allocation theory. PMID:24908336

Delesa, Effa Kefena; Yohannes, Aster; Alemayehu, Mengistu; Samuel, Temesgen; Yehualaeshet, Teshome

2014-08-01

13

JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) personnel watch STS-26 landing in FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, landing, personnel in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR) monitor heading alignment cone (HAC) diagram and OV-103 runway touch down displayed on front screens. In the foreground is the Specialists Console (BOOSTER, EVA, PDRS, RMS, PAM, IUS) with Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) console next to it. At the MOD console are Flight Crew Operations Directorate (FCOD) Deputy Chief Henry Hartsfield, JSC Director Aaron Cohen, and MOD Director Eugene F. Kranz. In the background, Public Affairs Office (PAO) photographer Andrew R. 'Pat' Patnesky takes a photograph of the FCR activity.

1988-01-01

14

Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

2014-12-01

15

Association between wind-up ratio and central serotonergic function in healthy subjects and depressed patients.  

PubMed

Temporal summation of C-fiber evoked responses generates an increase in action potential discharge in second-order neurons and in perceived pain intensity (wind-up). This may be related to the central serotonergic system which modulates and partly inhibits sensory input. Aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between wind-up and serotonergic activity using loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP). 18 healthy subjects were compared to 18 patients with major depression, a disease with a putative serotonin deficit. They were examined with quantitative sensory testing (QST) using the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS), including the wind-up ratio (WUR), LDAEP, and psychometric measurements. We found a slight positive correlation between WUR and LDAEP both in healthy controls and depressed patients combined (r=0.340, p=0.043), indicating that WUR may be modulated by serotonergic activity. It can be concluded that inhibitory control to noxious stimuli is partly associated with the central serotonergic function as indicated by LDAEP. PMID:21964385

Uhl, Idun; Krumova, Elena K; Regeniter, Sabrina; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Norra, Christine; Richter, Helmut; Assion, Hans-Jörg; Westermann, Andrea; Juckel, Georg; Maier, Christoph

2011-10-24

16

STS-42 flight directors pose in the MCC Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, flight directors pose in the Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR) left to right N. Wayne Hale, Jr, Robert E. Castle, Jr, Charles W. Shaw and seated Jeffrey W. Bantle.

1991-01-01

17

STS-26 prelaunch activities in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During STS-26 prelaunch activities in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR), flight director Gary E. Coen (right) reviews data projected on large front visual displays. Also projected on the screens are the orbital tracking map and a view of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103 on the launch pad.

1988-01-01

18

STS-41 Flight Directors in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-41 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Flight Directors pose in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR). Seated on the Flight Director console is James M. Heflin, Jr. Standing alongside the console is Ronald D. Dittemore. Data and the ground track map are displayed on the front screens behind the two flight directors.

1990-01-01

19

STS-26 landing activities in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the STS-26 landing, Flight Director Gary E. Coen points to data displayed on console screen at the Flight Directors console in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR). Flight Directors Alan L. Briscoe (center) and Ronald D. Dittemore look on.

1988-01-01

20

STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Planning Team in MCC Bldg 30 FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Planning Team with Flight Director (FD) James M. Heflin, Jr (front right next to ship model) poses in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR). The group stands in front of visual displays projecting STS-49 data and ground track map.

1992-01-01

21

STS-30 flight directors pose for group portrait in JSC MCC Bldg 30 FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-30 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, flight directors pose for group portrait in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR). At flight directors console (left to right) are Ronald D. Dittemore, Charles W. Shaw, and Alan L. Briscoe. Visual display screens appear in background.

1989-01-01

22

STS-30 JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Flight Control Room (FCR) activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During STS-30, Flight Director Ronald D. Dittemore (standing) looks over the Spacecraft Communicator (CAPCOM) console manned by astronauts Michael A. Baker (right) and G. David Low in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR). Low reviews checklist as Baker prepares to engage switch.

1989-01-01

23

STS-46 Atlantis, OV-104, flight directors' portrait taken in JSC's MCC FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, flight directors pose for team portrait in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room 1 (FCR-1) at Flight Director console with data, the orbital ground track map and STS-46 emblem or logo projected on the front display screens. Left to right are Charles W. Shaw, Ronald D. Dittemore, and Philip L. Engelauf.

1992-01-01

24

The evaluation of pollen quality, and a further appraisal of the fluorochromatic (FCR) test procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods currently available for evaluating pollen quality in vitro include, (a) tests of germinability; (b) tests of the stainability of the vegetative cell contents; (c) tests for enzyme activity, and (d) the fluorochromatic procedure (FCR), which tests principally the integrity of the plasmalemma of the vegetative cell. Using germinability in vitro as a standard, a comparison has been made between

J. Heslop-Harrison; Y. Heslop-Harrison; K. R. Shivanna

1984-01-01

25

STS-30 JSC MCC flight control room (FCR) activity during OV-104 entry/landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR), entry flight director Ronald D. Dittemore reviews checklist during STS-30 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, landing at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, concrete runway 22. Looking on are Alan L. Briscoe (center) and N. Wayne Hale, Jr (right) as OV-104 landing appears on flight director console television monitor at far right.

1989-01-01

26

STS-26 launch activities in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the STS-26 launch, Flight Director Gary E. Coen monitors data at the Flight Directors console in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR). Flight Director Alan L. Briscoe, seated next to Coen, looks on. In the background, displayed on a television (TV) monitor Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is seen completing its roll maneuver as it heads to Earth orbit.

1988-01-01

27

STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Orbit Team O1 in MCC Bldg 30 FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Orbit Team 1 (O1) poses in front of large display screens in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR) for group portrait. Lead Flight Director (FD) Granvil A. Pennington stands next to a model of the James Cook's ship, the Endeavour (left). Astronaut and Spacecraft Communicator (CAPCOM) John H. Casper stands at the right of the model.

1992-01-01

28

STS-30 JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Flight Control Room (FCR) activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During STS-30, Flight Director Ronald D. Dittemore (left) and Spacecraft Communicators (CAPCOMs) and astronauts Michael A. Baker (center) and G. David Low (right) monitor console screens and front visual displays in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR). Tracking map shows Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, orbital position. An Earth observation and additional data are projected on other front display screens.

1989-01-01

29

Astronaut Jernigan monitors STS-32 crew activity in JSC's MCC Bldg 30 FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) console, Astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan monitors STS-32 crew onboard activity in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR). Displayed on the front screens are the world ground tracking map, the crew on Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, flight deck, and mission statistical data. Other JSC flight controllers work at various consoles in front of Jernigan.

1990-01-01

30

STS-26 landing activities in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the STS-26 landing, Flight Directors Gary E. Coen (left), Alan L. Briscoe (center), and Ronald D. Dittemore (right) view monitor at Flight Directors console. Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is displayed on screen as it comes to wheel stop on Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) dry lakebed runway 17. Flight Directors console is located in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR).

1988-01-01

31

STS-49 Flight Director Pennington monitors EVA in JSC's MCC Bldg 30 FCR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-49 Flight Director (FD) Granvil A. Pennington watches a large monitor in the Flight Control Room (FCR) of JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 as astronaut Pierre J. Thuot attempts to lock onto the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) VI F-3 satellite. Thuot, standing on Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, remote manipulator system (RMS), was unable to capture the satellite and a later attempt was scheduled.

1992-01-01

32

The relationship between accommodative amplitude and the ratio of central lens thickness to its equatorial diameter in vertebrate eyes  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine the relationship between accommodative amplitude and central lens thickness/equatorial lens diameter (CLT/ELD) ratio in vertebrates. Methods Midsagittal sections of lenses from fixed, post mortem eyes from 125 different vertebrate species were photographed. Their CLT/ELD ratios were correlated with independently published measurements of their accommodative amplitudes. Using the non?linear finite element method (FEM), the efficiency of zonular traction (the absolute change in central radius of curvature per unit force [|?CR|/F]) for model lenses with CLT/ELD ratios from 0.45 to 0.9 was determined. Results Vertebrates with CLT/ELD ratios ?0.6 have high accommodative amplitudes. Zonular traction was found to be most efficient for those model lenses having CLT/ELD ratios ?0.6. Conclusions Vertebrates with lenses that have CLT/ELD ratios ?0.6 – i.e. “long oval” shapes – have the greatest accommodative amplitudes; e.g. primates, diving birds and diurnal birds of prey. Vertebrates that have oval or spherical shaped lenses, like owls and most mammals, have low accommodative amplitudes. Zonular traction was found to be most efficient when applied to model lenses with CLT/ELD ratios ?0.6. The implications of these findings on the mechanism of accommodation are discussed. PMID:17050574

Schachar, Ronald A; Pierscionek, Barbara K; Abolmaali, Ali; Le, Tri

2007-01-01

33

Long-term results of first salvage treatment in CLL patients treated initially with FCR (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab)  

PubMed Central

Although fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) together are established as a standard first-line treatment of younger patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), there is little information to guide the management of patients with CLL refractory to, or who have relapsed after, receiving frontline FCR treatment. To define optimal salvage strategy and identify patients unsuitable for retreatment with FCR, we examined the survival and treatment outcome of 300 patients enrolled in a phase 2 study of FCR. After a median 142 months of follow-up, 156 patients developed progressive CLL, with a median survival of 51 months after disease progression. The duration of first remission (REM1) was a key determinant of survival after disease progression and first salvage. Patients with a short REM1 (<3 years) had a short survival period, irrespective of salvage therapy received; these patients have high unmet medical needs and are good candidates for investigation of novel therapies. In patients with a long REM1 (?3 years), salvage treatment with either repeat FCR or lenalidomide-based therapy results in subsequent median survival exceeding 5 years; for these patients, FCR rechallenge represents a reasonable standard of care. PMID:25281606

Tam, Constantine S.; O’Brien, Susan; Plunkett, William; Wierda, William; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wang, Xuemei; Do, Kim-Anh; Cortes, Jorge; Khouri, Issa; Kantarjian, Hagop; Lerner, Susan

2014-01-01

34

Long-term results of first salvage treatment in CLL patients treated initially with FCR (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab).  

PubMed

Although fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) together are established as a standard first-line treatment of younger patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), there is little information to guide the management of patients with CLL refractory to, or who have relapsed after, receiving frontline FCR treatment. To define optimal salvage strategy and identify patients unsuitable for retreatment with FCR, we examined the survival and treatment outcome of 300 patients enrolled in a phase 2 study of FCR. After a median 142 months of follow-up, 156 patients developed progressive CLL, with a median survival of 51 months after disease progression. The duration of first remission (REM1) was a key determinant of survival after disease progression and first salvage. Patients with a short REM1 (<3 years) had a short survival period, irrespective of salvage therapy received; these patients have high unmet medical needs and are good candidates for investigation of novel therapies. In patients with a long REM1 (?3 years), salvage treatment with either repeat FCR or lenalidomide-based therapy results in subsequent median survival exceeding 5 years; for these patients, FCR rechallenge represents a reasonable standard of care. PMID:25281606

Tam, Constantine S; O'Brien, Susan; Plunkett, William; Wierda, William; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wang, Xuemei; Do, Kim-Anh; Cortes, Jorge; Khouri, Issa; Kantarjian, Hagop; Lerner, Susan; Keating, Michael J

2014-11-13

35

Sex ratios and sexual differences in size among mesopelagic fishes from the central Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population sex ratio, size at maturity and maximum size of both sexes were determined for 22 species of mesopelagic fishes in order to document the occurence and consider the ecological significance of deviations from even sex ratio and equal-sized sexes. Specimens were collected in oblique trawls near Hawaii between August 1977 and October 1978. Eight species (mostly small myctophids) appeared

T. A. Clarke

1983-01-01

36

Search for Quark Compositeness with the Dijet Centrality Ratio in $pp$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV  

SciTech Connect

A search for quark compositeness in the form of quark contact interactions, based on hadronic jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV, is described. The data sample of the study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 inverse picobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of the dijets, is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dijet system and is found to agree with the predictions of the Standard Model. A statistical analysis of the data provides a lower limit on the energy scale of quark contact interactions. The sensitivity of the analysis is such that the expected limit is 2.9 TeV; because the observed value of the centrality ratio at high invariant mass is below the expectation, the observed limit is 4.0 TeV at the 95% confidence level.

Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

2010-12-01

37

Search for quark compositeness with the dijet centrality ratio in pp collisions at ?s=7 TeV.  

PubMed

A search for quark compositeness in the form of quark contact interactions, based on hadronic jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at ?s=7 TeV, is described. The data sample of the study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 pb(-1) collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of the dijets, is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dijet system and is found to agree with the predictions of the standard model. A statistical analysis of the data provides a lower limit on the energy scale of quark contact interactions. The sensitivity of the analysis is such that the expected limit is 2.9 TeV; because the observed value of the centrality ratio at high invariant mass is below the expectation, the observed limit is 4.0 TeV at the 95% confidence level. PMID:21231646

Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hartl, C; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kiesenhofer, W; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Gonzalez, J Suarez; Benucci, L; Ceard, L; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Devroede, O; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Hreus, T; Marage, P E; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Costantini, S; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Walsh, S; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; De JesusDamiao, D; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; Da Costa, E M; Martins, C De Oliveira; De Souza, S Fonseca; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Oguri, V; Goicochea, J M Otalora; Da Silva, W L Prado; Santoro, A; Do Amaral, S M Silva; Sznajder, A; De Araujo, F Torres Da Silva; Dias, F A; Dias, M A F; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Marinho, F; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dyulendarova, M; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Yang, M; Zang, J; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Li, W; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Cabrera, A; Moreno, B Gomez; Rios, A A Ocampo; Oliveros, A F Osorio; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Attikis, A; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Abdel-basit, A; Assran, Y; Mahmoud, M A; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Azzolini, V; Eerola, P; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Broutin, C; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Wyslouch, B; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Cardaci, M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Ferro, C; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Greder, S; Juillot, P; Karim, M; Le Bihan, A-C; Mikami, Y; Van Hove, P; Fassi, F; Mercier, D; Baty, C; Beaupere, N; Bedjidian, M; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Boumediene, D; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Falkiewicz, A; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sordini, V; Tosi, S; Tschudi, Y; Verdier, P; Xiao, H; Roinishvili, V; Anagnostou, G; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Jussen, R; Klein, K; Merz, J; Mohr, N; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Ata, M; Bender, W; Erdmann, M; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Klimkovich, T; Klingebiel, D; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Magass, C; Masetti, G; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Steggemann, J; Teyssier, D; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Ahmad, W Haj; Heydhausen, D; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Pooth, O; Rennefeld, J; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Thomas, M; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Martin, M Aldaya; Behrenhoff, W; Behrens, U; Bergholz, M; Borras, K; Cakir, A; Campbell, A; Castro, E

2010-12-31

38

Waist circumference, waist/height ratio, and neck circumference as parameters of central obesity assessment in children?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To analyze studies that assessed the anthropometric parameters waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and neck circumference (NC) as indicators of central obesity in children. Data sources: We searched PubMed and SciELO databases using the combined descriptors: "Waist circumference", "Waist-to-height ratio", "Neck circumference", "Children" and "Abdominal fat" in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Inclusion criteria were original articles with information about the WC, WHR and NC in the assessment of central obesity in children. We excluded review articles, short communications, letters and editorials. Data synthesis: 1,525 abstracts were obtained in the search, and 68 articles were selected for analysis. Of these, 49 articles were included in the review. The WC was the parameter more used in studies, followed by the WHR. Regarding NC, there are few studies in children. The predictive ability of WC and WHR to indicate central adiposity in children was controversial. The cutoff points suggested for the parameters varied among studies, and some differences may be related to ethnicity and lack of standardization of anatomical site used for measurement. Conclusions: More studies are needed to evaluate these parameters for determination of central obesity children. Scientific literature about NC is especially scarce, mainly in the pediatric population. There is a need to standardize site measures and establish comparable cutoff points between different populations. PMID:25479861

Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

2014-01-01

39

Tpl2 kinase regulates Fc?R signaling and immune thrombocytopenia in mice  

PubMed Central

The MAPK3 Tpl2 controls innate and adaptive immunity by regulating TLR, TNF-?, and GPCR signaling in a variety of cell types. Its ablation gives rise to an anti-inflammatory phenotype characterized by resistance to LPS-induced endotoxin shock, DSS-induced colitis, and TNF-?-induced IBD. Here, we address the role of Tpl2 in autoimmunity. Our data show that the ablation and the pharmacological inhibition of Tpl2 protect mice from antiplatelet antibody-induced thrombocytopenia, a model of ITP. Thrombocytopenia in this model and in ITP is caused by phagocytosis of platelets opsonized with antiplatelet antibodies and depends on Fc?R activation in splenic and hepatic myeloid cells. Further studies explained how Tpl2 inhibition protects from antibody-induced thrombocytopenia, by showing that Tpl2 is activated by Fc?R signals in macrophages and that its activation by these signals is required for ERK activation, cytoplasmic Ca2+ influx, the induction of cytokine and coreceptor gene expression, and phagocytosis. PMID:23898046

Kyrmizi, Irene; Ioannou, Marianna; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Boumpas, Dimitrios T.; Tassiulas, Ioannis

2013-01-01

40

Response to selection for feed conversion ratio in Japanese quail.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of selection for 4-wk feed conversion ratio (FCR) on genetic improvement of FCR, BW, weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and residual FI (RFI) in Japanese quail. The F line was selected for reduced FCR and the C line was maintained as a randombred control. In each generation, 35 sires and 70 dams were used as parents for the next generation. Three generations of selection were performed. Realized heritability for FCR was calculated as the ratio of cumulative selection response to the cumulative selection differential, and additionally, genetic response was quantified as the difference between the means of selection and control lines. The results showed that realized heritability for FCR after 3 generations of selection was 0.67. The mean FCR in F line and C line in the last generation was 2.13 and 2.61, respectively. This is 18.4% cumulative genetic improvement, or 6.1% improvement per generation. In the last generation, the means of F and C lines were 193 and 166 g for BW at age 28 d (16.4% total increase, or 5.5% per generation), 184 and 158 g for WG (17.2% total higher gain and 5.7% per generation), 393 and 413 g for FI (4.9% total higher consumption and 1.6% per generation), and -24.5 and 10.2 for RFI (-34.7 g of cumulative gain; -11.6 g per generation), respectively. These results show that selection to decrease FCR increases BW and WG and decreases FI and RFI as a correlated response. PMID:20634511

Varkoohi, S; Moradi Shahr Babak, M; Pakdel, A; Nejati Javaremi, A; Zaghari, M; Kause, A

2010-08-01

41

High aspect ratio template and method for producing same for central and peripheral nerve repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Millimeter to nano-scale structures manufactured using a multi-component polymer fiber matrix are disclosed. The use of dissimilar polymers allows the selective dissolution of the polymers at various stages of the manufacturing process. In one application, biocompatible matrixes may be formed with long pore length and small pore size. The manufacturing process begins with a first polymer fiber arranged in a matrix formed by a second polymer fiber. End caps may be attached to provide structural support and the polymer fiber matrix selectively dissolved away leaving only the long polymer fibers. These may be exposed to another product, such as a biocompatible gel to form a biocompatible matrix. The polymer fibers may then be selectively dissolved leaving only a biocompatible gel scaffold with the pores formed by the dissolved polymer fibers. The scaffolds may be used in, among other applications, the repair of central and peripheral nerves. Scaffolds for the repair of peripheral nerves may include a reservoir for the sustained release of nerve growth factor. The scaffolds may also include a multifunctional polyelectrolyte layer for the sustained release of nerve growth factor and enhance biocompatibility.

Sakamoto, Jeff S. (Inventor); Tuszynski, Mark Henry (Inventor); Gros, Thomas (Inventor); Chan, Christina (Inventor); Mehrotra, Sumit (Inventor)

2011-01-01

42

Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s  

PubMed Central

Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969–1977 for 239+240Pu activity concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that 239+240Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 –1.46 mBq g?1, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 ± 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of 241Pu using the 241Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released 241Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited 241Pu in the last decades. PMID:25881009

Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

2015-01-01

43

Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s.  

PubMed

Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969-1977 for (239+240)Pu activity concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that (239+240)Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 -1.46 mBq g(-1), and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 ± 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of (241)Pu using the (241)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released (241)Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited (241)Pu in the last decades. PMID:25881009

Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

2015-01-01

44

Identification and characterization of a FcR homolog in an ectothermic vertebrate, the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Fc receptor homolog (IpFcRI)3, representing the first such receptor from an ectothermic vertebrate, has been identified in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Mining of the catfish expressed sequence tag (EST) databases using mammalian FcR sequences for CD16, CD32, and CD64 resulted in the ...

45

FUNDAMENTAL COMBUSTION RESEARCH APPLIED TO POLLUTION FORMATION. VOLUME 1. FCR PROGRAM OVERVIEW AND GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is the first in a series of four, documenting research performed under EPA's Fundamental Combustion Research (FCR) program. It is divided in two: Part A is a program overview and an introduction to the series; and Part B documents research performed in the gas-phase ch...

46

Is radio jet power linearly proportional to the product of central black hole mass and Eddington ratio in AGN?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for the relation between radio jet power and the product of central black hole (BH) mass and Eddington ratio of AGN is proposed, and the model is examined with data from the literature. We find that radio jet power positively correlates but not linearly with the product of BH mass ( m in solar mass) and Eddington ratio ( ?), and the power law indices ( ?) are significantly less than unity for relatively low accretion ( ?<0.1) AGN, P j ?( ?m) ? , in the radio galaxies and the Seyfert galaxies. This leads to a negative correlation between radio loudness and ?m for the low luminosity AGN, i.e. R?( ?m) ? with ?=(7/6) ?-1<0, which may be attributed to a contribution of BH spin to total jet power assuming that the spin induced jet is gradually suppressed as the accretion rate increases. Whereas, for the high- z quasars which often show the slope ??1, a positive correlation between the radio loudness and disc luminosity is predicted. We discuss that the jet powers of the high- z FRII quasars are likely dominated by the accretion disc rather than by the BH spin.

Liu, Xiang; Han, Zhenhua

2014-12-01

47

Using the nutrient ratio NO/PO as a tracer of continental shelf waters in the central Arctic Ocean  

SciTech Connect

Historical nitrate, phosphate, and dissolved oxygen data from the central Arctic Ocean are examined with particular emphasis on the conservative parameters NO (9 * NO{sub 3} + O{sub 2}) and PO (135 * PO{sub 4} + O{sub 2}). The NO/PO ratio is shown to increase with depth in the Canada Basin, being {approximately}0.78 in Surface and Upper Halocline Waters and {approximately}1.0 in the Atlantic Layer and Deep Waters. Lower Halocline Water is marked by NO and PO minima and intermediate NO/PO. NO/PO ratios from the Arctic shelf seas are examined to determine possible source regions for the various water masses. The NO/PO ration of Canada Basin Deep Water implies an upper bound of {approximately}11% shelf water contribution to this water mass. A slight oxygen maximum core in the Lower Halocline Water is identified at a salinity of S{double bond}34.5 in the vicinity of the Alpha Ridge. This core appears to be diminished by diapycnal mixing and does not extend into the Beaufort Gyre.

Wilson, C.; Wallace, D.W.R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1990-12-15

48

Broadly neutralizing hemagglutinin stalk–specific antibodies require Fc?R interactions for protection against influenza virus in vivo  

PubMed Central

Neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses have traditionally been thought to provide protection exclusively through their variable region; the contributions of mechanisms conferred by the Fc domain remain controversial. We investigated the in vivo contributions of Fc interactions with their cognate receptors for a collection of neutralizing anti-influenza antibodies. Whereas five broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) targeting the conserved stalk region of hemagglutinin (HA) required interactions between the antibody Fc and Fc receptors for IgG (Fc?Rs) to confer protection from lethal H1N1 challenge, three strain-specific monoclonal Abs (mAbs) against the variable head domain of HA were equally protective in the presence or absence of Fc?R interactions. Although all antibodies blocked infection, only anti-stalk bNAbs were capable of mediating cytotoxicity of infected cells, which accounts for their Fc?R dependence. Immune complexes generated with anti–HA stalk mAb efficiently interacted with Fc?Rs, but anti–HA head immune complexes did not. These results suggest that Fc?R binding capacity by anti-HA antibodies was dependent on the interaction of the cognate Fab with antigen. We exploited these disparate mechanisms of mAb-mediated protection to reengineer an anti-stalk bNAb to selectively enhance Fc?R engagement to augment its protective activity. These findings reveal a previously uncharacterized property of bNAbs and guide an approach toward enhancing mAb-mediated antiviral therapeutics. PMID:24412922

DiLillo, David J; Tan, Gene S; Palese, Peter; Ravetch, Jeffrey V

2014-01-01

49

Direct Measurement of Initial 230TH/ 232TH Ratios in Central Texas Speleothems for More Accurate Age Determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speleothems, calcite deposits in caves, preserve a record of climate in their growth rate, isotope ratios and trace element concentrations. These variables must be tied to precise ages to produce pre-instrumental records of climate. The 238U-234U- 230Th disequilibrium method of dating can yield precise ages if the amount of 230Th from the decay of radiogenic 238U can be constrained. 230Th in a speleothem calcite growth layer has two potential sources - 1) decay of radioactive 238U since the time of growth of the calcite layer; and 2) initial detrital 230Th, incorporated along with detrital 232Th, into the calcite layer at the time it grew. Although the calcite lattice does not typically incorporate Th, samples can contain impurities with relatively high Th contents. Initial 230Th/232Th is commonly estimated by assuming a source with bulk-Earth U/Th values in a state of secular equilibrium in the 238U-decay chain. The uncertainty in this 230Th/232Th estimate is also assumed, typically at +/-100%. Both assumptions contribute to uncertainty in ages determined for young speleothems. If the amount of initial detrital 230Th can be better quantified for samples or sites, then U-series ages will have smaller uncertainties and more precisely define the time series of climate proxies. This study determined the initial 230Th/232Th of modern calcite to provide more precise dates for central Texas speleothems. Calcite was grown on glass-plate substrates placed under active drips in central Texas caves. The 230Th/232Th of this modern calcite was determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Results show that: 1) initial 230Th/232Th ratios can be accurately determined in these young samples and 2) measuring 230Th/232Th reduces the uncertainties in previously-determined ages on stalagmites from under the same drips. For example, measured initial 230Th/232Th in calcite collected on substrates from different locations in the cave at Westcave Preserve are 15.3 × 0.67 ppm, 14.6 × 0.83 ppm, 5.8 × 0.56 ppm, and 5.9 × 0.60 ppm, which are higher and more precise than the value commonly assumed for initial 230Th/232Th, 4.4 × 4.4 ppm. Soil sampled above Westcave, a potential source of detrital Th incorporated into speleothems, also has a high calculated 230Th/232Th. We calculate soil 230Th/232Th from measured U and Th concentrations of soil leachates (using DI water and ammonium acetate). Calculated 230Th/232Th for Westcave soils range from 0.39 to 28.4 ppm, which encompasses the range of initial 230Th/232Th values found in the modern calcite. Soil leachates from Natural Bridge Caverns and Inner Space Cavern were analyzed by the same method, yielding calculated 230Th/232Th ranging from 1.5 to 12.6 ppm (Natural Bridge), and from 1.43 to 272 ppm (Inner Space). Soil and calcite data indicate that the commonly assumed initial 230Th/232Th is not always applicable and that initial 230Th/232Th can be estimated more accurately by measuring Th isotope ratios in modern calcite and soils to determine speleothem U-series ages.

Wortham, B. E.; Banner, J. L.; James, E.; Loewy, S. L.

2013-12-01

50

?2?1 Integrin, GPVI Receptor, and Common FcR? Chain on Mouse Platelets Mediate Distinct Responses to Collagen in Models of Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Platelets express the ?2?1 integrin and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI)/FcR? complex, both collagen receptors. Understanding platelet-collagen receptor function has been enhanced through use of genetically modified mouse models. Previous studies of GPVI/FcR?-mediated collagen-induced platelet activation were perfomed with mice in which the FcR? subunit was genetically deleted (FcR??/?) or the complex was depleted. The development of ?2?1?/? and GPVI?/? mice permits side-by-side comparison to address contributions of these collagen receptors in vivo and in vitro. Approach and Results To understand the different roles played by the ?2?1 integrin, the GPVI receptor or FcR? subunit in collagen-stimulated hemostasis and thrombosis, we compared ?2?1?/?, FcR??/?, and GPVI?/? mice in models of endothelial injury and intravascular thrombosis in vivo and their platelets in collagen-stimulated activation in vitro. We demonstrate that both the ?2?1 integrin and the GPVI receptor, but not the FcR? subunit influence carotid artery occlusion in vivo. In contrast, the GPVI receptor and the FcR? chain, but not the ?2?1 integrin, play similar roles in intravascular thrombosis in response to soluble Type I collagen. FcR??/? platelets showed less attenuation of tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins including RhoGDI when compared to GPVI?/? and wild type platelets. The difference between FcR??/? and GPVI?/? platelet phosphotyrosine levels correlated with the in vivo thrombosis findings. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that genetic deletion of GPVI receptor, FcR? chain, or the ?2?1 integrin changes the thrombotic potentials of these platelets to collagen dependent on the stimulus mechanism. The data suggest that the FcR? chain may provide a dominant negative effect through modulating signaling pathways in platelets involving several tyrosine phosphorylated proteins such as RhoGDI. In addition, these findings suggest a more complex signaling network downstream of the platelet collagen receptors than previously appreciated. PMID:25415203

Marjoram, Robin J.; Li, Zhengzhi; He, Li; Tollefsen, Douglas M.; Kunicki, Thomas J.; Dickeson, S. Kent; Santoro, Samuel A.; Zutter, Mary M.

2014-01-01

51

18 O\\/ 16 O ratios in ash-flow tuffs and lavas erupted from the central Nevada caldera complex and the central San Juan caldera complex, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen isotope compositions were measured on 129 quartz, feldspar, and biotite phenocrysts from ash-flow tuffs and lava domes erupted from the Oligocene central Nevada and central San Juan caldera complexes. Most of the ash-flow tuffs are compositionally zoned with low-phenocryst rhyolite bases and high-phenocryst quartz-latite tops, but both within individual units and throughout each of the eruptive sequences at each

Peter B. Larson; Hugh P. Taylor

1986-01-01

52

First Measurement of the Ratio of Central-Electron to Forward-Electron W Partial Cross Sections in pp¯ Collisions at s=1.96TeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a measurement of sigma(pp¯-->W)×B(W-->enu) at s=1.96TeV, using electrons identified in the forward region (1.2<|eta|<2.8) of the CDF II detector, in 223pb-1 of data. We measure sigma×B=2796±13(stat)-90+95(syst)±162(lum)pb. Combining this result with a previous CDF measurement obtained using electrons in the central region (|eta|≲1), we present the first measurement of the ratio of central-electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections

A. Abulencia; J. Adelman; T. Affolder; T. Akimoto; M. G. Albrow; S. Amerio; D. Amidei; A. Anastassov; K. Anikeev; A. Annovi; J. Antos; M. Aoki; G. Apollinari; T. Arisawa; A. Artikov; W. Ashmanskas; A. Attal; A. Aurisano; F. Azfar; P. Azzi-Bacchetta; P. Azzurri; N. Bacchetta; W. Badgett; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; S. Baroiant; V. Bartsch; G. Bauer; P.-H. Beauchemin; F. Bedeschi; S. Behari; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; A. Belloni; D. Benjamin; A. Beretvas; J. Beringer; T. Berry; A. Bhatti; M. Binkley; D. Bisello; I. Bizjak; R. E. Blair; C. Blocker; B. Blumenfeld; A. Bocci; A. Bodek; V. Boisvert; G. Bolla; A. Bolshov; D. Bortoletto; J. Boudreau; A. Boveia; B. Brau; L. Brigliadori; C. Bromberg; E. Brubaker; J. Budagov; H. S. Budd; S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; P. Bussey; A. Buzatu; K. L. Byrum; S. Cabrera; M. Campanelli; M. Campbell; F. Canelli; A. Canepa; S. Carillo; D. Carlsmith; R. Carosi; S. Carron; B. Casal; M. Casarsa; A. Castro; P. Catastini; D. Cauz; M. Cavalli-Sforza; A. Cerri; L. Cerrito; S. H. Chang; Y. C. Chen; M. Chertok; G. Chiarelli; G. Chlachidze; F. Chlebana; I. Cho; K. Cho; D. Chokheli; J. P. Chou; G. Choudalakis; S. H. Chuang; K. Chung; W. H. Chung; Y. S. Chung; M. Cilijak; C. I. Ciobanu; M. A. Ciocci; A. Clark; D. Clark; M. Coca; G. Compostella; M. E. Convery; J. Conway; B. Cooper; K. Copic; M. Cordelli; G. Cortiana; F. Crescioli; C. Cuenca Almenar; J. Cuevas; R. Culbertson; J. C. Cully; S. Daronco; M. Datta; S. D'Auria; T. Davies; D. Dagenhart; P. de Barbaro; S. de Cecco; A. Deisher; G. de Lentdecker; G. de Lorenzo; M. Dell'Orso; F. Delli Paoli; L. Demortier; J. Deng; M. Deninno; D. de Pedis; P. F. Derwent; G. P. Di Giovanni; C. Dionisi; B. di Ruzza; J. R. Dittmann; M. D'Onofrio; C. Dörr; S. Donati; P. Dong; J. Donini; T. Dorigo; S. Dube; J. Efron; R. Erbacher; D. Errede; S. Errede; R. Eusebi; H. C. Fang; S. Farrington; I. Fedorko; W. T. Fedorko; R. G. Feild; M. Feindt; J. P. Fernandez; R. Field; G. Flanagan; R. Forrest; S. Forrester; M. Franklin; J. C. Freeman; I. Furic; M. Gallinaro; J. Galyardt; J. E. Garcia; F. Garberson; A. F. Garfinkel; C. Gay; H. Gerberich; D. Gerdes; S. Giagu; P. Giannetti; K. Gibson; J. L. Gimmell; C. Ginsburg; N. Giokaris; M. Giordani; P. Giromini; M. Giunta; G. Giurgiu; V. Glagolev; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; N. Goldschmidt; J. Goldstein; A. Golossanov; G. Gomez; G. Gomez-Ceballos; M. Goncharov; O. González; I. Gorelov; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; A. Gresele; S. Grinstein; C. Grosso-Pilcher; U. Grundler; J. Guimaraes da Costa; Z. Gunay-Unalan; C. Haber; K. Hahn; S. R. Hahn; E. Halkiadakis; B.-Y. Han; J. Y. Han; R. Handler; F. Happacher; K. Hara; D. Hare; M. Hare; S. Harper; R. F. Harr; R. M. Harris; M. Hartz; K. Hatakeyama; J. Hauser; C. Hays; M. Heck; A. Heijboer; B. Heinemann; J. Heinrich; C. Henderson; M. Herndon; J. Heuser; D. Hidas; C. S. Hill; D. Hirschbuehl; A. Hocker; A. Holloway; S. Hou; M. Houlden; S.-C. Hsu; B. T. Huffman; R. E. Hughes; U. Husemann; J. Huston; J. Incandela; G. Introzzi; M. Iori; A. Ivanov; B. Iyutin; E. James; D. Jang; B. Jayatilaka; D. Jeans; E. J. Jeon; S. Jindariani; W. Johnson; M. Jones; K. K. Joo; S. Y. Jun; J. E. Jung; T. R. Junk; T. Kamon; P. E. Karchin; Y. Kato; Y. Kemp; R. Kephart; U. Kerzel; V. Khotilovich; B. Kilminster; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; J. E. Kim; M. J. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; N. Kimura; L. Kirsch; S. Klimenko; M. Klute; B. Knuteson; B. R. Ko; K. Kondo; D. J. Kong; J. Konigsberg; A. Korytov; A. V. Kotwal; A. C. Kraan; J. Kraus; M. Kreps; J. Kroll; N. Krumnack; M. Kruse; V. Krutelyov; T. Kubo; S. E. Kuhlmann; T. Kuhr; N. P. Kulkarni; Y. Kusakabe; S. Kwang; A. T. Laasanen; S. Lai; S. Lami; S. Lammel; M. Lancaster; R. L. Lander; K. Lannon; A. Lath; G. Latino; I. Lazzizzera; T. Lecompte; J. Lee; Y. J. Lee; S. W. Lee; R. Lefèvre; N. Leonardo; S. Leone; S. Levy; J. D. Lewis; C. Lin; M. Lindgren; E. Lipeles; A. Lister; D. O. Litvintsev; T. Liu; N. S. Lockyer; A. Loginov; M. Loreti; R.-S. Lu; D. Lucchesi; P. Lujan; P. Lukens; G. Lungu; L. Lyons; J. Lys; R. Lysak; E. Lytken; P. Mack; D. MacQueen; R. Madrak; K. Maeshima; K. Makhoul; T. Maki; P. Maksimovic; S. Malde; S. Malik; G. Manca; A. Manousakis; F. Margaroli; R. Marginean; C. Marino; A. Martin; M. Martin; V. Martin; M. Martínez; R. Martínez-Ballarín; T. Maruyama; P. Mastrandrea; T. Masubuchi; H. Matsunaga; M. E. Mattson; R. Mazini; P. Mazzanti; K. S. McFarland; P. McIntyre; R. McNulty; A. Mehta; P. Mehtala; S. Menzemer; A. Menzione; P. Merkel; C. Mesropian; A. Messina; T. Miao; N. Miladinovic; J. Miles; R. Miller; C. Mills; M. Milnik; A. Mitra; G. Mitselmakher; A. Miyamoto; S. Moed; N. Moggi; B. Mohr; C. S. Moon; R. Moore; M. Morello; P. Movilla Fernandez; J. Mülmenstädt; A. Mukherjee; Th. Muller; R. Mumford; P. Murat; M. Mussini; J. Nachtman; A. Nagano; J. Naganoma; K. Nakamura; I. Nakano; A. Napier; V. Necula

2007-01-01

53

Essays in monetary policy conduction and its effectiveness: monetary policy rules, probability forecasting, central bank accountability, and the sacrifice ratio  

E-print Network

trust and encouragement. I benefited greatly from enlightening conversations with Professors John Nichols, Allan Love, George Davis, Rich Woodward, Rudy Nayga, Ron Griffin, James Richardson, Vicky Salin, Dror Goldberg, William Neilson, and Thomas... ! This dissertation follows the style and format of the American Economic Review. 1 Usually the models use Kydland-Prescott (1977), and Barro-Gordon (1983)-style loss functions to represent the central banker?s utility function. As Blinder (1998) points out, central...

Gabriel, Casillas Olvera,

2004-11-15

54

Energy dependence of particle ratio fluctuations in central Pb+Pb collisions from {radical}(s{sub NN})=6.3 to 17.3 GeV  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the energy dependence of event-by-event fluctuations in the K/{pi} and (p+p)/{pi} multiplicity ratios in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN SPS. The particle ratio fluctuations were obtained for central Pb+Pb collisions at five collision energies, {radical}(s{sub NN}), between 6.3 and 17.3 GeV. After accounting for the effects of finite-number statistics and detector resolution, we extract the strength of nonstatistical fluctuations at each energy. For the K/{pi} ratio, larger fluctuations than expected for independent particle production are found at all collision energies. The fluctuations in the (p+p)/{pi} ratio are smaller than expectations from independent particle production, indicating correlated pion and proton production from resonance decays. For both ratios, the deviation from purely statistical fluctuations shows an increase toward lower collision energies. The results are compared to transport model calculations, which fail to describe the energy dependence of the K/{pi} ratio fluctuations.

Alt, C.; Blume, C.; Bramm, R.; Dinkelaker, P.; Flierl, D.; Kliemant, M.; Kniege, S.; Lungwitz, B.; Mitrovski, M.; Renfordt, R.; Schuster, T.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Wetzler, A. [Fachbereich Physik der Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Anticic, T.; Kadija, K.; Nicolic, V.; Susa, T. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Baatar, B.; Kolesnikov, V. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)] (and others)

2009-04-15

55

First Measurement of the Ratio of Central-Electron to Forward-Electron W Partial Cross Sections in pp¯ Collisions at s=1.96TeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a measurement of ?(pp¯?W)×B(W?e?) at s=1.96TeV, using electrons identified in the forward region (1.2<|?|<2.8) of the CDF II detector, in 223pb-1 of data. We measure ?×B=2796±13(stat)-90+95(syst)±162(lum)pb. Combining this result with a previous CDF measurement obtained using electrons in the central region (|?|?1), we present the first measurement of the ratio of central-electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections Rexp?=0.925±0.006(stat)±0.032(syst), consistent with theoretical predictions using Coordinated Theoretical-Experimental Project on QCD (CTEQ) and Martin-Roberts-Stirling-Thorne (MRST) parton distribution functions.

Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M. G.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Aoki, M.; Apollinari, G.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Azzurri, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Baroiant, S.; Bartsch, V.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Belloni, A.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beringer, J.; Berry, T.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bolla, G.; Bolshov, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carillo, S.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, I.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Choudalakis, G.; Chuang, S. H.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Cilijak, M.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Coca, M.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooper, B.; Copic, K.; Cordelli, M.; Cortiana, G.; Crescioli, F.; Almenar, C. Cuenca; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Daronco, S.; Datta, M.; D'Auria, S.; Davies, T.; Dagenhart, D.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lentdecker, G.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Delli Paoli, F.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; de Pedis, D.; Derwent, P. F.; Giovanni, G. P. Di; Dionisi, C.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dörr, C.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Donini, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Forrester, S.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia, J. E.; Garberson, F.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Gay, C.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Goldstein, J.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, K.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamilton, A.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Handler, R.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harper, S.; Harr, R. F.; Harris, R. M.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauser, J.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J.; Henderson, C.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Holloway, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huffman, B. T.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; Iyutin, B.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeans, D.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kemp, Y.; Kephart, R.; Kerzel, U.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Klute, M.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, B. R.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kraan, A. C.; Kraus, J.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kubo, T.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kusakabe, Y.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lai, S.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, S. W.; Lefèvre, R.; Leonardo, N.; Leone, S.; Levy, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.; Lin, C. S.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Loreti, M.; Lu, R.-S.; Lucchesi, D.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lyons, L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Mack, P.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maki, T.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marginean, R.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, M.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Maruyama, T.; Mastrandrea, P.; Masubuchi, T.; Matsunaga, H.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazini, R.

2007-06-01

56

Chemoimmunotherapy with oral low-dose fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (old-FCR) as treatment for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.  

PubMed

Median age at diagnosis for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients is now 72 years, thus a consistent number of patients may not tolerate standard doses i.v. of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR), the best available therapy, due to unacceptable myelotoxicity and risk of severe infections. We studied safety and efficacy of the addition of rituximab to the oral low-dose FC regimen (old-FCR) in a selected population of 30 elderly (median age 75, 15 untreated, 15 treated with 1 prior therapy) CLL patients. Complete remission (CR) rate was 80% in the untreated patients (overall response rate, ORR 93%), and 30% in pretreated patients (ORR 74%). Progression free survivals (PFS) were 45 months and 30 months in the untreated and treated patients, respectively. In patients achieving CR, old-FCR led to PFS of 67 months. Moreover, haematological toxicity was mild (grade 3-4: 15%) and patients were treated mostly in outpatient clinic. Old-FCR could be a good therapy option for elderly CLL patients outside clinical trials, larger studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24934847

Gozzetti, Alessandro; Candi, Veronica; Fabbri, Alberto; Schiattone, Luana; Cencini, Emanuele; Lauria, Francesco; Frasconi, Adele; Crupi, Rosaria; Raspadori, Donatella; Papini, Giulia; Defina, Marzia; Bartalucci, Giulia; Bocchia, Monica

2014-08-01

57

Age, growth, sex ratio, and maturity of the whitefish in central Green Bay and adjacent waters of Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study is based on 1,023 whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)--819 in seven samples from five localitites in central Green Bay in 1948-49 and 1851-52 and 204 in a single 1948 collection from northwestern Lake Michigan proper. Records of age indicated unusual strength for only one year class--1943 which strongly dominated the 1948 sample from Lake Michigan and the 1949 sample from Green Bay and was well represented in the 1948 collection from green Bay. Collection of 1951-52 without exception were dominated by age group III. Length distributions of samples varied widely according to the age composition. Among fish more than 2 years old, the length distributions of age groups overlapped broadly. Several 1-inch intervals included fish of four age groups. The length-weight relation varied considerably among central Green Bay samples, but differences among localitites were nearly equalled by the year-to-year difference at a single locality. Lake Michigan whitefish were generally lighter than those from Green Bay. Weight increased to the 3.386 power of length in Green Bay (combined samples) and the 3.359 power in Lake Michigan. Growth in length, calculated by direct proportion from diameter measurements of growth fields on scales, differed among localities in central Green Bay and between samples of different years at a single locality. If permanent locality differences exist they are not large and can be obscured by the evident annual fluctuations of growth. The grand average calculated length of Green Bay whitefish (combined collections) exceeded that of Lake Michigan fish in all years of life. The advantage was greatest (2.2 inches) at 3 years (calculated lengths of 16.0 inches and 13.8 inches) and subsequently declined to 0.5 inch at 9 years (lengths of 24.6 and 24.1 inches). Both groups reached the minimum legal length of 17 inches during the fourth growing season. Green Bay whitefish also had the larger calculated weights. The advantage reached 9.3 ounces in 3 years (calculated weights of 22.4 and 13.1 ounces). In years of life 4-9, the weight advantage over Lake Michigan fish ranged from 8.7 ounces, (seventh year; weights of 74.4 and 65.7 ounces) to 12.2 ounces (ninth year; weights of 96.2 and 84.0 ounces). Comparison of growth of whitefish at four localities in northern Lake Michigan indicates that fastest growth is in central Green Bay and slowest near the Fox Islands. Growth is intermediate and similar in northwestern Lake Michigan proper and sorthern Green Bay. Youngest mature male whitefish in green Bay belonged to age group II and youngest mature females to age group III. All IV-group fish were mature. Shortest mature males were at 14.5-14.9 inches and shortest mature females at 16.5-16.9 inches. All males longer than 17.9 inches and all females longer than 18.4 inches were mature.

Mraz, Donald

1964-01-01

58

Assessing Bone Quality in Terms of Bone Mineral Density, Buckling Ratio and Critical Fracture Load  

PubMed Central

Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is used as a sole parameter in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Due to the ease of acquirement of BMD, clinical diagnosis still involves its usage although the limitations of BMD are quite well-established. Therefore, this preliminary study hoped to reduce the errors introduced by BMD alone by incorporating geometric and structural predictors simultaneously to observe if strength was implicitly dependent on the geometry and BMD. Hence, we illustrated the triadic relationship between BMD, buckling ratio (BR) and critical fracture load (Fcr). Methods The geometric predictor was the BR as it involves both the changes in the periosteum and the cortical thickness. Also, structural changes were monitored by finite element (FE) analysis-predicted Fcr. These BR and Fcr measurements were plotted with their respective femoral neck BMD values in elderly female patients (n=6) in a 3-year follow-up study, treated with ibandronate. Results In all the three-dimensional plots (baseline, mid and final year), high Fcr values were found at regions containing high BMD and low BR values. Quantitatively, this was also proven where an averaged highest Fcr across the three years had a relatively higher BMD (46%) and lower BR (19%) than that of the averaged lowest Fcr. The dependence of FE predicted strength on both the geometry and bone density was illustrated. Conclusions We conclude that use of triadic relationships for the evaluation of osteoporosis and hip fractures with the combination of strength, radiology-derived BR and bone density will lay the foundation for more accurate predictions in the future. PMID:25489572

Anitha, D

2014-01-01

59

Temporal evolution of lead isotope ratios in sediments of the Central Portuguese Margin: a fingerprint of human activities.  

PubMed

Stable Pb isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb), (210)Pb, Pb, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and Si concentrations were measured in 7 sediment cores from the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula to assess the Pb contamination throughout the last 200 years. Independently of their locations, all cores are characterized by increasing Pb/Al rends not related to grain-size changes. Conversely, decreasing trends of (206)Pb/(207)Pb were found towards the present. This tendency suggest a change in Pb sources reflecting an increased proportion derived from anthropogenic activities. The highest anthropogenic Pb inventories for sediments younger than 1950s were found in the two shallowest cores of Cascais and Lisboa submarine canyons, reflecting the proximity of the Tagus estuary. Lead isotope signatures also help demonstrate that sediments contaminated with Pb are not constrained to estuarine-coastal areas and upper parts of submarine canyons, but are also to transferred to a lesser extent to deeper parts of the Portuguese Margin. PMID:23871578

Mil-Homens, Mário; Caetano, Miguel; Costa, Ana M; Lebreiro, Susana; Richter, Thomas; de Stigter, Henko; Trancoso, Maria A; Brito, Pedro

2013-09-15

60

Deciphering petrogenic processes using Pb isotope ratios from time-series samples at Bezymianny and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes, Central Kamchatka Depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes in the Kamchatka arc erupts compositionally diverse magmas (high-Mg basalts to dacites) over small spatial scales. New high-precision Pb isotope data from modern juvenile (1956-present) erupted products and hosted enclaves and xenoliths from Bezymianny volcano reveal that Bezymianny and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes, separated by only 9 km, undergo varying degrees of crustal processing through independent crustal columns. Lead isotope compositions of Klyuchevskoy basalts-basaltic andesites are more radiogenic than Bezymianny andesites (208Pb/204Pb = 37.850-37.903, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.468-15.480, and 206Pb/204Pb = 18.249-18.278 at Bezymianny; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.907-37.949, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.478-15.487, and 206Pb/204Pb = 18.289-18.305 at Klyuchevskoy). A mid-crustal xenolith with a crystallization pressure of 5.2 ± 0.6 kbars inferred from two-pyroxene geobarometry and basaltic andesite enclaves from Bezymianny record less radiogenic Pb isotope compositions than their host magmas. Hence, assimilation of such lithologies in the middle or lower crust can explain the Pb isotope data in Bezymianny andesites, although a component of magma mixing with less radiogenic mafic recharge magmas and possible mantle heterogeneity cannot be excluded. Lead isotope compositions for the Klyuchevskoy Group are less radiogenic than other arc segments (Karymsky—Eastern Volcanic Zone; Shiveluch—Northern Central Kamchatka Depression), which indicate increased lower-crustal assimilation beneath the Klyuchevskoy Group. Decadal timescale Pb isotope variations at Klyuchevskoy demonstrate rapid changes in the magnitude of assimilation at a volcanic center. Lead isotope data coupled with trace element data reflect the influence of crustal processes on magma compositions even in thin mafic volcanic arcs.

Kayzar, Theresa M.; Nelson, Bruce K.; Bachmann, Olivier; Bauer, Ann M.; Izbekov, Pavel E.

2014-10-01

61

Origin of lead in eight Central European peat bogs determined from isotope ratios, strengths, and operation times of regional pollution sources.  

PubMed

Lead originating from coal burning, gasoline burning, and ore smelting was identified in 210Pb-dated profiles through eight peat bogs distributed over an area of 60,000 km2. The Sphagnum-dominated bogs were located mainly in mountainous regions of the Czech Republic bordering with Germany, Austria, and Poland. Basal peat 14C-dated at 11,000 years BP had a relatively high 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.193). Peat deposited around 1800 AD had a lower 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.168-1.178, indicating that environmental lead in Central Europe had been largely affected by human activity (smelting) even before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Five of the sites exhibited a nearly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.175) throughout the 19th century, resembling the "anthropogenic baseline" described in Northern Europe (1.17). At all sites, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of peat decreased at least until 1980; at four sites, a reversal to more radiogenic values (higher 206Pb/207Pb), typical of easing pollution, was observed in the following decade (1980-1990). A time series of annual outputs for 14 different mining districts dispersing lead into the environment has been constructed for the past 200 years. The production of Ag-Pb, coal, and leaded gasoline peaked in 1900, 1980, and 1980, respectively. In contrast to other European countries, no peak in annual Pb accumulation rates was found in 1900, the year of maximum ore smelting. The highest annual Pb accumulation rates in peat were consistent with the highest Pb emission rates from coal-fired power plants and traffic (1980). Although maximum coal and gasoline production coincided in time, their isotope ratios were unique. The mean measured 206Pb/207Pb ratios of local coal, ores, and gasoline were 1.19, 1.16, and 1.11, respectively. A considerable proportion of coal emissions, relative to gasoline emisions, was responsible for the higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the recent atmosphere (1.15) compared to Western Europe (1.10). As in West European countries, the gasoline sold in the Czech Republic during the Communist era (1948-1989) contained an admixture of low-radiogenic Precambrian lead from Australia. PMID:12630456

Novák, Martin; Emmanuel, Simon; Vile, Melanie A; Erel, Yigal; Véron, Alain; Paces, Tomás; Wieder, R Kelman; Vanecek, Mirko; Stepánová, Markéta; Brízová, Eva; Hovorka, Jan

2003-02-01

62

FCR (Fludarabine, Cyclophosphamide, Rituximab) regimen followed by 90yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation for the treatment of relapsed grades 1 and 2 follicular lymphoma: a report of 9 cases  

PubMed Central

Background This retrospective analysis is focused on the efficacy and safety of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with Zevalin® in nine patients with recurrent follicular lymphoma (FL) who were treated in a consolidation setting after having achieved complete remission or partial remission with FCR. Methods The median age was 63 yrs (range 46-77), all patients were relapsed with histologically confirmed CD20-positive (grade 1 or 2) FL, at relapse they received FCR every 28 days: F (25 mg/m2x 3 days), C (1 gr/m2 day 1) and R (375 mg/m2 day 4) for 4 cycles. Who achieved at least a partial remission, with < 25% bone marrow involvement, was treated with 90Yttrium Ibritumomab Tiuxetan 11.1 or 14.8 MBq/Kg up to a maximum dose 1184 MBq, at 3 months after the completion of FCR. The patients underwent a further restaging at 12 weeks after 90Y-RIT with total body CT scan, FDG-PET/CT and bilateral bone marrow biopsy. Results Nine patients have completed the treatment: FCR followed by 90Y-RIT (6 patients at 14.8 MBq/Kg, 3 patients at 11.1 MBq/Kg). After FCR 7 patients obtained CR and 2 PR; after 90Y-RIT two patients in PR converted to CR 12 weeks later. With median follow up of 34 months (range 13-50) the current analysis has shown that overall survival (OS) is 89% at 2 years, 76% at 3 years and 61% at 4 years. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were hematologic, one patient developed herpes zoster infection after 8 months following valacyclovir discontinuation; another patient developed fungal infection. Conclusions Our experience indicate feasibility, tolerability and efficacy of FCR regimen followed by 90Y-RIT in patients relapsed with grades 1 and 2 FL with no unexpected toxicities. A longer follow up and a larger number of patients with relapsed grades 1 and 2 FL are required to determine the impact of this regimen on long-term duration of response and PFS. PMID:21303501

2011-01-01

63

From emissions to ambient mixing ratios: online seasonal field measurements of volatile organic compounds over a Norway spruce-dominated forest in central Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are substantial contributors to atmospheric chemistry and physics and demonstrate the close relationship between biosphere and atmosphere. Their emission rates are highly sensitive to meteorological and environmental changes with concomitant impacts on atmospheric chemistry. We have investigated seasonal isoprenoid and oxygenated VOC (oxVOC) fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) tree in central Germany and explored the emission responses under various atmospheric conditions. Emission rates were quantified by using dynamic branch enclosure and proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) techniques. Additionally, ambient mixing ratios were derived through application of a new box model treatment on the dynamic chamber measurements. These are compared in terms of abundance and origin with the corresponding emissions. Isoprenoids dominate the BVOC emissions from Norway spruce, with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes accounting for 50.8 ± 7.2% and 19.8 ± 8.1% respectively of the total emissions. Normalizing the VOC emission rates, we have observed a trend of reduction of carbon-containing emissions from April to November, with an enhancement of oxVOC. Highest emission rates were observed in June for all measured species, with the exception of sesquiterpenes, which were emitted most strongly in April. Finally, we evaluate the temperature-dependent algorithm that seems to describe the temperature-dependent emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde and monoterpenes but only with the use of the monthly derived values for emission potential, Es, and temperature dependency, ? factor.

Bourtsoukidis, E.; Williams, J.; Kesselmeier, J.; Jacobi, S.; Bonn, B.

2014-07-01

64

The Path to Open-Angle Glaucoma Gene Discovery: Endophenotypic Status of Intraocular Pressure, Cup-to-Disc Ratio, and Central Corneal Thickness  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex disease with a genetic architecture that can be simplified through the investigation of individual traits underlying disease risk. It has been well studied in twin models, and this study was undertaken to investigate the heritability of some of these key endophenotypes in extended pedigrees. Methods. These data are derived from a large, multicenter study of extended, Caucasian POAG families from Australia and the United States. The study included 1181 people from 22 extended pedigrees. Variance components modeling was used to determine the heritabilities of maximum intraocular pressure (IOP), maximum vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR), and mean central corneal thickness (CCT). Bivariate quantitative genetic analysis between these eye-related phenotypes and POAG itself was performed to determine whether any of these traits represent true endophenotypes. Results. Heritability estimates for IOP, VCDR, and CCT (0.42, 0.66, and 0.72, respectively) were significant and show strong concordance with data in previous studies. Bivariate analysis revealed that both IOP (RhoG = 0.80; P = 9.6 × 10?6) and VCDR (RhoG = 0.76; P = 4.8 × 10?10) showed strong evidence of genetic correlation with POAG susceptibility. These two traits also correlated genetically with each other (RhoG = 0.45; P = 0.0012). Alternatively, CCT did not correlate genetically with risk of POAG. Conclusions. All the proposed POAG-related traits have genetic components. However, the significant genetic correlations observed between IOP, VCDR, and POAG itself suggest that they most likely represent true endophenotypes that could aid in the identification of genes underlying POAG susceptibility. CCT did not correlate genetically with disease and is unlikely to be a useful surrogate endophenotype for POAG. PMID:20237253

Charlesworth, Jac; Kramer, Patricia L.; Dyer, Tom; Diego, Victor; Samples, John R.; Craig, Jamie E.; Mackey, David A.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Blangero, John

2010-01-01

65

From emissions to ambient mixing ratios: on-line seasonal field measurements of volatile organic compounds over a Norway spruce dominated forest in central Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are substantial contributors to atmospheric chemistry and physics and demonstrate the close relationship between biosphere and atmosphere. Their emission rates are highly sensitive to meteorological and environmental changes with concomitant impacts on atmospheric chemistry. We have investigated seasonal isoprenoid and oxygenated VOC (oxVOC) fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) tree in Central Germany and explored the emission responses under various atmospheric conditions. Emission rates were quantified by using dynamic branch enclosure and Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) techniques. Additionally, ambient mixing ratios were derived through application of a new box model treatment on the dynamic chamber measurements. These are compared in terms of abundance and origin with the corresponding emissions. Isoprenoids govern the BVOC emissions from Norway spruce, with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes accounting for 50.8 ± 7.2% and 19.8 ± 8.1% respectively of the total emissions. Normalizing the VOC emission rates, we have observed a trend of reduction of carbon containing emissions from April to November, with an enhancement of oxVOC. Highest emission rates were observed in June for all measured species, with the exception of sesquiterpenes that were emitted most strongly in April. We exploit the wide range of conditions experienced at the site to filter the dataset with a combination of temperature, ozone and absolute humidity values in order to derive the emission potential and temperature dependency development for the major chemical species investigated. A profound reduction of monoterpene emission potential (E30) and temperature dependency (?) was found under low temperature regimes, combined with low ozone levels (E30MT, LTLO3=56 ± 9.1 ng g(dw)-1 h-1, ?MT,LTLO3=0.03±0.01 K-1) while a combination of both stresses was found to alter their emissions responses with respect to temperature substantially (E30MT,HTHO3=1420.1 ± 191.4 ng g(dw)-1 h-1, ?MT,HTHO3=0.15 ± 0.02 K-1). Moreover, we have explored compound relationships under different atmospheric condition sets, addressing possible co-occurrence of emissions under specific conditions. Finally, we evaluate the temperature dependent algorithm that seems to describe the temperature dependent emissions. Highest emission deviations were observed for monoterpenes and these emission fluctuations were attributed to a fraction which is triggered by an additional light dependency.

Bourtsoukidis, E.; Williams, J.; Kesselmeier, J.; Jacobi, S.; Bonn, B.

2013-11-01

66

Replacement of fish meal in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets using a yeast-derived protein source: the effects on weight gain, food conversion ratio, body composition, and survival of catfish challenged..  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined the effects of a yeast-derived protein source (NuPro) as a replacement for menhaden fish meal on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), whole-body composition, and disease resistance in juvenile channel catfish. NuPro replaced 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% o...

67

Partitioning of atmospheric carbon dioxide over Central Europe: insights from combined measurements of CO 2 mixing ratios and their carbon isotope composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular measurements of atmospheric CO 2 mixing ratios and their carbon isotope composition (C\\/C and C\\/C ratios) performed between 2005 and 2009 at two sites of contrasting characteristics (Krakow and the remote mountain site Kasprowy Wierch) located in southern Poland were used to derive fossil fuel-related and biogenic contributions to the total CO 2 load measured at both sites. Carbon

Miroslaw Zimnoch; Dorota Jelen; Michal Galkowski; Tadeusz Kuc; Jaroslaw Necki; Lukasz Chmura; Zbigniew Gorczyca; Alina Jasek; Kazimierz Rozanski

2012-01-01

68

The Solution Structures of Two Human IgG1 Antibodies Show Conformational Stability and Accommodate Their C1q and Fc?R Ligands.  

PubMed

The human IgG1 antibody subclass shows distinct properties compared with the IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 subclasses and is the most exploited subclass in therapeutic antibodies. It is the most abundant subclass, has a half-life as long as that of IgG2 and IgG4, binds the Fc?R receptor, and activates complement. There is limited structural information on full-length human IgG1 because of the challenges of crystallization. To rectify this, we have studied the solution structures of two human IgG1 6a and 19a monoclonal antibodies in different buffers at different temperatures. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that both antibodies were predominantly monomeric, with sedimentation coefficients s20,w (0) of 6.3-6.4 S. Only a minor dimer peak was observed, and the amount was not dependent on buffer conditions. Solution scattering showed that the x-ray radius of gyration Rg increased with salt concentration, whereas the neutron Rg values remained unchanged with temperature. The x-ray and neutron distance distribution curves P(r) revealed two peaks, M1 and M2, whose positions were unchanged in different buffers to indicate conformational stability. Constrained atomistic scattering modeling revealed predominantly asymmetric solution structures for both antibodies with extended hinge structures. Both structures were similar to the only known crystal structure of full-length human IgG1. The Fab conformations in both structures were suitably positioned to permit the Fc region to bind readily to its Fc?R and C1q ligands without steric clashes, unlike human IgG4. Our molecular models for human IgG1 explain its immune activities, and we discuss its stability and function for therapeutic applications. PMID:25659433

Rayner, Lucy E; Hui, Gar Kay; Gor, Jayesh; Heenan, Richard K; Dalby, Paul A; Perkins, Stephen J

2015-03-27

69

Low-affinity Fc?R interactions can decide the fate of novel human IgG-sensitised red blood cells and platelets.  

PubMed

G1?nab is a mutant human IgG1 constant region with a lower ability to interact with Fc?R than the natural IgG constant regions. Radiolabelled RBCs and platelets sensitised with specific G1?nab Abs were cleared more slowly from human circulation than IgG1-sensitised counterparts. However, non-destructive splenic retention of G1?nab-coated RBCs required investigation and plasma radioactivities now suggest this also occurred for platelets sensitised with an IgG1/G1?nab mixture. In vitro assays with human cells showed that G1?nab-sensitised RBCs did not cause Fc?RI-mediated monocyte activation, Fc?RIIIa-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or macrophage phagocytosis although they did adhere to macrophages. Thus, Fc?RII was implicated in the adhesion despite the ?nab mutation reducing the already low-affinity binding to this receptor class. Additional contacts via P-selectin enhance the interaction of sensitised platelets with monocytes and this system provided evidence of Fc?RII-dependent activation by G1?nab. These results emphasise the physiological relevance of low-affinity interactions: It appears that Fc?RII interactions of G1?nab allowed splenic retention of G1?nab-coated RBCs with inhibitory Fc?RIIb binding preventing RBC destruction and that Fc?RIIb engagement by G1?nab on IgG1/G1?nab-sensitised platelets overcame activation by IgG1. Considering therapeutic blocking Abs, G1?nab offers lower Fc?R binding and a greater bias towards inhibition than IgG2 and IgG4 constant regions. PMID:24285214

Armour, Kathryn L; Smith, Cheryl S; Turner, Craig P; Kirton, Christopher M; Wilkes, Anthony M; Hadley, Andrew G; Ghevaert, Cedric; Williamson, Lorna M; Clark, Michael R

2014-03-01

70

Reconstruction of late Bajocian–Bathonian marine palaeoenvironments using carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of calcareous fossils from the Polish Jura Chain (central Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were carried out on Upper Bajocian – Bathonian calcitic belemnite rostra and oyster shells as well as aragonitic ammonite, nautiloid and trigoniid shells from the “Ore-bearing Cz?stochowa Clay Formation” in south-central Poland. All samples were studied by means of cathodoluminscence microscopy, trace element, X-ray, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis in order to select best-preserved

H. Wierzbowski; M. Joachimski

2007-01-01

71

Nitrous oxide emissions from yellow brown soil as affected by incorporation of crop residues with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios: a case study in central China.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of crop residues decomposition on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, a field study was performed with application of crop residues with different C:N ratios in a bare yellow brown soil at the experimental station of Zhangjiachong at Zigui, China. We set up six experimental treatments: no crop residue (CK), rapeseed cake (RC), potato stalk (PS), rice straw (RS), wheat straw (WS), and corn straw (CS). The carbon (C) to nitrogen (N) ratios of these crop residues were 7.5, 32.9, 40.4, 65.7, and 90.9, respectively. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured using a static closed chamber method. N2O emissions were significantly enhanced by incorporation of crop residues. Cumulative N2O emissions negatively correlated with C:N ratio (R (2) = 0.9821) of the crop residue, but they were positively correlated with average concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon. Nitrogen emission fraction, calculated as N2O-N emissions originated from the crop residues N, positively correlated with C:N ratio of the residues (P < 0.05). Soil temperature did, whereas soil moisture did not, control the residue's induced N2O emissions because a significant correlation (P < 0.01) existed between soil temperature and N2O emissions in all treatments except the control. In contrast, a significant relationship between soil moisture and N2O emissions was found in the control only. Furthermore, N2O emission significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with NO3 (-)-N, and NH4 (+)-N contents from all residue treatments. These results indicate that (1) crop residues with distinct carbon and nitrogen contents can significantly alter soil N2O flux rates; and (2) soil biotic as well as abiotic variables are critical in determining soil-atmospheric N2O emissions after crop residue incorporation into soil. PMID:23609028

Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Shaaban, Muhammad; Cai, Jianbo; Chen, Xi

2013-08-01

72

First measurement of the ratio of central-electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections in pp[over] collisions at (square root)s =1.96 TeV.  

PubMed

We present a measurement of sigma(pp[over] --> W) x B(W --> e nu) at (square root)s = 1.96 TeV, using electrons identified in the forward region (1.2 < |eta| < 2.8) of the CDF II detector, in 223 pb(-1) of data. We measure sigma x B = 2796 +/- 13(stat)(-90)(+95)(syst) +/- 162(lum) pb. Combining this result with a previous CDF measurement obtained using electrons in the central region (|eta| approximately < 1), we present the first measurement of the ratio of central-electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections R(exp) = 0.925 +/- 0.006(stat) +/- 0.032(syst), consistent with theoretical predictions using Coordinated Theoretical-Experimental Project on QCD (CTEQ) and Martin-Roberts-Stirling-Thorne (MRST) parton distribution functions. PMID:17678012

Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Almenar, C Cuenca; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Giovanni, G P Di; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J

2007-06-22

73

First Measurement of the Ratio of Central-Electron to Forward-Electron W Partial Cross Sections in p anti-p Collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96 TeV  

SciTech Connect

We present a measurement of {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} W) x {Beta}(W {yields} e{nu}) at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, using electrons identified in the forward region (1.2 < |{eta}| < 2.8) of the CDF II detector. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 223 pb{sup -1}. We measure {sigma} x {Beta} = 2796 {+-} 13(stat){sub -90}{sup +95}(syst){+-}162 (lum) pb. Combining this result with a previous CDF measurement obtained using electrons in the central region (|{eta}| {approx}< 1), we present the first measurement of the ratio of central-electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections R{sub exp} = 0.925 {+-} 0.006(stat){+-}0.032(syst), consistent with theoretical predictions using CTEQ and MRST parton distribution functions.

Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys.

2007-02-01

74

Relationship between hypocentral distributions and Vp/Vs ratio structures inferred from dense seismic array data: a case study of the 1984 western Nagano Prefecture earthquake, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a three-dimensional traveltime tomographic reconstruction in and around the source region of the 1984 western Nagano Prefecture earthquake to investigate the generation process for the main shock and associated swarm activity. Up to 220 000 high-resolution traveltime records (2 ms error) were compiled from a dense seismic network. From these records, we performed accurate, high-resolution calculations to estimate hypocentre distributions and three-dimensional velocity structure. Most hypocentres aligned along the same path or within the same plane, rather than in three-dimensional clusters. Hypocentres in the swarm region are located in regions with low Vp/Vs ratios, while few earthquakes occurred in regions with high or normal Vp/Vs ratios. We suggest that differences in the number of small fractures and fluid content between these two regions influenced the seismic activity. Rupture propagation associated with the main shock appears to be confined by relatively higher Vp/Vs surroundings, and a low-velocity region which limits its vertical extent.

Doi, Issei; Noda, Shunta; Iio, Yoshihisa; Horiuchi, Shigeki; Sekiguchi, Shoji

2013-11-01

75

Sensitivity of stable isotope ratios of tree-rings of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Franconia (Central Germany) to climate and environmental changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We constructed 1000-year long carbon and oxygen isotope chronologies of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from the temperate region of Franconia (northern Bavaria, Central Germany) with the aim to carry out the climate reconstructions by using of multivariate models. The annual variations of isotope signals in firs were strong influenced by airborne pollutants in the second half of 20th century: the linear responses of 13C; 18O and 2H signals to SO2, O3 and dust concentrations were high significant. Therefore, we used the long meteorological data set, were the disturbed period could be excluded for climate reconstructions. In this case, carbon isotopes correspond most to spring/summer climate conditions as April to August mean temperatures and June/July precipitation amount, oxygen show the strongest correlation to the July relative air humidity and to the April to August mean temperatures. The correlations between tree-ring signals and summer climate are high (p

Boettger, T.; Haupt, M.; Friedrich, M.

2012-04-01

76

Central Nervous System Effects of the Second-Generation Antihistamines Marketed in Japan -Review of Inter-Drug Differences Using the Proportional Impairment Ratio (PIR)-  

PubMed Central

Background Second-generation antihistamines (AHs) have, in general, fewer sedative effects than the first-generation. However, important inter-drug differences remain in the degree of cognitive and/or psychomotor impairment. The extent to which a particular compound causes disruption can be conveniently compared, to all other AHs, using the Proportional Impairment Ratio (PIR). Although the PIR can differentiate the relative impairment caused by individual drugs, there is no indication of the reliability of the ratios obtained. Objective To calculate the PIRs –together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), as an index of reliability– and compare AHs currently, or soon to be, available in Japan, with respect to their intrinsic capacity to cause impairment. Methods Results from studies of cetirizine, desloratadine, ebastine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, loratadine, mequitazine, and olopatadine were included in the PIR calculations. All data utilised came from crossover studies in healthy volunteers which were randomised and placebo and positive-internal controlled. Existing databases from studies reporting the sedative effects of AHs on objective (speed, accuracy, memory) and subjective (feeling) psychometrics were augmented, via results from suitable studies published after the previous reviews. The null value for a PIR was one. Results A total of 45 studies were finally included for this review. Of the AHs assessed, fexofenadine, ebastine, and levocetirizine showed a PIR for objective tests of 0. However, only fexofenadine (PIR?=?0.49) had an upper limit of the 95% CI of less than 1. Fexofenadine, levocetirizine, desloratadine, olopatadine, loratadine, and mequitazine all had a PIR for subjective ratings of 0, but the upper limits of the 95% CIs were all in excess of 1, although fexofenadine (PIR?=?2.57) was the lowest. Conclusions The results show that there are differences between second-generation AHs in the extent of sedation produced. However, subjective ratings indicate that patients may not necessarily be aware of this. PMID:25501360

Isomura, Tatsuya; Kono, Takeshi; Hindmarch, Ian; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Murakami, Aya; Inuzuka, Kyoko; Kawana, Seiji

2014-01-01

77

Lipid D/H Ratios from Multiple Sources and Deposits Indicate Drier Little Ice Age at Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W), Central Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To compare the sensitivity of biomarker D/H ratios from two distinct climate archives, a lake and a peat bog on the Tropical Pacific Island of Terrania, compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as ?D values) were determined on lipid biomarkers from various biological sources deposited in the two climate archives. At present, Terrania or Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W) permanently lies in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and receives an annual precipitation of 2,903 mm. The interior of this lens shaped island contains a freshwater lake and peat bogs. Previous studies on the lake sediments found evidence for a substantially drier climate at times during the Little Ice Age (AD 1400-1850) based on the lithologic transition from modern freshwater sediments to a sequence of pure cyanobacterial mat in concert with ?D values from total lipid extracts (Sachs et al., 2009). Here we report on ?D values from lipids of various sources: dinoflagellate algae (dinosterol and a saturated C30 sterol (4? -methyl-24-ethyl-5? -cholestan-3?-ol), microbial sources (diploptene and nC21 alkane) and higher plants (fern-7-ene, ?-sitosterol and stigmastanol). Mean ?D values from all lipids, measured in both archives, are significantly enriched in deuterium by between 22 and 86‰ during previously inferred drier climate conditions and simultaneously record the transition towards a freshwater lake at around AD1550. Measured ?D values of all lipids cover a wide range from -281‰ to -105‰ during freshwater deposition and from -185‰ to -50‰ when climate was drier. In agreement with the observed isotopic difference between lipids produced via the acetogenic and the mevalonic acid biosynthetic pathway ?D values for algae and higher plant sterols are depleted in deuterium relative to the nC21 alkane by 150‰ on average. The consistent ?D values from dinosterol and 4? -methyl-24-ethyl-5? -cholestan-3?-ol from the lake and peat deposits signify the robustness of these lipid ?D values to indicate hydrologic changes in the sedimentary record. ?D values among lipids of similar and disparate sources and/or biosynthetic origin from Washington Island lake (AD ~ 800-1550) and peat bog (AD~1200-1660) sediments are significantly enriched in deuterium prior to AD 1560/1640 and thus both suggest drier climate conditions resembling today’s environmental and depositional setting at Christmas Island which is located 300km SSE of Washington Island beyond the influence of the ITCZ.

Muegler, I.; Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

2010-12-01

78

Using H/V Spectral Ratio Analysis to Map Sediment Thickness and to Explain Macroseismic Intensity Variation of a Low-Magnitude Seismic Swarm in Central Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 2008 and 2010, the Royal Observatory of Belgium received numerous ';Did You Feel It'-reports related to a 2-year lasting earthquake swarm at Court-Saint-Etienne, a small town in a hilly area 20 km SE of Brussels, Belgium. These small-magnitude events (-0.7 ? ML ? 3.2, n = c. 300 events) were recorded both by the permanent seismometer network in Belgium and by a locally installed temporary seismic network deployed in the epicentral area. Relocation of the hypocenters revealed that the seismic swarm can be related to the reactivation of a NW-SE strike-slip fault at 3 to 6 km depth in the basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic London-Brabant Massif. This sequence caused a lot of emotion in the region because more than 60 events were felt by the local population. Given the small magnitudes of the seismic swarm, most events were more often heard than felt by the respondents, which is indicative of a local high-frequency earthquake source. At places where the bedrock is at the surface or where it is covered by thin alluvial sediments (<10 m), such as in incised river valleys and on hill slopes, reported macroseismic intensities are higher than those on hill tops where respondents live on a thicker Quaternary and Cenozoic sedimentary cover (> 30 m). In those river valleys that have a considerable alluvial sedimentary cover, macroseismic intensities are again lower. To explain this variation in macroseismic intensity we present a macroseismic analysis of all DYFI-reports related to the 2008-2010 seismic swarm and a pervasive H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of ambient noise measurements to model the thickness of sediments covering the London-Brabant Massif. The HVSR method is a very powerful tool to map the basement morphology, particularly in regions of unknown subsurface structure. By calculating the soil's fundamental frequency above boreholes, we calibrated the power-law relationship between the fundamental frequency, shear wave velocity and the thickness of sediments. This relationship is useful for places where the sediment thickness is unknown and where the fundamental frequency can be calculated by H/V spectral ratio analysis of ambient noise. In a subsequent research step macroseismic intensity of the different felt events is compared to sediment thickness in order to investigate if the people's perception of earthquake strong ground motions relates to the local sediment column above bedrock. We discovered that the decrease in macroseismic intensity of the felt/heard events on the hill tops can be explained by the absorption of high frequency seismic energy due the thickness of the local sediment column. Our results illustrate that it is fundamental to study regional soil properties to understand the effects of earthquake strong ground motions in an intraplate tectonic setting.

Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Camelbeeck, T.

2013-12-01

79

Lightning Ratios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using satellites and ground-based detection instruments, researchers have now mapped out lightning ratios for the continental United States. The Lightning Ratios site, from Space Science News (NASA), provides recent data in the form of a vibrant color map (.pdf or .jpg) of cloud-to-cloud lightning to cloud-to-ground lightning over the continental United States.

80

Reconstructing C3 and C4 vegetation cover using n-alkane carbon isotope ratios in recent lake sediments from Cameroon, Western Central Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trees and shrubs in tropical Africa use the C3 cycle as a carbon fixation pathway during photosynthesis, while grasses and sedges mostly use the C4 cycle. Leaf-wax lipids from sedimentary archives such as the long-chain n-alkanes (e.g., n-C27 to n-C33) inherit carbon isotope ratios that are representative of the carbon fixation pathway. Therefore, n-alkane ?13C values are often used to reconstruct past C3/C4 composition of vegetation, assuming that the relative proportions of C3 and C4 leaf waxes reflect the relative proportions of C3 and C4 plants. We have compared the ?13C values of n-alkanes from modern C3 and C4 plants with previously published values from recent lake sediments and provide a framework for estimating the fractional contribution (areal-based) of C3 vegetation cover (fC3) represented by these sedimentary archives. Samples were collected in Cameroon, across a latitudinal transect that accommodates a wide range of climate zones and vegetation types, as reflected in the progressive northward replacement of C3-dominated rain forest by C4-dominated savanna. The C3 plants analysed were characterised by substantially higher abundances of n-C29 alkanes and by substantially lower abundances of n-C33 alkanes than the C4 plants. Furthermore, the sedimentary ?13C values of n-C29 and n-C31 alkanes from recent lake sediments in Cameroon (-37.4‰ to -26.5‰) were generally within the range of ?13C values for C3 plants, even when from sites where C4 plants dominated the catchment vegetation. In such cases simple linear mixing models fail to accurately reconstruct the relative proportions of C3 and C4 vegetation cover when using the ?13C values of sedimentary n-alkanes, overestimating the proportion of C3 vegetation, likely as a consequence of the differences in plant wax production, preservation, transport, and/or deposition between C3 and C4 plants. We therefore tested a set of non-linear binary mixing models using ?13C values from both C3 and C4 vegetation as end-members. The non-linear models included a sigmoid function (sine-squared) that describes small variations in the fC3 values as the minimum and maximum ?13C values are approached, and a hyperbolic function that takes into account the differences between C3 and C4 plants discussed above. Model fitting and the estimation of uncertainties were completed using the Monte Carlo algorithm and can be improved by future data addition. Models that provided the best fit with the observed ?13C values of sedimentary n-alkanes were either hyperbolic functions or a combination of hyperbolic and sine-squared functions. Such non-linear models may be used to convert ?13C measurements on sedimentary n-alkanes directly into reconstructions of C3 vegetation cover.

Garcin, Yannick; Schefuß, Enno; Schwab, Valérie F.; Garreta, Vincent; Gleixner, Gerd; Vincens, Annie; Todou, Gilbert; Séné, Olivier; Onana, Jean-Michel; Achoundong, Gaston; Sachse, Dirk

2014-10-01

81

FcR interactions do not play a major role in inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by anti-CD154 monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that anti-CD154 mAb treatment effectively inhibits the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, although it appears to prevent the induction of Th1 cells and reactivation of encephalitogenic T cells within the CNS, little information is available regarding the involvement of alternative mechanisms, nor has the contribution of Fc effector mechanisms in this context been addressed. By contrast, efficacy of anti-CD154 mAbs in models of allotransplantation has been reported to involve long-term unresponsiveness, potentially via activation of T regulatory cells, and recently was reported to depend on Fc-dependent functions, such as activated T cell depletion through FcgammaR or complement. In this study we demonstrate that anti-CD154 mAb treatment inhibits EAE development in SJL mice without apparent long-term unresponsiveness or active suppression of disease. To address whether the mechanism of inhibition of EAE by anti-CD154 mAb depends on its Fc effector interactions, we compared an anti-CD154 mAb with its aglycosyl counterpart with severely impaired FcgammaR binding and reduced complement binding activity with regard to their ability to inhibit clinical signs of EAE and report that both forms of the Ab are similarly protective. This observation was largely confirmed by the extent of leukocyte infiltration of the CNS; however, mice treated with the aglycosyl form may display slightly more proteolipid protein 139-151-specific immune reactivity. It is concluded that FcR interactions do not play a major role in the protective effect of anti-CD154 mAb in the context of EAE, though they may contribute to the full abrogation of peripheral peptide-specific lymphocyte responses. PMID:15240687

Nagelkerken, Lex; Haspels, Inge; van Rijs, Wouter; Blauw, Bep; Ferrant, Janine L; Hess, Donna M; Garber, Ellen A; Taylor, Fred R; Burkly, Linda C

2004-07-15

82

Radius Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of animations that demonstrates properties of the spherical holes formed when uniform spheres are packed. Cubic, octahedral and tetrahedral packing arrangements may be examined without anything in the holes,and with the repective holes filled. The sizes of the various holes relative to the spheres being packed are shown, which can lead students into an exploration of the radius ratio concept. An example is given of computing the relative size of an octahedral hole.

83

Feeding of by-products completely replaced cereals and pulses in dairy cows and enhanced edible feed conversion ratio.  

PubMed

When fed human-edible feeds, such as grains and pulses, dairy cows are very inefficient in transforming them into animal products. Therefore, strategies to reduce human-edible inputs in dairy cow feeding are needed to improve food efficiency. The aim of this feeding trial was to analyze the effect of the full substitution of a common concentrate mixture with a by-product concentrate mixture on milk production, feed intake, blood values, and the edible feed conversion ratio (eFCR), defined as human-edible output per human edible input. The experiment was conducted as a change-over design, with each experimental period lasting for 7wk. Thirteen multiparous and 5 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments. Treatments consisted of a grass silage-based forage diet supplemented with either conventional ingredients or solely by-products from the food processing industry (BP). The BP mixture had higher contents of fiber and ether extract, whereas starch content was reduced compared with the conventional mixture. Milk yield and milk solids were not affected by treatment. The eFCR in the BP group were about 4 and 2.7 times higher for energy and protein, respectively. Blood values did not indicate negative effects on cows' metabolic health status. Results of this feeding trial suggest that by-products could replace common concentrate supplements in dairy cow feeding, resulting in an increased eFCR for energy and protein which emphasizes the unique role of dairy cows as net food producers. PMID:25483200

Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

2015-02-01

84

Ratios For All Occasions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards.A central theme in the middle school mathematics curriculum, proportional reasoning is based on making sense of ratios in a variety of contexts. The resources chosen for this unit provide practice in solving problems, often informally, in the format of games, hands-on modeling, mapmaking, and questions selected for their interest for students. As students work through the activities, they will exercise reasoning about basic proportions as ell as further develop their knowledge of the relationship between fractions and percents.The section titled Background Resources for Teachers contains links to workshop sessions, developed for teachers, on the mathematical content of the unit. Ratios in Childrens Books identifies three picture books that entertain while they explore scale and proportion. In the final section, we look at the coverage of proportionality at the iddle level in the NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics.

Terese Herrera

85

Isotopic ratio, isotonic ratio, isobaric ratio and Shannon information uncertainty  

E-print Network

The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, which both are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to $\\beta-\\alpha$ determined by the isoscaling [$\\alpha$ ($\\beta$) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio].

Chun-Wang Ma; Hui-Ling Wei

2014-09-11

86

Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to ? – ? determined by the isoscaling (? (?) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

2014-11-01

87

Centrality Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Centrality indices are to quantify an intuitive feeling that in most networks some vertices or edges are more central than\\u000a others. Many vertex centrality indices were introduced for the first time in the 1950s: e.g., the Bavelas index [50, 51],\\u000a degree centrality [483] or a first feedback centrality, introduced by Seeley [510]. These early centralities raised a rush\\u000a of research

Dirk Koschützki; Katharina Anna Lehmann; Leon Peeters; Stefan Richter; Dagmar Tenfelde-podehl; Oliver Zlotowski

2004-01-01

88

The Golden Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, "students learn about ratios, including the 'Golden Ratio', a ratio of length to width that can be found in art, architecture, and nature. Students examine different ratios to determine whether the Golden Ratio can be found in the human body." (from NCTM's Illuminations) This is lesson 3 in a 7-lesson unit called "Measuring Up"

Illuminations National Council of Mathematics

2009-02-18

89

Improvement In The Operating Characteristics Of Internal Combustion Engine Using Variation In Compression Ratio  

E-print Network

Abstract- Vast developments are taking place in the field of internal combustion engine especially to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the emission percentage in the exhaust gases so that engine can compete with stringent emission rules of present days. Two strokes engines became outdated due to their inability to compete with these standards. This work is an attempt to bring two strokes engine back in the field of automobile by increasing the fuel economy and reducing the emission levels. In this regard Variation in compression ratio is the technology used to improve the efficiency of the engines. Aim of this research work is to design, fabricate and test a simple two stroke variable compression ratio (VCR) engine with better power delivery, fuel economy and less emissions. With split type cylinder block and stud arrangement the clearance volume of existing fixed compression ratio (FCR) engine is varied thereby varying the compression ratio. Modified engine is having very less knocking tendency, high power output, high mechanical efficiency, higher values of IMEP and BMEP, good cold starting property, low emissions. I.

Yadav Milind S; Wankhade P. A

90

Bicycle Gears- Ratios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students experiment with and learn about the gear ratios on a bicycle—thus enhancing their understanding of circumference of a circle, proportions, etc. Actual gear ratio would be the ratio between the front and rear sprocket, NOT between pedal and rear wheel.

2011-01-01

91

The Strehl Ratio in Adaptive Optics Images: Statistics and Estimation  

E-print Network

Statistical properties of the intensity in adaptive optics images are usually modeled with a Rician distribution. We study the central point of the image, where this model is inappropriate for high to very high correction levels. The central point is an important problem because it gives the Strehl ratio distribution. We show that the central point distribution can be modeled using a non-central Gamma distribution.

Rémi Soummer; André Ferrari

2007-06-12

92

Optimal content and ratio of lysine to arginine in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal quantity of dietary lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg), and the optimal ratio of dietary Lys to Arg for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. Coated Lys and Arg were added to a basal diet (37.99% crude protein and 7.28% crude lipid) to provide graded levels of Lys and Arg. The experimental diets contained three Lys levels (2.51%, 2.11%, and 1.70% of total diet), and three Arg levels (1.41%, 1.80%, and 2.21% of total diet) and all combinations of these levels were tested. Pacific white shrimp, with a mean weight of 3.62±0.1 g, were randomly distributed in 36 fiberglass tanks with 30 shrimp per tank and reared on the experimental diets for 50 days. After the feeding trial, the growth performance, survival, feed conversion rate (FCR), body composition and protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the experimental shrimps were determined. The results show that weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), FCR, body protein, body Lys and Arg content were significantly affected by dietary Lys and Arg ( P <0.05) and improved when dietary Lys and Arg levels were 2.11% ˜ 2.51% and 1.80%˜2.21%, respectively. Protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the shrimps appeared higher when dietary Lys and Arg quantities were 2.11% ˜2.51% and 1.80%˜2.21%, although the difference was not statistically significant ( P >0.05). Therefore, according to our results, the optimal Lys and Arg quantities in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, L. vannamei, were considered to be 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%, respectively, and the optimal ratio to be 1:0.88-1:1.05.

Feng, Zhengfu; Dong, Chaohua; Wang, Linlin; Hu, Yanjiang; Zhu, Wei

2013-07-01

93

Baseball Lab (Ratios)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using batting averages, students will create ratios and convert them to rounded decimals (3 places). In addition, they will take decimals and determine several possible equivalent ratios. Then using the relationship that batting average = hits/at bats, the students can use proportions or equations to find either the number of hits or the number of at bats for a given situations.

2010-01-01

94

Simplifying Likelihood Ratios  

PubMed Central

Likelihood ratios are one of the best measures of diagnostic accuracy, although they are seldom used, because interpreting them requires a calculator to convert back and forth between “probability” and “odds” of disease. This article describes a simpler method of interpreting likelihood ratios, one that avoids calculators, nomograms, and conversions to “odds” of disease. Several examples illustrate how the clinician can use this method to refine diagnostic decisions at the bedside.

McGee, Steven

2002-01-01

95

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialized technique used to provide information about the geographic, chemical, and biological origins of substances. The ability to determine the source of an organic substance stems from the relative isotopic abundances of the elements which comprise the material. Because the isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen can become locally enriched or depleted through a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic factors, measurement of the isotope ratios can be used to differentiate between samples which otherwise share identical chemical compositions. Several sample introduction methods are now available for commercial isotope ratio mass spectrometers. Combustion is most commonly used for bulk isotopic analysis, whereas gas and liquid chromatography are predominately used for the real-time isotopic analysis of specific compounds within a mixture. Here, highlights of advances in instrumentation and applications within the last three years are provided to illustrate the impact of this rapidly growing area of research. Some prominent new applications include authenticating organic food produce, ascertaining whether or not African elephants are guilty of night-time raids on farmers' crops, and linking forensic drug and soil samples from a crime scene to a suspected point of origin. For the sake of brevity, we focus this Minireview on the isotope ratio measurements of lighter-elements common to organic sources; we do not cover the equally important field of inorganic isotope ratio mass spectrometry. PMID:19173039

Muccio, Zeland; Jackson, Glen P

2009-02-01

96

Clinical utility of likelihood ratios.  

PubMed

Test-performance characteristics can be derived from a simple 2x2 table displaying the dichotomous relationship between a positive or negative test result and the presence or absence of a target disorder. Sensitivity and specificity, including a summary display of their reciprocal relationship as a receiver operating characteristics curve, are relatively stable test characteristics. Unfortunately, they represent an inversion of customary clinical logic and fail to tell us precisely what we wish to know. Predictive values, on the other hand, provide us with the requisite information but-because they are vulnerable to variation in disease prevalence-are numerically unstable. Likelihood ratios (LRs), in contrast, combine the stability of sensitivity and specificity to provide an omnibus index of test performance far more useful than its constituent parts. Application of Bayes' theorem to LRs produces the following summary equation: Clinically estimated pretest odds of disease x LR=Posttest odds of disease. This simple equation illustrates a concordance between the mathematical properties of likelihood ratios and the central strategy underlying diagnostic testing: the revision of disease probability. PMID:9506499

Gallagher, E J

1998-03-01

97

Central Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As one of the worldâ??s greatest urban green spaces, Central Park is loved by dyed-in-the wool New Yorkers as well as visitors to the city. This reverential website provides detailed information about this fine public space and the activities that take place within its confines. On this site, visitors can look over maps of the park, learn about the parkâ??s many attractions, and browse a selection of photographs of this fine urban paradise. The homepage contains much of this material, along with a â??Central Park Newsâ? feature, which provides news updates about goings on throughout Central Park. For those planning a visit to the park, the Events area will be most useful, as it provides information about such pastimes as rock climbing, ice skating lessons, and yoga.

2006-01-01

98

The Likelihood Ratio Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, created by Don Johnson of Rice University, provides an explanation and an example of the likelihood ratio test. Topics include: decision regions, Bayes' decision criterion, Bayes' cost, and likelihood function. The site is enhanced by Johnson's use of graphic and numerical demonstrations to better explain his points. Additionally, a PDF attachment providing an in-depth explanation is also featured.

Johnson, Don

99

@central park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Park Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to restoring, improving, and managing Central Park's grounds and facilities, offers this "official" site, which contains a wealth of information about what is arguably the world's most famous city park. Each of the site's sections contains useful or interesting information; the Then & Now section, for instance, offers an overview of Central Park's history, a bibliography with 43 entries for those seeking further information, and a list of movies with scenes set in the park. Another highlight of the site is the Virtual Park, which consists of a set of clickable maps through which users can explore 72 points of interest, each described in the affectionate style of a travel guidebook. The site's other sections include such features as events schedules, press releases, information on when and where particular varieties of flowers bloom, and a section devoted entirely to activities for families and children. This site will be especially useful to those who are planning a visit to Central Park, but other users will likely find it informative and entertaining as well.

100

Central Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

2002-01-01

101

Engineering Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Engineering Central website provides a plethora of listings of employment resources for engineers. The website allows users to submit their resume to a resume bank, browse through entry-level jobs, as well as post jobs online. Several links that point to other engineering resources are also provided.

102

Cicada Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by University of Connecticut, "is designed to be a center for the exchange of scientific information concerning cicadas of the world." This Cicada Central website links to reprints for scientific literature concerning cicadas, a list of cicada researchers from around the world, a list of world cicada tribes, and more.

Simon, Chris

103

Halloween Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Halloween is coming up, and this site will help readers prepare for an evening of ghouls, goblins, and other nasties. Halloween Central is a fairly extensive metasite with links to a wide variety of Halloween resources, including costumes, clip art, recipes, haunted houses, Halloween safety, and pumpkins, among many others.

104

What's My Ratio?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use linear measurement and calculators to investigate proportionality and determine the constant ratio between similar figures. In it, students draw a figure on centimeter graph paper, increase or decrease the size, and predict the dimensions. Then students compare the ratio of two pictures by measuring, recording their data, and discussing their findings to draw conclusions. Suggested guidelines for instruction and classroom discussion are included, as well as data collection worksheets for students, and centimeter graph paper to print. The lesson may be introduced by reading appropriate sections from "Goosebumps—Monster Blood III" (Chapters 15 and 16) by R.L. Stine, or "The Shrinking of Treehorn" by F. Heide.

2010-06-30

105

Displacement and Velocity Ratios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by James Bourassa and John Rosz for the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses displacement and velocity ratios. Bourassa and Rosz begin by providing detailed definitions of both topics and then provide mathematical examples of each. Once this basic explanation is complete, the authors allow students to practice these theories in a set of self-correcting quiz questions. Bourassa and Rosz explain each using helpful interactive flash animations. These are not only useful in explanation, but they allow the student to more fully engage with the topic. Overall, this is a nice introduction to the physical and mathematical concepts of displacement and velocity ratios. This could be a valuable learning resource in everything from a physics to a technical education classroom.

Bourassa, James

106

Ratios and Proportions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive slideshow explains the notion of ratios and proportions, how to write the, and how to find them. There are practice problems which walk visitors through each step of the process, including reducing answers to simplest terms, in which students are asked to calculate the rate of grass seed coverage per square foot and find the miles per gallon fuel use of a car. The lesson continues on to introduce proportion and work through practice problems in the same fashion.

Douglas Jensen

2005-01-01

107

Garlic Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can garlic help repel mosquitoes? Find out the answer to this question and more at Garlic Central, an all-about-garlic website created by aficionado Trevor Mendham. The site contains an introductory section--titled Garlic 101--and sections that address culinary uses, medicinal benefits, and cultivation. The site's Cooking section includes a collection of recipes; and information about storing, freezing, and crushing garlic. The site also features a brief how-to guide for planting, growing, and harvesting garlic. Garlic Central even hosts a virtual shopping mall that connects site visitors to a wide range of garlic-related websites peddling foodstuffs, kitchen implements, posters, books, and garden supplies. This site is also reviewed in the September 17, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

108

IPO Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IPO (Initial Public Offerings) Central, provided by The Reference Press, contains a wealth of information on IPOs. It features a complete list of companies that "filed for an initial public offering of common stock on or after May 6, 1996, the first day that all US companies were required to file electronically," along with EDGAR Online SEC filings. This directory can be accessed alphabetically or by date, and the latest filings are available under a separate menu item. IPO Central also highlights one featured IPO per week, with a free link to a Hoover Online profile on that company. "The Insider" offers short analytical columns on IPOs, and the "Beginner's Guide" has links to basic IPO information to help the novice. The site also offers links to other IPO-related sites. IPO Central does not at this time offer a searchable interface to its directory, but the providers promise improved search features soon. Note that listings are removed from the directory after six months and that EDGAR Online is in no way related to SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) EDGAR.

109

Ratios, Proportions, Similarity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of four, one-page problems about the size of planets compared to earth. Learners may use ratios to compare planets within our solar system or those outside of our solar system with the earth. Options are presented so that students may learn about the MESSENGER mission to Mercury through a NASA press release or by viewing a NASA eClips video [6 min.]. This activity is part of the Space Math multi-media modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school.

110

Handy Measuring Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use their hands as tools for indirect measurement. Learners explore how to use ratios to calculate the approximate height of something that can't be measured directly by first measuring something that can be directly measured. This activity can also be used to explain how scientists use indirect measurement to determine distances between things in the universe that are too far away, too large or too small to measure directly (i.e. diameter of the moon or number of bacteria in a volume of liquid).

2012-08-23

111

Infinitely variable ratio transmission  

SciTech Connect

A variable ratio vehicle transmission is described whose gear ratio is determined essentially only by torque on the output shaft of the transmission, comprising: a housing fixed in the vehicle; a power input shaft entering one end of the housing; a power output shaft entering the other end of the housing; a planet carrier mounted concentrically on the input shaft; a planet shaft mounted rotatably to the planet carrier; planet gears fixed coaxially to the planet shaft, one planet gear being a power transferring gear, a second planet gear being a reaction planet gear; a brake means rotatable about the input shaft sleeve for controlling the rate of rotation of the reaction planet gear about the planet shaft axis when the reaction planet gear orbits about the input shaft axis, the brake means having an inhibitor means for providing a substantially constant drag against rotation of the brake means about the input shaft; the brake means having a disk-like wall encircling the input shaft and a brake gear meshed with the reaction planet gear; the inhibitor means having two sets of annular friction disks disposed between the disk-like wall and the one end of the housing; the transmission further comprising means for operatively connecting the transferring planet gear to the output shaft.

Geppert, E.F.

1989-02-21

112

Sonnet Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a dedicated sonnet aficionado, Sonnet Central is not intended for the scholar, per se, but for the reader, the Internaut with a weakness for poetry. The site contains a collection of English-language sonnets, grouped by period and region or by author, and modernized for contemporary readers. Pictures, contemporaneous critical works, a bibliography, and audio files of readings of selected poems complement the sonnets, some of which are maintained off-site (many at the University of Toronto). From Shakespeare to Wilfred Owen, selections from many well-known sonneteers are here alongside those of their less famous contemporaries.

113

Neuropsychology Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neuropsychology Central is devoted to the subject of - "Neuropsychology, a new branch of science with the specific and unique aim of investigating the role of individual brain systems in complex forms of mental activity." - A.R. Luria "The Working Brain" The page aims to describe the importance of neuropsychology as a science of brain and behavior, and to act as a resource for the professional and layperson alike. See links to current technology for brain imaging, and sections covering different aspects of this ever growing field such as cognitive, developmental, and geriatric Neuropsychology. In addition, a reader survey is included to facilitate the expansion of the site.

Browndyke, J. N.

114

Peak power ratio generator  

DOEpatents

A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

Moyer, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

115

Ratio and Proportion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet helps students explore concepts of ratio and proportion. It displays two containers, each with its own tap that can be set to deliver different-colored liquids in units of 1 to 10. A main tap can be set to deliver multiples of the amounts on the left- and right-hand taps. Proportion can be modelled using the drain container, which receives whatever is in the left- and right-hand containers. Users can choose the capacity of the containers, whether to hide or show the scales, and the size and visibility of the drain container. Clicking on the info button allows users to mouse over items to learn about them. This applet lends itself well for use with an interactive white board. A pdf guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.

2006-01-01

116

Central Pain Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Central Pain Syndrome? Is there ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

117

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

Biraud, S

2011-02-23

118

Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 ± 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens. PMID:25495676

Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

2015-06-01

119

Debate Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Courtesy of the National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA), Debate-Central.org offers resources related to this year's National Forensic League high school debate topic: "Resolved: That the United States federal government should establish a foreign policy significantly limiting the use of weapons of mass destruction." The site, which is updated daily, features a wealth of links sorted into ten categories (each of which is further divided into subcategories). Resources are collected from periodicals, think tanks, and other sources, and the collection should be useful not just for debaters but for anyone looking for authoritative resources on these topics. Other debate topics are listed on the right-hand side of the page, though these are covered in a less comprehensive manner. Also at the site is a bulletin board, through which users can ask questions of experts such as Dr. Hans Mark, former Secretary of the Air Force and Deputy Administrator of NASA, and a link to NCPA's Terrorism in America site. NCPA's mission is "to develop and promote private alternatives to government regulation and control, solving problems by relying on the strength of the competitive, entrepreneurial private sector."

120

Poisson's ratio and crustal seismology  

Microsoft Academic Search

New measurements of compressional and shear wave velocities to hydrostatic pressures of 1 GPa are summarized for 678 rocks. Emphasis was placed on obtaining high-accuracy velocity measurements, which are shown to be critical in calculating Poisson's ratios from velocities. The rocks have been divided into 29 major groups for which velocities, velocity ratios, and Poisson's ratios are presented at several

Nikolas I. Christensen

1996-01-01

121

Climatic significance of isotope ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of water, which can be measured by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), exhibit climatic dependencies and are commonly exploited in hydrogeology. More generally, the overall carbon or hydrogen isotope ratios of plant organic matter, and in particular of tree-ring cellulose, have been frequently used for climatic reconstruction. However, since many physicochemical and biochemical fractionation

Gérard J. Martin; Maryvonne L. Martin

2003-01-01

122

Estimating CE ratios under second-order uncertainty: the mean ratio versus the ratio of means.  

PubMed

Two methods have been presented for estimating cost-effectiveness ratios under conditions of second-order (model) uncertainty: one method estimates a mean ratio of cost to effect (the "mean ratio" approach), and the other estimates a ratio of mean cost to mean effect (the "ratio of means" approach). However, the question of which estimate is theoretically correct has not been formally addressed. The authors show that the "ratio of means" approach follows directly from the theoretical foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis, has attractive internal consistency properties, and is consistent with a simple vector algebra approach to the problem. In contrast, the "mean ratio" approach has not been shown to follow from first principles, is internally inconsistent, and can prescribe economically inefficient choices. It is concluded that the "ratio of means" procedure should be preferred unless persuasive arguments are presented to the contrary. PMID:9343807

Stinnett, A A; Paltiel, A D

1997-01-01

123

Prominence seismology using the period ratio of transverse thread oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ratio of the period of the fundamental mode to that of the first overtone of kink oscillations (hereafter period ratio) is a seismology tool that can be used to infer information about the spatial variation of density along solar magnetic flux tubes. The period ratio is 2 in longitudinally homogeneous thin tubes, but it differs from 2 because of longitudinal inhomogeneity. In this paper we investigate the period ratio in longitudinally inhomogeneous prominence threads and explore its implications for prominence seismology. We numerically solve the two-dimensional eigenvalue problem of kink oscillations in a model of a prominence thread. We take into account three nonuniform density profiles along the thread. In agreement with previous works that used simple piecewise constant density profiles, we find that the period ratio is larger than 2 in prominence threads. When the ratio of the central density to that at the footpoints is fixed, the period ratio depends strongly on the form of the density profile along the thread. The more concentrated the dense prominence plasma near the center of the tube, the larger the period ratio. However, the period ratio is found to be independent of the specific density profile when the spatially averaged density in the thread is the same for all the profiles. An empirical fit of the dependence of the period ratio on the average density is given and its use for prominence seismology is discussed.

Soler, R.; Goossens, M.; Ballester, J. L.

2015-03-01

124

Lidar ratio and depolarization ratio for cirrus clouds.  

PubMed

We report on studies of the lidar and the depolarization ratios for cirrus clouds. The optical depth and effective lidar ratio are derived from the transmission of clouds, which is determined by comparing the backscattering signals at the cloud base and cloud top. The lidar signals were fitted to a background atmospheric density profile outside the cloud region to warrant the linear response of the return signals with the scattering media. An average lidar ratio, 29 +/- 12 sr, has been found for all clouds measured in 1999 and 2000. The height and temperature dependences ofthe lidar ratio, the optical depth, and the depolarization ratio were investigated and compared with results of LITE and PROBE. Cirrus clouds detected near the tropopause are usually optically thin and mostly subvisual. Clouds with the largest optical depths were found near 12 km with a temperature of approximately -55 degrees C. The multiple-scattering effect is considered for clouds with high optical depths, and this effect lowers the lidar ratios compared with a single-scattering condition. Lidar ratios are in the 20-40 range for clouds at heights of 12.5-15 km and are smaller than approximately 30 in height above 15 km. Clouds are usually optically thin for temperatures below approximately -65 degrees C, and in this region the optical depth tends to decrease with height. The depolarization ratio is found to increase with a height at 11-15 km and smaller than 0.3 above 16 km. The variation in the depolarization ratio with the lidar ratio was also reported. The lidar and depolarization ratios were discussed in terms of the types of hexagonal ice crystals. PMID:12396200

Chen, Wei-Nai; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Nee, Jan-Bai

2002-10-20

125

CHARGE TO MAGNETIC FLUX RATIOS Gustavo Gonzlez-Martn  

E-print Network

1 CHARGE TO MAGNETIC FLUX RATIOS Gustavo González-Martín Departamento de Física, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A, Venezuela. Web page URL http:\\\\prof.usb.ve\\ggonzalm\\ It is shown the theory of representations of the Lorentz group to characterize the electron states in a central potential

González Martín, Gustavo R.

126

Overview Chromosomal Recombination Extensions on the Likelihood Ratio  

E-print Network

Overview Chromosomal Recombination Topic 19 Extensions on the Likelihood Ratio Chi-square Tests 1 / 10 #12;Overview Chromosomal Recombination Outline Overview Chromosomal Recombination 2 / 10 #12;Overview Chromosomal Recombination Overview For the two-sided sample proportion test, we used the central

Watkins, Joseph C.

127

Negative Poisson's ratio polyethylene foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various polyethylene foams were subjected to thermo-mechanical processing with the aim of transforming them into re-entrant materials exhibiting negative Poisson's ratio. Following transformation, large cell foams (cell sizes of 1 and 2 mm) exhibited re-entrant cell structure and negative Poisson's ratio over a range of processing times and temperatures. Poisson's ratio vs. strain for these foams was similar to prior

B. Brandel; R. S. Lakes

2001-01-01

128

Sex ratio dependent dispersal when sex ratios vary between patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female biased sex ratios reduce competition between brothers when mating takes place within local patches. Male dispersal prior to mating is another strategy that reduces competition between brothers. One may thus expect these two traits to co-evolve and this is partially met in that sex ratios becomes less female biased as dispersal increases. However, the evolutionary stable degree of dispersal

Ronald M. Nelson; Jaco M. Greeff

2011-01-01

129

Air/fuel ratio controller  

SciTech Connect

An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

1980-12-23

130

Central sleep apnea  

MedlinePLUS

... central sleep apnea. A condition called Cheyne-Stokes respiration can mimic central sleep apnea. This involves breathing ... bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV). Some types of central sleep apnea are ...

131

Central serous choroidopathy  

MedlinePLUS

Central serous retinopathy ... of stress may be more likely to develop central serous retinopathy. The condition can also occur as ... Your health care provider can usually diagnose central serous ... confirms the diagnosis. It may be done with a noninvasive ...

132

Central Serous Retinopathy Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is Central Serous Retinopathy? Tweet The retina is the light- ... retina is key to clear vision. What is Central Serous Retinopathy? Central Serous Retinopathy Symptoms Who is ...

133

Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement  

PubMed Central

Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement. PMID:19159161

Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Thrailkill, Eric A.

2009-01-01

134

High ratio recirculating gas compressor  

DOEpatents

A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1989-01-01

135

High ratio recirculating gas compressor  

DOEpatents

A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1989-08-22

136

Central bank Financial Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have

J. Ramon Martinez-Resano

2004-01-01

137

North America Europe Central &  

E-print Network

1 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa Population (100 millions) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa

Johnson, Matthew

138

Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.

Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston

2012-01-01

139

Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

1990-01-01

140

Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

1990-01-01

141

Trends in NCA [North Central Association] Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews and compares educational trends in North Central Association high schools, junior high/middle schools, and elementary schools. Supplies 41 tables covering school operations, size, demography, enrollment, adult education, graduates, staff ratios, salaries, counseling, media services, library expenditures, professional staff, per pupil…

Dodds, Larry K.

1981-01-01

142

Centralized Power Control in Cellular Radio Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a centralized power control scheme for cellular mobile radio systems. The power for the mobiles in the scheme proposed here is computed based on signal strength measurements. All the mobiles using the same channel in this scheme will attain a common carrier-to-interference ratio. The proposed scheme is analyzed and shown to have an optimal solution. I. INTRODUCTION

Sudheer A. Grandhi; Rajiv Vijayan; David J. Goodman; Jens Zander

1993-01-01

143

Point Estimation: Odds Ratios, Hazard Ratios, Risk Differences, Precision  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a PowerPoint presentation, created by Dr. Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer of Johns Hopkins University, of a lesson and examples of point estimation, odds ratios, hazard ratios, risk differences and precision. The presentations is quite thorough. The author attempts to define, provide examples of, and then show the application of almost every concept. The presentation follows a easily followed and logical order. Mathematical formulas are intertwined within the slides. If further research is necessary, the author has provided a list of references and cites them during the presentation.

Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth

144

Fe/Ni ratio in the Ant Nebula Mz 3  

E-print Network

We have analyzed the [Fe II] and [Ni II] emission lines in the bipolar planetary nebula Mz~3. We find that the [Fe II] and [Ni II] lines arise exclusively from the central regions. Fluorescence excitation in the formation process of these lines is negligible for this low-excitation nebula. From the [Fe II]/[Ni II] ratio, we obtain a higher Fe/Ni abundance ratio with respect to the solar value. The current result provides further supporting evidence for Mz 3 as a symbiotic Mira.

Y. Zhang; X. -W. Liu

2006-05-06

145

Discovering Phi: The Golden Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students discover the mathematical constant phi, the golden ratio, through hands-on activities. They measure dimensions of "natural objects"—a star, a nautilus shell and human hand bones—and calculate ratios of the measured values, which are close to phi. Then students learn a basic definition of a mathematical sequence, specifically the Fibonacci sequence. By taking ratios of successive terms of the sequence, they find numbers close to phi. They solve a squares puzzle that creates an approximate Fibonacci spiral. Finally, the instructor demonstrates the rule of the Fibonacci sequence via a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robot equipped with a pen. The robot (already created as part of the companion activity, The Fibonacci Sequence & Robots) draws a Fibonacci spiral that is similar to the nautilus shape.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

146

Prominence seismology using the period ratio of transverse thread oscillations  

E-print Network

The ratio of the period of the fundamental mode to that of the first overtone of kink oscillations, from here on the "period ratio", is a seismology tool that can be used to infer information about the spatial variation of density along solar magnetic flux tubes. The period ratio is 2 in longitudinally homogeneous thin tubes, but it differs from 2 due to longitudinal inhomogeneity. In this paper we investigate the period ratio in longitudinally inhomogeneous prominence threads and explore its implications for prominence seismology. We numerically solve the two-dimensional eigenvalue problem of kink oscillations in a model of a prominence thread. We take into account three nonuniform density profiles along the thread. In agreement with previous works that used simple piecewise constant density profiles, we find that the period ratio is larger than 2 in prominence threads. When the ratio of the central density to that at the footpoints is fixed, the period ratio depends strongly on the form of the density profi...

Soler, R; Ballester, J L

2015-01-01

147

Surface to Volume Ratio Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, this two-part laboratory activity was designed to complement any chemistry unit on catalysts to "help students understand how nanoparticles may be more effective catalysts by investigating how the surface area-to-volume ratio of a substance is affected as its shape changes." On this site, educators can find both the teacher and student instructions for preparing and presenting the laboratory with objectives, time periods, materials, procedures, example answers, and much more. It is a ready-to-use lesson to help students understand catalysts and surface to volume ratio at molecular and atomic levels.

148

Central pontine myelinolysis  

MedlinePLUS

Central pontine myelinolysis is brain cell dysfunction caused by the destruction of the layer ( myelin sheath ) covering ... nerve to another. The most common cause of central pontine myelinolysis is a quick rise in the ...

149

Axioms for Centrality  

E-print Network

Given a social network, which of its nodes are more central? This question has been asked many times in sociology, psychology and computer science, and a whole plethora of centrality measures (a.k.a. centrality indices, or rankings) were proposed to account for the importance of the nodes of a network. In this paper, we try to provide a mathematically sound survey of the most important classic centrality measures known from the literature and propose an axiomatic approach to establish whether they are actually doing what they have been designed for. Our axioms suggest some simple, basic properties that a centrality measure should exhibit. Surprisingly, only a new simple measure based on distances, harmonic centrality, turns out to satisfy all axioms; essentially, harmonic centrality is a correction to Bavelas's classic closeness centrality designed to take unreachable nodes into account in a natural way. As a sanity check, we examine in turn each measure under the lens of information retrieval, leveraging sta...

Boldi, Paolo

2013-01-01

150

Central line infections - hospitals  

MedlinePLUS

... and increase how long you are in the hospital. Your central line needs special care to prevent ... The hospital staff will use aseptic technique when a central line is put in your chest or arm. Aseptic ...

151

Central Tendency and Variability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter presents two important interrelated topics in statistics: central tendency and variability. Measures of central tendency show how similar the data points in a set of data are, while measures of variability show how much the

Edwin P. Christmann

2008-11-01

152

System and rapidity dependence of baryon to meson ratios at RHIC  

E-print Network

The rapidity and centrality dependence of baryon to meson ratios in Au$+$Au, Cu$+$Cu and p$+$p collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV at RHIC is presented. The $\\bar{p}/\\pi^{-}$ ratios are founded to be independent of collision system at a fixed $$ at mid- and forward rapidities.

Eun-Joo Kim

2005-10-03

153

Two-stage treatment reduces water/oil ratio  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports how a treatment of amphoteric polymer followed by chrome-complexed anionic polyacrylamide has successfully decreased the water/oil (WOR) ratio of wells producing from the Arbuckle dolomite formation in central Kansas. This technique, the fractured-matrix, water-control (FMWC) treatment, is designed to alter both primary and secondary permeability to water production. In 10 treated wells, the average WOR was reduced by a factor of five.

Wood, F.; Dairymple, D. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (US)); McKown, K.; Matthews, B. (Halliburton Services, KS (US))

1990-09-10

154

Isotope ratios in photosynthetic oxygen.  

PubMed

Axenic suspensions of the fresh water green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii were illuminated under aerobic conditions. The released gas mixture was introduced into the ion source of an isotope mass spectrometer, which recorded the 18O/16O ratio. The 18O content of the photosynthetic oxygen (approximately 0.199%) exceeded that of the cell water (approximately 0.197%) significantly. PMID:508731

Metzner, H; Fischer, K; Bazlen, O

1979-11-01

155

A Ratio Explanation for Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes hands-on physical anthropology activities for teaching students about evolution. Using evidence found in hominid skulls, students conduct investigations that involve calculating ratios. Eight full-page photographs of skulls from the program Stones and Bones are included. (PR)

Riss, Pam Helfers

1993-01-01

156

Empirical Likelihood Ratio Confidence Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical likelihood ratio function is defined and used to obtain confidence regions for vector valued statistical functionals. The result is a nonparametric version of Wilks' theorem and a multivariate generalization of work by Owen. Cornish-Fisher expansions show that the empirical likelihood intervals for a one dimensional mean are less adversely affected by skewness than are those based on Student's

Art Owen

1990-01-01

157

Central venous catheters - ports  

MedlinePLUS

Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... A central venous catheter is a tube that goes into a vein in your chest and ends at your ...

158

Central Asian Cataloging  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Languages of Central Asia present unique problems in cataloging. Reference works are often scarce, unobtainable, or non- existent, &pecially for Tibetan and Mongolian materials. Single-cut- ter numbers for languages result in shelflisting problems in some Central Asian languages. LC subject headings for Central Asian ma- terials are generally adequate except for Tibetan. The breakup of the Soviet Union may

Michael Walter

1993-01-01

159

European Central Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

160

Preservation of near-solar neon isotopic ratios in Icelandic basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neon isotopic ratios measured in olivine and basaltic glass from Iceland are the most primitive observed so far in terrestrial mantle-derived samples. Ratios were measured in gas released from olivine and basaltic glass from a total of 10 samples from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, and one sample from central Iceland. The neon isotopic ratios include solar-like, mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like

Eleanor T. Dixon; Masahiko Honda; Ian McDougall; Ian H. Campbell; Ingvar Sigurdsson

2000-01-01

161

Optomechanical Raman-Ratio Thermometry  

E-print Network

The temperature dependence of the asymmetry between Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering can be exploited for self-calibrating, optically-based thermometry. In the context of cavity optomechanics, we observe the cavity-enhanced scattering of light interacting with the standing-wave drumhead modes of a silicon nitride membrane mechanical resonator. The ratio of the amplitude of Stokes to anti-Stokes scattered light is used to measure temperatures of optically-cooled mechanical modes down to the level of a few vibrational quanta. We demonstrate that the Raman-ratio technique is able to measure the physical temperature of our device over a range extending from cryogenic temperatures to within an order of magnitude of room temperature.

T. P. Purdy; P. -L. Yu; N. S. Kampel; R. W. Peterson; K. Cicak; R. W. Simmonds; C. A. Regal

2014-06-27

162

Optomechanical Raman-Ratio Thermometry  

E-print Network

The temperature dependence of the asymmetry between Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering can be exploited for self-calibrating, optically-based thermometry. In the context of cavity optomechanics, we observe the cavity-enhanced scattering of light interacting with the standing-wave drumhead modes of a silicon nitride membrane mechanical resonator. The ratio of the amplitude of Stokes to anti-Stokes scattered light is used to measure temperatures of optically-cooled mechanical modes down to the level of a few vibrational quanta. We demonstrate that the Raman-ratio technique is able to measure the physical temperature of our device over a range extending from cryogenic temperatures to within an order of magnitude of room temperature.

Purdy, T P; Kampel, N S; Peterson, R W; Cicak, K; Simmonds, R W; Regal, C A

2014-01-01

163

Rates, Ratios, Percents, and Proportions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each of these sites will help you get better with percentages, rates, ratios, and solving proportions by cross-multiplying. 1. Begin by comparing fractions to decimals and to percentages. These two sites are similar. Pick one and practice it for a few minutes. Fraction-Decimal-Percent Chart or Percents-Fractions-Decimals (2) 2. Next, try to solve these percentage word problems. To find the problems, scroll down to the bottom of the page to the "Exercises." ...

hbinggeli

2010-10-22

164

Sex ratios in bumble bees  

PubMed Central

The median proportion of investment in females among 11 populations of seven bumble bee (Bombus) species was 0.32 (range 0.07 to 0.64). By contrast, two species of workerless social parasites in the related genus Psithyrus had female-biased sex allocation, the reasons for which remain unclear. Male-biased sex allocation in Bombus contradicts the predictions of Trivers and Hare's sex ratio model for the social Hymenoptera, which are that the population sex investment ratio should be 0.5 (1:1) under queen control and 0.75 (3:1 females:males) under worker control (assuming single, once-mated, outbred queens and non-reproductive workers). Male bias in Bombus does not appear to be either an artefact, or purely the result of symbiotic sex ratio distorters. According to modifications of the Trivers–Hare model, the level of worker male-production in Bombus is insufficient to account for observed levels of male bias. There is also no evidence that male bias arises from either local resource competition (related females compete for resources) or local mate enhancement (related males cooperate in securing mates). Bulmer presented models predicting sexual selection for protandry (males are produced before females) in annual social Hymenoptera and, as a consequence (given some parameter values), male-biased sex allocation. Bumble bees fit the assumptions of Bulmer's models and are protandrous. These models therefore represent the best current explanation for the bees' male-biased sex investment ratios. This conclusion suggests that the relative timing of the production of the sexes strongly influences sex allocation in the social Hymenoptera.

Bourke, A. F. G.

1997-01-01

165

Measurement of Tau branching ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the data accumulated at LEP in 1989 and 1990 with the ALEPH detector, the inclusive and exclusive branching ratios of the t lepton have been measured assuming lepton universality inZ0 decays. The inclusive branching fractions for the t decay into one, three, and five charged particles have been determined to be (85.45±0.97)%, (14.35±0.48)%, and (0.10±0.05)%, respectively, in agreement with

D. Decamp; B. Deschizeaux; C. Goy; J.-P. Lees; M.-N. Minard; R. Alemany; J. M. Crespo; M C Delfino; E. Fernandez; V. Gaitan; Ll. Garrido; Ll. M. Mir; A. Pacheco; M. G. Catanesi; D. Creanza; M. de Palma; A. Farilla; Giuseppe Iaselli; G. Maggi; M. Maggi; S. Natali; S. Nuzzo; M. Quattromini; A. Ranieri; G. Raso; F. Romano; F. Ruggieri; G. Selvaggi; L. Silvestris; P. Tempesta; G. Zito; H. Hu; D. Huang; X. Huang; J. Lin; J. Lou; C. Qiao; T. Ruan; T. Wang; Y. Xie; D. Xu; R. Xu; J. Zhang; W. Zhao; W. B. Atwood; L. A. T. Bauerdick; F. Bird; E. Blucher; G. Bonvicini; F. Bossi; J. Boudreau; T. H. Burnett; H. Drevermann; R. W. Forty; C. Grab; R. Hagelberg; S. Haywood; J. Hilgart; B. Jost; M. Kasemann; J. Knobloch; A. Lacourt; E. Lançon; I. Lehraus; T. Lohse; A. Lusiani; A. Marchioro; M. Martinez; P. Mato; S. Menary; T. Meyer; A. Minten; A. Miotto; R. Miquel; H.-G. Moser; J. Nash; P. Palazzi; F. Ranjard; G. Redlinger; L. Rolandi; A E Roth; J E Rothberg; M. Saich; D. Schlatter; M. Schmelling; W. Tejessy; H. Wachsmuth; S. Wasserbaech; W. Wiedenmann; W. Witzeling; J. Wotschack; Z. Ajaltouni; F. Badaud; M. Bardadin-Otwinowska; A. M. Bencheikh; R. El Fellous; A. Falvard; P. Gay; C. Guicheney; P. Henrard; J. Jousset; B. Michel; J.-C. Montret; D. Pallin; P. Perret; B. Pietrzyk; J. Proriol; F. Prulhière; G. Stimpfl; J. D. Hansen; J. R. Hansen; P. H. Hansen; R. Møllerud; B. S. Nilsson; I. Efthymiopoulos; E. Simopoulos; A. Vayaki; J. Badier; A. Blondel; G. Bonneaud; J. C. Brient; G. Fouque; A. Gamess; J. Harvey; S. Orteu; A. Rosowsky; A. Rougé; M. Rumpf; R. Tanaka; H. Videau; D. J. Candlin; E. Veitch; L. Moneta; G. Parrini; M. Corden; C. Georgiopoulos; M. Ikeda; J. Lannutti; D. Levinthal; M. Mermikides; L. Sawyer; A. Antonelli; R. Baldini; G. Bencivenni; G. Bologna; P. Campana; G. Capon; F. Cerutti; V. Chiarella; B. D'Ettore-Piazzoli; G. Felici; P. Laurelli; G. Mannocchi; F. Murtas; G. P. Murtas; L. Passalacqua; M. Pepe-Altarelli; P. Picchi; P. Zografou; B. Altoon; O. Boyle; P. Colrain; A. W. Halley; I. ten Have; J. G. Lynch; W. Maitland; W. T. Morton; C. Raine; J. M. Scarr; K. Smith; A. S. Thompson; R. M. Turnbull; B. Brandl; O. Braun; R. Geiges; C. Geweniger; P. Hanke; V. Hepp; E. E. Kluge; Y. Maumary; A. Putzer; B. Rensch; A. Stahl; K. Tittel; M. Wunsch; A. T. Belk; R. Beuselinck; D. M. Binnie; W. Cameron; M. Cattaneo; P. J. Dornan; S. Dugeay; A. M. Greene; J. F. Hassard; N. M. Lieske; S. J. Patton; D. G. Payne; M. J. Phillips; J. K. Sedgbeer; G. Taylor; I. R. Tomalin; A. G. Wright; P. Girtler; D. Kuhn; G. Rudolph; C. K. Bowdery; T. J. Broodbeck; A. J. Finch; F. Foster; G. Hughes; D. Jackson; N. R. Keemer; M. Nuttall; A. Patel; T. Sloan; S. W. Snow; E. P. Whelan; T. Barczewski; K. Kleinknecht; J. Raab; B. Renk; S. Roehn; H.-G. Sander; H. Schmidt; F. Steeg; S. M. Walther; B. Wolf; J.-J. Aubert; C. Benchouk; V. Bernard; A. Bonissent; J. Carr; P. Coyle; J. Drinkhard; F. Etienne; S. Papalexiou; P. Payre; Z. Qian; D. Rousseau; P. Schwemling; M. Talby; S. Adlung; H. Becker; W. Blum; D. Brown; P. Cattaneo; G. Cowan; B. Dehning; H. Dietl; F. Dydak; M. Fernandez-Bosman; T. Hansl-Kosanecka; A. Jahn; W. Kozanecki; E. Lange; J. Lauber; G. Lütjens; G. Lutz; W. Männer; R. Richter; H. Rotscheidt; J. Schröder; A. S. Schwarz; R. Settles; U. Stierlin; U. Stiegler; R. St. Denis; M. Takashima; J. Thomas; G. Wolf; V. Bertin; J. Boucrot; O. Callot; X. Chen; A. Cordier; M. Davier; J.-F. Grivaz; Ph. Heusse; P. Janot; D. W. Kim; F. Le Diberder; J. Lefrançois; A.-M. Lutz; M.-H. Schune; J.-J. Veillet; I. Videau; Z. Zhang; F. Zomer; D. Abbaneo; S. R. Amendolia; G. Bagliesi; G. Batignani; L. Bosisio; U. Bottigli; C. Bradaschia; M. Carpinelli; R. Dell'Orso; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. Foà; E. Focardi; F. Forti; C. Gatto; A. Grassi; M. A. Giorgi; F. Ligabue; E. B. Mannelli; P. S. Marrocchesi; A. Messineo; F. Palla; G. Sanguinetti; J. Steinberger; R. Tenchini; G. Tonelli; G. Triggiani; C. Vannini; A. Venturi; P. G. Verdini; J. Walsh; J. M. Carter; M. G. Green; P. V. March; T. Medcalf; I. S. Quasi; J. A. Strong; L. R. West; T. Wildish; D. R. Botterill; R. W. Clifft; T. R. Edgecock; M. Edwards; S. M. Fisher; T. J. Jones; P. R. Norton; D. P. Salmon; J. C. Thompson; B. Bloch-Devaux; P. Colas; E. Locci; S. Loucatos; E. Monnier; P. Perez; J. A. Perlas; F. Perrier; J. Rander; J.-F. Renardy; A. Roussarie; J.-P. Schuller; J. Schwindling; B. Vallage; J. G. Ashman; C. N. Booth; C. Buttar; R. E. Carney; S. Cartwright; F. Combley; M. Dogru; F. Hatfield; J. Martin; D. Parker; P. Reeves; L. F. Thompson; E. Barberio; S. Brandt; C. Grupen; H. Meinhard; L. Mirabito; U. Schäfer; H. Seywerd; G. Ganis; G. Giannini; B. Gobbo; F. Ragusa; L. Bellantoni; D. Cinabro; J. S. Conway; D. F. Cowen; Z. Feng; D. P. S. Ferguson; Y. S. Gao; J. Grahl; J. L. Harton; R. C. Jared; R. P. Johnson; B. W. LeClaire; C. Lishka; Y. B. Pan; J. R. Pater; Y. Saadi

1992-01-01

166

Rational Industrial Water Reuse Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work begins by defining rational water use, and then discusses important factors that most strongly influence it. A general model is then developed to enable factories to quantify the ratio of rational industrial water reuse based on the least cost method. The model is established to minimize the cost of water with reference to gross water use and three subsystems - the intake, reuse, and discharge of industrial water. Discharge cost is determined using data from a 1997 survey of 38 factories, and reuse costs are ranked and expressed by a step function. The model is verified using data from a typical semiconductor factory in northern Taiwan's Hsinchu Science Based Industrial Park, whose effective rational water reuse ratio is about 38 percent. A sensitivity analysis shows that improving water reuse technology is the most important factor in determining the rational water reuse ratio, and the price of water is the second most important. When water costs over NT30 (New Taiwan Dollar, US1 = NT$34) per cubic meter, increasing reuse becomes significant. The model provides a step towards the scientific management of industrial water.

Liaw, Chao-Hsien; Chen, Liang-Ching

2004-08-01

167

Oxygen isotope ratio studies in the Galactic center region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Delingha 13.7 m telescope with a 9-beam SIS superconducting receiver installed, we carried out mapping of C18O and C17O J = (1 - 0) toward molecular clouds in the central molecular zone (CMZ) and in the halo of our galaxy. From the integrated intensity ratio of C18O to C17O, the isotope ratio 18O/17O ratio can be estimated, which is considered to be one of the most useful tracers of nuclear processing and metal enrichment. Here preliminary results are presented toward Sgr A, Sgr B2, Sgr C, Sgr D, and the 1.°3 complex in the CMZ and M+5.3-0.3 in the halo.

Zhang, JiangShui; Sun, Lulu; Qiu, Jianjie; Lu, Dengrong; Wang, Min

2014-05-01

168

Martian Central Pit Craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ( floor pits ) as well as on top of central peaks ( summit pits ). Wood et al. [1] proposed that degassing of subsurface volatiles during crater formation produced central pits. Croft [2] argued instead that central pits might form during the impact of volatile-rich comets. Although central pits are seen in impact craters on icy moons such as Ganymede, they do show some significant differences from their martian counterparts: (a) only floor pits are seen on Ganymede, and (b) central pits begin to occur at crater diameters where the peak ring interior morphology begins to appear in terrestrial planet craters [3]. A study of craters containing central pits was conducted by Barlow and Bradley [4] using Viking imagery. They found that 28% of craters displaying an interior morphology on Mars contain central pits. Diameters of craters containing central pits ranged from 16 to 64 km. Barlow and Bradley noted that summit pit craters tended to be smaller than craters containing floor pits. They also noted a correlation of central pit craters with the proposed rings of large impact basins. They argued that basin ring formation fractured the martian crust and allowed subsurface volatiles to concentrate in these locations. They favored the model that degassing of the substrate during crater formation was responsible for central pit formation due to the preferential location of central pit craters along these basin rings.

Hillman, E.; Barlow, N. G.

2005-01-01

169

Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine  

SciTech Connect

Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

Charles Mendler

2011-03-15

170

Likelihood ratios for genome medicine.  

PubMed

Patients are beginning to present to healthcare providers with the results of high-throughput individualized genotyping, and interpreting these results in the context of the explosive growth of literature linking individual variants with disease may seem daunting. However, we suggest that results of a personal genomic analysis may be viewed as a panel of many tests for multiple diseases. By using well-established methods of evidence based medicine, these very many parallel tests may be combined using likelihood ratios to report a post-test probability of disease for use in patient assessment. PMID:20497613

Morgan, Alexander A; Chen, Rong; Butte, Atul J

2010-01-01

171

Likelihood ratios for genome medicine  

PubMed Central

Patients are beginning to present to healthcare providers with the results of high-throughput individualized genotyping, and interpreting these results in the context of the explosive growth of literature linking individual variants with disease may seem daunting. However, we suggest that results of a personal genomic analysis may be viewed as a panel of many tests for multiple diseases. By using well-established methods of evidence based medicine, these very many parallel tests may be combined using likelihood ratios to report a post-test probability of disease for use in patient assessment. PMID:20497613

2010-01-01

172

Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

2001-01-01

173

Central American update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central American Energy Resources Project is designed to help the countries of Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama develop their geothermal resources. Auxiliary project goals are to increase economic development and employment in Central America; to provide a scientific basis for the private sector to develop natural resources; and to provide scientific training to in-country scientists, engineers,

1987-01-01

174

Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia  

PubMed Central

Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as “hot comb alopecia,” “follicular degeneration syndrome,” “pseudopelade” in African Americans and “central elliptical pseudopelade” in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races. PMID:23440368

Blattner, Collin; Polley, Dennis C.; Ferritto, Frank; Elston, Dirk M.

2013-01-01

175

Wetlands of Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wetlands of seven Central American countries – Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panamá – are reviewed. The region's wetlands are classified into five systems: marine, estuarine, riverine, lacustrine, and palustrine. At a minimum, wetlands cover ˜40,000 km2 (˜8%) of the land area of Central America. These wetlands support high levels of biological diversity, especially of

Aaron M. Ellison

2004-01-01

176

Variable ratio regenerative braking device  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

1981-12-15

177

Lorentz ratio of quantum plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A quantum collective approach is developed to investigate linear transport properties of a system of highly degenerate weakly coupled electrons and strongly coupled semiclassical ions. The basic formalism rests upon suitable extention of the Boltzmann--Bloch quantum transport equation. The model considers electron--ion (e--i) and electron--electron (e--e) collisions in a unified scheme of both long- and short-range Coulomb interactions. The e--e collisions contribute to the thermal conductivity calculation in the low coupling regime. Even though they can be insignificant for strongly coupled systems, the extensively used Lorentz gas approximation cannot be justified for plasmas of astrophysical interests. It is shown that the Lorentz ratio of high-density plasma may exhibit substantial negative deviation from the ideal Sommerfeld value, due to some nonidealities, such as e--e interaction and quantum effects. Results are presented under analytical and compact forms allowing numerical applications, as well as comparisons with existing theories.

Khalfaoui, A.; Bennaceur, D. (Centre de Developpement des Technologies Avancees, Laboratoire Interaction Laser-Matiere, 2 Bd Franz Fanon, BP 1017 Alger-gare 16000 (Algeria))

1994-06-01

178

Beaded Braids: Investigating Patterns & Ratios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity learners create patterns of hair beads. Simone and Brianna like different mixes of beads in their braids, so learners must figure out how to distribute 40 beads to satisfy both characters. Images of the two girls are provided in the PDF. Either 20 each of two types of real beads can be used, or the learner can cut out paper beads (20 round and 20 heart-shaped), though the pattern is missing from the PDF. Included questions help learners explore ratio through addition, multiplication, and division. Learners can color the pictures and beads, and make braids with yarn for fun. This activity could also be adapted in terms of decorating lanyard and would connect very well with afterschool or home craft activities.

Lawrence Hall of Science

2003-01-01

179

Advanced high area ratio nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to develop computational techniques for the design of high-area-ratio nozzles and to validate these models by comparison with experiments and computations using other codes. Progress was made in two areas during the past year. First, performance computations were added to the PARC2D code and the performance of the SSME nozzle was computed for inviscid, laminar and turbulent flow assuming a perfect gas with gamma = 1.2. Second, the PARC2D code was modified in a non-CASP project to compute equilibrium flow about hypersonic blunt bodies. Progress has been made toward modifying this code to compute equilibrium H2/O2 flow through the SSME and related nozzles.

Raiszadeh, Farhad; Collins, Frank G.; Orr, Joseph L., Jr.; Myruski, Brian

1995-01-01

180

Advanced high area ratio nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to develop computational techniques for the design of high-area-ratio nozzles and to validate these models by comparison with experiments and computations using other codes. Performance computations were added to the PARC2D code and the performance of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) nozzle was computed for inviscid, laminar and turbulent flow assuming a perfect gas with gamma = 1.2. The PARC2D code was modified in a non-CASP (Center for Advanced Space Propulsion) project to compute equilibrium flow about hypersonic blunt bodies. Progress has been made toward modifying this code to compute equilibrium H2/O2 flow through the SSME and related nozzles.

Raiszadeh, Farhad; Collins, Frank G.; Orr, Joseph L., Jr.; Myruski, Brian

1989-01-01

181

Central Banking Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Central Banks of the World is a pointers page to central banks and central bank information for over 45 countries, as well as multilateral financial institutions, research and training establishments, and conference information. To show how little is generally known about the history of central banking in the United States, this site includes an email message sent to the webmaster of the First Bank of the United States, promoting a certain software company's web interactivity applications. Of course, since the First Bank of the United States was closed in 1811, its web site is primarily historical. The Central Banks site lists over 30 Internet directories and pointers pages that list the First Bank of the United States as a functioning financial institution. To help remedy this situation, the site includes a pointer to a brief history of banking in the US.

182

Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

2013-04-01

183

Heavy baryon/meson ratios in relativistic heavy ion collisions  

E-print Network

Heavy baryon/meson ratios $\\Lambda_c/D^0$ and $\\Lambda_b/\\bar{B}^0$ in relativistic heavy ion collisions are studied in the quark coalescence model. For heavy baryons, we include production from coalescence of heavy quarks with free light quarks as well as with bounded light diquarks that might exist in the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma produced in these collisions. Including the contribution from decays of heavy hadron resonances and also that due to fragmentation of heavy quarks that are left in the system after coalescence, the resulting $\\Lambda_c/D^0$ and $\\Lambda_b/\\bar{B}^0$ ratios in midrapidity ($|y|\\le 0.5$) from central Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV are about a factor of five and ten, respectively, larger than those given by the thermal model, and about a factor of ten and twelve, respectively, larger than corresponding ratios in the PYTHIA model for $pp$ collisions. These ratios are reduced by a factor of about 1.6 if there are no diquarks in the quark-gluon plasma. The transverse momentum dependence of the heavy baryon/meson ratios is found to be sensitive to the heavy quark mass, with the $\\Lambda_b/\\bar{B}^0$ ratio being much flatter than the $\\Lambda_c/D^0$ ratio. The latter peaks at the transverse momentum $p_T^{} \\simeq 0.8$ GeV but the peak shifts to $p_T^{} \\simeq 2$ GeV in the absence of diquarks.

Yongseok Oh; Che Ming Ko; Su Houng Lee; Shigehiro Yasui

2009-01-12

184

Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

1990-01-01

185

North Central Texas Council of Governments North Central Texas  

E-print Network

North Central Texas Council of Governments North Central Texas Thinking Ahead Donna Coggeshall North Central Texas Council of Governments #12;North Central Texas Council of Governments Thinking Ahead are for the 12-county MPA #12;North Central Texas Council of Governments Thinking Ahead Development Form #12

Texas at Arlington, University of

186

MoneyCentral  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MoneyCentral is a new personal finance site by Microsoft now in public beta test. An expanded and more user-friendly form of MSN's Money Insider (discussed in the October 23, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), MoneyCentral encompasses a wide variety of guides and tools on everything from Family Financing to Real Estate, Taxes and Investing. Visitors may view the full range of MoneyCentral topics from a clearly-arranged and clickable site map among other helpful links.

187

Exploring Central Tendency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed for 6th grade students. Student will work in small groups to apply central tendency to a real world scenario to finally answer the age old question of "when will I ever use this."

Monica Friske

2012-08-14

188

Central nervous system  

MedlinePLUS

The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for the entire nervous system, and control all the workings of your body.

189

Central ballast tanker design  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER Design. This design is intended to reduce the volume of oil spilled from tankers by giving the crew a tanker properly designed and equipped to allow large quantities of oil from ruptured tank(s) to flow safely to a fully-inerted central ballast tank. In addition to reducing the volume of oil spilled, the design also addresses many of the shortcomings of the DOUBLE HULL DESIGN which are increasingly becoming a concern. The following is a brief review of the development of the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER. The simple operational features, stability, low cost and ease of maintenance of the single hull tanker were important and can be retained with the CENTRAL BALLAST DESIGN.

NONE

1997-01-01

190

Probability: Central limit theorem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After heuristically deriving Stirling's approximation in the first video segment, we outline a simple example of the central limit theorem for the case of the binomial distribution. In the final segment, we explain how the central limit theorem is used to suggest that physical experiments are characterized by normally-distributed (Gaussian) fluctuations while fluctuations in biological experiments are said to fill out log-normal distributions.

2013-06-21

191

Central Diffraction in ALICE  

SciTech Connect

The ALICE experiment consists of a central barrel in the pseudorapidity range -0.9<{eta}<0.9 and of additional detectors covering about 3 units of pseudorapidity on either side of the central barrel. Such a geometry allows the tagging of single and double gap events. The status of the analysis of such diffractive events in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s) = 7 TeV is presented.

Schicker, R. [Phys. Inst., Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-07-15

192

Central core disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central core disease (CCD) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical\\u000a features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies.\\u000a CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal\\u000a weakness pronounced in the hip girdle;

Heinz Jungbluth

2007-01-01

193

Influence of neutron-skin thickness on $?^{-}/?^{+}$ ratio in Pb+Pb collisions  

E-print Network

Within an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model IBUU11 using as an input nucleon density profiles from Hartree-Fock calculations based on a modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we study the influence of the uncertainty of the neutron skin thickness on the $\\pi^{-}/\\pi^{+}$ ratio in both central and peripheral Pb+Pb collisions at beam energies of 400 MeV/nucleon and 1000 MeV/nucleon. Within the current experimental uncertainty range of neutron skin in $^{208}$Pb, while the neutron skin effect on the \\rpi ratio is negligible in central reactions at both energies, it increases gradually with increasing impact parameter and becomes comparable with or even larger than the symmetry energy effect in peripheral collisions especially at 400 MeV/nucleon. Moreover, we found that while the \\rpi ratio is larger with a softer \\esym in central collisions, above certain impact parameters depending on the size of the neutron skin, a stiffer \\esym can lead to a larger \\rpi ratio as most of the pions are produced at densities below the saturation density in these peripheral reactions. Thus, a clear impact parameter selection is important to extract reliable information about the \\esym at suprasaturation densities (size of neutron skin) from the $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratio in central (peripheral) heavy-ion collisions.

Gao-Feng Wei; Bao-An Li; Jun Xu; Lie-Wen Chen

2015-01-21

194

Variable mixture ratio performance through nitrogen augmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High/variable mixture ratio O2/H2 candidate engine cycles are examined for earth-to-orbit vehicle application. Engine performance and power balance information are presented for the candidate cycles relative to chamber pressure, bulk density, and mixture ratio. Included in the cycle screening are concepts where a third fluid (liquid nitrogen) is used to achieve a variable mixture ratio over the trajectory from liftoff to earth orbit. The third fluid cycles offer a very low risk, fully reusable, low operation cost alternative to high/variable mixture ratio bipropellant cycles. Variable mixture ratio engines with extendible nozzle are slightly lower performing than a single mixture ratio engine (MR = 7:1) with extendible nozzle. Dual expander engines (MR = 7:1) have slightly better performance than the single mixture ratio engine. Dual fuel dual expander engines offer a 16 percent improvement over the single mixture ratio engine.

Beichel, R.; Obrien, C. J.; Bair, E. K.

1988-01-01

195

TRIGONOMETRY: COMPARING RATIO AND UNIT CIRCLE METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the 1960s, introductory trigonometry was taught in Victorian schools using the ratio method, where trigonometric functions are defined as ratios of sides of right angled triangles. With the advent of \\

Margaret Kendal; Kaye Stacey

196

Learning About Ratios: A Sandwich Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the concept of ratio through a hands-on, delicious experiment. After an introductory activity where students identify the ratio of girls to boys in a group of 10 selected students, they create six different peanut butter and jelly sandwiches with different ingredient ratios to find which is the tastiest. Students then plan their own similar experiment using other concoctions which can be expressed in ratios.

Sheryl Weinberg

1999-01-16

197

Centrality dependence of elliptic flow and QGP viscosity  

E-print Network

In the Israel-Stewart's theory of second order hydrodynamics, we have analysed the recent PHENIX data on charged particles elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions. PHENIX data demand more viscous fluid in peripheral collisions than in central collisions. Over a broad range of collision centrality (0-10%- 50-60%), viscosity to entropy ratio ($\\eta/s$) varies between 0-0.17.

A. K. Chaudhuri

2010-03-30

198

REPRODUCTION About sex ratio in pigs  

E-print Network

sex ratio. No clear difference seemed to be linked to the season or the moon stage. The highestII. - REPRODUCTION About sex ratio in pigs J. LOUGNON, M. PICARD ..1,L.C, fSorric /!(!'('/(!/!r;7!Ct?sex ratio at birth were studied

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

199

Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

Simpson, William G.

1987-01-01

200

REPRODUCTION About sex ratio in pigs  

E-print Network

II. - REPRODUCTION About sex ratio in pigs J. LOUGNON, M. PICARD ..1,L.C, fSorric /!(!'('/(!/!r;7!Ct?sex ratio at birth were studied. Combination (4) gave a significantly higher number of males. The lowest sex ratio was registered

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

201

On detecting change in likelihood ratio ordering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the problem of testing and locating changepoints in likelihood ratios of two multinomial probability vectors. We propose a binary search procedure to detect the changepoints in the sequence of the ratios of probabilities and obtain the maximum likelihood estimators of two multinomial probability vectors under the assumption that the probability ratio sequence has a changepoint. We also

C. Xiong; Hammou El Barmi

2002-01-01

202

Management Ratios 1. For Colleges & Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ratios that enable colleges and universities to select other institutions for comparison are presented. The ratios and underlying data also enable colleges to rank order institutions and to calculate means, quartiles, and ranges for these groups. The data are based on FY 1983 U.S. Department of Education Statistics. The ratios summarize the…

Minter, John, Ed.

203

POLLINATION INTENSITY INFLUENCES SEX RATIOS IN DIOECIOUS RUMEX NIVALIS, A WIND-POLLINATED PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the mechanisms governing sex-ratio variation in dioecious organisms represents a central problem in evolutionary biology. It has been proposed that in plants with sex chromosomes competition between pollen tubes of female- versus male-determining microgametophytes (certation) causes female-biased primary sex ratios. Experimental support for this hypothesis is limited and recent workers have cast doubt on whether pollen-tube competition can modify

Ivana Stehlik; Spencer C. H. Barrett

2006-01-01

204

No evidence of skewed secondary sex ratios in nestlings of the Common Raven ( Corvus corax )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many bird species adjust their offspring sex ratio as a response to environmental conditions or sexual dimorphism in size\\u000a and dispersal. Offspring sex ratios may therefore vary among populations depending on the different demographic and ecological\\u000a trajectories. We sampled Common Raven Corvus corax nestlings close to the fledging stage from three Central European regions to test for skewed secondary sex

Sascha Rösner; Kirsten Bogatz; Hendrik Trapp; Thomas Grünkorn; Roland Brandl

2009-01-01

205

Comparison of Body Mass Index and Waist\\/Height Ratio in Predicting Definite Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist\\/hip ratio, waist\\/height ratio (WHtR) and skin fold thickness are clinical tools enabling the evaluation of obesity. WHtR is a recently introduced index to assess central fat distribution. This study was performed to compare the prognostic value of WHtR and BMI for definite coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A cross-sectional study was

M. Siavash; M. Sadeghi; F. Salarifar; M. Amini; F. Shojaee-Moradie

2008-01-01

206

Spectral line ratios as Teff indicators in solar-like stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratios of spectral line depths are often used as indicators of the stellar effective temperature T_eff. In particular, Gray & Livingston (\\\\cite{grayliv97a}) calibrated the temperature sensitivity of the ratios between the central depths of the line C I 538.032 nm and either the Fe I 537.958 or the Ti II 538.103, making use of observed spectra of several solar-like

B. Caccin; V. Penza; M. T. Gomez

2002-01-01

207

CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect

A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

ROMINE, L.D.

2006-02-01

208

Video Lab -NOAA Central Library NOAA Central Library  

E-print Network

Management System (VDMS) project. For more information please contact: Anna Fiolek, Metadata Librarian2014 Video Lab - NOAA Central Library NOAA Central Library 1315 East West Highway, SSMC3, 2nd Floor Silver Spring, MD 20910 www.lib.noaa.gov #12;NOAA Central Library Video Lab The NOAA Central Library

209

Neural correlates of the Pythagorean ratio rules.  

PubMed

Millennia ago Pythagoras noted a simple but remarkably powerful rule for the aesthetics of tone combinations: pairs of tones--intervals--with simple ratios such as an octave (ratio 2 : 1) or a fifth (ratio 3 : 2) were pleasant sounding (consonant), whereas intervals with complex ratios such as the major seventh (ratio 243 : 128) were harsh (dissonant). These Pythagorean ratio rules are the building blocks of Western classical music; however, their neurophysiologic basis is not known. Using functional MRI we have found the neurophysiologic correlates of the ratio rules. In musicians, the inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and anterior cingulate respond with progressively more activation to perfect consonances, imperfect consonances and dissonances. In nonmusicians only the right inferior frontal gyrus follows this pattern. PMID:17885594

Foss, Alexander H; Altschuler, Eric L; James, Karin H

2007-10-01

210

Shear Viscosity to Entropy Density Ratio in Six Derivative Gravity  

E-print Network

We calculate shear viscosity to entropy density ratio in presence of four derivative (with coefficient $\\alpha'$) and six derivative (with coefficient $\\alpha'^2$) terms in bulk action. In general, there can be three possible four derivative terms and ten possible six derivative terms in the Lagrangian. Among them two four derivative and eight six derivative terms are ambiguous, i.e., these terms can be removed from the action by suitable field redefinitions. Rest are unambiguous. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence all the unambiguous coefficients (coefficients of unambiguous terms) can be fixed in terms of field theory parameters. Therefore, any measurable quantities of boundary theory, for example shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, when calculated holographically can be expressed in terms of unambiguous coefficients in the bulk theory (or equivalently in terms of boundary parameters). We calculate $\\eta/s$ for generic six derivative gravity and find that apparently it depends on few ambiguous coefficients at order $\\alpha'^2$. We calculate six derivative corrections to central charges $a$ and $c$ and express $\\eta/s$ in terms of these central charges and unambiguous coefficients in the bulk theory.

Nabamita Banerjee; Suvankar Dutta

2009-04-01

211

Central Europe Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new weekly online journal from Central and East European New Media Initiative (CEENMI) offers news and analysis of events in politics, society, and culture across the region. With over 45 contributors from 17 countries, the journal provides a surprising amount of coverage each week. In addition to regular columns and weekly news summaries, the journal contains several in-depth articles and special feature pieces, including a number of resources (such as articles, film and book reviews, and related links) grouped around a weekly theme. The journal also offers a weekly list of Central and East European cultural events in the UK, links to related stories from other online news sources, and an archive. Users can read the Central Europe Review at the site or receive free weekly summaries via email.

212

Central American update  

SciTech Connect

The Central American Energy Resources Project is designed to help the countries of Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama develop their geothermal resources. Auxiliary project goals are to increase economic development and employment in Central America; to provide a scientific basis for the private sector to develop natural resources; and to provide scientific training to in-country scientists, engineers, and technicians. The energy resources project began in March 1985. The progress being made in El Salvador (production well logging and geophysical operations), Panama (site selection for the first temperature-gradient well), and Honduras (well drilling of temperature-gradient wells) is summarized.

Hodgson, S.F.

1987-07-01

213

ORIC central region calculations  

SciTech Connect

The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Bailey, J.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Lane, S.N.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

1995-12-31

214

ChildrensCentralCali  

Cancer.gov

Children’s Hospital Central California is excited to announce a new clinical opportunity due to the expansion of our Pediatric Psychology department. Children’s Hospital Central California is a 354 bed not-for-profit, state-of-the-art free standing Children’s Hospital. As a vital member of our Pediatric Psychology team the primary focus of this position will be on providing consultation-liaison services to our various medical inpatient units. There will also be opportunities for providing assessment and therapy services for our subspecialty clinics.

215

POWER CENTRALIZED SEMIGROUPS PRIMOZ MORAVEC  

E-print Network

POWER CENTRALIZED SEMIGROUPS PRIMOZ MORAVEC Abstract. A semigroup is said to be power centralized if for every pair of elements x and y there exists a power of x commuting with y. The structure of power centralized groups and semigroups is investigated. In particular, we characterize 0-simple power centralized

216

284 Astron. Nachr. 320 (1999) 4/5 Central abundance ratios in the Perseus cluster  

E-print Network

in the cores of clusters (Gilfanov et al. 1987). The simplest test for resonant scattering in the Fe K line II and fast flame-speed SN Ia (W7) but is inconsistent with either pure SN II or a combination of SN II and delayed detonation SN Ia (WDD). Assuming that the fast flame-speed model is correct for SN Ia

Dupke, Renato A.

217

Metabolic Flux Ratio Analysis of Genetic and Environmental Modulations of Escherichia coli Central Carbon Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

the METAFoR approach is based on two-dimensional 13 C- 1 H correlation nuclear magnetic resonance spec- troscopy with fractionally labeled biomass and, in contrast to metabolic flux analysis, does not require measurements of extracellular substrate and metabolite concentrations. METAFoR analyses of E. coli strains that moderately overexpress phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, pyruvate decarboxylase, or alcohol dehy- drogenase revealed that only a

UWE SAUER; DANIEL R. LASKO; JOCELYNE FIAUX; MICHEL HOCHULI; RALF GLASER; THOMAS SZYPERSKI; KURT WUTHRICH; JAMES E. BAILEY

1999-01-01

218

The Elastic Ratio: Introducing Curvature into Ratio-based Globally Optimal Image Segmentation  

E-print Network

1 The Elastic Ratio: Introducing Curvature into Ratio-based Globally Optimal Image Segmentation globally optimal ratio-based image segmentation method allowing to impose cur- vature regularity such approaches. To identify the optimal foreground region in the image, the algorithm minimizes the ratio of flux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Using a Market Ratio Factor in Faculty Salary Equity Studies. Professional File Number 103, Spring 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used two multiple regression analyses to develop an explanatory model to determine which model might best explain faculty salaries. The central purpose of the study was to determine if using a single market ratio variable was a stronger predictor for faculty salaries than the use of dummy variables representing various disciplines.…

Luna, Andrew L.

2007-01-01

220

Central venous catheter use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheters are being increasingly used in both intensive care units and general wards. Their use is associated with both mechanical and infectious complications. This review will focus on short- and medium-term mechanical complications of catheter placement; infectious complications will be discussed in a separate article. The most important risk factors are patient characteristics (morbidity, underlying disease and local

Kees H. Polderman; Armand R. J. Girbes

2002-01-01

221

Multicultural Central Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

Boyle, Eric D.

222

Central Idaho Debris Flow  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

During August 2013, the Beaver Creek wildfire burned more than 114,000 acres in south-central Idaho. Shortly after the fire was contained, heavy rainfall triggered numerous debris flows, including this one in Badger Gulch. USGS hydrologists Dave Evetts (left) and Jake Jacobson examine the debris flo...

223

Central American resource studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This

E. Van Eeckhout; A. W. Laughlin

1989-01-01

224

Central nervous system tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) has shown a resurgence in nonendemic populations in recent years and accounts for 8 million deaths annually in the world. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most serious forms of this infection, acting as a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The rising number of cases in developed countries is mostly attributed to factors such as the pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and increased migration in a globalized world. Mycobacterium TB is responsible for almost all cases of tubercular infection in the central nervous system. It can manifest in a variety of forms as tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, and tubercular abscess. Spinal infection may result in spondylitis, arachnoiditis, and/or focal intramedullary tuberculomas. Timely diagnosis of central nervous system TB is paramount for the early institution of appropriate therapy, because delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important that physicians and radiologists understand the characteristic patterns, distribution, and imaging manifestations of TB in the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the imaging modality of choice for the study of patients with suspected TB. Advanced imaging techniques including magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion tensor imaging may be of value in the objective assessment of therapy and to guide the physician in the modulation of therapy in these patients. PMID:24887691

Torres, Carlos; Riascos, Roy; Figueroa, Ramon; Gupta, Rakesh K

2014-06-01

225

Education in Central America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first chapter of this book describes the physical and cultural environment of Central America and includes analytical comments showing the complexity of the problems confronting the region. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are then treated in separate chapters including: 1) political, economic, social and…

Waggoner, George R.; Waggoner, Barbara Ashton

226

Central Asia Corresponding author:  

E-print Network

income. This is the result of Kazakh efforts to build a dam to seal off this part of the Aral Sea, so the inflow from Syr Darya can be accumulated. After a very cold winter in Central Asia in 2007/2008, the water situation is even more acute and political relations are strained. The extensive use of

Bo Libert; Bo Libert

227

Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism  

DOEpatents

A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

Lawrence, Keith Edward (Kobe, JP); Moser, William Elliott (Peoria, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Knox, Kevin Jay (Peoria, IL)

2008-05-13

228

Sex ratios in sexually dimorphic umbelliferae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex ratios in 35 inflorescence and plant counts of perennial, sexually dimorphic Umbelliferae vary from 0·96 to 87·33 times as many males as females. The ranges of ratios are similar in dioecious and gynodioecious populations.In 10 populations in which both the inflorescences and plants were counted, the male\\/female ratios are approximately one in populations in which the plants produce only

David G Lloyd

1973-01-01

229

Central hemodynamic assessment of normal term pregnancy.  

PubMed

Ten carefully screened primiparous patients between 36 and 38 weeks' gestation underwent pulmonary artery catheterization, arterial line placement, and central hemodynamic assessment in the left lateral recumbent position. Studies were repeated in the same patients between 11 and 13 weeks post partum. Compared with the nonpregnant state, there was a significant fall in systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, colloid oncotic pressure, and colloid oncotic pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure gradient by the late phase of the third trimester (p less than 0.05). Pregnancy was associated with a significant rise in cardiac output and pulse in all patients (p less than 0.05). There was no significant change in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular stroke work index, or mean arterial pressure. Normally the late phase of the third trimester is not associated with hyperdynamic left ventricular function as assessed by the left ventricular stroke work index/pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ratio. PMID:2603895

Clark, S L; Cotton, D B; Lee, W; Bishop, C; Hill, T; Southwick, J; Pivarnik, J; Spillman, T; DeVore, G R; Phelan, J

1989-12-01

230

Sex ratio at birth in Croatia: update.  

PubMed

There is strong evidence that the sex ratio at birth is partially determined by environmental and social factors. The modern change in those factors serves as an explanation for the secular decline in sex ratio at birth in most of the industrialized countries. This article is the reexamination of the results from my previous communication in which no trend in sex ratio at birth was established for the Croatian data from 1946 to 2007. The data for the years 2008 to 2011 were added, which didn't result with the detection of a significant change in sex ratio at birth by the regression analysis or by the Box-Jenkins time series analysis. Although the numerous factors associated with the decline in sex ratio at birth did occur during the studied period (e.g. increased exposure to the environmental pollution through food, air and water, the rise of the obesity and diabetes incidence, the economic crisis etc.), it appears that none of them made the measurable impact on sex ratio at birth. Also, the possible marginally significant decline in sex ratio at birth could be the result of a high sex ratio at birth immediately after the World War II. The results of this study caution against rapid generalization of the factors found to influence the sex ratio at birth in the epidemiological and clinical studies on the population level data. PMID:25144988

Pavi?, Dario

2014-06-01

231

Aspect Ratio Independent Etching: Fact or Fantasy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scaling of anisotropic plasma etch rates with feature dimensions is an important issue when fabricating microelectronic and photonic devices. For a wide rage of conditions, etch rates are found to scale primarily with the feature depth/width or aspect ratio. Features with large aspect ratios etch more slowly than those with low aspect ratios regardless of feature width. However, in the presence of etch inhibitors, the scaling of etching rates with feature dimensions becomes more complicated. Smaller aspect ratio features may etch more slowly than larger aspect ratio features suggesting that etch-inhibiting chemistry could be exploited in achieving the here-to-fore elusive goal of aspect ratio independent etching (ARIE). Using a well-established etching model, based on Langmuir adsorption kinetics, we derive the etch inhibitor flux and surface adsorption parameters required to achieve ARIE. Although the required parameters are non-physical when the range of aspect ratios is unconstrained, it is possible to achieve ARIE over a restricted range of aspect ratios. However, the balance required between ion, etchant, and inhibitor fluxes is a fragile one. The best approach to minimizing the variation in etching rate with aspect ratio is to operate a high density plasma at low pressure with high neutral flow rates.

Bailey, Andrew D., III; Gottscho, Richard

1995-04-01

232

Separated response function ratios in exclusive, forward ?(±) electroproduction.  

PubMed

The study of exclusive ?(±) electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio RL=?L(?-)/?L(?+) is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of RT=?T(?-)/?T(?+) from unity at small -t, to 1/4 at large -t, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Furthermore, the mentioned ratios may show an earlier approach to perturbative QCD than the individual cross sections. We have performed the first complete separation of the four unpolarized electromagnetic structure functions above the dominant resonances in forward, exclusive ?(±) electroproduction on the deuteron at central Q(2) values of 0.6, 1.0, 1.6??GeV(2) at W=1.95??GeV, and Q(2)=2.45??GeV(2) at W=2.22??GeV. Here, we present the L and T cross sections, with emphasis on RL and RT, and compare them with theoretical calculations. Results for the separated ratio RL indicate dominance of the pion-pole diagram at low -t, while results for RT are consistent with a transition between pion knockout and quark knockout mechanisms. PMID:24856691

Huber, G M; Blok, H P; Butuceanu, C; Gaskell, D; Horn, T; Mack, D J; Abbott, D; Aniol, K; Anklin, H; Armstrong, C; Arrington, J; Assamagan, K; Avery, S; Baker, O K; Barrett, B; Beise, E J; Bochna, C; Boeglin, W; Brash, E J; Breuer, H; Chang, C C; Chant, N; Christy, M E; Dunne, J; Eden, T; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Gibson, E F; Gilman, R; Gustafsson, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Jackson, H; Jin, S; Jones, M K; Keppel, C E; Kim, P H; Kim, W; King, P M; Klein, A; Koltenuk, D; Kovaltchouk, V; Liang, M; Liu, J; Lolos, G J; Lung, A; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Matsumura, A; McKee, D; Meekins, D; Mitchell, J; Miyoshi, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Mueller, B; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Okayasu, Y; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C; Pitz, D; Potterveld, D; Punjabi, V; Qin, L M; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Roos, P G; Sarty, A; Shin, I K; Smith, G R; Stepanyan, S; Tang, L G; Tadevosyan, V; Tvaskis, V; van der Meer, R L J; Vansyoc, K; Van Westrum, D; Vidakovic, S; Volmer, J; Vulcan, W; Warren, G; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yan, C; Zhao, W-X; Zheng, X; Zihlmann, B

2014-05-01

233

Separated Response Function Ratios in Exclusive, Forward ?± Electroproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of exclusive ?± electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio RL=?L?-/?L?+ is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of RT=?T?-/?T?+ from unity at small -t, to 1/4 at large -t, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Furthermore, the mentioned ratios may show an earlier approach to perturbative QCD than the individual cross sections. We have performed the first complete separation of the four unpolarized electromagnetic structure functions above the dominant resonances in forward, exclusive ?± electroproduction on the deuteron at central Q2 values of 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 GeV2 at W =1.95 GeV, and Q2=2.45 GeV2 at W =2.22 GeV. Here, we present the L and T cross sections, with emphasis on RL and RT, and compare them with theoretical calculations. Results for the separated ratio RL indicate dominance of the pion-pole diagram at low -t, while results for RT are consistent with a transition between pion knockout and quark knockout mechanisms.

Huber, G. M.; Blok, H. P.; Butuceanu, C.; Gaskell, D.; Horn, T.; Mack, D. J.; Abbott, D.; Aniol, K.; Anklin, H.; Armstrong, C.; Arrington, J.; Assamagan, K.; Avery, S.; Baker, O. K.; Barrett, B.; Beise, E. J.; Bochna, C.; Boeglin, W.; Brash, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Chang, C. C.; Chant, N.; Christy, M. E.; Dunne, J.; Eden, T.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Gibson, E. F.; Gilman, R.; Gustafsson, K.; Hinton, W.; Holt, R. J.; Jackson, H.; Jin, S.; Jones, M. K.; Keppel, C. E.; Kim, P. H.; Kim, W.; King, P. M.; Klein, A.; Koltenuk, D.; Kovaltchouk, V.; Liang, M.; Liu, J.; Lolos, G. J.; Lung, A.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Matsumura, A.; McKee, D.; Meekins, D.; Mitchell, J.; Miyoshi, T.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Mueller, B.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Okayasu, Y.; Pentchev, L.; Perdrisat, C.; Pitz, D.; Potterveld, D.; Punjabi, V.; Qin, L. M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reinhold, J.; Roche, J.; Roos, P. G.; Sarty, A.; Shin, I. K.; Smith, G. R.; Stepanyan, S.; Tang, L. G.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tvaskis, V.; van der Meer, R. L. J.; Vansyoc, K.; Van Westrum, D.; Vidakovic, S.; Volmer, J.; Vulcan, W.; Warren, G.; Wood, S. A.; Xu, C.; Yan, C.; Zhao, W.-X.; Zheng, X.; Zihlmann, B.; Jefferson Lab F? Collaboration

2014-05-01

234

Stable Isotope Analysis of a Middle Woodland Population from North Central Kansas  

E-print Network

This study sought to examine the paleodiet and temporality of a Middle Woodland group from five sites in north central Kansas. This goal was accomplished by submitting 21 samples for stable isotope ratios analysis (SIRA) ...

Kauffman, Greg

2013-08-31

235

Central nervous system tumors in children.  

PubMed

Of 488 central nervous system neoplasms occurring in children over a 39-year period, 467 were intracranial and 21 were intraspinal. The most common intracranial neoplasms were astrocytoma (28%), medulloblastoma (25%), ependymal neoplasm (9%), craniopharyngioma (9%), and glioblastoma multiforme (9%). The median age at diagnosis was 6 years with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3:1. Overall mean survival was 53.4 months and varied greatly relative to the type of tumor and the location. Of the intraspinal neoplasms the most frequently noted were the astrocytoma (47%) and the ependymal neoplasma (24%). The median age at diagnosis was 10 years with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. The average survival from diagnosis (54.1 months) was comparable to that of intracranial neoplasms. Detailed analyses of each histological type of tumor relative to age at diagnosis, sex, anatomical location and survival from diagnosis are reported for both intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms. PMID:201364

Farwell, J R; Dohrmann, G J; Flannery, J T

1977-12-01

236

A global inventory of central pit craters on the Moon: Distribution, morphology, and geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of central pit craters on the Moon has long been an enigma, and a primary reason is that their geographic distribution and morphometric characteristics were unknown. We investigated a global inventory of lunar central pit craters using high-resolution image and topography data obtained from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. 56 certain and 35 probable central pit craters are found on both the lunar maria and highlands. The certain pit craters are ˜9-57 km in diameter. The average diameter ratio between the central pits and their parent craters is ˜0.12 and the average depth/diameter ratio for the central pits is ˜0.072. With irregular-shaped rims, the central pits have conical profiles and some have flat floors. The central pits occur on both crater floors and central peaks. The floor pits are generally larger, deeper, and with more irregular shape compared with summit pits. Both the summit and floor pit craters have formed in every lunar stratigraphic epoch from Nectarian to Copernican. Target properties of background terrains affect the morphology and size of central pits, but they do not determine whether or not a central pit forms during a cratering event. The lunar central pits may have formed by deformation of central peaks caused by some mechanical processes during or soon after the cratering process of their parent craters.

Xiao, Zhiyong; Zeng, Zuoxun; Komatsu, Goro

2014-01-01

237

Thermal photons to dileptons ratio at LHC  

E-print Network

It is shown that the ratio of transverse momentum (p_T) distribution of thermal photons to dileptons produced in heavy ion collisions reaches a plateau above p_T=1 GeV. We argue that the value of the ratio in the plateau region can be used to estimate the initial temperature.

Jajati K. Nayak; Jan-e Alam; Sourav Sarkar; Bikash Sinha

2007-05-24

238

Calculating Obscuration Ratios Of Contaminated Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations derived to estimate obscuration ratios of surfaces contaminated by particles. Ratio is fraction of surface area covered by particles. Useful as index of cleanliness in clean-room operations in manufacturing of semiconductor devices, magnetic recording media, optical devices, and pharmaceutical and biotechnological products.

Barengoltz, Jack B.

1989-01-01

239

Economy Track: Employment to Population Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Time plot compares the employment-population ratio - the broadest measure of people who are working in America. Allows to compare between recessions, also allows to compare between demographic groups -- by sex, race/ethnicity and educational attainment. Also shows the secular trend for employment-population ratio since 1973.

Economic Policy Institute

240

Analog Implementation of Ratio Spectrum Computation  

E-print Network

by plotting the ratio of the power of a low-pass filtered signal to the power of the original unfiltered to the power spectrum of a signal, the ratio spectrum provides a number of computational advantages. One major such an analog VLSI implementation are discussed in this paper. I. INTRODUCTION The power spectrum is fundamental

Harris, John G.

241

Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

Barrett, D. R. B.

1984-01-01

242

Line Ratio Imaging of a Gas Discharge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intensity ratio of two atomic or ionic spectral lines in a plasma is a function of electron temperature. By imaging two spectral lines, and computing the line ratio, pixel by pixel, an image of the electron temperature is produced. This is demonstrated using a dusty plasma consisting of submicron particles suspended in an argon RF glow discharge.

Samsonov, D.; Goree, J.; Rogers, Rick (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

243

Manganese nodules: thorium-230: protactinium-231 ratios.  

PubMed

The Th(230): Pa(231) activity ratio in 7 of 11 manganese nodules is less than 10.8, the theoretical production ratio of activities in the ocean. This finding indicates difierential accumulation of these nuclides in authigenic deposits of manganese-iron oxide. PMID:17778807

Sackett, W M

1966-11-01

244

CCSSM Challenge: Graphing Ratio and Proportion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A renewed emphasis was placed on ratio and proportional reasoning in the middle grades in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). The expectation for students includes the ability to not only compute and then compare and interpret the results of computations in context but also interpret ratios and proportions as they are…

Kastberg, Signe E.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Mintos, Alexia; Krawczyk, Kathryn

2013-01-01

245

Recent studies of avian sex ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex allocation theory, and its success in predicting sex ratios in such taxa as parasitoid wasps, is often cited as one of the crowning achievements of theoretical evolutionary biology. Its success in some vertebrate taxa, particularly birds, has been more modest. I discuss two reasons for this. First, it is difficult to obtain avian sex ratio data before substantial offspring

Ben C Sheldon

1998-01-01

246

Ratio model serves suprathreshold color luminance discrimination  

E-print Network

Ratio model serves suprathreshold color­ luminance discrimination Marcel J. Sankeralli and Kathy T the responses of the three postreceptoral mechanisms are combined to subserve discrimination of suprathreshold model of suprathreshold color­luminance dis- crimination, in which discrimination depends on a ratio

Mullen, Kathy T.

247

Sustainable sex ratio in lattice populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a lattice model of mating populations. Simulation is performed by two different methods: local and global interactions. Simulation results account for the reason why the observed sex ratio is nearly one half in many animals. The male-biased sex ratio, such as in human populations, is also explained.

Tainaka, K.; Hayashi, T.; Yoshimura, J.

2006-05-01

248

Gonadotrophin and the human secondary sex ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of published reports showed that the sex ratio (proportion of boys) was low among infants conceived after ovulation had been induced. The difference between the observed sex ratio and an expected one of 0 . 514 was highly significant. These findings suggest that maternal gonadotrophin concentrations at the time of conception directly affect the sex of the zygote.

W H James

1980-01-01

249

Factors affecting the Human Sex Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE present here evidence suggesting the existence of at least two kinds of factors affecting the human sex ratio. As the sex ratio we use the number of male births per 100 female births. The evidence is based on family data collected by Geissler1 in 1889 and by ourselves2,3.

K. O. Renkonen; O. Mäkelä; Raimo Lehtovaara

1962-01-01

250

Negative Poisson's ratio polymeric and metallic foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foam materials based on metal and several polymers were transformed so that their cellular architecture became re-entrant, i.e. with inwardly protruding cell ribs. Foams with re-entrant structures exhibited negative Poisson's ratios as well as greater resilience than conventional foams. Foams with negative Poisson's ratios were prepared using different techniques and materials and their mechanical behaviour and structure evaluated.

E. A. Friis; R. S. Lakes; J. B. Park

1988-01-01

251

Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture conditions. Generally, an inverse relationship exists between the egg ratio and

S. S. S. Sarma; R. D. Gulati; S. Nandini

2005-01-01

252

Poisson's ratio of individual metal nanowires.  

PubMed

The measurement of Poisson's ratio of nanomaterials is extremely challenging. Here we report a lateral atomic force microscope experimental method to electromechanically measure the Poisson's ratio and gauge factor of individual nanowires. Under elastic loading conditions we monitor the four-point resistance of individual metallic nanowires as a function of strain and different levels of electrical stress. We determine the gauge factor of individual wires and directly measure the Poisson's ratio using a model that is independently validated for macroscopic wires. For macroscopic wires and nickel nanowires we find Poisson's ratios that closely correspond to bulk values, whereas for silver nanowires significant deviations from the bulk silver value are observed. Moreover, repeated measurements on individual silver nanowires at different levels of mechanical and electrical stress yield a small spread in Poisson ratio, with a range of mean values for different wires, all of which are distinct from the bulk value. PMID:25000139

McCarthy, Eoin K; Bellew, Allen T; Sader, John E; Boland, John J

2014-01-01

253

High Transformer ratios in collinear wakefield accelerators.  

SciTech Connect

Based on our previous experiment that successfully demonstrated wakefield transformer ratio enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric-loaded collinear wakefield accelerator using the ramped bunch train technique, we present here a redesigned experimental scheme for even higher enhancement of the efficiency of this accelerator. Design of a collinear wakefield device with a transformer ratio R2, is presented. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2. To match the wavelength of the fundamental mode of the wakefield with the bunch length (sigmaz=2 mm) of the new Argonne wakefield accelerator (AWA) drive gun (where the experiment will be performed), a 26.625 GHz dielectric based accelerating structure is required. This transformer ratio enhancement technique based on our dielectric-loaded waveguide design will result in a compact, high efficiency accelerating structures for future wakefield accelerators.

Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanreykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

2008-01-01

254

Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios  

E-print Network

By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio $R^{c}=\\frac{F^{^{c\\overline{c}}}_L}{F^{^{c\\overline{c}}}_2}$, which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of xat small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio Rcat high $Q^{2}$. Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a goodagreement with some phenomenological models.

Boroun, G R

2014-01-01

255

Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio Rc=FLccbar/F2ccbar, which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio Rc at high Q2. Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models.

Boroun, G. R.; Rezaei, B.

2014-09-01

256

Scavenging ratios based on inflow air concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Scavenging ratios were calculated from field measurements made during April 1985. Event precipitation samples were collected at the surface, but air chemistry measurements in the air mass feeding the precipitation were made from an aircraft. In contrast, ratios calculated in previous studies have used air concentration and precipitation chemistry data from only surface measurements. Average scavenging ratios were calculated for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, total sulfate, total nitrate, and total ammonium for 5 events; the geometric mean of these scavenging ratios were 8.5 {times} 10{sup 5}, 5.6 {times} 10{sup 6}, 4.3 {times} 10{sup 5}, 3.4 {times} 10{sup 5}, 2.4 {times} 10{sup 6}, and 9.7 {times} 10{sup 4}, respectively. These means are similar to but less variable than previous ratios formed using only surface data.

Davis, W.E.; Dana, M.T.; Lee, R.N.; Slinn, W.G.N.; Thorp, J.M.

1991-07-01

257

FNAL central email systems  

SciTech Connect

The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

2004-10-01

258

Lesson Plan Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson Plan Central -- a free lesson plans, WebQuests, worksheets, student link and clipart Web site -- has a great collection of science specific links. Categorized by subject and grade level, the listed sites are are briefly described, and any new site is labeled as such. Links to just the new, cool, and clipart sites are also provided. This collection is a great way for kids and educators to find new teaching and learning aids.

2002-01-01

259

Investment Club Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investment Club Central was developed by invest-o-rama! to promote investment clubs. At the site, visitors will find many useful articles on how to start an investment club, as well as a collection of investment club news stories. Other resources at the site include a list of online data sources, links to stock research, tutorials on selecting stocks for the club and a directory of investment clubs online.

Gerlach, Douglas.

260

Central Internet Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Energy maintains the Central Internet Database Web site. Here users can generate and print reports containing nationwide data on radioactive waste, contaminated media, and spent nuclear fuel. Ready to read reports are also available including Actual and Projected Waste/Material Volumes, Waste/Material Characteristic Data (contaminants/isotopes/radioactivity), and Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD) Systems. The site currently contains fifty nine standard and fourteen ready to read reports

261

Central American development  

SciTech Connect

While Asia`s power markets have garnered much of the attention in the global power market, Central America and the Caribbean also present private power developers with opportunities. Each Central American and Caribbean country has approached inependent power project development at its own pace. While some countries in the region have been more aggressive in encouraging independent power, others are still deciding whether and how to allow private deelopment to proceed. While there are clearly significant challenges associated with project development, there are advantages as well. A practical advantage is the fact that the region is geographically consolidated and proximate to the United States. Accordingly, a dveloper with limited resources can nevertheless operate in several markets at the same time. Moreover, because these markets are close, US-based developers have been able to avoid some of the more serious logistical problems that have been encountered in more remote markets, such as China and India. This can also be an advantage to smaller independent developers. Summaries of recent developments in Central America and the Caribbean are preented.

Goodwin, L.M. [Reid & Priest, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-05-01

262

Central Florida Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Florida Memory project was started in 2002 by The University of Central Florida Library, The Orange County Regional History Center, and The Orange County Library System. The intent of the project is "to provide an online platform and focal point for gathering, preserving, and disseminating the documents, artifacts, and stories of the history of Central Florida." Over the past few years, the project has been awarded with additional funding grants from the Institute of Museum and Library Services. Currently, the project site contains over 80,000 images, along with maps, plans, and other documents. Visitors to the homepage will find three primary sections of note: "Collection", "Share", and "Learn". In the "Collection" area, visitors can make their way through postcards, maps, and the "most recent" additions to the site. For people looking for a more organized experience, there's the "Learn" area. Here they can find thematic collections like "Dreams and Schemes", "Roads, Rivers and Rails", and "Critters, Crackers and Cottages". For those looking for a sample search, words like "Deland", "Stetson University", "Orlando", and "pineapple" will return a host of compelling items.

263

Central respiratory chemoreception  

PubMed Central

Summary By definition central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs) are cells that are sensitive to changes in brain PCO2 or pH and contribute to the stimulation of breathing elicited by hypercapnia or metabolic acidosis. CO2 most likely works by lowering pH. The pertinent proton receptors have not been identified and may be ion channels. CRCs are probably neurons but may also include acid-sensitive glia and vascular cells that communicate with neurons via paracrine mechanisms. Retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) neurons are the most completely characterized CRCs. Their high sensitivity to CO2 in vivo presumably relies on their intrinsic acid-sensitivity, excitatory inputs from the carotid bodies and brain regions such as raphe and hypothalamus, and facilitating influences from neighboring astrocytes. RTN neurons are necessary for the respiratory network to respond to CO2 during the perinatal period and under anesthesia. In conscious adults, RTN neurons contribute to an unknown degree to the pH-dependent regulation of breathing rate, inspiratory and expiratory activity. The abnormal prenatal development of RTN neurons probably contributes to the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Other CRCs presumably exist but the supportive evidence is less complete. The proposed locations of these CRCs are the medullary raphe, the nucleus tractus solitarius, the ventrolateral medulla, the fastigial nucleus and the hypothalamus. Several wake-promoting systems (serotonergic and catecholaminergic neurons, orexinergic neurons) are also putative CRCs. Their contribution to central respiratory chemoreception may be behavior-dependent or vary according to the state of vigilance. PMID:20737591

Guyenet, Patrice G.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Bayliss, Douglas A.

2010-01-01

264

Response surface and neural network models for performance of broiler chicks fed diets varying in digestible protein and critical amino acids from 11 to 17 days of age.  

PubMed

Central composite design (CCD; 5 levels and 4 factors), response surface methodology (RSM), and artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) were used to evaluate the response of broiler chicks [ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR)] to dietary standardized ileal digestible protein (dP), lysine (dLys), total sulfur amino acids (dTSAA), and threonine (dThr). A total of 84 battery brooder units of 5 birds each were assigned to 28 diets of CCD containing 5 levels of dP (18-22%), dLys (1.06-1.30%), dTSAA (0.81-1.01%), and dThr (0.66-0.86%) from 11 to 17 d of age. The experimental results of CCD were fitted with the quadratic and artificial neural network models. A ridge analysis (for RSM models) and a genetic algorithm (for ANN-GA models) were used to compute the optimal response for ADG and FCR. For both ADG and FCR, the goodness of fit in terms of R(2) and MS error corresponding to ANN-GA and RSM models showed a substantially higher accuracy of prediction for ANN models (ADG model: R(2) = 0.99; FCR model: R(2) = 0.97) compared with RSM models (ADG model: R(2) = 0.70; FCR model: R(2) = 0.71). The ridge maximum analysis on ADG and minimum analysis on FCR models revealed that the maximum ADG may be obtained with 18.5, 1.10, 0.89, and 0.73% dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet, and minimum FCR may be obtained with 19.44, 1.18, 0.90, and 0.75% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet. The optimization results of ANN-GA models showed the maximum ADG may be achieved with 19.93, 1.06, 0.90, and 0.76% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet, and minimum FCR may be achieved with 18.63, 1.26, 0.84, and 0.69% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet. The results of this study revealed that the platform of CCD (for conducting growth trials with minimum treatments), RSM model, and ANN-GA (for experimental data modeling and optimization) may be used to describe the relationship between dietary nutrient concentrations and broiler performance to achieve the optimal target. PMID:21844277

Ahmadi, H; Golian, A

2011-09-01

265

Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA OZONE STUDY APPENDIX A: CENTRAL CALIFORNIA OZONE STUDY VOLUME 1: FIELD STUDY PLAN Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Prepared By: California Air Resources Board PIERFINALPROJECTREPORT March 2007 CEC-500

266

Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA OZONE STUDY APPENDIX B: CENTRAL CALIFORNIA OZONE STUDY VOLUME 2: FIELD OPERATIONS PLAN Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Prepared By: California Air Resources Board PIERFINALPROJECTREPORT March 2007 CEC

267

Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA OZONE STUDY APPENDIX C: CENTRAL CALIFORNIA OZONE STUDY VOLUME 3: SUMMARY OF FIELD OPERATIONS Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Prepared By: California Air Resources Board PIERFINALPROJECTREPORT March

268

Optimal dispersion and central places  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents research into optimal dispersion models as applied to central places. The literature regarding location optimization and central places is reviewed and the motivation for employing dispersion models is identified. Models that employ the objective of maximal dispersion in the context of central places are formulated and solved in the context of both single- and multiple-good systems. Two methods for generating multiple-good systems are presented: a multiple-type dispersion model and a K-value constraint set formulation. Sequential solutions to dispersion models demonstrate how a system of central places could develop over time. The solutions to these models generate the patterns of central places expected under the organizing principles of central place theory. The objective of maximal dispersion is posited as both a motivating factor in central place location decisions, and as the optimal outcome of a mature system of central places.

Curtin, Kevin M.; Church, Richard L.

2007-06-01

269

C/O Ratios in Exoplanetary Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations are allowing unprecedented constraints on the carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) ratios of giant exoplanetary atmospheres. Elemental abundance ratios, such as the C/O ratio, of planetary atmospheres provide important constraints on planetary interior compositions and formation conditions, and on the chemical and dynamical processes in the atmospheres. In addition, for super-Earths, the potential availability of water and oxygen, and hence the notion of `habitability', is contingent on the C/O ratio. Typically, an oxygen-rich composition, motivated by the solar nebula C/O of 0.5, is assumed in models of exoplanetary formation, interiors, and atmospheres. However, recent observations of exoplanetary atmospheres are suggesting the possibility of C/O ratios of 1.0 or higher, motivating the new class of Carbon-rich Planets (CRPs). In this talk, we will present observational constraints on atmospheric C/O ratios for an ensemble of transiting exoplanets and discuss their implications on the various aspects of exoplanetary characterization described above. Motivated by these results, we propose a two-dimensional classification scheme for irradiated giant exoplanets in which the incident irradiation and the atmospheric C/O ratio are the two dimensions. We demonstrate that some of the extreme anomalies reported in the literature for hot Jupiter atmospheres can be explained based on this 2-D scheme. An overview of new theoretical avenues and observational efforts underway for chemical characterization of extrasolar planets, from hot Jupiters to super-Earths, will be presented.

Madhusudhan, N.

2012-04-01

270

CALIPSO lidar ratio retrieval over the ocean.  

PubMed

We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type. PMID:21935239

Josset, Damien; Rogers, Raymond; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali; Zhai, Peng-Wang

2011-09-12

271

CALIPSO Lidar Ratio Retrieval Over the Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type

Josset, Damien B.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali H.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

2011-01-01

272

Morphology, photometry and kinematics of N -body bars - I. Three models with different halo central concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the morphology, photometry and kinematics of the bars which have formed in three N -body simulations. These have initially the same disc and the same halo-to-disc mass ratio, but their haloes have very different central concentrations. The third model includes a bulge. The bar in the model with the centrally concentrated halo (model MH) is much stronger, longer

E. Athanassoula; A. Misiriotis

2002-01-01

273

Central ignition scenarios for TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs.

Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

1986-03-01

274

Optimal sampling ratios in comparative diagnostic trials  

PubMed Central

Summary A subjective sampling ratio between the case and the control groups is not always an efficient choice to maximize the power or to minimize the total required sample size in comparative diagnostic trials.We derive explicit expressions for an optimal sampling ratio based on a common variance structure shared by several existing summary statistics of the receiver operating characteristic curve. We propose a two-stage procedure to estimate adaptively the optimal ratio without pilot data. We investigate the properties of the proposed method through theoretical proofs, extensive simulation studies and a real example in cancer diagnostic studies. PMID:24948841

Dong, Ting; Tang, Liansheng Larry; Rosenberger, William F.

2014-01-01

275

TIGHT ASPECT RATIO TOKAMAKS - THEORY AND EXPERIMENT  

SciTech Connect

The START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) experiment became operational in January 1991 at AEA Fusion Culham Laboratory. It is the only tokamak producing hot plasmas at aspect ratios as low as A = R/a approximately 1.3, and is providing valuable insight into the physical processes (such as toroidicity and trapping) involved at low aspect ratio. Three topics are discussed in this paper: equilibrium properties, including evidence of neo-classical and bootstrap effects; energy confinement studies; and MHD properties, including possible explanations for the apparent absence of the major disruption at low A.

Sykes, A [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham, UK; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

1993-01-01

276

Negative Poisson's ratio materials via isotropic interactions.  

PubMed

We show that under tension a classical many-body system with only isotropic pair interactions in a crystalline state can, counterintuitively, have a negative Poisson's ratio, or auxetic behavior. We derive the conditions under which the triangular lattice in two dimensions and lattices with cubic symmetry in three dimensions exhibit a negative Poisson's ratio. In the former case, the simple Lennard-Jones potential can give rise to auxetic behavior. In the latter case, a negative Poisson's ratio can be exhibited even when the material is constrained to be elastically isotropic. PMID:18764632

Rechtsman, Mikael C; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore

2008-08-22

277

Bifurcation Ratios and the Adaptive Geometry of Trees  

E-print Network

. Pages 136-148 in H. E. GARRETT and G . S. Cox, eds. Proceedings of the Third Central Hardwood Forest Conference. University of Mis­ souri Press, Columbia, Mo . CHAMPAGNAT, P. 1965. Physiologie de la croissance et de l'inhibition des bourgeons...BOT. GAZ. 1 4 2 ( 3 ) : 3 9 4 - 4 0 1 . 1981 . © 1981 by The University of Chicago. 0 0 0 6 - 8 0 7 1 / 8 1 / 4 2 0 3 - 0 0 1 5 $ 0 2 . 0 0 BIFURCATION RATIOS AND T H E A D A P T I V E G E O M E T R Y OF T R E E S R O L F B O R C H E R T A N D N...

Borchert, Rolf; Slade, Norman A.

1981-01-01

278

Response surface of dietary energy and protein in Japanese quail from 7 to 14 days of age.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine dietary energy (ME) and CP requirements of quail chicks using response surface methodology. A total of 40 floor pens of 20 birds each were assigned to 9 diets of central composite design (CCD) containing 5 levels of ME (2,809 to 3,091 kcal/kg) and CP (19 to 24.8% of diet) from 7 to 14 d of age. The experimental results of CCD were fitted with quadratic response models, and ridge analysis was used to compute the optimal response for BW gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Regression analysis showed that the linear effect of independent variables was significant on bird responses. The quadratic and cross-product effects did not have significant effects on performance. Dietary levels of CP linearly affected BWG and FCR, but the effect of dietary ME was not significant. The ridge maximum analysis on BWG and minimum analysis on FCR models revealed that the maximum BWG may be achieved with 2,950 kcal of ME/kg and 25% CP; and minimum FCR may be obtained with 2,878 kcal of ME/kg and 24.4% CP. The results of this study showed that response surface analysis with the CCD platform was successfully used to optimize dietary requirements of Japanese quail and this methodology could be used for other nutrients. PMID:23091156

Ghazaghi, M; Mehri, M; Yousef-Elahi, M; Rokouei, M

2012-11-01

279

Detrended minimum-variance hedge ratio: A new method for hedge ratio at different time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method and the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method, we propose an improved method of minimum-variance (MV) hedge ratio, i.e., the detrended minimum-variance (D-MV) hedge ratio, which can measure the hedge ratio at different time scales. The proposed D-MV hedge ratio is defined as the detrended covariance function between spot and futures returns divided by the detrended variance function of futures returns. Through the simulated and empirical analysis, we find that (i) the outcomes of the hedge ratio and the corresponding hedging effectiveness for the D-MV hedge ratio are diverse at different time scales, which can meet needs of various hedging participants with different hedging horizons; (ii) our proposed D-MV hedge ratio has a better hedging performance and a greater potential to determine the hedge ratio because its results of hedging effectiveness at most of time scales are better than those of the traditional MV hedge ratio; and (iii) as for the method of D-MV hedge ratio for different polynomial orders m in the fitting procedure, the D-MV-1 hedge ratio (i.e., the linear polynomial in the fitting procedure) has the best hedging capability for determining the hedge ratio.

Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shou

2014-07-01

280

Nonlinear Analysis of the Poisson's Ratio of Negative Poisson's Ratio Foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contains an analytic study of Poisson's ratio of re-entrant foam materials with negative Poisson's ratio. These materials get fatter when stretched and thinner when compressed. The Poisson effect is so fundamentally important to the properties of a material that a large change in the value of the ratio will have significant effects on the material's mechanical performance. Isotropic

J. B. Choi; R. S. Lakes

1995-01-01

281

Central American resource studies  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

1989-01-01

282

Central Europe Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, a service of the European Internet Network, brings English-language news and background to users each weekday. Central Europe Online covers the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The site offers current headlines (along with the time that they were most recently updated), business news, travel information, and links to local media. New stories are drawn primarily from Reuters. An archive holds back issues. Users who want to stay current on issues affecting these regions will benefit from the professional approach this site brings to coverage.

283

Imaging of central neurocytomas.  

PubMed

Central neurocytoma (CN) is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of any intraventricular lesion. Initial evaluation should include noncontrast CT, MRI with and without gadolinium contrast, and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, if available. CN classically appear as a partially calcified mass on CT, arising from the septum pellucidum or foramen of Monro, with a soap-bubble multicystic appearance on MR T2-imaging and heterogeneous enhancement on MR T1 postcontrast imaging. MR perfusion/permeability and dynamic contrast imaging are experimental and promising tools in the diagnosis of CN. PMID:25432179

Donoho, Daniel; Zada, Gabriel

2015-01-01

284

Central American electrical interconnection  

SciTech Connect

A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

Not Available

1988-12-01

285

Floods in Central China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

286

Science Application of Area and Ratio Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes using area and ratio concepts to examine why some animals, or people wearing different types of shoes, sink into the surface on which they are standing. Students compute "sinking values" to explain these differences. (Contains 2 figures.)

Horak, Virginia M.

2006-01-01

287

Optimizing combination chemotherapy by controlling drug ratios.  

PubMed

Cancer chemotherapy treatments typically employ drug combinations in which the dose of each agent is pushed to the brink of unacceptable toxicity; however, emerging evidence indicates that this approach may not be providing optimal efficacy due to the manner in which drugs interact. Specifically, whereas certain ratios of combined drugs can be synergistic, other ratios of the same agents may be antagonistic, implying that the most efficacious combinations may be those that utilize certain agents at reduced doses. Advances in nano-scale drug delivery vehicles now enable the translation of in vitro information on synergistic drug ratios into improved anticancer combination therapies in which the desired drug ratio can be controlled and maintained following administration in vivo, so that synergistic effects can be exploited. This "ratiometric" approach to combination chemotherapy opens new opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of existing and future treatment regimens across a spectrum of human diseases. PMID:17827442

Mayer, Lawrence D; Janoff, Andrew S

2007-08-01

288

INVESTIGATION Genome Scans for Transmission Ratio  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATION Genome Scans for Transmission Ratio Distortion Regions in Mice Joaquim Casellas,*,,1, University of California, Davis, California 95616-8521, Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics and Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908

Yandell, Brian S.

289

Microbial respiration per unit microbial biomass depends on litter layer carbon-to-nitrogen ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil microbial respiration is a central process in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In this study, I tested the effect of the carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio of soil litter layers on microbial respiration in absolute terms and per unit microbial biomass C. For this purpose, a global data set on microbial respiration per unit microbial biomass C - termed the metabolic quotient (qCO2) - was compiled from literature data. It was found that qCO2 in the soil litter layers was positively correlated with the litter C:N ratio and was negatively correlated with the litter nitrogen (N) concentration. The positive relation between qCO2 and the litter C:N ratio resulted from an increase in respiration with the C:N ratio in combination with no significant effect of the litter C:N ratio on the soil microbial biomass C concentration. The results suggest that soil microorganisms respire more C both in absolute terms and per unit microbial biomass C when decomposing N-poor substrate. The reasons for the observed relationship between qCO2 and the litter layer C:N ratio could be microbial N mining, overflow respiration or the inhibition of oxidative enzymes at high N concentrations. In conclusion, the results show that qCO2 increases with the litter layer C:N ratio. Thus, the findings indicate that atmospheric N deposition, leading to decreased litter C:N ratios, might decrease microbial respiration in soils.

Spohn, M.

2015-02-01

290

Bootstrap confidence intervals for ratios of expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are concerned with computing a confidence interval for the ratio E[Y]\\/E[X, where (X,Y) is a pair of random variables. This ratio estimation problem arises in, for instance, regenerative simulation. As an alternative to confidence intervals based on asymptotic normality, we study and compare different variants of the bootstrap for one-sided and two-sided intervals. We point out situations where these

Denis Choquet; Pierre L'ecuyer; Christian Léger

1999-01-01

291

Does inbreeding distort sex-ratios?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inbreeding is reputed to distort sex-ratios by reducing the proportion of the homogametic sex. However, many data sets do not show such an effect, and there is a known selective publication bias. To resolve the issue, we (a) developed detailed theoretical expectations for the effects of inbreeding on sex-ratios for autosomal and sex-linked loci with sex-limited effects or with equal

Richard Frankham; Jonathan Wilcken

2006-01-01

292

Ultraviolet Emission Line Ratios of Cataclysmic Variables  

E-print Network

We present a statistical analysis of the ultraviolet emission lines of cataclysmic variables (CVs) based on $\\approx 430$ ultraviolet spectra of 20 sources extracted from the International Ultraviolet Explorer Uniform Low Dispersion Archive. These spectra are used to measure the emission line fluxes of N V, Si IV, C IV, and He II and to construct diagnostic flux ratio diagrams. We investigate the flux ratio parameter space populated by individual CVs and by various CV subclasses (e.g., AM Her stars, DQ Her stars, dwarf novae, nova-like variables). For most systems, these ratios are clustered within a range of $\\sim 1$ decade for log Si IV/C IV $\\approx -0.5$ and log He II/C IV $\\approx -1.0$ and $\\sim 1.5$ decades for log N V/C IV $\\approx -0.25$. These ratios are compared to photoionization and collisional ionization models to constrain the excitation mechanism and the physical conditions of the line-emitting gas. We find that the collisional models do the poorest job of reproducing the data. The photoionization models reproduce the Si IV/C IV line ratios for some shapes of the ionizing spectrum, but the predicted N V/C IV line ratios are simultaneously too low by typically $\\sim 0.5$ decades. Worse, for no parameters are any of the models able to reproduce the observed He II/C IV line ratios; this ratio is far too small in the collisional and scattering models and too large by typically $\\sim 0.5$ decades in the photoionization models.

Christopher W. Mauche; Y. Paul Lee; Timothy R. Kallman

1996-09-20

293

Approaches to high aspect ratio triangulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In aerospace computational fluid dynamics calculations, high aspect ratio, or stretched, triangulations are necessary to adequately resolve the features of a viscous flow around bodies. In this paper, we explore alternatives to the Delaunay triangulation which can be used to generate high aspect ratio triangulations of point sets. The method is based on a variation of the lifting map concept which derives Delaunay triangulations from convex hull calculations.

Posenau, M.-A.

1993-01-01

294

Posterior odds ratios for selected regression hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Bayesian posterior odds ratios for frequently encountered hypotheses about parameters of the normal linear multiple regression\\u000a model are derived and discussed. For the particular prior distributions utilized, it is found that the posterior odds ratios\\u000a can be well approximated by functions that are monotonic in usual sampling theoryF statistics. Some implications of this finding and the relation of our work

A. Zellner; A. Siow

1980-01-01

295

Secular trends in human sex ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secular change in sex ratios is examined in relation to experience in the family. Two theoretical perspectives are outlined:\\u000a Guttentag and Secord’s (1983) adaptation of social exchange theory, and sexual selection theory. Because of large-scale change\\u000a in number of births and typical age differentials between men and women at marriage, low sex ratios at couple formation ages\\u000a existed in the

Frank A. Pedersen

1991-01-01

296

Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America  

SciTech Connect

Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

Steiner, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Mont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fresquez, Philip R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Naughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-14

297

Central star formation in S0 galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a class, S0 galaxies are characterized by a lack of resolved bright stars in the disk. However, several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that a high rate of star formation is occurring at the centers of some S0 galaxies. Many of the warmest, most powerful far infrared sources in nearby bright galaxies occur in S0 galaxies. (Dressel 1988, Ap. J., 329, L69). The ratios of radio continuum flux to far infrared flux for these S0 galaxies are comparable to the ratios found for spiral galaxy disks and for star-burst galaxies. Very Large Array (VLA) maps of some of these S0 galaxies show that the radio continuum emission originates in the central few kiloparsecs. It is diffuse or clumpy, unlike the radio sources in active S0 galaxies, which are either extremely compact or have jet-lobe structures. Imaging of some of these galaxies at 10.8 microns shows that the infrared emission is also centrally concentrated. Many of the infrared-powerful S0 galaxies are Markarian galaxies. In only one case in this sample is the powerful ultraviolet emission known to be generated by a Seyfert nucleus. Optical spectra of the central few kiloparsecs of these S0 galaxies generally show deep Balmer absorption lines characteristic of A stars, and H beta emission suggestive of gas heated by O stars. A key question to our understanding of these galaxies is whether they really are S0 galaxies, or at least would have been recognized as S0 galaxies before the episode of central star formation began. Some of Nilson's classifications (used here) have been confirmed by Sandage or de Vaucouleurs and collaborators from better plates; some of the galaxies may be misclassified Sa galaxies (the most frequent hosts of central star formation); some are apparently difficult to classify because of mixed characteristics, faint non-S0 features, or peculiarities. More optical imaging is needed to characterize the host galaxies and to study the evolution of their star-forming regions.

Dressel, L. L.; Oconnell, R. W.; Telesco, C. M.

1990-01-01

298

Reproductive biology in Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol. (Leguminosae) in the central region of Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol. in central Argentina indicate that the species is polygamous (andromonoecious), some plants having a high proportion of staminate heads. Though pollen:ovule ratios of flowers, inflorescences and plants are at a level common for 'facultative xenogamic' systems, controlled pollination shows a marked xenogamy. The ratio between pollen grains in the polyad and the maximum number

JOSE LUIS BARANELLI; ANDREA A. COCUCCI; ANA M. ANTON

1995-01-01

299

Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia.  

PubMed

A progressive scarring alopecia of the central scalp is commonly seen in young to middle-aged females of African descent. It usually starts at the vertex or mid top of the scalp and gradually spreads centrifugally, hence, the unifying term of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. The clinical pattern is suggestive of female pattern alopecia, but a lack of follicular pores indicative of scarring is present. It can progress for years before slowly burning out. The etiology is unknown but genetic factors may be important. It is often associated with a history of traumatic hairstyling involving heat, traction, and chemicals. However, most patients of African descent without this disorder have similar styling habits. Nonetheless, avoidance of physical and chemical trauma to the scalp hair, the use of suitable shampoos and conditioners, and the encouragement of natural hairstyles may be helpful. Any infection should be treated. Topical or intralesional corticosteroids and systemic antibiotics may be useful and topical minoxidil should be tried with the hope of preventing further scarring and encouraging regrowth of recovering follicles. Current research into the etiology of this disorder will help to foster much-needed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. PMID:18715297

Whiting, David A; Olsen, Elise A

2008-01-01

300

Chapter 30: Crossmatching Data in the VO: BCG Line Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter, we will determine the emission line ratios of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) in a sample drawn the Sloan Digital Sky Survey C4 galaxy cluster catalog (Miller et al. 2005). These line ratios can be used to provide some insight on whether these galaxies are star-forming or contain an Active Galactic Nucleus. We will utilize a series of VO tools: Open SkyPortal, TOPCAT and VOPlot. BCGs can be defined in different ways and are often synonymous with brightest central galaxies or even cD galaxies (galaxies with optically extended light envelopes). BCGs are the most massive galaxies and their formation and evolution are a popular and current research topic (Linden et al. 2006, Bernardi et al. 2006, Lauer et al. 2006). They have been studied for some time (Sandage 1972, Ostriker & Tremain 1975, White 1976, Thuan & Romanishin 1981, Merritt 1985, Postman and Lauer 1995, among many others). In this VO research example, our aim is to take a list of galaxies known to lie within the footprint of the SDSS, which provides us with the possibility that some of these galaxies will have measured spectra from the SDSS spectroscopic pipeline. Thus, there is some prerequisite knowledge: 1) Many bright SDSS galaxies have spectra with measured emission line properties; 2) Our catalog of Brightest Cluster Galaxies has some overlap with the SDSS footprint. Taken together, we can crossmatch our catalog to the SDSS spectroscopic galaxy data in order to extract any available emission-line information.

Miller, C. J.; Krughoff, K. S.

301

Central waste processing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

Kester, F. L.

1973-01-01

302

Developmental basis of sexually dimorphic digit ratios  

PubMed Central

Males and females generally have different finger proportions. In males, digit 2 is shorter than digit 4, but in females digit 2 is the same length or longer than digit 4. The second- to fourth-digit (2D:4D) ratio correlates with numerous sexually dimorphic behavioral and physiological conditions. Although correlational studies suggest that digit ratios reflect prenatal exposure to androgen, the developmental mechanism underlying sexually dimorphic digit development remains unknown. Here we report that the 2D:4D ratio in mice is controlled by the balance of androgen to estrogen signaling during a narrow window of digit development. Androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor ? (ER-?) activity is higher in digit 4 than in digit 2. Inactivation of AR decreases growth of digit 4, which causes a higher 2D:4D ratio, whereas inactivation of ER-? increases growth of digit 4, which leads to a lower 2D:4D ratio. We also show that addition of androgen has the same effect as inactivation of ER and that addition of estrogen mimics the reduction of AR. Androgen and estrogen differentially regulate the network of genes that controls chondrocyte proliferation, leading to differential growth of digit 4 in males and females. These studies identify previously undescribed molecular dimorphisms between male and female limb buds and provide experimental evidence that the digit ratio is a lifelong signature of prenatal hormonal exposure. Our results also suggest that the 2D:4D ratio can serve as an indicator of disrupted endocrine signaling during early development, which may aid in the identification of fetal origins of adult diseases. PMID:21896736

Zheng, Zhengui; Cohn, Martin J.

2011-01-01

303

Separated Response Function Ratios in Exclusive, Forward pi^{+/-} Electroproduction  

E-print Network

The study of exclusive $\\pi^{\\pm}$ electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio $R_L=\\sigma_L^{\\pi^-}/\\sigma_L^{\\pi^+}$ is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of $R_T=\\sigma_T^{\\pi^-}/\\sigma_T^{\\pi^+}$ from unity at small $-t$, to 1/4 at large $-t$, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Furthermore, the mentioned ratios may show an earlier approach to pQCD than the individual cross sections. We have performed the first complete separation of the four unpolarized electromagnetic structure functions above the dominant resonances in forward, exclusive $\\pi^{\\pm}$ electroproduction on the deuteron at central $Q^2$ values of 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 GeV$^2$ at $W$=1.95 GeV, and $Q^2=2.45$ GeV$^2$ at $W$=2.22 GeV. Here, we present the $L$ and $T$ cross sections, with emphasis on $R_L$ and $R_T$, and compare them with theoretical calculations. Results for the separated ratio $R_L$ indicate dominance of the pion-pole diagram at low $-t$, while results for $R_T$ are consistent with a transition between pion knockout and quark knockout mechanisms.

G. M. Huber; H. P. Blok; C. Butuceanu; D. Gaskell; T. Horn; D. J. Mack; D. Abbott; K. Aniol; H. Anklin; C. Armstrong; J. Arrington; K. Assamagan; S. Avery; O. K. Baker; B. Barrett; E. J. Beise; C. Bochna; W. Boeglin; E. J. Brash; H. Breuer; C. C. Chang; N. Chant; M. E. Christy; J. Dunne; T. Eden; R. Ent; H. Fenker; E. F. Gibson; R. Gilman; K. Gustafsson; W. Hinton; R. J. Holt; H. Jackson; S. Jin; M. K. Jones; C. E. Keppel; P. H. Kim; W. Kim; P. M. King; A. Klein; D. Koltenuk; V. Kovaltchouk; M. Liang; J. Liu; G. J. Lolos; A. Lung; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; A. Matsumura; D. McKee; D. Meekins; J. Mitchell; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; B. Mueller; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; Y. Okayasu; L. Pentchev; C. Perdrisat; D. Pitz; D. Potterveld; V. Punjabi; L. M. Qin; P. E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; P. G. Roos; A. Sarty; I. K. Shin; G. R. Smith; S. Stepanyan; L. G. Tang; V. Tadevosyan; V. Tvaskis; R. L. J. van der Meer; K. Vansyoc; D. Van Westrum; S. Vidakovic; J. Volmer; W. Vulcan; G. Warren; S. A. Wood; C. Xu; C. Yan; W. -X. Zhao; X. Zheng; B. Zihlmann

2014-04-15

304

Effects of nuclear absorption on the antiLambda/antiproton ratio in relativistic heavy ion collisions  

E-print Network

An enhanced antiLambda/antiproton ratio in heavy-ion relative to p+p collisions has been proposed as one of the signatures for the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) formation. A significantly large (antiLambda+antiSigma0+1.1*antiSigma-)/antiproton ratio of 3.5 has been observed in the mid-rapidity and low transverse momentum region in central Au+Au collisions at the nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 4.9 GeV at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). This is an order of magnitude larger than the values in peripheral Au+Au collisions and p+p collisions at the corresponding energy. By using the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport model, we demonstrate that the observed large ratio can be explained by strong absorption of antiprotons (~99.9%) and antiLambdas (~99%) in dense nuclear matter created in central collisions. We find within the model that the initial antiLambda/antiproton ratio, mainly from string fragmentation, does not depend on the collision centrality, and is consistent with that observed in p+p collisions. This suggests that the observed large (antiLambda+antiSigma0+1.1*antiSigma-)/antiproton ratio at the AGS does not necessarily imply the formation of the QGP. We further study the excitation function of the ratio in UrQMD, which may help in the search and study of the QGP.

Fuqiang Wang; Marlene Nahrgang; Marcus Bleicher

2012-06-30

305

Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.  

PubMed

Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception. PMID:23964258

Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

2013-01-01

306

Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction  

PubMed Central

Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception. PMID:23964258

Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

2013-01-01

307

Optimal aspect ratio of endocytosed spherocylindrical nanoparticle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent simulations have demonstrated that bioparticle size and shape modulate the process of endocytosis, and studies have provided more quantitative information that the endocytosis efficiency of spherocylindrical bioparticles is decided by its aspect ratio. At the same time, the dimensions of the receptor-ligand complex have strong effects on the size-dependent exclusion of proteins within the cellular environment. However, these earlier theoretical works including simulations did not consider the effects of ligand-receptor complex dimension on the endocytosis process. Thus, it is necessary to resolve the effects of ligand-receptor complex dimension and determine the optimal aspect ratio of spherocylindrical bioparticles in the process of endocytosis. Accordingly, we proposed a continuum elastic model, of which the results indicate that the aspect ratio depends on the ligand-receptor complex dimension and the radius of the spherocylindrical bioparticle. This model provides a phase diagram of the aspect ratio of endocytosed spherocylindrical bioparticles, the larger aspect ratio of which appears in the phase diagram with increasing ligand density, and highlights the bioparticle design.

Chen, Ying-Bing; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zeng, Yan; Mao, Wei; Hu, Lin; Mao, Zong-Liang; Xu, Hou-Qiang

2015-02-01

308

A snail with unbiased population sex ratios but highly biased brood sex ratios.  

PubMed Central

Extraordinary sex ratio patterns and the underlying sex-determining mechanisms in various organisms are worth investigating, particularly because they shed light on adaptive sex-ratio adjustment. Here, we report an extremely large variation in the brood sex ratio in the freshwater snail, Pomacea canaliculata. In eight rearing series originating from three wild populations, sex ratios were highly variable among broods, ranging continuously from almost exclusively males to almost exclusively females. However, sex ratios were similar between broods from the same mating pair, indicating that sex ratio is a family trait. Irrespective of the large variations, the average sex ratios in all rearing series were not significantly different from 0.5. We argue that Fisher's adaptive sex-ratio theory can explain the equal average sex ratios, and the results, in turn, directly support Fisher's theory. Polyfactorial sex determination (in which sex is determined by three or more genetic factors) is suggested as the most likely mechanism producing the variable brood sex ratio. PMID:12614578

Yusa, Yoichi; Suzuki, Yoshito

2003-01-01

309

The AIMSS Project II: Dynamical-to-Stellar Mass Ratios Across the Star Cluster - Galaxy Divide  

E-print Network

The previously clear division between small galaxies and massive star clusters is now occupied by objects called ultra compact dwarfs (UCDs) and compact ellipticals (cEs). Here we combine a sample of UCDs and cEs with velocity dispersions from the AIMSS project with literature data to explore their dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios. We confirm that the mass ratios of many UCDs in the stellar mass range 10$^6$ -- 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$ are systematically higher than those for globular clusters which have mass ratios near unity. However, at the very highest masses in our sample, i.e. 10$^9$ -- 10$^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$, we find that cE galaxies also have mass ratios of close to unity, indicating their central regions are mostly composed of stars. Suggested explanations for the elevated mass ratios of UCDs have included a variable IMF, a central black hole, and the presence of dark matter. Here we present another possible explanation, i.e. tidal stripping. Under various assumptions, we find that the apparent variation in...

Forbes, Duncan A; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Pota, Vincenzo; Kannappan, Sheila J; Brodie, Jean P; Huxor, Avon

2014-01-01

310

Flooding in Central China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

2002-01-01

311

Central solar energy receiver  

DOEpatents

An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

312

Central Michigan University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Central Michigan University serves Michigan and the larger community as a doctoral/research intensive public university focused on excellent teaching and student-focused learning. The University is committed to providing a broad range of undergraduate and graduate programs and services to prepare its students for varied roles as responsible citizens and leaders in a democratic and diverse society. Its programs encourage intellectual and moral growth, prepare students for meaningful careers and professions, instill the values of lifelong learning, and encourage civic responsibility, public service and understanding among social groups in a global society. The university emphasizes an undergraduate program that maintains a balance between general education and specialization. In addition to educational depth in at least one academic discipline or professional field, the university provides educational experiences in the arts, humanities, natural and social sciences, global cultures, and issues of race and diversity. The university offers selected high quality graduate programs in traditional disciplines and professional fields. Through its College of Extended Learning, the university provides access to higher education programs and lifelong learning opportunities both nationally and internationally through a variety of innovative instructional methods and schedules designed to meet the demands of adult populations. Central Michigan University encourages research, scholarship and creative activity and promotes the scholarly pursuit and dissemination of new knowledge, artistic production and applied research. Through its support of research, the university enhances the learning opportunities of both its undergraduate and graduate students and promotes economic, cultural and social development. The university?s sense of community is reflected through governance structures that allow broadbased participation, opportunities for close student-faculty interaction, and a rich array of residential and campus-based co-curricular activities. Through its partnerships and outreach efforts, the university promotes learning outsideof the traditional classroom and enhances the general welfare of society.

Central Michigan University

313

Use of progressive fixed-ratio procedures in the assessment of intracranial reinforcement1  

PubMed Central

Six rats with electrodes chronically implanted in septal or hypothalamic sites were tested for intracranial reinforcement on a progressive fixed-ratio schedule. Two variations of this schedule were also examined and compared. Functions relating the highest level of stable fixed-ratio responding to a wide range of stimulus currents were, unlike those derived from continuous reinforcement rates, monotonic at all stimulation sites tested. One of the procedures described, in particular, is quite sensitive to intracranial reinforcement parameters, provides a reliable technique for within-session assays of these parameters, and successfully avoids many problems commonly encountered with administration of central stimulation on a continuous reinforcement schedule. PMID:5660710

Keesey, Richard E.; Goldstein, Michael D.

1968-01-01

314

Double ratio of charmonia in p + Pb collisions at = 5.02 TeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a kinetic description of J/? dissociation and production in an expanding quark-gluon plasma that is described by a 2+1 dimensional ideal hydrodynamics, we have studied the double ratio RpPb(?')/RpPb(J/?) of charmonia in p+Pb collisions at = 5.02 TeV by including not only the cold nuclear matter effects but also the hot nuclear matter effects. We find that the double ratio of prompt charmonia is significantly suppressed in the most central collisions as a result of the hot nuclear matter effects.

Liu, Yunpeng; Ko, Che Ming; Song, Taesoo

2014-09-01

315

Kinship Institutions and Sex Ratios in India  

PubMed Central

This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance. PMID:21308567

CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA; KIM, SUKKOO

2010-01-01

316

Nonlinear trading models through Sharpe Ratio maximization.  

PubMed

While many trading strategies are based on price prediction, traders in financial markets are typically interested in optimizing risk-adjusted performance such as the Sharpe Ratio, rather than the price predictions themselves. This paper introduces an approach which generates a nonlinear strategy that explicitly maximizes the Sharpe Ratio. It is expressed as a neural network model whose output is the position size between a risky and a risk-free asset. The iterative parameter update rules are derived and compared to alternative approaches. The resulting trading strategy is evaluated and analyzed on both computer-generated data and real world data (DAX, the daily German equity index). Trading based on Sharpe Ratio maximization compares favorably to both profit optimization and probability matching (through cross-entropy optimization). The results show that the goal of optimizing out-of-sample risk-adjusted profit can indeed be achieved with this nonlinear approach. PMID:9730018

Choey, M; Weigend, A S

1997-08-01

317

A comparison of marginal odds ratio estimators.  

PubMed

Uses of the propensity score to obtain estimates of causal effect have been investigated thoroughly under assumptions of linearity and additivity of exposure effect. When the outcome variable is binary relationships such as collapsibility, valid for the linear model, do not always hold. This article examines uses of the propensity score when both exposure and outcome are binary variables and the parameter of interest is the marginal odds ratio. We review stratification and matching by the propensity score when calculating the Mantel-Haenszel estimator and show that it is consistent for neither the marginal nor conditional odds ratio. We also investigate a marginal odds ratio estimator based on doubly robust estimators and summarize its performance relative to other recently proposed estimators under various conditions, including low exposure prevalence and model misspecification. Finally, we apply all estimators to a case study estimating the effect of Medicare plan type on the quality of care received by African-American breast cancer patients. PMID:25006032

Loux, Travis M; Drake, Christiana; Smith-Gagen, Julie

2014-07-01

318

Magnetostrictive contribution to Poisson ratio of galfenol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a detailed study on the magnetostrictive contribution to Poisson ratio for samples under applied mechanical stress. Magnetic contributions to strain and Poisson ratio for cubic materials were derived by accounting elastic and magneto-elastic anisotropy contributions. We apply our theoretical results for a material of interest in magnetomechanics, namely, galfenol (Fe1-xGax). Our results show that there is a non-negligible magnetic contribution in the linear portion of the curve of stress versus strain. The rotation of the magnetization towards [110] crystallographic direction upon application of mechanical stress leads to an auxetic behavior, i.e., exhibiting Poisson ratio with negative values. This magnetic contribution to auxetic behavior provides a novel insight for the discussion of theoretical and experimental developments of materials that display unusual mechanical properties.

Paes, V. Z. C.; Mosca, D. H.

2013-09-01

319

Secular trends in newborn sex ratios.  

PubMed

A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence the male to female ratio at birth, which invariably displays a male excess. This paper will review and amplify recent work by the author, with specific references to individual countries, regions and entire continents in order to provide a global overview of this subject. It will be shown that stress, including stress related to political events, influences this ratio. Man-made radiation is also shown to have played a significant role in relation to the Windscale fire (1957) and Chernobyl (1986). PMID:25219502

Grech, Victor

2014-11-01

320

On the variability of alligator sex ratios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of alligators from wild and 'farm' populations exhibited disproportionate sex ratios. Males predominated among young alligators from wild populations, whereas females were much more abundant than males in the farm population, where resources were superabundant. These results and other considerations lead us to hypothesize that environmental factors influence sex determination in alligators. During favorable environmental conditions natural selection is expected to favor a preponderance of the sex whose individuals exhibit the greater environmentally associated variation in relative fitness. We hypothesize that environmentally associated variation in age at sexual maturity of females produces sufficient variation in relative fitness of females to result in selection for low sex ratios during periods of resource abundance.

Nichols, J.D.; Chabreck, R.H.

1980-01-01

321

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

322

The Period-Ratio and Mass-Ratio Correlation in Extra-Solar Multiple Planetary Systems  

E-print Network

Employing the data from orbital periods and masses of extra-solar planets in 166 multiple planetary systems, the period-ratio and mass-ratio of adjacent planet pairs are studied. The correlation between the period-ratio and mass-ratio is confirmed and found to have a correlation coefficient of 0.5303 with a 99% confidence interval (0.3807, 0.6528). A comparison with the distribution of synthetic samples from a Monte Carlo simulation reveals the imprint of planet-planet interactions on the formation of adjacent planet pairs in multiple planetary systems.

Jiang, Ing-Guey; Hung, Wen-Liang

2015-01-01

323

The period-ratio and mass-ratio correlation in extra-solar multiple planetary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing the data from orbital periods and masses of extra-solar planets in 166 multiple planetary systems, the period ratio and mass ratio of adjacent planet pairs are studied. The correlation between the period ratio and mass ratio is confirmed, with a correlation coefficient of 0.5303 with a 99 per cent confidence interval (0.3807, 0.6528). A comparison with the distribution of synthetic samples from a Monte Carlo simulation reveals the imprint of planet-planet interactions on the formation of adjacent planet pairs in multiple planetary systems.

Jiang, Ing-Guey; Yeh, Li-Chin; Hung, Wen-Liang

2015-04-01

324

Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness  

E-print Network

The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0...

Liu, Kuo-Chun

2010-01-14

325

Inclusive cross section ratios at x > 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the ratios of inclusive electron scattering cross sections between nuclei and the deuteron, for values of the scaling variable x > 1 and for large momentum transfers. Employing microscopic nuclear spectral functions and describing the recoil-nucleon final state interaction using correlated Glauber theory, we find good agreement with experiment.

Benhar, O.; Fabrocini, A.; Fantoni, S.; Sick, I.

1995-02-01

326

Highly Repeatable The Variance Ratio quantified the  

E-print Network

, and could functionally substitute for EMG in some applications ·FMG duration outlasted EMG by an average repeatability of FMG is high relative to EMG, in terms of both fiducial point timing and the Variance Ratio. ·In isometric tasks, FMG and EMG are highly concordant. Accurate Timing · Normalized · Differentiated · EMG

Craelius, William

327

Perspectives on the basic reproductive ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic reproductive ratio, R0, is defined as the expected number of secondary infections arising from a single individual during his or her entire infectious period, in a population of susceptibles. This concept is fundamental to the study of epidemiology and within-host pathogen dynamics. Most importantly, R0 often serves as a threshold parameter that predicts whether an infection will spread.

J. M. Heffernan; R. J. Smith; L. M. Wahl

2005-01-01

328

Female-predominant sex ratios in angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented which expresses the seed production of dioecious and gynodioecious animal-pollinated Angiosperms in terms of the relative seed-fecundity of the sexes, the number of pollinator visits to each flower and the sex ratio. The model predicts that the maximum seed set occurs when females predominate, providing the pollinators visit each flower more than once and the seed

David G Lloyd

1974-01-01

329

Sex ratio evolution when fitness varies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex ratio favoured by natural selection is studied in a single-locus model of a random-mating population. The population inhabits a “patchy” (spatially heterogeneous) environment, and offspring reared in different patches have corresponding differences in fitness, depending on their sex. Thus, some patches produce the best males; these or other patches produce the best females. The mating pool is comprised

J J Bull

1981-01-01

330

Magnesium isotope ratios in Hyades stars  

E-print Network

Using classical model atmospheres and an LTE analysis, Mg isotope ratios 24Mg:25Mg:26Mg are measured in 32 Hyades dwarfs covering 4000K < Teff < 5000K. We find no significant trend in any isotope ratio versus Teff and the mean isotope ratio is in excellent agreement with the solar value. We determine stellar parameters and Fe abundances for 56 Hyades dwarfs covering 4000K < Teff < 6200K. For stars warmer than 4700K, we derive a cluster mean value of [Fe/H] = 0.16 +/- 0.02 (sigma=0.1), in good agreement with previous studies. For stars cooler than 4700K, we find that the abundance of Fe from ionized lines exceeds the abundance of Fe from neutral lines. At 4700K [Fe/H]_II - [Fe/H]_I = 0.3 dex while at 4000K [Fe/H]_II - [Fe/H]_I = 1.2 dex. This discrepancy between the Fe abundance from neutral and ionized lines likely reflects inadequacies in the model atmospheres and the presence of Non-LTE or other effects. Despite the inability of the models to reproduce ionization equilibrium for Fe, the Mg isotope ratios appear immune to these problems and remain a powerful tool for studying Galactic chemical evolution.

David Yong; David L. Lambert; Carlos Allende Prieto; Diane B. Paulson

2003-12-02

331

Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ratios of Expectations  

E-print Network

Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ratios of Expectations DENIS CHOQUET, PIERRE L'ECUYER, and CHRISTIAN L ' EGER Universit'e de Montr'eal We are concerned with computing a confidence interval for instance in regenerative simulation. As an alternative to confidence intervals based on asymptotic

L'Ecuyer, Pierre

332

Calculating Confidence Intervals for Rates and Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the probability of developing or dying from most neurologic disorders is relatively small, the Poisson distribution is often utilized to establish confidence intervals around rates or ratios for diseases of the nervous system. This report describes a simplified method and provides a table of factors based on the Poisson distribution for calculating confidence intervals around estimates of rates and

Bruce S. Schoenberg

1983-01-01

333

NERO-The Neutron Emission Ratio Observer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neutron Emission Ratio Observer (NERO), has been constructed for the use at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory to work in conjunction with the NSCL Beta Counting System in order to detect ?-delayed neutrons. The design of the detector provides high and flat efficiency for a wide range of neutron energies, as well as a low neutron background.

Lorusso, Giuseppe; Pereira, Jorque; Hosmer, Paul; Kratz, Karl Ludvig; Montes, Fernando; Reeder, Paul; Santi, Peter; Schatz, Hendrik

2007-10-01

334

Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Males comprised 66 percent of wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups from a saturated, high-density wolf range in northeastern Minnesota, possibly reflecting disproportionate conception of males. Packs from areas of lower wolf density in other areas of Minnesota had equal sex ratios of pups or a disproportionate number of female pups. Captive wolves showed a slight preponderance of male pups.

Mech, L.D.

1975-01-01

335

Forecasting University Enrollments by Ratio Smoothing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A smoothing model was applied to the transition ratios of the number of university students in successive time periods. Each application was conditional on the department and year of student. The results may be applied to any level of aggregation in the institution. (Author/LBH)

Healey, Marilou T.; Brown, Daniel J.

1978-01-01

336

Measuring Isotope Ratios Across the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stable isotope ratios in C, H, N, O and S are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes that can identify origin, transport, temperature history, radiation exposure, atmospheric escape, environmental habitability and biology [1]. For the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, for example, the (sup 1)(sup 3)C/(sup 1)(sup 2)C ratio identifies it as a Mars (SNC) meteorite; the ??K/??Ar ratio tells us the last time the rock cooled to solid, namely 4 Gya; isotope ratios in (sup 3)He, (sup 2)(sup 1)Ne and (sup 3)?Ar show it was in space (cosmic ray exposure) for 10-20 million years; (sup 1)?C dating that it sat in Antarctica for 13,000 years before discovery; and clumped isotope analysis of (sup 1)?O(sup 1)(sup 3)C(sup 1)?O in its carbonate that it was formed at 18+/-4 ?C in a near-surface aqueous environment [2]. Solar System Formation

Webster, Chris R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

2012-01-01

337

Viscosity to entropy ratio at extremality  

E-print Network

Assuming gauge theory realization at the boundary, we show that the viscosity to entropy ratio is 1/(4 pi) where the bulk is represented by a large class of extremal black holes in anti-de Sitter space. In particular, this class includes multiple R-charged black holes in various dimensions.

Sayan K. Chakrabarti; Sachin Jain; Sudipta Mukherji

2010-01-19

338

Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio  

PubMed Central

Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict. PMID:22426218

Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

2012-01-01

339

Ratio Analysis in Higher Education: Caveat Emptor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ratio analyses are useful, but care must be taken not to overstate their importance or disregard their limitations. Internally designated, nonstandardized recording techniques in interinstitutional comparisons, inflationary distortions in internal analysis, and judgments made on trends can obstruct the manager's efforts to assess a higher…

DiSalvio, Philip

1989-01-01

340

Giving More Realistic Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trigonometry is a well known branch of Mathematics. The study of trigonometry is of great importance in surveying, astronomy, navigation, engineering, and in different branches of science. This paper reports on the discovery of flaws in the traditional definitions of trigonometric ratios of an angle, which (in most cases) make use of the most…

Bhattacharjee, Pramode Ranjan

2012-01-01

341

Flowmeter determines mix ratio for viscous adhesives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flowmeter determines mix ratio for continuous flow mixing machine used to produce an adhesive from a high viscosity resin and aliphatic amine hardener pumped through separate lines to a rotary blender. The flowmeter uses strain gages in the two flow paths and monitors their outputs with appropriate instrumentation.

Lemons, C. R.

1967-01-01

342

Do Credit Spreads Reflect Stationary Leverage Ratios?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most structural models of default preclude the firm from altering its capital structure. In practice, firms adjust outstanding debt levels in response to changes in firm value, thus generating mean-reverting leverage ratios. We propose a structural model of default with stochastic interest rates that captures this mean reversion. Our model generates credit spreads that are larger for low-leverage firms, and

Pierre Collin-Dufresne; Robert S. Goldstein

2001-01-01

343

Ratio method of measuring $w$ boson mass  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in D0 experiment. Instead of extracting M{sub W} from the fitting of W {yields} e{nu} fast Monte Carlo simulations to W {yields} e{nu} data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W {yields} e{nu} data and Z {yields} ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (M{sub W}/M{sub Z}). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W {yields} e{nu} and Z {yields} ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb{sup -1} D0 Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives M{sub W} = 80435 {+-} 43(stat) {+-} 26(sys) MeV.

Guo, Feng; /SUNY, Stony Brook

2010-08-01

344

Waist–hip ratio and attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evolutionary model of mate choice predicts that humans should prefer honest signals of health, youth, and fertility in potential mates. Singh and others have amassed substantial evidence that the waist–hip ratio (WHR) in women is an accurate indicator of these attributes, and proposed that men respond to WHR as an attractiveness cue. In response to a recent study by

Sybil A. Streeter; Donald H. McBurney

2003-01-01

345

Predicting the Equity Premium with Dividend Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

ur paper suggests a simple, recursive residuals (out-of-sample) graphical approach to evaluating the predictive power of popular equity premium and stock market time- series forecasting regressions. When applied, we find that dividend ratios should have been known to have no predictive ability even prior to the 1990s, and that any seeming ability even then was driven by only two years,

Amit Goyal; Ivo Welch

2003-01-01

346

Student Learning Centre Ratio and Proportion  

E-print Network

, iron and nickel, in a ratio of 9 : 11. (a) What proportion of the sample ore is iron? (b) For an ore deposit mass 1800kg, what mass of nickel would you expect to be in the deposit based on this assay result? 3. There are 20 sheep in a paddock with black wool and the rest have white wool. If there are 100

347

Asymmetric Lévy flight in financial ratios  

PubMed Central

Because financial crises are characterized by dangerous rare events that occur more frequently than those predicted by models with finite variances, we investigate the underlying stochastic process generating these events. In the 1960s Mandelbrot [Mandelbrot B (1963) J Bus 36:394–419] and Fama [Fama EF (1965) J Bus 38:34–105] proposed a symmetric Lévy probability distribution function (PDF) to describe the stochastic properties of commodity changes and price changes. We find that an asymmetric Lévy PDF, , characterized by infinite variance, models several multiple credit ratios used in financial accounting to quantify a firm’s financial health, such as the Altman [Altman EI (1968) J Financ 23:589–609] Z score and the Zmijewski [Zmijewski ME (1984) J Accounting Res 22:59–82] score, and models changes of individual financial ratios, ?Xi. We thus find that Lévy PDFs describe both the static and dynamics of credit ratings. We find that for the majority of ratios, ?Xi scales with the Lévy parameter ? ? 1, even though only a few of the individual ratios are characterized by a PDF with power-law tails with infinite variance. We also find that ? exhibits a striking stability over time. A key element in estimating credit losses is the distribution of credit rating changes, the functional form of which is unknown for alphabetical ratings. For continuous credit ratings, the Altman Z score, we find that P(?Z) follows a Lévy PDF with power-law exponent ? ? 1, consistent with changes of individual financial ratios. Estimating the conditional P(?Z|Z) versus Z, we demonstrate how this continuous credit rating approach and its dynamics can be used to evaluate credit risk. PMID:22006296

Valentin?i?, Aljoša; Horvati?, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene

2011-01-01

348

OFFSPRING SEX RATIO IN DEER MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND OFFSPRING SEX RATIO IN ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The primary sex ratio of the family Cervidae may vary at conception and/or birth from an expected 50:50 (males:females). Fertilization by X- or Y- chromosome-bearing sperm (referred to simply as X- and Y- sperm) ultimately controls the sex of offspring; however, alteration of the fetal sex ratio co...

349

RESEARCH LETTERS waist/hip ratio accounted for only 18%. Waist/hip ratio  

E-print Network

and waist/hip ratio alone. Previous studies have asked participants to rate line drawings of female figures body-mass index with narrower or wide waists. With images of real women, body-mass index and waist. Adaptive significance of female attractiveness: role of waist-to- hip ratio. J Pers Soc Psychol 1993; 65

Cornelissen, Piers

350

Nutrient Provinces in the Sea: Concentration Ratios, Reaction Rate Ratios, and Ideal Covariation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global distributions of the ratios of the concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (= [N]) and phosphate (= [P]) are evaluated from Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) and Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) data sets. If large oceanic regions (or provinces) can be identified on the basis of constant [N]:[P] ratios, then the distribution equation for a reactive variable shows

Kent A. Fanning

1992-01-01

351

Discrepancies between isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the  

E-print Network

spectroscopy (IRIS) for the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of water is increasing. While IRIS hasDiscrepancies between isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the stable isotope analysis of plant and soil waters Adam G. West1,2*, Gregory R. Goldsmith1 , Paul D. Brooks

West, Adam G.

352

Changes in winter snowfall/precipitation ratio in the contiguous United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation falling as rain or snow has different impact on regional water resources and their annual distribution. Shift from solid to liquid form of precipitation following the increase of the surface air temperatures could be quite important because such change could influence the timing of spring runoff and cause water shortage in summer. In this study, the ratio of snowfall to precipitation (S/P) for November-March in the contiguous United States is analyzed and temperature effects on the changes of S/P are examined for 1949-2005. Major results show that the S/P ratio has been decreasing strongly in the Pacific Northwest and the central United States. The S/P decreased slightly in the eastern United States. In the Pacific Northwest, the changes of S/P are attributed to decrease of both snowfall and precipitation with snowfall decreasing at a greater rate. In the central United States, decrease of the S/P ratio resulted primarily from the decrease of snowfall and increase of the winter precipitation. Averaged over the contiguous United States, the changes of S/P are mainly related to the changes of the snowfall and with little effect from changes of winter precipitation. Decreases of the S/P ratio are largest in March and least in January. The significant decreases of the S/P ratio are associated with large increase in mean winter wet-day temperatures in the western and central United States. Weak warming in the eastern United States concurred with weak and no change of S/P.

Feng, Song; Hu, Qi

2007-08-01

353

Planning applications in East Central Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This is a study of applications of ERTS data to planning problems, especially as applicable to East Central Florida. The primary method has been computer analysis of digital data, with visual analysis of images serving to supplement the digital analysis. The principal method of analysis was supervised maximum likelihood classification, supplemented by density slicing and mapping of ratios of band intensities. Land-use maps have been prepared for several urban and non-urban sectors. Thematic maps have been found to be a useful form of the land-use maps. Change-monitoring has been found to be an appropriate and useful application. Mapping of marsh regions has been found effective and useful in this region. Local planners have participated in selecting training samples and in the checking and interpretation of results.

Hannah, J. W. (principal investigator); Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F.; Millard, J. J.

1974-01-01

354

Religious extremism in central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Asian republics are bearing the brunt of terrorism fed by religious extremism for the last few years. Uzbekistan, Kyrghyzstan and Tajikistan have suffered the most among the five Central Asian republics. Uzbekistan and Kyrghyzstan are currently facing armed rebel incursions that began in 1999.After the end of the Communist control, the somewhat unsettled situation made the region a

Poonam Mann

2001-01-01

355

Is Central Asia really exsiccating?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is

V. B. Aizen; E. M. Aizen; A. B. Surazakov

2008-01-01

356

Centralized Cataloging in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

THEIDEA OF centralized cataloging in Great Brit- ain has perhaps been more talked about than practiced. It is a curious fact that the public libraries which were most active during the pre- war years in promoting the notion of centralized cataloging are turn- ing away from it while the academic libraries which were least in- terested in such a prospect

A. J. WELLS

357

Central American Grandparents Raising Grandchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study documents the prevalence and profile of Central American grandparents raising grandchildren in the United States of America. Using nationally representative data from the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey, Central American grandparent caregivers are compared with their noncare-giving peers. Results indicate that nationally an estimated…

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Minkler, Meredith

2007-01-01

358

The isotopic composition of strontium in central American ignimbrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voluminous sheets of rhyolitic ignimbrites were crupted during Miocene time in a region of Central America that is underlain\\u000a by a thick sequence of middle Paleozoic and older metamorphic and plutonic rocks. Strontium isotopic ratios of fifteen ignimbrites\\u000a range from 0.7035 to as high as 0.7175. These values are markedly higher than those measured for cale-alkaline lavas of the\\u000a same

P. Pushkar; A. R. McBirney; A. M. Kudo

1971-01-01

359

CFD assessment of orifice aspect ratio and mass flow ratio on jet mixing in rectangular ducts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isothermal CFD analysis was performed on axially opposed rows of jets mixing with cross flow in a rectangular duct. Laterally, the jets' centerlines were aligned with each other on the top and bottom walls. The focus of this study was to characterize the effects of orifice aspect ratio and jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratio on jet penetration and mixing. Orifice aspect ratios (L/W) of 4-to-1, 2-to-1, and 1-to-1, along with circular holes, were parametrically analyzed. Likewise, jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratios (MR) of 2.0, 0.5, and 0.25 were systematically investigated. The jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio (J) was maintained at 36 for all cases, and the orifice spacing-to-duct height (S/H) was varied until optimum mixing was attained for each configuration. The numerical results showed that orifice aspect ratio (and likewise orifice blockage) had little effect on jet penetration and mixing. Based on mixing characteristics alone, the 4-to-1 slot was comparable to the circular orifice. The 4-to-1 slot has a smaller jet wake which may be advantageous for reducing emissions. However, the axial length of a 4-to-1 slot may be prohibitively long for practical application, especially for MR of 2.0. The jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratio had a more significant effect on jet penetration and mixing. For a 4-to-1 aspect ratio orifice, the design correlating parameter for optimum mixing (C = (S/H)(sq. root J)) varied from 2.25 for a mass flow ratio of 2.0 to 1.5 for a mass flow ratio of 0.25.

Bain, D. B.; Smith, C. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

1994-01-01

360

Central African Republic.  

PubMed

The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices. PMID:12178020

1989-11-01

361

Central and southern Africa  

SciTech Connect

Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

McGrew, H.J.

1981-10-01

362

High Hypopnea/Apnea Ratio (HAR) in Extreme Obesity  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The study was performed to evaluate the hypothesis that the extremely obese manifest sleep disordered breathing with a preponderance of hypopneas and relative paucity of obstructive apneas. Methods: Retrospective review of 90 adults with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) matched for age and gender, comparing two groups, Group A: body mass index (BMI) < 35, Group B: BMI ? 45. Exclusion criteria: age < 18 years, pregnancy, ? 5 central apneas/hour, BMI ? 35 < 45. Primary Outcome Measure: Hypopnea/apnea ratio (HAR); secondary measures: obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), obstructive and central apnea indices, hypopnea index (HI), oxygen saturation (SpO2) nadir, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PetCO2), and presence of obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Statistical methods: t-test for independent samples; Mann-Whitney, linear regression with natural log transformation, and Kruskal-Wallis ?2. Descriptive statistics were expressed as interquartile range, median and mean ± standard deviation, p < 0.05 considered significant. Results: Group A (n = 45): age = 50.6 ± 11.5 years, BMI = 28.9 ± 4 kg/m2; Group B (n = 45): age = 47.4 ± 12.7 years, BMI = 54.5 ± 8 kg/m2. HAR was significantly higher in Group B (38.8 ± 50.7) than Group A (10.6 ± 16.5), p = 0.0006, as was HI (28.7 ± 28.6 in B vs 12.6 ± 8.4 in A, p = 0.0005) and AHI (35.5 ± 33.8 vs 22 ± 23, p = 0.03), but not apnea index. HAR was significantly higher in Group B regardless of race, gender, or presence of OHS. The BMI was the only significant predictor of HAR (adjusted r2 = 0.138; p = 0.002) in a linear regression model with natural log transformation of the HAR performed for age, gender, race, BMI, and PetCO2. Conclusion: Extremely obese patients manifest OSAHS with a preponderance of hypopneas. Citation: Mathew R; Castriotta RJ. High hypopnea/apnea ratio (HAR) in extreme obesity. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(4):391-396. PMID:24733984

Mathew, Reeba; Castriotta, Richard J.

2014-01-01

363

Mixing Ratios or Parts per Million, Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will gain experience with very small amounts, known as mixing ratios, using the technique of serial dilution. Measurements such as parts per million can be expressed in terms of volume or mass. With gases in the atmosphere, we usually think in terms of volume and may express this as parts per million by volume (ppmv). One can also use the units parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Measurements such as ppmv, ppbv, and pptv are called mixing ratios. The student guide has an overall description of the activity, a list of materials, the procedure, and observations and questions. The teacher's guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

364

Element abundance ratios in stellar population modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review the implementation of the effects from varying chemical element abundance ratios in stellar population modelling, focusing on ?- and Fe-peak elements. A brief overview of the development of such models over the past 30 years is provided, starting with early work on the identification of relevant absorption features in the spectra of early-type galaxies in the 1980s leading to the most recent developments of the past years. Recent highlights include the adoption of new flux calibrated libraries, the inclusion of a wide range of chemical elements, the calculation of error estimates on the model, and the consideration of element variation effects on full spectra. The calibration of such models with globular clusters and some key results on the element ratios measured in early-type galaxies are presented.

Thomas, Daniel

2015-04-01

365

The HNC/HCN ratio in comets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The abundance ratio of the isomers HCN and HNC has been investigated in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) through observations of the J = 4-3 rotational transitions of both species for heliocentric distances 0.93 < r < 3 AU, both pre- and post-perihelion. After correcting for the optical depth of the stronger HCN line, we find that the column density ratio of HNC/HCN in our telescope beam increases significantly as the comet approaches the Sun. We compare this behavior to that predicted from an ion-molecule chemical model and conclude that the HNC is produced in significant measure by chemical processes in the coma; i.e., for comet Hale-Bopp, HNC is not a parent molecule sublimating from the nucleus.

Irvine, W. M.; Dickens, J. E.; Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Senay, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Jewitt, D.; Matthews, H. E.; Ferris, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

366

Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

367

Design of an ultrasmall aspect ratio concentrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) can be employed to improve the efficiency of solar cells and reduce the system cost of power generation, which is the primary part of the CPV system. Based on the demands for the concentrators to have an ultrathin and ultralight design, a design of ultrasmall aspect ratio concentrators is proposed. The concentrator is formed by a lens array and a freeform reflector to precisely control the light. The solar cell is placed at the side of the concentrator, which greatly reduces the overall thickness of the concentrator. The design can reduce the aspect ratio of concentrator by a considerable amount. The freeform reflector can shape the light beam and achieve a uniform distribution of light energy.

Cheng, Ying; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong

2014-11-01

368

A modulated shear to entropy ratio  

E-print Network

We study correlation functions in an equilibrated spatially modulated phase of Einstein-Maxwell two-derivative gravity. We find that the ratio of the appropriate low frequency limit of the stress-stress two point function to the entropy density is modulated. The conductivity, the stress-current and current-stress correlation functions are also modulated. At temperatures close to the phase transition we obtain analytic expressions for some of the correlation functions.

O. Ovdat; A. Yarom

2014-09-03

369

Fuel equivalence ratio imaging for methane jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-D fuel\\/oxygen equivalence ratio imaging system has been developed. The technique exploits the efficient quenching of the fluorescence of organic molecules by molecular oxygen in order to determine the fuel and oxygen partial pressures simultaneously. Following pulsed planar laser excitation of fluoranthene-a specially selected fluorescent dopant-two images of the fluorescence were recorded, with the second image being delayed by

T. Q. Ni; L. A. Melton

1993-01-01

370

Magnesium Isotope Ratios in Hyades Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using classical model atmospheres and an LTE analysis, Mg isotope ratios 24Mg:25Mg:26Mg are measured in 32 Hyades dwarfs covering effective temperatures 4000K<=Teff<=5000K. We find no significant trend in any isotope ratio versus Teff, and the mean isotope ratio is in excellent agreement with the solar value. We determine stellar parameters and Fe abundances for 56 Hyades dwarfs covering 4000K<=Teff<=6200K. For stars warmer than 4700 K, we derive a cluster mean value of [Fe/H]=0.16+/-0.02 (?=0.1), in good agreement with previous studies. For stars cooler than 4700 K, we find that the abundance of Fe from ionized lines exceeds the abundance of Fe from neutral lines. At 4700 K, [Fe/H]II-[Fe/H]I~=0.3dex, while at 4000 K [Fe/H]II-[Fe/H]I~=1.2dex. This discrepancy between the Fe abundance from neutral and ionized lines likely reflects inadequacies in the model atmospheres and the presence of non-LTE or other effects. Despite the inability of the models to reproduce the ionization equilibrium for Fe, the Mg isotope ratios appear immune to these problems and remain a powerful tool for studying Galactic chemical evolution. Data presented here were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Yong, David; Lambert, David L.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Paulson, Diane B.

2004-03-01

371

Particle ratios at SPS, AGS and SIS  

E-print Network

Ratios of integrated particle yields provide the best method for determining the temperature and the chemical potential. The chemical freeze-out parameters obtained at CERN/SPS, BNL/AGS and GSI/SIS energies all correspond to a unique value of 1 GeV per hadron in the local rest frame of the system, independent of the beam energy and of the target and beam particles.

J. Cleymans; H. Oeschler; K. Redlich

1998-09-10

372

Theater SBI cost-effectiveness ratios  

SciTech Connect

To address M missiles spaced at intervals longer than the constillation reconstitution time t, the defense needs at the absentee ratio N{sub a} of SBIs to fill the belt plus the M SBIs needed for the intercepts; the resulting cost effectiveness scales as M/(M + N{sub a}). N{sub a} is large and CER small for small ranges and numbers of missiles. For several-hundred missile threats, CERs are greater than unity for ranges of interest.

Canavan, G.H.

1993-11-01

373

A modulated shear to entropy ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study correlation functions in an equilibrated spatially modulated phase of Einstein-Maxwell two-derivative gravity. We find that the ratio of the appropriate low frequency limit of the stress-stress two point function to the entropy density is modulated. The conductivity, the stress-current and current-stress correlation functions are also modulated. At temperatures close to the phase transition we obtain analytic expressions for some of the correlation functions.

Ovdat, O.; Yarom, A.

2014-11-01

374

The golden ratio in special relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we show that Euclid’s construction of the golden rectangle can be used to derive both the dilation of time intervals and the Lorentz contraction of lengths as predicted by Einstein’s theory of special relativity. In this simple exercise, the Lorentz factor arises as a direct consequence of the Pythagorean theorem, while the golden ratio, ?=1+5\\/2, is found

Leonardo Di G. Sigalotti; Antonio Mejias

2006-01-01

375

Electronic branching ratio of the tau lepton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio R=Gamma(tau-->enu¯enutau)\\/Gamma1, where Gamma1 is the tau decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find R=0.2231+\\/-0.0044+\\/-0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the

R. Ammar; P. Baringer; D. Coppage; R. Davis; M. Kelly; N. Kwak; H. Lam; S. Ro; Y. Kubota; M. Lattery; J. K. Nelson; D. Perticone; R. Poling; S. Schrenk; R. Wang; M. S. Alam; I. J. Kim; B. Nemati; V. Romero; C. R. Sun; P.-N. Wang; M. M. Zoeller; G. Crawford; R. Fulton; K. K. Gan; H. Kagan; R. Kass; J. Lee; R. Malchow; F. Morrow; M. K. Sung; J. Whitmore; P. Wilson; F. Butler; X. Fu; G. Kalbfleisch; M. Lambrecht; P. Skubic; J. Snow; P.-L. Wang; D. Bortoletto; D. N. Brown; J. Dominick; R. L. McIlwain; D. H. Miller; M. Modesitt; E. I. Shibata; S. F. Schaffner; I. P. J. Shipsey; M. Battle; J. Ernst; H. Kroha; S. Roberts; K. Sparks; E. H. Thorndike; C.-H. Wang; R. Stroynowski; M. Artuso; M. Goldberg; T. Haupt; N. Horwitz; R. Kennett; G. C. Moneti; S. Playfer; Y. Rozen; P. Rubin; T. Skwarnicki; S. Stone; M. Thulasidas; W.-M. Yao; G. Zhu; A. V. Barnes; J. Bartelt; S. E. Csorna; V. Jain; T. Letson; M. D. Mestayer; D. S. Akerib; B. Barish; M. Chadha; D. F. Cowen; G. Eigen; J. S. Miller; J. Urheim; A. J. Weinstein; R. J. Morrison; H. Tajima; D. Schmidt; D. Sperka; M. Procario; M. Daoudi; W. T. Ford; D. R. Johnson; K. Lingel; M. Lohner; P. Rankin; J. G. Smith; J. Alexander; C. Bebek; K. Berkelman; D. Besson; T. E. Browder; D. G. Cassel; E. Cheu; D. M. Coffman; P. S. Drell; R. Ehrlich; R. S. Galik; M. Garcia-Sciveres; B. Geiser; B. Gittelman; S. W. Gray; D. L. Hartill; B. K. Heltsley; K. Honscheid; C. Jones; J. Kandaswamy; N. Katayama; P. C. Kim; D. L. Kreinick; G. S. Ludwig; J. Masui; J. Mevissen; N. B. Mistry; S. Nandi; C. R. Ng; E. Nordberg; C. O'grady; J. R. Patterson; D. Peterson; D. Riley; M. Sapper; M. Selen; H. Worden; M. Worris; F. Würthwein; P. Avery; A. Freyberger; J. Rodriguez; J. Yelton; S. Henderson; K. Kinoshita; F. Pipkin; M. Saulnier; R. Wilson; J. Wolinski; D. Xiao; H. Yamamoto; A. J. Sadoff

1992-01-01

376

Poisson's ratio over two centuries: challenging hypotheses  

PubMed Central

This article explores Poisson's ratio, starting with the controversy concerning its magnitude and uniqueness in the context of the molecular and continuum hypotheses competing in the development of elasticity theory in the nineteenth century, moving on to its place in the development of materials science and engineering in the twentieth century, and concluding with its recent re-emergence as a universal metric for the mechanical performance of materials on any length scale. During these episodes France lost its scientific pre-eminence as paradigms switched from mathematical to observational, and accurate experiments became the prerequisite for scientific advance. The emergence of the engineering of metals followed, and subsequently the invention of composites—both somewhat separated from the discovery of quantum mechanics and crystallography, and illustrating the bifurcation of technology and science. Nowadays disciplines are reconnecting in the face of new scientific demands. During the past two centuries, though, the shape versus volume concept embedded in Poisson's ratio has remained invariant, but its application has exploded from its origins in describing the elastic response of solids and liquids, into areas such as materials with negative Poisson's ratio, brittleness, glass formation, and a re-evaluation of traditional materials. Moreover, the two contentious hypotheses have been reconciled in their complementarity within the hierarchical structure of materials and through computational modelling. PMID:24687094

Greaves, G. Neville

2013-01-01

377

The sex ratio of Igbo births.  

PubMed

The study determined that the sex ratio of live-born infants in the Igbo-occupied area of Nigeria is about 1.04. This figure, although similar to the 1.03 reported for Zaire and for the black populations of the US and the Caribbean, is lower than the 1.05 to 1.07 accepted for most European populations, the 1.06 recorded for the Yorubas of western Nigeria, and the 1.07 reported for the Hausa people of one northern Nigerian province. Values ranging from 1.12 to 1.14 have been reported for Africans of Uganda and Cameroun. All these figures are lower than the 1.15 recorded for the Far Eastern peoples and support the widely held impression that the sex ratio at birth is influenced by, among other factors, geographical and genetic distribution. Results of the study of Igbo births also showed that the sex ratio within a homogeneous population varies with place of confinement, from a high in hospitals to a low in community health centers. PMID:6151927

Egwuatu, V E

1984-10-01

378

Poisson's ratio over two centuries: challenging hypotheses.  

PubMed

This article explores Poisson's ratio, starting with the controversy concerning its magnitude and uniqueness in the context of the molecular and continuum hypotheses competing in the development of elasticity theory in the nineteenth century, moving on to its place in the development of materials science and engineering in the twentieth century, and concluding with its recent re-emergence as a universal metric for the mechanical performance of materials on any length scale. During these episodes France lost its scientific pre-eminence as paradigms switched from mathematical to observational, and accurate experiments became the prerequisite for scientific advance. The emergence of the engineering of metals followed, and subsequently the invention of composites-both somewhat separated from the discovery of quantum mechanics and crystallography, and illustrating the bifurcation of technology and science. Nowadays disciplines are reconnecting in the face of new scientific demands. During the past two centuries, though, the shape versus volume concept embedded in Poisson's ratio has remained invariant, but its application has exploded from its origins in describing the elastic response of solids and liquids, into areas such as materials with negative Poisson's ratio, brittleness, glass formation, and a re-evaluation of traditional materials. Moreover, the two contentious hypotheses have been reconciled in their complementarity within the hierarchical structure of materials and through computational modelling. PMID:24687094

Greaves, G Neville

2013-03-20

379

Ocean nutrient ratios governed by plankton biogeography.  

PubMed

The major nutrients nitrate and phosphate have one of the strongest correlations in the sea, with a slope similar to the average nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) content of plankton biomass (N/P = 16:1). The processes through which this global relationship emerges despite the wide range of N/P ratios at the organism level are not known. Here we use an ocean circulation model and observed nutrient distributions to show that the N/P ratio of biological nutrient removal varies across latitude in Southern Ocean surface waters, from 12:1 in the polar ocean to 20:1 in the sub-Antarctic zone. These variations are governed by regional differences in the species composition of the plankton community. The covariation of dissolved nitrate and phosphate is maintained by ocean circulation, which mixes the shallow subsurface nutrients between distinct biogeographic provinces. Climate-driven shifts in these marine biomes may alter the mean N/P ratio and the associated carbon export by Southern Ocean ecosystems. PMID:20882009

Weber, Thomas S; Deutsch, Curtis

2010-09-30

380

Microbial respiration per unit microbial biomass depends on soil litter carbon-to-nitrogen ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil microbial respiration is a central process in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In this study I tested the effect of the carbon-to-nitrogen (C : N) ratio of soil litter layers on microbial respiration in absolute terms and per unit microbial biomass C. For this purpose, a global dataset on microbial respiration per unit microbial biomass C - termed the metabolic quotient (qCO2) - was compiled form literature data. It was found that the qCO2 in the soil litter layers was positively correlated with the litter C : N ratio and negatively related with the litter nitrogen (N) concentration. The positive relation between qCO2 and litter C : N ratio resulted from an increase in respiration with the C : N ratio in combination with no significant effect of the litter C : N ratio on the soil microbial biomass C concentration. The results suggest that soil microorganisms respire more C both in absolute terms and per unit microbial biomass C when decomposing N-poor substrate. Thus, the findings indicate that atmospheric N deposition, leading to decreased litter C : N ratios, might decrease microbial respiration in soils.

Spohn, M.

2014-10-01

381

Sr / Ca and Mg / Ca ratios in polygenetic carbonate allochems from a Michigan marl lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid accumulation of CaCO 3 is occurring in Littlefield Lake, a marl lake located in central Michigan. The sediment, which is 95% CaCO 3, primarily consists of eight different genetic groups of carbonate allochems. These include calcite muds, sands, algal oncoids and Chara encrustations, as well as the dominant aragonitic gastropods Valvota tricarinota. Gyraulus deflectus and Amnicola integra. and the dominant aragonitic pelecypod Sphaerium partumeium. Samples of each of these groups were analyzed for Ca, Sr and Mg. Molar Mg/Ca ratios are primarily controlled by allochem mineralogy, with calcitic forms having Mg/Ca ratios 5-10 times larger than aragonitic (shelled) forms. The Sr/Ca ratios are primarily controlled by biochemical fractionation, and are significantly lower than Sr/Ca ratios of inorganically precipitated aragonite from other settings. Partition coefficients were determined for both Sr and Mg for each carbonate allochem group and, based on comparisons with results reported by other workers, the partition coefficients determined here are generally considered 'typical' or representative values for biogeneous freshwater carbonates. An analysis of variance of the data indicates that most genera and species of carbonate-secreting organisms in marl lakes have highly characteristic Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios. These ratios can potentially serve as geochemical tracers in future investigations of lacustrine carbonate diagenesis. Both Sr and Mg are influenced by grain size and/or surface area, probably due to the presence of these elements in non-lattice-held (exchangeable) positions.

Treese, Thomas N.; Owen, Robert M.; Wilkinson, Bruce H.

1981-03-01

382

Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio  

SciTech Connect

In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture contents (45-75%) and C/N ratios (13.9-19.6). The results indicate that the optimal moisture content for co-composting of food waste and green waste is 60%, and the substrate at a C/N ratio of 19.6 can be decomposed effectively to reduce 33% of total volatile solids (TVS) in 12 days. The TVS reduction can be modeled by using a second-order equation with a good fit. In addition, the compost passes the standard germination index of white radish seed indicating that it can be used as soil amendment.

Kumar, Mathava; Ou, Y.-L. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu City 30010, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.-G., E-mail: jglin@mail.nctu.edu.t [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu City 30010, Taiwan (China)

2010-04-15

383

An adaptive estimator of the memory parameter and the goodness-of-fit test using a multidimensional increment ratio statistic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increment ratio (IR) statistic was first defined and studied in Surgailis et al. (2007) [19] for estimating the memory parameter either of a stationary or an increment stationary Gaussian process. Here three extensions are proposed in the case of stationary processes. First, a multidimensional central limit theorem is established for a vector composed by several IR statistics. Second, a

Jean-Marc Bardet

2012-01-01

384

Variation of equivalence ratio and element ratios in low-pressure premixed flames of aliphatic fuels  

SciTech Connect

In previously published work it was found that the element ratios (such as C/O, H/O, H/C) and the equivalence ratio all varied in the flame zone of a low-pressure premixed fuel-rich benzene/oxygen/argon laminar flat flame. These variations were seen from analyses of both the data and detailed kinetic modeling. In the present work, seven additional flames were analyzed in the same manner, including five flames with a single hydrocarbon fuel (methane, acetylene, ethylene, allene, and propene) and two flames with a mixture of fuels (acetylene/allene, hydrogen/allene). All the flames had argon as the diluent, with pressures between 20 and 37.5 Torr, equivalence ratios between 1.6 and 2.5, cold gas velocities between 42 and 126 cm/sec. All of these flames showed variations in the element ratios and equivalence ratios. Furthermore, these variations changed in a consistent pattern with respect to the molecular weight of the fuel. In the flame zone, the percent change in the H/O, C/O and equivalence ratios increased with increasing molecular weight of the fuel, except for the hydrogen/allene flame in which the C/O ratio first increases, then decreases in the flame zone. Also, unlike all the other hydrocarbon flames, the C/O ratio decreases below its inlet value for the methane flame. The H/O and equivalence ratios decrease below their inlet values for the hydrogen/allene flame. These results are explained in terms of differential diffusion effects between the products and the reactants, which increase as the fuel becomes increasingly heavier than the major carbon- and hydrogen-containing products.

C. J. Pope; J. A. Miller

2000-03-14

385

North Central Thailand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This radar image shows the dramatic landscape in the Phang Hoei Range of north central Thailand, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city of Lom Sak. The plateau, shown in green to the left of center, is the area of Phu Kradung National Park. This plateau is a remnant of a once larger plateau, another portion of which is seen along the right side of the image. The plateaus have been dissected by water erosion over thousands of years. Forest areas appear green on the image; agricultural areas and settlements appear as red and blue. North is toward the lower right. The area shown is 38 by 50 kilometers (24 by 31 miles) and is centered at 16.96 degrees north latitude, 101.67 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar on October 3, 1994, when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

1998-01-01

386

Noise of Embedded High Aspect Ratio Nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A family of high aspect ratio nozzles were designed to provide a parametric database of canonical embedded propulsion concepts. Nozzle throat geometries with aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were chosen, all with convergent nozzle areas. The transition from the typical round duct to the rectangular nozzle was designed very carefully to produce a flow at the nozzle exit that was uniform and free from swirl. Once the basic rectangular nozzles were designed, external features common to embedded propulsion systems were added: extended lower lip (a.k.a. bevel, aft deck), differing sidewalls, and chevrons. For the latter detailed Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were made to predict the thrust performance and to optimize parameters such as bevel length, and chevron penetration and azimuthal curvature. Seventeen of these nozzles were fabricated at a scale providing a 2.13 inch diameter equivalent area throat." ! The seventeen nozzles were tested for far-field noise and a few data were presented here on the effect of aspect ratio, bevel length, and chevron count and penetration. The sound field of the 2:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet was very nearly axisymmetric, but the 4:1 and 8:1 were not, the noise on their minor axes being louder than the major axes. Adding bevel length increased the noise of these nozzles, especially on their minor axes, both toward the long and short sides of the beveled nozzle. Chevrons were only added to the 2:1 rectangular jet. Adding 4 chevrons per wide side produced some decrease at aft angles, but increased the high frequency noise at right angles to the jet flow. This trend increased with increasing chevron penetration. Doubling the number of chevrons while maintaining their penetration decreased these effects. Empirical models of the parametric effect of these nozzles were constructed and quantify the trends stated above." Because it is the objective of the Supersonics Project that future design work be done more by physics-based computations and less by experiments, several codes under development were evaluated against these test cases. Preliminary results show that the RANS-based code JeNo predicts the spectral directivity of the low aspect ratio jets well, but has no capability to predict the non-axisymmetry. An effort to address this limitations, used in the RANS-based code of Leib and Goldstein, overpredicted the impact of aspect ratio. The broadband shock noise code RISN, also limited to axisymmetric assumptions, did a good job of predicting the spectral directivity of underexpanded 2:1 cold jet case but was not as successful on high aspect ratio jets, particularly when they are hot. All results are preliminary because the underlying CFD has not been validated yet. An effort using a Large Eddy Simulation code by Stanford University predicted noise that agreed with experiments to within a few dB.

Bridges, James E.

2011-01-01

387

76 FR 16345 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the equity ratio will be calculated ``using the financial statements of...that the equity ratio will be calculated using the financial statements of...Equity ratio, which shall...calculated using the financial statements...

2011-03-23

388

Original article A tree crown ratio prediction equation  

E-print Network

Original article A tree crown ratio prediction equation for eucalypt plantations Paula Soares of Eucalyptus globulus Labill., several nonlinear equations for crown ratio prediction (based on exponential were also required as explanatory vari- ables. crown ratio / tree model / plantations / Eucalyptus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

CASWW Central Asia Experts Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Harvard Forum for Central Asian Studies, this site will prove useful to graduate students and scholars of Central Asia. The site was created to facilitate access for policy-makers, the press, and others to scholars with the appropriate expertise in Central Asian Studies. The Directory features those who have indicated their willingness to be contacted for expert consultations, and their listing will include a brief description of their qualifications. It organizes experts by name, topic, location, and under several headings: Politics and International Relations, Economy, Social Issues, and Cultural and Historical Background. The site is still soliciting experts for inclusion, and a link to the questionnaire is provided.

390

Complications with using ratios for environmental data: Comparing enantiomeric ratios (ERs) and enantiomer fractions (EFs)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Complications arise when ratios are used to present environmental data because ratios are an unbounded, multiplicative scale that can lead to asymmetrical (skewed) data distributions. Enantiomeric ratios (ERs), historically used in discussions of chiral signatures, often are published as mean ER??single-value standard deviation. Application of statistical summaries, such as the widely used sample mean and standard deviation, to skewed ratio data is misleading and often inappropriate. Comparison of statistically summarized ER and enantiomer fraction (EF) data (which are based on a bounded, additive scale) for a range of hypothetical values reveals substantial discrepancies when conversion between ER and EF formats is used. These discrepancies are largest when the ratio data are greater than one and have large variability, because the data are more skewed. In many cases, the use of fractions instead of ratios can help to minimize misrepresentation of environmental data, including chiral data. The use of nonparametric statistical summaries, e.g., median and percentiles, provides a more robust indicator of the typical value and spread for both ER and EF data. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ulrich, E.M.; Helsel, D.R.; Foreman, W.T.

2003-01-01

391

Efficient computations with the likelihood ratio distribution.  

PubMed

What is the probability that the likelihood ratio exceeds a threshold t, if a specified hypothesis is true? This question is asked, for instance, when performing power calculations for kinship testing, when computing true and false positive rates for familial searching and when computing the power of discrimination of a complex mixture. Answering this question is not straightforward, since there is are a huge number of possible genotypic combinations to consider. Different solutions are found in the literature. Several authors estimate the threshold exceedance probability using simulation. Corradi and Ricciardi [1] propose a discrete approximation to the likelihood ratio distribution which yields a lower and upper bound on the probability. Nothnagel et al. [2] use the normal distribution as an approximation to the likelihood ratio distribution. Dørum et al. [3] introduce an algorithm that can be used for exact computation, but this algorithm is computationally intensive, unless the threshold t is very large. We present three new approaches to the problem. Firstly, we show how importance sampling can be used to make the simulation approach significantly more efficient. Importance sampling is a statistical technique that turns out to work well in the current context. Secondly, we present a novel algorithm for computing exceedance probabilities. The algorithm is exact, fast and can handle relatively large problems. Thirdly, we introduce an approach that combines the novel algorithm with the discrete approximation of Corradi and Ricciardi. This last approach can be applied to very large problems and yields a lower and upper bound on the exceedance probability. The use of the different approaches is illustrated with examples from forensic genetics, such as kinship testing, familial searching and mixture interpretation. The algorithms are implemented in an R-package called DNAprofiles, which is freely available from CRAN. PMID:25450782

Kruijver, Maarten

2015-01-01

392

Tilt and drainage ratio in sedimentary basins  

SciTech Connect

The effect of trap tilt on its drainage ratio (defined as the area of drainage for the trap divided by the corresponding area of closure) can by quantified using a one-parameter spherical approximation for hydrocarbon trap shape. We use our results to calculate the tilt angles for a number of traps in the Toolachee and Patchawarra formations of the Cooper basin, South Australia, and demonstrate that the results are consistent with the superposition of a local relief roughness on the regional tilt. 9 refs., 12 figs.

Radlinski, A.P. (Australian Geological Survey Organization, Canberra (Australia)); Cadman, S.J. (Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra (Australia))

1993-01-01

393

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOEpatents

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

1995-11-14

394

Sex Ratios at Birth and Environmental Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between average monthly air temperature and sex ratios at birth (SRB) was analyzed for children born in Germany during the period 1946-1995. Both the absolute temperature and - more markedly - the monthly temperature deviations from the overall mean were significantly positively correlated with the SRB (P<0.01) when temperatures were time-lagged against the SRB data by -10 or -11months. It is concluded that the sex of the offspring is partially determined by environmental temperatures prior to conception.

Lerchl, Alexander

395

Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, DR

2011-02-23

396

Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio  

SciTech Connect

Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

2010-11-01

397

6.RP Ratio of boys to girls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls at school is 4:5. What fraction of the students are boys? If there are 120 boys, how many studen...

398

Lithium Isotope Ratios in Halo Stars. II.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New, high-precision observations of the Li I ?6707 blend in the spectra of five halo stars with metallicities in the range -2.0 <= [Fe/H] <= -1.0 yield no positive detections of the lighter isotope at upper limits ranging from 6Li/7Li <= 0.02 to 6Li/7Li <= 0.13. In determining these limits, we removed two constraints that were previously imposed during comparison of the observed and synthetic line profiles. A reanalysis of our previous similar observations of six other halo stars with -2.9 <= [Fe/H] <= -1.1 was also carried out with this same procedure. The reanalysis confirms our earlier detection of 6Li in HD 84937 with an isotopic ratio 6Li/7Li = 0.08 +/- 0.04 (1 ?), in agreement with Smith, Lambert, & Nissen, but converts our reported detection of 6Li in HD 201891 to a comparable upper limit only, 6Li/7Li <= 0.055. Among the 12 halo stars examined for 6Li at high sensitivity by one or more of three different groups, positive results have been obtained only for the hottest dwarf, HD 84937, and possibly for the hottest subgiant, HD 160617, for which Nissen found 6Li/7Li = 0.0173 +/- 0.012 (1 ?). However, the less sensitive upper limits available for three slightly cooler dwarfs exceed the isotopic ratio at which 6Li is seen in HD 84937. In combination with Be and B abundances measured for some of these 12 stars, the very sparse 6Li data suggest that a process such as ? + ? reactions at low energies produced much of the 6Li that was present at [Fe/H] ~ -2.2, and that at least one of the following three assumptions is in error. (1) the 6Li/Be ratio measured in HD 84937 is typical of halo gas at [Fe/H] = -2.2 (2) the Galactic 6Li/Be ratio remained approximately invariant at -2.2 <~ [Fe/H] <~ -1.0 and (3) most of the original 6Li in the probable subgiants HD 134169 and HD 201891 (with [Fe/H] = -1.0 and -1.1, respectively, and Te >= 5800 K) has survived to the present day, as the observations of Pilachowski, Sneden, & Booth and the calculations of Chaboyer together suggest. Alternatively, the low 6Li fractions required by the upper limits measured in HD 134169 and HD 201891 can be understood if both stars are dwarfs, not subgiants.

Hobbs, L. M.; Thorburn, J. A.

1997-12-01

399

Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants  

MedlinePLUS

PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...

400

Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA OZONE STUDY Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Prepared By: California Air Resources Board Planning and Technical Support Division California Air Resources Board California Environmental Protection

401

Central cementifying fibroma of maxilla  

PubMed Central

Central cementifying fibroma is a bony tumor, which is believed to be derived from the cells of the periodontal ligament. Central cemento-ossifying fibroma behaves like, a benign bone neoplasm. This bone tumor consists of highly cellular, fibrous tissue that contains varying amounts of calcified tissue resembling bone, cementum, or both. Central cemento-ossifying fibromas of the mandible are common; however, they are rare in the maxilla region. This tumor is most frequent between 35 and 40 years of ages. In this report we have described a 37-year-old male with cemento-ossifying fibroma of the maxilla region with the mass that had been appeared 2-3 months prior to his first referral. Radiologic imaging such as intra-oral, panoramic, and Cone Beam CT had been performed. Histological analysis was done and finally diagnosis of central cementifying fibroma was made. The postoperative follow up at 12 months revealed no recurrence. PMID:23878576

Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Mosavat, Farzaneh; Jalalian, Faranak; Rashidipoor, Roghayeh

2013-01-01

402

Central-Office Real Estate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to upgrade a school district's central-office facilities without incurring taxpayer enmity. Includes case studies from Harford County, Maryland; Orange and Broward Counties, Florida; South Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Mt. Baker, Washington; Chicago, Illinois; and Rochester, New Hampshire. (PKP)

Pardini, Priscilla

2003-01-01

403

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of sequential information. It states that such information cannot be transferred from protein to either protein or nucleic acid.

Francis Crick

1970-01-01

404

Super Kitchen Centralizes Food Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To centralize food service within the entire Pittsburgh school district, a 90,000-square-foot food service preparation building contains cranes and monorails to move 500-pound capacity vats throughout the kitchen. (Author/MLF)

Modern Schools, 1975

1975-01-01

405

Central Rotation Curves of Galaxies  

E-print Network

We emphasize the use of high-resolution CO line observations to derive central rotation curves of galaxies. We present an example for high-resolution interferometer observations of NGC 3079, and discuss the PV diagram and derived rotation curve. The CO central rotation curves are combined with the outer curves from \\ha and HI-line observations to obtain total RC. We show that well resolved RCs for massive galaxies generally start from non-zero velocities at the nucleus.

Yoshiaki SOFUE

2000-10-30

406

Peripherally inserted central catheters revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study compares central venous catheters (CVC) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) for indications for insertion, complications, and economic impact.Methods: A retrospective review of 838 (283 CVC, 555 PICC) consecutively placed venous catheters reflected 49,365 CVC and 11,814 PICC days.Results: There were 57 (20%) complications in the CVC group, 197 (35%) complications in the PICC group. PICC were

Jeffrey R. Smith; Mark L. Friedell; Michael L. Cheatham; Samuel P. Martin; Michael J. Cohen; John D. Horowitz

1998-01-01

407

Congenital nystagmus and central hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

We observed a male newborn with bilateral nystagmus and central hypothyroidism without hypoprolactinemia due to a deletion of chromosome band Xq26.1q26.2, containing FRMD7 and IGSF1. These two loss-of function mutations are known to cause, respectively, congenital nystagmus and the ensemble of central hypothyroidism, hypoprolactinemia and testicular enlargement. These latter two features may not yet be present in early life. PMID:25780367

Reynaert, Nele; Braat, Elke; de Zegher, Francis

2015-01-01

408

CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY  

SciTech Connect

THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

BERGMAN TB; STEFANSKI LD; SEELEY PN; ZINSLI LC; CUSACK LJ

2012-09-19

409

Central collector solar energy receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of compact steam generator technology to the design and fabrication of central receivers for solar-energy-powered electrical power plants is described. A feasibility study is performed on four design concepts for the central receiver, all of which use the techniques of high-pressure tube forming and segmentation: (1) spiral tube array, (2) cruciform tube array, (3) vertical tube array, and

A. Sobin; W. Wagner; C. R. Easton

1976-01-01

410

Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent.  

PubMed

The type of solvent and the volume used to load pheromone components onto rubber septa had significant effects on pheromone release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ratios of synthetic Oriental fruit moth (OFM) pheromone and additional volatile compounds were determined using a gas chromatograph column as a volatile trap for rapid (?1 hr) analysis from individual rubber septa. Volatile compound solutions were prepared in hexane, pentane, CH2Cl2, and methyl tert-butyl ether, and a 10, 33, or 100 ?l aliquot of each solution was applied to rubber septa. Septa loaded with 100 ?l of CH2Cl2 emitted significantly (P?ratios than septa loaded with the other solvents, which were all similar. Release ratios of the alcohol and acetate components of the OFM pheromone components were assessed over a 3 week period using septa loaded with each solvent. Regardless of loading solvent, the OFM OH:Ac ratios declined logarithmically over 3 weeks; however, the decay slope from septa loaded with CH2Cl2 solutions was different from those of the other three solvents, which were nearly all the same. A high variability in OH:Ac release ratios was measured overall, regardless of the solvent used or the volume it was applied in. Four compounds of near-equal mass: 1-dodecanol, 1-dodecanal, methyl decanoate, and tridecane emitted different release ratios dependent on the solvent, hexane or CH2Cl2, with which a septum was loaded. The more polar and the greater the mass of the test compound, the slower it was emitted from a septum regardless of solvent. These combined results plus comparisons to earlier reports, suggest that researchers should empirically assess the release ratios from septa to be used in bioassays rather than just reporting the type of septum, ratios of compounds applied and solvent used to prepare them. PMID:25801328

Kuenen, L P S; Siegel, Joel P

2015-03-01

411

Fuel equivalence ratio imaging for methane jets  

SciTech Connect

A 2-D fuel/oxygen equivalence ratio imaging system has been developed. The technique exploits the efficient quenching of the fluorescence of organic molecules by molecular oxygen in order to determine the fuel and oxygen partial pressures simultaneously. Following pulsed planar laser excitation of fluoranthene-a specially selected fluorescent dopant-two images of the fluorescence were recorded, with the second image being delayed by several nanoseconds. Use of a rapid lifetime determination algorithm yielded first a fluorescence lifetime image, and subsequently, with the assumption of Stern-Volmer quenching, an intensity image corrected for quenching. Images of the air pressure, fuel pressure, and the equivalence ratio were obtained. The technique, which uses dual gated intensifiers coupled to a sensitive CCD camera, requires only two integrated fluorescence intensities to calculate the fluorescence lifetime accurately. In the current work, images of the turbulence-induced mixing of a methane jet into quiescent air are displayed. Images can also be obtained in flames, but the analysis of the data is uncertain because the fluorescence lifetime of fluoranthene is temperature dependent. 14 refs., 11 figs.

Ni, T.Q.; Melton, L.A. (Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson (United States))

1993-06-01

412

Parasite Stress Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio  

PubMed Central

In this study, I predict that the global variation of offspring sex ratio might be influenced in part by the level of parasite stress. From an energetic standpoint, higher gestational costs of producing a male offspring could decrease male births in a population with limited resources. This implies that, any factor that limits the parental resources could be expected to favor female offspring production. Human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is believed to be influenced by numerous socioeconomic, biological, and environmental factors. Here, I test a prediction that parasite stress, by virtue of its effects on the general health condition, may limit the parental investment ability and therefore could influence the SRB at the population level. The statistical analysis supports this prediction, and show that the level of parasite stress has a significant inverse relation with population SRB across the world. Further, this relation is many-folds stronger than the association of SRB with other factors, like; polygyny, fertility, latitude, and son-preference. Hence, I propose that condition affecting ability of parasites (but not adaptive significance) could be a likely causal basis for the striking variation of SRB across populations. PMID:23049967

Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

2012-01-01

413

Finger Length Ratios in Serbian Transsexuals  

PubMed Central

Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D?:?4D) associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D?:?4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT) and male to female transsexuals (MFT) and controls. We examined 42?MFT, 38?FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ventral surface of both hands from the basal crease of the digit to the tip using vernier calliper. Control male and female patients had larger 2D?:?4D of the right hand when compared to the left hand. Control male's left hand ratio was lower than in control female's left hand. There was no difference in 2D?:?4D between MFT and control males. MFT showed similar 2D?:?4D of the right hand with control women indicating possible influencing factor in embryogenesis and consequently finger length changes. FMT showed the lowest 2D?:?4D of the left hand when compared to the control males and females. Results of our study go in favour of the biological aetiology of transsexualism. PMID:24982993

Vujovi?, Svetlana; Popovi?, Srdjan; Mrvoševi? Marojevi?, Ljiljana; Ivovi?, Miomira; Tan?i?-Gaji?, Milina; Stojanovi?, Miloš; Marina, Ljiljana V.; Bara?, Marija; Bara?, Branko; Kova?evi?, Milena; Duišin, Dragana; Bariši?, Jasmina; Djordjevi?, Miroslav L.; Mici?, Dragan

2014-01-01

414

On the Scaling Ratios for Siegel Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundary of the Siegel disk of a quadratic polynomial with an irrationally indifferent fixed point and the rotation number whose continued fraction expansion is preperiodic has been observed to be self-similar with a certain scaling ratio. The restriction of the dynamics of the quadratic polynomial to the boundary of the Siegel disk is known to be quasisymmetrically conjugate to the rigid rotation with the same rotation number. The geometry of this self-similarity is universal for a large class of holomorphic maps. A renormalization explanation of this universality has been proposed in the literature. In this paper we provide an estimate on the quasisymmetric constant of the conjugacy, and use it to prove bounds on the scaling ratio of the form where s is the period of the continued fraction, and depends on the rotation number in an explicit way, while C > 1, and depend only on the maximum of the integers in the continued fraction expansion of the rotation number.

Gaidashev, Denis

2015-01-01

415

Ultra-High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The jet noise from a 1/15 scale model of a Pratt and Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) was measured in the United Technology Research Center anechoic research tunnel (ART) under a range of operating conditions. Conditions were chosen to match engine operating conditions. Data were obtained at static conditions and at wind tunnel Mach numbers of 0.2, 0.27, and 0.35 to simulate inflight effects on jet noise. Due to a temperature dependence of the secondary nozzle area, the model nozzle secondary to primary area ratio varied from 7.12 at 100 percent thrust to 7.39 at 30 percent thrust. The bypass ratio varied from 10.2 to 11.8 respectively. Comparison of the data with predictions using the current Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Jet Noise Prediction Method showed that the current prediction method overpredicted the ADP jet noise by 6 decibels. The data suggest that a simple method of subtracting 6 decibels from the SAE Coaxial Jet Noise Prediction for the merged and secondary flow source components would result in good agreement between predicted and measured levels. The simulated jet noise flight effects with wind tunnel Mach numbers up to 0.35 produced jet noise inflight noise reductions up to 12 decibels. The reductions in jet noise levels were across the entire jet noise spectra, suggesting that the inflight effects affected all source noise components.

Low, John K. C.

1994-01-01

416

Finger length ratios in Serbian transsexuals.  

PubMed

Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D:4D) associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D:4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT) and male to female transsexuals (MFT) and controls. We examined 42?MFT, 38?FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ventral surface of both hands from the basal crease of the digit to the tip using vernier calliper. Control male and female patients had larger 2D:4D of the right hand when compared to the left hand. Control male's left hand ratio was lower than in control female's left hand. There was no difference in 2D:4D between MFT and control males. MFT showed similar 2D:4D of the right hand with control women indicating possible influencing factor in embryogenesis and consequently finger length changes. FMT showed the lowest 2D:4D of the left hand when compared to the control males and females. Results of our study go in favour of the biological aetiology of transsexualism. PMID:24982993

Vujovi?, Svetlana; Popovi?, Srdjan; Mrvoševi? Marojevi?, Ljiljana; Ivovi?, Miomira; Tan?i?-Gaji?, Milina; Stojanovi?, Miloš; Marina, Ljiljana V; Bara?, Marija; Bara?, Branko; Kova?evi?, Milena; Duišin, Dragana; Bariši?, Jasmina; Djordjevi?, Miroslav L; Mici?, Dragan

2014-01-01

417

Infrared Line Ratios in Starburst Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared line ratios are especially well suited to probe the physical conditions in starburst galaxies because they are sensitive to the hardness of the stellar ionizing radiation and are less affected by interstellar extinction than lines at shorter wavelengths. We compare IR line ratios in starburst galaxies obtained by the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)* on the Spitzer Space Telescope with theoretical models. The models use the STARBURST99 code to generate a spectral energy distribution of a stellar cluster which then serves as the input to the MAPPINGS III photoionization code. We explore various model parameters such as the initial mass function and star formation mode, and we present preliminary results for a number of galaxies in our sample. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work was provided by NASA through Contract Number 1257184 issued by JPL/Caltech. * The IRS was a collaborative venture between Cornell University and Ball Aerospace Corporation funded by NASA through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Ames Research Center.

Guiles, S.; Devost, D.; Houck, J. R.

2004-12-01

418

Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

2008-06-30

419

Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

1981-01-01

420

Emission Ratios from SCIAMACHY simultaneous measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectra of reflected and backscattered solar radiation as measured by SCIAMACHY in nadir observation mode in the UV/visible/near-infrared/short-wave-infrared spectral region contain information on the vertical columns of numerous air pollutants and therefore provide a large-scale perspective on spacious and uncertain pollution sources like biomass burnings. It will be shown that under a number of reasonable assumptions we can obtain a quantitative charac-teristics of biomass burning emissions in terms of emission ratios (ER) using only the averages of the atmospheric gas columns retrieved from the space-based simultaneous measurements. Considering for example the SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO), taken as a reference car-bon component, together with the SCIAMACHY formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns in the scope of a well established emission quantification method we calcu-late the emission ratios, CO/HCHO and CO/NO2, over large biomass burning events in 2004 (established with the help of the AATSR fire counts product). We show that the calculated ER values are in reasonable agreement with the values obtained locally over similar biomass burning events reported in the literature. In addition, we discuss the relatively large values over the boreal forest fires in Alaska and Siberia, where ER values from local measurements were not yet reported.

Khlystova, Iryna; Richter, Andreas; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.; Buchwitz, Michael; Bovensmann, Heinrich

421

Ratios of heavy hadron semileptonic decay rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ratios of charmed meson and baryon semileptonic decay rates appear to be satisfactorily described by considering only the lowest-lying (S-wave) hadronic final states and assuming the kinematic factor describing phase space suppression is the same as that for free quarks. For example, the rate for Ds semileptonic decay is known to be (17.0±5.3)% lower than those for D0 or D+, and the model accounts for this difference. When applied to hadrons containing b quarks, this method implies that the Bs semileptonic decay rate is about 1% higher than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This small difference thus suggests surprisingly good local quark-hadron duality for B semileptonic decays, complementing the expectation based on inclusive quark-hadron duality that these differences in rates should not exceed a few tenths of a percent. For ?b semileptonic decay, however, the inclusive rate is predicted to be about 13% greater than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This value, representing a considerable departure from a calculation using a heavy-quark expansion, is close to the corresponding experimental ratio ?(?b)/?¯(B)=1.13±0.03 of total decay rates.

Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.

2011-02-01

422

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias  

E-print Network

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias Escuela de Computación Lecturas en Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Ap. 47002, Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela (mmonsalv, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Ap. 47002, Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela (mraydan

Raydan, Marcos

423

34 CFR 303.301 - Central directory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Central directory. 303.301 Section 303.301 Education...Services General § 303.301 Central directory. (a) Each system must include a central directory of information about— (1)...

2011-07-01

424

34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central directory. 303.117 Section 303.117 Education...Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is accessible to the general...

2013-07-01

425

34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Central directory. 303.117 Section 303.117 Education...Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is accessible to the general...

2014-07-01

426

34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central directory. 303.117 Section 303.117 Education...Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is accessible to the general...

2012-07-01

427

34 CFR 303.301 - Central directory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central directory. 303.301 Section 303.301 Education...Services General § 303.301 Central directory. (a) Each system must include a central directory of information about— (1)...

2010-07-01

428

49 CFR 71.6 - Central zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Central zone. 71.6 Section 71.6 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.6 Central zone. The third zone, the central standard time zone, includes that part...

2010-10-01

429

32 CFR 154.41 - Central adjudication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central adjudication. 154.41 Section 154...REGULATION Adjudication § 154.41 Central adjudication. (a) To ensure...Defense Agencies shall establish a single Central Adjudication Facility for...

2010-07-01

430

Two classes of stacked central configurations for the spatial 2n+1-body problem: Nested regular polyhedra plus one  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider 2n mass points located at the vertices of two nested regular polyhedra with the same number of vertices and the (2n+1)th mass located at the geometrical center of the nested regular polyhedra. We show the existence of central configurations for any given mass ratios and the size ratio of nested polyhedra.

Su, Xia; Deng, Chunhua

2014-02-01

431

Classification of particle effective shape ratios in cirrus clouds based on the lidar depolarization ratio.  

PubMed

A shape classification technique for cirrus clouds that could be applied to future spaceborne lidars is presented. A ray-tracing code has been developed to simulate backscattered and depolarized lidar signals from cirrus clouds made of hexagonal-based crystals with various compositions and optical depth, taking into account multiple scattering. This code was used first to study the sensitivity of the linear depolarization rate to cloud optical and microphysical properties, then to classify particle shapes in cirrus clouds based on depolarization ratio measurements. As an example this technique has been applied to lidar measurements from 15 mid-latitude cirrus cloud cases taken in Palaiseau, France. Results show a majority of near-unity shape ratios as well as a strong correlation between shape ratios and temperature: The lowest temperatures lead to high shape ratios. The application of this technique to space-borne measurements would allow a large-scale classification of shape ratios in cirrus clouds, leading to better knowledge of the vertical variability of shapes, their dependence on temperature, and the formation processes of clouds. PMID:12148751

Noel, Vincent; Chepfer, Helene; Ledanois, Guy; Delaval, Arnaud; Flamant, Pierre H

2002-07-20

432

Spatial Variability and Application of Ratios between BTEX in Two Canadian Cities  

PubMed Central

Spatial monitoring campaigns of volatile organic compounds were carried out in two similarly sized urban industrial cities, Windsor and Sarnia, ON, Canada. For Windsor, data were obtained for all four seasons at approximately 50 sites in each season (winter, spring, summer, and fall) over a three-year period (2004, 2005, and 2006) for a total of 12 sampling sessions. Sampling in Sarnia took place at 37 monitoring sites in fall 2005. In both cities, passive sampling was done using 3M 3500 organic vapor samplers. This paper characterizes benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o, and (m + p)-xylene (BTEX) concentrations and relationships among BTEX species in the two cities during the fall sampling periods. BTEX concentration levels and rank order among the species were similar between the two cities. In Sarnia, the relationships between the BTEX species varied depending on location. Correlation analysis between land use and concentration ratios showed a strong influence from local industries. Use one of the ratios between the BTEX species to diagnose photochemical age may be biased due to point source emissions, for example, 53 tonnes of benzene and 86 tonnes of toluene in Sarnia. However, considering multiple ratios leads to better conclusions regarding photochemical aging. Ratios obtained in the sampling campaigns showed significant deviation from those obtained at central monitoring stations, with less difference in the (m + p)/E ratio but better overall agreement in Windsor than in Sarnia. PMID:22235184

Miller, Lindsay; Xu, Xiaohong; Wheeler, Amanda; Atari, Dominic Odwa; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Luginaah, Isaac

2011-01-01

433

On Monte Carlo methods for estimating ratios of normalizing constants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, estimating ratios of normalizing constants has played an important role in Bayesian computations. Applications of estimating ratios of normalizing constants arise in many aspects of Bayesian statistical inference. In this article, we present an overview and discuss the current Monte Carlo methods for estimating ratios of normalizing constants. Then we propose a new ratio importance sampling method and establish

Ming-Hui Chen; Qi-Man Shao

1997-01-01

434

The Next Generation Isotope Ratio MS DELTA V Advantage  

E-print Network

Plus The Next Generation Isotope Ratio MS The DELTA V isotope ratio mass spectrometers isotope ratio MS applications in the mass range up to m/z 96. Its versatility puts virtuallyThe Next Generation Isotope Ratio MS DELTA V Advantage DELTA V Plus Analyze · Detect · Measure

Lachniet, Matthew S.

435

Isotope Ratios of Cellulose from Plants Having Different Photosynthetic Pathways  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of cellulose nitrate and oxygen isotope ratios of cellulose from C3, C4, and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants were determined for plants growing within a small area in Val Verde County, Texas. Plants having CAM had distinctly higher deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratios than plants having C3 and C4 metabolism. When hydrogen isotope ratios are plotted against carbon isotope ratios, each photosynthetic mode separates into a distinct cluster of points. C4 plants had many D/H ratios similar to those of C3 plants, so that hydrogen isotope ratios cannot be used to distinguish between these two photosynthetic modes. Portulaca mundula, which may have a modified photosynthetic mode between C4 and CAM, had a hydrogen isotope ratio between those of the C4 and CAM plants. When oxygen isotope ratios are plotted against carbon isotope ratios, no distinct clustering of the C4 and CAM plants occurs. Thus, oxygen isotope ratios are not useful in distinguishing between these metabolic modes. A plot of hydrogen isotope ratios versus oxygen isotope ratios for this sample set shows considerable overlap between oxygen isotope ratios of the different photosynthetic modes without a concomitant overlap in the hydrogen isotope ratios of CAM and the other two photosynthetic modes. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that higher D/H ratios in CAM plants relative to C3 and C4 plants are due to isotopic fractionations occurring during biochemical reactions. PMID:16663460

Sternberg, Leonel O.; Deniro, Michael J.; Johnson, Hyrum B.

1984-01-01

436

Equations for Predicting Uncompacted Crown Ratio Based on Compacted Crown  

E-print Network

Equations for Predicting Uncompacted Crown Ratio Based on Compacted Crown Ratio and Tree Attributes Research Station. P.O. Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208. ABSTRACT: Equations to predict uncompacted crown ratio as a function of compacted crown ratio, tree diameter, and tree height are developed for the main tree species

Fried, Jeremy S.

437

Selenium/mercury molar ratios in freshwater, marine, and commercial fish from the USA: variation, risk, and health management.  

PubMed

Fish provide healthy protein as well as recreational and cultural benefits, but can also contain mercury (Hg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other contaminants that have adverse effects on humans and other organisms, particularly developing fetuses. Recently, some authors have suggested that a molar excess of selenium (Se) [e.g., selenium/mercury (Se/Hg) molar ratio >1] confers protection from Hg toxicity derived from fish consumption. Herein, we review our studies of Hg and Se in freshwater, marine, and commercial fish (mainly marine), examining the following: (1) whether and how Se/Hg molar ratios vary among species; (2) whether and how the molar ratios vary within species; (3) whether the molar ratios differ between freshwater and saltwater fish; (4) whether mean molar ratio values provide a reliable indication of potential risk to fish consumers; and (5) whether mean Se/Hg molar ratios are sufficiently constant (e.g., low variation) to allow for use in risk assessment, risk management, or risk communication. In saltwater fish, mean Se/Hg molar ratios varied from 0.3 in mako shark to 68.1 in whiting. For freshwater fish, the mean ratios varied from 0.68 in bowfin to 20.8 in black crappie. Commercial seafood (mainly saltwater) showed great variation in ratios; shrimp and scallops had very high ratios. There was somewhat less variability in the ratios for freshwater fish compared with the fish from saltwater, but there was no overall predictable difference in variation in Se/Hg molar ratios. For both saltwater and freshwater fish, some species with mean molar ratios above 1 had a significant proportion of individual fish with molar ratios below 1. Overall, this indicates great variation in measures of central tendencies and in measures of dispersion. We suggest that relying on the Se/Hg molar ratio as a method of predicting reduced risk from Hg toxicity is problematic because of the great variation among and within fish species, and the variation is not predictable because Hg varies by season, size of the fish, and location of the fish (which is not available for commercial fish). With the high variation in ratios, and low predictability, the ratios are currently not useful for risk assessment and risk management, and vulnerable individuals cannot rely on mean Se/Hg molar ratios for protection from Hg toxicity. PMID:24192499

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

2013-01-01

438

Evaluation of the normal-to-diseased apparent diffusion coefficient ratio as an indicator of prostate cancer aggressiveness  

PubMed Central

Background We tested the feasibility of a simple method for assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratios between prostate cancer and healthy prostatic tissue. Methods The requirement for institutional review board approval was waived. A set of 20 standardized core transperineal saturation biopsy specimens served as the reference standard for placement of regions of interest on ADC maps in tumorous and normal prostatic tissue of 22 men with PCa (median Gleason score: 7; range, 6–9). A total of 128 positive sectors were included for evaluation. Two diagnostic ratios were computed between tumor ADCs and normal sector ADCs: the ADC peripheral ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal peripheral zone tissue, ADC-PR), and the ADC central ratio (the ratio between tumor ADC and normal central zone tissue, ADC-CR). The performance of the two ratios in detecting high-risk tumor foci (Gleason 8 and 9) was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results Both ADC ratios presented significantly lower values in high-risk tumors (0.48?±?0.13 for ADC-CR and 0.40?±?0.09 for ADC-PR) compared with low-risk tumors (0.66?±?0.17 for ADC-CR and 0.54?±?0.09 for ADC-PR) (p?ratio as an intrapatient-normalized diagnostic tool may be better in detecting high-grade lesions compared with analysis based on tumor ADCs alone, and may reduce the rate of biopsies. PMID:24885552

2014-01-01

439

Perspectives on the basic reproductive ratio  

PubMed Central

The basic reproductive ratio, R0, is defined as the expected number of secondary infections arising from a single individual during his or her entire infectious period, in a population of susceptibles. This concept is fundamental to the study of epidemiology and within-host pathogen dynamics. Most importantly, R0 often serves as a threshold parameter that predicts whether an infection will spread. Related parameters which share this threshold behaviour, however, may or may not give the true value of R0. In this paper we give a brief overview of common methods of formulating R0 and surrogate threshold parameters from deterministic, non-structured models. We also review common means of estimating R0 from epidemiological data. Finally, we survey the recent use of R0 in assessing emerging diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza, a number of recent livestock diseases, and vector-borne diseases malaria, dengue and West Nile virus. PMID:16849186

Heffernan, J.M; Smith, R.J; Wahl, L.M

2005-01-01

440

Horizon ratio bound for inflationary fluctuations.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that the gravity wave background amplitude implies a robust upper bound on the wavelength-to-horizon ratio at the end of inflation: lambda/H(-1) less than or approximately equal e(60), as long as the cosmic energy density does not drop faster than radiation subsequent to inflation. This limit implies that N, the number of e-folds between horizon exit and the end of inflation for wave modes of interest, is less, similar 60 plus a model-dependent factor-for vast classes of slow-roll models, N less than or approximately equal 67. As an example, this bound solidifies the tension between observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and chaotic inflation with a phi(4) potential by closing the escape hatch of large N (<62). PMID:14525296

Dodelson, Scott; Hui, Lam

2003-09-26

441

Perspectives on the basic reproductive ratio.  

PubMed

The basic reproductive ratio, R0, is defined as the expected number of secondary infections arising from a single individual during his or her entire infectious period, in a population of susceptibles. This concept is fundamental to the study of epidemiology and within-host pathogen dynamics. Most importantly, R0 often serves as a threshold parameter that predicts whether an infection will spread. Related parameters which share this threshold behaviour, however, may or may not give the true value of R0. In this paper we give a brief overview of common methods of formulating R0 and surrogate threshold parameters from deterministic, non-structured models. We also review common means of estimating R0 from epidemiological data. Finally, we survey the recent use of R0 in assessing emerging diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza, a number of recent livestock diseases, and vector-borne diseases malaria, dengue and West Nile virus. PMID:16849186

Heffernan, J M; Smith, R J; Wahl, L M

2005-09-22

442

Black-hole binary simulations: The mass ratio 10 ratio 1  

SciTech Connect

We present the first numerical simulations of an initially nonspinning black-hole binary with mass ratio as large as 10 ratio 1 in full general relativity. The binary completes approximately three orbits prior to merger and radiates (0.415{+-}0.017)% of the total energy and (12.48{+-}0.62)% of the initial angular momentum in the form of gravitational waves. The single black hole resulting from the merger acquires a kick of (66.7{+-}3.3) km/s relative to the original center of mass frame. The resulting gravitational waveforms are used to validate existing formulas for the recoil, final spin, and radiated energy over a wider range of the symmetric mass ratio parameter {eta}=M{sub 1}M{sub 2}/(M{sub 1}+M{sub 2}){sup 2} than previously possible. The contributions of l>2 multipoles are found to visibly influence the gravitational wave signal obtained at fixed inclination angles.

Gonzalez, Jose A. [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, 07743 Jena (Germany); Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Sperhake, Ulrich [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, 07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretical Astrophysics 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Bruegmann, Bernd [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, 07743 Jena (Germany)

2009-06-15

443

Parton shadowing and $J/?$-to-Drell-Yan ratio in nuclear collisions at SPS and FAIR  

E-print Network

We have analyzed the data on $J/\\psi$-to-Drell-Yan production cross section ratio in proton-nucleus ($p+A$) and nucleus-nucleus ($A+A$) collisions, measured by the NA50 collaboration in the SPS energy domain. Two component QVZ model has been employed to calculate $J/\\psi$ production cross sections. For both $J/\\psi$ and Drell-Yan production, nuclear modifications to the free nucleon structure functions are taken into account. In heavy-ion collisions, such modifications are assumed to be proportional to the local nuclear density resulting in centrality dependent initial state effects. Differences in quark and gluon shadowing leads to a new source of impact parameter dependence of the $J/\\psi$ to Drell-Yan production ratio. For $J/\\psi$, final state interaction of the produced $c\\bar{c}$ pairs with the nuclear medium is also taken into account. A satisfactory description of the data in both $p+A$ and $A+A$ collisions is obtained. Role of the shadowing corrections are investigated in detail. Model calculations are extrapolated to predict the centrality dependence of $J/\\psi$-to-Drell-Yan ratio in the FAIR energy regime.

Partha Pratim Bhaduri; A. K. Chaudhuri; Subhasis Chattopadhyay

2014-04-12

444

Structure simulation into a lamellar supramolecular network and calculation of the metal ions/ligands ratio  

PubMed Central

Background Research interest in phosphonates metal organic frameworks (MOF) has increased extremely in the last two decades, because of theirs fascinating and complex topology and structural flexibility. In this paper we present a mathematical model for ligand/metal ion ratio of an octahedral (Oh) network of cobalt vinylphosphonate (Co(vP)·H2O). Results A recurrent relationship of the ratio between the number of ligands and the number of metal ions in a lamellar octahedral (Oh) network Co(vP)·H2O, has been deducted by building the 3D network step by step using HyperChem 7.52 package. The mathematical relationship has been validated using X ray analysis, experimental thermogravimetric and elemental analysis data. Conclusions Based on deducted recurrence relationship, we can conclude prior to perform X ray analysis, that in the case of a thermogravimetric analysis pointing a ratio between the number of metal ions and ligands number around 1, the 3D network will have a central metal ion that corresponds to a single ligand. This relation is valid for every type of supramolecular network with divalent metal central ion Oh coordinated and bring valuable information with low effort and cost. PMID:22932493

2012-01-01

445

Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m?2 year?1 in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we

Martin Jiroušek; Michal Hájek; Luca Bragazza

2011-01-01

446

Radiographic assessment of clinical root-crown ratios of permanent teeth in a healthy Korean population  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine the absolute value of the root/crown ratio (R/C ratio) using panoramic radiographs (PRGs) in a healthy Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS In total, 99 patient radiographs (of 50 males and 49 females subjects; aged 16 to 24 years old) were examined, and 2,770 teeth were analyzed. Crown lengths and root lengths were measured with modified Lind's measurements using PACS tools by two examiners in two separate sessions two months apart. All data were analyzed using SPSS. The independent t-test was used to assess for gender differences, and the paired t-test was used to compare both arches with a significance level of P<.05. RESULTS The mean R/C ratios varied from 1.29 to 1.89 (male: 1.28-1.84; females: 1.31-1.94). The highest R/C ratios were recorded for the mandibular canines (1.89), followed by the maxillary canines (1.79). The lowest R/C ratios were recorded for the maxillary second molars (1.31). In comparison with the maxillary teeth (1.29-1.78), the mandibular teeth yielded the higher R/C ratio (1.47-1.89), and this difference was significant in the females (P<.05). The difference between the genders was not statistically significant, except for the maxillary central incisors, mandibular canines and mandibular first premolars. CONCLUSION These data may enhance the understanding of the clinical R/C ratio as a useful guideline for determining the status of teeth and the ethnic difference. PMID:25006380

Yun, Hee-Jung; Jeong, Jin-Sun; Pang, Nan-Sim; Kwon, Il-Keun

2014-01-01

447

Root-Crown Ratio in Permanent Dentition Using Panoramic Radiography in a Selected Iranian Population  

PubMed Central

Statement of the Problem: Determining the crown-root ratio is crucial in many dental clinical decisions. There are no reliable data presented for Iranian population. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the root-crown ratio of permanent teeth with regards to the relationship of gender and jaw type using panoramic radiographs. The reliability of method was also assessed. Materials and Method: The crown and root lengths of teeth were measured by a digital caliper on panoramic radiographs of 185 individuals except for the third molars. A total of 1994 teeth was studied and 50.8% of the teeth belonged to males and 49.2% belonged to females. The modified Lind method was applied. Results: The highest mean root-crown ratios in both arches of both genders were obtained in the second premolars, followed by the first premolars and canines. In both genders, the lowest root-crown ratios were found in the maxillary central incisors. In male patients, the mean root-crown ratio was higher (p= 0.003) than that of females. Using Bland-Altman analysis, a non-significant difference of 0.006 (95% CI: -0.012-0.024) and 0.0002 (95% CI: -0.011-0.011) were found for intra-observer and inter-observer agreement, respectively. Conclusion: Assessment of the root-crown ratio in permanent dentition could be performed on panoramic radiographs with acceptable reproducibility in an Iranian Population. Considering observed differences, our findings suggest that for the accurate assessment, this ratio must be calculated for male and female patients and also for the upper and lower jaws, separately. PMID:25469356

Haghanifar, Sina; Moudi, Ehsan; Abbasi, Shirin; Bijani, Ali; Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Arash; Ghasemi, Nafiseh

2014-01-01

448

Reproductive biology in Acacia caven(Mol.) Mol. (Leguminosae) in the central region of Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies onAcacia caven(Mol.) Mol. in central Argentina indicate that the species is polygamous (andromonoecious), some plants having a high proportion of staminate heads. Though pollen\\/ovule ratios of flowers, inflorescences and plants are at a level common for ‘facultative xenogamic’ systems, controlled pollination shows a marked xenogamy. The ratio between pollen grains in the polyad and the maximum number of seeds

Jose Luis Baranelli; Andrea A. Cocucci; Ana M. Anton

1995-01-01

449

36Cl in shallow, perched aquifers from central Indiana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

36Cl/Cl ratios and chloride concentrations were measured in several shallow, perched aquifers situated within glacial till in west-central Indiana (USA). Most of these aquifers show 36Cl/Cl ratios which have to be attributed to admixed 36Cl from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. Two wells from Purdue's Horticultural Farm tap perched aquifers uninfluenced by anthropogenic sources of chloride, and their 36Cl/Cl ratios are comparable with ratios measured in modern, local precipitation. As such, the chloride contents of these wells (1 to 3 ppm) reflect evaporative concentration of the precipitation's chloride contents (averaging 0.17 ppm) in the vadose zone. Since one of these two wells (HA-2a) does not contain any detectable tritium, we conclude that recent pre-bomb 36Cl/Cl ratios and 36Cl deposition in precipitation are quite similar to those in modern precipitation. We attribute the slight 36Cl excess of about 20% in both of these wells largely to 36Cl deposition associated with dry fall-out. As much as 2 × 10 4 at. 36Cl/cm 2 might reach the surface via dry fall-out annually.

Vogt, S.; Elmore, D.; Fritz, S. J.

1994-06-01

450

Prediction of Central Burst Defects in Copper Wire Drawing Process  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the prediction of chevron cracks (central bursts) in copper wire drawing process is investigated using experimental and numerical approaches. The conditions of the chevron cracks creation along the wire axis depend on (i) the die angle, the friction coefficient between the die and the wire, (ii) the reduction in crosssectional area of the wire, (iii) the material properties and (iv) the drawing velocity or strain rate. Under various drawing conditions, a numerical simulation for the prediction of central burst defects is presented using an axisymmetric finite element model. This model is based on the application of the Cockcroft and Latham fracture criterion. This criterion was used as the damage value to estimate if and where defects will occur during the copper wire drawing. The critical damage value of the material is obtained from a uniaxial tensile test. The results show that the die angle and the reduction ratio have a significant effect on the stress distribution and the maximum damage value. The central bursts are expected to occur when the die angle and reduction ratio reach a critical value. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental observations.

Vega, G. [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, CNRS UMR 8107, Universite de Lille 1, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Paul Langevin, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); NEXANS France, NMC Nexans Metallurgy Centre, Boulevard du Marais, BP39, F-62301 Lens (France); Haddi, A. [Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo-Environnement (LGCgE), Faculte des Sciences Appliquees, Universite d'Artois, F-62400 Bethune (France); Imad, A. [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, CNRS UMR 8107, Universite de Lille 1, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Paul Langevin, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

2011-01-17

451

The Central Asia Caucacus Analyst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This biweekly journal is the product of the Central Asia-Caucacus Institute (CACI), an independent think tank, affiliated with the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at The Johns Hopkins University. The journal, which CACI has been publishing for about a year, aims to "link the business, governmental, journalistic and scholarly communities," and each issue has four or five short articles, field reports (short pieces focused on communities' assessments of a particular news event), and news bites (paragraph summaries of relevant news items). The current issue contains four articles, S. Frederick Starr's "A Federated Afghanistan?" Maria Sultan's "Avoiding Escalation in Central Asia's Southern Borderland," "Turkey's New Challenges in the Caucacus and Central Asia" by Kemal Kaya, and Miriam Lanskoy's "The Cost of the Chechen War." The journal is available online, or users can download each issue in .pdf format. Note: When we visited, the material available in .pdf format was more current than that in HTML.

452

Predicting Lumbar Central Canal Stenosis – A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Low back pain is a common complaint among adults, worldwide. Lumbar canal stenosis is frequently diagnosed as a cause for low back pain. In this study we evaluate morphometric measures using MRI sections to predict the occurrence of lumbar central canal stenosis. Settings and Design: One hundred and fifty four lumbar spinal MRI sagital and axial section images, 77 males and females each were evaluated from the Department of Radiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University. The study design was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: Various measurements were taken and two constant ratios were calculated. The Canal Body Ratio and the Ratio between the area of the dural sac and the vertebral body was evaluated. Statistical analysis: Unpaired t-test analysis was conducted using SPSS software. Results: A canal body ratio less than 0.6 from L1 to L3 levels and less than 0.5 at L4 and L5 levels were found. The ratio between area of dural sac and vertebral body was found to be a constant at 0.2 at all levels. It was found that maximum central canal stenosis occurred at the L5 lumbar vertebral level in 15.6% males and 13% females. This was followed by stenosis at the L4 and L3 lumbar vertebral levels with 5.1% males having stenosis at both levels and 3.9% and 5.1% females in L4 and L3 lumbar levels respectively. Conclusion: These morphometrical findings of the lumbar vertebrae could be of use in evaluating the possible cases of lumbar canal stenosis. PMID:25584282

Premchandran, Divya; Mahale, Ajith

2014-01-01

453

N/P re-mineralization ratios across forests worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decomposition of leaf litter is the primary mechanism by which nutrients are recycled in forests. Forests are a sink for atmospheric CO2, but nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) could limit or eliminate this ecosystem service in the future. Nutrient cycling during mineralization supplies the vast majority of nutrients to enable forest growth. Therefore, elucidating patterns by which organic N and P are mineralized by decomposing organisms or immobilized in microbial biomass is crucial to establishing controls on plant nutrient availability. Here, we compare re-mineralization N/P ratios to the stoichiometry of the initial material. We performed a meta-analysis of N and P mineralization from leaves and needles in forest ecosystems and included 112 studies, 511 litterbag sequences, and 3225 observations. Of the compiled data, net mineralization occurred in 54 studies, 372 litterbag sequences, and 1308 observations. We compare re-mineralization ratios across temperate and tropical forest systems to elucidate patterns across latitudes. We report strong and systematic regularities between decomposing litter N/P and the N/P of re-mineralization across global forests. Overall, the N/P of mineralization scales at a slope close to unity (slope = 1.4, R2=0.53, n=372), with a tendency toward higher N/P in tropical vs. temperate forests. The N/P of tropical forest re-mineralization is equal to 30/1 (R2=0.55; n=691), corresponding with the high N/P of plant foliage and litter within this biome. In contrast, the N/P of mineralization is equal to 5/1 in temperate forests (R2=0.34; n=617). A modal anomaly analysis further reveals the central tendency of mineralization N/P on that of litter, with departures from the average case tending toward a lower N/P of mineralization compared to litter substrates. These deviations suggest the potential for preferential N retention or enhanced P mineralization, or both, as opposed to more rapid N releases from decomposing organic matter. The results show that forest mineralization N/P is closely linked to the N/P of litter in a way that seems to mimic that of the global ocean environment. N/P of mineralization vs. N/P of litter. Grey symbols indicate data from each litterbag; colored symbols indicate the mean value for each litterbag sequence. Blue triangles indicate tropical forests; green plus signs indicate temperate forests. The dashed line is 1:1; the solid line is the linear regression.

Marklein, A. R.; Houlton, B. Z.

2012-12-01

454

Central Asia and Central Africa: Transnational Wars and Ethnic Conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the former Soviet states of Central Asia, Afghanistan and its neighboring countries, and the in the Great Lakes region of Africa, conflicts have been organized around cultural identities. These identities, however, are not sub-national but transnational. They have linked groups within a state to trans-border networks that have participated in both contemporary global markets and warfare, as elements of

Barnett Rubin

2006-01-01

455

Host-size-dependent sex ratio theory and improving mass-reared parasitoid sex ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although an effective parasitoid of agromyzid leafminers, Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an expensive biological control agent in terms of production costs. In part, these costs arise from the production of male-biased offspring sex ratios. Here, we present a mass-rearing technique that will increase the proportion of females produced and reduce the need for frequent releases in biocontrol programs.

Paul J. Ode; Kevin M. Heinz

2002-01-01

456

Effects of Ratio Strategies Intervention on Knowledge of Ratio Equivalence for Students with Learning Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with mathematics learning disabilities have a weak understanding of mathematical concepts that underlie success in Algebra I, such as ratios and proportional reasoning. In this study, researchers used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of a intervention based on a instructional trajectory of how…

Hunt, Jessica H.; Vasquez, Eleazar, III

2014-01-01

457

INTERSPECIES COMPARISONS OF A/D RATIOS: A/D RATIOS ARE NOT CONSTANT ACROSS SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The hypothesis that the ratio of the adult (A) and developmental (D) toxicity of a chemical is constant across animal species has been proposed as the basis for identifying developmental hazards, both from traditional developmental toxicity screens using laboratory mammals and fr...

458

Geothermal activities in Central America  

SciTech Connect

The Agency for International Development is funding a new program in energy and minerals for Central America. Geothermal energy is an important component. A country-wide geothermal assessment has started in Honduras, and other assessment activities are in progress or planned for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama. Instrumentation for well logging has been provided to Costa Rica, and a self-contained logging truck will be made available for use throughout Central America. An important objective of this program is to involve the private sector in resource development. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Whetten, J.T.; Hanold, R.J.

1985-09-11

459

Primary central nervous system lymphoma.  

PubMed

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an unusual form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is restricted to the central nervous system. Although it presents with focal neurologic symptoms, it is characterized pathologically by diffuse infiltration of the brain. PCNSL is sensitive to corticosteroids, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. High-dose methotrexate-based regimens form the cornerstone of multimodality therapy and have significantly improved response rates and survival. Prolonged survival can be associated with devastating neurotoxicity to which the elderly are particularly susceptible. PMID:17964031

Mohile, Nimish A; Abrey, Lauren E

2007-11-01

460

Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the cereal campaign obtained are classified according to their level of significance at 99, 95, 90 and 85%. Approximately half of the regions with high surface assurance have meaningful relationships. In the regions where no significant relationships are achieved several situations are discussed such as extreme situations in critical phenological periods that could have great influence on the final yields. Acknowledgements. This work was partially supported by ENESA under project P10 0220C-823.

Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

2014-05-01

461

What information can we obtain from the yield ratio $?^-/?^+$ in heavy-ion collisions ?  

E-print Network

The recently reported data on the yield ratio $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ in central rapidity region of heavy-ion collisions are analyzed by theoretical formula which accounts for Coulomb interaction between central charged fragment (CCF) consisting of nearly stopped nucleons with effective charge $Z_{\\mbox{\\scriptsize eff}}$ and charged pions produced in the same region of the phase space. The Coulomb wave function method is used instead of the usual Gamow factor in order to account for the finite production range of pions, $\\beta$. For Gaussian shape of the pion production sources it results in a quasi-scaling in $\\beta$ and $Z_{\\mbox{\\scriptsize eff}}$ which makes determination of parameters $\\beta$ and $Z_{\\mbox{\\scriptsize eff}}$ from the existing experimental data difficult. Only sufficiently accurate data taken in the extreme small $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle T}$-$m_{\\pi}$ region, where this quasi-scaling is broken, could be used for this purpose.

T. Osada; S. Sano; M. Biyajima; G. Wilk

1996-06-19

462

Impact parameter profiles from nuclear shadowing ratio and applications to deuteron-gold collisions  

E-print Network

While current nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs) from global fits to experimental data are spatially homogeneous, many experimental observables in nucleus-nucleus collisions are presented in terms of centrality cuts. These cuts can be related to impact parameter using the Glauber theory and it is thus usual in the description of such observables to convolute an assumed impact parameter distribution with the homogeneous nPDFs. In this study we use the Gribov theory of nuclear shadowing supplemented with information from diffraction to model the impact parameter distributions of nuclear shadowing ratio in the small-$x$ region. The modeled distributions are applied to the description of the centrality dependence of observables in deuteron-gold (d+Au) collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ AGeV.

Adeola Adeluyi; Trang Nguyen; Bao-An Li

2010-06-30

463

Using the central VAX cluster at ANL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a manual that discusses the following topics on the Central Vax Cluster at ANL: What the Central Vax Cluster is; how the Vax Cluster works; operational policies; getting started; using tapes; printing on the Vax Cluster; developing programs in VMS; using the X window system on the Central Vax Cluster; and using Central Vax Cluster file sharing

C. M. Caruthers; S. L. Vote; D. A. Lifka; R. C. Raffenetti

1992-01-01

464

Mixing properties of coaxial jets with large velocity ratios and large inverse density ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was conducted to better understand the mixing properties of coaxial jets as several parameters were systematically varied, including the velocity ratio, density ratio, and the Reynolds number. Diameters of the inner and outer jet were also varied. Coaxial jets are commonly used to mix fluids due to the simplicity of their geometry and the rapid mixing that they provide. A measure of the overall mixing efficiency is the stoichiometric mixing length (Ls), which is the distance along the jet centerline where the two fluids have mixed to some desired concentration, which was selected to be the stoichiometric concentration for H2/O2 and CH4/O2 in this case. For 56 cases, the profiles of mean mixture fraction, rms mixture fraction fluctuations (unmixedness), and Ls were measured using acetone planar laser induced fluorescence diagnostics. Results were compared to three mixing models. The entrainment model of Villermaux and Rehab showed good agreement with the data, indicating that the proper non-dimensional scaling parameter is the momentum flux ratio M. The work extends the existing database of coaxial jet scalar mixing properties because it considers the specific regime of large values of both the velocity ratio and the inverse density ratio, which is the regime in which rocket injectors operate. Also the work focuses on the mixing up to Ls where previous work focused on the mixing up to the end of the inner core. The Reynolds numbers achieved for a number of cases were considerably larger than previous gas mixing studies, which insures that the jet exit boundary conditions are fully turbulent.

Alexander Schumaker, S.; Driscoll, James F.

2012-05-01

465

Population-Based Placental Weight Ratio Distributions  

PubMed Central

The placental weight ratio (PWR) is a health indicator that reflects the balance between fetal and placental growth. The PWR is defined as the placental weight divided by the birth weight, and it changes across gestation. Its ranges are not well established. We aimed to establish PWR distributions by gestational age and to investigate whether the PWR distributions vary by fetal growth adequacy, small, average, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA). The data came from a hospital based retrospective cohort, using all births at two London, Ontario hospitals in the past 10 years. All women who delivered a live singleton infant between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation were included (n = 41441). Nonparametric quantile regression was used to fit the curves. The results demonstrate decreasing PWR and dispersion, with increasing gestational age. A higher proportion of SGA infants have extreme PWRs than AGA and LGA, especially at lower gestational ages. On average, SGA infants had higher PWRs than AGA and LGA infants. The overall curves offer population standards for use in research studies. The curves stratified by fetal growth adequacy are the first of their kind, and they demonstrate that PWR differs for SGA and LGA infants. PMID:24895497

Macdonald, Erin M.; Koval, John J.; Natale, Renato; Regnault, Timothy; Campbell, M. Karen

2014-01-01

466

Abyssal benthos of the central Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative studies of the abyssal benthos (3600 to 5300 m) of the central Indian Ocean show a rich fauna and high standing crops. Density of 3 meiofaunal and 12 macrofaunal taxa are large (2175 to 15233; x = 6441 m -2) Polychaetes (41.6%), peracarid crustaceans (31.7%), ophiuroids (12.2%), echiuroid-bryozoa (9.7%), molluscs (4.8%), and agglutinating rhizopod protozoans form the macrofauna. Meiofaunal taxa are nematodes (69.4%), harpacticoid copepods (26.6%), and ostracods (4%). Meiofauna abundances are positively correlated with distance from shore, whereas the distribution and abundance of macrofauna are independent of variations in depth and distance from the shore. Ratio of macro to meiofauna in the total population is 1 to 31. The benthic standing crop is uniformly high (0.54 to 13.73 g m -2; x = 2.70 g m -2) and many times larger than previously reported for comparable depths in other oceans and from the same region. Biomass values are significantly related to distance from shore and the type of substratum. Contribution of macro and meiofauna to the total standing crop was in the ratio of 31 to 1. High benthic biomass and rich fauna are consequences of high organic production in the euphotic zone. The correlation between biomass of the total oxidizable organic matter in the water column and the benthic standing crop is statistically significant ( r = -0.64) at the P < 0.05 level. Rich fauna and high standing crop were associated with the occurrence of polymetallic nodules.

Parulekar, A. H.; Harkantra, S. N.; Ansari, Z. A.; Matondkar, S. G. P.

1982-12-01

467

Central Aortic Pressure is Independently Associated With Diastolic Function  

PubMed Central

Background Studies investigating the association between central aortic pressures and diastolic function have been limited. Methods Consecutive ambulatory patients (n=281, mean age 49±13 yrs, 49% male) with normal LV systolic function were included. LV filling pressure (E/Em) was estimated by Doppler-derived ratio of mitral inflow velocity [E] to septal [Em] by tissue Doppler, LV relaxation by Em, central aortic pressures by radial tonometry. Central aortic systolic (cSBP), diastolic (cDBP), mean (cMAP), and pulse pressure (cPP) were entered individually into stepwise linear regression models to determine their association with E/Em or Em. Results In univariate analysis, cPP correlated most strongly with E/Em (Spearman’s rho=0.45, p<0.001), while cSBP correlated most strongly with Em (Spearman’s rho=?0.51, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the pulsatile component of afterload, cPP, contributed most to E/Em (partial r2=23%); meanwhile the nonpulsatile components (cDBP and cMAP), were significant but small contributors (partial r2 of 6% and 5% respectively) of LV relaxation (Em). Conclusion The nonpulsatile components of aortic afterload (central mean aortic pressure (cMAP) and central aortic diastolic blood pressure cDBP), exhibited a weak but significant association with LV relaxation, while the pulsatile component of afterload, central aortic pulse pressure (cPP), exhibited strong association with LV filling pressure. PMID:20569723

Subherwal, Sumeet; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Waggoner, Alan D.; Heuerman, Sharon; Spence, Karen E.; Davila-Roman, Victor G.

2010-01-01

468

BioMed Central TIONALINTERNA  

E-print Network

BioMed Central C TIONALINTERNA CANCER CELL Page 1 of 11 (page number not for citation purposes This article is available from: http://www.cancerci.com/content/6/1/14 © 2006 Kingsley et al; licensee BioMed

Ahmad, Sajjad

469

Music Libraries: Centralization versus Decentralization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the decision that branch libraries, music libraries in particular, have struggled with concerning a centralized location in the main library versus a decentralized collection. Reports on a study of the Association of Research Libraries that investigated the location of music libraries, motivation for the location, degrees offered,…

Kuyper-Rushing, Lois

2002-01-01

470

Central Asia: Mapping Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central Asia has emerged as one of the world’s fastest growing regions since the late 1990s and has shown notable development potential. This is significant for a region comprising largely of small landlocked economies with no access to the sea for trade. Among the advantages, of the region are its high- priced commodities (oil, gas, cotton and gold), reasonable infrastructure

John Malcolm Dowling; Ganeshan Wignaraja

2005-01-01