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1

Formant Centralization Ratio: A Proposal for a New Acoustic Measure of Dysarthric Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The vowel space area (VSA) has been used as an acoustic metric of dysarthric speech, but with varying degrees of success. In this study, the authors aimed to test an alternative metric to the VSA--the "formant centralization ratio" (FCR), which is hypothesized to more effectively differentiate dysarthric from healthy speech and register…

Sapir, Shimon; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Spielman, Jennifer L.; Fox, Cynthia

2010-01-01

2

Central Bank Independence and Sacrifice Ratios: Some Further Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing literature reports a positive relationship between sacrifice ratios and central bank independence. This paper discusses two critical points related to the usual procedures employed by this literature. One concerns the issue of non-stationarity of the inflation rate, the other the problem of correlation between the error terms for different disinflation episodes in the same country. The way in

Ernst Baltensperger; Peter Kugler

2000-01-01

3

Commentary on FcR regulation of development and function of the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While acknowledging the importance of receptors for immunoglobulin constant regions (FcR) in regulation of the development\\u000a and function of the immune system, most immunologists, and more broadly most biologists, are somewhat intimidated by this\\u000a subdiscipline. This is the result of a number of factors, including FcR isoform multiplicity, general low affinity, ubiquity\\u000a and frequent expression of more than one FcR

J. C. Cambier

4

FcR? Controls the Fas-Dependent Regulatory Function of Lymphoproliferative Double Negative T Cells  

PubMed Central

Patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and lymphoproliferation (LPR) mice are deficient in Fas, and accumulate large numbers of ??-TCR+, CD4?, CD8? double negative (DN) T cells. The function of these DN T cells remains largely unknown. The common ? subunit of the activating Fc receptors, FcR?, plays an important role in mediating innate immune responses. We have shown previously that a significant proportion of DN T cells express FcR?, and that this molecule is required for TCR transgenic DN T cells to suppress allogeneic immune responses. Whether FcR? plays a critical role in LPR DN T cell-mediated suppression of immune responses to auto and allo-antigens is not known. Here, we demonstrated that FcR?+, but not FcR?? LPR DN T cells could suppress Fas+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro and attenuated CD4+ T cell-mediated graft-versus host disease. Although FcR? expression did not allow LPR DN T cells to inhibit the expansion of Fas-deficient cells within the LPR context, adoptive transfer of FcR?+, but not FcR??, DN T cells inhibited lymphoproliferation in generalized lymphoproliferative disease (GLD) mice. Furthermore, FcR? acted in a cell-intrinsic fashion to limit DN T cell accumulation by increasing the rate of apoptosis in proliferated cells. These results indicate that FcR? can confer Fas-dependent regulatory properties on LPR DN T cells, and suggest that FcR? may be a novel marker for functional DN Tregs.

Juvet, Stephen C.; Thomson, Christopher W.; Kim, Edward Y.; Han, Mei; Zhang, Li

2013-01-01

5

Identity of the elusive IgM Fc receptor (Fc?R) in humans  

PubMed Central

Although Fc receptors (FcRs) for switched immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes have been extensively characterized, FcR for IgM (Fc?R) has defied identification. By retroviral expression and functional cloning, we have identified a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a bona fide Fc?R in human B-lineage cDNA libraries. Fc?R is defined as a transmembrane sialoglycoprotein of ?60 kD, which contains an extracellular Ig-like domain homologous to two other IgM-binding receptors (polymeric Ig receptor and Fc?/?R) but exhibits an exclusive Fc?-binding specificity. The cytoplasmic tail of Fc?R contains conserved Ser and Tyr residues, but none of the Tyr residues match the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation, inhibitory, or switch motifs. Unlike other FcRs, the major cell types expressing Fc?R are adaptive immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes. After antigen-receptor ligation or phorbol myristate acetate stimulation, Fc?R expression was up-regulated on B cells but was down-modulated on T cells, suggesting differential regulation of Fc?R expression during B and T cell activation. Although this receptor was initially designated as Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 3, or TOSO, our results indicate that Fc?R per se has no inhibitory activity in Fas-mediated apoptosis and that such inhibition is only achieved when anti-Fas antibody of an IgM but not IgG isotype is used for inducing apoptosis.

Oka, Satoshi; Kubagawa, Yoshiki; Torii, Ikuko; Takayama, Eiji; Kang, Dong-Won; Gartland, G. Larry; Bertoli, Luigi F.; Mori, Hiromi; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Toshio; Ohno, Hiroshi; Wang, Ji-Yang

2009-01-01

6

Ratios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "homework help" lesson introduces students to ratios, ratio language, equivalent ratios, and allows students to practice with a set of problems at the end. The lesson is divided into four parts: First Glance, In Depth, Examples, and Workout.

2005-01-01

7

Ratios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of instructional materials and problems helps students understand ratios and proportions, starting with a simple review and progressing into the more advanced territory of similar triangles. The first three pages introduce ratios, proportions, and checking proportionality and the last four pages present mathematical and real-world problems for students to solve given their understanding of ratios and proportions.

Stapel, Elizabeth

2000-01-01

8

Efficacy of Fasting and Calorie Restriction (FCR) on Mood and Depression among Ageing Men.  

PubMed

Objective: An intervention study on the FCR (Fasting and Calorie Restriction) dietary regime was carried out to determine its efficacy in improving mood states and depression status among ageing men. Subjects: A total of 32 healthy males (Mean±SD), aged 59.7±6.3 years, with a BMI of 26.7±2.2 kg/m2 were recruited to the study. Method: Participants were randomized to either the FCR group (and were instructed to follow a calorie restricted dietary regime with intermittent fasting) or to the control group (in which individuals were asked to maintain their current lifestyle), for a 3 month period. Mood was assessed using the Profile of Mood States and depression was assessed using Beck Depression Inventory-II and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 at baseline, week 6 and week 12 of the intervention. Results: A total of 31 subjects completed the study (n=16, FCR and n=15, control). Significant decreases in tension, anger, confusion and total mood disturbance and improvements in vigor were observed in participants in the FCR group compared to the control group (p<0.05). No significant changes in mean depression scores were observed. Weight, BMI and percent body fat were reduced by 3.8%, 3.7% and 5.7% respectively in the FCR group. Conclusions: Our findings show that a FCR dietary regime is effective in improving mood states and nutritional status among ageing men. PMID:24097021

Hussin, N M; Shahar, S; Teng, N I M F; Ngah, W Z W; Das, S K

2013-01-01

9

Observations of the Magnitude Dependence of Pn/Lg Ratios from Underground Explosions in Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Xie and Patton (1999, JGR) developed scaling relationships for seismic moment M0 and corner frequency fc determined from Pn and Lg spectra for many explosions and earthquakes located in central Asia. Scaling relationships were found to depend on the phase and the source type. Pn/Lg ratios ratios are predicted to increase significantly in a frequency range determined by Lg fc (lower limit) and Pn fc (upper limit). The increase slows down or stops outside this frequency range, and the range shifts to higher frequency with decreasing event magnitude. As a result, ratios from smaller events reach maxima at higher frequencies than do larger events. This predicted magnitude-dependent frequency shift of Pn/Lg ratios has been marked by controversy over whether direct observations support it or not. Here we summarize results from direct observations of Pn/Lg spectral ratios for Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor explosions. These observations include (1) ratios from Lop Nor explosions between 1992-1996 recorded on multiple broad-band stations, (2) ratios from Semipalatinsk explosions between 1987-1989 recorded on the Chinese station WMQ, (3) ratios from chemical explosions at Semipalatinsk between 1997-1999 recorded on broad-band Kazakhstan network stations, and (4) ratios from Semipalatinsk explosions between 1987-1989 from the Borovoye Digital Seismogram Archive (Kim et al., 2001). Pn/Lg ratios are stacked in three event populations with mb values of ~ 6.0, 5.0 and 4.0, respectively. Additionally, Pn/Lg ratios are available from multiple stations from a mb=6.6 explosion. The stacked ratios are compared with one another for near-repeated paths or for paths for which corrections are known based on path Q-inversions. All of the stacked Pn/Lg ratios show magnitude-dependence and statistically support the predicted magnitude-dependent frequency shift. The observations also indicate more complexity in Pn/Lg ratios from the mb ~ 4 population, which is largely made up of recent chemical explosions.

Xie, J.; Patton, H. J.; Kim, W.

2001-12-01

10

Analytic, Computational, and Approximate Forms for Ratios of Noncentral and Central Gaussian Quadratic Forms  

PubMed Central

Many useful statistics equal the ratio of a possibly noncentral chi-square to a quadratic form in Gaussian variables with all positive weights. Expressing the density and distribution function as positively weighted sums of corresponding F functions has many advantages. The mixture forms have analytic value when embedded within a more complex problem. The mixture forms also have computational value. The expansions work well with quadratic forms having few components and small degrees of freedom. A more general algorithm from earlier literature can take longer or fail to converge in the same setting. Many approximations have been suggested for the problem. a positively weighted noncentral quadratic form can always have two moments matched to a noncentral chi-square. For a single quadratic form, the noncentral form performs neither uniformly more or less accurately than older approximations. The approach also gives a noncentral F approximation for any ratio of a positively weighted noncentral form to a positively weighted central quadratic form. The method provides better accuracy for noncentral ratios than approximations based on a single chi-square. The accuracy suffices for many practical applications, such as power analysis, even with few degrees of freedom. Naturally the approximation proves much faster and simpler to compute than any exact method. Embedding the approximation in analytic expressions provides simple forms which correctly guarantee only positive values have nonzero probabilities, and also automatically reduce to partially or fully exact results when either quadratic form has only one term.

Kim, Hae-Young; Gribbin, Matthew J.; Muller, Keith E.; Taylor, Douglas J.

2013-01-01

11

Central/Peripheral fat mass ratio is associated with increased risk of hypertension in HIV-infected patients.  

PubMed

The data on the risk of hypertension in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, particularly in those with lipodystrophy, are controversial. The authors assessed the impact of lipodystrophy on hypertension in a cohort of HIV-infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. This was a cross-sectional study in which lipodystrophy (clinically and fat mass ratio [FMR]-defined), blood pressure, and body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography) were evaluated in 368 HIV adults. The prevalence of hypertension in HIV patients with or without clinically or FMR-defined lipodystrophy was similar (with clinical lipodystrophy 35.3% vs without 32.9%, not significant; with FMR lipodystrophy 41.7% vs without 32.2%, not significant). When HIV-infected patients were classified into 4 categories of fat distribution (based on the presence or absence of lipoatrophy and abdominal prominence), isolated lipoatrophy was not significantly associated with hypertension, but patients with isolated central fat accumulation and mixed forms of lipodystrophy had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension. Hypertensive HIV patients had significantly higher total fat, central, and central/peripheral fat mass ratio than normotensive ones. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and body mass index, hypertension remains significantly associated with central/peripheral fat mass ratio (odds ratio, 1.258; 95% confidence interval, 1.008-1.569). Hypertension was not more prevalent in lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, but was significantly associated with central/peripheral fat mass ratio. PMID:22947357

Freitas, Paula; Carvalho, Davide; Santos, Ana Cristina; Madureira, António José; Xerinda, Sandra; Martinez, Esteban; Pereira, Jorge; Sarmento, António; Medina, José Luís

2012-06-13

12

A requirement for Fc?R in antibody-mediated bacterial toxin neutralization.  

PubMed

One important function of humoral immunity is toxin neutralization. The current view posits that neutralization results from antibody-mediated interference with the binding of toxins to their targets, a phenomenon viewed as dependent only on antibody specificity. To investigate the role of antibody constant region function in toxin neutralization, we generated IgG2a and IgG2b variants of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen-binding IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 19D9. These antibodies express identical variable regions and display the same specificity. The efficacy of antibody-mediated neutralization was IgG2a > IgG2b > IgG1, and neutralization activity required competent Fc? receptor (Fc?R). The IgG2a mAb prevented lethal toxin cell killing and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase cleavage more efficiently than the IgG1 mAb. Passive immunization with IgG1 and IgG2a mAb protected wild-type mice, but not Fc?R-deficient mice, against B. anthracis infection. These results establish that constant region isotype influences toxin neutralization efficacy of certain antibodies through a mechanism that requires engagement of Fc?R. These findings highlight a new parameter for evaluating vaccine responses and the possibility of harnessing optimal Fc?R interactions in the design of passive immunization strategies. PMID:20921285

Abboud, Nareen; Chow, Siu-Kei; Saylor, Carolyn; Janda, Alena; Ravetch, Jeffery V; Scharff, Matthew D; Casadevall, Arturo

2010-10-04

13

Regional CO2 fluxes inferred from mixing ratio measurements: estimates from flask air samples in central Kansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated regional fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) using mixing ratios measured in a tallgrass prairie in central Kansas, USA over 3 yr (2002-2004). Glass flasks were used to collect whole air samples in the midafternoon for determining CO2 mixing ratios and their carbon isotopic composition. Regional CO2 fluxes were calculated assuming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) approaches an equilibrium state

CHUN-TA L AI; J. S CHAUER; C LENTON OWENSBY; JAY M. H AM

2006-01-01

14

Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years  

PubMed Central

Background Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR). South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ?90th and WHtR ?0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ?0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded to 85th WHtR percentile irrespective of age and gender. Twelve percent children (95% CI 10.1-13.0) had a WC ?90th percentile and 16.5% children (95% CI 14.7-18.1) had a WHtR ?0.5 while 11% children (95% CI 8.9-11.6) had both WC ?90th percentile and WHtR ?0.5. Significant predictors of central obesity included higher grade, urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES), high-income neighborhood and higher parental education. Children studying in higher grade (aOR 5.11, 95% CI 1.76-14.85) and those living in urban area with high SES (aOR 82.34, 95% CI 15.76-430.31) showed a significant independent association. Urban area with high SES and higher parental education showed a significant independent association with higher WC and higher WHtR while higher grade showed a significant independent association with higher WC. Conclusions Comprehensive worldwide reference values are needed to define central obesity and the present study is the first one to report anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity for Pakistani school-aged children. Eleven percent children were centrally obese and strong predictors included higher grade, urban area with high SES and higher parental education. These findings support the need for developing a National strategy for childhood obesity and implementing targeted interventions, prioritizing the higher social class and involving communities.

2011-01-01

15

Search for Quark Compositeness with the Dijet Centrality Ratio in pp Collisions at s=7TeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search for quark compositeness in the form of quark contact interactions, based on hadronic jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV, is described. The data sample of the study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9pb-1 collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of the dijets, is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dijet system and is found to agree with the predictions of the standard model. A statistical analysis of the data provides a lower limit on the energy scale of quark contact interactions. The sensitivity of the analysis is such that the expected limit is 2.9 TeV; because the observed value of the centrality ratio at high invariant mass is below the expectation, the observed limit is 4.0 TeV at the 95% confidence level.

Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hänsel, S.; Hartl, C.; Hoch, M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kasieczka, G.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Teischinger, F.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Benucci, L.; Ceard, L.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; Adler, V.; Beauceron, S.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Devroede, O.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, J.; Maes, M.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hammad, G. H.; Hreus, T.; Marage, P. E.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wickens, J.; Costantini, S.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Marinov, A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, J.; de Favereau de Jeneret, J.; Delaere, C.; Demin, P.; Favart, D.; Giammanco, A.; Grégoire, G.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Militaru, O.; Ovyn, S.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Schul, N.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Alves, G. A.; de Jesusdamiao, D.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Carvalho, W.; da Costa, E. M.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Silva Do Amaral, S. M.; Sznajder, A.; Torres da Silva de Araujo, F.; Dias, F. A.; Dias, M. A. F.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Marinho, F.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Darmenov, N.; Dimitrov, L.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vankov, I.; Dyulendarova, M.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Marinova, E.; Mateev, M.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yang, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Hu, Z.; Li, W.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Zhu, B.; Cabrera, A.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Lelas, K.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Dzelalija, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Fereos, R.; Galanti, M.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Abdel-Basit, A.; Assran, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Hektor, A.; Kadastik, M.; Kannike, K.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Czellar, S.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Klem, J.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Sillou, D.; Besancon, M.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Gentit, F. X.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Marionneau, M.; Millischer, L.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Baffioni, S.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Thiebaux, C.; Wyslouch, B.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Besson, A.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Greder, S.; Juillot, P.; Karim, M.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Mikami, Y.; van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Baty, C.; Beaupere, N.; Bedjidian, M.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Boumediene, D.; Brun, H.; Chanon, N.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Falkiewicz, A.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Le Grand, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Xiao, H.; Roinishvili, V.; Anagnostou, G.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Mohr, N.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Weber, M.; Wittmer, B.; Ata, M.; Bender, W.; Erdmann, M.; Frangenheim, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hinzmann, A.; Hoepfner, K.; Hof, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Lanske, D.; Magass, C.; Masetti, G.

2010-12-01

16

Search for quark compositeness with the dijet centrality ratio in pp collisions at ?s=7 TeV.  

PubMed

A search for quark compositeness in the form of quark contact interactions, based on hadronic jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at ?s=7 TeV, is described. The data sample of the study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 pb(-1) collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of the dijets, is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dijet system and is found to agree with the predictions of the standard model. A statistical analysis of the data provides a lower limit on the energy scale of quark contact interactions. The sensitivity of the analysis is such that the expected limit is 2.9 TeV; because the observed value of the centrality ratio at high invariant mass is below the expectation, the observed limit is 4.0 TeV at the 95% confidence level. PMID:21231646

Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hartl, C; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kiesenhofer, W; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Gonzalez, J Suarez; Benucci, L; Ceard, L; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Devroede, O; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Hreus, T; Marage, P E; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Costantini, S; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Walsh, S; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; De JesusDamiao, D; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; Da Costa, E M; Martins, C De Oliveira; De Souza, S Fonseca; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Oguri, V; Goicochea, J M Otalora; Da Silva, W L Prado; Santoro, A; Do Amaral, S M Silva; Sznajder, A; De Araujo, F Torres Da Silva; Dias, F A; Dias, M A F; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Marinho, F; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dyulendarova, M; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Yang, M; Zang, J; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Li, W; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Cabrera, A; Moreno, B Gomez; Rios, A A Ocampo; Oliveros, A F Osorio; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Attikis, A; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Abdel-basit, A; Assran, Y; Mahmoud, M A; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Azzolini, V; Eerola, P; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Broutin, C; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Wyslouch, B; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Cardaci, M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Ferro, C; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Greder, S; Juillot, P; Karim, M; Le Bihan, A-C; Mikami, Y; Van Hove, P; Fassi, F; Mercier, D; Baty, C; Beaupere, N; Bedjidian, M; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Boumediene, D; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Falkiewicz, A; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sordini, V; Tosi, S; Tschudi, Y; Verdier, P; Xiao, H; Roinishvili, V; Anagnostou, G; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Jussen, R; Klein, K; Merz, J; Mohr, N; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Ata, M; Bender, W; Erdmann, M; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Klimkovich, T; Klingebiel, D; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Magass, C; Masetti, G; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Steggemann, J; Teyssier, D; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Ahmad, W Haj; Heydhausen, D; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Pooth, O; Rennefeld, J; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Thomas, M; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Martin, M Aldaya; Behrenhoff, W; Behrens, U; Bergholz, M; Borras, K; Cakir, A; Campbell, A; Castro, E

2010-12-20

17

Search for Quark Compositeness with the Dijet Centrality Ratio in pp Collisions at $\\\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for quark compositeness in the form of quark contact interactions, based on hadronic jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV, is described. The data sample of the study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 inverse picobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of

Vardan Khachatryan; Albert M. Sirunyan; Armen Tumasyan; Wolfgang Adam; Thomas Bergauer; Marko Dragicevic; Janos Erö; Christian Fabjan; Markus Friedl; Rudolf Fruehwirth; Vasile Mihai Ghete; Josef Hammer; Stephan Haensel; Christian Hartl; Michael Hoch; Natascha Hörmann; Josef Hrubec; Manfred Jeitler; Gregor Kasieczka; Wolfgang Kiesenhofer; Manfred Krammer; Dietrich Liko; Ivan Mikulec; Manfred Pernicka; Herbert Rohringer; Robert Schöfbeck; Josef Strauss; Anton Taurok; Florian Teischinger; Wolfgang Waltenberger; Gerhard Walzel; Edmund Widl; Claudia-Elisabeth Wulz; Vladimir Mossolov; Nikolai Shumeiko; Juan Suarez Gonzalez; Leonardo Benucci; Ludivine Ceard; Eddi A. De Wolf; Xavier Janssen; Thomas Maes; Luca Mucibello; Silvia Ochesanu; Benoit Roland; Romain Rougny; Michele Selvaggi; Hans Van Haevermaet; Pierre Van Mechelen; Nick Van Remortel; Volker Adler; Stephanie Beauceron; Stijn Blyweert; Jorgen D'Hondt; Olivier Devroede; Alexis Kalogeropoulos; Joris Maes; Michael Maes; Stefaan Tavernier; Walter Van Doninck; Petra Van Mulders; Gerrit Patrick Van Onsem; Ilaria Villella; Otman Charaf; Barbara Clerbaux; Gilles De Lentdecker; Vincent Dero; Arnaud Gay; Gregory Habib Hammad; Tomas Hreus; Pierre Edouard Marage; Laurent Thomas; Catherine Vander Velde; Pascal Vanlaer; John Wickens; Silvia Costantini; Martin Grunewald; Benjamin Klein; Andrey Marinov; Dirk Ryckbosch; Filip Thyssen; Michael Tytgat; Lukas Vanelderen; Piet Verwilligen; Sinead Walsh; Nicolas Zaganidis; Suzan Basegmez; Giacomo Bruno; Julien Caudron; Jerome De Favereau De Jeneret; Christophe Delaere; Pavel Demin; Denis Favart; Andrea Giammanco; Ghislain Grégoire; Jonathan Hollar; Vincent Lemaitre; Otilia Militaru; Severine Ovyn; Davide Pagano; Arnaud Pin; Krzysztof Piotrzkowski; Loic Quertenmont; Nicolas Schul; Nikita Beliy; Thierry Caebergs; Evelyne Daubie; Gilvan Alves; Dilson De Jesus Damiao; Maria Elena Pol; Moacyr Henrique Gomes E Souza; Wagner Carvalho; Eliza Melo Da Costa; Carley De Oliveira Martins; Sandro Fonseca De Souza; Luiz Mundim; Helio Nogima; Vitor Oguri; Juan Martin Otalora Goicochea; Wanda Lucia Prado Da Silva; Alberto Santoro; Sheila Mara Silva Do Amaral; Andre Sznajder; Felipe Torres Da Silva De Araujo; Flavia De Almeida Dias; Marco Andre Ferreira Dias; Thiago Tomei; Eduardo De Moraes Gregores; Franciole Da Cunha Marinho; Sergio F. Novaes; Sandra Padula; Nikolay Darmenov; Lubomir Dimitrov; Vladimir Genchev; Plamen Iaydjiev; Stefan Piperov; Mircho Rodozov; Stefka Stoykova; Georgi Sultanov; Vanio Tcholakov; Rumen Trayanov; Ivan Vankov; Milena Dyulendarova; Roumyana Hadjiiska; Venelin Kozhuharov; Leander Litov; Evelina Marinova; Matey Mateev; Borislav Pavlov; Peicho Petkov; Jian-Guo Bian; Guo-Ming Chen; He-Sheng Chen; Chun-Hua Jiang; Dong Liang; Song Liang; Jian Wang; Xianyou Wang; Zheng Wang; Min Yang; Jingjing Zang; Zhen Zhang; Yong Ban; Shuang Guo; Zhen Hu; Wenbo Li; Yajun Mao; Si-Jin Qian; Haiyun Teng; Bo Zhu; Andrés Cabrera; Bernardo Gomez Moreno; Alberto Andres Ocampo Rios; Andres Felipe Osorio Oliveros; Juan Carlos Sanabria; Nikola Godinovic; Damir Lelas; Karlo Lelas; Roko Plestina; Dunja Polic; Ivica Puljak; Zeljko Antunovic; Mile Dzelalija; Vuko Brigljevic; Senka Duric; Kreso Kadija; Srecko Morovic; Alexandros Attikis; Reginos Fereos; Mario Galanti; Jehad Mousa; Charalambos Nicolaou; Fotios Ptochos; Panos A. Razis; Hans Rykaczewski; Ahmed Abdel-basit; Yasser Assran; Mohammed Mahmoud; Andi Hektor; Mario Kadastik; Kristjan Kannike; Mait Müntel; Martti Raidal; Liis Rebane; Virginia Azzolini; Paula Eerola; Sandor Czellar; Jaakko Härkönen; Mika Aatos Heikkinen; Veikko Karimäki; Ritva Kinnunen; Jukka Klem; Matti J. Kortelainen; Tapio Lampén; Kati Lassila-Perini; Sami Lehti; Tomas Lindén; Panja-Riina Luukka; Teppo Mäenpää; Eija Tuominen; Jorma Tuominiemi; Esa Tuovinen; Donatella Ungaro; Lauri Wendland; Kukka Banzuzi; Arja Korpela; Tuure Tuuva; Daniel Sillou; Marc Besancon; Marc Dejardin; Daniel Denegri; Bernard Fabbro; Jean-Louis Faure; Federico Ferri; Serguei Ganjour; François-Xavier Gentit; Alain Givernaud; Philippe Gras; Gautier Hamel de Monchenault; Patrick Jarry; Elizabeth Locci; Julie Malcles; Matthieu Marionneau; Laurent Millischer; John Rander; André Rosowsky; Maksym Titov; Patrice Verrecchia; Stephanie Baffioni; Lorenzo Bianchini; Michal Bluj; Clementine Broutin; Philippe Busson; Claude Charlot; Ludwik Dobrzynski; Raphael Granier de Cassagnac; Maurice Haguenauer; Philippe Miné; Camelia Mironov; Christophe Ochando; Pascal Paganini; David Sabes; Roberto Salerno; Yves Sirois; Christophe Thiebaux; Bolek Wyslouch; Alexandre Zabi; Jean-Laurent Agram

2010-01-01

18

The Vioxx pharmaceutical scandal: Peterson v Merke Sharpe & Dohme (Aust) Pty Ltd (2010) 184 FCR 1.  

PubMed

In early March 2010, Federal Court Justice Jessup in Peterson v Merke Sharpe & Dohme (Aust) Pty Ltd (2010) 184 FCR 1 ruled that Merke Sharpe & Dohme Pty Ltd had produced a defective product contrary to the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth), the anti-arthritic drug Vioxx. Promoted as relieving arthritic pain without the side effect of gastric ulceration, the drug also doubled the risk of heart attack in those prescribed it. The court also heard that the manufacturing company had engaged in misleading practices to promote the prescription and usage of Vioxx, including "fake" journals and guidelines to "drug reps" that minimised the adverse cardiovascular risks. The manufacturer had already settled a class action in the United States for more than US$7 billion for those harmed by the drug but this was the first such case to be decided in Australia. The court awarded the applicant, Graeme Peterson, A$300,000 in damages. This column examines this judgment and analyses evidence there presented that Merck may have misled the scientific community, the medical profession and Australia's drug regulation system to get Vioxx on the market and keep it there. It considers whether the case reveals the need for more rigorous post-marketing surveillance and other changes to Australia's drug regulatory system, including a replacement of self-regulation in pharmaceutical promotion with a United States-style system of rewarded informant-led criminal penalties and civil damages claims. PMID:20977160

Faunce, Thomas; Townsend, Ruth; McEwan, Alexandra

2010-09-01

19

Epistatic Interactions between Fc (GM) and Fc?R Genes and the Host Control of HIV Replication  

PubMed Central

Host genetic factors are thought to contribute to the interindividual differences in the control of HIV replication. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether genes encoding GM and KM allotypes—genetic markers of immunoglobulin ? and ? chains, respectively—and those encoding Fcgamma receptor (Fc?R) IIa and IIIa are associated with the host control of HIV replication. A case-control design was employed amongst HIV-infected subjects, with a group that spontaneously controlled HIV replication (“controllers”) as cases (n=73) and those who did not control replication, as controls (n=100). Genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP, direct DNA sequencing, and TaqMan® genotyping assays. In Caucasian Americans, certain combinations of Fc?R and GM genotypes were differentially distributed between controllers and non-controllers. Among the non-carriers of Fc?RIIa arginine allele, GM21 non-carriers had over seven-fold greater odds of being controllers than the carriers of this allele (OR=7.47). These GM determinants also interacted with Fc?RIIIa alleles. Among the carriers of the Fc?RIIIa valine allele, GM21 non-carriers had over three-fold greater odds of being controllers than the carriers of this allele (OR=3.26). These results show epistatic interactions of genes on chromosomes 14 (GM) and 1 (Fc?R) in influencing the control of HIV replication.

Deepe, Raymond N.; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; Pandey, Janardan P.

2012-01-01

20

U-shaped association between central body fat and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and microalbuminuria  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of obese and overweight patients has increased dramatically worldwide. Both are common risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) as indicated by a diminished estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or microalbuminuria. This study aimed to investigate whether anthropometric parameters [waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI)] are associated with renal function in a population-based study of Caucasian subjects. Methods Data from 3749 subjects (1825 women) aged 20 to 81 years from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were analysed. Renal indices, including the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR), microalbuminuria, eGFR and CKD, were studied. Parameters of anthropometry (WC, WHtR and BMI) were categorised into sex-specific quintiles. Results Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models, adjusting for age, sex, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, revealed that a high and low WC or WHtR and low BMI were independently related to a higher uACR. Logistic regression models confirmed these results with respect to uACR and showed that subjects with a high or low WC or a high WHtR had increased odds of microalbuminuria. The ANOVA models revealed no relations of the investigated anthropometric parameters with eGFR. However, subjects with high values for these parameters had increased odds of CKD. Conclusions Our results demonstrate U-shaped associations between markers of central fat distribution and uACR or microalbuminuria in the general population, suggesting that both obese and very thin subjects have a higher risk of renal impairment.

2013-01-01

21

18 O\\/ 16 O ratios in ash-flow tuffs and lavas erupted from the central Nevada caldera complex and the central San Juan caldera complex, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen isotope compositions were measured on 129 quartz, feldspar, and biotite phenocrysts from ash-flow tuffs and lava domes erupted from the Oligocene central Nevada and central San Juan caldera complexes. Most of the ash-flow tuffs are compositionally zoned with low-phenocryst rhyolite bases and high-phenocryst quartz-latite tops, but both within individual units and throughout each of the eruptive sequences at each

Peter B. Larson; Hugh P. Taylor

1986-01-01

22

First Measurement of the Ratio of Central-Electron to Forward-Electron W Partial Cross Sections in pp¯ Collisions at s=1.96TeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a measurement of sigma(pp¯-->W)×B(W-->enu) at s=1.96TeV, using electrons identified in the forward region (1.2<|eta|<2.8) of the CDF II detector, in 223pb-1 of data. We measure sigma×B=2796±13(stat)-90+95(syst)±162(lum)pb. Combining this result with a previous CDF measurement obtained using electrons in the central region (|eta|≲1), we present the first measurement of the ratio of central-electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections

A. Abulencia; J. Adelman; T. Affolder; T. Akimoto; M. G. Albrow; S. Amerio; D. Amidei; A. Anastassov; K. Anikeev; A. Annovi; J. Antos; M. Aoki; G. Apollinari; T. Arisawa; A. Artikov; W. Ashmanskas; A. Attal; A. Aurisano; F. Azfar; P. Azzi-Bacchetta; P. Azzurri; N. Bacchetta; W. Badgett; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; S. Baroiant; V. Bartsch; G. Bauer; P.-H. Beauchemin; F. Bedeschi; S. Behari; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; A. Belloni; D. Benjamin; A. Beretvas; J. Beringer; T. Berry; A. Bhatti; M. Binkley; D. Bisello; I. Bizjak; R. E. Blair; C. Blocker; B. Blumenfeld; A. Bocci; A. Bodek; V. Boisvert; G. Bolla; A. Bolshov; D. Bortoletto; J. Boudreau; A. Boveia; B. Brau; L. Brigliadori; C. Bromberg; E. Brubaker; J. Budagov; H. S. Budd; S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; P. Bussey; A. Buzatu; K. L. Byrum; S. Cabrera; M. Campanelli; M. Campbell; F. Canelli; A. Canepa; S. Carillo; D. Carlsmith; R. Carosi; S. Carron; B. Casal; M. Casarsa; A. Castro; P. Catastini; D. Cauz; M. Cavalli-Sforza; A. Cerri; L. Cerrito; S. H. Chang; Y. C. Chen; M. Chertok; G. Chiarelli; G. Chlachidze; F. Chlebana; I. Cho; K. Cho; D. Chokheli; J. P. Chou; G. Choudalakis; S. H. Chuang; K. Chung; W. H. Chung; Y. S. Chung; M. Cilijak; C. I. Ciobanu; M. A. Ciocci; A. Clark; D. Clark; M. Coca; G. Compostella; M. E. Convery; J. Conway; B. Cooper; K. Copic; M. Cordelli; G. Cortiana; F. Crescioli; C. Cuenca Almenar; J. Cuevas; R. Culbertson; J. C. Cully; S. Daronco; M. Datta; S. D'Auria; T. Davies; D. Dagenhart; P. de Barbaro; S. de Cecco; A. Deisher; G. de Lentdecker; G. de Lorenzo; M. Dell'Orso; F. Delli Paoli; L. Demortier; J. Deng; M. Deninno; D. de Pedis; P. F. Derwent; G. P. Di Giovanni; C. Dionisi; B. di Ruzza; J. R. Dittmann; M. D'Onofrio; C. Dörr; S. Donati; P. Dong; J. Donini; T. Dorigo; S. Dube; J. Efron; R. Erbacher; D. Errede; S. Errede; R. Eusebi; H. C. Fang; S. Farrington; I. Fedorko; W. T. Fedorko; R. G. Feild; M. Feindt; J. P. Fernandez; R. Field; G. Flanagan; R. Forrest; S. Forrester; M. Franklin; J. C. Freeman; I. Furic; M. Gallinaro; J. Galyardt; J. E. Garcia; F. Garberson; A. F. Garfinkel; C. Gay; H. Gerberich; D. Gerdes; S. Giagu; P. Giannetti; K. Gibson; J. L. Gimmell; C. Ginsburg; N. Giokaris; M. Giordani; P. Giromini; M. Giunta; G. Giurgiu; V. Glagolev; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; N. Goldschmidt; J. Goldstein; A. Golossanov; G. Gomez; G. Gomez-Ceballos; M. Goncharov; O. González; I. Gorelov; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; A. Gresele; S. Grinstein; C. Grosso-Pilcher; U. Grundler; J. Guimaraes da Costa; Z. Gunay-Unalan; C. Haber; K. Hahn; S. R. Hahn; E. Halkiadakis; B.-Y. Han; J. Y. Han; R. Handler; F. Happacher; K. Hara; D. Hare; M. Hare; S. Harper; R. F. Harr; R. M. Harris; M. Hartz; K. Hatakeyama; J. Hauser; C. Hays; M. Heck; A. Heijboer; B. Heinemann; J. Heinrich; C. Henderson; M. Herndon; J. Heuser; D. Hidas; C. S. Hill; D. Hirschbuehl; A. Hocker; A. Holloway; S. Hou; M. Houlden; S.-C. Hsu; B. T. Huffman; R. E. Hughes; U. Husemann; J. Huston; J. Incandela; G. Introzzi; M. Iori; A. Ivanov; B. Iyutin; E. James; D. Jang; B. Jayatilaka; D. Jeans; E. J. Jeon; S. Jindariani; W. Johnson; M. Jones; K. K. Joo; S. Y. Jun; J. E. Jung; T. R. Junk; T. Kamon; P. E. Karchin; Y. Kato; Y. Kemp; R. Kephart; U. Kerzel; V. Khotilovich; B. Kilminster; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; J. E. Kim; M. J. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; N. Kimura; L. Kirsch; S. Klimenko; M. Klute; B. Knuteson; B. R. Ko; K. Kondo; D. J. Kong; J. Konigsberg; A. Korytov; A. V. Kotwal; A. C. Kraan; J. Kraus; M. Kreps; J. Kroll; N. Krumnack; M. Kruse; V. Krutelyov; T. Kubo; S. E. Kuhlmann; T. Kuhr; N. P. Kulkarni; Y. Kusakabe; S. Kwang; A. T. Laasanen; S. Lai; S. Lami; S. Lammel; M. Lancaster; R. L. Lander; K. Lannon; A. Lath; G. Latino; I. Lazzizzera; T. Lecompte; J. Lee; Y. J. Lee; S. W. Lee; R. Lefèvre; N. Leonardo; S. Leone; S. Levy; J. D. Lewis; C. Lin; M. Lindgren; E. Lipeles; A. Lister; D. O. Litvintsev; T. Liu; N. S. Lockyer; A. Loginov; M. Loreti; R.-S. Lu; D. Lucchesi; P. Lujan; P. Lukens; G. Lungu; L. Lyons; J. Lys; R. Lysak; E. Lytken; P. Mack; D. MacQueen; R. Madrak; K. Maeshima; K. Makhoul; T. Maki; P. Maksimovic; S. Malde; S. Malik; G. Manca; A. Manousakis; F. Margaroli; R. Marginean; C. Marino; A. Martin; M. Martin; V. Martin; M. Martínez; R. Martínez-Ballarín; T. Maruyama; P. Mastrandrea; T. Masubuchi; H. Matsunaga; M. E. Mattson; R. Mazini; P. Mazzanti; K. S. McFarland; P. McIntyre; R. McNulty; A. Mehta; P. Mehtala; S. Menzemer; A. Menzione; P. Merkel; C. Mesropian; A. Messina; T. Miao; N. Miladinovic; J. Miles; R. Miller; C. Mills; M. Milnik; A. Mitra; G. Mitselmakher; A. Miyamoto; S. Moed; N. Moggi; B. Mohr; C. S. Moon; R. Moore; M. Morello; P. Movilla Fernandez; J. Mülmenstädt; A. Mukherjee; Th. Muller; R. Mumford; P. Murat; M. Mussini; J. Nachtman; A. Nagano; J. Naganoma; K. Nakamura; I. Nakano; A. Napier; V. Necula

2007-01-01

23

Variation of Rb\\/Sr Ratios in the Loess-Paleosol Sequences of Central China during the Last 130,000 Years and Their Implications for Monsoon Paleoclimatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rb, Sr, and magnetic susceptibility have been measured in the last interglacial–glacial loess profiles at Luochuan and Huanxian, central China. A high degree of similarity between the parameters in both profiles suggests that variations of Rb\\/Sr ratios in the sequence can be regarded as an indicator of East Asian summer monsoon strength. Matching the Rb\\/Sr record with the SPECMAP ?18O

Jun Chen; Zhisheng An; John Head

1999-01-01

24

var gene transcription and PfEMP1 expression in the rosetting and cytoadhesive Plasmodium falciparum clone FCR3S1.2  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum is in part due to the ability of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC) to adhere to intra-vascular host cell receptors and serum-proteins. Binding of the pRBC is mediated by Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a large multi-variant molecule encoded by a family of ?60 var genes. Methods The study of var gene transcription in the parasite clone FCR3S1.2 was performed by semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression of the major PfEMP1 in FCR3S1.2 pRBC was analysed with polyclonal sera in rosette disruption assays and immunofluorecence. Results Transcripts from var1 (FCR3S1.2var1; IT4var21) and other var genes were detected by semi-quantitative PCR but results from qPCR showed that one var gene transcript dominated over the others (FCR3S1.2var2; IT4var60). Antibodies raised in rats to the recombinant NTS-DBL1? of var2 produced in E. coli completely and dose-dependently disrupted rosettes (?95% at a dilution of 1/5). The sera reacted with the Maurer's clefts in trophozoite stages (IFA) and to the infected erythrocyte surface (FACS) indicating that FCR3S1.2var2 encodes the dominant PfEMP1 expressed in this parasite. Conclusion The major transcript in the rosetting model parasite FCR3S1.2 is FCR3S1.2var2 (IT4var60). The results suggest that this gene encodes the PfEMP1-species responsible for the rosetting phenotype of this parasite. The activity of previously raised antibodies to the NTS-DBL1? of FCR3S1.2var1 is likely due to cross-reactivity with NTS-DBL1? of the var2 encoded PfEMP1.

2011-01-01

25

Energy dependence of particle ratio fluctuations in central Pb+Pb collisions from {radical}(s{sub NN})=6.3 to 17.3 GeV  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the energy dependence of event-by-event fluctuations in the K/{pi} and (p+p)/{pi} multiplicity ratios in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN SPS. The particle ratio fluctuations were obtained for central Pb+Pb collisions at five collision energies, {radical}(s{sub NN}), between 6.3 and 17.3 GeV. After accounting for the effects of finite-number statistics and detector resolution, we extract the strength of nonstatistical fluctuations at each energy. For the K/{pi} ratio, larger fluctuations than expected for independent particle production are found at all collision energies. The fluctuations in the (p+p)/{pi} ratio are smaller than expectations from independent particle production, indicating correlated pion and proton production from resonance decays. For both ratios, the deviation from purely statistical fluctuations shows an increase toward lower collision energies. The results are compared to transport model calculations, which fail to describe the energy dependence of the K/{pi} ratio fluctuations.

Alt, C.; Blume, C.; Bramm, R.; Dinkelaker, P.; Flierl, D.; Kliemant, M.; Kniege, S.; Lungwitz, B.; Mitrovski, M.; Renfordt, R.; Schuster, T.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Wetzler, A. [Fachbereich Physik der Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Anticic, T.; Kadija, K.; Nicolic, V.; Susa, T. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Baatar, B.; Kolesnikov, V. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)] (and others)

2009-04-15

26

Student-to-faculty ratios, teaching loads, and salaries in associate degree nursing programs in the central United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much can be found in the literature about what constitutes quality teaching and learning, little published research addresses how to structure faculty workloads to maximize faculty productivity without jeopardizing program quality. This descriptive study provides an initial look at issues of program structure (student-to-faculty ratios in class and in clinical settings, teaching loads for the director and the faculty,

Donna Jones; Barbara Caton; Joyce DeWitt; Nancy Stubbs; Esther Conner

2007-01-01

27

Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal\\u000a striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex.\\u000a We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of\\u000a affective stimuli in healthy subjects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography

Thorsten Kienast; Thomas Siessmeier; Jana Wrase; Dieter F. Braus; Michael N. Smolka; Hans Georg Buchholz; Michael Rapp; Mathias Schreckenberger; Frank Rösch; Paul Cumming; Gerhard Gruender; Karl Mann; Peter Bartenstein; Andreas Heinz

2008-01-01

28

Age, growth, sex ratio, and maturity of the whitefish in central Green Bay and adjacent waters of Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study is based on 1,023 whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)--819 in seven samples from five localitites in central Green Bay in 1948-49 and 1851-52 and 204 in a single 1948 collection from northwestern Lake Michigan proper. Records of age indicated unusual strength for only one year class--1943 which strongly dominated the 1948 sample from Lake Michigan and the 1949 sample from Green Bay and was well represented in the 1948 collection from green Bay. Collection of 1951-52 without exception were dominated by age group III. Length distributions of samples varied widely according to the age composition. Among fish more than 2 years old, the length distributions of age groups overlapped broadly. Several 1-inch intervals included fish of four age groups. The length-weight relation varied considerably among central Green Bay samples, but differences among localitites were nearly equalled by the year-to-year difference at a single locality. Lake Michigan whitefish were generally lighter than those from Green Bay. Weight increased to the 3.386 power of length in Green Bay (combined samples) and the 3.359 power in Lake Michigan. Growth in length, calculated by direct proportion from diameter measurements of growth fields on scales, differed among localities in central Green Bay and between samples of different years at a single locality. If permanent locality differences exist they are not large and can be obscured by the evident annual fluctuations of growth. The grand average calculated length of Green Bay whitefish (combined collections) exceeded that of Lake Michigan fish in all years of life. The advantage was greatest (2.2 inches) at 3 years (calculated lengths of 16.0 inches and 13.8 inches) and subsequently declined to 0.5 inch at 9 years (lengths of 24.6 and 24.1 inches). Both groups reached the minimum legal length of 17 inches during the fourth growing season. Green Bay whitefish also had the larger calculated weights. The advantage reached 9.3 ounces in 3 years (calculated weights of 22.4 and 13.1 ounces). In years of life 4-9, the weight advantage over Lake Michigan fish ranged from 8.7 ounces, (seventh year; weights of 74.4 and 65.7 ounces) to 12.2 ounces (ninth year; weights of 96.2 and 84.0 ounces). Comparison of growth of whitefish at four localities in northern Lake Michigan indicates that fastest growth is in central Green Bay and slowest near the Fox Islands. Growth is intermediate and similar in northwestern Lake Michigan proper and sorthern Green Bay. Youngest mature male whitefish in green Bay belonged to age group II and youngest mature females to age group III. All IV-group fish were mature. Shortest mature males were at 14.5-14.9 inches and shortest mature females at 16.5-16.9 inches. All males longer than 17.9 inches and all females longer than 18.4 inches were mature.

Mraz, Donald

1964-01-01

29

Age estimation by pulp/tooth ratio in lateral and central incisors by peri-apical X-ray.  

PubMed

Since 2004, several papers on the analysis of the apposition of secondary dentine have been published. The aim of this paper was to study a sample of peri-apical X-ray images of upper and lower incisors, both lateral and medial, to examine the application of pulp/tooth area ratio as an indicator of age. A sample of 116 individuals, 62 men and 54 women, aged between 18 and 74 years, was studied. Data were fitted with age as a linear function of the pulp/tooth ratio of incisors. The total variance explained by the regression equation ranged from 51.3% of age, when lower lateral incisors were used as explanatory variable, to 81.6% when upper lateral incisors were used. The accuracy of the corresponding regression model yielded ME = 8.44 and 5.34 years, respectively. These results show that, although incisors are less reliable than canines or lower premolars, they can be used to estimate age-at-death when the latter are absent. PMID:23756528

Cameriere, R; Cunha, E; Wasterlain, S N; De Luca, S; Sassaroli, E; Pagliara, F; Nuzzolese, E; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L

2013-04-06

30

Temporal evolution of lead isotope ratios in sediments of the Central Portuguese Margin: A fingerprint of human activities.  

PubMed

Stable Pb isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb), (210)Pb, Pb, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and Si concentrations were measured in 7 sediment cores from the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula to assess the Pb contamination throughout the last 200years. Independently of their locations, all cores are characterized by increasing Pb/Al rends not related to grain-size changes. Conversely, decreasing trends of (206)Pb/(207)Pb were found towards the present. This tendency suggest a change in Pb sources reflecting an increased proportion derived from anthropogenic activities. The highest anthropogenic Pb inventories for sediments younger than 1950s were found in the two shallowest cores of Cascais and Lisboa submarine canyons, reflecting the proximity of the Tagus estuary. Lead isotope signatures also help demonstrate that sediments contaminated with Pb are not constrained to estuarine-coastal areas and upper parts of submarine canyons, but are also to transferred to a lesser extent to deeper parts of the Portuguese Margin. PMID:23871578

Mil-Homens, Mário; Caetano, Miguel; Costa, Ana M; Lebreiro, Susana; Richter, Thomas; de Stigter, Henko; Trancoso, Maria A; Brito, Pedro

2013-07-17

31

Assessing the Impact of Spatial Scaling on Empirical Runoff Ratio Models within a Heterogeneous Suburbanizing Watershed in Central Indiana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suburbanized watersheds are characterized by a spatially complex mosaic of fragmented impervious and vegetated surfaces. The heterogeneous nature of land cover in and the variety of storm routing structures that accompany suburban development substantially modify surface hydrological dynamics within suburban watersheds. The hydrological consequences of land use and land cover change create a pressing issue for the management of water resources within developing watersheds. This research examines the hydrological impacts of recent population growth and accompanying suburban development within the Jack's Defeat Creek watershed in Ellettsville, IN, which is a 40 km2 basin that has experienced an approximate doubling in population in the last 25 years. Event-based, whole-basin runoff responses are determined from streamflow and precipitation data collected during 2005 and 2006 under both wet and dry antecedent conditions. Observed runoff responses are compared to multi-scale predictions of runoff ratios derived from the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number, which is an empirical model commonly used by municipal planning agencies to generate runoff estimates based largely on characterization of land cover and soil type. The comparison of observed whole-basin runoff response to predictions of the SCS Curve Number derived from a range of spatial scales addresses both (1) the accuracy of the Curve Number method as a predictor of runoff response in heterogeneously impervious landscapes as well as (2) the spatial scale at which the runoff estimates from empirical approaches best match the observed data under varying antecedent moisture conditions. These results will provide guidance regarding the best practices for employing empirical rainfall-runoff relationships to predict storm runoff responses in rapidly urbanizing watersheds.

Lindner, G. A.; Caylor, K. K.

2007-12-01

32

Neutrophils orchestrate their own recruitment in murine arthritis through C5aR and Fc?R signaling.  

PubMed

Neutrophil recruitment into the joint is a hallmark of inflammatory arthritides, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In a mouse model of autoantibody-induced inflammatory arthritis, neutrophils infiltrate the joint via multiple chemoattractant receptors, including the leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) receptor BLT1 and the chemokine receptors CCR1 and CXCR2. Once in the joint, neutrophils perpetuate their own recruitment by releasing LTB(4) and IL-1?, presumably after activation by immune complexes deposited on joint structures. Two pathways by which immune complexes may activate neutrophils include complement fixation, resulting in the generation of C5a, and direct engagement of Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs). Previous investigations showed that this model of autoantibody-induced arthritis requires the C5a receptor C5aR and Fc?Rs, but the simultaneous necessity for both pathways was not understood. Here we show that C5aR and Fc?Rs work in sequence to initiate and sustain neutrophil recruitment in vivo. Specifically, C5aR activation of neutrophils is required for LTB(4) release and early neutrophil recruitment into the joint, whereas Fc?R engagement upon neutrophils induces IL-1? release and subsequent neutrophil-active chemokine production, ensuring continued inflammation. These findings support the concept that immune complex-mediated leukocyte activation is not composed of overlapping and redundant pathways, but that each element serves a distinct and critical function in vivo, culminating in tissue inflammation. PMID:23112187

Sadik, Christian D; Kim, Nancy D; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Luster, Andrew D

2012-10-29

33

FCR (Fludarabine, Cyclophosphamide, Rituximab) regimen followed by 90yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation for the treatment of relapsed grades 1 and 2 follicular lymphoma: a report of 9 cases  

PubMed Central

Background This retrospective analysis is focused on the efficacy and safety of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with Zevalin® in nine patients with recurrent follicular lymphoma (FL) who were treated in a consolidation setting after having achieved complete remission or partial remission with FCR. Methods The median age was 63 yrs (range 46-77), all patients were relapsed with histologically confirmed CD20-positive (grade 1 or 2) FL, at relapse they received FCR every 28 days: F (25 mg/m2x 3 days), C (1 gr/m2 day 1) and R (375 mg/m2 day 4) for 4 cycles. Who achieved at least a partial remission, with < 25% bone marrow involvement, was treated with 90Yttrium Ibritumomab Tiuxetan 11.1 or 14.8 MBq/Kg up to a maximum dose 1184 MBq, at 3 months after the completion of FCR. The patients underwent a further restaging at 12 weeks after 90Y-RIT with total body CT scan, FDG-PET/CT and bilateral bone marrow biopsy. Results Nine patients have completed the treatment: FCR followed by 90Y-RIT (6 patients at 14.8 MBq/Kg, 3 patients at 11.1 MBq/Kg). After FCR 7 patients obtained CR and 2 PR; after 90Y-RIT two patients in PR converted to CR 12 weeks later. With median follow up of 34 months (range 13-50) the current analysis has shown that overall survival (OS) is 89% at 2 years, 76% at 3 years and 61% at 4 years. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were hematologic, one patient developed herpes zoster infection after 8 months following valacyclovir discontinuation; another patient developed fungal infection. Conclusions Our experience indicate feasibility, tolerability and efficacy of FCR regimen followed by 90Y-RIT in patients relapsed with grades 1 and 2 FL with no unexpected toxicities. A longer follow up and a larger number of patients with relapsed grades 1 and 2 FL are required to determine the impact of this regimen on long-term duration of response and PFS.

2011-01-01

34

Role of Activating Fc?R Gene Polymorphisms in Kawasaki Disease Susceptibility and Intravenous Immunoglobulin Response  

PubMed Central

Background A functional polymorphism in the inhibitory IgG-Fc receptor Fc?RIIB influences intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) response in Kawasaki Disease (KD) a vasculitis preferentially affecting the coronary arteries in children. We tested the hypothesis that the polymorphisms in the activating receptors (Fc? RIIA, Fc? RIIIA and Fc? RIIIB) also influence susceptibility, IVIG treatment response, and coronary artery disease (CAD) in KD patients. Methods and Results We genotyped polymorphisms in the activating Fc?RIIA, Fc?RIIIA and Fc?RIIIB genes using pyrosequencing in 443 KD patients, including 266 trios and 150 single parent-child pairs, in northwest US and genetically determined race with 155 ancestry information markers. We used the FBAT program to test for transmission disequilibrium and further generated pseudo-sibling controls for comparisons to the cases. The Fc?RIIA-131H variant showed an association with KD (p = 0.001) with ORadditive = 1.51 [1.16–1.96], p = 0.002) for the primary combined population, which persisted in both Caucasian (p = .04) and Asian (p = .01) subgroups and is consistent with the recent genome-wide association study. We also identified over-transmission of Fc?RIIIB-NA1 among IVIG non-responders (p = 0.0002), and specifically to Caucasian IVIG non-responders (p = 0.007). Odds ratios for overall and Caucasian non-responders were respectively 3.67 [1.75–7.66], p = 0.0006 and 3.60 [1.34–9.70], p = 0.01. Excess NA1 transmission also occurred to KD with CAD (ORadditive = 2.13 [1.11–4.0], p = 0.02). Conclusion A common variation in Fc?RIIA is associated with increased KD susceptibility. The Fc?RIIIB-NA1, which confers higher affinity for IgG compared to NA2, is a determining factor for treatment response. These activating Fc?Rs play an important role in KD pathogenesis and mechanism of IVIG anti-inflammatory.

Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard; Shendre, Aditi; Kaslow, Richard A; Wu, Jianming; Olson, Aaron; Bowles, Neil E.; Patel, Hitendra; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Portman, Michael A

2012-01-01

35

Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of I?B-? upon engagement of the BCR, TLRs and Fc?R.  

PubMed

I?B-? is a nuclear I?B protein robustly induced in macrophages and fibroblasts upon TLR or IL-1R stimulation. I?B-? associates with NF-?B in the cell nucleus and is essential for the induction of a subset of secondary response genes represented by IL-6. Here, we analyzed induction of I?B-? in mouse B cells and found that I?B-? is induced by BCR or TLR stimulation. Similar to TLR stimulation, BCR stimulation elicited NF-?B-mediated transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization of I?B-? via a cis-element in I?B-? mRNA. Proteasome inhibitors inhibited transcriptional activation but not post-transcriptional activation, indicating independency of the two signals. Co-stimulation of the BCR and TLR9 or TLR7, but not TLR2/1, synergistically induced I?B-?. Co-engagement of inhibitory Fc? receptor suppressed BCR-mediated I?B-? expression but not that induced by TLR stimulation alone or co-stimulation of TLR and the BCR. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibited BCR-mediated, but not TLR-mediated, induction of I?B-?, consistent with the role of PI3K in BCR signaling and its suppression by Fc?R. Analysis of I?B-?-deficient B cells demonstrated that I?B-? was essential upon stimulation of BCR or TLR for the expression of several genes including IL-10 and CTLA4. I?B-?-deficient B cells exhibited impaired proliferation and enhanced up-regulation of CD86 following stimulation of TLR9, but not the BCR, indicating critical roles for I?B-? in TLR signaling in B cells. Strict regulatory mechanisms for the induction of I?B-? via multiple pathways and its essential function upon stimulation indicate that I?B-? plays an important role in B cells. PMID:23728777

Hanihara, Fumito; Takahashi, Yuta; Okuma, Atsushi; Ohba, Tomoyuki; Muta, Tatsushi

2013-06-01

36

Kidney transplant recipients show an increase in the ratio of T-cell effector memory/central memory as compared to nontransplant recipients on the waiting list.  

PubMed

Studies of allotolerance in animal models do not usually consider the presence of preexisting memory T cells and activated immune status. However, humans are exposed throughout life to a multitude of external agents that enhance the immune memory. In this article, we consider the effect that a previous kidney transplant has on the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs), effector memory T cells (TEM), and central memory T cells (TCM). Sixty-three patients with end-stage renal disease were studied just before being transplanted (51 first transplants and 12 retransplants). The numbers of Tregs (CD4+ CD25highCD127lowCD27+CD62L+CD45RO+FOXP3+), TEM (CD3+CD45RO+CD62L+), and TCM (CD3+CD45RO+CD62L-) cell subsets were quantified in peripheral blood by flow cytometry. The absolute number of Tregs was slightly lower in patients with previous allografts (median, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.7 cells/mm3, 12-20.5) than in those who received their first transplants (median, 95% CI: 19.6 cells/mm3, 19.3-29.6; P-NS). Clearer differences were found with the number of CD3+ TCM, since the transplanted patients had lower numbers (238 cells/mm3, 153-323) than those who had not yet received transplants (378 cells/mm3, 317-439; P=.029). As a result, the TEM/TCM ratios of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in patients with previous allografts were higher than in those who received first transplants. In conclusion, the assessment of just the number of Tregs in renal transplant patients is not enough and must be read together with the number of TEM and TCM. The TEM:TCM ratio increases in patients with previous allografts, probably due to activation of the immune response in renal transplantation. PMID:20970557

Segundo, D S; Fernández-Fresnedo, G; Gago, M; Beares, I; Ruiz-Criado, J; González, M; Ruiz, J C; Gómez-Alamillo, C; López-Hoyos, M; Arias, M

2010-10-01

37

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells, interferon signaling, and Fc?R contribute to pathogenesis and therapeutic response in childhood immune thrombocytopenia.  

PubMed

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder of childhood characterized by immune-mediated destruction of platelets. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ITP and the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) in this disorder remain unclear. We show that monocytes from patients with ITP have a distinct gene expression profile, with increased expression of type I interferon response (IR) genes. Plasma from ITP patients had increased levels of several cytokines indicative of immune activation, including an increase in interferon-?. ITP patients also had an increase in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) compared to healthy donors. Therapy-induced remission of ITP was associated with abrogation of the IR gene signature in monocytes without reduction in the levels of circulating interferon-? itself. IVIG altered the ratio of activating/inhibitory Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs) in vivo primarily by reducing Fc?RIII (CD16). The engagement of activating Fc?Rs was required for IVIG-mediated abrogation of monocyte response to exogenous interferon-? in culture. Moreover, plasma from ITP patients led to activation of monocytes and myeloid DCs in culture with an increase in T cell stimulatory capacity; this activation depended on the engagement of activating Fc?Rs and interferon-? receptor (IFNAR) and was inhibited by antibody-mediated blockade of these pathways. These data point to a central role of type I interferon in the pathogenesis of ITP and suggest targeting pDCs and blockade of IR as potential therapeutic approaches in this disorder. They also provide evidence for the capacity of IVIG to extinguish IR in vivo, which may contribute to its effects in autoimmunity. PMID:23843450

Sehgal, Kartik; Guo, Xiuyang; Koduru, Srinivas; Shah, Anumeha; Lin, Aiping; Yan, Xiting; Dhodapkar, Kavita M

2013-07-10

38

Time Series analysis of CO2 mixing ratios, Root zone Soil-Water, and Soil Temperature in a Mixed Rangeland of Central Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In rangelands, water can be the limiting resource that determines how vegetation will respond spatially and temporally to rising CO2 levels. Spatially, the transition zones between shrub and grasslands will be likely influenced by the water balance. Temporally, the soil-water dynamics in the soils of mixed rangelands is determined by antecedent soil-moisture conditions, shallow rooting depth of grasses, and water uptake by shrubs of water infiltrated past grass roots. At NOAA's GMD WKT tall tower in Moody, Texas, CO2 mole fractions have been collected as function of height (9m, 30m, 61m, 122m, 244m, 457m) from a very tall tower since February, 2001. Within the tower footprint, continuous soil-water, and soil temperature measurements from the root zone of grasses and shrubs were made during March, 2003 - June, 2004. Time series data were analyzed for coherence and phase using wavelets. My presentation focuses on the temporal relationship between the CO2 mixing ratios measured near ground (at 9m, 30m) from the tower, soil-water content, and soil temperature from this mixed rangeland site in Central Texas.

Solano, K. C.

2008-05-01

39

Loss of DAP12 and FcR? Drives Exaggerated IL-12 Production and CD8(+) T Cell Response by CCR2(+) Mo-DCs.  

PubMed

Dap12 and FcR?, the two transmembrane ITAM-containing signaling adaptors expressed in dendritic cells (DC), are implicated in the regulation of DC function. Several activating and adhesion receptors including integrins require these chains for their function in triggering downstream signaling and effector pathways, however the exact role(s) for Dap12 and FcR? remains elusive as their loss can lead to both attenuating and enhancing effects. Here, we report that mice congenitally lacking both Dap12 and FcR? chains (DF) show a massively enhanced effector CD8(+) T cell response to protein antigen immunization or West Nile Virus (WNV) infection. Thus, immunization of DF mice with MHCI-restricted OVA peptide leads to accumulation of IL-12-producing monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) in draining lymph nodes, followed by vastly enhanced generation of antigen-specific IFN?-producing CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, DF mice show increased viral clearance in the WNV infection model. Depletion of CCR2+ monocytes/macrophages in vivo by administration anti-CCR2 antibodies or clodronate liposomes completely prevents the exaggerated CD8+ T cell response in DF mice. Mechanistically, we show that the loss of Dap12 and FcR?-mediated signals in Mo-DC leads to a disruption of GM-CSF receptor-induced STAT5 activation resulting in upregulation of expression of IRF8, a transcription factor. Consequently, Dap12- and FcR?-deficiency exacerbates GM-CSF-driven monocyte differentiation and production of inflammatory Mo-DC. Our data suggest a novel cross-talk between DC-ITAM and GM-CSF signaling pathways, which controls Mo-DC differentiation, IL-12 production, and CD8(+) T cell responses. PMID:24155889

Gmyrek, Grzegorz B; Akilesh, Holly M; Graham, Daniel B; Fuchs, Anja; Yang, Lihua; Miller, Mark J; Sandoval, Gabriel J; Sheehan, Kathleen C F; Schreiber, Robert D; Diamond, Michael S; Swat, Wojciech

2013-10-14

40

Loss of DAP12 and FcR? Drives Exaggerated IL-12 Production and CD8+ T Cell Response by CCR2+ Mo-DCs  

PubMed Central

Dap12 and FcR?, the two transmembrane ITAM-containing signaling adaptors expressed in dendritic cells (DC), are implicated in the regulation of DC function. Several activating and adhesion receptors including integrins require these chains for their function in triggering downstream signaling and effector pathways, however the exact role(s) for Dap12 and FcR? remains elusive as their loss can lead to both attenuating and enhancing effects. Here, we report that mice congenitally lacking both Dap12 and FcR? chains (DF) show a massively enhanced effector CD8+ T cell response to protein antigen immunization or West Nile Virus (WNV) infection. Thus, immunization of DF mice with MHCI-restricted OVA peptide leads to accumulation of IL-12-producing monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) in draining lymph nodes, followed by vastly enhanced generation of antigen-specific IFN?-producing CD8+ T cells. Moreover, DF mice show increased viral clearance in the WNV infection model. Depletion of CCR2+ monocytes/macrophages in vivo by administration anti-CCR2 antibodies or clodronate liposomes completely prevents the exaggerated CD8+ T cell response in DF mice. Mechanistically, we show that the loss of Dap12 and FcR?-mediated signals in Mo-DC leads to a disruption of GM-CSF receptor-induced STAT5 activation resulting in upregulation of expression of IRF8, a transcription factor. Consequently, Dap12- and FcR?-deficiency exacerbates GM-CSF-driven monocyte differentiation and production of inflammatory Mo-DC. Our data suggest a novel cross-talk between DC-ITAM and GM-CSF signaling pathways, which controls Mo-DC differentiation, IL-12 production, and CD8+ T cell responses.

Gmyrek, Grzegorz B.; Akilesh, Holly M.; Graham, Daniel B.; Fuchs, Anja; Yang, Lihua; Miller, Mark J.; Sandoval, Gabriel J.; Sheehan, Kathleen C. F.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Diamond, Michael S.; Swat, Wojciech

2013-01-01

41

A measurement of the e/{pi} ratio difference between short (250 ns) and long (2.2 {mu}s) integration times with the D0 uranium-liquid argon central calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The difference of the ratios of the high energy electron and pion responses(e/{pi}) in the DO Uranium-liquid Argon central calorimeter is measured using the DO calorimeter trigger readout (short integration time: 250 ns) and precision readout (long integration time: 2.2 {mu}s). This measurement found a 5% difference in the e/{pi} ratio between short and long integration times, with estimated uncertainty of 2.3%.

Pi, B.

1992-12-31

42

Influence of recent vegetation on labile and recalcitrant carbon soil pools in central Queensland, Australia: evidence from thermal analysis-quadrupole mass spectrometry-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The effect of a recent vegetation change (<100 years) from C(4) grassland to C(3) woodland in central Queensland, Australia, on soil organic matter (SOM) composition and SOM dynamics has been investigated using a novel coupled thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry-quadrupole.mass spectrometry-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (TG-DSC-QMS-IRMS) system. TG-DSC-QMS-IRMS distinguishes the C isotope composition of discrete SOM pools, showing changes in labile, recalcitrant and refractory carbon in the bulk soil and particle size fractions which track the vegetation changes. Analysis of evolved gases (by QMS) from thermal decomposition, rather than observed weight loss, proved essential in determining the temperature at which SOM decomposes, because smectite and kaolinite clays contribute to observed weight losses. The delta(13)C analyses of the CO(2) evolved at different temperatures for bulk soil and particle size-separates showed that most of the labile SOM under the more recent woody vegetation was C(3)-derived carbon whereas the delta(13)C values in the recalcitrant SOM showed greater C(4) contributions. This indicated a shift from grass (C(4))- to tree (C(3))-derived carbon in the woodland, which was also supported by the two-phase (13)C enrichment with depth, i.e. C(3) vegetation dominated the top soil (0-10 cm), but the C(4) contribution increased with depth (more gradual). This is perturbed by the inclusion of charcoal from forest fires ((14)C age incursions) and by the deep incorporation of C(3) carbon due to root penetration. PMID:18446757

Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Krull, Evelyn S; Bol, Roland; Manning, David A C

2008-06-01

43

The path to open-angle glaucoma gene discovery: endophenotypic status of intraocular pressure, cup-to-disc ratio, and central corneal thickness.  

PubMed

PURPOSE. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex disease with a genetic architecture that can be simplified through the investigation of individual traits underlying disease risk. It has been well studied in twin models, and this study was undertaken to investigate the heritability of some of these key endophenotypes in extended pedigrees. METHODS. These data are derived from a large, multicenter study of extended, Caucasian POAG families from Australia and the United States. The study included 1181 people from 22 extended pedigrees. Variance components modeling was used to determine the heritabilities of maximum intraocular pressure (IOP), maximum vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR), and mean central corneal thickness (CCT). Bivariate quantitative genetic analysis between these eye-related phenotypes and POAG itself was performed to determine whether any of these traits represent true endophenotypes. RESULTS. Heritability estimates for IOP, VCDR, and CCT (0.42, 0.66, and 0.72, respectively) were significant and show strong concordance with data in previous studies. Bivariate analysis revealed that both IOP (RhoG = 0.80; P = 9.6 x 10(-6)) and VCDR (RhoG = 0.76; P = 4.8 x 10(-10)) showed strong evidence of genetic correlation with POAG susceptibility. These two traits also correlated genetically with each other (RhoG = 0.45; P = 0.0012). Alternatively, CCT did not correlate genetically with risk of POAG. CONCLUSIONS. All the proposed POAG-related traits have genetic components. However, the significant genetic correlations observed between IOP, VCDR, and POAG itself suggest that they most likely represent true endophenotypes that could aid in the identification of genes underlying POAG susceptibility. CCT did not correlate genetically with disease and is unlikely to be a useful surrogate endophenotype for POAG. PMID:20237253

Charlesworth, Jac; Kramer, Patricia L; Dyer, Tom; Diego, Victor; Samples, John R; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Blangero, John; Wirtz, Mary K

2010-03-17

44

Food Intake and Feed Conversion Ratios in Abant Trout (Salmo trutta abanticus T., 1954) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., 1792) in Pond Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out at DSI-Gölköy Fish Production Station in Bolu and lasted for 350 days. Food consumption (FC) and feed conversion ratios (FCR) in Abant and rainbow trout in pond culture were compared. Abant trout larvae obtained from eggs of wild Abant trout broodstocks in Lake Abant and rainbow trout larvae obtained from eggs of the cultured broodstocks

Atilla ALPBAZ

45

Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight\\/obese children: The Bogalusa Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility

Jasmeet S Mokha; Sathanur R Srinivasan; Pronabesh DasMahapatra; Camilo Fernandez; Wei Chen; Jihua Xu; Gerald S Berenson

2010-01-01

46

Triple Whammy: Mid-Holocene Landslide Dam Yields Suspended Load-Bedload Ratio, Regional Erosion Rate, and Bedrock Incision Rate, Central Nepal Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 5400 years ago, a large landslide formed a >400-m-tall dam in the upper Marsyandi River, central Nepal. The resulting lake and delta deposits stretched >5 km upstream and reached a thickness of 140 m. 14C dating of 6 wood fragments reveal that the entire process of sedimentation and incision occurred remarkably quickly ( ˜450 yr) with lake in-filling taking

M. Garde; B. A. Pratt-Sitaula; D. W. Burbank; M. Oskin; A. Heimsath

2004-01-01

47

Source scaling of Pn and Lg spectra and their ratios from explosions in central Asia: Implications for the identification of small seismic events at regional distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple station recordings of Pn and Lg spectra from an mb = 6.6 nuclear explosion and several mb <= 3.7 chemical explosions in central Asia are used to invert for source seismic moments (M0), corner frequencies (fc), and path-variable Q models. A modified Mueller-Murphy source model fits the nuclear explosion well and fits the chemical explosions reasonably well, although Pn

Jiakang Xie

2002-01-01

48

Source scaling of Pn and Lg spectra and their ratios from explosions in central Asia: Implications for the identification of small seismic events at regional distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple station recordings of Pn and Lg spectra from an mb = 6.6 nuclear explosion and several mb ? 3.7 chemical explosions in central Asia are used to invert for source seismic moments (M0), corner frequencies (fc), and path-variable Q models. A modified Mueller-Murphy source model fits the nuclear explosion well and fits the chemical explosions reasonably well, although Pn

Jiakang Xie

2002-01-01

49

Constraints on Late Miocene Shallow Marine Seasonality for the Central Caribbean Using Oxygen Isotope and Sr\\/Ca Ratios in a Fossil Coral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of the Pacific and Caribbean basins by closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS) in the Miocene and Pliocene\\u000a produced changes in the secular physical and chemical properties of Caribbean surface waters, one possible result of which\\u000a was an increase in extinction and speciation of marine biota on both sides of the Isthmus of Panama (Jackson et al., 1996;

Rhawn F. Denniston; Stephanie C. Penn; Ann F. Budd

50

Improvement of ocean loading correction for superconducting gravimeter data of GGP including Syowa Station, Antarctica, and the effect on fluid core resonance (FCR) parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The free core nutation (FCN), also refered to as the nearly diurnal free wobble, is due to the pressure coupling between the liquid core and the solid mantle. The FCN enhances the resonance with the diurnal earth tide. Investigation of resonance parameters of FCR (eigenperiod, quality factor Q, and resonance strength) is essential for the Earth's deep interior dynamics and structure. The eigenperiod directly depends on the core-mantle boundary (CMB) ellipticity and on the mantle's inelasticity. The quality factor Q is a direct consequence of damping mechanisms inside the Earth (Sasao et al., 1980; Sasao and Wahr, 1981; Florsch and Hinderer, 2000). For determining theseresonance parameters, the tidal gravimetric factor based on superconducting gravimeter (SG) data is used. We used the gravity data of 4 stations, from 1992 through 2002 at Syowa Station, from 1997 through 2007 at Strasbourg, from 1998 through 2007 at Metsahovi, from 2000 through 2006 at Sutherland, of the GGP Data Center. The tidal gravity parameters were determined using the BAYTAP-G software package (Ishiguro et al., 1981; Tamura et al., 1991). In this study, we focused on the influence of ocean loading effect on precise estimation of FCN parameters. The global ocean tidal models, CSR4.0 (Eanes and Bettadpur, 1999), GOT99.2b (Ray, 1999), FES2004 (Lyard et al., 2006) and TPXO7.1 (Egbert and Erofeeva, 2002) models are tested. These models are accomodated to the GOTIC2 for ocean loading estimation program (Matsumoto et al. 2001). The quality factor Q is dependent on the phase delay of the tidal waves, that means the imaginary part of gravimetric factor corrected for ocean loading effect is an important point for this inverse problem(Florsch and Hinderer, 2000). We present how much the accuracy of FCR parameters can be improved by adopting proper ocean models to each station (Le provost et al., 2001). For this work, we have applied minor waves for ocean loading correction (Matsumoto, 2003), and the ocean loading effect from other kinds of Green's functions based on an elastic Earth model (Francis and Dehant, 1987) and an inelastic Earth model (Okubo and Tsuji, 2001) was estimated. We show the dependency on these effect on accurate estimation of resonance parameters. Because the gravity data from Syowa Station has much ocean loading effect, i.e. as a noise, the reduction of this effect is very important. We show how much the recent global ocean models (FES2004 and TPXO.7.1) can decrease the residual gravity and improve the accuracy of the FCR parameters. Finally, we test the effect of the random error in the ocean loading calculation on the determination of the resonance parameters in the inverse problem. For this work, white noise s were added to the observed gravimetric delta factors when solving the non-linear least squares problems to see the stability of the solved resonance parameters.

Kim, Taehee; Shibuya, Kazuo; Doi, Koichiro; Aoyama, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Hideaki

2010-05-01

51

Replacement of fish meal in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets using a yeast-derived protein source: the effects on weight gain, food conversion ratio, body composition, and survival of catfish challenged..  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined the effects of a yeast-derived protein source (NuPro) as a replacement for menhaden fish meal on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), whole-body composition, and disease resistance in juvenile channel catfish. NuPro replaced 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% o...

52

Partitioning of atmospheric carbon dioxide over Central Europe: insights from combined measurements of CO2 mixing ratios and their carbon isotope composition.  

PubMed

Regular measurements of atmospheric CO (2) mixing ratios and their carbon isotope composition ((13)C/(12)C and (14)C/(12)C ratios) performed between 2005 and 2009 at two sites of contrasting characteristics (Krakow and the remote mountain site Kasprowy Wierch) located in southern Poland were used to derive fossil fuel-related and biogenic contributions to the total CO (2) load measured at both sites. Carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere, not coming from fossil fuel and biogenic sources, was considered 'background' CO (2). In Krakow, the average contribution of fossil fuel CO (2) was approximately 3.4%. The biogenic component was of the same magnitude. Both components revealed a distinct seasonality, with the fossil fuel component reaching maximum values during winter months and the biogenic component shifted in phase by approximately 6 months. The partitioning of the local CO (2) budget for the Kasprowy Wierch site revealed large differences in the derived components: the fossil fuel component was approximately five times lower than that derived for Krakow, whereas the biogenic component was negative in summer, pointing to the importance of photosynthetic sink associated with extensive forests in the neighbourhood of the station. While the presented study has demonstrated the strength of combined measurements of CO (2) mixing ratios and their carbon isotope signature as efficient tools for elucidating the partitioning of local atmospheric CO (2) loads, it also showed the important role of the land cover and the presence of the soil in the footprint of the measurement location, which control the net biogenic surface CO (2) fluxes. PMID:22472094

Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Jelen, Dorota; Galkowski, Michal; Kuc, Tadeusz; Necki, Jaroslaw; Chmura, Lukasz; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Jasek, Alina; Rozanski, Kazimierz

2012-04-04

53

First Measurement of the Ratio of Central-Electron to Forward-Electron W Partial Cross Sections in p anti-p Collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96 TeV  

SciTech Connect

We present a measurement of {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} W) x {Beta}(W {yields} e{nu}) at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, using electrons identified in the forward region (1.2 < |{eta}| < 2.8) of the CDF II detector. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 223 pb{sup -1}. We measure {sigma} x {Beta} = 2796 {+-} 13(stat){sub -90}{sup +95}(syst){+-}162 (lum) pb. Combining this result with a previous CDF measurement obtained using electrons in the central region (|{eta}| {approx}< 1), we present the first measurement of the ratio of central-electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections R{sub exp} = 0.925 {+-} 0.006(stat){+-}0.032(syst), consistent with theoretical predictions using CTEQ and MRST parton distribution functions.

Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara

2007-02-01

54

Relationship between hypocentral distributions and Vp/Vs ratio structures inferred from dense seismic array data: a case study of the 1984 western Nagano Prefecture earthquake, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a three-dimensional traveltime tomographic reconstruction in and around the source region of the 1984 western Nagano Prefecture earthquake to investigate the generation process for the main shock and associated swarm activity. Up to 220 000 high-resolution traveltime records (2 ms error) were compiled from a dense seismic network. From these records, we performed accurate, high-resolution calculations to estimate hypocentre distributions and three-dimensional velocity structure. Most hypocentres aligned along the same path or within the same plane, rather than in three-dimensional clusters. Hypocentres in the swarm region are located in regions with low Vp/Vs ratios, while few earthquakes occurred in regions with high or normal Vp/Vs ratios. We suggest that differences in the number of small fractures and fluid content between these two regions influenced the seismic activity. Rupture propagation associated with the main shock appears to be confined by relatively higher Vp/Vs surroundings, and a low-velocity region which limits its vertical extent.

Doi, Issei; Noda, Shunta; Iio, Yoshihisa; Horiuchi, Shigeki; Sekiguchi, Shoji

2013-08-01

55

Relationship between hypocentral distributions and Vp/Vs ratio structures inferred from dense seismic array data: a case study of the 1984 western Nagano Prefecture earthquake, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a three-dimensional traveltime tomographic reconstruction in and around the source region of the 1984 western Nagano Prefecture earthquake to investigate the generation process for the main shock and associated swarm activity. Up to 220 000 high-resolution traveltime records (2 ms error) were compiled from a dense seismic network. From these records, we performed accurate, high-resolution calculations to estimate hypocentre distributions and three-dimensional velocity structure. Most hypocentres aligned along the same path or within the same plane, rather than in three-dimensional clusters. Hypocentres in the swarm region are located in regions with low Vp/Vs ratios, while few earthquakes occurred in regions with high or normal Vp/Vs ratios. We suggest that differences in the number of small fractures and fluid content between these two regions influenced the seismic activity. Rupture propagation associated with the main shock appears to be confined by relatively higher Vp/Vs surroundings, and a low-velocity region which limits its vertical extent.

Doi, Issei; Noda, Shunta; Iio, Yoshihisa; Horiuchi, Shigeki; Sekiguchi, Shoji

2013-11-01

56

Further Evidence for Large Central Mass-to-light Ratios in Early-type Galaxies: The Case of Ellipticals and Lenticulars in the A262 Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new radially resolved spectroscopy of eight early-type galaxies in the A262 cluster. The measurements include stellar rotation, velocity dispersion, H 3 and H 4 coefficients of the line-of-sight velocity distribution along the major and minor axes and an intermediate axis as well as line-strength index profiles of Mg, Fe, and H?. The ionized-gas velocity and velocity dispersion is measured for six sample galaxies along different axes. We derive dynamical mass-to-light ratios and dark matter densities from orbit-based dynamical models, complemented by the galaxies' ages, metallicities, and ?-element abundances from single stellar-population models. The ionized-gas kinematics give a valuable consistency check for the model assumptions about orientation and intrinsic shape of the galaxies. Four galaxies have a significant detection of dark matter and their halos are about 10 times denser than in spirals of the same stellar mass. By calibrating dark matter densities to cosmological simulations we find assembly redshifts of z DM ? 1-3, as previously reported for the Coma Cluster. The dynamical mass that follows the light is larger than expected for a Kroupa stellar initial mass function (IMF), especially in galaxies with high velocity dispersion ?eff inside the effective radius r eff. This could indicate a "massive" IMF in massive galaxies. Alternatively, some of the dark matter in massive galaxies could follow the light very closely. In combination with our comparison sample of Coma early-type galaxies, we now have 5 of 24 galaxies where (1) mass follows light to 1-3 r eff, (2) the dynamical mass-to-light ratio of all the mass that follows the light is large (?8-10 in the Kron-Cousins R band), and (3) the dark matter fraction is negligible to 1-3 r eff. Unless the IMF in these galaxies is particularly "massive" and somehow coupled to the dark matter content, there seems to be a significant degeneracy between luminous and dark matter in at least some early-type galaxies. The role of violent relaxation is briefly discussed. Based on data collected with the 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope.

Wegner, G. A.; Corsini, E. M.; Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Pu, S. B.

2012-09-01

57

FcR blocking activity in serum of actively enhanced rat renal allograft recipients due to IgG anti-class II MHC alloantibody.  

PubMed

In some rat strain combinations, pre-operative donor-specific blood transfusion produces long-term renal allograft survival, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study has examined whether Fc receptor (FcR)-blocking activity could be detected in the serum of unmodified PVG strain recipients bearing a rejecting renal allograft and in recipients bearing an actively enhanced graft following pre-operative blood transfusion. Serum harvested on Day 5 from actively enhanced PVG recipients of DA rat renal allografts was shown to specifically inhibit erythrocyte-antibody (EA) rosette formation with donor strain, but not third-party, splenocytes, while the levels of EA rosette inhibition (EAI) in Day 5 serum from rejecting rats remained markedly lower. This FcR-blocking activity was present in enhanced serum fractions, prepared by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation, which corresponded to the 7 S peak. Purified IgG prepared from enhanced serum was also found to inhibit EA rosette formation with donor splenocytes, and absorption of the IgG preparations with donor strain erythrocytes failed to abrogate EA rosette inhibition. Further experiments, in which absorbed IgG from enhanced animals was tested for FcR blocking activity against splenocytes of defined major histocompatability complex (MHC) subregion specificities, established that FcR-blocking activity was mediated by IgG alloantibodies directed against donor MHC class II antigens. Whether the presence of such antibodies early after transplantation contributes to the beneficial effect of blood transfusion on graft survival remains to be determined. PMID:2312162

Marshall, H E; Bolton, E M; Gracie, J A; Cocker, J E; Sandilands, G P; Bradley, J A

1990-03-01

58

Platinum ratio search versus golden ratio search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this simulation study, we examine the traditional golden ratio search in view of cost minimization and search risk, and propose an alternative search plan with what we call “platinum ratio”. The golden ratio search has been thought the best for unimodal optimization. However, our study shows that the golden ratio search is the best only in the sense of

Xia Pan

2008-01-01

59

First measurement of the ratio of central-electron to forward-electron W partial cross sections in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a measurement of sigma(p (p) over bar -> W)xB(W -> e nu) at root s=1.96 TeV, using electrons identified in the forward region (1.2 <|eta|< 2.8) of the CDF II detector, in 223 pb(-1) of data. We measure sigma xB=2796 +\\/- 13(stat)(-90)(+95)(syst)+\\/- 162(lum) pb. Combining this result with a previous CDF measurement obtained using electrons in the central

A. Abulencia; J. Adelman; T. Affolder; T. Akimoto; M. G. Albrow; S. Amerio; D. Amidei; A. Anastassov; K. Anikeev; A. Annovi; J. Antos; M. Aoki; G. Apollinari; T. Arisawa; A. Artikov; W. Ashmanskas; A. Attal; A. Aurisano; F. Azfar; P. Azzi-Bacchetta; P. Azzurri; N. Bacchetta; W. Badgett; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; S. Baroiant; V. Bartsch; G. Bauer; P. H. Beauchemin; F. Bedeschi; S. Behari; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; A. Belloni; D. Benjamin; A. Beretvas; J. Beringer; T. Berry; A. Bhatti; M. Binkley; D. Bisello; I. Bizjak; R. E. Blair; C. Blocker; B. Blumenfeld; A. Bocci; A. Bodek; V. Boisvert; G. Bolla; A. Bolshov; D. Bortoletto; J. Boudreau; A. Boveia; B. Brau; L. Brigliadori; C. Bromberg; E. Brubaker; J. Budagov; H. S. Budd; S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; P. Bussey; A. Buzatu; K. L. Byrum; S. Cabrera; M. Campanelli; M. Campbell; F. Canelli; A. Canepa; S. Carillo; D. Carlsmith; R. Carosi; S. Carron; B. Casal; M. Casarsa; A. Castro; P. Catastini; D. Cauz; M. Cavalli-Sforza; A. Cerri; L. Cerrito; S. H. Chang; Y. C. Chen; M. Chertok; G. Chiarelli; G. Chlachidze; F. Chlebana; I. Cho; K. Cho; D. Chokheli; J. P. Chou; G. Choudalakis; S. H. Chuang; K. Chung; W. H. Chung; Y. S. Chung; M. Cilijak; C. I. Ciobanu; M. A. Ciocci; A. Clark; D. Clark; M. Coca; G. Compostella; M. E. Convery; J. Conway; B. Cooper; K. Copic; M. Cordelli; G. Cortiana; F. Crescioli; C. C. Almenar; J. Cuevas; R. Culbertson; J. C. Cully; S. DaRonco; M. Datta; S. DAuria; T. Davies; D. Dagenhart; P. de Barbaro; S. De Cecco; A. Deisher; G. De Lentdecker; G. De Lorenzo; M. DellOrso; F. D. Paoli; L. Demortier; J. Deng; M. Deninno; D. De Pedis; P. F. Derwent; G. P. Di Giovanni; C. Dionisi; B. Di Ruzza; J. R. Dittmann; M. DOnofrio; C. Dorr; S. Donati; P. Dong; J. Donini; T. Dorigo; S. Dube; J. Efron; R. Erbacher; D. Errede; S. Errede; R. Eusebi; H. C. Fang; S. Farrington; I. Fedorko; W. T. Fedorko; R. G. Feild; M. Feindt; J. P. Fernandez; R. Field; G. Flanagan; R. Forrest; S. Forrester; M. Franklin; J. C. Freeman; I. Furic; M. Gallinaro; J. Galyardt; J. E. Garcia; F. Garberson; A. F. Garfinkel; C. Gay; H. Gerberich; D. Gerdes; S. Giagu; P. Giannetti; K. Gibson; J. L. Gimmell; C. Ginsburg; N. Giokaris; M. Giordani; P. Giromini; M. Giunta; G. Giurgiu; V. Glagolev; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; N. Goldschmidt; J. Goldstein; A. Golossanov; G. Gomez; G. Gomez-Ceballos; M. Goncharov; O. Gonzalez; I. Gorelov; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; A. Gresele; S. Grinstein; C. Grosso-Pilcher; U. Grundler; J. G. da Costa; Z. Gunay-Unalan; C. Haber; K. Hahn; S. R. Hahn; E. Halkiadakis; B. Y. Han; J. Y. Han; R. Handler; F. Happacher; K. Hara; D. Hare; M. Hare; S. Harper; R. F. Harr; R. M. Harris; M. Hartz; K. Hatakeyama; J. Hauser; C. Hays; M. Heck; A. Heijboer; B. Heinemann; J. Heinrich; C. Henderson; M. Herndon; J. Heuser; D. Hidas; C. S. Hill; D. Hirschbuehl; A. Hocker; A. Holloway; S. Hou; M. Houlden; S. C. Hsu; B. T. Huffman; R. E. Hughes; U. Husemann; J. Huston; J. Incandela; G. Introzzi; M. Iori; A. Ivanov; B. Iyutin; E. James; D. Jang; B. Jayatilaka; D. Jeans; E. J. Jeon; S. Jindariani; W. Johnson; M. Jones; K. K. Joo; S. Y. Jun; J. E. Jung; T. R. Junk; T. Kamon; P. E. Karchin; Y. Kato; Y. Kemp; R. Kephart; U. Kerzel; V. Khotilovich; B. Kilminster; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; J. E. Kim; M. J. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; N. Kimura; L. Kirsch; S. Klimenko; M. Klute; B. Knuteson; B. R. Ko; K. Kondo; D. J. Kong; J. Konigsberg; A. Korytov; A. V. Kotwal; A. C. Kraan; J. Kraus; M. Kreps; J. Kroll; N. Krumnack; M. Kruse; V. Krutelyov; T. Kubo; S. E. Kuhlmann; T. Kuhr; N. P. Kulkarni; Y. Kusakabe; S. Kwang; A. T. Laasanen; S. Lai; S. Lami; S. Lammel; M. Lancaster; R. L. Lander; K. Lannon; A. Lath; G. Latino; I. Lazzizzera; T. LeCompte; J. Lee; Y. J. Lee; S. W. Lee; R. Lefevre; N. Leonardo; S. Leone; S. Levy; J. D. Lewis; C. Lin; M. Lindgren; E. Lipeles; A. Lister; D. O. Litvintsev; T. Liu; N. S. Lockyer; A. Loginov; M. Loreti; R. S. Lu; D. Lucchesi; P. Lujan; P. Lukens; G. Lungu; L. Lyons; J. Lys; R. Lysak; E. Lytken; P. Mack; D. MacQueen; R. Madrak; K. Maeshima; K. Makhoul; T. Maki; P. Maksimovic; S. Malde; S. Malik; G. Manca; A. Manousakis; F. Margaroli; R. Marginean; C. Marino; A. Martin; M. Martin; V. Martin; M. Martinez; R. Martinez-Ballarin; T. Maruyama; P. Mastrandrea; T. Masubuchi; H. Matsunaga; M. E. Mattson; R. Mazini; P. Mazzanti; K. S. McFarland; P. McIntyre; R. McNulty; A. Mehta; P. Mehtala; S. Menzemer; A. Menzione; P. Merkel; C. Mesropian; A. Messina; T. Miao; N. Miladinovic; J. Miles; R. Miller; C. Mills; M. Milnik; A. Mitra; G. Mitselmakher; A. Miyamoto; S. Moed; N. Moggi; B. Mohr; C. S. Moon; R. Moore; M. Morello; P. M. Fernandez; J. Mulmenstadt; A. Mukherjee; T. Muller; R. Mumford; P. Murat; M. Mussini; J. Nachtman; A. Nagano; J. Naganoma; K. Nakamura; I. Nakano; A. Napier; V. Necula; C. Neu; M. S. Neubauer; J. Nielsen

2007-01-01

60

The Golden Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about ratios, including the “Golden Ratio”, a ratio of length to width that can be found in art, architecture, and nature. Students examine different ratios to determine whether the Golden Ratio can be found in the human body.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-02-18

61

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

62

Marine Respiration Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable confusion exists regarding the choice of numerical values for the so-called Redfield ratios. Most often quoted are those determined by Redfield himself O2 : C : N : P = 138 : 106 : 16 : 1. He determined these ratios based on the bulk chemical composition of plankton as well as changes in the chemical compositions observed in

W. S. Broecker; T. Takahashi

2003-01-01

63

Fixed-ratio punishment.  

PubMed

Responses were maintained by a variable-interval schedule of food reinforcement. At the same time, punishment was delivered following every nth response (fixed-ratio punishment). The introduction of fixed-ratio punishment produced an initial phase during which the emission of responses was positively accelerated between punishments. Eventually, the degree of positive acceleration was reduced and a uniform but reduced rate of responding emerged. Large changes in the over-all level of responding were produced by the intensity of punishment, the value of the punishment ratio, and the level of food deprivation. The uniformity of response rate between punishments was invariant in spite of these changes in over-all rate and contrary to some plausible a priori theoretical considerations. Fixed-ratio punishment also produced phenomena previously observed under continuous punishment: warm-up effect and a compensatory increase. This type of intermittent punishment produced less rapid and less complete suppression than did continuous punishment. PMID:13965779

AZRIN, N H; HOLZ, W C; HAKE, D F

1963-04-01

64

ATE Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ATE Central is a freely available online portal and collection of materials and services that highlight the work of the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) projects and centers. These National Science Foundation funded initiatives work with educators from two-year colleges to develop and implement ideas for improving the skills of technicians and the educators who teach them. ATE Central is designed to help educators, students, and the general public to learn about, and use materials from, the entire depth and breadth of the Advanced Technological Education program.ATE Central helps direct users to a full range of high-impact ATE resources available online, including curricula, learning objects, and podcasts. The portal aggregates information about the materials developed by ATE centers and projects, and organizes them using subject taxonomies, context appropriate keywords, and other digital cataloging techniques.

2011-08-17

65

The Golden Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides a "basic introduction to one of the most amazing discoveries in mathematics: the Golden Ratio." Created by David L. Narain, this site offers a particularly engaging way to bring together math and the natural sciences in the classroom. Seven straightforward activities have students construct a golden rectangle and spiral, and also explore the Golden Ratio in nature and in other contexts. The site also includes a quiz; answers are not provided, though. The activities are designed for 9th and 10th graders, but would also be appropriate for middle school students.

Narain, David L.

2001-01-01

66

Analysis of Ratios in Multivariate Morphometry  

PubMed Central

The analysis of ratios of body measurements is deeply ingrained in the taxonomic literature. Whether for plants or animals, certain ratios are commonly indicated in identification keys, diagnoses, and descriptions. They often provide the only means for separation of cryptic species that mostly lack distinguishing qualitative characters. Additionally, they provide an obvious way to study differences in body proportions, as ratios reflect geometric shape differences. However, when it comes to multivariate analysis of body measurements, for instance, with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or principal component analysis (PCA), interpretation using body ratios is difficult. Both techniques are commonly applied for separating similar taxa or for exploring the structure of variation, respectively, and require standardized raw or log-transformed variables as input. Here, we develop statistical procedures for the analysis of body ratios in a consistent multivariate statistical framework. In particular, we present algorithms adapted to LDA and PCA that allow the interpretation of numerical results in terms of body proportions. We first introduce a method called the “LDA ratio extractor,” which reveals the best ratios for separation of two or more groups with the help of discriminant analysis. We also provide measures for deciding how much of the total differences between individuals or groups of individuals is due to size and how much is due to shape. The second method, a graphical tool called the “PCA ratio spectrum,” aims at the interpretation of principal components in terms of body ratios. Based on a similar idea, the “allometry ratio spectrum” is developed which can be used for studying the allometric behavior of ratios. Because size can be defined in different ways, we discuss several concepts of size. Central to this discussion is Jolicoeur's multivariate generalization of the allometry equation, a concept that was derived only with a heuristic argument. Here we present a statistical derivation of the allometric size vector using the method of least squares. The application of the above methods is extensively demonstrated using published data sets from parasitic wasps and rock crabs.

Baur, Hannes; Leuenberger, Christoph

2011-01-01

67

Halloween Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Halloween is coming up, and this site will help readers prepare for an evening of ghouls, goblins, and other nasties. Halloween Central is a fairly extensive metasite with links to a wide variety of Halloween resources, including costumes, clip art, recipes, haunted houses, Halloween safety, and pumpkins, among many others.

68

Area Ratios of Quadrilaterals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that the ratio of the area of the quadrilateral formed by joining the kth points to the area of the original quadrilateral is constant whether it is convex or concave quadrilateral. Presents many geoboard or dot paper diagrams and geometrical expresssions. (YP)

Anderson, David R.; Arcidiacono, Michael J.

1989-01-01

69

Fuel efficiency ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Example of calculations are shown to illustrate how fuel costs and solid waste yardage are related. A commercial front loader is used for the examples, but any vehicle can be substituted using the same mathematical concept. Three new ratios, engine efficiency, fuel efficiency, and per yard fuel cost, that may enter the refuse industry in the 1980s are discussed. (MCW)

1980-01-01

70

The Likelihood Ratio Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, created by Don Johnson of Rice University, provides an explanation and an example of the likelihood ratio test. Topics include: decision regions, Bayes' decision criterion, Bayes' cost, and likelihood function. The site is enhanced by Johnson's use of graphic and numerical demonstrations to better explain his points. Additionally, a PDF attachment providing an in-depth explanation is also featured.

Johnson, Don

2009-01-08

71

Perceived night length ratios in ancient Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first record we have of a seasonal night length ratio for Egypt is from the mid 16th century BC. The origin of this estimate is traced to observations made three centuries previously, and the later reinterpretation and instrumental use of this ratio is traced down to 100AD. Extended comment is made on the astronomical dating involved in this description of events, and an attempt is made to reconstruct the alleged confirmation (or calibration) of the new timepiece that plays a central part in the story. It is believed that this is the earliest example of this fundamental scientific practice on record.

Fermor, John

72

Digit ratio in birds.  

PubMed

The Homeobox (Hox) genes direct the development of tetrapod digits. The expression of Hox genes may be influenced by endogenous sex steroids during development. Manning (Digit ratio. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002) predicted that the ratio between the lengths of digits 2 (2D) and 4 (4D) should be sexually dimorphic because prenatal exposure to estrogens and androgens positively influence the lengths of 2D and 4D, respectively. We measured digits and other morphological traits of birds from three orders (Passeriformes, house sparrow, Passer domesticus; tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor; Pscittaciformes, budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulates; Galliformes, chicken, Gallus domesticus) to test this prediction. None were sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D and there were no associations between 2D:4D and other sexually dimorphic traits. When we pooled data from all four species after we averaged right and left side digits from each individual and z-transformed the resulting digit ratios, we found that males had significantly larger 2D:4D than did females. Tetrapods appear to be sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D with 2D:4D larger in males as in some birds and reptiles and 2D:4D smaller in males as in some mammals. The differences between the reptile and mammal lineages in the directionality of 2D:4D may be related to the differences between them in chromosomal sex determination. We suggest that (a) natural selection for a perching foot in the first birds may have overridden the effects of hormones on the development of digit ratio in this group of vertebrates and (b) caution be used in making inferences about prenatal exposure to hormones and digit ratio in birds. PMID:18833568

Lombardo, Michael P; Thorpe, Patrick A; Brown, Barbara M; Sian, Katie

2008-12-01

73

Garlic Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can garlic help repel mosquitoes? Find out the answer to this question and more at Garlic Central, an all-about-garlic website created by aficionado Trevor Mendham. The site contains an introductory section--titled Garlic 101--and sections that address culinary uses, medicinal benefits, and cultivation. The site's Cooking section includes a collection of recipes; and information about storing, freezing, and crushing garlic. The site also features a brief how-to guide for planting, growing, and harvesting garlic. Garlic Central even hosts a virtual shopping mall that connects site visitors to a wide range of garlic-related websites peddling foodstuffs, kitchen implements, posters, books, and garden supplies. This site is also reviewed in the September 17, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

74

Central Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Begun in 1996, the International Crisis Group's (ICG) Central Africa Project analyzes political and ethnic conflict within and between the nations that straddle mid-Africa, including the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi, Angola, Uganda, and Rwanda. As part of that effort ICG has released over twelve full text reports in the last year (a few in French only). The two most recent in-depth reports are: "Africa's Seven-Nation War," which examines how the armies of seven African nations have been drawn into the rebellion against DRC President Laurent Dsir Kabila; and "How Kabila Lost His Way," which traces the foundation of the Kabila regime and seeks to discover why it has engendered both internal and external opposition. Well-researched and fully footnoted, yet written with a non-specialist audience in mind, these reports are a good resource for both students and general readers with an interest in the current situation in Central Africa.

1996-01-01

75

PE Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virginia Polytechnic Institute Health and Physical Education Program developed this site, a clearinghouse of information about K-12 physical education and health. An extensive list of lesson plans and assessment ideas, arranged topically and by grade level, is the focal point of this site; the Classroom Teacher Lesson Ideas uses PE "across the curriculum" to help students learn concepts in other subjects. PE Central provides information for PE professionals on relevant journals, job announcements, and equipment purchases, among other topics.

1996-01-01

76

What's My Ratio?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use linear measurement and calculators to investigate proportionality and determine the constant ratio between similar figures. In it, students draw a figure on centimeter graph paper, increase or decrease the size, and predict the dimensions. Then students compare the ratio of two pictures by measuring, recording their data, and discussing their findings to draw conclusions. Suggested guidelines for instruction and classroom discussion are included, as well as data collection worksheets for students, and centimeter graph paper to print. The lesson may be introduced by reading appropriate sections from "GoosebumpsâMonster Blood III" (Chapters 15 and 16) by R.L. Stine, or "The Shrinking of Treehorn" by F. Heide.

2003-01-01

77

The Golden Ratio Encoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel Nyquist-rate analog-to-digital (A\\/D) conversion algorithm which achieves exponential accuracy in the bit-rate despite using imperfe ct components. The proposed algorithm is based on a robust implementation of a beta-encoder with ? = ? = (1 + ? 5)\\/2, the golden ratio. It was previously shown that beta-encoders can be implemented in such a way that

Ingrid Daubechies; C. Sinan Güntürk; Yang Wang; Özgür Yilmaz

2008-01-01

78

Thinking Blocks: Ratios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of six interactive Flash activities gives students an opportunity to visually model and calculate the unknown quantity from ratios and other information, all in the context of solving word problems. A video demonstration introduces each method, and then students work on modeling and solving five problems. Students can check their modeling of the problem at intermediate stages. Teachers can track a student's progress throughout the problem set.

2012-01-01

79

PROPORTIONS and RATIOS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using what you already know and the text, can you solve these problems? Just by looking at the titles below, describe in your journal what you think each activity is going to be about and how it relates to proportions and ratios. Which tastes juicier? Statue of Liberty : is the Statue of Liberty's nose too long? Describe in your journal how your favorite question above was answered. Also, include any fun facts you learned along the way. What ...

Squire, Mrs.

2009-04-13

80

Central hyperthyroidism.  

PubMed

Central hyperthyroidism is a rare condition in which thyrotoxicosis results from primary overproduction of TSH by the pituitary gland with subsequent thyroid enlargement and hyperfunction. The two known causes of central hyperthyroidism are TSH-producing pituitary tumors (TSHomas) and the syndrome of PRTH. Both of these entities are characterized by clinical thyrotoxicosis, diffuse goiters, elevated circulating levels of free T4 and T3, and a nonsuppressed serum TSH. It is critical to distinguish central hyperthyroidism from the much more common types of primary hyperthyroidism, all of which have undetectable TSH values. TSHomas and PRTH can usually be differentiated from one another by measuring the serum alpha-subunit and the TSH response to intravenous TRH or exogenous thyroid hormone, and by pituitary imaging studies. TSHomas are usually benign adenomas arising from the monoclonal expansion of neoplastic thyrotropes. Causative oncogenes have not yet been convincingly identified. PRTH is a nonneoplastic disorder caused by inherited mutations in the gene for the thyroid hormone receptor beta; it is a poorly understood variant of GRTH. For unclear reasons, in PRTH, the pituitary gland is resistant to the feedback inhibitory effects of circulating thyroid hormones while peripheral tissues respond normally, causing patients to experience the toxic peripheral effects of thyroid hormone excess. TSHomas are best treated by transphenoidal surgical removal. Radiotherapy is indicated for inoperable or incompletely resected tumors. Octreotide administration is a useful adjunct for preoperatively reducing tumor size and for the medical management of surgical treatment failures. PRTH is ideally treated by chronically suppressing TSH secretion with medications such as D-thyroxine, TRIAC, octreotide, or bromocriptine. If such therapy is ineffective or unavailable, thyroid ablation with radioiodine or surgery may be employed with subsequent close monitoring of both thyroid hormone status and pituitary gland size. PMID:9534036

McDermott, M T; Ridgway, E C

1998-03-01

81

Handy Measuring Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use their hands as tools for indirect measurement. Learners explore how to use ratios to calculate the approximate height of something that can't be measured directly by first measuring something that can be directly measured. This activity can also be used to explain how scientists use indirect measurement to determine distances between things in the universe that are too far away, too large or too small to measure directly (i.e. diameter of the moon or number of bacteria in a volume of liquid).

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

82

Neuropsychology Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neuropsychology Central is devoted to the subject of - "Neuropsychology, a new branch of science with the specific and unique aim of investigating the role of individual brain systems in complex forms of mental activity." - A.R. Luria "The Working Brain" The page aims to describe the importance of neuropsychology as a science of brain and behavior, and to act as a resource for the professional and layperson alike. See links to current technology for brain imaging, and sections covering different aspects of this ever growing field such as cognitive, developmental, and geriatric Neuropsychology. In addition, a reader survey is included to facilitate the expansion of the site.

Browndyke, J. N.

2007-03-24

83

Sonnet Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a dedicated sonnet aficionado, Sonnet Central is not intended for the scholar, per se, but for the reader, the Internaut with a weakness for poetry. The site contains a collection of English-language sonnets, grouped by period and region or by author, and modernized for contemporary readers. Pictures, contemporaneous critical works, a bibliography, and audio files of readings of selected poems complement the sonnets, some of which are maintained off-site (many at the University of Toronto). From Shakespeare to Wilfred Owen, selections from many well-known sonneteers are here alongside those of their less famous contemporaries.

84

Central hypothyroidism  

PubMed Central

Central hypothyroidism is defined as hypothyroidism due to insufficient stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. It has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 80,000 to 1 in 120,000. It can be secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary) or tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamus) in origin. In children, it is usually caused by craniopharyngiomas or previous cranial irradiation for brain tumors or hematological malignancies. In adults, it is usually due to pituitary macroadenomas, pituitary surgeries or post-irradiation. Fatigue and peripheral edema are the most specific clinical features. Diagnosis is established by the presence of normal to low-normal TSH on the background of low-normal thyroid hormones, confirmed by the thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test. Therapy includes use of levothyroxine titrated to improvement in symptomology and keeping free T4 in the upper limit of normal reference range.

Gupta, Vishal; Lee, Marilyn

2011-01-01

85

Central Cord Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Central Cord Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Central Cervical Cord Syndrome Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Cord Syndrome? Central cord syndrome is the most ...

86

Central Pain Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Central Pain Syndrome? ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological ...

87

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

Biraud, S

2011-02-23

88

Climatic significance of isotope ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of water, which can be measured by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), exhibit climatic dependencies and are commonly exploited in hydrogeology. More generally, the overall carbon or hydrogen isotope ratios of plant organic matter, and in particular of tree-ring cellulose, have been frequently used for climatic reconstruction. However, since many physicochemical and biochemical fractionation

Gérard J. Martin; Maryvonne L. Martin

2003-01-01

89

Trade Openness, Capital Mobility, and the Sacrifice Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops and evaluates empirically the implications of a theoretical model of an open economy in which variations\\u000a in both trade openness and capital mobility can influence the sacrifice ratio. Key predictions forthcoming from the model\\u000a are that both forms of globalization can independently affect the sacrifice ratio, once the influences of the level of central\\u000a bank independence and

Joseph P. Daniels; David D. VanHoose

2009-01-01

90

Centrality in affiliation networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the conceptualization, measurement, and interpretation of centrality in affiliation networks. Although centrality is a well-studied topic in social network analysis, and is one of the most widely used properties for studying affiliation networks, virtually all discussions of centrality and centralization have concerned themselves with one-mode networks. Bonacich's work on simultaneous group and individual centralities is a notable

Katherine Faust

1997-01-01

91

Central Europe Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are interested in reading news directly from Central Europe, then this is the publication for you. Central Europe Today is a daily English language radio news magazine syndicated throughout Central Europe.

92

Air/fuel ratio controller  

SciTech Connect

An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

1980-12-23

93

Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement  

PubMed Central

Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement.

Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borga; Thrailkill, Eric A.

2009-01-01

94

Poisson'S Ratio in Orthotropic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Poisson's ratio is frequently measured in uniaxial testing of orthotropic materials, and values in excess of unity are common for composites. In isotropic materials it is known that values larger than one half are thermodynamically inadmissible, for such ...

B. M. Lempriere

1968-01-01

95

Ardennes Fractional Exchange Ratio Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Army Concepts Analysis Agency (CAA) requires guidelines on use and computation of the combat measure of effectiveness (MOE) denote as the fractional exchange ratio (FER). The Ardennes Campaign Simulation Data Base (ACSDB) derived from historical ar...

W. Bauman

1997-01-01

96

Fixed-ratio punishment1  

PubMed Central

Responses were maintained by a variable-interval schedule of food reinforcement. At the same time, punishment was delivered following every nth response (fixed-ratio punishment). The introduction of fixed-ratio punishment produced an initial phase during which the emission of responses was positively accelerated between punishments. Eventually, the degree of positive acceleration was reduced and a uniform but reduced rate of responding emerged. Large changes in the over-all level of responding were produced by the intensity of punishment, the value of the punishment ratio, and the level of food deprivation. The uniformity of response rate between punishments was invariant in spite of these changes in over-all rate and contrary to some plausible a priori theoretical considerations. Fixed-ratio punishment also produced phenomena previously observed under continuous punishment: warm-up effect and a compensatory increase. This type of intermittent punishment produced less rapid and less complete suppression than did continuous punishment.

Azrin, N. H.; Holz, W. C.; Hake, D. F.

1963-01-01

97

FcR? Activation Regulates Inflammation-Associated Squamous Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Chronically activated leukocytes recruited to premalignant tissues functionally contribute to cancer development; however, mechanisms underlying pro- versus anti-tumor programming of neoplastic tissues by immune cells remain obscure. Using the K14-HPV16 mouse model of squamous carcinogenesis, we report that B cells and humoral immunity foster cancer development by activating Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs) on resident and recruited myeloid cells. Stromal accumulation of autoantibodies in premalignant skin, through their interaction with activating Fc?Rs, regulate recruitment, composition, and bioeffector functions of leukocytes in neoplastic tissue, which in turn promote neoplastic progression and subsequent carcinoma development. These findings support a model in which B cells, humoral immunity, and activating Fc?Rs are required for establishing chronic inflammatory programs that promote de novo carcinogenesis.

Andreu, Pauline; Johansson, Magnus; Affara, Nesrine I.; Pucci, Ferdinando; Tan, Tingting; Junankar, Simon; Korets, Lidiya; Lam, Julia; Tawfik, David; DeNardo, David G.; Naldini, Luigi; de Visser, Karin E.; De Palma, Michele; Coussens, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

98

FcR? Activation Regulates Inflammation-Associated Squamous Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Chronically activated leukocytes recruited to premalignant tissues functionally contribute to cancer develop- ment; however, mechanisms underlying pro- versus anti-tumor programming of neoplastic tissues by immune cells remain obscure. Using the K14-HPV16 mouse model of squamous carcinogenesis, we report thatBcellsandhumoralimmunityfostercancerdevelopmentbyactivatingFcgreceptors (FcgRs)onresident and recruited myeloid cells. Stromal accumulation of autoantibodies in premalignant skin, through their inter- action with activating FcgRs, regulate

Pauline Andreu; Magnus Johansson; Nesrine I. Affara; Ferdinando Pucci; Tingting Tan; Simon Junankar; Lidiya Korets; Julia Lam; David Tawfik; David G. DeNardo; Luigi Naldini; Karin E. de Visser; Michele De Palma; Lisa M. Coussens

2010-01-01

99

Isotopic ratios in planetary atmospheres.  

PubMed

Recent progress on measurements of isotopic ratios in planetary or satellite atmospheres include measurements of the D/H ratio in the methane of Uranus, Neptune and Titan and in the water of Mars and Venus. Implications of these measurements on our understanding of the formation and evolution of the planets and satellite are discussed. Our current knowledge of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios in the atmospheres of these planets, as well as on Jupiter and Saturn, is also reviewed. We finally show what progress can be expected in the very near future due to some new ground-based instrumentation particularly well suited to such studies, and to forthcoming space missions. PMID:11539257

de Bergh, C

1995-03-01

100

Single fibre electromyography in central core disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single fibre electromyography in the extensor digitorum communis muscle was studied in five patients with central core disease. The average number of muscle fibre action potentials belonging to the same motor unit was higher in patients than in healthy subjects of the same age. The increase in motor unit fibre density is consistent with increased terminal innervation ratio described in

A. Cruz Martínez; M. T. Ferrer; J. M. López-Terradas; I. Pascual-Castroviejo; P. Mingo

1979-01-01

101

Central pontine myelinolysis  

MedlinePLUS

Central pontine myelinolysis is brain cell dysfunction caused by the destruction of the layer ( myelin sheath ) covering ... nerve to another. The most common cause of central pontine myelinolysis is a quick rise in the ...

102

Central line infections - hospitals  

MedlinePLUS

... and increase how long you are in the hospital. Your central line needs special care to prevent ... The hospital staff will use aseptic technique when a central line is put in your chest or arm. Aseptic ...

103

Central Tendency and Variability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter presents two important interrelated topics in statistics: central tendency and variability. Measures of central tendency show how similar the data points in a set of data are, while measures of variability show how much the

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

104

Central Avalanche Hazard Forecasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the first year of activity under Washington State Department of Highways project Central Avalanche Hazard Forecasting (Agreement Y-1700) to test the feasibility and effectiveness of central avalanche forecasting for the Cascade Moun...

E. R. LaChapelle R. T. Marriott M. B. Moore F. W. Reanier P. L. Taylor

1976-01-01

105

Surface to Volume Ratio Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, this two-part laboratory activity was designed to complement any chemistry unit on catalysts to "help students understand how nanoparticles may be more effective catalysts by investigating how the surface area-to-volume ratio of a substance is affected as its shape changes." On this site, educators can find both the teacher and student instructions for preparing and presenting the laboratory with objectives, time periods, materials, procedures, example answers, and much more. It is a ready-to-use lesson to help students understand catalysts and surface to volume ratio at molecular and atomic levels.

2009-01-14

106

Denuclearizing central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with two interrelated issues: the withdrawal of Soviet nuclear weapons from Central Asia; and the regional nuclear?weapon?free zone (NWFZ) initiative. Central Asian countries succeeded in denuclearizing the region. The ex?Soviet nuclear weapons were withdrawn from Central Asia, and fissile material production for military purposes was stopped. The Central Asian states acceded to the Non?Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and

Alexander Sergounin

1999-01-01

107

Martian Central Pit Craters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ('floor pits') as well as on top of central peaks ('summ...

E. Hillman N. G. Barlow

2005-01-01

108

European Central Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

109

Air/fuel ratio detector  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for detecting the air/fuel ratio of exhaust gas with a detector comprising an electrochemical cell sensor element and an oxygen pump element. Each element is in the form of an oxygen-ion-conductive solid electrolyte having a porous electrode formed on both sides thereof. The electrochemical cell sensor element being disposed to face the pump element with a small gap therebetween, exposed to the exhaust gas and an air compartment which is open to the atmosphere being formed on that side of the pump element which is opposite to the small gap. An electric current is caused to flow through the oxygen pump element so that oxygen is pumped into the small gap from the air compartment or in the opposite direction, thereby producing an electromotive force in the sensor element. The electromotive force and the current flowing through the pump element is used as a basis for detecting the air/fuel ratio of the exhaust gas. The improvement described here is wherein a sufficient amount of current to pump oxygen from the air compartment into the small gap is caused to flow through the oxygen pump element so as to produce an abrupt change in the electromotive force of the sensor element at a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. The electromotive force of the sensor element is used to determine whether a present air/fuel ratio is in the fuel-rich or fuel-lean region.

Yamada, T.; Hirate, S.

1986-10-07

110

Declustering Using Golden Ratio Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a new data declustering scheme for range queries. Our schemeis based on Golden Ratio Sequences (GRS), which have found applications in broadcast disks,hashing, packet routing, etc. We show by analysis and simulation that GRS is nearly the bestpossible scheme for 2-dimensional range queries. Specifically, it is the best possible scheme whenthe number of disks (M

Randeep Bhatia; Rakesh K. Sinha; Chung-min Chen

2000-01-01

111

Surface Area to Volume Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains two documents explaining surface area to volume ratio. The topic is covered at an advanced level in relation to nanotechnology and requires background knowledge in geometry, algebra, and linear and non-linear unit conversions. A powerpoint with illustrations and instructor guide (available as both a Microsoft Word Document and PDF) containing activities are included to aid in teaching this subject.

2012-10-16

112

Empirical Likelihood Ratio Confidence Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical likelihood ratio function is defined and used to obtain confidence regions for vector valued statistical functionals. The result is a nonparametric version of Wilks' theorem and a multivariate generalization of work by Owen. Cornish-Fisher expansions show that the empirical likelihood intervals for a one dimensional mean are less adversely affected by skewness than are those based on Student's

Art Owen

1990-01-01

113

A Ratio Explanation for Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes hands-on physical anthropology activities for teaching students about evolution. Using evidence found in hominid skulls, students conduct investigations that involve calculating ratios. Eight full-page photographs of skulls from the program Stones and Bones are included. (PR)|

Riss, Pam Helfers

1993-01-01

114

Air/fuel ratio regulator  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of an air/fuel ratio regulator for use with the fuel injection control system of an internal combustion engine of the spark ignition type having an air and exhaust gas (gas) induction passage open at one end to air at ambient pressure level and connected at its other end to the engine combustion chamber to be subject to manifold vacuum changes therein, a throttle valve rotatably mounted for movement across the passage to control the gas flow therethrough, exhaust gas recirculation (egr) passage means connecting engine exhaust gases to the induction passage above the closed position of the throttle valve, an egr flow control valve mounted in the egr passage means for movement between open and closed postions to control the volume of egr gas flow, an engine speed responsive positive displacement type fuel injection pump having a fuel flow output to the engine that varies in direct proportion to changes in engines speed to match fuel flow and mass airflow through the induction system of the engine over the entire speed and load range of the engine to maintain the intake mixture ratio of air to fuel constant, the pump having a fuel flow control lever movable to vary the fuel rate of flow, the regulator being characterized by engine manifold vacuum responsive first servo means operably connected to the fuel control lever for maintaining a constant air/fuel (A/F) ratio by changing fuel output as a function of changing manifold vacuum and air flow upon opening of the throttle valve, a fuel enrichment control lever operably connected to the pump control lever and movable to modify the position of the pump lever dictated by the first servo means to change the A/F ratio, and further means responsive to engine operating conditions for moving the fuel enrichment control lever to provide the changed A/F ratio.

Simko, A.

1980-07-22

115

Two-stage treatment reduces water/oil ratio  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports how a treatment of amphoteric polymer followed by chrome-complexed anionic polyacrylamide has successfully decreased the water/oil (WOR) ratio of wells producing from the Arbuckle dolomite formation in central Kansas. This technique, the fractured-matrix, water-control (FMWC) treatment, is designed to alter both primary and secondary permeability to water production. In 10 treated wells, the average WOR was reduced by a factor of five.

Wood, F.; Dairymple, D. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (US)); McKown, K.; Matthews, B. (Halliburton Services, KS (US))

1990-09-10

116

Models of Ratio Schedule Performance  

PubMed Central

Predictions of P. R. Killeen's (1994) mathematical principles of reinforcement were tested for responding on ratio reinforcement schedules. The type of response key, the number of sessions per condition, and first vs. second half of a session had negligible effects on responding. Longer reinforcer durations and larger grain types engeridered more responding, affecting primarily the parameter a (specific activation). Key pecking was faster than treadle pressing, affecting primarily the parameter ? (response time). Longer intertrial intervals led to higher overall response rates and shorter postreinforcement pauses and higher running rates, and ruled out some competing explanations. The treadle data required a distinction between the energetic requirements and rate-limiting properties of extended responses. The theory was extended to predict pause durations and run rates on ratio schedules.

Bizo, Lewis A.; Killeen, Peter R.

2008-01-01

117

Fluorescence intensity ratio stereoscopic transform.  

PubMed

A novel approach to 3-D information processing of 2-D cell images is presented, called fluorescence intensity ratio stereoscopic transform (FIRST). Here, we describe its basic principle of image processing and show the results for the ratio of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) to fluorescence intensity. A simple, intuitive transform algorithm would help us to easily obtain a clear stereoscopic image from two 2-D cell images with different fluorescence intensity. For this purpose, nonlinear evanescent-field (EF) imaging of cell-membrane surface and its intracellular structures by using on-chip grating coupler is achieved. This method enabled us to obtain cell images with different signal-to-background ratio and resolution under microfluidic environments. Specifically, we manipulated optic pathway to partially illuminate microscale objects within the microfluidic channel. These findings imply this method will enable selectively to detect optical signals of biomolecular interaction within the cell membrane in a controlled manner. Furthermore, we believe this approach will help to develop an optofluidic sensor for individually detecting dynamic behaviors of intracellular molecules in living cells under microfluidic cell culture environments. PMID:22121719

Yun, Hoyoung; Min, Junggi; Bang, Hyunwoo; Han, Dong-Chul; Lee, Soon-Geul; Lee, Won Gu

2011-07-01

118

Luminescence ratio indicators for oxygen  

SciTech Connect

To improve stability of optical sensors with respect to calibration, the authors developed oxygen indicator systems which have two luminescence bands, one of which is quenched by oxygen while the other is relatively unaffected by oxygen. The measured parameter is the relative intensity of the two bands. The following systems have been evaluated: (1) In water in the presence of ..gamma..-cyclodextrin, the ratio of pyrene monomer fluorescence to pyrene dimer fluorescence decreases with increasing oxygen partial pressure. (2) In water in the presence of ..beta..-cyclodextrin, the ratio of bromonaphthalene phosphorescence to fluorescence decreases with increasing oxygen partial pressure. (3) Bromonaphthoyl derivatives extracted into ..gamma..-cyclodextrin bonded to cellulose and dried show intense oxygen-dependent phosphorescence and oxygen-independent fluorescence. Of these, system 3 is most practical because it is more stable and has higher intensities with a larger change in intensity ratio. However, it is limited to measurements in dry samples, because 100% relative humidity is sufficient to quench phosphorescence.

Lee, E.D.; Werner, T.C.; Seitz, W.R.

1987-01-15

119

Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)|

Minter, John; And Others

1982-01-01

120

Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine  

SciTech Connect

Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

Charles Mendler

2011-03-15

121

Central composite rotatable design for liquefaction of pine barks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of various experimental parameters on the liquefaction yields of a biomass waste material, namely pine barks, were investigated statistically. The key parameters investigated were temperature, pressure, solvent to pine bark ratio and tetralin to solvent mixture ratio. A statistical experimental design based on second order central composite rotatable design was planned fixing the liquefaction period

Korkut Aç?kal?n; Fatma Karaca; Esen Bolat

2005-01-01

122

Measurement of tau branching ratios  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the branching ratios for several tau decay modes. We use e/sup +/e/sup -/..-->..tau/sup +/tau/sup -/ events accumulated with the TPC/Two-Gamma facility at the SLAC e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring PEP. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 77 pb/sup -1/ at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV. The one- and three-charged-particle inclusive branching ratios of the tau decay are measured to be B/sub 1/ = (84.7 +- 1.0)% and B/sub 3/ = (15.1 +- 1.0)%, where B/sub 1/+B/sub 3/ is constrained to be 99.85%. The branching ratios of the two leptonic decay modes are B(tau/sup -/..-->..e/sup -/ nu-bar/sub e/..nu../sub tau/) = (18.4 +- 1.6)% and B(tau/sup -/..--> mu../sup -/ nu-bar/sub ..mu../..nu../sub tau/) = (17.7 +- 1.4)%. If we then assume lepton universality, we obtain B(tau/sup -/..-->..e/sup -/ nu-bar/sub e/..nu../sub tau/) = (18.3 +- 0.9)% and B(tau/sup -/..--> mu../sup -/ nu-bar/sub ..mu../..nu../sub tau/) = (17.8 +- 0.9)%. We measure the Cabibbo-allowed semihadronic decay mode B(tau/sup -/..--> pi../sup -/+neutral particles) = (47.0 +- 1.5)%, and the Cabibbo-suppressed tau decay mode B(tau/sup -/..-->..K/sup -/+neutral particles) = (1.6 +- 0.4)%. By looking for associated photons, we find B(tau/sup -/..-->..K/sup -/..pi../sup 0/+neutral particles) to be (1.2 +- 0.6)%.

Aihara, H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Avery, R.E.; Bakken, J.A.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barker, A.R.; Barnes, A.V.; Barnett, B.A.; Barnett, B.A.; Bauer, D.A.; and others

1987-03-01

123

Preservation of near-solar neon isotopic ratios in Icelandic basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neon isotopic ratios measured in olivine and basaltic glass from Iceland are the most primitive observed so far in terrestrial mantle-derived samples. Ratios were measured in gas released from olivine and basaltic glass from a total of 10 samples from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, and one sample from central Iceland. The neon isotopic ratios include solar-like, mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like

Eleanor T. Dixon; Masahiko Honda; Ian McDougall; Ian H. Campbell; Ingvar Sigurdsson

2000-01-01

124

Is bank supervision central to central banking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several central banks have lost their bank supervisory responsibilities, in part because it has not been shown that supervisory authority improves the conduct of monetary policy. This paper finds that confidential bank supervisory information could help the Board staff more accurately forecast important macroeconomic variables and is used by FOMC members to guide monetary policy. These findings suggest that

Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

1999-01-01

125

Experimental demonstration that offspring sex ratio varies with maternal condition  

PubMed Central

Sex ratio theory predicts that, if prevailing ecological or social circumstances differentially influence the fitness benefits of offspring of each sex, parents should adjust their production accordingly to maximize fitness. For species in which sex is chromosomally determined, such as birds and mammals, a differential effect of maternal condition on the fitness of male and female young is one important route whereby selection is expected to favor a bias in the offspring sex ratio at birth or egg laying. However, despite its central place in sex allocation theory, this hypothesis has rarely been tested in wild populations. We manipulated maternal condition upward and downward in a sexually dimorphic wild bird and examined the effect on offspring survival and on offspring sex ratio. The survival to fledging of male, but not female, young was substantially reduced if they came from less well provisioned eggs produced by females in relatively poor condition. As female condition, and thereby her capacity to produce high quality eggs, declined, she progressively skewed the sex ratio of her eggs toward females; i.e., she produced more of the sex with the higher survival prospects. The decline in the survival of male offspring, and the sex ratio bias, was removed when maternal condition was enhanced. These results provide experimental evidence of an adaptive, facultative adjustment of sex ratio in response to changes in maternal condition in wild birds.

Nager, R. G.; Monaghan, P.; Griffiths, R.; Houston, D. C.; Dawson, R.

1999-01-01

126

Detection strategies for extreme mass ratio inspirals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near-horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for tens of thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an exhaustive grid-based matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here I describe an alternative approach that employs a hybrid between genetic algorithms and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques, along with several time-saving techniques for computing the likelihood function. This approach has proven effective at the blind extraction of relatively weak EMRI signals from simulated LISA data sets.

Cornish, Neil J.

2011-05-01

127

Central Receiver Plant Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is part of the evaluation work carried out at Ecole Centrale on central receiver plants. THEMIS system peformance is evaluated with emphasis given to energy production. The daily energy production is established on the basis of both plant modelization and actual plant production results. This analysis is performed at different levels of the system: receiver output, salt loop

A. Amri; M. Izygon; B. Tedjiza

1988-01-01

128

Wetlands of Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wetlands of seven Central American countries – Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panamá – are reviewed. The region's wetlands are classified into five systems: marine, estuarine, riverine, lacustrine, and palustrine. At a minimum, wetlands cover ˜40,000 km2 (˜8%) of the land area of Central America. These wetlands support high levels of biological diversity, especially of

Aaron M. Ellison

2004-01-01

129

Central Bank Transparency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank transparency has become one of the key features of monetary policy recently. This survey article provides a structured review of the theoretical literature on the consequences of transparency of monetary policy, proposing a distinction between uncertainty and incentive effects of transparency. The theoretical insights are compared to the various ways in which central banks have become transparent in

Petra M. Geraats

2002-01-01

130

Central diffraction at ALICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

Lämsä, J. W.; Orava, R.

2011-02-01

131

Reconstructing bulk isotope ratios from compound-specific isotope ratios.  

PubMed

Carbon isotope analysis by bulk elemental analysis coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry has been the mainstay of delta(13)C analyses both at natural abundance and in tracer studies. More recently, compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has become established, whereby organic constituents are separated online by gas or liquid chromatography before oxidation and analysis of CO(2) for constituent delta(13)C. Theoretically, there should be concordance between bulk delta(13)C measurements and carbon-weighted delta(13)C measurements of carbon-containing constituents. To test the concordance between the bulk and CSIA, fish oil was chosen because the majority of carbon in fish oil is in the triacylglycerol form and approximately 95% of this carbon is amenable to CSIA in the form of fatty acids. Bulk isotope analysis was carried out on aliquots of oil extracted from 55 fish samples and delta(13)C values were obtained. Free fatty acids (FFAs) were produced from the oil samples by saponification and derivatised to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) for CSIA by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A known amount of an internal standard (C15:0 FAME) was added to allow analyte quantitation. This internal standard was also isotopically calibrated in both its FFA (delta(13)C = -34.30 per thousand) and FAME (delta(13)C = -34.94 per thousand) form. This allowed reporting of FFA delta(13)C from measured FAME delta(13)C values. The bulk delta(13)C was reconstructed from CSIA data based on each FFA delta(13)C and the relative amount of CO(2) produced by each analyte. The measured bulk mean delta(13)C (SD) was -23.75 per thousand (1.57 per thousand) compared with the reconstructed bulk mean delta(13)C of -23.76 (1.44 per thousand) from CSIA and was not significantly different. Further analysis of the data by the Bland-Altman method did not show particular bias in the data relative to the magnitude of the measurement. Good agreement between the methods was observed with the mean difference between methods (range) of 0.01 per thousand (-1.50 to 1.30). PMID:20499325

Morrison, Douglas J; Cooper, Karen; Preston, Tom

2010-06-30

132

Newborn Brain: Body weight ratios.  

PubMed

Newborn brain:body weight ratios are generally considered to be constant in man. In autopsy studies many factors influence the measured weight of the brain, and therefore the conclusions based on such observations, including the gestational age of the material, the presence or absence of intrauterine growth retardation, and the cause of death. In this study these influences have been eliminated by careful selection of normally grown fullterm newborns not subject to the factors influencing brain weight. Using double logarithmic plots, brain size in fullterm newborns is found to be related to the 0.64 power of birth weight. There is a negative correlation between relative brain size and increasing fullterm birth size in man. PMID:1258985

Jordaan, H V

1976-03-01

133

Variable ratio regenerative braking device  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

1981-12-15

134

Detailed Distribution of the Helium Isotope Ratios in Northeastern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geographical distribution of helium isotope ratios (3He/4He ratios) is characterized by high values of 4 to 8RA (where RA is the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.39×10-6) along the volcanic front and in the back-arc region at Tohoku district, northeastern Japan. In contrast forearc region shows low values less than 1RA. On the other hand, there is no clear contrast of the 3He/4He ratios except at the central region (e.g., Sano and Wakita, 1985). We perform the helium isotope ratio analysis in northeastern Japan, and around the source region of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 (M6.8) where 3He/4He ratios data were reported. We have collected 41 samples of gases from hot springs, mineral springs, and deep wells, distributing mainly in the forearc region at Tohoku district. In addition, we also collected 19 samples of gases from hot springs, volcanoes and natural gas fields around the source region of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007. We measured 3He/4He ratios by noble gas mass spectrometers (Helix and VG5400) of Ocean Research Institute (ORI), the University of Tokyo. The 4He/20Ne were measured by a quadruple mass spectrometer to evaluate air contamination in the samples. ?13C (CO2) values were measured by using a mass spectrometer (DELTA plus XP) of ORI. Main features of our results for Tohoku region are as follows: 1) The 3He/4He ratios in the forearc region are less than 1RA. 2) The 3He/4He ratios vary along the volcanic front. In Miyagi prefecture [38-39N], the ratios range from 2 to 5 RA. On the other hand, the ratios are less than 1RA in and around the southern boundary of Iwate and Akita prefectures [39-39.5N]. The distribution of 3He/4He ratios in Niigata plans to be discussed by comparing with the well-studied seismotectonics and the structure of the crust and upper mantle.

Horiguchi, K.; Ueki, S.; Sano, Y.; Takahata, N.; Hasegawa, A.

2007-12-01

135

Ratio cut partitioning for hierarchical designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circuit partitioning for hierarchical VLSI design is addressed. A partitioning approach called ratio cut is proposed. It is demonstrated that the ratio cut algorithm can locate the clustering structures in the circuit. Finding the optimal ratio cut is NP-complete. However, in certain cases the ratio cut can be solved by linear programming techniques via the multicommodity flow formulation. Also proposed

Yen-chuen Wei; Chung-kuan Cheng

1991-01-01

136

Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)|

Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

2001-01-01

137

Central Force JS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Force JavaScript Model computes the trajectory of a particle acted on by a central force.  The model reads uses a JavaScript mathematical expression parser to read the force and a adaptive step Runge-Kutta 5(4) algorithm to compute the trajectory.  This model is designed to test the speed of the JS parser and the accuracy of the EJS JavaScript ODE solver. The Central Force JS Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) version 5. It is distributed as a ready-to-run html page and requires only a browser with JavaScript support.

Christian, Wolfgang

2013-09-01

138

MoneyCentral  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MoneyCentral is a new personal finance site by Microsoft now in public beta test. An expanded and more user-friendly form of MSN's Money Insider (discussed in the October 23, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), MoneyCentral encompasses a wide variety of guides and tools on everything from Family Financing to Real Estate, Taxes and Investing. Visitors may view the full range of MoneyCentral topics from a clearly-arranged and clickable site map among other helpful links.

1999-01-01

139

Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

1990-09-01

140

Isotopic ratios in giant planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of spectrometric measurements of isotopic ratios in giant planets, and implications on the formation of giant planets are discussed. Derivations of D/H in Jupiter and Saturn form CH3D conflict with derivations from HD. Uncertainties in the interpretation come from the difficulty in estimating the fractionation factor between CH3D and CH4, and from scattering effects in the radiative transfer within HD and H2 absorption lines. However, deuterium abundance in the primordial solar nebula 4.6 billion yr ago can be estimated. Data suggest that D/H is enhanced in Uranus compared to Jupiter and Saturn, in agreement with a scenario of inhomogeneous formation of giant planets. The C12/C13 value in Jupiter from Voyager measurements suggests a value significantly higher than the terrestrial value, but conflicts with the value derived from ground based measurements, which agrees with the terrestrial value. The N14/N15 value is compatible with the terrestrial value.

Gautier, D.

141

Central ballast tanker design  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER Design. This design is intended to reduce the volume of oil spilled from tankers by giving the crew a tanker properly designed and equipped to allow large quantities of oil from ruptured tank(s) to flow safely to a fully-inerted central ballast tank. In addition to reducing the volume of oil spilled, the design also addresses many of the shortcomings of the DOUBLE HULL DESIGN which are increasingly becoming a concern. The following is a brief review of the development of the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER. The simple operational features, stability, low cost and ease of maintenance of the single hull tanker were important and can be retained with the CENTRAL BALLAST DESIGN.

NONE

1997-01-01

142

Central nervous system  

MedlinePLUS

The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for the entire nervous system, and control all the workings of your body.

143

An assessment of the cord blood:maternal blood methylmercury ratio: implications for risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

In the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose (RfD) for methylmercury, the one-compartment pharmacokinetic model is used to convert fetal cord blood mercury (Hg) concentration to a maternal intake dose. This requires a ratio relating cord blood Hg concentration to maternal blood Hg concentration. No formal analysis of either the central tendency or variability of this ratio has been done. This variability contributes to the overall variability in the dose estimate. A ratio of 1.0 is implicitly used in the model, but an uncertainty factor adjustment is applied to the central tendency estimate of dose to address variability in that estimate. Thus, incorporation of the cord:maternal ratio and its variability into the estimate of intake dose could result in a significant change in the value of the RfD. We analyzed studies providing data on the cord:maternal blood Hg ratio and conducted a Monte Carlo-based meta-analysis of 10 studies meeting all inclusion criteria to generate a comprehensive estimate of the central tendency and variability of the ratio. This analysis results in a recommended central tendency estimate of 1.7, a coefficient of variation of 0.56, and a 95th percentile of 3.4. By analogy to the impact of the similar hair:blood Hg ratio on the overall variability in the dose estimate, incorporation of the cord:maternal ratio may support a 3-fold uncertainty factor adjustment to the central tendency estimate of dose to account for pharmacokinetic variability. Whether the information generated in this analysis is sufficient to warrant a revision to the RfD will depend on the outcome of a comprehensive reanalysis of the entire one-compartment model. We are currently engaged in such an analysis.

Stern, Alan H; Smith, Andrew E

2003-01-01

144

System-size dependence of particle-ratio fluctuations in Pb + Pb collisions at 158A GeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New measurements by the NA49 experiment of the centrality dependence of event-by-event fluctuations of the particle yield ratios (K++K-)/(?++?-), (p+p¯)/(?++?-), and (K++K-)/(p+p¯) are presented for Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV. The absolute values of the dynamical fluctuations of these ratios, quantified by the measure ?dyn, increase by about a factor of two from central to semiperipheral collisions. Multiplicity scaling scenarios are tested and found to apply for both the centrality and the previously published energy dependence of the (K++K-)/(?++?-) and (p+p¯)/(?++?-) ratio fluctuations. A description of the centrality and energy dependence of (K++K-)/(p+p¯) ratio fluctuations by a common scaling prescription is not possible since there is a sign change in the energy dependence.

Anticic, T.; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Bia?kowska, H.; Blume, C.; Bogusz, M.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Bun?i?, P.; Cetner, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvála, O.; Cramer, J. G.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Ga?dzicki, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Höhne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kollegger, T.; Kowalski, M.; Kresan, D.; László, A.; Lacey, R.; van Leeuwen, M.; Ma?kowiak-Paw?owska, M.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A. I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G. L.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrówczy?ski, St.; Nicolic, V.; Pálla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Pühlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczy?ski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Siklér, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; S?odkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Ströbele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Utvi?, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G. I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vrani?, D.; W?odarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.

2013-02-01

145

Medical Loss Ratio (MLR) (Affordable Care Act)  

MedlinePLUS

... Letters Regulations and Guidance Stakeholder Engagement Training Resources Medical Loss Ratio Many insurance companies spend a substantial ... services and quality improvement, also known as the Medical Loss Ratio (MLR). It also requires them to ...

146

Poisson`s ratio and crustal seismology  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the use of Poisson`s ratio to place constraints on continental crustal composition. A summary of Poisson`s ratios for many common rock formations is also included with emphasis on igneous and metamorphic rock properties.

Christensen, N.I. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

1996-02-10

147

CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect

A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

ROMINE, L.D.

2006-02-01

148

Computation of Cold-Start Miss Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold-start miss ratios are miss ratios that are measured with an initially empty first-level store. The values obtained depend on C, the first-level storage capacity, and on T, the number of references. These miss ratios, measured for various values of T, are useful in evaluating the effect of task switching on cache miss ratios when the cache capacity is C.

Malcolm C. Easton

1978-01-01

149

Using Lego Construction to Develop Ratio Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines Year 7 students use and learning of ratio concepts while engaged in the technology practice of designing, constructing and evaluating simple machines, that used cogs and pulleys. It was found that most students made considerable progress in accounting for ratio concepts in their constructions and some constructed sophisticated machines and provided explicit and quantitative descriptions involving ratio

Stephen Norton

150

Ratio estimators in simple random sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes ratio estimators by adapting the estimators' type of Ray and Singh [J. Ind. Stat. Assoc. 19 (1981) 147] to traditional and the other ratio-type estimators in simple random sampling in literature. Theoretically, mean square error (MSE) equations of all proposed ratio estimators are obtained and compared with each other. By these comparisons the conditions, which make each

Cem Kadilar; Hulya Cingi

2004-01-01

151

Central Europe Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new weekly online journal from Central and East European New Media Initiative (CEENMI) offers news and analysis of events in politics, society, and culture across the region. With over 45 contributors from 17 countries, the journal provides a surprising amount of coverage each week. In addition to regular columns and weekly news summaries, the journal contains several in-depth articles and special feature pieces, including a number of resources (such as articles, film and book reviews, and related links) grouped around a weekly theme. The journal also offers a weekly list of Central and East European cultural events in the UK, links to related stories from other online news sources, and an archive. Users can read the Central Europe Review at the site or receive free weekly summaries via email.

152

Regional Growth in Central Europe. Long-term Effects of Population and Traffic Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a simple growth model we explore the current and future growth effects of the regional population structure. Regional GDP growth in 227 regions within six countries in central Europe is explored as how they depend on the young and old dependency ratio. The young dependency ratio (YDR) is defined as ratio of the less than 20 years old and

Wolfgang Polasek; Helmut Berrer

2005-01-01

153

ORIC central region calculations  

SciTech Connect

The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Bailey, J.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Lane, S.N.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

1995-12-31

154

Centralized Mouse Repositories  

PubMed Central

Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

Donahue, Leah Rae; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Horlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T.

2013-01-01

155

A comprehensive discussion of the birth gender ratio in China.  

PubMed

As China's birth rate has declined, its birth gender ratio has increased. The causes were identified as follows: 1) reporting or tabulation errors in birth statistics affecting 50-75% of the increases; 2) induced abortion and the use of ultrasound equipment in fetal sex identification; 3) an unusually higher female death rate due to parental neglect and lack of caring for sick female infants; 4) unreported female adoptions; and 5) infant abandonment and drowning. Since 1993, top leaders within the Party Central Committee and State Family Planning Committee have recognized publicly the serious issue of the birth gender ratio and called for action. International scholars have used the 1987 1% sample data and the 1990 census data to analyze the determinants of the increased birth gender ratio. Population researchers in the US and Australia have identified drowning of female infants as the main reason. Chinese researchers have published in international journals and national demographic journals findings that the phenomenon was not unique to China and related to higher order births. Proposed strategies included expanding the scope of research and focus on regions where the imbalances were particularly high and population size was large. There should be better coordination between state family planning administrative departments and research institutes in policy implementation. In 1989, the birth gender ratio was 113.8 based on a 100% population census, and evidence from more recent surveys has indicated continuation of increases. The China Population Information and Research Center had taken up the challenge and analyzed census data, conducted field studies, analyzed hospital birth registrations, and conducted special investigations in southern Zhejiang Province. The problem of imbalances arose during the 1980s and particularly increased after 1985 above 110. The ratio has been within a normal range for first-borns. The gender ratio has become more abnormal with increasing birth order. In 1989, the first-born sex ratio was 105.2 and the second-born sex ratio was 121.0. This pattern varied across regions. Townships had the highest ratios. The imbalances were observed mostly for women with secondary or lower education and for women of Han nationality. PMID:12319211

Gu, B; Xu, Y

1994-01-01

156

Skewed sex ratio at birth in India.  

PubMed

Scientists commonly use world average data on sex ratio at birth for India for want of dependable ones. Here an attempt is made to redress the problem to some extent. It is shown that this ratio has been high in India since the 1950s. The ratio has been strikingly high, even prior to the time of inception of prenatal sex identification technologies. The ratio shows a rising trend due to several biological reasons. In addition, it has been rising sharply for a couple of decades due to some socio-medical factors. The natural sex ratio at birth in India is noticeably higher than the world average. PMID:19758486

Seth, Swapan

2009-09-17

157

Dynamic Young's Moduli, Poisson's Ratios and Damping Ratios of Antrim Oil Shale.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dynamic Young's Modulus, Poisson's Ratio and Damping Ratio in the horizontal and vertical directions have been measured on approximately 30 samples recovered from Well No. 201 and three samples from Well No. 107. Young's Moduli and Damping Ratios were det...

F. Somogyi

1980-01-01

158

Spatial variations in 3He/4He ratios along a high strain rate zone, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helium isotope variations were determined along a high strain rate zone, Japan.The variations are caused by the melt and fluids due to the subduction of the plates.Helium isotope is a useful indicator of the rheological heterogeneities of the Earth.

Umeda, Koji; Kusano, Tomohiro; Ninomiya, Atusi; Asamori, Koichi; Nakajima, Junichi

2013-09-01

159

The Evolution of Central Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 1995What have we learned about central banks? The principal factors affecting central bank autonomy in the past two centuries have been prevailing political conditions, a laissez faire environment, and the exchange rate regime (whether fixed or floating).Institutions we know as central banks emerged or were established as commercial banks or government banks. Their evolution into central banks came with

Forrest Capie

1999-01-01

160

Central Europe – management training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the experiences of the European Operations of the Otis Elevator Company in setting up joint ventures in Central Europe, viewed from the management training perspective. Relates the problems of designing and putting together a program for the top management teams of the three countries concerned, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Examines the reasons for creating a program taught

Colin R. Coast

1995-01-01

161

Centrality and network flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centrality measures, or at least popular interpretations of these measures, make implicit assumptions about the manner in which traffic flows through a network. For example, some measures count only geodesic paths, apparently assuming that whatever flows through the network only moves along the shortest possible paths. This paper lays out a typology of network flows based on two dimensions of

Stephen P. Borgatti

2005-01-01

162

Loess of Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loess deposits are widespread within the piedmont and intramontane depressions of Central Asia. They cover piedmont plains, river terraces, ridge slopes and watersheds. Loess is a significant component in the piedmonts of Tien Shan, eastern Fergana depression, the Afgan-Tajik depression, piedmonts of Kopetdag, Badchyz and Karabil Hills north of Parapamiz, in the Kashmir valley, on the Potwar Plateau and in

A. E. Dodonov

1991-01-01

163

Central Exclusive Dijet Production  

SciTech Connect

The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P. [Departement d'Astrophysique, de Geophysique et d'Oceanographie, Universite de Liege, B5a, Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Hernandez, O. [Marianopolis College, 3880 Cote-des-Neiges, Montreal, QC, H3H1W1 (Canada); Physic Dept., McGill University, 3600 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A2T8 (Canada)

2008-08-29

164

Central venous catheter use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheters are being increasingly used in both intensive care units and general wards. Their use is associated with both mechanical and infectious complications. This review will focus on short- and medium-term mechanical complications of catheter placement; infectious complications will be discussed in a separate article. The most important risk factors are patient characteristics (morbidity, underlying disease and local

Kees H. Polderman; Armand R. J. Girbes

2002-01-01

165

Central tendency pole assignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adaptive control, there is a range of possibilities between the two extremes of applying the Certainty Equivalence Principle, which can only hold asymptotically, and Dual Control, which is not a practical proposition for on-line schemes. Here it is proposed that adaptive controllers be designed using Measures of Central Tendency of the a posteriori probability function of the control signal

John B. Moore; Tom Ryall; Lige Xia

1986-01-01

166

Education in Central America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first chapter of this book describes the physical and cultural environment of Central America and includes analytical comments showing the complexity of the problems confronting the region. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are then treated in separate chapters including: 1) political, economic, social and…

Waggoner, George R.; Waggoner, Barbara Ashton

167

Central Authority and Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong central authorities are able to effectively manage costly defection, but are unable to adequately address lesser conflicts because of limits to their ability to monitor and enforce. We argue, counterintuitively, that these limitations build coop- eration and trust among subordinates:the limitations contribute to the production of order. First, limits to authority leave space for locally informed decentralized enforce- ment.

Emily Erikson; Joseph M. Parent

2007-01-01

168

Central serous choroidopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... be a risk factor. Early studies found that people with aggressive, "type A" personalities who are under a lot of stress may be more likely to develop central serous retinopathy. The condition can also occur as a complication of steroid drug use.

169

Central venous catheter use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are used with increasing frequency in the intensive care unit and in general medical wards. Catheter infection, the most frequent complication of CVC use, is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and duration of hospital stay. Risk factors in the development of catheter colonisation and bloodstream infection include patient factors (increased risk associated with malignancy, neutropenia, and

K. H. Polderman; A. R. J. Girbes

2002-01-01

170

Solar central receiver program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of solar central receiver programs are being conducted with the goal of developing a system capable of producing low cost electricity. The programs are concentrating on the heliostat, receiver and storage subsystems. The emphasis in the heliostat program is to develop designs which are amenable to mass production and minimum maintenance. Both glass and plastic designs are being

L. N. Tallerico; A. C. Skinrood

1979-01-01

171

Brucellosis in Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brucellosis is a disease of domestic animals and humans in Central America (CA). Bovine and swine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella suis, respectively, have been identified in all CA countries, while ovine and caprine brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis has been detected in Guatemala. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis is estimated between 4 and 8%, with higher prevalence

Edgardo Moreno

2002-01-01

172

The Central Intelligence Agency's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congress and the media recently have claimed that various activities of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-from rendition operations, to the destruction of videotapes, to the maintenance of secret detention facilities overseas--are illegal. Critics levied similar charges against the CIA thirty-five years ago, with regard to activities contained in the \\

Daniel L Pines

2009-01-01

173

FED: Our Central Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the United States. Congress created the Federal Reserve through a law passed in 1913, charging it with a responsibility to foster a sound banking system and healthy economy. This remains, today, the broad ...

2000-01-01

174

Multicultural Central Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

Boyle, Eric D.

175

Gangs in Central America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 110th Congress maintains a keen interest in the effects of crime and gang violence in Central America and its spillover effects on the United States. Since February 2005, more than 1,758 alleged members of the violent Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) gang hav...

C. R. Seelke

2008-01-01

176

CENTRAL AND HEMI-CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate systematically the role of anti-platelet aggregating drugs or anticoagulant in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and hemi-CRVO. Design Cohort study. Participants Consecutive 686 patients with CRVO (567 patients, 585 eyes) and non-ischemic hemi-CRVO (119 patients, 122 eyes). Methods At first visit, all patients had a detailed ophthalmic and medical history (including the use of anti-platelet aggregating drugs or anticoagulants), and comprehensive ophthalmic and retinal evaluation. Visual evaluation was done by recording visual acuity, using the Snellen visual acuity chart, and visual fields with a Goldmann perimeter. The same ophthalmic evaluation was performed at each follow-up visit. CRVO and hemi-CRVO were classified into non-ischemic and ischemic at initial visit. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, visual fields and severity of retinal hemorrhages. Results For all three type of CRVO, there was a significantly greater severity of retinal hemorrhages among aspirin users than non-users (p<0.001). Initial visual acuity and visual fields were significantly worse in aspirin users than non-users in non-ischemic CRVO and hemi-CRVO, but did not differ for ischemic CRVO. Among the patients with non-ischemic CRVO that initially presented with 20/60 or better visual acuity, there was a significant association of aspirin use with visual acuity deterioration. The odds ratio of visual acuity deterioration, after adjusting for age, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension, for aspirin users relative to non-users was 2.24 (95% CI (confidence interval): 1.14, 4.41; p=0.020). Of those in whom macular edema resolved, over-all cumulative visual acuity outcome also suggested a higher percentage with deterioration among aspirin users, with the odds ratio for deterioration of 3.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 13.54; p=0.05) for aspirin users relative to non-users. For the non-ischemic CRVO that had 20/70 or worse visual acuity at initial visit, after resolution of macular edema, improvement in visual acuity was less likely in the aspirin users than non-users (odds ratio 0.18; 95% CI:0.04, 0.72; p=0.016). Conclusion Findings of this study indicate that, for patients with CRVO and hemi-CRVO, the use of aspirin, other antiplatelet aggregating agents or anticoagulants was associated with a worse visual outcome, and no apparent benefit.

Hayreh, Sohan Singh; Podhajsky, Patricia A.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget

2011-01-01

177

Hafnium Isotopic Compositions of Central American Lavas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central American volcanic front is noted for its systematic along-arc geochemical variations. New data show that the hafnium isotopic compositions of mafic lavas also vary regularly along the front. In detail, 176Hf/177Hf ratios are generally highest in Nicaragua and fall off toward Costa Rica and Guatemala, displaying the same along-arc chevron pattern as U/Th and Ba/La. However, unlike Ba/La the decline is steepest toward Guatemala. 176Hf/177Hf ratios range from 0.283116 to 0.283263, are well correlated with 143Nd/144Nd, and fall at the depleted end of the array defined by ocean island basalts on an Nd-Hf diagram. All samples plot on or close to the mantle array of Vervoort et al. [1999]. A number of volcanic centers along the Nicaraguan portion of the volcanic front have, at times, erupted mafic lavas with distinctly higher Ti contents. These lavas are also characterized by distinctly lower large-ion-lithophile element concentrations, making them more MORB-like than typical arc basalts. In addition, the new analytical results show that the high-Ti lavas have lower 176Hf/177Hf ratios than their low-Ti neighbors. The hafnium isotopic data places important fresh constraints on the origins of these two contrasting magmatic lineages, as well as the origins of the systematic geochemical variations along the Central American volcanic front.

Walker, J. A.; Anderson, R.; Carr, M. J.; Peate, D. W.; Lundstrom, C.

2009-12-01

178

The effect of satellite galaxies on gravitational lensing flux ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lenses with anomalous flux ratios are often cited as possible evidence for dark matter satellites predicted by simulations of hierarchical merging in cold dark matter cosmogonies. We show that the fraction of quads with anomalous flux ratios depends primarily on the total mass and spatial extent of the satellites, and the characteristic length-scale d1/2 of their distribution. If d1/2 ~ 100kpc, then for a moderately elliptical galaxy with a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of ~ 250kms-1, a mass of ~3 × 109Msolar in highly concentrated (Plummer model) satellites is needed for 20 per cent of quadruplets to show anomalous flux ratios, rising to ~1.25 × 1010Msolar for 50 per cent. Several times these masses are required if the satellites have more extended Hernquist profiles. Compared to a typical elliptical, the flux ratios of quads formed by typical edge-on disc galaxies with maximum discs are significantly less susceptible to changes through substructure - three times the mass in satellite galaxies is needed to affect 50 per cent of the systems. In many of the lens systems with anomalous flux ratios, there is evidence for visible satellites (e.g. B2045+265 or MG0414+0534). We show that if the anomaly is produced by substructure with properties similar to the simulations, then optically identified substructure should not be preponderant among lens systems with anomalies. There seem to be two possible resolutions of this difficulty. First, in some cases, visible substructure may be projected within or close to the Einstein radius and wrongly ascribed as the culprit, whereas dark matter substructure is causing the flux anomaly. Secondly, bright satellites, in which baryon cooling and condensation have taken place, may have higher central densities than dark satellites, rendering them more efficient at causing flux anomalies.

Shin, E. M.; Evans, N. W.

2008-04-01

179

Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism  

SciTech Connect

A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

Lawrence, Keith Edward (Kobe, JP); Moser, William Elliott (Peoria, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Knox, Kevin Jay (Peoria, IL)

2008-05-13

180

Central venous catheter related infections.  

PubMed

Infusion therapy carries a substantial risk of producing iatrogenic sepsis, bacteremia or fungemia originating from the device used for vascular access or from the contaminated infusate. This study, a semiquantitative assay of the central venous catheter tips (CVC) was carried out and correlated with the blood culture results to determine the probable cause of sepsis in our post operated patients. One thousand six hundred and thirty one surgeries were performed in the Institute of Cardio-Vascular Diseases from January to December 1997. We received 150 CVC tips which were in place for more than five days for culture. Fifty one (51) CVC tips showed growth in either contents or roll. There was associated blood stream infection in 23 patients. The age groups of patients ranged from two months to 67 years and male to female ratio was 109:41. Children below the age of 12 years were 62 in number. Candida spp. (32.4%) and Staphylococcus spp. (33.9%) formed the predominant isolates from the CVC tips. PMID:10810578

Verghese, S; Padmaja, P; Sudha, P; Sorna, E; Johni, D; Vasu, S

1999-03-01

181

central ethics committee  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a syn. Lead Ethics Committee; ethics committee reviewing a protocol for different institutions, e.g. in a multicentre or multinational trial; in the EU the vote of one EC per country is (legally)\\u000a sufficient, frequently however, the formal approval by the ethics committee of each participating hospital is requested in\\u000a addition; in other countries, e.g. France, approval by one central e.c. is

Gerhard Nahler

182

Lesson Plan Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson Plan Central -- a free lesson plans, WebQuests, worksheets, student link and clipart Web site -- has a great collection of science specific links. Categorized by subject and grade level, the listed sites are are briefly described, and any new site is labeled as such. Links to just the new, cool, and clipart sites are also provided. This collection is a great way for kids and educators to find new teaching and learning aids.

2008-09-16

183

FNAL central email systems  

SciTech Connect

The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

2004-10-01

184

Central Internet Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Energy maintains the Central Internet Database Web site. Here users can generate and print reports containing nationwide data on radioactive waste, contaminated media, and spent nuclear fuel. Ready to read reports are also available including Actual and Projected Waste/Material Volumes, Waste/Material Characteristic Data (contaminants/isotopes/radioactivity), and Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD) Systems. The site currently contains fifty nine standard and fourteen ready to read reports

185

33. CENTRAL HEIGHT OF CENTRAL PAVILION IN EAST FACADEINCLINED, FRONTAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. CENTRAL HEIGHT OF CENTRAL PAVILION IN EAST FACADE--INCLINED, FRONTAL Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-FS13-B-1974-832L. - St. Mary's Seminary, 600 North Paca Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

186

Using a Market Ratio Factor in Faculty Salary Equity Studies. Professional File Number 103, Spring 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study used two multiple regression analyses to develop an explanatory model to determine which model might best explain faculty salaries. The central purpose of the study was to determine if using a single market ratio variable was a stronger predictor for faculty salaries than the use of dummy variables representing various disciplines.…

Luna, Andrew L.

2007-01-01

187

Modeling of fresh egg pasta characteristics for egg content and albumen to yolk ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high compositional variability of commercial fresh egg pasta radically affects its mechanical and cooking properties. The aim of the work was to model the effects of total egg content (E) and albumen to yolk ratio (A\\/Y) on fresh egg pasta compositional and structural characteristics, by the application of a central composite design using response surface methodology. The analysis of

Cristina Alamprese; Ernestina Casiraghi; Margherita Rossi

2009-01-01

188

Body mass index, waist hip ratio, and waist circumference: which measure to classify obesity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Objectives: To determine the proportion of a representative population sample of adults in South Australia who have a body mass index (a measure of overall obesity) classified as normal or underweight, but who also have a waist circumference or waist hip ratio (measures of central obesity) that indicates obesity. Methods: A representative population sample of adults aged 18 years

Tiffany Gill; Catherine Chittleborough; Anne Taylor; Richard Ruffin; David Wilson; Patrick Phillips

2003-01-01

189

Population Dynamics under Parasitic Sex Ratio Distortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the population dynamic effects of sex ratio distortion by vertically transmitted, feminizing parasites. We show that, for diploid hosts, sex ratio distortion may lead to extinction as males become too rare to maintain the host population through reproduction. Feminizers can magnify Allee effects, broadening the range of conditions leading to extinction of small populations. Depending on male mating

Melanie J. Hatcher; Dale E. Taneyhill; Alison M. Dunn; Chris Tofts

1999-01-01

190

GOLDEN RATIO-HAAR WAVELET BASED STEGANOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have presented the golden ratio-Haar wavelet based multimedia steganography. The key features of the proposed method are: 1. New Haar wavelet structure based on the Fibonacci se- quence, and Golden Ratio. 2. Parametric transform dependency, as decryption key, on the security of the sensitive data. One of the important differences between the existing trans- form based

Sos S. Agaian; Okan Caglayan; Juan Pablo Perez; Hakob Sarukhanyan; Jaakko Astola

191

Graphs (networks) with golden spectral ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose two new spectral measures for graphs and networks which characterize the ratios between the width of the “bulk” part of the spectrum and the spectral gap, as well as the ratio between spectral spread and the width of the “bulk” part of the spectrum. Using these definitions we introduce the concept of golden spectral graphs (GSG), which are

Ernesto Estrada; Edificio CACTUS

2007-01-01

192

The Divine Ratio and Golden Rectangles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The material examines aspects of Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, the generation of the Divine Ratio, and the nature of this ratio in golden rectangles, triangles, and figures made up of golden triangles. It is noted Lucas sequence is formed like Fibonacci but has one and three as the first elements. (Author/MP)|

Cooper, Martin

1982-01-01

193

Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)|

Chabotar, Kent John

1989-01-01

194

Sports classiflcation using cross-ratio histograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a novel approach for classiflcation of sports images based on the geometric information encoded in the image of a sport's fleld. The proposed approach uses invariant nature of a cross- ratio under projective transformation to develop a robust classifler. For a given image, cross-ratios are computed for the points obtained from the intersection of lines detected using

Balamanohar Paluri; Nalin Pradeep S; Hitesh Shah; Prakash C

195

Sulfate washout ratios in winter storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washout ratios for sulfate were computed from simultaneous measurements of sulfate in precipitation and in the air below cloud base. Stratification of the data according to predominant mode of precipitation growth (growth primarily by accretion of liquid cloud droplets versus growth primarily by vapor deposition onto ice particles) illustrated that for cases of accretional growth, the washout ratio was 10--50

B. C. Scott

1981-01-01

196

Economy Track: Employment to Population Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Time plot compares the employment-population ratio - the broadest measure of people who are working in America. Allows to compare between recessions, also allows to compare between demographic groups -- by sex, race/ethnicity and educational attainment. Also shows the secular trend for employment-population ratio since 1973.

Institute, Economic P.

197

Likelihood Ratio Tests for Special Rasch Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a general class of special Rasch models for dichotomous item scores is considered. Although Andersen's likelihood ratio test can be used to test whether a Rasch model fits to the data, the test does not differentiate between special Rasch models. Therefore, in this article, new likelihood ratio tests are proposed for testing…

Hessen, David J.

2010-01-01

198

Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)|

Barrett, D. R. B.

1984-01-01

199

Aging and Weight-Ratio Perception  

PubMed Central

Past research has provided evidence that older adults have more difficulty than younger adults in discriminating small differences in lifted weight (i.e., the difference threshold for older adults is higher than that of younger adults). Given this result, one might expect that older adults would demonstrate similar impairments in weight ratio perception (a suprathreshold judgment) compared to younger adults. The current experiment compared the abilities of younger and older adults to perceive weight ratios. On any given trial, participants lifted two objects in succession and were asked to provide an estimate of the objects’ weight ratio (the weight of the heavier object relative to the lighter). The results showed that while the older participants’ weight ratio estimates were as reliable as those of the younger participants, they were significantly less accurate: the older participants frequently perceived the weight ratios to be much higher than they actually were.

Holmin, Jessica S.; Norman, J. Farley

2012-01-01

200

Ratio responding as a function of concurrent avoidance schedules, yoked shocks, and ratio value  

PubMed Central

Fixed-ratio food-reinforced responding in rats was studied alone and with concurrent shock avoidance or with concurrent response-independent shocks matched to those that occurred in the avoidance condition. Under each condition, fixed-ratio size was increased over successive daily sessions. Fixed-ratio response rate generally passed through a maximum as a function of fixed-ratio size. Decreased fixed-ratio responding at values beyond the maximum occurred when (1) the time to complete a fixed ratio approximated the response-shock interval of the avoidance schedule, (2) the shock rate increased, and/or (3) the ratio requirements were so high that ratio strain occurred. Avoidance rates decreased slightly as fixed-ratio size increased.

Wood, Keith A.; Happ, Alan J.; Adams, Calvin K.

1983-01-01

201

Large-scale use of solar energy with central receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The working principles of solar central receiver power plants are outlined and applications are discussed. Heliostat arrays direct sunlight into a receiver cavity mounted on a tower, heating the working fluid in the tower to temperatures exceeding 500 C. The formulation for the image plane and the geometric concentration ratio for a heliostat field are provided, noting that commercial electric

F. Kreith; R. T. Meyer

1983-01-01

202

Crustal structure along the southern Central American volcanic front  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subduction alters continents several ways, including accretion, magmatic addition, mantle wedge serpentinization, and crustal differentiation. These changes affect seismic velocities, so characterizing upper plate crust establishes a baseline for composition and continental growth. Teleseismic P and PP arrivals from a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers in Central America have been used to estimate crustal thickness and Vp\\/Vs ratio from receiver

Laura MacKenzie; Geoffrey A. Abers; Karen M. Fischer; Ellen M. Syracuse; J. Marino Protti; Victor Gonzalez; Wilfried Strauch

2008-01-01

203

Central nervous system lipomas.  

PubMed

The lipomas of the central nervous system are rare lesions of congenital origin and are located in the medial line and especially in corpus callosum. Intramedullary spinal lipomas can be seen in the life span of 30 years of age and most frequently coincide with initial puberty period. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography together with clinical trials are of crucial importance for diagnosis. The first case: A two-year-aged girl who had lipoma in quadrigeminal cistern and who suffered from encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis has been clinically studied. The fascial lipoma of the patient has been excised subtotally by the Plastic Surgeons; then the patient has underwent supracerebellar infratentorial operation where the intracranial lipoma has been excised by our team. The histopathology has been reported to be consisting of peripheric nerve tissue and calcification. The second case: A twenty-year-aged man with intramedullary lipoma localized between T1-T4 has been given our clinical trials. T1-T5 total laminectomy and subtotal excision were made for this patient. Due to the fact that the lipomas of central nervous system are rarely seen and are involved in nervous and calcific tissues except for fatty tissues they can be mistaken for hamartomatous masses. The total excision of the lipomas of central nervous system and especially the spinal intramedullary lipomas are quite difficult to be excised since they are tightly entangled with the neural tissue. So any attempt for total excision would be dangerous. Operation for decompression and biopsy is of primary concern. PMID:12597248

Kiymaz, Nejmi; Cirak, Bayram

2002-11-01

204

Central American electrical interconnection  

SciTech Connect

A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

Not Available

1988-12-01

205

Central American resource studies  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

1989-01-01

206

Central receiver technology  

SciTech Connect

The research and development described in this document was conducted within the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program. The goal of this program is to advance the engineering and scientific understanding of solar thermal technology and to establish the technology base from which private industry can develop solar thermal power production options for introduction into the competitive energy market. This report describes central receiver technology: its accomplishments to date, its current technology status, and the efforts still necessary to fully exploit it.

Holl, R.L. (HGH Entperises, Inc. (USA))

1989-09-01

207

Centralized maintenance procedures  

SciTech Connect

In 1989, shortly after Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) assumed maintenance responsibilities for the Hanford site, a Department of Energy (DOE) maintenance audit found that field (working level) maintenance procedures and procedure practices of the facilities scattered across Hanford`s 560 square miles varied as greatly as the locations of those facilities. In some of the audited facilities there were few or no procedures; in others, procedures conflicted with or were redundant to procedures at other facilities. This document presents current efforts to centralize maintenance procedures.

Barber, J.R.

1994-02-01

208

Precommitment by central bank independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the issue of central bank independence. The central argument is that government can precommit to the objective of price stability by providing a constitutional status of independence to the central bank. A sufficient set of institutional elements and the problem of incentive compatibility are discussed. It is argued that the solution is superior to a constitutional money

Manfred J. M. Neumann

1991-01-01

209

Sex ratio in relation to fathers' occupations.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the sex ratio of children varies between fathers of different occupations. METHODS: The sex ratio (the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls at birth) was calculated in relation to paternal occupation in the cohort of all 253,433 live births in Cumbria, north west England, from 1950-89. Exact binomial confidence intervals were used to estimate whether the sex ratio in each occupational category was significantly different from that for the rest of the cohort. RESULTS: There were fewer occupational categories with significantly different sex ratios at the 5% level than expected by chance alone, assuming the same binomial distribution of sexes at birth within each paternal occupation. CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation of the sex ratio with fathers' occupations was not found. There is some evidence that the sex ratio shows less variance than expected under a binomial model which assumes independence of the sex of each child; a possible explanation of this may be parental preference for limiting family size after children of both sexes have been born or some other factor which results in children within a family being more likely to be of both sexes rather than the same sex.

Dickinson, H O; Parker, L

1997-01-01

210

C/O Ratios in Exoplanetary Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations are allowing unprecedented constraints on the carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) ratios of giant exoplanetary atmospheres. Elemental abundance ratios, such as the C/O ratio, of planetary atmospheres provide important constraints on planetary interior compositions and formation conditions, and on the chemical and dynamical processes in the atmospheres. In addition, for super-Earths, the potential availability of water and oxygen, and hence the notion of `habitability', is contingent on the C/O ratio. Typically, an oxygen-rich composition, motivated by the solar nebula C/O of 0.5, is assumed in models of exoplanetary formation, interiors, and atmospheres. However, recent observations of exoplanetary atmospheres are suggesting the possibility of C/O ratios of 1.0 or higher, motivating the new class of Carbon-rich Planets (CRPs). In this talk, we will present observational constraints on atmospheric C/O ratios for an ensemble of transiting exoplanets and discuss their implications on the various aspects of exoplanetary characterization described above. Motivated by these results, we propose a two-dimensional classification scheme for irradiated giant exoplanets in which the incident irradiation and the atmospheric C/O ratio are the two dimensions. We demonstrate that some of the extreme anomalies reported in the literature for hot Jupiter atmospheres can be explained based on this 2-D scheme. An overview of new theoretical avenues and observational efforts underway for chemical characterization of extrasolar planets, from hot Jupiters to super-Earths, will be presented.

Madhusudhan, N.

2012-04-01

211

The golden ratio in facial symmetry.  

PubMed

Symmetry is believed to be a hallmark of appealing faces. However, this does not imply that the most aesthetically pleasing proportions are necessary those that arise from the simple division of the face into thirds or fifths. Based on the etymology of the word symmetry, as well as on specific examples and theories of beauty, we conclude that ?-value, a ratio also known as the golden ratio or the divine proportion, can also characterize symmetrical forms. Therefore, we propose the utilization of this ratio in facial aesthetics. PMID:23441307

Prokopakis, E P; Vlastos, I M; Picavet, V A; Nolst Trenite, G; Thomas, R; Cingi, C; Hellings, P W

2013-03-01

212

Branching Ratios for K+-->3? Decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The branching ratios ?'+(K+-->all) and ?'+?+ were obtained from a sample of 12 976K+ decays including 198 ?'+ and 693?+ decays. It was found that ?'+(K+-->all)=0.0153+/-0.0011, and that ?'+?+=0.286+/-0.023. The ?+(K+-->all) branching ratio and the ?+ energy spectrum in ?'+ decay were also obtained, and were found to be in good agreement with the more precise determinations of the other experiments. The branching-ratio data suggest a small ?I=32 admixture in the K-->3? decay amplitudes. Comparison with various theoretical models shows fair to good agremeent between experiment and theory.

Pandoulas, D.; Taylor, S.; Koller, E. L.; Grauman, J.; Hoffmaster, S.; Raths, O.; Romano, L.; Stamer, P.

1970-10-01

213

Central Receiver Plant Evaluation:  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of the evaluation work carried out at Ecole Centrale on central receiver plants. THEMIS system peformance is evaluated with emphasis given to energy production. The daily energy production is established on the basis of both plant modelization and actual plant production results. This analysis is performed at different levels of the system: receiver output, salt loop output, turbine-generator output and net plant output. In each case an input-output characteristic curve is established, considering the daily direct normal solar radiation as the input of the system. This input is defined for a given site by a meteo distribution, i.e. a yearly distribution of the daily direct normal solar radiation. The yearly plant production is then deduced by adding over the year the daily production calculated by combining the input-output characteristics with the meteo distribution of the considered site. Using this method, the energy production of THEMIS is estimated, assuming different meteorological conditions. The influence of the meteorological conditions and other parameters, on the plant output is finally discussed. 15 refs., 61 figs., 41 tabs.

Amri, A.; Izygon, M.; Tedjiza, B.

1988-02-01

214

34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Excludes all unsecured or uncollateralized related-party receivables; (4) Excludes all intangible assets defined as intangible...from the ratio calculations. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1840-0537)...

2013-07-01

215

Anomalous Enantiomer Ratios in Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of sugar acids in carbonaceous meteorites have been measured. D-enantiomer excesses are found in all acids measured thus far. This includes rare as well as common compounds.

Cooper, G.; Sant, M.; Asiyo, C.

2009-03-01

216

Quantifying absolute carbon isotope ratios by AMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our AMS produced a ratio of instrument transmissions for 14C and 13C equal to 13/14 to 0.22 ± 0.06% accuracy at a specific charge-changing energy of 235 keV and giving absolute isotope ratios with that mass correction. The ratio for 13C and 12C transmissions was 12/13 at 215 keV. A differential equation model of energetic ion and atom transport through the gas collision cell was constructed with functions representing experimental cross-sections for all collision effects. This model showed cation yield dependencies that were linear with energy for the monoenergetic isotopic ions at the energies that we measured, explaining the inverse mass dependence. The model predicted multiple lower energies that have this dependence and, more importantly, two low energies at which cation yields were equal for pairs of isotopes, presaging potential absolute isotope ratio measurements at low MS energies.

Vogel, John S.; Giacomo, Jason A.; Dueker, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

217

Science Application of Area and Ratio Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes using area and ratio concepts to examine why some animals, or people wearing different types of shoes, sink into the surface on which they are standing. Students compute "sinking values" to explain these differences. (Contains 2 figures.)

Horak, Virginia M.

2006-01-01

218

40 CFR - to-Fuel Ratio Measurements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false to-Fuel Ratio Measurements Air Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...use O2 measurements with intake air or fuel flow measurements to...

2009-07-01

219

40 CFR - to-Fuel Ratio Measurements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false to-Fuel Ratio Measurements Air Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...use O2 measurements with intake air or fuel flow measurements to...

2010-07-01

220

Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)|

Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

2002-01-01

221

Sensor of Ratios of Absolute Gas Pressures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article describes a sensor of ratios of absolute gas pressures containing elastic sensitive elements picking up pressures and acting on a compensation spring system transmitting the force onto a tensometric converter which for the purpose of improving...

G. I. Tyukel L. A. Pletnev

1967-01-01

222

Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio  

PubMed Central

Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict.

Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Goritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

2012-01-01

223

Doing Mathematics with Bicycle Gear Ratios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an activity in which students examine bicycle chain-rings, cogs, and gear ratios as a means of exploring algebraic relationships, data collection, scatter plots, and lines of best fit. (KHR)|

Stump, Sheryl L.

2000-01-01

224

Difference and Ratio Inequalities in Hilbert Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some inequalities involving differences and ratios of means give rise, using the spectral theorem for bounded, symmetric operators in Hilbert space, to inequalities involving such operators. Further operator inequalities are derived, some of which are ana...

B. Mond O. Shisha

1970-01-01

225

Necessary Intransitive Likelihood-Ratio Classifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pattern classification tasks, errors are introduced because of differ- ences between the true generative model and the one obtained via model estimation. Using likelihood-ratio based classification, it is possible to correct for this discrepancy by finding class-pair specific terms to adjust the likelihood ratio directly, and that can make class-pair preference rela- tionships intransitive. In this work, we introduce

Gang Ji; Jeff A. Bilmes

2003-01-01

226

Bayesian analysis for monotone hazard ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a Bayesian approach for estimating the hazard functions under the constraint of a monotone hazard ratio. We construct\\u000a a model for the monotone hazard ratio utilizing the Cox’s proportional hazards model with a monotone time-dependent coefficient.\\u000a To reduce computational complexity, we use a signed gamma process prior for the time-dependent coefficient and the Bayesian\\u000a bootstrap prior for the

Yongdai Kim; Jin Kyung Park; Gwangsu Kim

2011-01-01

227

A Power Divider with Adjustable Dividing Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unequal Wilkinson power divider with adjustable power dividing ratio is proposed. The proposed power divider consists of rectangular defected ground structure (DGS), isolated island in DGS, and varactor diodes. The impedance of the microstrip line greatly increases due to the DGS, and varies because of the varying capacitance of diodes. The measured unequal dividing ratios vary from 1.97-13.4 and 2.25-10.6 when 2- and 4-diodes are adopted.

Lim, Jongsik; Oh, Seongmin; Koo, Jae-Jin; Jeong, Yongchae; Ahn, Dal

228

Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios  

SciTech Connect

We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy.

Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E. [Computer Vision Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

1994-11-01

229

Measuring velocity ratios with correlation functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how to determine the ratio of the transverse velocity of a source to the velocity of emitted particles, using split-bin correlation functions. The technique is to measure S2 and S?2, subtract the contributions from the single-particle distribution, and take the ratio as the bin size goes to zero. We demonstrate the technique for two cases: each source decays into two particles, and each source emits a large number of particles.

Seibert, David; Haglin, Kevin; Gale, Charles

1993-09-01

230

Central pit craters on Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central pit craters are common on Mars, Ganymede and Callisto, and thus are generally believed to require target volatiles in their formation. The purpose of this study is to identify the environmental conditions under which central pit craters form on Ganymede. We have conducted a study of 471 central pit craters with diameters between 5 and 150 km on Ganymede and compared the results to 1604 central pit craters on Mars (diameter range 5-160 km). Both floor and summit pits occur on Mars whereas floor pits dominate on Ganymede. Central peak craters are found in similar locations and diameter ranges as central pit craters on Mars and overlap in location and at diameters <60 km on Ganymede. Central pit craters show no regional variations on either Ganymede or Mars and are not concentrated on specific geologic units. Central pit craters show a range of preservation states, indicating that conditions favoring central pit formation have existed since crater-retaining surfaces have existed on Ganymede and Mars. Central pit craters on Ganymede are generally about three times larger than those on Mars, probably due to gravity scaling although target characteristics and resolution also may play a role. Central pits tend to be larger relative to their parent crater on Ganymede than on Mars, probably because of Ganymede's purer ice crust. A transition to different characteristics occurs in Ganymede's icy crust at depths of 4-7 km based on the larger pit-to-crater-diameter relationship for craters in the 70-130-km-diameter range and lack of central peaks in craters larger than 60-km-diameter. We use our results to constrain the proposed formation models for central pits on these two bodies. Our results are most consistent with the melt-drainage model for central pit formation.

Alzate, Nathalia; Barlow, Nadine G.

2011-02-01

231

Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral dependency of the particulate backscattering ratio is relevant in the fields of ocean color inversion, light field modeling, and inferring particle properties from optical measurements. Aside from theoretical predictions for spherical, homogeneous particles, we have very limited knowledge of the actual in situ spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio. This work presents results from five research cruises that were conducted over a three-year period. Water column profiles of physical and optical properties were conducted across diverse aquatic environments that offered a wide range of particle populations. The main objective of this research was to examine the behavior of the spectral particulate backscattering ratio in situ, both in terms of its absolute magnitude and its variability across visible wavelengths, using over nine thousand 1-meter binned data points for each of five wavelengths of the spectral particulate backscattering ratio. Our analysis reveals no spectral dependence of the particulate backscattering ratio within our measurement certainty, and a geometric mean value of 0.013 for this dataset. This is lower than the commonly used value of 0.0183 from Petzold’s integrated volume scattering data. Within the first optical depth of the water column, the mean particulate backscattering ratio was 0.010.

Whitmire, A. L.; Boss, E.; Cowles, T. J.; Pegau, W. S.

2007-05-01

232

The Galapagos-OIB signature of the central Costa Rican volcanic front: arc-hotspot interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although most Central American magmas have a typical arc geochemical signature, magmas in southern Central America have isotopic and trace element compositions with an OIB affinity, similar to the Galapagos hotspot lavas. Our new data for Costa Rica suggest that this signature, unusual for a convergent margin, has a relatively recent origin (Late Miocene-Pliocene ca. 6 Ma). We also show that there was a transition from typical arc magmas (analogous to the modern Nicaraguan volcanic front) to OIB-like magmas. The geographic distribution of the Galapagos signature in recent lavas from southern Central America is present landward from the subduction of the Galapagos hotspot tracks (the Seamount Province and the Cocos/Coiba Ridges) at the Middle American Trench. The higher Pb isotopic ratios, relatively low Nd isotopic ratios and enriched geochemical signature of central Costa Rican magmas can be explained by arc-hotspot interaction. The isotopic ratios of central Costa Rican lavas require the subducting Seamount Province (Northern Galapagos Domain) component, whereas the isotopic ratios of the adakites and alkaline basalts from southern Costa Rica and Panama are in the geochemical range of the subducting Cocos/Coiba Ridges (Central Galapagos Domain). Geological, geochemical, and isotopic evidence collectively indicate that the relatively recent Galapagos-OIB signature in southern Central America represents a geochemical signal from subducting Galapagos hotspot tracks, which started to collide with the margin ~8 Ma ago. The Galapagos hotspot contribution decreases systematically along the volcanic front from central Costa Rica to NW Nicaragua.

Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.; Hoernle, K.; Feigenson, M. D.; Hauff, F.; Szymanski, D.; van den Bogaard, P.

2008-12-01

233

Geochemical Constraints on Geothermal Heat Flow in the Central Nepal Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous hot springs are located near the Main Central Thrust (MCT) zone of central Nepal. The springs occur in major N-S valleys in or near deeply incised rivers, in regions of high relief and steep stream gradients. Exit temperatures range from 30 - 70 C, and the springs produce significant chemical anomalies in the rivers they feed. Germanium-silicon ratios are

L. A. Derry; M. J. Evans

2002-01-01

234

Central solar energy receiver  

DOEpatents

An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

235

Central solar energy receiver  

SciTech Connect

An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver is disclosed for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedgeshaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

Dyost, M.K.

1983-07-26

236

Central nervous system cancers.  

PubMed

Primary and metastatic tumors of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varied outcomes and management strategies. Recently, improved survival observed in 2 randomized clinical trials established combined chemotherapy and radiation as the new standard for treating patients with pure or mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma harboring the 1p/19q codeletion. For metastatic disease, increasing evidence supports the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in treating patients with multiple metastatic lesions but low overall tumor volume. These guidelines provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this group of diseases based on clinical evidence and panel consensus. This version includes expert advice on the management of low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic gliomas, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and brain metastases. The full online version, available at NCCN. org, contains recommendations on additional subtypes. PMID:24029126

Nabors, Louis Burt; Ammirati, Mario; Bierman, Philip J; Brem, Henry; Butowski, Nicholas; Chamberlain, Marc C; Deangelis, Lisa M; Fenstermaker, Robert A; Friedman, Allan; Gilbert, Mark R; Hesser, Deneen; Holdhoff, Matthias; Junck, Larry; Lawson, Ronald; Loeffler, Jay S; Maor, Moshe H; Moots, Paul L; Morrison, Tara; Mrugala, Maciej M; Newton, Herbert B; Portnow, Jana; Raizer, Jeffrey J; Recht, Lawrence; Shrieve, Dennis C; Sills, Allen K; Tran, David; Tran, Nam; Vrionis, Frank D; Wen, Patrick Y; McMillian, Nicole; Ho, Maria

2013-09-01

237

Brucellosis in Central America.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a disease of domestic animals and humans in Central America (CA). Bovine and swine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella suis, respectively, have been identified in all CA countries, while ovine and caprine brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis has been detected in Guatemala. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis is estimated between 4 and 8%, with higher prevalence in dairy herds, with losses calculated at 25 million US dollars per year. National Control Programs based in calf vaccination and removal of the reactors have had little impact in the control of brucellosis in CA. In a region where experimentation with new vaccines is not affordable, unrestricted adult vaccination by the conjunctival route with S19 is recommended. This strategy is expected to reduce the prevalence and density of the bacteria to numbers where "clean" vaccination would be possible. Thereafter, serological identification and elimination of the reactors could be initiated under more favorable conditions of herd infection. PMID:12414131

Moreno, Edgardo

2002-12-20

238

Human Genome Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ensembl, a collaborative initiative of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)/ European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and the Sanger Centre, offers this master Website featuring links to the most useful Internet resources on the Human Genome Sequence. Each link is categorized (e.g., draft data, ethical issues) and then briefly described (e.g., "Can view chromosomes and maps"), and links are updated regularly. While the full primary source data (for finished data only) are available from three public databases (Genbank, EMBL, and DDJB), the Human Genome Central Website offers links to ancillary information and tools, enabling researchers to assess useful information such as "the overlaps between clones; the correct genomic location of each clone; an integrated genomic sequence that merges the individual clones; and annotation of gene content." These links are useful starting points for researchers wishing to work with human genome sequence data.

239

Central Michigan University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Central Michigan University serves Michigan and the larger community as a doctoral/research intensive public university focused on excellent teaching and student-focused learning. The University is committed to providing a broad range of undergraduate and graduate programs and services to prepare its students for varied roles as responsible citizens and leaders in a democratic and diverse society. Its programs encourage intellectual and moral growth, prepare students for meaningful careers and professions, instill the values of lifelong learning, and encourage civic responsibility, public service and understanding among social groups in a global society. The university emphasizes an undergraduate program that maintains a balance between general education and specialization. In addition to educational depth in at least one academic discipline or professional field, the university provides educational experiences in the arts, humanities, natural and social sciences, global cultures, and issues of race and diversity. The university offers selected high quality graduate programs in traditional disciplines and professional fields. Through its College of Extended Learning, the university provides access to higher education programs and lifelong learning opportunities both nationally and internationally through a variety of innovative instructional methods and schedules designed to meet the demands of adult populations. Central Michigan University encourages research, scholarship and creative activity and promotes the scholarly pursuit and dissemination of new knowledge, artistic production and applied research. Through its support of research, the university enhances the learning opportunities of both its undergraduate and graduate students and promotes economic, cultural and social development. The universityÃøΩs sense of community is reflected through governance structures that allow broadbased participation, opportunities for close student-faculty interaction, and a rich array of residential and campus-based co-curricular activities. Through its partnerships and outreach efforts, the university promotes learning outsideof the traditional classroom and enhances the general welfare of society.

University, Central M.

240

Sex ratio of China's population deserves attention.  

PubMed

A paper on the sex ratio at birth in China was presented at the international seminar on China's 1990 population census held during October 19-23, 1992 in Beijing. The normal sex ratio at birth is 106 male births/100 female births, which was the ratio in China in the 1960s and 1970s. However, in 1981 it increased to 108.5, then to 110.9 in 1986, to 111.0 in 1987, and to 113.8 in 1989. The sex ratios at ages 0-4 years were 107.0 in 1953, 106.2 in 1964, 107.1 in 1982, and 110.2 in 1990. The sex ratio at birth in 1989 was 105 for 1st parity births, but reached 120.9, 124.6, and 131.7 for 2nd, 3rd, 4th and higher parity births, respectively. The analysis of data from the 1990 National Census, the 1987 One Percent Population Sample Survey, and the 1988 Two-Per-Thousand Population Sampling Survey revealed that a serious underreporting of female births and increased illegal prenatal sex identification were the most important causes of the increase in the sex ratio at birth. The sex differential in underreporting births accounted for at least 42.6-51.3% of the difference between the normal value of 106 and the actual sex ratio at birth reported in the 1990 census. Data from the 1988 Two-Per-Thousand Population Sampling Survey showed that rate of underreporting of female births twice exceeded that of male births in the years between 1983 and 1988. The underreporting accounted for 54-88% of the difference between the normal value and the reported sex ratios. A great number of B ultrasonic scanning machines were introduced after 1982 in clinics and family planning service stations. Although they are not meant for nonmedical purposes, enforcement of rules is difficult in view of the preference for sons. Medical records of 1,243,284 pregnancies surveyed for birth defects at 945 hospitals indicated sex ratios of 108.0, 108.3, 109.1, and 109.7 in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991, respectively. Underreporting rather than female infanticide is probably the main cause of these increasing sex ratios. Underreporting, however, has detrimental effects on health care and education and creates an unbalanced population sex structure. PMID:12318232

Zeng, Y; Tu, P; Gu, B; Xu, Y; Li, B; Li, Y

1992-12-01

241

Developmental basis of sexually dimorphic digit ratios  

PubMed Central

Males and females generally have different finger proportions. In males, digit 2 is shorter than digit 4, but in females digit 2 is the same length or longer than digit 4. The second- to fourth-digit (2D:4D) ratio correlates with numerous sexually dimorphic behavioral and physiological conditions. Although correlational studies suggest that digit ratios reflect prenatal exposure to androgen, the developmental mechanism underlying sexually dimorphic digit development remains unknown. Here we report that the 2D:4D ratio in mice is controlled by the balance of androgen to estrogen signaling during a narrow window of digit development. Androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor ? (ER-?) activity is higher in digit 4 than in digit 2. Inactivation of AR decreases growth of digit 4, which causes a higher 2D:4D ratio, whereas inactivation of ER-? increases growth of digit 4, which leads to a lower 2D:4D ratio. We also show that addition of androgen has the same effect as inactivation of ER and that addition of estrogen mimics the reduction of AR. Androgen and estrogen differentially regulate the network of genes that controls chondrocyte proliferation, leading to differential growth of digit 4 in males and females. These studies identify previously undescribed molecular dimorphisms between male and female limb buds and provide experimental evidence that the digit ratio is a lifelong signature of prenatal hormonal exposure. Our results also suggest that the 2D:4D ratio can serve as an indicator of disrupted endocrine signaling during early development, which may aid in the identification of fetal origins of adult diseases.

Zheng, Zhengui; Cohn, Martin J.

2011-01-01

242

The Influence of Air Distribution on the Single-Phase Flow Field of Central Fuel Rich Swirl Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systematic study of the cold flow characteristics of a central fuel rich swirl burner. Flow fields at the burner outlet corresponding to various primary and inner secondary air ratios were measured. With decreasing primary air ratio and increasing inner secondary air ratio, the swirl intensity of the jet increases, mixing between primary and secondary air is

Yong Liu; Zhengqi Li; Jing Li; Zhiyong Hu; Zhichao Chen; Yan Zhang; Shanping Shen

2011-01-01

243

Leptin to adiponectin ratio in preeclampsia.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess leptin/adiponectin ratio in preeclamptic patients compared with normal pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was designed. The study population consisted of 30 preeclamptic patients and 30 healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of total leptin and adiponectin were assessed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The one-way ANOVA and Student's t tests and Pearson's correlation analysis were used for statistical calculations. Levels of leptin and adiponectin were also adjusted for BMI. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was increased significantly in preeclamptic patients. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was significantly higher in severe preeclamptic patient than in mild preeclampsia. Adjusted leptin/adiponectin ratio was also significantly increased in preeclamptic patients than in normal pregnant women. The findings of the present study suggest that the leptin/adiponectin ratio was increased in preeclamsia and imbalance between the adipocytokines could be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:23923407

Khosrowbeygi, A; Ahmadvand, H

2013-04-01

244

The sex ratio of Plasmodium gametocytes.  

PubMed

Sex ratio theory usually predicts an equilibrium sex ratio and equal proportions of males and females in a population, including the progenitors of the reproductive cells of protozoans. This proposal was tested with three species of malarial parasites of lizards, Plasmodium mexicanum of the western fence lizard, and P. agamae and P. giganteum of the African rainbow lizard, using single samples from naturally infected lizards, repeated samples from free-ranging lizards (P. mexicanum only), and repeated samples from laboratory maintained animals. Macrogametocytes were usually more abundant than microgametocytes, and were slightly larger, revealing a typically greater investment of resources by the progenitors of female reproductive cells. However, the proportion of microgametocytes varied among the three species and among infections within each species of Plasmodium. The sex ratio of gametocytes often remained constant within infections followed over time even if the absolute number of gametocytes was changing. However, the equilibrium sex ratio of gametocytes varied among those infections that had an unchanging microgametocyte proportion. Thus, although an equilibrium sex ratio apparently occurs for most infections, there appears to be no characteristic proportion of microgametocytes for any of the species. Potential explanations for this conflict with theory are presented. PMID:2771445

Schall, J J

1989-06-01

245

A snail with unbiased population sex ratios but highly biased brood sex ratios.  

PubMed

Extraordinary sex ratio patterns and the underlying sex-determining mechanisms in various organisms are worth investigating, particularly because they shed light on adaptive sex-ratio adjustment. Here, we report an extremely large variation in the brood sex ratio in the freshwater snail, Pomacea canaliculata. In eight rearing series originating from three wild populations, sex ratios were highly variable among broods, ranging continuously from almost exclusively males to almost exclusively females. However, sex ratios were similar between broods from the same mating pair, indicating that sex ratio is a family trait. Irrespective of the large variations, the average sex ratios in all rearing series were not significantly different from 0.5. We argue that Fisher's adaptive sex-ratio theory can explain the equal average sex ratios, and the results, in turn, directly support Fisher's theory. Polyfactorial sex determination (in which sex is determined by three or more genetic factors) is suggested as the most likely mechanism producing the variable brood sex ratio. PMID:12614578

Yusa, Yoichi; Suzuki, Yoshito

2003-02-01

246

Central American geologic map project  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology,

Dengo

1986-01-01

247

Kinship Institutions and Sex Ratios in India  

PubMed Central

This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance.

CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA; KIM, SUKKOO

2010-01-01

248

AR XIII line ratios in solar flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical Ar XIII electron-density-sensitive emission line ratios, derived using electron impact excitation rates interpolated from accurate R-matrix calculations, are presented for R1 = I/(242.22 A)/I(236.27 A), R2 = I(210.46 A)/I(236.27 A), and R3 = I/(248.68 A)/I(236.27 A). Electron densities deduced from the observed values of R1, R2, and R3 for solar flares obtained with the NRL S082A slitless spectrograph on board Skylab are in excellent agreement, and furthermore compare favorably with those determined from line ratios in Ca XV, which is formed at a similar electron temperature to that of Ar XIII. These results provide experimental support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the analysis, as well as for the techniques used to calculate the line ratios.

Keenan, F. P.; Conlon, E. S.; Foster, V. J.; Aggarwal, K. M.; Widing, K. G.

1993-06-01

249

Ratio vectors of fourth degree polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let p(x) be a polynomial of degree 4 with four distinct real roots r1ratios , k=1,2,3. For notational convenience, let [sigma]1=u, [sigma]2=v, and [sigma]3=w. (u,v,w) is called the ratio vector of p. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions for (u,v,w) to be a ratio vector of a polynomial of degree 4 with all real roots. Most of the necessary conditions were proven in an earlier paper. The main results of this paper involve using the theory of Groebner bases to prove that those conditions are also sufficient.

Horwitz, Alan

2006-01-01

250

Kinship institutions and sex ratios in India.  

PubMed

This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance. PMID:21308567

Chakraborty, Tanika; Kim, Sukkoo

2010-11-01

251

Magnetostrictive contribution to Poisson ratio of galfenol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a detailed study on the magnetostrictive contribution to Poisson ratio for samples under applied mechanical stress. Magnetic contributions to strain and Poisson ratio for cubic materials were derived by accounting elastic and magneto-elastic anisotropy contributions. We apply our theoretical results for a material of interest in magnetomechanics, namely, galfenol (Fe1-xGax). Our results show that there is a non-negligible magnetic contribution in the linear portion of the curve of stress versus strain. The rotation of the magnetization towards [110] crystallographic direction upon application of mechanical stress leads to an auxetic behavior, i.e., exhibiting Poisson ratio with negative values. This magnetic contribution to auxetic behavior provides a novel insight for the discussion of theoretical and experimental developments of materials that display unusual mechanical properties.

Paes, V. Z. C.; Mosca, D. H.

2013-09-01

252

Anomalous nitrogen isotope ratio in comets.  

PubMed

High-resolution spectra of the CN B2 summation operator +-X2 summation operator + (0,0) band at 390 nanometers yield isotopic ratios for comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR) as follows: 165 +/- 40 and 115 +/- 20 for 12C/13C, 140 +/- 35 and 140 +/- 30 for 14N/15N. Our N isotopic measurements are lower than the terrestrial 14N/15N = 272 and the ratio for Hale-Bopp from measurements of HCN, the presumed parent species of CN. This isotopic anomaly suggests the existence of other parent(s) of CN, with an even lower N isotopic ratio. Organic compounds like those found in interplanetary dust particles are good candidates. PMID:12970562

Arpigny, Claude; Jehin, Emmanuël; Manfroid, Jean; Hutsemékers, Damien; Schulz, Rita; Stüwe, J A; Zucconi, Jean-Marc; Ilyin, Ilya

2003-09-12

253

Collisional Transport in a Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak -- Beyond the Drift Kinetic Formalism  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of collisional thermal and particle diffusivities in toroidal magnetic plasma confinement devices order the toroidal gyroradius to be small relative to the poloidal gyroradius. This ordering is central to what is usually referred to as neoclassical transport theory. This ordering is incorrect at low aspect ratio, where it can often be the case that the toroidal gyroradius is larger than the poloidal gyroradius. We calculate the correction to the particle and thermal diffusivities at low aspect ratio by comparing the diffusivities as determined by a full orbit code (which we refer to as omni-classical diffusion) with those from a gyroaveraged orbit code (neoclassical diffusion). In typical low aspect ratio devices the omni-classical diffusion can be up to 2.5 times the calculated neoclassical value. We discuss the implications of this work on the analysis of collisional transport in low aspect ratio magnetic confinement experiments.

D.A. Gates; R.B. White

2004-01-28

254

240Pu/239Pu mass ratio in environmental samples in Finland.  

PubMed

The (240)Pu/(239)Pu mass ratio was determined with SF-ICP-MS in lichen, peat, grass, air filter, and hot particle samples obtained in Finland. The main part of the air filters were sampled in northern Finland in 1963, whereas all the other samples were collected in southern and central Finland immediately after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu mass ratio varied between 0.13 ± 0.01 and 0.53 ± 0.03 in the environmental samples analyzed. The values for the (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio confirm previous estimations, based on the (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu alpha activity ratio in the same samples, that global fallout from nuclear weapons testing and deposition from the Chernobyl accident have been the main Pu contamination sources in the environment in Finland. PMID:22776691

Salminen-Paatero, S; Nygren, U; Paatero, J

2012-07-07

255

Revisited nitrogen isotopic ratio in molecular clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental for the understanding of nucleosynthesis processes as well as galactic and solar system evolution, the nitrogen isotope ratio in the galaxy has long been a puzzle. Particularly, meteorites, comets and IDPs show a strong enhancement of the 15N isotope compared to values estimated from molecular clouds, which casts doubts on the pristine nature of the cometary and meteoritic material. Due to high optical depths of the main nitrogen carriers, direct measurement of [14N/15N] is difficult. To date only a few global studies of the nitrogen isotope ratio in dense molecular clouds exist, which employ indirect methods to estimate this ratio. We revisit the nitrogen isotope ratio in dense molecular clouds using two nitrogen carriers, HNC and CN, and several methods. The J=1-0 and 3-2 transitions of HNC at 90 and 271 GHz, and H15NC at 88 and 266 GHz were observed at the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 12m and SMT telescopes, toward the clouds SgrB2, W31, G34.3, W51M, M17-SW, DR-21, Orion A, W3(OH), NGC7538 and S156, located at various galactic distances from the Galactic Center. HNC being optically thick, its abundance was estimated using known [12C/13C] ratios, as well as radiative transfer modeling using the freely available code RADEX. Finally, the N=1-0 transition of CN and C15N at 113 and 110 GHz were also recorded at the 12m telescope. The last and most direct estimation method makes use of the intensities of CN hyperfines to estimate an optical depth and abundance for the main isotope. Results seem to indicate a [14N/15N] ratio of about ˜ 100-350, lower than previously reported, and more in line with cometary or meteoritic values.

Adande, G.; Ziurys, L.

2011-05-01

256

The mass ratio in spectroscopic binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of formation of binary and multiple stars is not yet fully understood. Possibilities range from simultaneous processes of condensation from the primeval nebula, to isolated star formation and eventual capture to form a double system. Models exist that predict success probabilities for each theoretical process, and comparison with observational data is crucial. Spectroscopic binaries are specially suited to be used as observational data, since several biases that can arise from general catalogues of binary stars can be avoided, including dominance of systems with large separations between components. A very important parameter in these studies is the mass ratio, the quocient of the masses of primary and secundary members. The histogram of mass ratios provides crucial information to models of binary formation, linked to condensation processes and evolutionaty rates.In this case, spectroscopic binaries can be chosen as the observational sample, provided that the spectrum of the primary is from a non-evolved, main-sequence star,whose mass can be derived reliably from its spectral type. Defining an adequate limiting magnitude (6.5), one avoids bias from eclipsing systems with high inclinations, since nearly all systems up to 6.5 mag were detected. In this paper, a critical review is presented of the existing methods for deriving the distribution of the mass ratios from spectroscopic binary orbital data. After showing the incorrectness of some results published in the litterature, the available data (Batten's 8th Catalogue, 1989) is discussed. Simulations for several distributions of mass ratios (constant, quadratic, etc) are performed. It is shown that the existing data permits only to assert that the spectroscopic binaries with small mass ratios (q < 0.4) are more frequent that those with large mass ratios (q = 0.9 to 1.0).

Ducati, J. R.; Penteado, E. M.; Turcati, R.

2003-08-01

257

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

258

Branching Ratios for K+-->3pi Decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The branching ratios tau'+(K+-->all) and tau'+tau+ were obtained from a sample of 12 976K+ decays including 198 tau'+ and 693tau+ decays. It was found that tau'+(K+-->all)=0.0153+\\/-0.0011, and that tau'+tau+=0.286+\\/-0.023. The tau+(K+-->all) branching ratio and the pi+ energy spectrum in tau'+ decay were also obtained, and were found to be in good agreement with the more precise determinations of the other

D. Pandoulas; S. Taylor; E. L. Koller; J. Grauman; S. Hoffmaster; O. Raths; L. Romano; P. Stamer

1970-01-01

259

Central nervous system stimulants.  

PubMed

Three major types of CNS stimulant are currently abused in sport: amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine. Each drug type has its own characteristic mechanism of action on CNS neurones and their associated receptors and nerve terminals. Amphetamine is widely abused in sports requiring intense anaerobic exercise where it prolongs the tolerance to anaerobic metabolism. It is addictive, and chronic abuse causes marked behavioural change and sometimes psychosis. Major sports abusing amphetamine are cycling, American football, ice-hockey and baseball. Cocaine increases tolerance to intense exercise, yet most of its chronic effects on energy metabolism are negative. Its greatest effects seem to be as a central stimulant and the enhancement of short-term anaerobic exercise. It is highly addictive and can cause cerebral and cardiovascular fatalities. Caffeine enhances fatty acid metabolism leading to glucose conservation, which appears to benefit long-distance endurance events such as skiing. Caffeine is also addictive, and chronic abuse can lead to cardiac damage. Social abuse of each of the three drugs is often difficult to distinguish from their abuse in sport. PMID:10932812

George, A J

2000-03-01

260

Aspect-ratio-controlled synthesis of high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods in high-yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a modified seed-mediated synthesis of high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods controlling the aspect ratio with variation of pH in the growth solution. By adding various amounts of sodium hydroxide, pH in the growth solution was controlled from 1.29 to 7.06 in the presence of nitrate anions. At various pH of the growth solution, the yield of high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods was

Won Min Park; Yun Suk Huh; Won Hi Hong

2009-01-01

261

Influence of primary air ratio on flow and combustion characteristics and NO x emissions of a new swirl coal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold airflow experiments on a small-scale burner model, as well as in situ experiments on a centrally fuel-rich swirl coal combustion burner were conducted. Measurements were taken from within a 300 MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler installed with eight of centrally fuel-rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Various primary air ratios, flow characteristics,

Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Qunyi Zhu; Zhichao Chen; Feng Ren

2011-01-01

262

Response surface of dietary energy and protein in Japanese quail from 7 to 14 days of age.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine dietary energy (ME) and CP requirements of quail chicks using response surface methodology. A total of 40 floor pens of 20 birds each were assigned to 9 diets of central composite design (CCD) containing 5 levels of ME (2,809 to 3,091 kcal/kg) and CP (19 to 24.8% of diet) from 7 to 14 d of age. The experimental results of CCD were fitted with quadratic response models, and ridge analysis was used to compute the optimal response for BW gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Regression analysis showed that the linear effect of independent variables was significant on bird responses. The quadratic and cross-product effects did not have significant effects on performance. Dietary levels of CP linearly affected BWG and FCR, but the effect of dietary ME was not significant. The ridge maximum analysis on BWG and minimum analysis on FCR models revealed that the maximum BWG may be achieved with 2,950 kcal of ME/kg and 25% CP; and minimum FCR may be obtained with 2,878 kcal of ME/kg and 24.4% CP. The results of this study showed that response surface analysis with the CCD platform was successfully used to optimize dietary requirements of Japanese quail and this methodology could be used for other nutrients. PMID:23091156

Ghazaghi, M; Mehri, M; Yousef-Elahi, M; Rokouei, M

2012-11-01

263

Ecological and evolutionary mechanisms for low seed: ovule ratios: need for a pluralistic approach?  

PubMed

Central to the ecology and evolution of a broad range of plants is understanding why they routinely have submaximal reproduction manifested as low seed : ovule and fruit : flower ratios. We know much less about the processes responsible for low seed : ovule ratios than we do for fruit : flower ratios. Current hypotheses for low seed : ovule ratios are largely drawn from those for fruit : flower ratios, including proximate (ecological) causes of pollen limitation, resource limitation, and pollen quality, as well as the ultimate (evolutionary) hypothesis of "bet hedging" on stochastic pollination. Yet, such mechanisms operating on fruit : flower ratios at the whole-plant level may not best explain low seed : ovule ratios at the individual-flower level. We tested each of these proximate and ultimate causes for low seed : ovule ratios using the specialized pollination mutualism between senita cacti (Pachycereus schottii) and senita moths (Upiga virescens). Seed : ovule ratios were consistently low (approximately 0.61). Such excess ovule production by senita likely has a strong genetic component given the significant differences among plants in ovule number and the consistency in ovule production by plants within and among flowering seasons. Excess ovule production and low seed : ovule ratios could not be explained by pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen quality, or bet hedging. Nevertheless, phenotypic selection analyses did show significant selection gradients for increased ovule number, suggesting that other evolutionary processes may be responsible for excess ovule production and low seed : ovule ratios. In contrast, low fruit : flower ratios at the whole-plant level were explained by an apparent equilibrium between pollen and resource limitation. Thus, mechanisms responsible for low fruit : flower ratios at the whole-plant level are not necessarily in accord with those of low seed : ovule ratios at the individual-flower level. This suggests that we may need to adopt a more pluralistic approach to seed : ovule ratios and consider alternative hypotheses, including a greater array of proximate and ultimate causes. Initial results of this study suggest that floral allometry, selection on correlated floral traits, stigma clogging with pollen grains, and style clogging with pollen tubes may provide promising avenues for understanding low seed : ovule ratios. PMID:17503598

Holland, J Nathaniel; Chamberlain, Scott A

2007-03-01

264

Disproportionate sex ratios of wolf pups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Males comprised 66 percent of wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups from a saturated, high-density wolf range in northeastern Minnesota, possibly reflecting disproportionate conception of males. Packs from areas of lower wolf density in other areas of Minnesota had equal sex ratios of pups or a disproportionate number of female pups. Captive wolves showed a slight preponderance of male pups.

Mech, L.D.

1975-01-01

265

Air-fuel ratio control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air-fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine including an automobile carburetor having a fuel passage for forming a combustible air-fuel mixture by mixing fuel fed through the fuel passage with air drawn from the atmosphere, comprises a catalytic converter for substantially purifying exhaust gases emitted from the engine, a composition sensor for sensing the concentration of a

Matsuoka

1982-01-01

266

Thin solar concentrator with high concentration ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar concentrators are often used in conjunction with III-V multi-junction solar cells for cost reduction and efficiency improvement purposes. High flux concentration ratio, high optical efficiency and high manufacture tolerance are the key features required for a successful solar concentrator design. This paper describes a novel solar concentrator that combines the concepts, and thus the advantages, of both the refractive type ad reflective type. The proposed concentrator design adopts the Etendue-cascading concept that allows the light beams from all the concentric annular entrance pupils to be collected and transferred to the solar cell with minimal loss. This concept enables the system to perform near its Etendue-Limit and have a high concentration ratio simultaneously. Thereby reducing the costs of solar cells and therefor achieves a better the per watts cost. The concentrator demonstrated has a thing aspect ratio of 0.19 with a zero back focal distance. The numerical aperture at the solar cell immersed inside the dielectric concentrator is as high as 1.33 achieving a unprecedented high optical concentration ratio design.

Lin, Jhe-Syuan; Liang, Chao-Wen

2013-09-01

267

Negative Poisson's ratios in cellular foam materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials with negative Poisson's ratios (auxetic) get fatter when stretched and thinner when compressed. This paper discusses a new explanation for achieving auxetic behaviour in foam cellular materials, namely a ‘rotation of rigid units’ mechanism. Such auxetic cellular materials can be produced from conventional open-cell cellular materials if the ribs of cell are slightly thicker in the proximity of the

Joseph N. Grima; Ruben Gatt; Naveen Ravirala; Andrew Alderson; K. E. Evans

2006-01-01

268

Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio.  

PubMed

Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict. PMID:22426218

Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

2012-02-28

269

Net energy ratio of photobiohydrogen generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the energy content, the operational energy inputs, and the net energy ratio (NER) of an industrial tubular photobioreactor used for the photosynthetic production of H2 by microalgae. The calculated H2 output of the photobioreactor is based on a range of algal photosynthetic H2 generation efficiencies, and on the application of standard theory for tubular solar collectors. Small diameter

G. Burgess; J. G. Fernández-Velasco

270

Space Elevator Ribbon Mass and Taper Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assumptions about tensile strength and density aect the space elevator ribbon taper ratio, and therefore its mass. We examine the technical trade-os between material properties and total mass of a modern space elevator ribbon, and the economic trade-os between ribbon mass, the number of rocket launches required to loft the initial ribbon, and the time required to build the ribbon

Tom Nugent

271

Generalized golden ratios of ternary alphabets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansions in noninteger bases often appear in number theory and probability theory, and they are closely connected to ergodic theory, measure theory and topology. For two-letter alphabets the golden ratio plays a special role: in smaller bases only trivial expansions are unique, whereas in greater bases there exist nontrivial unique expansions. In this paper we determine the corresponding critical bases

Vilmos Komornik; Anna Chiara Lai; Marco Pedicini

2009-01-01

272

Dynamic Programming creates The Golden Ratio, too  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ancient times of Greek as the Parthenon at Athens, the Golden Ratio has been keeping to give a profound influence in many various fields. Mathematicians love the number to explain the nature of the universe and of human life. It comes up even with a formula for the human de- cision making process; aesthetics, etc. Also in the typical

Seiichi Iwamoto; Masami Yasuda

273

Optimal Aspect Ratio for 3D TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of 3D display technologies have been developed over the past decade. However the problem of how the aspect ratio of 3D display devices should be determined has received limited attention. Displays are often determined by industry and international standards, and do not take the 3D scene properties and depth perception into account. In this work we investigate the

Irene Cheng; Anup Basu

2007-01-01

274

Sex-ratio variation in Soay sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of ecological variables on the birth sex ratio of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) lambs on the island of Hirta, in the St Kilda archipelago, Scotland. Both individual- and population-level models were constructed. In the individual-based model, only population size was significantly associated with the sex of a lamb, with the probability of giving birth to a

Jan Lindström; Tim Coulson; Loeske Kruuk; Mads C. Forchhammer; Dave W. Coltman; Tim Clutton-Brock

2002-01-01

275

Giving More Realistic Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Trigonometry is a well known branch of Mathematics. The study of trigonometry is of great importance in surveying, astronomy, navigation, engineering, and in different branches of science. This paper reports on the discovery of flaws in the traditional definitions of trigonometric ratios of an angle, which (in most cases) make use of the most…

Bhattacharjee, Pramode Ranjan

2012-01-01

276

Perspectives on the basic reproductive ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic reproductive ratio, R0, is defined as the expected number of secondary infections arising from a single individual during his or her entire infectious period, in a population of susceptibles. This concept is fundamental to the study of epidemiology and within-host pathogen dynamics. Most importantly, R0 often serves as a threshold parameter that predicts whether an infection will spread.

J. M. Heffernan; R. J. Smith; L. M. Wahl

2005-01-01

277

Branching ratios of b-flavored mesons  

SciTech Connect

The branching ratios of b-flavored mesons are investigated in a dynamical framework based on current algebra modified for the meson moment dependence. Matrix elements are calculated using quark models. A comparison is made with results obtained in separable approximation.

Fajfer, S.; Tadic, D.

1986-02-01

278

Fission Product Ratios as Treaty Monitoring Discriminants  

SciTech Connect

The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is currently under construction. The IMS is intended for monitoring of nuclear explosions. The radionuclide branch of the IMS monitors the atmosphere for short-lived radioisotopes indicative of a nuclear weapon test, and includes field collection and measurement stations, as well as laboratories to provide reanalysis of the most important samples and a quality control function. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington hosts the United States IMS laboratory, with the designation “RL16.” Since acute reactor containment failures and chronic reactor leakage may also produce similar isotopes, it is tempting to compute ratios of detected isotopes to determine the relevance of an event to the treaty or agreement in question. In this paper we will note several shortcomings of simple isotopic ratios: (1) fractionation of different chemical species, (2) difficulty in comparing isotopes within a single element, (3) the effect of unknown decay times. While these shortcomings will be shown in the light of an aerosol sample, several of the problems extend to xenon isotopic ratios. The result of the difficulties listed above is that considerable human expertise will be required to convert a simple mathematical ratio into a criterion which will reliably categorize an event as ‘reactor’ or ‘weapon’.

Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Arthur, Richard J.

2008-05-15

279

The Prigogine-Defay ratio revisited.  

PubMed

One of the basic characteristics of the glass transition, the Prigogine-Defay ratio, connecting jumps of the thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal compressibility, and isobaric specific heat capacity in vitrification is rederived in the framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes employing the order-parameter concept introduced by de Donder and van Rysselberghe [Thermodynamic Theory of Affinity (Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1936)]. In our analysis, glass-forming liquids and glasses are described by only one structural order parameter. However, in contrast to previous approaches to the derivation of this ratio, the process of vitrification is treated not in terms of Simon's simplified model [Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 203, 219 (1931)] as a freezing-in process proceeding at some sharp temperature, the glass transition temperature T(g), but in some finite temperature interval accounting appropriately for the nonequilibrium character of vitrifying systems in this temperature range. As the result of the theoretical analysis, we find, in particular, that the Prigogine-Defay ratio generally has to have values larger than 1 for vitrification in cooling processes. Quantitative estimates of the Prigogine-Defay ratio are given utilizing a mean-field lattice-hole model of glass-forming melts. Some further consequences are derived concerning the behavior of thermodynamic coefficients, in particular, of Young's modulus in vitrification. The theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. PMID:17115769

Schmelzer, Jürn W P; Gutzow, Ivan

2006-11-14

280

Ratio Analysis in Higher Education: Caveat Emptor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ratio analyses are useful, but care must be taken not to overstate their importance or disregard their limitations. Internally designated, nonstandardized recording techniques in interinstitutional comparisons, inflationary distortions in internal analysis, and judgments made on trends can obstruct the manager's efforts to assess a higher…

DiSalvio, Philip

1989-01-01

281

Sports Classification Using Cross-Ratio Histograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The paper proposes a novel approach for classiflcation of sports images based on the geometric information encoded in the image of a sport’s fleld. The proposed approach uses invariant nature of a crossratio under projective transformation to develop a robust classifler. For a given image, cross-ratios are computed for the points obtained from the intersection of lines detected using

Balamanohar Paluri; S. Nalin Pradeep; Hitesh Shah; C. Prakash

2007-01-01

282

An Experiment in Teaching Ratio and Proportion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper summarizes our analysis of the complexity of ratio problems at Grades 6 and 7, and reports a two-year experiment related to the teaching and learning of rational numbers and proportionality in these grades. Two classes were followed and observed. Part of the teaching material was common to both classes, mainly the objectives and the…

Adjiage, Robert; Pluvinage, Francois

2007-01-01

283

Conditioning Ratio Estimates under Simple Random Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual ratio estimates for a population mean use information on an auxiliary variable to improve the estimation. The standard randomization analysis, however, does not take enough account of the observations on the auxiliary variable, so estimates and estimated variates can be conditionally biased unless the sample is balanced with respect to the auxiliary variable. I propose a method of

J. Robinson

1987-01-01

284

Sex ratios: human twins and fraternal effects.  

PubMed

Historical data from Finnish populations reveals that, for females, exposure to a male twin in the womb may have significant, life-long, effects on subsequent fitness, with profound implications for the evolution of sex ratios and brood size. PMID:17878048

Knowles, Sarah C L; Sheldon, Ben C

2007-09-18

285

IC test using the energy consumption ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic-current based test techniques can potentially address the drawbacks of traditional and Iddq test methodologies. The qual- ity of dynamic current based test is degraded by process variations in IC manufacture. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) is a new metric that improves the effectiveness of dynamic current test by reducing the impact of process variations by an order of magni-

Wanli Jiang; Bapiraju Vinnakota

1999-01-01

286

Ranking fuzzy numbers by preference ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a ranking method for fuzzy numbers. In this method a preference function is defined by which fuzzy numbers are measured point by point and at each point the most preferred number is identified. Then, these numbers are ranked on the basis of their preference ratio. Therefore, fuzzy numbers are compared relatively and not necessarily one is preferred absolutely

Mohammad Modarres; Soheil Sadi-nezhad

2001-01-01

287

Priors and Likelihood Ratios as Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments based on diagnostic data concerning a particular case, and ones based on prior experience with like cases, can be represented by belief functions and combined by Dempster's Rule. In limiting cases, the belief functions depend on likelihood ratio or on prior odds, and when these limiting cases occur together, Bayes' Theorem is applicable as is Dempster's Rule. The resulting

David H. Krantz; John Miyamoto

1983-01-01

288

Dynamic orientation ratio in longitudinal recording media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of orientation ratio (OR) in longitudinal recording media has been controversial in the literature. In the past, the observation of a higher OR for thinner magnetic films has been attributed to stress or thermal effects. Our measurements, carried out over a larger range of time scales, confirm that the thermal effects play a major role in the observation

S. N. Piramanayagam; J. H. Yin; H. B. Zhao; J. Kasim; Y. J. Chen; J. Zhang; C. H. Hee

2003-01-01

289

Shape from Photometric Ratio and Stereo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the traditional problem formulation, it is difficult to integrate the two important vision cues, i.e., shading and stereo, for shape reconstruction due to conflicting albedo and image projection assumptions. In this research, we propose a novel scheme to integrate shading and stereo. First, by using the photometric ratio, we derive a new SFS (shape from shading) formulation where

Kyoung Mu Lee; C.-C. Jay Kuo

1996-01-01

290

Ratio, Proportion and Scaling. Mathematics Resource Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Mathematics Resource Project has as its goal the production of topical resources for teachers, drawn from the vast amounts of available material. This experimental edition on Ratio, Proportion, and Scaling, contains a teaching emphasis section, a classroom materials section, and teacher commentaries. The teaching emphasis section stresses…

Hoffer, Shirley Ann, Ed.

291

Ratio of Specific Heats of Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students bounce a steel ball in a gas-filled tube. The compressed gas provides a restoring force on the ball. By measuring the distance of initial fall or the frequency of oscillation, the ratio of specific heats of several gases, Cp/Cv may be determined.

2009-02-16

292

Optimum phase ratio in the triple jump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method to determine the optimum phase ratio that yields the longest actual distance for a given triple jumper. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) for any given triple jumper, the greater the gain in the vertical velocity the greater the loss in the horizontal velocity; and (b) there is no

Bing Yu; James G. Hay

1996-01-01

293

Ratio method of measuring $w$ boson mass  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in D0 experiment. Instead of extracting M{sub W} from the fitting of W {yields} e{nu} fast Monte Carlo simulations to W {yields} e{nu} data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W {yields} e{nu} data and Z {yields} ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (M{sub W}/M{sub Z}). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W {yields} e{nu} and Z {yields} ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb{sup -1} D0 Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives M{sub W} = 80435 {+-} 43(stat) {+-} 26(sys) MeV.

Guo, Feng; /SUNY, Stony Brook

2010-08-01

294

BEHR: Bayesian Estimation of Hardness Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BEHR is a standalone command-line C program designed to quickly estimate the hardness ratios and their uncertainties for astrophysical sources. It is especially useful in the Poisson regime of low counts, and computes the proper uncertainty regardless of whether the source is detected in both passbands or not.

Park, T.; Kashyap, V. L.; Siemiginowska, A.; van Dyk, D.; Zezas, A.; Heinke, C.; Wargelin, B. J.

2013-06-01

295

Carbon\\/Nitrogen Ratios in Cacao Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

BY tabulating and comparing the results of a detailed laboratory examination of profile samples of cacao soils collected in January 1930, in the island of Tobago, British West Indies, one of us (G. G.) was able to demonstrate 1 a close correlation between the yielding capacity and the carbon\\/nitrogen ratio for the organic matter contained in the surface six-inch layer

F. Hardy; G. Griffith

1932-01-01

296

Hydrothermal Alkalinity in Central Nepal Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous hot springs flow along the base of the Himalayan front, at or near the Main Central Thrust, in the Narayani drainage of central Nepal. The springs are found in a narrow zone characterized by rapid uplift and high incision rates. In this zone, hot rocks are brought to the near-surface where they interact with meteoric waters to produce the hydrothermal system. Water-rock interaction produces springs with high solute loads (TDS up to 8000 mg/L.) The springs drive significant chemical anomalies (e.g. Cl, Na, K and Ge) in the rivers that flow through the hydrothermal zone In order to quantify the impact the springs have on the river chemistry, the spring discharge must be estimated. Direct measurement of the spring discharge is difficult, as the springs often flow within the stream bed itself or are inaccessible. We take advantage of the wide disparity in stream vs. hydrothermal [Ge] to calculate spring discharge by chemical mass balance. The hot springs have [Ge] up to 684 nmol/kg and Ge/Si ratios from 200 to 1000 ?mol/mol while river waters have [Ge] near 0.15 nmol/kg and Ge/Si ratios near 0.5 ?mol/mol, typical of non-polluted rivers. The discharge calculated from the Ge mass balance for individual springs ranges from 0.03 x 106 to 5.6 x 106 m3/yr, and accounts for a small percentage of the total river discharge (0.03% to 1.9%). The hot spring discharge for all of central Nepal is around 1.5x108 m3/yr, 0.5% of the Narayani river discharge. Distinguishing between silicate and carbonate sources is important to assessing the role of weathering on atmospheric CO2 levels and the relative contributions of silicate and carbonate alkalinity in central Nepal rivers are still not well resolved. The hot springs derive up to 100% of their alkalinity from silicate sources. Using the discharge estimates for the springs, we find that the sum of the silicate alkalinity fluxes from all the spring systems is 2.8 x 108 mol/yr. This implies that the hot springs deliver around 18% of the silicate alkalinity in the Narayani river, and ca. 2% of the total alkalinity. Geothermal activity in this active orogenic belt is an important geochemical flux, directly coupling chemical fluxes to tectonic processes.

Evans, M. J.; Derry, L. A.

2002-12-01

297

The glenohumeral offset ratio: A radiographic study.  

PubMed

A systematic method of component selection for total shoulder arthroplasty is needed. The method must take into account the soft-tissue constraints of a degenerative joint and optimize joint biomechanics by placing the joint line in the best possible position. The purpose of our study was to determine radiographically the normal glenohumeral joint line position based on a ratio of distances between the joint line and fixed landmarks on the humerus and scapula. We studied modified anteroposterior radiographs of the glenohumeral joint in 86 volunteers (51 men and 35 women; ages ranging from 21 to 47 years). Two measurements were made on each radiograph: (1) the perpendicular distance from the most medial portion of the glenoid to the inferior base of the coracoid process at its attachment to the scapular blade, and (2) the perpendicular distance from the midline of the humeral shaft to the most medial point on the humeral head. The joint line position was described as the ratio of the glenoid measurement to the sum of the two measurements (i.e., the glenohumeral offset ratio). The validity and reliability of glenoid offset measurements were determined by comparing radiographic and anatomic measurements of glenoid offset in cadaveric human scapulae. Radiographs were made with rotational error to determine its effects on the measurement of humeral offset. Humeral offsets and glenoid thicknesses of five different total shoulder systems were then determined from template overlays. The mean glenohumeral offset ratio was 0.31 (range 0.18 to 0.39). We detected no significant difference in the ratio between men and women volunteers. There was close agreement between radiographie and direct (anatomic) measurements of glenoid offset in cadaveric scapulae. Values for humeral offset were not significantly affected by radiographic rotational error. The evidence indicates that a fairly constant glenohumeral offset ratio in normal shoulders can be reliably calculated from a single radiograph. In addition to the prosthesis specifications, we suggest that the glenohumeral offset ratio is a potentially useful preoperative planning tool for total shoulder arthroplasty. PMID:22959406

Jacobson, S R; Mallon, W J

2009-02-19

298

Low Poisson Ratios in Subduction Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing capability to measure seismic velocities in subduction zones has led to an unusual observation: VP/VS ratios as low as 1.65 with VS ~ 4.7 km/s. This is difficult to explain because most minerals have VP/VS ratios exceeding 1.75, and some of the likely alteration phases, like antigorite, clinohumite and chlorite have high VP/VS ratios. Here we explore how these unusually low VP/VS ratios might be produced, using three methods. 1. Velocity anisotropy was calculated for deformed peridotite, using the Christoffel equation and crystal preferred orientations (CPOs) reported in the literature. Peridotite with ‘Type-A’ olivine CPOs can reproduce the observed values for VP/VS1, but not VP/VS2, and only at temperatures <1000°C; other types of olivine CPOs yield VP/VS1 > 1.73. Anisotropy may be effective in situations where measurements of Vs are dominated by the fast, first-arriving signal, as may be the case in some local tomography studies. 2. Isotropic velocities were calculated for rocks other than peridotite. Although the presence of free quartz produces low VP/VS, it requires extensive SiO2 metasomatism, produces rocks too buoyant to remain in the wedge, is stable only over a narrow 1000-1342°C temperature interval at 3 GPa, and yields VS that are too slow. Brucite and talc are also too slow. Less SiO2 metasomatism produces orthopyroxene, and this yields peridotite with appropriate VP/VS ratios, but only at 600-900°C and only for pure enstatite, not the Mg# 93-95 expected. 3. Mineralogy was calculated as a function of P & T for a range of rock compositions (including metasomatized peridotite, igneous rocks, and sediment) using Perple_X, and velocity anisotropy calculations were made using the Christoffel equation and typical crystal preferred orientations for the constituent phases. Metasomatized mantle containing talc can produce the appropriate VP/VS ratios and VS at 600°C as can mantle with mica + amphibole + pyroxene at 800°C. At 1000°C, no calculated velocities were found that match those observed. Thus, the unusually low VP/VS ratios observed in some subduction zones can be explained as the result of metasomatized peridotite with “Type-A” olivine CPOs at temperatures <1000°C.

Hacker, B. R.; Abers, G. A.

2010-12-01

299

Central African Republic.  

PubMed

The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices. PMID:12178020

1989-11-01

300

Solar Central Receiver Test Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's largest high intensity solar experimental facility became fully operational October 1978. The Central Receiver Test Facility is capable of delivering 5 million watts of thermal power to experimental equipment. The primary CRTF testing programs will involve prototype components (receivers and heliostats) for central receiver solar electric power plants. The CRTF also provides unique capabilities for other high solar

G. E. Brandvold; J. T. Holmes

1979-01-01

301

Russia's Place in Central Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis assesses the need for U.S.-Russian cooperation in Central Asia to create a stronger, more reliable long-term stability in the region. Current United States policy toward Russia in Central Asia is tailored to isolate and minimize Russian influe...

J. M. Edwards

2001-01-01

302

The Central Valley Hydrologic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, California's Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate

C. Faunt; K. Belitz; R. T. Hanson

2009-01-01

303

Central American Grandparents Raising Grandchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study documents the prevalence and profile of Central American grandparents raising grandchildren in the United States of America. Using nationally representative data from the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey, Central American grandparent caregivers are compared with their noncare-giving peers. Results indicate that nationally an estimated…

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Minkler, Meredith

2007-01-01

304

Tropical Cyclones - Central Pacific (1981).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brief descriptions are given of Tropical Storm Greg (August 20-22, 1981) and Tropical Storm Jova (September 18-20, 1981) which took place in the Central Pacific. Verification statistics show that the 24-hour Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) forecas...

A. K. T. Chun

1982-01-01

305

The Evolution of Central Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Evolution of Central Banks employs a wide range of historical evidence and reassesses current monetary analysis to argue that the development of non-profit-maximizing and noncompetitive central banks to supervise and regulate the commercial banking system fulfils a necessary and natural function. Goodhart surveys the case for free banking, examines the key role of the clearing house in the evolution

Charles Goodhart

1988-01-01

306

How transparent are central banks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank transparency has become the topic of a lively public and academic debate on monetary policy. However, this has been complicated by the fact that transparency is a qualitative concept that is hard to measure. This paper proposes an index for the transparency of monetary policy that comprises the political, economic, procedural, policy and operational aspects of central banking.

Sylvester C. W. Eijffinger; Petra M. Geraats

2006-01-01

307

Why do central banks intervene?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intervention by central banks, in terms of buying and selling foreign currency, has been a major activity in recent years. This paper investigates the motivations for such policy and the evidence for its effectiveness. We use high quality daily data on the dollar amounts of intervention by the central banks of the US and Germany. We also use information on

William P. Osterberg

1997-01-01

308

Digit ratio (2D:4D) is associated with traffic violations for male frequent car drivers.  

PubMed

Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a putative marker of prenatal hormone exposure. A lower digit ratio has been suggested as an index of higher testosterone relative to estrogen exposure during prenatal development. Digit ratio has been associated with a variety of psychological sex-dimorphic variables, including spatial orientation, aggression, or risk-taking behavior. The present study aimed to relate digit ratio to traffic violations for a male sample (N = 77) of frequent car drivers. Digit ratio was assessed via printout scans of the hand, and traffic offense behavior was assessed via self-reported penalty points as registered by the Central Register of Traffic Offenders in Germany. In addition, social desirability and sensation seeking were recorded. Results showed that digit ratio was inversely related to penalty point entries, suggesting more traffic violations for individuals with higher prenatal testosterone exposure. Sensation seeking was positively associated with traffic violations, but there was no relationship between sensation seeking and digit ratio, proposing additive effects of both variables. The results suggest that prenatal androgen exposure might be related to traffic violations for frequent car drivers. PMID:19887167

Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Heims, Regina; Heer, Johannes

2009-08-19

309

Recent changes in stable lead isotope ratios in sediments of lake Zug, Switzerland  

SciTech Connect

In Switzerland, unleaded gasoline was introduced in 1985. In order to study the effects of decreasing lead emissions from gasoline on a lake sediment, profiles of lead concentrations and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios have been determined in cores from Lake Zug. Sediment samples were digested and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Accurate dating of sediment cores was achieved using four independent methods showing the results within a range of < 10%. Pb emissions in Switzerland and Pb concentrations in the sediment correlated well. Background Pb concentrations in pre-industrial sediments were 16 {mu}g/g in Lake Zug and 13 {mu}g/g in Lake Baldegg (for comparison); background {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios were 1.20 in both lakes. In Lake Zug, lead concentrations reached a maximum of 110 {mu}g/g in a depth corresponding to ca. 1970, the time of highest lead emissions. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio profile provided additional information because this ratio of Pb used for gasoline additives in Europe ranges from 1.04 to 1.10, and the ratio of background Pb in Central Europe is about 1.20. The ratios in the sediment had a minimum of 1.13 ca. 1980 and an increase of up to 1.16 since ca. 1990. The isotope ratios reflected the fraction of Pb emissions from gasoline. 34 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Moor, H.C.; Schaller, T.; Sturm, M. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Environmental Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

1996-10-01

310

Strong latitudinal patterns in the elemental ratios of marine plankton and organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly 75 years ago, Alfred C. Redfield observed a similarity between the elemental composition of marine plankton in the surface ocean and dissolved nutrients in the ocean interior. This stoichiometry, referred to as the Redfield ratio, continues to be a central tenet in ocean biogeochemistry, and is used to infer a variety of ecosystem processes, such as phytoplankton productivity and rates of nitrogen fixation and loss. Model, field and laboratory studies have shown that different mechanisms can explain both constant and variable ratios of carbon to nitrogen and phosphorus among ocean plankton communities. The range of C/N/P ratios in the ocean, and their predictability, are the subject of much active research. Here we assess global patterns in the elemental composition of phytoplankton and particulate organic matter in the upper ocean, using published and unpublished observations of particulate phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon from a broad latitudinal range, supplemented with elemental data for surface plankton populations. We show that the elemental ratios of marine organic matter exhibit large spatial variations, with a global average that differs substantially from the canonical Redfield ratio. However, elemental ratios exhibit a clear latitudinal trend. Specifically, we observed a ratio of 195:28:1 in the warm nutrient-depleted low-latitude gyres, 137:18:1 in warm, nutrient-rich upwelling zones, and 78:13:1 in cold, nutrient-rich high-latitude regions. We suggest that the coupling between oceanic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles may vary systematically by ecosystem.

Martiny, Adam C.; Pham, Chau T. A.; Primeau, Francois W.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Moore, J. Keith; Levin, Simon A.; Lomas, Michael W.

2013-04-01

311

On central black holes in ultra-compact dwarf galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The dynamical mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of massive ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) are about 50% higher than predicted by stellar population models. Aims: Here we investigate the possibility that these apparently elevated M/L ratios of UCDs are caused by a central black hole (BH) that heats up the internal motion of stars. We focus on a sample of ~50 extragalactic UCDs from the literature for which velocity dispersions and structural parameters have been measured. Methods: To be self-consistent in our BH mass estimates, we first redetermine the dynamical masses and M/L ratios of our sample UCDs, using up-to-date distance moduli and a consistent treatment of aperture and seeing effects. On average, the homogeneously redetermined dynamical mass and M/L ratios agree to within 5% with previous literature results. We calculate the ratio ? = (M/L)dyn/(M/L)pop between the dynamical and the stellar population M/L for an assumed age of 13 Gyr. ? > 1 indicates an elevated dynamical M/L ratio, suggesting dark mass on top of a canonical stellar population of old age. For all UCDs with ? > 1 we estimate the mass of a hypothetical central black hole needed to reproduce the observed integrated velocity dispersion Results: Massive UCDs (M > 107 M?) have an average ? = 1.7 ± 0.2, implying notable amounts of dark mass in them. We find that, on average, central BH masses of 10-15% of the UCD mass can explain these elevated dynamical M/L ratios. The implied BH masses in UCDs range from several 105 M? to several 107 M?. In the MBH-luminosity plane, UCDs are offset by about two orders of magnitude in luminosity from the relation derived for galaxies. Our findings can be interpreted such that massive UCDs originate from progenitor galaxies with masses around ~109 M?, and that those progenitors have SMBH occupation fractions of ~60-100%. The suggested UCD progenitor masses agree with predictions from the tidal stripping scenario. Also, the typical BH mass fractions of nuclear clusters in such ~109 M? galaxy bulges agree with the 10-15% BH fraction estimated for UCDs. Lower-mass UCDs (M < 107 M?) exhibit a bimodal distribution in ?, suggestive of a coexistence of massive globular clusters and tidally stripped galaxies in this mass regime. Conclusions: Central BHs as relict tracers of tidally stripped progenitor galaxies are a plausible explanation for the elevated dynamical M/L ratios of UCDs. Direct observational tests of this scenario are suggested.

Mieske, S.; Frank, M. J.; Baumgardt, H.; Lützgendorf, N.; Neumayer, N.; Hilker, M.

2013-10-01

312

Discriminability of fixed-ratio schedules for pigeons: effects of absolute ratio size1  

PubMed Central

In a discrete-trial choice situation, 12 pigeons were trained to discriminate which of two different fixed ratios they had completed. Psychometric functions were obtained at three ratio requirements (i.e., with the larger ratio set at 10, 20, or 30 responses) by gradually reducing the size of the smaller value. Although different response biases developed across subjects, in each case accuracy decreased systematically with ratio difference regardless of absolute ratio requirements. Above-chance performances were maintained even at relative ratio differences of 10% or less. Estimates of the Weber fraction showed that, in general, discriminability improved with absolute ratio size up to 30 responses, and beyond, when the results of other studies are considered. A similar trend held for rats studied by other investigators in fixed-ratio “counting” tasks at lower requirements. In terms of a signal-detection analysis, performance was similar to that reported for other species and dimensions. Taken together, the results suggest that for this somewhat novel dimension the same psychophysical relations hold as are commonly observed for exteroceptive stimuli.

Hobson, Sally L.

1975-01-01

313

OFFSPRING SEX RATIO IN DEER MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND OFFSPRING SEX RATIO IN ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The primary sex ratio of the family Cervidae may vary at conception and/or birth from an expected 50:50 (males:females). Fertilization by X- or Y- chromosome-bearing sperm (referred to simply as X- and Y- sperm) ultimately controls the sex of offspring; however, alteration of the fetal sex ratio co...

314

CHARACTERIZING TRITIUM WASTE USING HELIUM RATIOS  

SciTech Connect

When routine sampling revealed greatly elevated tritium levels (3.14 x 105 Bq/L [8.5-million pCi/liter]) in the groundwater near a solid waste landfill at the Hanford Site, an innovative technique was used to assess the extent of the plume. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios, relative to ambient air-in-soil gas samples, were used to identify the tritium source and initially delineate the extent of the groundwater tritium plume. This approach is a modification of a technique developed in the late 1960s to age-date deep ocean water as part of the GEOSECS ocean monitoring program. Poreda, et al. (1) and Schlosser, et al. (2) applied this modified technique to shallow aquifers. A study was also conducted to demonstrate the concept of using helium-3 as a tool to locate vadose zone sources of tritium and tracking groundwater tritium plumes at Hanford (3). Seventy sampling points were installed around the perimeter and along four transects downgradient of the burial ground. Soil gas samples were collected, analyzed for helium isotopes, and helium-3/helium-4 ratios were calculated for these 70 points. The helium ratios indicated a vadose zone source of tritium along the northern edge of the burial ground that is likely the source of tritium in the groundwater. The helium ratios also indicate the groundwater plume is traveling east-northeast from the burial ground and that no up-gradient tritium sources are affecting the burial ground. Based on the helium ratio results, six downgradient groundwater sampling locations were identified to verify the tritium plume extent and groundwater tritium concentrations. The tritium results from the initial groundwater samples confirmed that elevated helium ratios were indicative of tritium contamination in the local groundwater. The measurement of helium isotopes in soil gas provided a rapid and cost- effective technique to define the shape and extent of tritium contamination from the burial ground. Using this soil gas sampling approach, the project team was able to identify areas where elevated tritium existed in groundwater without going to the time and expense of conducting conventional groundwater characterization sampling. The savings from this characterization approach were $1.4 million.

Ovink, R.W.; McMahon, W.J.; Borghese, J.V.; Olsen, K.B.

2003-02-27

315

Effect of Overall Equivalence Ratio on Minimum Nitric Oxide Emission Index in Laminar and Turbulent Partially Premixed Flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

NO formation in laminar and turbulent partially premixed flames is studied as a function of the amount of air introduced into both the central fuel tube and the annular co-flow air passage of a concentric tube burner. The fuel tube equivalence ratio (?B) is varied from 1.0 to 10, while the overall equivalence ratio (?o) is varied from 0.3 to

B. J. ALDER; K. H. LYLE; N. M. LAURENDEAU; J. P. GORE

1998-01-01

316

[Central presynaptic receptors].  

PubMed

Experiments on two different inhibitory presynaptic receptor systems are presented. 1. Superfused and electrically stimulated brain slices are a widely used experimental model to study the release of noradrenaline and its modulation by inhibitory alpha-2 adrenoceptors. By using a minisuperfusion chamber we succeeded in studying the simplest case of autoinhibition, i.e. the release of transmitter induced by a single pulse and two consecutive pulses, respectively. When electrical stimulation is performed using a single pulse, no autoinhibition is possible, whereas following stimulation with two pulses the transmitter released by the first pulse will inhibit the effect of the second pulse. By systemically varying the time interval between the two pulses the minimal time requirement for development of autoinhibition was determined to be 100 ms. Short pulse trains of high frequency such as 4 pulses within 30 ms circumvent autoinhibition and cause inhibition-free release by each applied pulse. The release of transmitter evoked in this way is not only free from autoinhibition but, in addition, easily measurable, which makes this method of stimulation very suitable for analyses at presynaptic receptors. By using this approach it became possible, for the first time, to determine dissociation constants of antagonists and agonists at the central presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptor without the distortion introduced by autoinhibition occurring during release. 2. There is a substantial body of evidence for a role of medullary serotonergic nerve cells in the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate. It is hypothesized that the serotonergic neurons project to the thoracic spinal cord exerting a tonic excitatory influence on presynaptic sympathetic neurons of the intermediolateral cell column. Experiments were performed in pentobarbital anaesthetized rats to reduce this excitatory tone by activating inhibitory autoreceptors which are located on the perikarya and dendrites on the serotonergic cells and which have been shown to belong to the 5-HT1A subtype. Local stereotactic injection of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) caused a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). The effects were blocked by pretreatment of the animals with the 5-HT1A antagonist spiroxatrine. Moreover, neurochemical lesioning of serotonergic neurons by intracisternal injection of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) abolished the effects of 8-OH-DPAT. Bilateral intraspinal injection of 5,7-DHT, which interrupts the medullo-spinal serotonergic pathway, markedly attenuated the effects of local intramedullary injection of 8-OH-DPAT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1979459

Singer, E A; Valenta, B; Kotai, E; Drobny, H; Weisz, E

1990-10-26

317

Evidence for ``held-back'' valence quarks from particle ratios in pp and pp collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that recently measured particle ratios in the central region of pp and pp collisions give valuable information on the fate of valence quarks in a soft hadronic collision, indicating that a valence quark from each initial hadron is ``held back'' with a small momentum fraction. This mechanism is a key feature of the dual parton fragmentation approach to low-pT multiparticle production.

Capella, A.; Tran Thanh van, J.; Sukhatme, U. P.

1983-06-01

318

3D near-surface soil response from H\\/V ambient-noise ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of the horizontal-to-vertical (H\\/V) ambient-noise spectral ratio for characterizing earthquake site effects caused by near-surface topography and velocity structures was evaluated at sites underlain by thick (i.e. >100m) sediment deposits near the southern-end of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central United States. Three-component ambient-noise and velocity models derived from seismic (shear-wave) refraction\\/reflection surveys showed that a

Edward W. Woolery

2002-01-01

319

PITR: a small-aspect-ratio, small-major-radius ignition test reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objectives of the PITR are to demonstrate the attainment of thermonuclear ignition in D-T, and to develop optimal start-up methods for tokamak power reactors. The design approach is based on minimizing dependence on a central transformer core, which thereby results in a machine of small aspect ratio (A approximately 2 to 2.5) and smaller major radius (R approximately

D. L. Jassby; R. A. Bolton; D. I. Brown

1978-01-01

320

Polymeric Microring Resonator Enabling Variable Extinction Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polymeric ring resonator filter enabling electrically variable extinction ratio has been implemented, incorporating a ring waveguide coupled to a bus waveguide and an electrode which is separated from it with a gap. When an electrical power is applied to the electrode, the refractive index of the polymers underneath it is lowered through the thermo-optic effect so that the guided-mode confinement in the ring is strengthened to reduce its bending loss. Consequently, for a constant bus-to-ring coupling the attenuation depth at resonant wavelengths could be adjusted electrically. As for the achieved performance, the extinction ratio was changed by ˜9 dB for the electrical power of ˜12 mW while the corresponding bending loss was improved by ˜86 dB/cm.

Song, Ju-Han; Kim, Do-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Shin

2007-02-01

321

Ne VII line ratios in the sun  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical Ne VII electron density sensitive emission-line ratios, derived using electron impact excitation rates calculated with the R-matrix code, are presented for R1 = I(561.7 A)/I(465.2 A) and R2 = I(561.4 A)/I(465.2 A). A comparison of these with observational data for solar flares, obtained with the Naval Research Laboratory's S082A spectrograph on board Skylab, reveals excellent agreement between theory and observation, which confirms the usefulness of R1 and R2 as Ne diagnostics for solar flares, as well as providing experimental support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations. 36 refs.

Keenan, F.P.; Mccann, S.M.; Widing, K.G. (Belfast Queen's Univ. (England) E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-11-01

322

Isomer ratio calculations using modeled discrete levels  

SciTech Connect

Isomer ratio calculations were made for the reactions: /sup 175/Lu(n,..gamma..)/sup 176m,g/Lu, /sup 175/Lu(n,2n)/sup 174m,g/Lu, /sup 237/Np(n,2n)/sup 236m,g/Np, /sup 241/Am(n,..gamma..)/sup 242m,g/Am, and /sup 243/Am(n,..gamma..)/sup 244m,g/Am using modeled level structures in the deformed, odd-odd product nuclei. The hundreds of discrete levels and their gamma-ray branching ratios provided by the modeling are necessary to achieve agreement with experiment. Many rotational bands must be included in order to obtain a sufficiently representative selection of K quantum numbers. The levels of each band must be extended to appropriately high values of angular momentum.

Gardner, M.A.; Gardner, D.G.; Hoff, R.W.

1984-10-16

323

A measurement of the ?--->?- ?¯??? branching ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?--->?- ?¯??? branching ratio has been measured using data collected from 1990 to 1995 by the OPAL detector at the LEP collider. The resulting value of B(?--->?- ?¯???)=0.1734+/- 0.0009(stat)+/-0.0006(syst) has been used in conjunction with other OPAL measurements to test lepton universality, yielding the coupling constant ratios g?/ge=1.0005+/-0.0044 and g?/ge=1.0031+/-0.0048, in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction of unity. A value for the Michel parameter /?=0.004+/-0.037 has also been determined and used to find a limit for the mass of the charged Higgs boson, mH+/->1.28tan?, in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

OPAL Collaboration; Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Åkesson, P. F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Batley, R. J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K. W.; Bell, P. J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, R. M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H. J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R. K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Fürtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J. W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, M.; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwé, M.; Günther, P. O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G. G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R. J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hoffman, K.; Homer, R. J.; Horváth, D.; Howard, R.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T. R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R. K.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kim, D. H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, L.; Krämer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G. D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J. G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; MacPherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T. E.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; McDonald, W. J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H. A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S. W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pásztor, G.; Pater, J. R.; Patrick, G. N.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, D. E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycie?, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J. M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E. K. G.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W. G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T. G.; Shen, B. C.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Sobie, R.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, D.; Ströhmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R. J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M. A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trócsányi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M. F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvári, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C. F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Wells, P. S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, L.

2003-01-01

324

The HNC/HCN ratio in comets.  

PubMed

The abundance ratio of the isomers HCN and HNC has been investigated in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) through observations of the J = 4-3 rotational transitions of both species for heliocentric distances 0.93 < r < 3 AU, both pre- and post-perihelion. After correcting for the optical depth of the stronger HCN line, we find that the column density ratio of HNC/HCN in our telescope beam increases significantly as the comet approaches the Sun. We compare this behavior to that predicted from an ion-molecule chemical model and conclude that the HNC is produced in significant measure by chemical processes in the coma; i.e., for comet Hale-Bopp, HNC is not a parent molecule sublimating from the nucleus. PMID:11543322

Irvine, W M; Dickens, J E; Lovell, A J; Schloerb, F P; Senay, M; Bergin, E A; Jewitt, D; Matthews, H E

1997-01-01

325

Mixing Ratios or Parts per Million, Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will gain experience with very small amounts, known as mixing ratios, using the technique of serial dilution. Measurements such as parts per million can be expressed in terms of volume or mass. With gases in the atmosphere, we usually think in terms of volume and may express this as parts per million by volume (ppmv). One can also use the units parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Measurements such as ppmv, ppbv, and pptv are called mixing ratios. The student guide has an overall description of the activity, a list of materials, the procedure, and observations and questions. The teacher's guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

326

The golden ratio in special relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we show that Euclid’s construction of the golden rectangle can be used to derive both the dilation of time intervals and the Lorentz contraction of lengths as predicted by Einstein’s theory of special relativity. In this simple exercise, the Lorentz factor arises as a direct consequence of the Pythagorean theorem, while the golden ratio, ?=1+5\\/2, is found

Leonardo Di G. Sigalotti; Antonio Mejias

2006-01-01

327

Directed Percolation and the Golden Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying the theory of Yang-Lee zeros to nonequilibrium critical phenomena,\\u000awe investigate the properties of a directed bond percolation process for a\\u000acomplex percolation parameter p. It is shown that for the Golden Ratio\\u000ap=(1(+\\/-)sqrt(5))\\/2 and for p=2 the survival probability of a cluster can be\\u000acomputed exactly.

Stephan M Dammer; Silvio R Dahmen; Haye Hinrichsenk

2001-01-01

328

Golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple texture that predicts the cotangent of the solar neutrino mixing angle to be equal to the golden ratio. This prediction is 1.4sigma below the present best-fit value and final SNO and KamLAND data could discriminate it from tri-bimaximal mixing. The neutrino mass matrix is invariant under a Z2?Z2' symmetry: that geometrically is a reflection along the

Yuji Kajiyama; Martti Raidal; Alessandro Strumia

2007-01-01

329

Golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been speculated that the solar neutrino mixing angle is connected to the golden ratio phiv. Two such proposals have been made, cot theta12=phiv and cos theta12=phiv\\/2. We compare these ansätze and discuss a model leading to cos theta12=phiv\\/2 based on the dihedral group D10. This symmetry is a natural candidate because the angle in the expression cos

Adisorn Adulpravitchai; Alexander Blum; Werner Rodejohann

2009-01-01

330

Electronic branching ratio of the tau lepton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio R=Gamma(tau-->enu¯enutau)\\/Gamma1, where Gamma1 is the tau decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find R=0.2231+\\/-0.0044+\\/-0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the

R. Ammar; P. Baringer; D. Coppage; R. Davis; M. Kelly; N. Kwak; H. Lam; S. Ro; Y. Kubota; M. Lattery; J. K. Nelson; D. Perticone; R. Poling; S. Schrenk; R. Wang; M. S. Alam; I. J. Kim; B. Nemati; V. Romero; C. R. Sun; P.-N. Wang; M. M. Zoeller; G. Crawford; R. Fulton; K. K. Gan; H. Kagan; R. Kass; J. Lee; R. Malchow; F. Morrow; M. K. Sung; J. Whitmore; P. Wilson; F. Butler; X. Fu; G. Kalbfleisch; M. Lambrecht; P. Skubic; J. Snow; P.-L. Wang; D. Bortoletto; D. N. Brown; J. Dominick; R. L. McIlwain; D. H. Miller; M. Modesitt; E. I. Shibata; S. F. Schaffner; I. P. J. Shipsey; M. Battle; J. Ernst; H. Kroha; S. Roberts; K. Sparks; E. H. Thorndike; C.-H. Wang; R. Stroynowski; M. Artuso; M. Goldberg; T. Haupt; N. Horwitz; R. Kennett; G. C. Moneti; S. Playfer; Y. Rozen; P. Rubin; T. Skwarnicki; S. Stone; M. Thulasidas; W.-M. Yao; G. Zhu; A. V. Barnes; J. Bartelt; S. E. Csorna; V. Jain; T. Letson; M. D. Mestayer; D. S. Akerib; B. Barish; M. Chadha; D. F. Cowen; G. Eigen; J. S. Miller; J. Urheim; A. J. Weinstein; R. J. Morrison; H. Tajima; D. Schmidt; D. Sperka; M. Procario; M. Daoudi; W. T. Ford; D. R. Johnson; K. Lingel; M. Lohner; P. Rankin; J. G. Smith; J. Alexander; C. Bebek; K. Berkelman; D. Besson; T. E. Browder; D. G. Cassel; E. Cheu; D. M. Coffman; P. S. Drell; R. Ehrlich; R. S. Galik; M. Garcia-Sciveres; B. Geiser; B. Gittelman; S. W. Gray; D. L. Hartill; B. K. Heltsley; K. Honscheid; C. Jones; J. Kandaswamy; N. Katayama; P. C. Kim; D. L. Kreinick; G. S. Ludwig; J. Masui; J. Mevissen; N. B. Mistry; S. Nandi; C. R. Ng; E. Nordberg; C. O'grady; J. R. Patterson; D. Peterson; D. Riley; M. Sapper; M. Selen; H. Worden; M. Worris; F. Würthwein; P. Avery; A. Freyberger; J. Rodriguez; J. Yelton; S. Henderson; K. Kinoshita; F. Pipkin; M. Saulnier; R. Wilson; J. Wolinski; D. Xiao; H. Yamamoto; A. J. Sadoff

1992-01-01

331

Theater SBI cost-effectiveness ratios  

SciTech Connect

To address M missiles spaced at intervals longer than the constillation reconstitution time t, the defense needs at the absentee ratio N{sub a} of SBIs to fill the belt plus the M SBIs needed for the intercepts; the resulting cost effectiveness scales as M/(M + N{sub a}). N{sub a} is large and CER small for small ranges and numbers of missiles. For several-hundred missile threats, CERs are greater than unity for ranges of interest.

Canavan, G.H.

1993-11-01

332

Magnesium Isotope Ratios in Hyades Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using classical model atmospheres and an LTE analysis, Mg isotope ratios 24Mg:25Mg:26Mg are measured in 32 Hyades dwarfs covering effective temperatures 4000K<=Teff<=5000K. We find no significant trend in any isotope ratio versus Teff, and the mean isotope ratio is in excellent agreement with the solar value. We determine stellar parameters and Fe abundances for 56 Hyades dwarfs covering 4000K<=Teff<=6200K. For stars warmer than 4700 K, we derive a cluster mean value of [Fe/H]=0.16+/-0.02 (?=0.1), in good agreement with previous studies. For stars cooler than 4700 K, we find that the abundance of Fe from ionized lines exceeds the abundance of Fe from neutral lines. At 4700 K, [Fe/H]II-[Fe/H]I~=0.3dex, while at 4000 K [Fe/H]II-[Fe/H]I~=1.2dex. This discrepancy between the Fe abundance from neutral and ionized lines likely reflects inadequacies in the model atmospheres and the presence of non-LTE or other effects. Despite the inability of the models to reproduce the ionization equilibrium for Fe, the Mg isotope ratios appear immune to these problems and remain a powerful tool for studying Galactic chemical evolution. Data presented here were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Yong, David; Lambert, David L.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Paulson, Diane B.

2004-03-01

333

Nonparametric inference with generalized likelihood ratio tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advance of technology facilitates the collection of statistical data. Flexible and refined statistical models are widely\\u000a sought in a large array of statistical problems. The question arises frequently whether or not a family of parametric or nonparametric\\u000a models fit adequately the given data. In this paper we give a selective overview on nonparametric inferences using generalized\\u000a likelihood ratio (GLR)

Jianqing Fan; Jiancheng Jiang

2007-01-01

334

Non-stationary (13) C-metabolic flux ratio analysis.  

PubMed

(13) C-metabolic flux analysis ((13) C-MFA) has become a key method for metabolic engineering and systems biology. In the most common methodology, fluxes are calculated by global isotopomer balancing and iterative fitting to stationary (13) C-labeling data. This approach requires a closed carbon balance, long-lasting metabolic steady state, and the detection of (13) C-patterns in a large number of metabolites. These restrictions mostly reduced the application of (13) C-MFA to the central carbon metabolism of well-studied model organisms grown in minimal media with a single carbon source. Here we introduce non-stationary (13) C-metabolic flux ratio analysis as a novel method for (13) C-MFA to allow estimating local, relative fluxes from ultra-short (13) C-labeling experiments and without the need for global isotopomer balancing. The approach relies on the acquisition of non-stationary (13) C-labeling data exclusively for metabolites in the proximity of a node of converging fluxes and a local parameter estimation with a system of ordinary differential equations. We developed a generalized workflow that takes into account reaction types and the availability of mass spectrometric data on molecular ions or fragments for data processing, modeling, parameter and error estimation. We demonstrated the approach by analyzing three key nodes of converging fluxes in central metabolism of Bacillus subtilis. We obtained flux estimates that are in agreement with published results obtained from steady state experiments, but reduced the duration of the necessary (13) C-labeling experiment to less than a minute. These results show that our strategy enables to formally estimate relative pathway fluxes on extremely short time scale, neglecting cellular carbon balancing. Hence this approach paves the road to targeted (13) C-MFA in dynamic systems with multiple carbon sources and towards rich media. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013;110: 3164-3176. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23860906

Hörl, Manuel; Schnidder, Julian; Sauer, Uwe; Zamboni, Nicola

2013-08-12

335

Activity ratios of thorium daughters in vivo  

SciTech Connect

A computerized method of least squares has been used to analyze the /sup 228/Ac and /sup 212/Pb-/sup 212/Bi and daughter ..gamma..-ray spectra obtained in vivo from 133 former workers at a thorium refinery. In addition, the exhalation rate of /sup 220/Rn was determined for each subject and expressed as pCi of emanating /sup 224/Ra. This value was added to the /sup 212/Pb value determined from the ..gamma..-ray measurements to obtain the total /sup 224/Ra present, and the ratio of /sup 224/Ra to /sup 228/Ac was calculated. Values of the ratio ranged from 0.52 +- 0.32 to 2.1 +- 1.7, with a weighted mean of 0.92 +- 0.17. However, it appears that the ratio observed in a given case is characteristic for that case alone; the computed mean value may not be meaningful. The least squares fitting procedure and the overall calibration of the counting system were validated by measurements of /sup 224/Ra in the lungs of one subject postmortem, compared with results obtained from the same subject in vivo. 6 references, 5 figures.

Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.; Sha, J.Y.; Essling, M.A.; Pedersen, J.C.; Slane, J.M.

1984-01-01

336

Conductor and joint testing for the BPX central solenoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central solenoids for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) will experience a thermal and mechanical cyclic loading. A series of tensile, fatigue, crack growth, resistivity and joint component tests is currently underway on high-performance (HP) C17510 and on high-strength (HS) C17510 beryllium copper alloys. The fatigue tests were performed under strain control with various ratios of minimum to maximum strain.

R. F. Vieira; J. Feng; F. A. McClintock; R. M. Pelloux

1991-01-01

337

Study of burn deaths in Nagpur, Central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 384 victims of burn deaths were reviewed to determine the trends of burn deaths in Nagpur, an urban area of Central India. It was found that deaths due to burning accounted for 21.6% of the total medicolegal deaths. Female (74.2%) predominance was seen in burning with male–female ratio equal to 1:2.9. Most of the victims of burn

Vipul Namdeorao Ambade; Hemant Vasant Godbole

2006-01-01

338

Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

2008-01-01

339

Formaldehyde over the central Pacific during PEM-Tropics B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formaldehyde, CH2O, mixing ratios are reported for the central Pacific troposphere from a series of 41 flights, which took place in March-April 1999 as part of the NASA Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM)-Tropics B mission. Ambient CH2O was collected in aqueous media and quantified using an enzyme-derivatization fluorescence technique. Primary calibration was performed using aqueous standards and known flow rates. Occasionally,

Brian Heikes; Julie Snow; Peter Egli; Daniel O'Sullivan; James Crawford; Jennifer Olson; Gao Chen; Douglas Davis; Nicola Blake; Donald Blake

2001-01-01

340

CASWW Central Asia Experts Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Harvard Forum for Central Asian Studies, this site will prove useful to graduate students and scholars of Central Asia. The site was created to facilitate access for policy-makers, the press, and others to scholars with the appropriate expertise in Central Asian Studies. The Directory features those who have indicated their willingness to be contacted for expert consultations, and their listing will include a brief description of their qualifications. It organizes experts by name, topic, location, and under several headings: Politics and International Relations, Economy, Social Issues, and Cultural and Historical Background. The site is still soliciting experts for inclusion, and a link to the questionnaire is provided.

341

Centralized digital control of accelerators  

SciTech Connect

In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors.

Melen, R.E.

1983-09-01

342

The CDF Central Outer Tracker  

SciTech Connect

We describe the CDF Central Outer Tracker (COT), an open-cell drift chamber currently being constructed for the CDF detector to run at the upgraded Fermilab Tevatron collider. This detector will provide central tracking with excellent momentum resolution in the high- density environment of a hadron collider. It will be able to resolve 132 ns beam crossings and provide tracking trigger information to the Level 1 trigger. The design is based upon the existing and successful CDF Central Tracking Chamber. The preliminary mechanical and electrical designs are presented. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Pitts, K.T.; CDF Collaboration

1997-01-01

343

Demographic tensions in Central America.  

PubMed

This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America disproportionately benefits high and middle income groups, thereby widening the already large gap between rich and poor. Average per capita income for the poorest 20% of Central Americans is $90 a year (in 1970 US dollars); over half subsist on an average of $200 a year. Central America's economic crisis is further intensified by the marked increase in the economically active population. Doubling in size from about 2.1 million in 1970 to 4.2 million in 1985, the labor force increasingly pressures an economy already weakened by high unemployment and underemployment. Socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama are Central America's notable exceptions. Life expectancy at birth and infant mortality rates for these better off countries, e.g., are comparable to those of developed countries. Costa Ricans enjoy the most equitable distributional income of all Central Americans. Panama's income differential is 1 of the widest in the world, but its relative wealth affords more for each of its citizens. PMID:12268221

1986-08-01

344

Variation of equivalence ratio and element ratios in low-pressure premixed flames of aliphatic fuels  

SciTech Connect

In previously published work it was found that the element ratios (such as C/O, H/O, H/C) and the equivalence ratio all varied in the flame zone of a low-pressure premixed fuel-rich benzene/oxygen/argon laminar flat flame. These variations were seen from analyses of both the data and detailed kinetic modeling. In the present work, seven additional flames were analyzed in the same manner, including five flames with a single hydrocarbon fuel (methane, acetylene, ethylene, allene, and propene) and two flames with a mixture of fuels (acetylene/allene, hydrogen/allene). All the flames had argon as the diluent, with pressures between 20 and 37.5 Torr, equivalence ratios between 1.6 and 2.5, cold gas velocities between 42 and 126 cm/sec. All of these flames showed variations in the element ratios and equivalence ratios. Furthermore, these variations changed in a consistent pattern with respect to the molecular weight of the fuel. In the flame zone, the percent change in the H/O, C/O and equivalence ratios increased with increasing molecular weight of the fuel, except for the hydrogen/allene flame in which the C/O ratio first increases, then decreases in the flame zone. Also, unlike all the other hydrocarbon flames, the C/O ratio decreases below its inlet value for the methane flame. The H/O and equivalence ratios decrease below their inlet values for the hydrogen/allene flame. These results are explained in terms of differential diffusion effects between the products and the reactants, which increase as the fuel becomes increasingly heavier than the major carbon- and hydrogen-containing products.

C. J. Pope; J. A. Miller

2000-03-14

345

Closeness Centrality on BBS Reply Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a reply network was constructed with the data downloaded from SINA BBS. Based on the complex network theory, we firstly studied the node closeness centrality and graph closeness centralization of the reply network, and analyzed the influence of the central figure in reply network by studying the node closeness centrality. The leadership of the central figure was

Ke Zhang; Hui Li; Lijuan Qin; Min Wu

2011-01-01

346

Study on Corporate Hereditary Central Dogma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on analyzing the central dogma of biology, this paper raises hypothesis, using the analogism method to set up the corporate hereditary central dogma. It analyzes the differences between the Corporate hereditary central dogma and the central dogma of biology, which explains the significance of research on Corporate hereditary central dogma; it discusses the meanings of all factors of Corporate

Li Xianbai

2010-01-01

347

Central-Office Real Estate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how to upgrade a school district's central-office facilities without incurring taxpayer enmity. Includes case studies from Harford County, Maryland; Orange and Broward Counties, Florida; South Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Mt. Baker, Washington; Chicago, Illinois; and Rochester, New Hampshire. (PKP)|

Pardini, Priscilla

2003-01-01

348

The CMS central hadron calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

Freeman, Jim [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

1998-11-09

349

Super Kitchen Centralizes Food Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To centralize food service within the entire Pittsburgh school district, a 90,000-square-foot food service preparation building contains cranes and monorails to move 500-pound capacity vats throughout the kitchen. (Author/MLF)

Modern Schools, 1975

1975-01-01

350

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of sequential information. It states that such information cannot be transferred from protein to either protein or nucleic acid.

Francis Crick

1970-01-01

351

Central cementifying fibroma of maxilla.  

PubMed

Central cementifying fibroma is a bony tumor, which is believed to be derived from the cells of the periodontal ligament. Central cemento-ossifying fibroma behaves like, a benign bone neoplasm. This bone tumor consists of highly cellular, fibrous tissue that contains varying amounts of calcified tissue resembling bone, cementum, or both. Central cemento-ossifying fibromas of the mandible are common; however, they are rare in the maxilla region. This tumor is most frequent between 35 and 40 years of ages. In this report we have described a 37-year-old male with cemento-ossifying fibroma of the maxilla region with the mass that had been appeared 2-3 months prior to his first referral. Radiologic imaging such as intra-oral, panoramic, and Cone Beam CT had been performed. Histological analysis was done and finally diagnosis of central cementifying fibroma was made. The postoperative follow up at 12 months revealed no recurrence. PMID:23878576

Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Mosavat, Farzaneh; Jalalian, Faranak; Rashidipoor, Roghayeh

2013-01-01

352

Central cementifying fibroma of maxilla  

PubMed Central

Central cementifying fibroma is a bony tumor, which is believed to be derived from the cells of the periodontal ligament. Central cemento-ossifying fibroma behaves like, a benign bone neoplasm. This bone tumor consists of highly cellular, fibrous tissue that contains varying amounts of calcified tissue resembling bone, cementum, or both. Central cemento-ossifying fibromas of the mandible are common; however, they are rare in the maxilla region. This tumor is most frequent between 35 and 40 years of ages. In this report we have described a 37-year-old male with cemento-ossifying fibroma of the maxilla region with the mass that had been appeared 2-3 months prior to his first referral. Radiologic imaging such as intra-oral, panoramic, and Cone Beam CT had been performed. Histological analysis was done and finally diagnosis of central cementifying fibroma was made. The postoperative follow up at 12 months revealed no recurrence.

Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Mosavat, Farzaneh; Jalalian, Faranak; Rashidipoor, Roghayeh

2013-01-01

353

Embolism of Central Retinal Artery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A case of sudden blindness due to embolism of the central retinal artery occurring in a patient hospitalized for treatment of a recent myocardial infarction is presented because the eyes became available for histopathologic study when the patient died 62 ...

L. E. Zimmerman

1965-01-01

354

Tourism in East Central Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a research effort to project tourism as an industry in East Central Florida and present such key planning factors as employment, population supported, retail sales, motel and restaurant data and total investment. The approach used i...

1969-01-01

355

Rainfall in West Central Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An estimation of the relative importance of various factors to the rainfall in West Central Africa has been attempted. The factors considered were tropical waves, monsoon depressions, the position of the intertropical discontinuity (ITD) and the tropical ...

S. Mbele-Mbong

1974-01-01

356

Perihelium Shifts in Central Potentials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Motivated by the rigorous results on level ordering for arbitrary central potentials recently derived in the literature a classical treatment of the perihelium shifts is presented, based on the consideration of those orbits which lie in the vicinity of a ...

A. E. A. Amorim P. L. Ferreira

1987-01-01

357

Promoting Stability in Central Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Central Asia's critical geographic location and energy resource potential makes its continued stability a strategic concern of the United States. The most immediate destabilizing factors in the area are environmental remediation issues that require greate...

B. F. Griffard

2001-01-01

358

Ethnic differences in the association between waist-to-height ratio and albumin-creatinine ratio: the observational SUNSET study  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnic differences in the association between central obesity and raised albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) have not been investigated. Our aim was to determine whether the association between central obesity, defined by the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and ACR differed between subjects of Hindustani-Surinamese, African-Surinamese and Dutch origin. Methods In total, 334 Hindustani-Surinamese (~South Asian), 589 African-Surinamese (~African), and 493 Dutch (~European) men and women, aged 35–60?years, randomly selected from the municipal register of Amsterdam, participated in an interview and physical examination. We calculated the WHtR by dividing the waist circumference by height and the log ACR (logACR, log mg/mmol) by log-transforming the albumin concentration by the creatinine concentration in urine. The association between WHtR and logACR was studied in the total population and stratified by ethnicity. We also tested for interaction. Results In the total population, a higher WHtR was associated with a higher logACR, after adjustment for sex, age, and smoking, body mass index and the presence of type 2 diabetes or hypertension. Among the Hindustani-Surinamese, the adjusted association between WHtR and logACR appeared somewhat stronger than among the other ethnic groups: for every 0.1 increase in the WHtR, the log-ACR increased by 0.522 (0.096-0.949) log mg/mmol among the Hindustani-Surinamese, by 0.334 (0.047-0.622) among the African-Surinamese and by 0.356 (?0.010-0.721) among the Dutch. However, the interaction was not statistically significant. Conclusions WHtR was associated with a higher ACR among populations of Hindustani-Surinamese, African-Surinamese and Dutch origin. Our study seems to support global use of WHtR in relation to ACR across ethnic groups. However, although not significant, the association appeared slightly stronger among the Hindustani-Surinamese than among the other ethnic groups. If confirmed, this could have implications for use of the WHtR across ethnic groups.

2012-01-01

359

CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY  

SciTech Connect

THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

BERGMAN TB; STEFANSKI LD; SEELEY PN; ZINSLI LC; CUSACK LJ

2012-09-19

360

Attribute centrality and imaginative thought.  

PubMed

Participants' representations of the concept human were examined to differentiate three types of associations between concepts and their component attributes: the capacity of concepts to cue attributes (attribute accessibility), the capacity of attributes to cue concepts (instance accessibility), and the extent to which attributes are thought of as central to concepts (attribute centrality). The findings provide information about the concept human itself and, more generally, about the functionally distinct roles those different attribute-concept associations play in guiding imaginative thought. College students listed attributes that differentiate humans from other animals, rated the centrality of those attributes, and listed animals that possess those attributes. Other students drew and described extraterrestrials that possessed some of the attributes that were found to vary across those listing and rating tasks. Rated centrality was the most important determinant of an attribute's impact on imaginative generation. When the imagined extraterrestrials were supposed to possess attributes that had been rated as central to humans (intelligence, emotional complexity, or opposable thumbs), participants projected more aspects of human form onto them than when the creatures were supposed to possess less central attributes or when attributes were unspecified. PMID:11219966

Ward, T B; Dodds, R A; Saunders, K N; Sifonis, C M

2000-12-01

361

New "Golden" Ratios for Facial Beauty  

PubMed Central

In four experiments, we tested the existence of an ideal facial feature arrangement that could optimize the attractiveness of any face given its facial features. Participants made paired comparisons of attractiveness between faces with identical facial features but different eye-mouth distances and different interocular distances. We found that although different faces have varying attractiveness, individual attractiveness is optimized when the face’s vertical distance between the eyes and the mouth is approximately 36% of its length, and the horizontal distance between the eyes is approximately 46% of the face’s width. These “new” golden ratios match those of an average face.

Pallett, Pamela M.; Link, Stephen; Lee, Kang

2009-01-01

362

The fog influence on bit error ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The free space optic links are used in places, where it is very difficult to use optical fiber links. The advantages of free space optic link are a great bit rate, easy and fast installation, unlicensed frequency band. The greatest disadvantage is transmission medium, which it uses in case of FSO link, the atmosphere. The worst influence on FSO link is caused by atmospherical effect called fog. This article deals with the study of fog influence on FSO link and its bit error ratio. The real measurement of BER with artificial generated fog and FSO link was performed. The measurement was done in laboratory conditions. The results are presented in this article.

Vitasek, Jan; Látal, Jan; Vašinek, Vladimir; Hejduk, Stanislav; Liner, Andrej; Papes, Martin; Koudelka, Petr; Ganiyev, Artem

2012-01-01

363

Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, DR

2011-02-23

364

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOEpatents

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

Brown, Steve B. (Livermore, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA)

1995-01-01

365

Measurement of a small atmospheric ? ? \\/ ? e ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an exposure of 25.5 kiloton-years of the Super-Kamiokande detector, 900 muon-like and 983 electron-like single-ring atmospheric neutrino interactions were detected with momentum pe>100 MeV\\/c, p?>200 MeV\\/c, and with visible energy less than 1.33 GeV. Using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation, the ratio (?\\/e)DATA\\/(?\\/e)MC was measured to be 0.61±0.03(stat.)±0.05(sys.), consistent with previous results from the Kamiokande, IMB and Soudan-2 experiments,

Y. Fukuda; T. Hayakawa; E. Ichihara; K. Inoue; K. Ishihara; H. Ishino; Y. Itow; T. Kajita; J. Kameda; S. Kasuga; K. Kobayashi; Y. Kobayashi; Y. Koshio; K. Martens; M. Miura; M. Nakahata; S. Nakayama; A. Okada; M. Oketa; K. Okumura; M. Ota; N. Sakurai; M. Shiozawa; Y. Suzuki; Y. Takeuchi; Y. Totsuka; S. Yamada; M. Earl; A. Habig; J. T. Hong; E. Kearns; S. B. Kim; M. Masuzawa; M. D. Messier; K. Scholberg; J. L. Stone; L. R. Sulak; C. W. Walter; M. Goldhaber; T. Barszczak; W. Gajewski; P. G. Halverson; J. Hsu; W. R. Kropp; L. R. Price; F. Reines; H. W. Sobel; M. R. Vagins; K. S. Ganezer; W. E. Keig; R. W. Ellsworth; S. Tasaka; J. W. Flanagan; A. Kibayashi; J. G. Learned; S. Matsuno; V. Stenger; D. Takemori; T. Ishii; J. Kanzaki; T. Kobayashi; K. Nakamura; K. Nishikawa; Y. Oyama; A. Sakai; M. Sakuda; O. Sasaki; S. Echigo; M. Kohama; A. T. Suzuki; T. J. Haines; E. Blaufuss; R. Sanford; R. Svoboda; M. L. Chen; Z. Conner; J. A. Goodman; G. W. Sullivan; M. Mori; F. Goebel; J. Hill; C. K. Jung; C. Mauger; C. McGrew; E. Sharkey; B. Viren; C. Yanagisawa; W. Doki; T. Ishizuka; Y. Kitaguchi; H. Koga; K. Miyano; H. Okazawa; C. Saji; M. Takahata; A. Kusano; Y. Nagashima; M. Takita; T. Yamaguchi; M. Yoshida; M. Etoh; K. Fujita; A. Hasegawa; T. Hasegawa; S. Hatakeyama; T. Iwamoto; T. Kinebuchi; M. Koga; T. Maruyama; H. Ogawa; M. Saito; F. Tsushima; M. Koshiba; M. Nemoto; K. Nishijima; T. Futagami; Y. Hayato; Y. Kanaya; K. Kaneyuki; Y. Watanabe; D. Kielczewska; R. Doyle; J. George; A. Stachyra; L. Wai; J. Wilkes; K. Young

1998-01-01

366

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOEpatents

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

1995-11-14

367

Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio  

SciTech Connect

Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

2010-11-01

368

Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination  

SciTech Connect

The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort.

Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

1994-02-03

369

Handcycling: different modes and gear ratios.  

PubMed

Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a straining form of ambulation. In contrast, arm crank exercise in laboratory settings has shown a higher degree of gross mechanical efficiency and increased levels of peak power output. Moreover, arm crank exercise can be conducted at different gear ratios and in asynchronic or synchronic mode. Although tricycle crank exercise or handcycling has become increasingly popular for recreational use, sports and outdoor wheeling over the last decade, today little is known about the cardiopulmonary strain in handcycling. The physiological and subjective responses during handcycling were evaluated in a group of 12 male non-wheelchair users (age 24.6 +/- 2.7 yr; body weight 73.7 +/- 9.7 kg). During an incremental submaximal exercise test on a motor driven treadmill (velocity: 1.8 ms-1; an incremental slope of 1% per 3 min; 0-3%; mean power output of the subject group varied between 7.6 +/- 1.6 W and 47.5 +/- 6.2 W), effects of asynchronic and synchronic crank settings and three different gear ratios (1:0.42, 1:0.59, 1:0.74 (or 24, 36 and 44 rpm)) were evaluated in a random testing sequence. Significantly lower levels of mean oxygen uptake, ventilation, relative heart rate and oxygen uptake were seen during synchronic arm use and for the lighter gear ratios (i.e. higher movement frequency; 44 rpm). Subjective local perceived discomfort showed similar trends. Conversely, gross mechanical efficiency appeared higher for these conditions. The need for strong medio-lateral stabilizing muscle effort during asynchronic arm use (to ensure a proper wheeling direction as well as simultaneous power transfer to the cranks) and the effective use of the trunk in this subject group may explain the advantage of synchronic arm use. Whether this advantage is consolidated among wheelchair confined individuals needs further study. Apart from the important effects of a shift in force--velocity characteristics of the contracting muscles with varying gear ratios, increased static finger flexor and arm muscle activity may explain the increased strain in the somewhat unnatural heavy gear condition (24 rpm) at the studied velocity. Results need to be re-evaluated for wheelchair user populations and different higher velocities and power conditions. Moreover, other aspects of the wheelchair--user interface must be studied in order to generate optimum fitting and design guidelines for different user groups and conditions of use. PMID:11315650

van der Woude, L H; Bosmans, I; Bervoets, B; Veeger, H E

370

Dietary molar ratios of phytate: Zinc and millimolar ratios of phytate × calcium: Zinc in South Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc nutritional status in south Koreans was established by evaluation of zinc, calcium and phytate intakes, the molar\\u000a ratio of phytate: zinc, and the millimolar ratio of phytate × calcium: zinc. The intakes of iron and magnesium were also estimated.\\u000a Sampling was designed so that it was representative of the national population. Two-day food records were used for the

In-Sook Kwun; Chong-Suk Kwon

2000-01-01

371

Measurements of the Proton Elastic-Form-Factor Ratio ?pGEp/GMp at Low Momentum Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, ?pGEp/GMp, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than expected.

Ron, G.; Glister, J.; Lee, B.; Allada, K.; Armstrong, W.; Arrington, J.; Beck, A.; Benmokhtar, F.; Berman, B. L.; Boeglin, W.; Brash, E.; Camsonne, A.; Calarco, J.; Chen, J. P.; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E.; Coman, L.; Craver, B.; Cusanno, F.; Dumas, J.; Dutta, C.; Feuerbach, R.; Freyberger, A.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilman, R.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Hyde, C. E.; Ibrahim, H.; Ilieva, Y.; de Jager, C. W.; Jiang, X.; Jones, M. K.; Kang, H.; Kelleher, A.; Khrosinkova, E.; Kuchina, E.; Kumbartzki, G.; Lerose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Markowitz, P.; May-Tal Beck, S.; McCullough, E.; Meekins, D.; Meziane, M.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Norum, B. E.; Oh, Y.; Olson, M.; Paolone, M.; Paschke, K.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Potokar, M.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Pomerantz, I.; Puckett, A.; Punjabi, V.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Ransome, R.; Reyhan, M.; Roche, J.; Rousseau, Y.; Saha, A.; Sarty, A. J.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Shneor, R.; Širca, S.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Song, J.; Sparks, R.; Subedi, R.; Strauch, S.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhan, X.; Zhu, X.

2007-11-01

372

The Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio mu(p) G**p(E)/G**p(M) at Low Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

High precision measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio have been made at four-momentum transfers, Q^2, between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV^2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q^2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than the dipole parameterization.

G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B.L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B.E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A.J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. ? Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

2007-11-01

373

Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio  

SciTech Connect

In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture contents (45-75%) and C/N ratios (13.9-19.6). The results indicate that the optimal moisture content for co-composting of food waste and green waste is 60%, and the substrate at a C/N ratio of 19.6 can be decomposed effectively to reduce 33% of total volatile solids (TVS) in 12 days. The TVS reduction can be modeled by using a second-order equation with a good fit. In addition, the compost passes the standard germination index of white radish seed indicating that it can be used as soil amendment.

Kumar, Mathava; Ou, Y.-L. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu City 30010, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.-G., E-mail: jglin@mail.nctu.edu.t [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu City 30010, Taiwan (China)

2010-04-15

374

Near infrared hydrogen emission line ratios as diagnostics of the broad emission line region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad emission line flux ratios are a powerful diagnostic of the physical conditions of the broad-line region gas in Active Galactic Nuclei. With recent advances in infrared spectroscopy, previously unstudied emission lines provide a new means to investigate the physical nature of the BELR gas. The hydrogen emission lines are particularly sensitive to the upper limits of both the radius from the central ionising source and the number density of the gas. Using an existing subset of near-infrared quasar spectra from the Glikman et al. (2006) sample [1] together with Cloudy photoionization simulations, we confirm the Locally Optimally emitting Cloud (LOC) model's ability to reproduce observed emission line flux ratios. The model is then used to constrain physical conditions for individual sources. The photoionization models show that high number density, low incident flux gas is required to reproduce observed near-infrared hydrogen emission line ratios. We also find that comparison to individual sources, rather than composites, is vital.

Ruff, Andrea J.; Floyd, David J. E.; Korista, Kirk T.; Webster, Rachel L.; Porter, Ryan L.; Ferland, Gary J.

2012-07-01

375

Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio.  

PubMed

In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture contents (45-75%) and C/N ratios (13.9-19.6). The results indicate that the optimal moisture content for co-composting of food waste and green waste is 60%, and the substrate at a C/N ratio of 19.6 can be decomposed effectively to reduce 33% of total volatile solids (TVS) in 12days. The TVS reduction can be modeled by using a second-order equation with a good fit. In addition, the compost passes the standard germination index of white radish seed indicating that it can be used as soil amendment. PMID:20034778

Kumar, Mathava; Ou, Yan-Liang; Lin, Jih-Gaw

2010-01-19

376

Sr / Ca and Mg / Ca ratios in polygenetic carbonate allochems from a Michigan marl lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid accumulation of CaCO 3 is occurring in Littlefield Lake, a marl lake located in central Michigan. The sediment, which is 95% CaCO 3 , primarily consists of eight different genetic groups of carbonate allochems. These include calcite muds, sands, algal oncoids and Chara encrustations, as well as the dominant aragonitic gastropods Valvota tricarinota . Gyraulus deflectus and Amnicola integra . and the dominant aragonitic pelecypod Sphaerium partumeium . Samples of each of these groups were analyzed for Ca, Sr and Mg. Molar Mg / Ca ratios are primarily controlled by allochem mineralogy, with calcitic forms having Mg / Ca ratios 5-10 times larger than aragonitic (shelled) forms. The Sr / Ca ratios are primarily controlled by biochemical fractionation, and are significantly lower than Sr / Ca ratios of inorganically precipitated aragonite from other settings. Partition coefficients were determined for both Sr and Mg for each carbonate allochem group and, based on comparisons with results reported by other workers, the partition coefficients determined here are generally considered `typical' or representative values for biogeneous freshwater carbonates. An analysis of variance of the data indicates that most genera and species of carbonate-secreting organisms in marl lakes have highly characteristic Sr / Ca and Mg / Ca ratios. These ratios can potentially serve as geochemical tracers in future investigations of lacustrine carbonate diagenesis. Both Sr and Mg are influenced by grain size and/or surface area, probably due to the presence of these elements in non-lattice-held (exchangeable) positions.

Treese, Thomas N.; Owen, Robert M.; Wilkinson, Bruce H.

1981-03-01

377

Complications with using ratios for environmental data: Comparing enantiomeric ratios (ERs) and enantiomer fractions (EFs)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Complications arise when ratios are used to present environmental data because ratios are an unbounded, multiplicative scale that can lead to asymmetrical (skewed) data distributions. Enantiomeric ratios (ERs), historically used in discussions of chiral signatures, often are published as mean ER??single-value standard deviation. Application of statistical summaries, such as the widely used sample mean and standard deviation, to skewed ratio data is misleading and often inappropriate. Comparison of statistically summarized ER and enantiomer fraction (EF) data (which are based on a bounded, additive scale) for a range of hypothetical values reveals substantial discrepancies when conversion between ER and EF formats is used. These discrepancies are largest when the ratio data are greater than one and have large variability, because the data are more skewed. In many cases, the use of fractions instead of ratios can help to minimize misrepresentation of environmental data, including chiral data. The use of nonparametric statistical summaries, e.g., median and percentiles, provides a more robust indicator of the typical value and spread for both ER and EF data. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ulrich, E. M.; Helsel, D. R.; Foreman, W. T.

2003-01-01

378

An adaptive estimator of the memory parameter and the goodness-of-fit test using a multidimensional increment ratio statistic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increment ratio (IR) statistic was first defined and studied in Surgailis et al. (2007) [19] for estimating the memory parameter either of a stationary or an increment stationary Gaussian process. Here three extensions are proposed in the case of stationary processes. First, a multidimensional central limit theorem is established for a vector composed by several IR statistics. Second, a

Jean-Marc Bardet

2012-01-01

379

Evapotranspiration in semi-arid wetlands: relationships between inundation and the macrophyte-cover:open-water ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open water evaporation and macrophyte transpiration rates were analyzed in a semi-arid, freshwater wetland in Central Spain over two meteorological periods between 1993 and 1998. The aim was identifying the importance of these variables in the dynamics of evapotranspiration in different water level scenarios. Throughout the vegetation growth period, transpiration versus evaporation ratios were about 2 for cut-sedge, 1 for

Salvador Sánchez-Carrillo; David G. Angeler; Raquel Sánchez-Andrés; Miguel Alvarez-Cobelas; Jaime Garatuza-Payán

2004-01-01

380

Median-Based Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER)  

PubMed Central

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a type of economic evaluation that examines the costs and health outcomes of alternative strategies and has been extensively applied in health sciences. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which represents the additional cost of one unit of outcome gained by one strategy compared with another, has become a popular methodology in CEA. Despite its popularity, limited attention has been paid to summary measures other than the mean for summarizing cost as well as effectiveness in the context of CEA. Although some apparent advantages of other central tendency measures such as median for cost data that are often highly skewed are well understood, thus far, the median has rarely been considered in the ICER. In this paper, we propose the median-based ICER, along with inferential procedures, and suggest that mean and median-based ICERs be considered together as complementary tools in CEA for informed decision making, acknowledging the pros and cons of each. If the mean and median-based CEAs are concordant, we may feel reasonably confident about the cost-effectiveness of an intervention, but if they provide different results, our confidence may need to be adjusted accordingly, pending further evidence.

Bang, Heejung; Zhao, Hongwei

2013-01-01

381

Median-Based Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER).  

PubMed

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a type of economic evaluation that examines the costs and health outcomes of alternative strategies and has been extensively applied in health sciences. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which represents the additional cost of one unit of outcome gained by one strategy compared with another, has become a popular methodology in CEA. Despite its popularity, limited attention has been paid to summary measures other than the mean for summarizing cost as well as effectiveness in the context of CEA. Although some apparent advantages of other central tendency measures such as median for cost data that are often highly skewed are well understood, thus far, the median has rarely been considered in the ICER. In this paper, we propose the median-based ICER, along with inferential procedures, and suggest that mean and median-based ICERs be considered together as complementary tools in CEA for informed decision making, acknowledging the pros and cons of each. If the mean and median-based CEAs are concordant, we may feel reasonably confident about the cost-effectiveness of an intervention, but if they provide different results, our confidence may need to be adjusted accordingly, pending further evidence. PMID:23441022

Bang, Heejung; Zhao, Hongwei

2012-08-10

382

Galapagos-OIB signature in southern Central America: Mantle refertilization by arc-hot spot interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although most Central American magmas have a typical arc geochemical signature, magmas in southern Central America (central Costa Rica and Panama) have isotopic and trace element compositions with an ocean island basalt (OIB) affinity, similar to the Galapagos-OIB lavas (e.g., Ba/La < 40, La/Yb > 10, 206Pb/204Pb > 18.8). Our new data for Costa Rica suggest that this signature, unusual for a convergent margin, has a relatively recent origin (Late Miocene ˜6 Ma). We also show that there was a transition from typical arc magmas (analogous to the modern Nicaraguan volcanic front) to OIB-like magmas similar to the Galapagos hot spot. The geographic distribution of the Galapagos signature in recent lavas from southern Central America is present landward from the subduction of the Galapagos hot spot tracks (the Seamount Province and the Cocos/Coiba Ridge) at the Middle American Trench. The higher Pb isotopic ratios, relatively lower Sr and Nd isotopic ratios, and enriched incompatible-element signature of central Costa Rican magmas can be explained by arc-hot spot interaction. The isotopic ratios of central Costa Rican lavas require the subducting Seamount Province (Northern Galapagos Domain) component, whereas the isotopic ratios of the adakites and alkaline basalts from southern Costa Rica and Panama are in the geochemical range of the subducting Cocos/Coiba Ridge (Central Galapagos Domain). Geological and geochemical evidence collectively indicate that the relatively recent Galapagos-OIB signature in southern Central America represents a geochemical signal from subducting Galapagos hot spot tracks, which started to collide with the margin ˜8 Ma ago. The Galapagos hot spot contribution decreases systematically along the volcanic front from central Costa Rica to NW Nicaragua.

Gazel, Esteban; Carr, Michael J.; Hoernle, Kaj; Feigenson, Mark D.; Szymanski, David; Hauff, Folkmar; van den Bogaard, Paul

2009-02-01

383

Central dynamics of globular clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores some aspects of the central dynamics of globular clusters. Surface brightness profiles are measured with a newly developed technique that yields accurate, high resolution density profiles. The technique uses integrated light measured with a robust statistical estimator, and it is applied to images obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope . Surface brightness profiles are presented for 39 globular clusters belonging to the Milky Way, 21 to the LMC, 5 to the SMC and 4 to the Fornax dwarf galaxy. Results show that the central structure of some globular clusters departs from the predictions made by classic dynamical models. When the distribution of central logarithmic slopes is analyzed, instead of finding a bimodal distribution between flat cores and steep cusps (as expected for post core-collapse clusters), a continuous distribution of central slopes is observed. A new sub-class of objects is found that have intermediate slopes between flat cores and the expected post-core collapse central slope. In total, 45% of the sample is not consistent with having King-type profiles in the center. Omega Centauri, the largest Galactic globular cluster, is one of the objects that deviates from a flat core, having a central logarithmic slope clearly different than zero. In order to further explore the dynamical state of this cluster, central kinematic measurements are obtained. Spectroscopic measurements come from the GMOS-IFU on the Gemini-south telescope. Line-of-sight velocity dispersions from integrated spectra are measured in an area of 5=D75 arcseconds around the center and also 14 arcseconds away. A clear rise in dispersion from 18.5 to 23 km s -1 is observed between the outer and the central fields. The observed velocity dispersion profile is compared with dynamical models containing central black holes of various masses. Observations are best explained by the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole of [Special characters omitted.] at the center. It is crucial to investigate the central regions of globular clusters in great detail in order to find the causes for the observed photometric and kinematic peculiarities.

Noyola, Eva

384

Ratios of heavy hadron semileptonic decay rates  

SciTech Connect

Ratios of charmed meson and baryon semileptonic decay rates appear to be satisfactorily described by considering only the lowest-lying (S-wave) hadronic final states and assuming the kinematic factor describing phase space suppression is the same as that for free quarks. For example, the rate for D{sub s} semileptonic decay is known to be (17.0{+-}5.3)% lower than those for D{sup 0} or D{sup +}, and the model accounts for this difference. When applied to hadrons containing b quarks, this method implies that the B{sub s} semileptonic decay rate is about 1% higher than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This small difference thus suggests surprisingly good local quark-hadron duality for B semileptonic decays, complementing the expectation based on inclusive quark-hadron duality that these differences in rates should not exceed a few tenths of a percent. For {Lambda}{sub b} semileptonic decay, however, the inclusive rate is predicted to be about 13% greater than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This value, representing a considerable departure from a calculation using a heavy-quark expansion, is close to the corresponding experimental ratio {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub b})/{Gamma}(B)=1.13{+-}0.03 of total decay rates.

Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2011-02-01

385

Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

2008-06-30

386

Nuclear viscosity and viscosity to entropy ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both a classical and a quantum mechanical evaluation of the shear viscosity of hadronic matter is developed and compared. The classical evaluation involves the scattering angle produced by a potential while a quantum description is based on phase shifts from this potential. A hard sphere potential and an attractive square well potential are considered. The classical evaluation of the scattering angle can be cast into a form that has the structure of Snell's refraction law for an attractive potential. The limit of a large index of refraction gives the hard sphere result. The high wave number limit of the quantum result for a hard sphere has a scaling law associated with it. This scaling law is similar to a result which gives a factor of two increase of the hard sphere geometric scattering cross section. This increase is associated with diffraction of the wave around the sphere. The quantum mechanical evaluation is discussed in the unitary limit of infinite scattering length. In the limit of large scattering length the effective range to quantum thermal wavelength appears as a limiting scale. The viscosity to entropy density ratio is developed. Results are compared with the string theory limit for this ratio involving Planck's constant.

Fu, Dani; Mekjian, Aram

2010-11-01

387

Emission Ratios from SCIAMACHY simultaneous measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectra of reflected and backscattered solar radiation as measured by SCIAMACHY in nadir observation mode in the UV/visible/near-infrared/short-wave-infrared spectral region contain information on the vertical columns of numerous air pollutants and therefore provide a large-scale perspective on spacious and uncertain pollution sources like biomass burnings. It will be shown that under a number of reasonable assumptions we can obtain a quantitative charac-teristics of biomass burning emissions in terms of emission ratios (ER) using only the averages of the atmospheric gas columns retrieved from the space-based simultaneous measurements. Considering for example the SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO), taken as a reference car-bon component, together with the SCIAMACHY formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns in the scope of a well established emission quantification method we calcu-late the emission ratios, CO/HCHO and CO/NO2, over large biomass burning events in 2004 (established with the help of the AATSR fire counts product). We show that the calculated ER values are in reasonable agreement with the values obtained locally over similar biomass burning events reported in the literature. In addition, we discuss the relatively large values over the boreal forest fires in Alaska and Siberia, where ER values from local measurements were not yet reported.

Khlystova, Iryna; Richter, Andreas; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.; Buchwitz, Michael; Bovensmann, Heinrich

388

Astrophysical neutrinos: flavor ratios depend on energy.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic (and adiabatic) energy losses of pi's and mu's modify the flavor ratio (measured at Earth) of neutrinos produced by pi decay in astrophysical sources, Phi v: phi v mu: phi v tau, from 1:1:1 at low energy to 1:1.8:1.8 at high energy. The transition occurs over 1-2 decades of v energy, and is correlated with a modification of the neutrino spectrum. For gamma-ray bursts, e.g., the transition is expected at approximately 100 TeV and may be detected by km-scale v telescopes. Measurements of the transition energy and energy width will provide unique probes of the physics of the sources. Pi and mu energy losses also affect the ratio of ve flux to total v flux, which may be measured at the resonance (6.3 PeV): It is modified from 1/6(1/15) at low energy to 1/9 (practically 0) at high energy for neutrinos produced in p p (p gamma) interactions. PMID:16383889

Kashti, Tamar; Waxman, Eli

2005-10-26

389

Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee Charter. Authority. The Peripheral and Central Nervous ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/drugs

390

Centralization or decentralization of facial structures in Korean young adults.  

PubMed

It is well known that facial beauty is dictated by facial type, and harmony between the eyes, nose, and mouth. Furthermore, facial impression is judged according to the overall facial contour and the relationship between the facial structures. The aims of the present study were to determine the optimal criteria for the assessment of gathering or separation of the facial structures and to define standardized ratios for centralization or decentralization of the facial structures.Four different lengths were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from standardized photographs of 551 volunteers. Centralization and decentralization were assessed using the width index (interpupillary distance / facial width) and height index (eyes-mouth distance / facial height). The mean ranges of the width index and height index were 42.0 to 45.0 and 36.0 to 39.0, respectively. The width index did not differ with sex, but males had more decentralized faces, and females had more centralized faces, vertically. The incidence rate of decentralized faces among the men was 30.3%, and that of centralized faces among the women was 25.2%.The mean ranges in width and height indexes have been determined in a Korean population. Faces with width and height index scores under and over the median ranges are determined to be "centralized" and "decentralized," respectively. PMID:23714934

Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Shin, Kang-Jae; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

2013-05-01

391

Cardiorespiratory fitness associates with metabolic risk independent of central adiposity.  

PubMed

This study sought to analyze the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), waist circumference (WC) and metabolic risk in children and adolescents. Participants were 633 subjects (58.7% girls) ages 10-18 years. Metabolic risk score (MRS) was calculated from HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose and mean arterial pressure. MRS was dichotomized into low and high metabolic risk (HMRS). CRF was defined as the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) estimated from the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. The first quartile of CRF was set as the low fitness group. The fourth quartile of WC was defined as high central adiposity. With adjustments for age, sex and WC, CRF was correlated with MRS (r=-0.095; p<0.05). WC was correlated with MRS (r=0.150; p<0.001) after adjustments for age, sex and CRF. Participants who had low fitness levels, presented higher levels of MRS (p<0.001) compared to those who were fit, even after adjustment for age, sex and WC. In comparison with subjects who were fit with normal central adiposity, an increased odds ratio (OR) for being at HMRS was found for participants who were of low fitness level with high central adiposity (OR=2.934; 95%CI= 1.690-5.092) and for those who were of low fitness with normal central adiposity (OR=2.234; 95%CI=1.116-4.279). Results suggest that CRF relates to MRS independently of central adiposity. PMID:23559413

Silva, G; Aires, L; Martins, C; Mota, J; Oliveira, J; Ribeiro, J C

2013-04-04

392

Temporal patterns of responding in small fixed-ratio schedules  

PubMed Central

Pigeons were exposed to an ascending series of small fixed-ratio schedules from fixed-ratio 1 to 7. Two of those pigeons were later placed on a fixed-ratio 30 schedule. The two primary dependent variables were the postreinforcement pause and the interresponse time. Changes in these variables under small fixed ratios were sometimes opposite to changes reported with large fixed ratios. For example, postreinforcement pauses decreased in length as the fixed-ratio requirement increased from fixed-ratio 1 to fixed-ratio 3. Also, the interresponse times early in the small fixed-ratio schedule were shorter than those immediately preceding reinforcement. These findings question the role of interresponse-time reinforcement in determining temporal patterns of responding under small fixed-ratio schedules. They also suggest that there may be a limited region in which the independent variable, fixed-ratio size, does not operate as previously described.

Crossman, Edward K.; Trapp, Nancy L.; Bonem, Elliott J.; Bonem, Marilyn K.

1985-01-01

393

Network centrality of metro systems.  

PubMed

Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all") unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

Derrible, Sybil

2012-07-06

394

Network Centrality of Metro Systems  

PubMed Central

Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world’s ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no “winner takes all”) unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities.

Derrible, Sybil

2012-01-01

395

Electronic branching ratio of the. tau. lepton  

SciTech Connect

Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio {ital R}={Gamma}({tau}{r arrow}{ital e}{bar {nu}}{sub {ital e}}{nu}{sub {tau}})/{Gamma}{sub 1}, where {Gamma}{sub 1} is the {tau} decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find {ital R}=0.2231{plus minus}0.0044{plus minus}0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the {tau} lepton to electrons, {ital B}{sub {ital e}}=0.192{plus minus}0.004{plus minus}0.006.

Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; (CLEO Collaboration)

1992-06-01

396

Fetal gender ratio in recurrent miscarriages  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gender ratio and incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the products of conception (POC) from recurrent miscarriages. Methods: We determined the karyotypes of POC from patients with recurrent spontaneous miscarriages between 1999 and 2009. Results: In total, 313 specimens were successfully karyotyped, with a median gestational age of 10 weeks at miscarriage (interquartile range 8–13); 199 (64%) were females and 114 (36%) were males. In total, 121 (39%) had abnormal karyotypes, the most prevalent of which were chromosome 21 and 16 trisomies, triploidy, and monosomy X. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that female POC might be more susceptible to recurrent miscarriages than male ones during embryogenesis, implantation, and initial fetal development.

Del Fabro, Anna; Driul, Lorenza; Anis, Omar; Londero, Ambrogio P; Bertozzi, Serena; Bortotto, Livio; Marchesoni, Diego

2011-01-01

397

Perspectives on the basic reproductive ratio  

PubMed Central

The basic reproductive ratio, R0, is defined as the expected number of secondary infections arising from a single individual during his or her entire infectious period, in a population of susceptibles. This concept is fundamental to the study of epidemiology and within-host pathogen dynamics. Most importantly, R0 often serves as a threshold parameter that predicts whether an infection will spread. Related parameters which share this threshold behaviour, however, may or may not give the true value of R0. In this paper we give a brief overview of common methods of formulating R0 and surrogate threshold parameters from deterministic, non-structured models. We also review common means of estimating R0 from epidemiological data. Finally, we survey the recent use of R0 in assessing emerging diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza, a number of recent livestock diseases, and vector-borne diseases malaria, dengue and West Nile virus.

Heffernan, J.M; Smith, R.J; Wahl, L.M

2005-01-01

398

Laser spectroscopic measurement of helium isotope ratios.  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive laser spectroscopic method has been applied to the quantitative determination of the isotope ratio of helium at the level of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He = 10{sup -7}--10{sup -5}. The resonant absorption of 1083 nm laser light by the metastable {sup 3}He atoms in a discharge cell was measured with the frequency modulation saturation spectroscopy technique while the abundance of {sup 4}He was measured by a direct absorption technique. The results on three different samples extracted from the atmosphere and commercial helium gas were in good agreement with values obtained with mass spectrometry. The achieved 3{sigma} detection limit of {sup 3}He in helium is 4 x 10{sup -9}. This demonstration required a 200 {mu}L STP sample of He. The sensitivity can be further improved, and the required sample size reduced, by several orders of magnitude with the addition of cavity enhanced spectroscopy.

Wang, L.-B.; Mueller, P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Sano, Y.; Sturchio, N.; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Tokyo; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

2003-06-13

399

A large 12C/13C isotopic ratio in M 82 and NGC 253  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: Our aim is to derive carbon isotopic ratios from optically thin tracers in the central regions of the starburst galaxies M 82 and NGC 253. Methods: We present high-sensitivity observations of CCH and two of its 13C isotopologues, C13CH and 13CCH, as well as the optically thin emission from C18O and 13C18O. We assume the column density ratio between isotopologues is representative of the 12C/13C isotopic ratio. Results: From CCH, lower limits to the 12C/13C isotopic ratio of 138 in M 82, and 81 in NGC 253, are derived. Lower limits to the 12C/13C ratios from CO isotopologues support these. 13C18O is tentatively detected in NGC 253, which is the first reported detection in the extragalactic ISM. Based on these limits, we infer ratios of 16O/18O > 350 and >300 in M 82 and NGC 253, respectively, and 32S/34S > 16 in NGC 253. The derived CCH fractional abundances toward these galaxies of ?1.1×10-8 agree well with those of molecular clouds in the Galactic disk. Conclusions: Our lower limits to the 12C/13C ratio from CCH are a factor of 2-3 larger than previous limits. The results are discussed in the context of molecular and nucleo-chemical evolution. The high 12C/13C isotopic ratio of the molecular ISM in these starburst galaxies suggest that the gas has been recently accreted toward their nuclear regions.

Martín, S.; Aladro, R.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Mauersberger, R.

2010-11-01

400

Ultrahigh-Aspect-Ratio Contact Hole Etching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrasmall, 60nm-diameter, 2um-deep contact hole pattern of BPSG film was successfully fabricated using a poly-Si mask and a magnetically enhanced reactive-ion-etching system. Significantly weaker dependence of etch rate on aspect ratio(AR) was obtained up to AR=30, showing that the energetic ions (and/or neutralized molecules) with a sufficient flux for etching reaction are supplied onto the hole bottom even in such a extremely fine feature. On the other hand, neutral supply of polymer precursors onto the hole bottom (Si substrate) is not sufficient for polymerization in holes with aspect ratios greater than 10, where several energetic particles reach the hole bottoms and contribute to the etching reaction with Si substrates. For features with dimensions below 100nm, processing of vertical profiles is extremely difficult, and problems in the form of bowing at the sidewalls of the holes can occur. The shape of the etched feature and the occurrence of etch stops were shown to be in a trade-off relationship. However, vertical profiles were successfully obtained with diameters greater than 100nm without etch stops. It is possible that ion flux is significantly influenced (reduced) when ions pass through the poly-Si mask, rather than through the BPSG hole. The bowing is associated with bending of the incident ion trajectories, where the first stage of the trajectory change occurs at the mask, and subsequent multiple scattering of ions at the sidewall of the hole can occur. Other factors include sidewall protection by redeposited Si that was sputtered from the poly-Si mask and/or the deposited fluorocarbon polymers, and the effects of ion flux and energy bombarding these deposited materials. In the future, it will be necessary to clarify the details of the mechanisms of these phenomena and to establish technologies to control them. note number.

Ikegami, Naokatsu

1997-10-01

401

Black-hole binary simulations: The mass ratio 10 ratio 1  

SciTech Connect

We present the first numerical simulations of an initially nonspinning black-hole binary with mass ratio as large as 10 ratio 1 in full general relativity. The binary completes approximately three orbits prior to merger and radiates (0.415{+-}0.017)% of the total energy and (12.48{+-}0.62)% of the initial angular momentum in the form of gravitational waves. The single black hole resulting from the merger acquires a kick of (66.7{+-}3.3) km/s relative to the original center of mass frame. The resulting gravitational waveforms are used to validate existing formulas for the recoil, final spin, and radiated energy over a wider range of the symmetric mass ratio parameter {eta}=M{sub 1}M{sub 2}/(M{sub 1}+M{sub 2}){sup 2} than previously possible. The contributions of l>2 multipoles are found to visibly influence the gravitational wave signal obtained at fixed inclination angles.

Gonzalez, Jose A. [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, 07743 Jena (Germany); Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Sperhake, Ulrich [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, 07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretical Astrophysics 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Bruegmann, Bernd [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, 07743 Jena (Germany)

2009-06-15

402

The Central Asia Caucacus Analyst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This biweekly journal is the product of the Central Asia-Caucacus Institute (CACI), an independent think tank, affiliated with the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at The Johns Hopkins University. The journal, which CACI has been publishing for about a year, aims to "link the business, governmental, journalistic and scholarly communities," and each issue has four or five short articles, field reports (short pieces focused on communities' assessments of a particular news event), and news bites (paragraph summaries of relevant news items). The current issue contains four articles, S. Frederick Starr's "A Federated Afghanistan?" Maria Sultan's "Avoiding Escalation in Central Asia's Southern Borderland," "Turkey's New Challenges in the Caucacus and Central Asia" by Kemal Kaya, and Miriam Lanskoy's "The Cost of the Chechen War." The journal is available online, or users can download each issue in .pdf format. Note: When we visited, the material available in .pdf format was more current than that in HTML.

2001-01-01

403

Association between obesity and calcium:phosphorus ratio in the habitual diets of adults in a city of Northeastern Brazil: an epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background Low calcium:phosphorus ratios (Ca:P ratio) in habitual diet have been observed worldwide, and it has been shown to be harmful to the bone health of the population. However, no study associating this ratio with obesity was found. Thus, considering that the intake of calcium and phosphorus will generate a ratio between them, which may be associated with obesity, this research seeks at evaluating the relation between obesity and the Ca:P ratio in the habitual diet of adults. Methods Cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study with stratified and systematic sampling. The sample was composed of 506 adults, aged between 18 and 60 years, of both genders. Information on socioeconomic and demographic conditions was obtained through questionnaires completed during home visits, where anthropometric and dietary evaluations were also conducted. Results In the habitual diet consumed by the study subjects, a Ca:P ratio above the median of 0.57 reduced the risk of central obesity based on waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41 – 0.92). Habitual dietary intake of calcium (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.43 – 0.97) and dairy products (OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.37 – 0.84) above the median value (485.4 mg and 0.9 servings, respectively) was found to be a protective factor related to central obesity based on WHtR. Conclusions Values above the median for the Ca:P ratio found in the habitual diet were negatively associated with central obesity based on WHtR. In addition, calcium and dairy consumption were negatively associated with central obesity based on WHtR. Therefore, higher Ca:P ratios contributed to a lower prevalence of central obesity.

2013-01-01

404

Effects of a Signaled Delay to Reinforcement in the Previous and Upcoming Ratios on Between-Ratio Pausing in Fixed-Ratio Schedules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Domestic hens responded under multiple fixed-ratio fixed-ratio schedules with equal fixed ratios. One component provided immediate reinforcement and the other provided reinforcement after a delay, signaled by the offset of the key light. The components were presented quasi-randomly so that all four possible transitions occurred in each session.…

Harris, Aimee; Foster, T. Mary; Levine, Joshua; Temple, William

2012-01-01

405

Sex ratio and mate preferences: a cross-cultural investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex ratio is the number of men per 100 reproductive-age women within a specified mating pool. We generated and tested two hypotheses about the cross-cultural relationships between sex ratio and mate preferences using preference ratings of 18 characteristics provided by 9809 participants and corresponding sex ratio data secured from an international organization. The Classical Sex Ratio Mate Preference Shifts Hypothesis

Emily A. Stone; Todd K. Shackelford; David M. Buss

2007-01-01

406

Air Force Members' Guide for Reducing Cholesterol Ratio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide was prepared to educate Air Force personnel on the danger of the high cholesterol ratio, and how to reduce the ratio. It explains cholesterol ratio and shows how the ratio is an indicator of the development of heart disease, and outlines measur...

M. M. Hall

1987-01-01

407

Isotope Ratios of Cellulose from Plants Having Different Photosynthetic Pathways  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of cellulose nitrate and oxygen isotope ratios of cellulose from C3, C4, and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants were determined for plants growing within a small area in Val Verde County, Texas. Plants having CAM had distinctly higher deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratios than plants having C3 and C4 metabolism. When hydrogen isotope ratios are plotted against carbon isotope ratios, each photosynthetic mode separates into a distinct cluster of points. C4 plants had many D/H ratios similar to those of C3 plants, so that hydrogen isotope ratios cannot be used to distinguish between these two photosynthetic modes. Portulaca mundula, which may have a modified photosynthetic mode between C4 and CAM, had a hydrogen isotope ratio between those of the C4 and CAM plants. When oxygen isotope ratios are plotted against carbon isotope ratios, no distinct clustering of the C4 and CAM plants occurs. Thus, oxygen isotope ratios are not useful in distinguishing between these metabolic modes. A plot of hydrogen isotope ratios versus oxygen isotope ratios for this sample set shows considerable overlap between oxygen isotope ratios of the different photosynthetic modes without a concomitant overlap in the hydrogen isotope ratios of CAM and the other two photosynthetic modes. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that higher D/H ratios in CAM plants relative to C3 and C4 plants are due to isotopic fractionations occurring during biochemical reactions.

Sternberg, Leonel O.; Deniro, Michael J.; Johnson, Hyrum B.

1984-01-01

408

Towards efficient hierarchical designs by ratio cut partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partitioning approach called ratio cut is proposed. The authors demonstrate that the ratio cut algorithm can locate the clustering structures in the circuit. Finding the optimal ratio cut is NP-complete. However, in certain cases the ratio cut can be solved by linear programming techniques via the multicommodity flow problem. They also propose a fast heuristic algorithm running in linear

Yen-Chuen Wei; Chung-Kuan Cheng

1989-01-01

409

Geothermal activities in Central America  

SciTech Connect

The Agency for International Development is funding a new program in energy and minerals for Central America. Geothermal energy is an important component. A country-wide geothermal assessment has started in Honduras, and other assessment activities are in progress or planned for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama. Instrumentation for well logging has been provided to Costa Rica, and a self-contained logging truck will be made available for use throughout Central America. An important objective of this program is to involve the private sector in resource development. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Whetten, J.T.; Hanold, R.J.

1985-09-11

410

Central adiposity and cortisol responses to waking in middle-aged men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Central obesity is associated with disturbances of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis function. We investigated whether central adiposity indexed by waist\\/hip ratio is related to cortisol responses to waking and other measures of salivary cortisol over the working day.PARTICIPANTS: In total, 89 men and 83 women aged 47–59 y recruited from the British civil service. All were members of the Whitehall

A Steptoe; S R Kunz-Ebrecht; L Brydon; J Wardle

2004-01-01

411

Relationships of age, menopause and central obesity on cardiovascular disease risk factors in Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the inter-relationships of age- and menopause- related changes of general obesity and body fat distribution and their independent effects on cardiovascular risk factors.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: One-hundred and thirty-six premenopausal and 193 postmenopausal Chinese women with body mass index (BMI)<30 kg\\/m2.MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometric surrogates of general obesity (BMI, total body fat percentage) and central obesity (waist-to-hip ratio, centrality index)

C-J Chang; C-H Wu; W-J Yao; Y-C Yang; J-S Wu; F-H Lu

2000-01-01

412

A Parametric Analysis of High-Contact-Ratio Spur Gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program has been developed to design external spur gears having normal contact ratios (<2.0) and high contact ratios (? 22.0). This program has been used to study the effects of changes in some gear parameters on several performance factors of high-contact-ratio gears. The results are compared with those for the equivalent normal-contact-ratio gears.The study shows that a high-contact-ratio

H. E. Staph

1976-01-01

413

Environmental factors influencing adult sex ratio in Trinidadian guppies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex ratios can influence mating behaviour, population dynamics and evolutionary trajectories; yet the causes of natural sex\\u000a ratio variation are often uncertain. Although secondary (birth) sex ratios in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are typically 1:1, we recorded female-biased tertiary (adult) sex ratios in about half of our 48 samples and male-biased\\u000a sex ratios in none of them. This pattern implies that

Ann E. McKellar; Martin M. Turcotte; Andrew P. Hendry

2009-01-01

414

Spatial Variability and Application of Ratios between BTEX in Two Canadian Cities  

PubMed Central

Spatial monitoring campaigns of volatile organic compounds were carried out in two similarly sized urban industrial cities, Windsor and Sarnia, ON, Canada. For Windsor, data were obtained for all four seasons at approximately 50 sites in each season (winter, spring, summer, and fall) over a three-year period (2004, 2005, and 2006) for a total of 12 sampling sessions. Sampling in Sarnia took place at 37 monitoring sites in fall 2005. In both cities, passive sampling was done using 3M 3500 organic vapor samplers. This paper characterizes benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o, and (m + p)-xylene (BTEX) concentrations and relationships among BTEX species in the two cities during the fall sampling periods. BTEX concentration levels and rank order among the species were similar between the two cities. In Sarnia, the relationships between the BTEX species varied depending on location. Correlation analysis between land use and concentration ratios showed a strong influence from local industries. Use one of the ratios between the BTEX species to diagnose photochemical age may be biased due to point source emissions, for example, 53 tonnes of benzene and 86 tonnes of toluene in Sarnia. However, considering multiple ratios leads to better conclusions regarding photochemical aging. Ratios obtained in the sampling campaigns showed significant deviation from those obtained at central monitoring stations, with less difference in the (m + p)/E ratio but better overall agreement in Windsor than in Sarnia.

Miller, Lindsay; Xu, Xiaohong; Wheeler, Amanda; Atari, Dominic Odwa; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Luginaah, Isaac

2011-01-01

415

Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult penile length  

PubMed Central

The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a putative biomarker for prenatal testosterone and covaries with the sensitivity of the androgen receptor (AR). Both prenatal testosterone and the AR play a central role in penile growth. In this study, we investigated the relationship between digit ratio and penile length. Korean men who were hospitalized for urological surgery at a single tertiary academic centre were examined in this study, and 144 men aged 20 years or older who gave informed consent were prospectively enrolled. Right-hand second- and fourth-digit lengths were measured by a single investigator prior to measurement of penile length. Under anaesthesia, flaccid and stretched penile lengths were measured by another investigator who did not measure nor have any the information regarding the digit lengths. Univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that only height was a significant predictive factor for flaccid penile length (univariate analysis: r=0.185, P=0.026; multivariate analysis: r=0.172, P=0.038) and that only digit ratio was a significant predictive factor for stretched penile length (univariate analysis:r=?0.216, P=0.009; multivariate analysis: r=?0.201, P=0.024; stretched penile length=?9.201×digit ratio + 20.577). Based on this evidence, we suggest that the digit ratio can predict adult penile size and that the effects of prenatal testosterone may in part explain the differences in adult penile length.

Choi, In Ho; Kim, Khae Hawn; Jung, Han; Yoon, Sang Jin; Kim, Soo Woong; Kim, Tae Beom

2011-01-01

416

The stellar mass to light ratio in the isolated spiral NGC 4414  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high resolution CO(1-0) interferometric observations and deep HST B-V-I images of the flocculent isolated Sc type spiral NGC 4414. The goal is to determine the stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratio in a galactic disk. NGC 4414 is an ideal object for this kind of study, as it is an unperturbed object at high galactic latitude with very extended atomic gas (HI). Many Cepheid light curves were measured in NGC 4414 so its distance is known to be about 19.2 Mpc. NGC 4414 is quite axisymmetric, with no bar and poorly defined spiral structure, and the center is seen unobscured (no CO, HI, H? , or thermal dust emission near the nucleus), as in many isolated spiral galaxies. Not only does this result in minimal non-circular velocities but also, and this is a key to our success, the central light profile traces the total mass. The stars are seen without a dust screen, the central gas mass is very low (undetected), and we show that the dark matter is negligible in the central regions. We have developed an axisymmetric analytical gravitational potential model to account for the central light (mass) profile, the dynamics of the molecular gas in the highly obscured molecular ring, and the stellar light profile outside the highly obscured region. A single dominant disk component reproduces the disk dynamics and outer stellar light profile such that even if other disk components were present they would not affect our results. The contribution of dark matter is constrained by the extremely extended HI rotation curve and is small, possibly negligible, at distances less than 5-7 kpc from the center. Furthermore, the M/L ratios we derive are low, about 1.5 in I band and 0.5 in K' band. The B and V band M/L ratios vary greatly due to absorption by dust, reaching 4 in the molecular ring and decreasing to about 1.6-1.8 at larger radii. This unequivocally shows that models, like most maximum disk models, assuming constant M/L ratios in an optical waveband, simply are not appropriate. We illustrate this by making mock maximum disk models with a constant V band M/L ratio. The key is having the central light distribution unobscured such that it can be used to trace the mass. The K' band M/L ratio is virtually constant over the disk, suggesting that the intrinsic (unobscured) stellar M/L ratio is roughly constant. A primitive attempt to determine the intrinsic M/L ratio yields values close to unity in the B, V, and I bands and slightly below 0.5 in K'.

Vallejo, O.; Braine, J.; Baudry, A.

2002-05-01

417

Does an Independent Central Bank Violate Democracy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of central bank independence is one of degree. A completely independent central bank is impossible as long as a country has provisions for altering central bank powers, even if that requires constitutional amendments. On the other hand, any central bank has at least some discretion in monetary policy is effectively determined by the currency board. In the United

David A. Levy

1998-01-01

418

Compression properties of syntactic foams: effect of cenosphere radius ratio and specimen aspect ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work is aimed at characterizing syntactic foams for flatwise (specimen aspect ratio of 0.5) properties and investigating the effect of change in the internal radius of cenospheres. The density and mechanical properties of the syntactic foam can be changed while keeping cenosphere volume fraction and particle–matrix interfacial area the same by using cenospheres of same outer radius but

Nikhil Gupta; Eyassu Woldesenbet; Patrick Mensah

2004-01-01

419

Fabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio Nanogaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nanoscale electrical characterization and device fabrication it is often desirable to fabricate planar metal electrodes with separations well below 100 nm running parallel over a macroscopic width. In this work we demonstrate a self-aligned process to accomplish this goal using a thin Cr film as a sacrificial etch layer. The resulting gaps can be as small as 10 nm and have aspect ratios exceeding 1000, with excellent interelectrode isolation. Two separate lithographic patterning steps are used to define first and second electrodes while the interelectrode separation is controlled by the oxidation of a Cr layer deposited upon the first electrode. Advantageously, only a ?m-alignment of first and second electrodes is required and the described method effectively does not have limitations on the gap width while the length of the gap is controlled by the Cr layer thickness. In addition to fabrication of Ti/Au electrodes on Si substrates, our technique was also demonstrated to work for other electrode metals (Pt, Fe, etc.) even on such relatively reactive substrates as magnetite, F3O4, films, thus demonstrating the flexibility and utility of this method.

Fursina, Alexandra; Lee, Sungbae; Natelson, Douglas

2008-03-01

420

Moho depth & Poisson ratio across Eastern Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on the crustal thickness across the Eastern Alps, from the Bohemian Massif to the North through the Eastern Alps, to reach the Southern Alps to the South. We collected data from altogether 74 temporary and permanent seismic stations to construct Receiver Function data-sets in order to detect the Moho depth beneath each single station. We create the Moho map together with the estimate of the Vp/Vs ratio for given average crustal P-wave velocities. Depth estimates are interpreted along profiles that cross the boundary between the two major plates involved in the Alpine orogeny, namely the European and Adriatic plate, and are compared with Moho depths from previous studies and with the gravity anomaly. Retrieved depths correlate well with previous information. Through this study we can infer finer-scale features not only in crustal thickness but also in the structural characteristics of the crust involved in the construction of the Alps. The Adriatic plate shows a highly reflective lower crust; such a characteristic is lacking in the European crust. This difference allows determining the boundary between the two plates, otherwise not detectable because of the lack of a clear Moho step between the two. Here we present new information on Moho depth beneath the Eastern Alps. This work is complementary to the current knowledge of crustal structure in the Eastern Alps.

Bianchi, Irene; Bokelmann, Götz; Behm, Michael

2013-04-01

421

Stopping power ratios less than unity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present calculations of the stopping power ratio R for H2+ molecular ions incident on graphite. These calculations include contributions from both free valence electrons and bound core electrons. It is known from experiment [W. Brandt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (1974) 1325; 35 (1975) 130] that R is greater than unity for ? > 1 (a.u.), although it can fall below unity at lower velocities [J.C. Eckhardt et al., J. Phys. C11 (1978) L851]. We predict, however, that in appropriately chosen conditions R can be less than unity for ? ? 2, even though we have assumed the constituent protons to remain bare throughout the thin solid target so that this is not a charge state effect. We have used both pure and screened Coulomb potentials to describe the repulsion process of the two protons. We also compare our computations with the data of Steuer et al. [ IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30 (1983) 1069] for H2+ on graphite, ? = 4. Unfortunately, their interesting results for N2+ and O2+ are obtained at velocities which are too low for our th be appropriate.

Steinbeck, J.; Lucas, M. W.; Kemmler, J.; Groeneveld, K.-O.

1990-03-01

422

Temperature and air–fuel ratio dependent specific heat ratio functions for lean burned and unburned mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important thermodynamic property used in heat release calculations for engines is the specific heat ratio. The functions proposed in the literature for the specific heat ratio are temperature dependent and apply at or near stoichiometric air–fuel ratios. However, the specific heat ratio is also influenced by the gas composition in the engine cylinder and especially becomes important for

M. A. Ceviz; ?. Kaymaz

2005-01-01

423

Structure simulation into a lamellar supramolecular network and calculation of the metal ions/ligands ratio  

PubMed Central

Background Research interest in phosphonates metal organic frameworks (MOF) has increased extremely in the last two decades, because of theirs fascinating and complex topology and structural flexibility. In this paper we present a mathematical model for ligand/metal ion ratio of an octahedral (Oh) network of cobalt vinylphosphonate (Co(vP)·H2O). Results A recurrent relationship of the ratio between the number of ligands and the number of metal ions in a lamellar octahedral (Oh) network Co(vP)·H2O, has been deducted by building the 3D network step by step using HyperChem 7.52 package. The mathematical relationship has been validated using X ray analysis, experimental thermogravimetric and elemental analysis data. Conclusions Based on deducted recurrence relationship, we can conclude prior to perform X ray analysis, that in the case of a thermogravimetric analysis pointing a ratio between the number of metal ions and ligands number around 1, the 3D network will have a central metal ion that corresponds to a single ligand. This relation is valid for every type of supramolecular network with divalent metal central ion Oh coordinated and bring valuable information with low effort and cost.

2012-01-01

424

Doppler wind lidar sensitivity and aerosol backscatter ratio measurement by combined Raman-Mie-Rayleigh scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct Detect Doppler wind lidar retrieves the three dimensional wind by discriminating the frequency shift of the atmosphere elastic backscatter signal. The wind measurement sensitivity of edge detect technology based on iodine absorption lines highly depends on the aerosol backscatter ratio indicating the mixing ratio of aerosol to atmosphere molecule in the measurement volume. This work adopt an extra nitrogen Raman channel in addition to elastic Mie and Rayleigh scattering so as to retrieve the aerosol backscatter coefficient on site and in real time. The Doppler lidar transmitter is a single longitudinal mode laser at 532 nm, and the lidar receiver analyzes elastic-scatter spectrum of central wavelength at 532 nm, nitrogen Raman spectrum of central wavelength at 607 nm. The lidar prototype is validated by experiment. Results show that this method is capable of measuring aerosol backscatter ratio profile of low-altitude troposphere at the same time as wind measurement, which can define the wind measurement sensitivity and improve the accuracy of wind speed retrieval.

Wu, Songhua; Chen, Yang; Song, Zhilong; Qin, Shengguang; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Wei

2011-06-01

425

Music Libraries: Centralization versus Decentralization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the decision that branch libraries, music libraries in particular, have struggled with concerning a centralized location in the main library versus a decentralized collection. Reports on a study of the Association of Research Libraries that investigated the location of music libraries, motivation for the location, degrees offered,…

Kuyper-Rushing, Lois

2002-01-01

426

Measures of Central Tendency Rap  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video on basic statistics provides a short rap to help students remember the meaning of range, and the measures of central tendency, namely, mean, median, and mode. Each word is given in a short rhyme that includes how to calculate the value.

Devoto, Paul

2010-11-20

427

Central mechanisms of pathological pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pain is a major challenge to clinical practice and basic science. The peripheral and central neural networks that mediate nociception show extensive plasticity in pathological disease states. Disease-induced plasticity can occur at both structural and functional levels and is manifest as changes in individual molecules, synapses, cellular function and network activity. Recent work has yielded a better understanding of

Rohini Kuner

2010-01-01

428

Central Asia : Mapping Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central Asia has emerged as one of the worlds fastest growing regions since the late 1990s and has shown notable development potential. This is significant for a region comprising largely of small landlocked economies with no access to the sea for trade. Among the advantages, of the region are its high- priced commodities (oil, gas, cotton and gold), reasonable infrastructure

Malcolm Dowling; Ganeshan Wignaraja

2006-01-01

429

Central Asia: Mapping Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central Asia has emerged as one of the world’s fastest growing regions since the late 1990s and has shown notable development potential. This is significant for a region comprising largely of small landlocked economies with no access to the sea for trade. Among the advantages, of the region are its high- priced commodities (oil, gas, cotton and gold), reasonable infrastructure

John Malcolm Dowling; Ganeshan Wignaraja

2005-01-01

430

Eccentricity and centrality in networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic concept of centrality discovered by Camille Jordan in the 19th century is introduced as a model for social network analysis. It is generalized to include the path center of a graph and illustrated with an application to two island networks in Oceania. It is shown to be a necessary addition to the concepts of degree, closeness and betweenness

Per Hage; Frank Harary

1995-01-01

431

Central Neuroplasticity and Pathological Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional specificity theory of pain perception holds that pain involves a direct transmission system from somatic receptors to the brain. The amount of pain perceived, moreover, is assumed to be directly proportional to the extent of injury. Recent research, however, indicates far more complex mechanisms. Clinical and experimental evidence shows that noxious stimuli may sensitize central neural structures involved

Ronald Melzack; Terence J. Coderre; Joel Katz; Anthony L. Vaccarino

2006-01-01

432

Today's central receiver power plant  

SciTech Connect

For 15 years, the United States Department of Energy has worked with industry, both utilities and manufacturers, to develop the technology of solar central receiver power plants. In this type of plant, sunlight is concentrated by a field of sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, onto a centrally located receiver. The solar energy is collected in the form of a heated fluid, which is used to generate steam to power a conventional turbine generator. For a number of reasons, molten nitrate salt is now the preferred heat transfer fluid. Commercial plants will be sized between 100 and 200 MW. The impetus for developing central receivers comes from their unique advantages: (1) They produce clean, reliable, low-cost electricity; (2) they have practical energy storage that provides a high degree of dispatchability (annually up to 60%) -- without fossil fuels; and, (3) they are environmentally benign. Development efforts around the world have brought the technology to the brink of commercialization: The technical feasibility has been proven, and cost, performance, and reliability can be confidently predicted. Plans are currently being developed for the final steps toward commercial central receiver power plants. 24 refs., 7 figs.

Alpert, D.J.; Kolb, G.J.; Chavez, J.M.

1991-01-01

433

Central California Action Associates, Inc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The overall goal of the Central California Action Associates Inc. (CCAA) program is to provide basic education and pre-vocational training so that migrant and seasonal adult farm workers will be able to upgrade their economic and social lives. Without increased educational attainment, the San Joaquin Valley farm workers face a grim future because…

Sortor, Maia, Comp.

434

The Volcanoes of Central France  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN unlucky error, perhaps mine, in the letter on the ``Volcanoes of Central France,'' p. 80, will quite prevent any reader finding the paper I mentioned of May 1865, which, instead of being in the Gentleman's Magazine, was in the Englishman's Magazine, a short-lived periodical, begun and ended, I think, with that year. As your two correspondents, Prof. Corfield and

E. L. Garbett

1872-01-01

435

Jensen Unit: Central Utah Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Central Utah Project is the largest and most complicated water development ever undertaken in the State of Utah. The Bureau of Reclamation planned for the CUPs Vernal and Jensen Units to benefit Uintah County. Both of these units are relatively simple...

A. R. Eastman

2006-01-01

436

Political economy of central banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current developments in the field of comparative political economy have emphasised the role and influence of corporatist institutions in the determination of levels of economic and social performance. Without denying the importance of corporatism, the paper argues for the need to acknowledge and examine the impact of other institutions, such as central banks, on economic performance. Given the increasing role

Kanishka Jayasuriya

1994-01-01

437

Readability of Central Florida Newspapers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study analyzed the readability of seven central Florida newspapers (one of which is a college newspaper) and "USA Today.""Rightwriter," a grammar checker and readability computer program, was used to evaluate front page articles for each of the eight newspapers. The readability formulas invoked in the readability program included the…

Olmstead, Phyllis M.

438

Central American geologic map project  

SciTech Connect

During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

Dengo, G.

1986-07-01

439

Prediction of Central Burst Defects in Copper Wire Drawing Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the prediction of chevron cracks (central bursts) in copper wire drawing process is investigated using experimental and numerical approaches. The conditions of the chevron cracks creation along the wire axis depend on (i) the die angle, the friction coefficient between the die and the wire, (ii) the reduction in crosssectional area of the wire, (iii) the material properties and (iv) the drawing velocity or strain rate. Under various drawing conditions, a numerical simulation for the prediction of central burst defects is presented using an axisymmetric finite element model. This model is based on the application of the Cockcroft and Latham fracture criterion. This criterion was used as the damage value to estimate if and where defects will occur during the copper wire drawing. The critical damage value of the material is obtained from a uniaxial tensile test. The results show that the die angle and the reduction ratio have a significant effect on the stress distribution and the maximum damage value. The central bursts are expected to occur when the die angle and reduction ratio reach a critical value. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental observations.

Vega, G.; Haddi, A.; Imad, A.

2011-01-01

440

Prediction of Central Burst Defects in Copper Wire Drawing Process  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the prediction of chevron cracks (central bursts) in copper wire drawing process is investigated using experimental and numerical approaches. The conditions of the chevron cracks creation along the wire axis depend on (i) the die angle, the friction coefficient between the die and the wire, (ii) the reduction in crosssectional area of the wire, (iii) the material properties and (iv) the drawing velocity or strain rate. Under various drawing conditions, a numerical simulation for the prediction of central burst defects is presented using an axisymmetric finite element model. This model is based on the application of the Cockcroft and Latham fracture criterion. This criterion was used as the damage value to estimate if and where defects will occur during the copper wire drawing. The critical damage value of the material is obtained from a uniaxial tensile test. The results show that the die angle and the reduction ratio have a significant effect on the stress distribution and the maximum damage value. The central bursts are expected to occur when the die angle and reduction ratio reach a critical value. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental observations.

Vega, G. [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, CNRS UMR 8107, Universite de Lille 1, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Paul Langevin, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); NEXANS France, NMC Nexans Metallurgy Centre, Boulevard du Marais, BP39, F-62301 Lens (France); Haddi, A. [Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo-Environnement (LGCgE), Faculte des Sciences Appliquees, Universite d'Artois, F-62400 Bethune (France); Imad, A. [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, CNRS UMR 8107, Universite de Lille 1, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Paul Langevin, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

2011-01-17

441

Ratios of heavy baryons to heavy mesons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

Heavy baryon/meson ratios {lambda}{sub c}/D{sup 0} and {lambda}{sub b}/B{sup 0} in relativistic heavy ion collisions are studied in the quark coalescence model. For heavy baryons, we include production from coalescence of heavy quarks with free light quarks as well as with bounded light diquarks that might exist in the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma produced in these collisions. Including the contribution from decays of heavy hadron resonances and also that due to fragmentation of heavy quarks that are left in the system after coalescence, the resulting {lambda}{sub c}/D{sup 0} and {lambda}{sub b}/B{sup 0} ratios in midrapidity (|y|{<=}0.5) from central Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV are about a factor of five and ten, respectively, larger than those given by the thermal model, and about a factor of ten and twelve, respectively, larger than corresponding ratios in the PYTHIA model for pp collisions. These ratios are reduced by a factor of about 1.6 if there are no diquarks in the quark-gluon plasma. The transverse momentum dependence of the heavy baryon/meson ratios is found to be sensitive to the heavy quark mass, with the {lambda}{sub b}/B{sup 0} ratio being much flatter than the {lambda}{sub c}/D{sup 0} ratio. The latter peaks at the transverse momentum p{sub T}{approx_equal}0.8 GeV but the peak shifts to p{sub T}{approx_equal}2 GeV in the absence of diquarks.

Oh, Yongseok; Ko, Che Ming [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Lee, Su Houng [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yasui, Shigehiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 302-0801 (Japan)

2009-04-15

442

Oxidative ratio (OR) of UK peats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils (Histosols) from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Initial results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.94 and 1.1 with a median value of 1.05 which similar to the median value of World soils but the range is at the more reduced end. There was significant variation between peat cores, even between peat cores on the same site and the peat showed significant reduction in OR with depth in the core.

Clay, G. D.; Worrall, F.; Masiello, C. A.

2012-04-01

443

Suicide mortality is decreasing among cancer patients in Central Italy.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to discover whether suicide mortality among patients diagnosed with cancer during the period 1985-1999 had decreased with calendar time in comparison to the rate in the general population. 90?197 cancer patients resident in Tuscany, Central Italy and incident during the period 1985-1999 were followed up for life status to 31 December 2000. The mortality codes for suicide were considered (E950-E959). Time trends for suicide rates were assessed by using Kernel smoothing estimators, standardised mortality ratios and Poisson analysis of the observed/expected ratios. The standardised mortality ratios were 324, 224, and 185 for cancer patients diagnosed during the periods 1985-1989, 1990-1994, and 1995-1999, respectively. Tests for linear trends were borderline significant (P=0.053). Suicide mortality among cancer patients in central Italy had decreased with calendar time relative to the suicide trend in the general population. Improved treatment options and better communication of diagnosis are possible explanations of this finding. PMID:15093582

Miccinesi, G; Crocetti, E; Benvenuti, A; Paci, E

2004-05-01

444

Local and regional variations in Central American arc lavas controlled by variations in subducted sediment input  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sedimentary section (at DSDP Site 495) on the subducting Cocos Plate has large stratigraphic changes in incompatible\\u000a elements and element ratios, the result of early carbonate deposition followed by late hemipelagic deposition. Lavas from\\u000a Central America define both local and regional geochemical trends that reflect the strong influence of the two Cocos Plate\\u000a sediment units. Element ratios with large

Lina C. Patino; Michael J. Carr; Mark D. Feigenson

2000-01-01

445

Is Central Asia really exsiccating?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after 1972 was 0.68C and is attributed to summer seasons. The maximum growth in air temperature observed since 70th at low elevations and northern regions of central Asia. The share of glacier melt water in total river runoff at upper river reaches has increased as result of air temperature growth. The glacier's intensified melt and retreat created numerous new moraine lakes. Strengthening in the melt of glaciers and even insignificant increase in spring and summer precipitation promotes growth of Issik Kul Lake level and others interior lakes of central Asia. While the central Asia glacier area decreases continuously, for the last two decades the annual river runoff and water storing in lakes are growing, mainly due to precipitation increase. The simulation of river runoff, based on observed tendency of continuous growth in air temperature and precipitation, exposits that river runoff may reach up to 1.25 of the current level by 2050. However, the possible changes in river runoff indicated non-linear system response caused mainly by non-linearly response of evapotranspiration to air temperature and precipitation changes.

Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

2008-12-01

446

Roles of mode waters on formation and maintenance of central water in the North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central water is a water mass which constitutes the main pycnocline of the subtropical gyre. It is characterized by uniformity of density ratio; however, the mechanism to form and maintain the T-S relation of the central water is not still unclear. In this study, we describe detailed distribution and structure of the central water and mode waters in the North Pacific. Based on the results and comparison between the two water masses, we discuss possible roles played by mode waters on the formation and maintenance of the central water. Central Mode Water (CMW) is subducted into the main pycnocline as water with Tu = 60 degree and circulates in the subtropical gyre mostly preserving its Tu. Which means the formation and circulation of CMW directly contribute to the central water. On the other hand, Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) is formed as water with Tu = 54 degree and circulates mostly inside the recirculation gyre of the subtropical gyre. It is suggested that most part of STMW does not contribute to the central water. Eastern STMW (ESTMW) and Transition Region Mode Water (TRMW) have so large Tu value greater than 70 degree that they do not directly contribute to the central water. But ESTMW could be modified by salt-fingering and decrease its Tu while being advected along the subtropical gyre. ESTMW then possibly contributes to the central water in the downstream region of its formation area.

Toyama, K.; Suga, T.

2010-12-01

447