Science.gov

Sample records for centralized review process

  1. Preliminary design review package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Central Data Processing System (CDPS) is designed to transform the raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems. Software requirements for the CDPS are described. The programming standards to be used in development, documentation, and maintenance of the software are discussed along with the CDPS operations approach in support of daily data collection and processing.

  2. Central waste processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

  3. Central Data/Decentralized Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gossett, Cathy L.; Neil, Elizabeth N.

    1987-01-01

    The study and implementation of an online facilities management system at Clemson University that was designed with distributed processing in mind is described. The system provides for centralized data, assignment of data responsibility, increased data accessibility, and audit trail. Security considerations and mini- and microapplications are…

  4. NCI Central Review Board Receives Accreditation

    Cancer.gov

    The Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs has awarded the NCI Central Institutional Review Board full accreditation. AAHRPP awards accreditation to organizations demonstrating the highest ethical standards in clinical res

  5. Centralizing audit processes for lean efficiency: real-world experiences.

    PubMed

    Crump, Dawn

    2015-02-01

    Centralized audit management and lean audit processes are quickly becoming a necessity to contain rising costs. Organizations adopt these approaches to improve productivity, reduce operational expense, and mitigate risk through denial prevention. Centralized teams will be in position to conduct presubmission reviews of all documents before they go out to auditors and to capitalize on technology and data to reduce costs. PMID:26665539

  6. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jyoti; Ramakrishnan, TS; Das, R. C.; Srivastava, K.; Mehta, Suresh; Shashikumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry. PMID:25535438

  7. School Review Process Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The use of relevant data is at the core of the school review process approach. Various forms of relevant data are gathered, including demographic data, student achievement data, community perception data, and data on the current program (e.g., curriculum, instructional strategies, school climate factors, etc.). Perception questionnaires are…

  8. Central exclusive production within the Durham model: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.; Stirling, W. J.

    2014-06-01

    We review recent results within the Durham model of central exclusive production. We discuss the theoretical aspects of this approach and consider the phenomenological implications in a variety of processes, comparing to existing collider data and addressing the possibilities for the future.

  9. Word Processing: Coordination without Centralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seim, Sandra K.; Stoneking, Cheryl A.

    1981-01-01

    In February 1980, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center in Chicago appointed a task force to study word processing/office automation and to make recommendations for acquisition, implementation, and administration. The group's working approach, findings, and conclusions are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  10. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  11. Visual processing in the central bee brain

    PubMed Central

    Paulk, Angelique C.; Dacks, Andrew M.; Phillips-Portillo, James; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2009-01-01

    Visual scenes comprise enormous amounts of information from which nervous systems extract behaviorally relevant cues. In most model systems, little is known about the transformation of visual information as it occurs along visual pathways. We examined how visual information is transformed physiologically as it is communicated from the eye to higher order brain centers using bumblebees, which are known for their visual capabilities. We recorded intracellularly in vivo from thirty neurons in the central bumblebee brain (the lateral protocerebrum) and compared these neurons to 132 neurons from more distal areas along the visual pathway, namely the medulla and the lobula. In these three brain regions (medulla, lobula and central brain), we examined correlations between the neurons’ branching patterns and their responses primarily to color, but also to motion stimuli. Visual neurons projecting to the anterior central brain were generally color sensitive, while neurons projecting to the posterior central brain were predominantly motion sensitive. The temporal response properties differed significantly between these areas, with an increase in spike time precision across trials and a decrease in average reliable spiking as visual information processing progressed from the periphery to the central brain. These data suggest that neurons along the visual pathway to the central brain are not only segregated with regard to the physical features of the stimuli (e.g. color and motion), but also differ in the way they encode stimuli, possibly to allow for efficient parallel processing to occur. PMID:19675233

  12. Sono-leather technology with ultrasound: a boon for unit operations in leather processing - review of our research work at Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Swaminathan, Gopalaraman; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound is a sound wave with a frequency above the human audible range of 16 Hz to 16 kHz. In recent years, numerous unit operations involving physical as well as chemical processes are reported to have been enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation. There have been benefits such as improvement in process efficiency, process time reduction, performing the processes under milder conditions and avoiding the use of some toxic chemicals to achieve cleaner processing. These could be a better way of augmentation for the processes as an advanced technique. The important point here is that ultrasonic irradiation is physical method activation rather than using chemical entities. Detailed studies have been made in the unit operations related to leather such as diffusion rate enhancement through porous leather matrix, cleaning, degreasing, tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, oil-water emulsification process and solid-liquid tannin extraction from vegetable tanning materials as well as in precipitation reaction in wastewater treatment. The fundamental mechanism involved in these processes is ultrasonic cavitation in liquid media. In addition to this there also exist some process specific mechanisms for the enhancement of the processes. For instance, possible real-time reversible pore-size changes during ultrasound propagation through skin/leather matrix could be a reason for diffusion rate enhancement in leather processing as reported for the first time. Exhaustive scientific research work has been carried out in this area by our group working in Chemical Engineering Division of CLRI and most of these benefits have been proven with publications in valued peer-reviewed international journals. The overall results indicate that about 2-5-fold increase in the process efficiency due to ultrasound under the given process conditions for various unit operations with additional benefits. Scale-up studies are underway for converting these concepts in to a real viable larger scale operation. In

  13. Texas State Library Centralized Processing Center. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin.

    This manual of the Centralized Processing Center (CPC) was published in 1966 by the Texas State Library as an introduction to, and explanation of, its services. The CPC is defined as a service center which receives requests for material from member libraries, then orders, receives, classifies, catalogs, prepares catalog and shelf list cards, and…

  14. The Review Panel Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalczykowski, Linda

    This paper is a practical guide for states planning to implement a review panel to enhance file maintenance in a career information system. It also describes successful methods employed in established review panels in California, Alaska, Washington, Massachusetts, Nebraska, Michigan, and Oregon. The first two brief sections introduce the purpose…

  15. Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tkačik, Gašper

    2014-01-01

    Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime--when sampling limitations constrain performance--efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. PMID:25396297

  16. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Treatments: A Mini Review.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Pierluigi; Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Falcomatà, Bruno; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a retinal disorder that primarily affects young (20- to 50-year-old) white men, although it is seen occasionally in older patients and females. CSC is characterized by avascular focal leakage through the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), resulting in serous detachment of the neurosensory retina. The course is usually self-limiting and in most cases resolves spontaneously within a 3-month period, with visual acuity usually recovering to 20/30 or better. However, chronic CSC may develop as a consequence of recurrences or persistent neurosensory detachment, and can result in progressive RPE atrophy and permanent visual loss. A primary involvement of the RPE and choroidal vascularization play a significant role in the pathogenesis of CSC and the current treatment options attempt to restore the functions of the RPE and the normal choroidal vasculature. The aim of the current review is to provide an overview of the current therapeutical approaches to CSC, including observation, laser treatment, photodynamic therapy with verteporfin, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. PMID:26619293

  17. The CAA Permit Review Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hyre, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    In the near future, all existing major sources will be required to submit an air permit application to the state or the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for review. This report details the permit review process, including information on state, EPA, affected states, judicial, and public review. It will also describe permit renewal, operational flexibility, off-permit changes, permit revisions, and permit reopenings.

  18. Central auditory processing disorders: some cohorts studies.

    PubMed

    Demanez, L; Boniver, V; Dony-Closon, B; Lhonneux-Ledoux, F; Demanez, J P

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the use of a French-speaking battery for the assessment of a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in a variety of clinical populations: prematurely born children; 8 years old children who had otitis media with effusion in early infancy; children with learning problems and dyslexia; French-speaking children attending Dutch and English schools; adults with King-Kopetzky syndrome and elderly hearing aids users. Population characteristics of each of these groups are presented and discussed. PMID:14714946

  19. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  20. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  1. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  2. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  3. Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tkačik, Gašper

    2014-01-01

    Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime—when sampling limitations constrain performance—efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03722.001 PMID:25396297

  4. The Medina County, Ohio, central processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M.

    1994-08-01

    Before deciding on the appropriate county recycling facility for their communities, waste management officials from Medina County, Ohio, spent three years researching their options. First and foremost, they wanted to generate a recycling amount that would at least double House Bill 592's requirements which calls for a 25% reduction in reliance on landfill space. After issuing a request for proposals, the county opted for a central processing facility (CPF)--which was designed, built, and is now operated by Norton Environmental (Independence, Ohio). Currently, the CPF extracts and processes recyclables, materials for refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and compostables from a mixed solid waste stream. After operating for just over one year, the facility, which is located in Seville, Ohio, is well on its way to achieving its goal of recovering two-thirds of the county's incoming mixed solid waste stream, and waste management officials there couldn't be happier with their selection.

  5. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D; Musiek, Frank E

    2015-11-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  6. A Central Processing Facility within a Distributed Data Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witte, S.; Rispens, S. M.; van Hees, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    In a complex scientific data processing project, where raw satellite data (Level 1) is processed to end products (Level 2), you may need specific expertise from various groups in different locations. Collaboration between these groups can lead to better results and give the opportunity to try several different scientific approaches and choose, objectively, the best result. Furthermore, such a distributed data processing system or DDPS can be used for independent validation before the end products are released. All participating groups need common and specific data products for their processing. This involves many interfaces needing and producing different data products. Without a central storage location all groups involved have to implement their own checking routines and transformations in order to use the data products. A central processing facility, acting as a single point of interface between the DDPS and the main data provider as well as for all groups within the DDPS, can facilitate in collecting all scientific data necessary for high-level processing, transforming the Level 1 input data to a DDPS internally agreed format, checking all data products on integrity, format and validity, distributing these data products within the DDPS, monitoring the whole data distribution chain and distributing all end products to the main data provider. A DDPS has been implemented for ESA's gravity mission, GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer). GOCE's DDPS is called the High-level Processing Facility (HPF) and is part of the GOCE Ground Segment, developed under ESA contract by the European GOCE Gravity consortium (EGG-c). The HPF is set up as a distributed facility consisting of several sub-processing centers for scientific pre-processing, orbit determination, gravity field analysis and validation. The sub-processing facilities are connected through a central node, the Central Processing Facility (CPF). The CPF has been thoroughly tested and is

  7. The Courseware Review Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Jeffrey W.; Senf, Gerald M.

    1985-01-01

    The process of evaluating computer software is discussed, and a procedure is described which focuses upon ease of use, program content, instructional design and kind of incentive, value conflicts, input/output capacity, teacher management options, built-in authoring systems, and special learning needs. (CL)

  8. Using Different Criteria to Diagnose (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder: How Big a Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wayne J.; Arnott, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify how 9 different diagnostic criteria affected potential (central) auditory processing disorder ([C]APD) diagnoses in a large sample of children referred for (central) auditory processing ([C]AP) assessment. Method: A file review was conducted on 150 children (94 boys and 56 girls; ages 7.0-15.6 years) with normal peripheral…

  9. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge.

    PubMed

    Walia, Pawanjit Singh; Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98. PMID:27274164

  10. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98. PMID:27274164

  11. Central auditory processes and test measures: ASHA 1996 revisited.

    PubMed

    Schow, R L; Seikel, J A; Chermak, G D; Berent, M

    2000-12-01

    The theoretical issues surrounding central auditory processing disorders (CAPD) are reviewed here, especially with reference to the central auditory behavioral processes and the auditory test measures as prescribed in the ASHA (1996, American Journal of Audiology, 5(2), 41-54) statement on CAPD. A simplified nomenclature is recommended that directly relates process and test measure to facilitate the diagnostic process in CAPD. This new terminology closely follows the ASHA (1996, American Journal of Audiology, 5(2), 41-54) document, but provides some refinement based on recent research in CAPD. To support this recommendation, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to the findings of Domitz and Schow (2000, American Journal of Audiology), who proposed use of a battery of CAPD tests, the Multiple Auditory Processing Assessment (MAPA) for testing school children. The CFA was found to reinforce the four-factor model, which clearly emerged in the exploratory factor analysis of Domitz and Schow. The model was found to be reasonably consistent even when subtests from the SCAN were included in the analysis. Refinement and revision of ASHA (1996, American Journal of Audiology, 5(2), 41-54) is recommended to facilitate diagnosis, subclassification, and intervention for CAPD. PMID:11200193

  12. Field Review of Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in Central Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Beschta, Robert L.; Griffith, Jack; Wesche, Thomas A.

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this field review was to provide information to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) regarding previous and ongoing fish habitat improvement projects in central Idaho. On July 14, 1992, the review team met at the Sawtooth National Recreation Area office near Ketchum, Idaho, for a slide presentation illustrating several habitat projects during their construction phases. Following the slide presentation, the review team inspected fish habitat projects that have been implemented in the last several years in the Stanley Basin and adjacent valleys. At each site the habitat project was described to the field team and a brief period for project inspection followed. The review team visited approximately a dozen sites on the Challis, Sawtooth, and Boise National Forests over a period of approximately two and a half days. There are two objectives of this review namely to summarize observations for specific field sites and to provide overview commentary regarding the BPA habitat improvement program in central Idaho.

  13. A Comprehensive Review of Central Post-Stroke Pain.

    PubMed

    Oh, HyunSoo; Seo, WhaSook

    2015-10-01

    Although central post-stroke pain is widely recognized as a severe chronic neuropathic pain condition, its consolidated definition, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic criteria have not been defined due to its clinically diverse features. The present study was undertaken to comprehensively review current literature and provide a more complete picture of central post-stroke pain with respect to its definition, prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic problems, and to describe the range of therapies currently available. In particular, nursing care perspectives are addressed. It is hoped that this review will help nurses become knowledgeable about central post-stroke pain and provide valuable information for the drafting of effective nursing care plans that improve outcomes and quality of life for patients with central post-stroke pain. PMID:25962545

  14. Central hemangioma: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sandeep; Singaraju, Sasidhar; Singaraju, Medhini

    2016-01-01

    Hemangioma is a benign self-involuting tumor of endothelial cells. They are the most common benign congenital lesions in humans and are characterized by the proliferation of blood vessels. They are often present at birth or appear soon after, and grow rapidly by endothelial proliferation. This article presents a rare case of central hemangioma occurring in the mandible of a 13-year-old boy, and a brief review on clinical, radiological, and histopathological characteristics of central hemangiomas. PMID:26838155

  15. 25 CFR 273.27 - Central Office review and decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Application Process § 273.27 Central... appropriate requirements of the Johnson-O'Malley Act and of the regulations in this part. (e) Approve...

  16. 25 CFR 273.27 - Central Office review and decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Application Process § 273.27 Central... appropriate requirements of the Johnson-O'Malley Act and of the regulations in this part. (e) Approve...

  17. The Interaction between Central and Peripheral Processes in Handwriting Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Sebastien; McKeeff, Thomas J.; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Afonso, Olivia; Kandel, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Written production studies investigating central processing have ignored research on the peripheral components of movement execution, and vice versa. This study attempts to integrate both approaches and provide evidence that central and peripheral processes interact during word production. French participants wrote regular words (e.g. FORME),…

  18. Statistical challenges for central monitoring in clinical trials: a review.

    PubMed

    Oba, Koji

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the complexity and costs of clinical trials have increased dramatically, especially in the area of new drug development. Risk-based monitoring (RBM) has been attracting attention as an efficient and effective trial monitoring approach, which can be applied irrespectively of the trial sponsor, i.e., academic institution or pharmaceutical company. In the RBM paradigm, it is expected that a statistical approach to central monitoring can help improve the effectiveness of on-site monitoring by prioritizing and guiding site visits according to central statistical data checks, as evidenced by examples of actual trial datasets. In this review, several statistical methods for central monitoring are presented. It is important to share knowledge about the role and performance capabilities of statistical methodology among clinical trial team members (i.e., sponsors, investigators, data managers, monitors, and biostatisticians) in order to adopt central statistical monitoring for assessing data quality in the actual clinical trial. PMID:26499195

  19. Naming-Speed Processes, Timing, and Reading: A Conceptual Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Maryanne; Bowers, Patricia Greig; Biddle, Kathleen

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews evidence for seven central questions about the role of naming-speed deficits in developmental reading disabilities. Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-linguistic research on naming-speed processes, timing processes, and reading is presented. An evolving model of visual naming illustrates areas of difference and areas of…

  20. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  1. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Nagaraj, Naveen K.; Kennett, Sarah E.W.; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  2. Demystifying the peer-review process - workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific writing and peer-review are integral parts of the publishing process. This workshop aims to demystify the peer-review process for early career scientists and provide insightful tips for streamlining the submission and peer review process for all researchers. Providing ...

  3. Centralized processing of contact-handled TRU waste feasibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    This report presents work for the feasibility study of central processing of contact-handled TRU waste. Discussion of scenarios, transportation options, summary of cost estimates, and institutional issues are a few of the subjects discussed. (JDL)

  4. Systematic Review of Central Post Stroke Pain: What Is Happening in the Central Nervous System?

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Gulseren; Kuru, Pinar

    2016-08-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is one of the most common central neuropathic pain syndromes seen after stroke. It is mainly related with vascular damage at certain brain territory and pain related to corresponding body areas. In the past, it was described as one of the definitive symptoms of thalamic lesion. However, recent findings suggest that it is not only seen after thalamic lesions but also seen after vascular lesions in any part of the central nervous system. Although there are certain hypotheses to explain physiopathologic mechanisms of CPSP, further evidence is needed. The majority of the cases are intractable and unresponsive to analgesic treatment. Electrical stimulation such as deep brain stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation seems to be effective in certain cases. In this systematic review, recent advancements related to CPSP mechanisms have been evaluated. Further investigations are needed in order to reveal the mystery of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of CPSP. PMID:27175563

  5. Mountain building processes in the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, A. L.; Isacks, B. L.

    1986-01-01

    False color composite images of the Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 5, 4, and 2 were examined to make visual interpretations of geological features. The use of the roam mode of image display with the International Imaging Systems (IIS) System 600 image processing package running on the IIS Model 75 was very useful. Several areas in which good comparisons with ground data existed, were examined in detail. Parallel to the visual approach, image processing methods are being developed which allow the complete use of the seven TM bands. The data was organized into easily accessible files and a visual cataloging of the quads (quarter TM scenes) with preliminary registration with the best available charts for the region. The catalog has proved to be a valuable tool for the rapid scanning of quads for a specific investigation. Integration of the data into a complete approach to the problems of uplift, deformation, and magnetism in relation to the Nazca-South American plate interaction is at an initial stage.

  6. Germanium: An aqueous processing review

    SciTech Connect

    Lier, R.J.M. van; Dreisinger, D.B.

    1995-08-01

    In industrial aqueous solutions, germanium generally occurs in trace amounts amid high concentrations of other metals, such as zinc, copper and iron. Separation of germanium from these metals as well as its isolation from gallium and indium pose a real challenge to the hydrometallurgist. After a brief discussion of the aqueous chemistry of germanium, this paper reviews the flowsheet of the Apex Mine in Utah. The Apex property was the only mine in the world to be operated primarily for production of gallium and germanium, but apparently closed due to great operating difficulties. Several process variants proposed for the treatment of the Apex ore, including bioleaching methods, are addressed. Following a more general description of the behavior of germanium in hydrometallurgical zinc processing streams, available technology for its recovery from aqueous solutions is summarized. Precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, electrowinning, ion flotation and liquid-membrane separation are all outlined in terms of the aqueous chemistry of germanium. Finally, the production of high purity germanium dioxide and metal is briefly discussed. 61 refs.

  7. Operating The Central Process Systems At Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, Carly P.

    2004-01-01

    As a research facility, the Glenn Research Center (GRC) trusts and expects all the systems, controlling their facilities to run properly and efficiently in order for their research and operations to occur proficiently and on time. While there are many systems necessary for the operations at GRC, one of those most vital systems is the Central Process Systems (CPS). The CPS controls operations used by GRC's wind tunnels, propulsion systems lab, engine components research lab, and compressor, turbine and combustor test cells. Used widely throughout the lab, it operates equipment such as exhausters, chillers, cooling towers, compressors, dehydrators, and other such equipment. Through parameters such as pressure, temperature, speed, flow, etc., it performs its primary operations on the major systems of Electrical Dispatch (ED), Central Air Dispatch (CAD), Central Air Equipment Building (CAEB), and Engine Research Building (ERB). In order for the CPS to continue its operations at Glenn, a new contract must be awarded. Consequently, one of my primary responsibilities was assisting the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) with the process of awarding the recertification contract of the CPS. The job of the SEB was to evaluate the proposals of the contract bidders and then to present their findings to the Source Selecting Official (SSO). Before the evaluations began, the Center Director established the level of the competition. For this contract, the competition was limited to those companies classified as a small, disadvantaged business. After an industry briefing that explained to qualified companies the CPS and type of work required, each of the interested companies then submitted proposals addressing three components: Mission Suitability, Cost, and Past Performance. These proposals were based off the Statement of Work (SOW) written by the SEB. After companies submitted their proposals, the SEB reviewed all three components and then presented their results to the SSO. While the

  8. 10 CFR 1017.15 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review process. 1017.15 Section 1017.15 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.15 Review... document outside of his or her organization for the review, he or she must mark the front of the...

  9. 23 CFR 1206.5 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Review process. 1206.5 Section 1206.5 Highways NATIONAL... GUIDELINES RULES OF PROCEDURE FOR INVOKING SANCTIONS UNDER THE HIGHWAY SAFETY ACT OF 1966 § 1206.5 Review process. (a) In any fiscal year, if the Administrators determine, based on a preliminary review, that...

  10. 10 CFR 26.413 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review process. 26.413 Section 26.413 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.413 Review process... procedures for the review of a determination that an individual in § 26.4(f) has violated the FFD policy....

  11. Overview of NRC review process

    SciTech Connect

    Tokar, M.; Kane, J.D.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes the NRC staff`s review of the Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) for an Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker low-level waste disposal facility. Described are the objectives of the review, the resources (e.g., background guidance documents and staff technical disciplines) used, and the products produced. Evaluation conclusions are summarized.

  12. Deception studies manipulating centrally acting performance modifiers: a review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Sparks, Sandy; Marchant, David C; Micklewright, Dominic; McNaughton, Lars R

    2014-07-01

    Athletes anticipatorily set and continuously adjust pacing strategies before and during events to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the end point of exercise, while preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integration of feedforward and feedback information, together with the proposed brain's performance modifiers is said to be fundamental to this anticipatory and continuous regulation of exercise. The manipulation of central, regulatory internal and external stimuli has been a key focus within deception research, attempting to influence the self-regulation of exercise and induce improvements in performance. Methods of manipulating performance modifiers such as unknown task end point, deceived duration or intensity feedback, self-belief, or previous experience create a challenge within research, as although they contextualize theoretical propositions, there are few ecological and practical approaches which integrate theory with practice. In addition, the different methods and measures demonstrated in manipulation studies have produced inconsistent results. This review examines and critically evaluates the current methods of how specific centrally controlled performance modifiers have been manipulated, within previous deception studies. From the 31 studies reviewed, 10 reported positive effects on performance, encouraging future investigations to explore the mechanisms responsible for influencing pacing and consequently how deceptive approaches can further facilitate performance. The review acts to discuss the use of expectation manipulation not only to examine which methods of deception are successful in facilitating performance but also to understand further the key components used in the regulation of exercise and performance. PMID:24300123

  13. Medical journal peer review: process and bias.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Scientific peer review is pivotal in health care research in that it facilitates the evaluation of findings for competence, significance, and originality by qualified experts. While the origins of peer review can be traced to the societies of the eighteenth century, it became an institutionalized part of the scholarly process in the latter half of the twentieth century. This was a response to the growth of research and greater subject specialization. With the current increase in the number of specialty journals, the peer review process continues to evolve to meet the needs of patients, clinicians, and policy makers. The peer review process itself faces challenges. Unblinded peer review might suffer from positive or negative bias towards certain authors, specialties, and institutions. Peer review can also suffer when editors and/or reviewers might be unable to understand the contents of the submitted manuscript. This can result in an inability to detect major flaws, or revelations of major flaws after acceptance of publication by the editors. Other concerns include potentially long delays in publication and challenges uncovering plagiarism, duplication, corruption and scientific misconduct. Conversely, a multitude of these challenges have led to claims of scientific misconduct and an erosion of faith. These challenges have invited criticism of the peer review process itself. However, despite its imperfections, the peer review process enjoys widespread support in the scientific community. Peer review bias is one of the major focuses of today's scientific assessment of the literature. Various types of peer review bias include content-based bias, confirmation bias, bias due to conservatism, bias against interdisciplinary research, publication bias, and the bias of conflicts of interest. Consequently, peer review would benefit from various changes and improvements with appropriate training of reviewers to provide quality reviews to maintain the quality and integrity of

  14. 10 CFR 26.413 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review process. 26.413 Section 26.413 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.413 Review process. Licensees and other entities who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall establish and...

  15. 10 CFR 26.413 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review process. 26.413 Section 26.413 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.413 Review process. Licensees and other entities who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall establish and...

  16. 10 CFR 26.413 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review process. 26.413 Section 26.413 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.413 Review process. Licensees and other entities who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall establish and...

  17. 10 CFR 26.413 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review process. 26.413 Section 26.413 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.413 Review process. Licensees and other entities who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall establish and...

  18. 10 CFR 1017.15 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review process. 1017.15 Section 1017.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR... process. (a) Reviewing documents for UCNI. Anyone who originates or possesses a document that he or...

  19. 10 CFR 1017.15 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review process. 1017.15 Section 1017.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR... process. (a) Reviewing documents for UCNI. Anyone who originates or possesses a document that he or...

  20. 10 CFR 1017.15 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review process. 1017.15 Section 1017.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR... process. (a) Reviewing documents for UCNI. Anyone who originates or possesses a document that he or...

  1. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  2. Clinical psychoacoustics in Alzheimer's disease central auditory processing disorders and speech deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Iliadou, Vassiliki; Kaprinis, Stergios

    2003-01-01

    Background Difficulty in speech understanding in the presence of background noise or competing auditory signals is typically present in central auditory processing disorders. These disorders may be diagnosed in Alzheimer's disease as a result of degeneration in the central auditory system. In addition perception and processing of speech may be affected. Material and Methods A MEDLINE research was conducted in order to answer the question whether there is a central auditory processing disorder involved in Alzheimer's disease. A second question to be investigated was what, if any is the connection, between central auditory processing disorders and speech deterioration? Articles were retrieved from the Medline to find relevance of Alzheimer's dis ease with central auditory processing disorders, they summed up to 34. Twelve papers were studied that contained testing for CAPD through psychoacoustic investigation. An additional search using the keywords 'speech production' and 'AD' produced a result of 33 articles, of them 14 are thoroughly discussed in this review as they have references concerning CAPD. The rest do not contain any relavent information on the central auditory system. Results Psychoacoustic tests reveal significantly lower scores in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with normal subjects. Tests concerning sound localization and perception of tones as well as phoneme discrimination and tonal memory reveal deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Central auditory processing disorders may exist several years before the onset of clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Segmental characteristics of speech are normal. Deficits exist concerning the supra-segmental components of speech. Conclusions Central auditory processing disorders have been found in many cases when patients with Alzheimer's disease are tested. They may present as an early manifestation of Alzheimer's disease, preceding the disease by a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 10 years. During these

  3. Enterovirus Infections of the Central Nervous System Review

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Ross E.; Tabor-Godwin, Jenna M.; Tsueng, Ginger; Feuer, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) frequently infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce neurological diseases. Although the CNS is composed of many different cell types, the spectrum of tropism for each EV is considerable. These viruses have the ability to completely shut down host translational machinery and are considered highly cytolytic, thereby causing cytopathic effects. Hence, CNS dysfunction following EV infection of neuronal or glial cells might be expected. Perhaps unexpectedly given their cytolytic nature, EVs may establish a persistent infection within the CNS, and the lasting effects on the host might be significant with unanticipated consequences. This review will describe the clinical aspects of EV-mediated disease, mechanisms of disease, determinants of tropism, immune activation within the CNS, and potential treatment regimes. PMID:21251690

  4. Central and Peripheral Fatigue During Resistance Exercise - A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Zając, Adam; Chalimoniuk, Małgorzata; Maszczyk, Adam; Gołaś, Artur; Lngfort, Józef

    2015-12-22

    Resistance exercise is a popular form of conditioning for numerous sport disciplines, and recently different modes of strength training are being evaluated for health benefits. Resistance exercise differs significantly in nature, and several variables determine the direction and range of adaptive changes that occur in the muscular and skeletal system of the body. Some modes of resistance training can also be effective in stimulating the cardiovascular system. These variables include exercise selection (general, specific, single or multi joint, dynamic, explosive), type of resistance (free weights, variable resistance, isokinetics), order of exercise (upper and lower body or push and pull exercises), and most of all the training load which includes intensity expressed as % of 1RM, number of repetitions, number of sets and the rest interval between sets. Manipulating these variables allows for specific adaptive changes which may include gains in muscle mass, muscle strength or muscle endurance. It has been well established that during resistance exercise fatigue occurs, regardless of the volume and intensity of work applied. The peripheral mechanisms of fatigue have been studied and explained in more detail than those related to the CNS. This review is an attempt to bring together the latest knowledge regarding fatigue, both peripheral and central, during resistance exercise. The authors of this review concentrated on physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying fatigue in exercises performed with maximal intensity, as well as those performed to exhaustion with numerous repetitions and submaximal load. PMID:26839616

  5. NASA's Small Explorer Program: Review Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, H.

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Small Explorer Program is a level of effort program within the Office of Space Science (OSS). Solicitations for proposals are issued through Announcements of Opportunity. OSS intends to launch a Small Explorer mission every twelve months within the Small Explorer funding profile (\\$69M in FY97 dollars.) All proposals go through an extensive review process before a final selection is made. This paper summarizes various steps in the review process which consists of peer review of proposals for scientific and technical excellence, feasibility of mission execution, cost, and education and public outreach activities. The peer reviews are followed by categorization of proposals within NASA Headquarters. An oversight committee consisting of senior NASA officials reviews the entire process, before the proposals are presented to the Board of Directors for final selection by the Associate Administrator.

  6. Central Diffractive Processes at the Tevatron, RHIC and LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Stirling, W. J.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2011-07-15

    Central exclusive production (CEP) processes in high-energy hadron collisions offer a very promising framework for studying both novel aspects of QCD and new physics signals. We report on the results of a theoretical study of the CEP of heavy quarkonia ({chi} and {eta}) at the Tevatron, RHIC and LHC (see for details [1]-[3]). These processes provide important information on the physics of bound states and can probe the current ideas and methods of QCD, such as effective field theories and lattice QCD.

  7. Central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Singh, T D; Fugate, J E; Rabinstein, A A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose was to perform a systematic review of studies on central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis [forms of osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS)] and define the spectrum of causes, risk factors, clinical and radiological presentations, and functional outcomes of this disorder. A thorough search of the literature was conducted using multiple databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline and Google) and bibliographies of key articles to identify all case series of adult patients with ODS published from 1959 to January 2013. Only series with five or more cases published in English were considered. Of the 2602 articles identified, 38 case series were included comprising a total of 541 patients who fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The most common predisposing factor was hyponatremia (78%) and the most common presentation was encephalopathy (39%). Favorable recovery occurred in 51.9% of patients and death in 24.8%. Liver transplant patients with ODS had a combined rate of death and disability of 77.4%, compared with 44.7% in those without liver transplantation (P < 0.001). ODS is found to have a good recovery in more than half of cases and its mortality has decreased with each passing decade. Favorable prognosis is possible in patients of ODS, even with severe neurological presentation. Further research is required to confirm the differences found in liver transplant recipients. PMID:25220878

  8. A Developmental Approach to Graduate Education Review: A New Take on a Traditional Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkola, Leah; King, Jean A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe the Graduate Review and Improvement Process (GRIP), an innovative evaluation process that makes student input central, now beginning its fifth year of implementation at the University of Minnesota. We begin by contrasting GRIP with traditional graduate program review, and we then explain the conceptual underpinnings of…

  9. Report of the Shuttle Processing Review Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this report is to summarize the assessment of the shuttle processing operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) as requested by the NASA Administrator. He requested a team reaffirmation that safety is the number one priority and review operations to ensure confidence in the shuttle processing procedures at KSC.

  10. Process mining in healthcare: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Eric; Munoz-Gama, Jorge; Sepúlveda, Marcos; Capurro, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Process Mining focuses on extracting knowledge from data generated and stored in corporate information systems in order to analyze executed processes. In the healthcare domain, process mining has been used in different case studies, with promising results. Accordingly, we have conducted a literature review of the usage of process mining in healthcare. The scope of this review covers 74 papers with associated case studies, all of which were analyzed according to eleven main aspects, including: process and data types; frequently posed questions; process mining techniques, perspectives and tools; methodologies; implementation and analysis strategies; geographical analysis; and medical fields. The most commonly used categories and emerging topics have been identified, as well as future trends, such as enhancing Hospital Information Systems to become process-aware. This review can: (i) provide a useful overview of the current work being undertaken in this field; (ii) help researchers to choose process mining algorithms, techniques, tools, methodologies and approaches for their own applications; and (iii) highlight the use of process mining to improve healthcare processes. PMID:27109932

  11. Language and central temporal auditory processing in childhood epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Boscariol, Mirela; Casali, Raquel L; Amaral, M Isabel R; Lunardi, Luciane L; Matas, Carla G; Collela-Santos, M Francisca; Guerreiro, Marilisa M

    2015-12-01

    Because of the relationship between rolandic, temporoparietal, and centrotemporal areas and language and auditory processing, the aim of this study was to investigate language and central temporal auditory processing of children with epilepsy (rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy) and compare these with those of children without epilepsy. Thirty-five children aged between eight and 14 years old were studied. Two groups of children participated in this study: a group with childhood epilepsy (n=19), and a control group without epilepsy or linguistic changes (n=16). There was a significant difference between the two groups, with the worst performance in children with epilepsy for the gaps-in-noise test, right ear (p<0.001) and left ear (p<0.001) tests, and duration pattern test--naming (p=0.002) and humming (p=0.002). In auditory P300, there was no significant difference in latency (p=0.343) and amplitude (p=0.194) between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups, with the worst performance in children with epilepsy, for the auditory-receptive vocabulary (PPVT) (p<0.001) and phonological working memory (nonwords repetition task) tasks (p=0.001). We conclude that the impairment of central temporal auditory processing and language skills may be comorbidities in children with rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26580215

  12. Prediction of Central Burst Defects in Copper Wire Drawing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, G.; Haddi, A.; Imad, A.

    2011-01-17

    In this study, the prediction of chevron cracks (central bursts) in copper wire drawing process is investigated using experimental and numerical approaches. The conditions of the chevron cracks creation along the wire axis depend on (i) the die angle, the friction coefficient between the die and the wire, (ii) the reduction in crosssectional area of the wire, (iii) the material properties and (iv) the drawing velocity or strain rate. Under various drawing conditions, a numerical simulation for the prediction of central burst defects is presented using an axisymmetric finite element model. This model is based on the application of the Cockcroft and Latham fracture criterion. This criterion was used as the damage value to estimate if and where defects will occur during the copper wire drawing. The critical damage value of the material is obtained from a uniaxial tensile test. The results show that the die angle and the reduction ratio have a significant effect on the stress distribution and the maximum damage value. The central bursts are expected to occur when the die angle and reduction ratio reach a critical value. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental observations.

  13. Invalidation: a central process underlying maltreatment of women with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hassouneh-Phillips, Dena; McNeff, Elizabeth; Powers, Laurie; Curry, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Recent qualitative studies indicate that maltreatment of women with disabilities by health care providers is a serious quality of care issue. To begin to address this problem, we conducted a secondary analysis of data derived from three qualitative studies of abuse of women with disabilities. Findings identified Invalidation as a central process underlying maltreatment. Invalidation was characterized by health care providers Taking Over care, Discounting, Objectifying, and Hurting women with disabilities during health care encounters. These findings highlight the need to educate health care providers about social and interpersonal aspects of disability and address the problem of Invalidation in health care settings. PMID:16048867

  14. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  15. Prevalence of Elongated Styloid Process in a Central Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; Morais, Sylvania De; Musis, Carlo Ralph De; Albuquerque, Paulo Artur Andrade De; Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Eagle’s syndrome comprises a rare disorder caused by compression of an elongated or deformed styloid process or ossified/calcified stylohyoid ligament on neural and vascular structures. It is characterized by facial and neck pain and can be confused with a wide variety of facial neuralgias, oral and dental diseases and temporomandibular disorders. An imaging evaluation associated with a careful clinical examination, are mandatory in structuring a correct differential diagnosis and in the establishment of a proper therapeutic protocol. Aim To investigate the prevalence of the elongated styloid process in a Central Brazilian population and its relation to gender, age and side. Materials and Methods Digital panoramic radiographs of 736 patients (412 female and 324 male, with a mean age of 35.03 years) were consecutively selected from a private radiology clinic’s secondary database. The apparent length of the styloid process was measured from the point where the styloid left the tympanic plate to the tip of the process by two specialists in dental radiology, with the help of the measuring tools on the accompanying software. Styloid process measuring more than 30 mm was considered elongated. The statistical analysis included frequency distribution and cross tabulation. The data were analysed by using Chi-squared tests. The level of significance was set at 5% for all analyses. Results A total of 323 (43.89%) radiographic images were suggestive of elongated styloid process. No statistically significant difference was found between the genders, although a higher prevalence was noticed in female participants. Approximately, 31% of the elongated styloid process was observed in 18-53-year-old participants (p < 0.05). Two hundred and sixty seven styloid processes (36.28%) were elongated on both right and left sides. Conclusion The prevalence of elongated styloid process was high and no statistically significant correlation was found between the presence of

  16. 23 CFR 1206.5 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Review process. 1206.5 Section 1206.5 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES RULES OF PROCEDURE FOR INVOKING SANCTIONS UNDER THE HIGHWAY SAFETY ACT OF 1966 § 1206.5...

  17. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  18. DIRECT REDUCTION: A REVIEW OF COMMERCIAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of direct reduction commercial processes for ironmaking. The potential for environmental degradation appears to be minimal. A detailed environmental assessment does not appear to be warranted. It is recommended that samples of scrubber water a...

  19. 7 CFR 275.14 - Review processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review processing. 275.14 Section 275.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC)...

  20. Cognitive Processes in Orienteering: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Reviews recent research on information processing and decision making in orienteering. The main cognitive demands investigated were selection of relevant map information for route choice, comparison between map and terrain in map reading and in relocation, and quick awareness of mistakes. Presents a model of map reading based on results. Contains…

  1. 7 CFR 275.14 - Review processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review processing. 275.14 Section 275.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC)...

  2. 7 CFR 275.14 - Review processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review processing. 275.14 Section 275.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC)...

  3. Hadron spectroscopy in diffractive and central production processes at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, Prometeusz Kryspin

    2011-07-15

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment using secondary high-energetic hadron beams provided by the CERN SPS. In 2008 and 2009, a large amount of data has been collected with a 190 GeV/c pion beam for the investigation of the hadron spectrum in diffractive and central production processes. A big variety of observed final states, including {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup -}{eta}{eta}, {pi}{sup -}K{sub s}K{sub s}, {pi}{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -}, K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, and centrally produced 4{pi}, is being analysed. The potential for systematic spectroscopic studies especially concerning the existence and nature of spin-exotic, hybrid and glueball states is discussed. In addition, we show the first results from the data set collected with a proton beam in 2008. These data indicate the chance of COMPASS to contribute to the field of baryon spectroscopy.

  4. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  5. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  6. On the Nonautomaticity of Visual Word Processing: Electrophysiological Evidence That Word Processing Requires Central Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Cornett, Logan; Goodin, Zachary; Allen, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine the degree to which people can process words while devoting central attention to another task. Experiments 1-4 measured the N400 effect, which is sensitive to the degree of mismatch between a word and the current semantic context. Experiment 5 measured the P3 difference between…

  7. (Central) Auditory Processing: the impact of otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Leticia Reis; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze auditory processing test results in children suffering from otitis media in their first five years of age, considering their age. Furthermore, to classify central auditory processing test findings regarding the hearing skills evaluated. METHODS: A total of 109 students between 8 and 12 years old were divided into three groups. The control group consisted of 40 students from public school without a history of otitis media. Experimental group I consisted of 39 students from public schools and experimental group II consisted of 30 students from private schools; students in both groups suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years of age and underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes. The individuals underwent complete audiological evaluation and assessment by Auditory Processing tests. RESULTS: The left ear showed significantly worse performance when compared to the right ear in the dichotic digits test and pitch pattern sequence test. The students from the experimental groups showed worse performance when compared to the control group in the dichotic digits test and gaps-in-noise. Children from experimental group I had significantly lower results on the dichotic digits and gaps-in-noise tests compared with experimental group II. The hearing skills that were altered were temporal resolution and figure-ground perception. CONCLUSION: Children who suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years and who underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes showed worse performance in auditory abilities, and children from public schools had worse results on auditory processing tests compared with students from private schools. PMID:23917659

  8. Review: Glial lineages and myelination in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    COMPSTON, ALASTAIR; ZAJICEK, JOHN; SUSSMAN, JON; WEBB, ANNA; HALL, GILLIAN; MUIR, DAVID; SHAW, CHRISTOPHER; WOOD, ANDREW; SCOLDING, NEIL

    1997-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes, derived from stem cell precursors which arise in subventricular zones of the developing central nervous system, have as their specialist role the synthesis and maintenance of myelin. Astrocytes contribute to the cellular architecture of the central nervous system and act as a source of growth factors and cytokines; microglia are bone-marrow derived macrophages which function as primary immunocompetent cells in the central nervous system. Myelination depends on the establishment of stable relationships between each differentiated oligodendrocyte and short segments of several neighbouring axons. There is growing evidence, especially from studies of glial cell implantation, that oligodendrocyte precursors persist in the adult nervous system and provide a limited capacity for the restoration of structure and function in myelinated pathways damaged by injury or disease. PMID:9061442

  9. A new era for central processing and production in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, E.; Gutsche, O.; Foulkes, S.; Linacre, J.; Spinoso, V.; Lahiff, A.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Klute, M.; Mohapatra, A.

    2012-12-01

    The goal for CMS computing is to maximise the throughput of simulated event generation while also processing event data generated by the detector as quickly and reliably as possible. To maintain this achievement as the quantity of events increases CMS computing has migrated at the Tier 1 level from its old production framework, ProdAgent, to a new one, WMAgent. The WMAgent framework offers improved processing efficiency and increased resource usage as well as a reduction in operational manpower. In addition to the challenges encountered during the design of the WMAgent framework, several operational issues have arisen during its commissioning. The largest operational challenges were in the usage and monitoring of resources, mainly a result of a change in the way work is allocated. Instead of work being assigned to operators, all work is centrally injected and managed in the Request Manager system and the task of the operators has changed from running individual workflows to monitoring the global workload. In this report we present how we tackled some of the operational challenges, and how we benefitted from the lessons learned in the commissioning of the WMAgent framework at the Tier 2 level in late 2011. As case studies, we will show how the WMAgent system performed during some of the large data reprocessing and Monte Carlo simulation campaigns.

  10. A Meta-Analysis and Review of Holistic Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face recognition research, yet central questions related to holistic processing remain unanswered, and debates have thus far failed to reach a resolution despite accumulating empirical evidence. We argue that a considerable source of confusion in this literature stems from a methodological problem. Specifically, two different measures of holistic processing based on the composite paradigm (complete design and partial design) are used in the literature, but they often lead to qualitatively different results. First, we present a comprehensive review of the work that directly compares the two designs, and which clearly favors the complete design over the partial design. Second, we report a meta-analysis of holistic face processing according to both designs, and use this as further evidence for one design over the other. The meta-analysis effect size of holistic processing in the complete design is nearly three times that of the partial design. Effect sizes were not correlated between measures, consistent with the suggestion that they do not measure the same thing. Our meta-analysis also examines the correlation between conditions in the complete design of the composite task, and suggests that in an individual differences context, little is gained by including a misaligned baseline. Finally, we offer a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge about holistic processing based on evidence gathered from the measure we favor based on the first sections of our review—the complete design—and outline outstanding research questions in that new context. PMID:24956123

  11. Processing medical data: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical data recording is one of the basic clinical tools. Electronic Health Record (EHR) is important for data processing, communication, efficiency and effectiveness of patients’ information access, confidentiality, ethical and/or legal issues. Clinical record promote and support communication among service providers and hence upscale quality of healthcare. Qualities of records are reflections of the quality of care patients offered. Methods Qualitative analysis was undertaken for this systematic review. We reviewed 40 materials Published from 1999 to 2013. We searched these materials from databases including ovidMEDLINE and ovidEMBASE. Two reviewers independently screened materials on medical data recording, documentation and information processing and communication. Finally, all selected references were summarized, reconciled and compiled as one compatible document. Result Patients were dying and/or getting much suffering as the result of poor quality medical records. Electronic health record minimizes errors, saves unnecessary time, and money wasted on processing medical data. Conclusion Many countries have been complaining for incompleteness, inappropriateness and illegibility of records. Therefore creating awareness on the magnitude of the problem has paramount importance. Hence available correct patient information has lots of potential in reducing errors and support roles. PMID:24107106

  12. A code inspection process for security reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzoglio, Gabriele

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, it has become more and more evident that software threat communities are taking an increasing interest in Grid infrastructures. To mitigate the security risk associated with the increased numbers of attacks, the Grid software development community needs to scale up effort to reduce software vulnerabilities. This can be achieved by introducing security review processes as a standard project management practice. The Grid Facilities Department of the Fermilab Computing Division has developed a code inspection process, tailored to reviewing security properties of software. The goal of the process is to identify technical risks associated with an application and their impact. This is achieved by focusing on the business needs of the application (what it does and protects), on understanding threats and exploit communities (what an exploiter gains), and on uncovering potential vulnerabilities (what defects can be exploited). The desired outcome of the process is an improvement of the quality of the software artifact and an enhanced understanding of possible mitigation strategies for residual risks. This paper describes the inspection process and lessons learned on applying it to Grid middleware.

  13. A code inspection process for security reviews

    SciTech Connect

    Garzoglio, Gabriele; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, it has become more and more evident that software threat communities are taking an increasing interest in Grid infrastructures. To mitigate the security risk associated with the increased numbers of attacks, the Grid software development community needs to scale up effort to reduce software vulnerabilities. This can be achieved by introducing security review processes as a standard project management practice. The Grid Facilities Department of the Fermilab Computing Division has developed a code inspection process, tailored to reviewing security properties of software. The goal of the process is to identify technical risks associated with an application and their impact. This is achieved by focusing on the business needs of the application (what it does and protects), on understanding threats and exploit communities (what an exploiter gains), and on uncovering potential vulnerabilities (what defects can be exploited). The desired outcome of the process is an improvement of the quality of the software artifact and an enhanced understanding of possible mitigation strategies for residual risks. This paper describes the inspection process and lessons learned on applying it to Grid middleware.

  14. Solitary central osteoma of mandible in a geriatric patient: Report and review

    PubMed Central

    Bhujbal, Ravi B.; Nayak, Ajay G.

    2016-01-01

    Solitary central osteomas of jaw are extremely rare lesions with only few previously documented cases. This paper reports a case of large solitary central osteoma involving mandible symphysis- parasymphysis region in an elderly female patient. A brief review of similar cases reported in the literature is also provided in this paper. Key words:Osteomas, osteogenic,bone, tumor, jaw, mandible. PMID:27034765

  15. 42 CFR 457.1150 - Program specific review process: Impartial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Program specific review process: Impartial review... review process: Impartial review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. The review of a matter described... matter under review. (b) Health services matter. The State must ensure that an enrollee has...

  16. 42 CFR 457.1150 - Program specific review process: Impartial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program specific review process: Impartial review... review process: Impartial review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. The review of a matter described... matter under review. (b) Health services matter. The State must ensure that an enrollee has...

  17. 42 CFR 457.1150 - Program specific review process: Impartial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program specific review process: Impartial review... review process: Impartial review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. The review of a matter described... matter under review. (b) Health services matter. The State must ensure that an enrollee has...

  18. 42 CFR 457.1150 - Program specific review process: Impartial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Program specific review process: Impartial review... review process: Impartial review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. The review of a matter described... matter under review. (b) Health services matter. The State must ensure that an enrollee has...

  19. 42 CFR 457.1150 - Program specific review process: Impartial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program specific review process: Impartial review... review process: Impartial review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. The review of a matter described... matter under review. (b) Health services matter. The State must ensure that an enrollee has...

  20. Review Processes: Assessing the Quality of Research Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Research, Washington, DC.

    Issues concerning review processes used to select research to be performed in universities and sunported by the federal government are discussed. Recommendations regarding review processes, with special emphasis on the peer review system, are offered. It is proposed that review processes serve government and researchers' purposes of assuring that…

  1. Systematising "System": One Reviewer's Analysis of the Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one reviewer's experience of reviewing for the journal "System" over an eight-year period, 2003-2011. The paper reports on the reviews produced by the single reviewer, which have been compiled into a specific purpose--an "occluded"--corpus (Swales, 1996) of 122 reviews, comprising 93,000 words. The paper first describes the…

  2. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review

    PubMed Central

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Olivas Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Hakim, Nawar; Palacios, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome. PMID:27403402

  3. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review.

    PubMed

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Olivas Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Hakim, Nawar; Palacios, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome. PMID:27403402

  4. A review of thunderstorm electrification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.P.R. )

    1993-04-01

    Recent developments in the area of thunderstorm electrification processes are reviewed. These processes have two main divisions: (a) convective, in which particles charged by ion capture are moved by convection currents to strengthen the electric field in the cloud, and (b) processes involving charge transfer during particle interactions, following which oppositely charged particles move apart in the updraft to form the observed charge centers. Type-b processes are further subdivided into inductive (relying on the preexistence of an electric field) and noninductive charge-transfer mechanisms, Field and laboratory evidence points to the importance of interactions between particles of the ice phase, in the presence of liquid water droplets, in separating electric charge in thunderstorms. Recent experimental studies have investigated the dependence of charge transfer on the size and relative velocity of the interacting particles and have determined the dependence of the sign of the charge transfer on temperature and cloud liquid water content. Field data upon which the laboratory simulations are based are obtained by increasingly sophisticated airborne and ground-based means. Calculations of electric field growth using experimental charge-transfer data in numerical models of the dynamical and microphysical development of thunderstorms show agreement with observations, although further refinement is required. Some directions for future research are outlined. 121 refs., 2 figs.

  5. 42 CFR 457.1140 - Program specific review process: Core elements of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program specific review process: Core elements of review. 457.1140 Section 457.1140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... review process: Core elements of review. In adopting the procedures for review of matters described...

  6. 42 CFR 457.1140 - Program specific review process: Core elements of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program specific review process: Core elements of review. 457.1140 Section 457.1140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... review process: Core elements of review. In adopting the procedures for review of matters described...

  7. Furan in Thermally Processed Foods - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Yun-Jeong; Her, Jae-Young; Kim, Yong-Gun; Kim, Min Yeop; Jeong, Soo Young; Kim, Mina K.; Lee, Jee-yeon; Kim, Cho-il; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Furan (C4H4O) is a volatile compound formed mostly during the thermal processing of foods. The toxicity of furan has been well documented previously, and it was classified as “possible human carcinogen (Group 2B)” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Various pathways have been reported for the formation of furan, that is, thermal degradation and/or thermal rearrangement of carbohydrates in the presence of amino acids, thermal degradation of certain amino acids, including aspartic acid, threonine, α-alanine, serine, and cysteine, oxidation of ascorbic acid at higher temperatures, and oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids. Owing to the complexity of the formation mechanism, a vast number of studies have been published on monitoring furan in commercial food products and on the potential strategies for reducing furan. Thus, we present a comprehensive review on the current status of commercial food monitoring databases and the possible furan reduction methods. Additionally, we review analytical methods for furan detection and the toxicity of furan. PMID:26483883

  8. 20 CFR 422.606 - Processing the request for review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing the request for review. 422.606 Section 422.606 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Administrative Review Process Under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 § 422.606 Processing the request for review. Upon receipt of...

  9. 42 CFR 456.23 - Post-payment review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-payment review process. 456.23 Section 456.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....23 Post-payment review process. The agency must have a post-payment review process that— (a)...

  10. 42 CFR 456.23 - Post-payment review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Post-payment review process. 456.23 Section 456.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....23 Post-payment review process. The agency must have a post-payment review process that— (a)...

  11. 42 CFR 456.23 - Post-payment review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Post-payment review process. 456.23 Section 456.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....23 Post-payment review process. The agency must have a post-payment review process that— (a)...

  12. 42 CFR 456.23 - Post-payment review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Post-payment review process. 456.23 Section 456.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....23 Post-payment review process. The agency must have a post-payment review process that— (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 1780.35 - Processing office review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing office review. 1780.35 Section 1780.35... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application Processing § 1780.35 Processing office review. Review of the application will usually include the following: (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 1780.35 - Processing office review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing office review. 1780.35 Section 1780.35... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application Processing § 1780.35 Processing office review. Review of the application will usually include the following: (a)...

  15. 7 CFR 1780.35 - Processing office review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing office review. 1780.35 Section 1780.35... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application Processing § 1780.35 Processing office review. Review of the application will usually include the following: (a)...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.35 - Processing office review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing office review. 1780.35 Section 1780.35... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application Processing § 1780.35 Processing office review. Review of the application will usually include the following: (a)...

  17. 7 CFR 1780.35 - Processing office review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Processing office review. 1780.35 Section 1780.35... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Loan and Grant Application Processing § 1780.35 Processing office review. Review of the application will usually include the following: (a)...

  18. 20 CFR 422.603 - Overview of the review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrative Review Process Under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 § 422.603 Overview of the review process. Our notice of assignment will inform you as the assigned operator (or related... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overview of the review process....

  19. Rhyolitic volcanism of the central Snake River Plain: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J. A.; Boroughs, S.; Mark, D. F.; Starkel, W. A.; Bonnichsen, B.

    2013-08-01

    The central Snake River Plain (CSRP) of southern Idaho and northern Nevada, USA, forms part of the Columbia River-Yellowstone large igneous province. Volcanic rocks of the province are compositionally bimodal (basalt-rhyolite), and the rhyolites produce a broadly time-transgressive record of a hotspot which is currently located under Yellowstone. Snake River Plain rhyolites represent hot (>850 °C), dry magmas and have field characteristics consistent with high emplacement temperatures. Individual ignimbrite sheets reach 1,000 km3 and exhibit little to no compositional zonation on a large scale but reveal considerable complexity on a crystal scale, particularly with regard to pyroxene compositions. Multiple pyroxene compositions may exist in a single ignimbrite which, along with multiple glass compositions in widely dispersed fallout tephra, suggests complex storage of rhyolite prior to eruption. Unlike most igneous rocks, the mineral cargo of the CSRP rhyolites exhibits little isotopic variability, with unimodal 87Sr/86Sr values returned from plagioclase grains inferred to represent the combination of strong crystal-melt coupling and rapid diffusional re-equilibriation. All the rhyolites within the CSRP have a characteristic low- δ 18O signature; with >20,000 km3 of rhyolite exhibiting this depletion, the CSRP represents the largest low- δ 18O province on Earth. The low-18O nature of the rhyolites requires assimilation of hydrothermally altered materials which may be from altered Eocene batholithic rocks or from down-dropped intra-caldera tuffs. The wide range of crustal assimilants, with highly variable radiogenic isotope characteristics, available in the CSRP is permissive of a variety of petrogenetic models based on radiogenic isotopic data.

  20. The DFVLR main department for central data processing, 1976 - 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Data processing, equipment and systems operation, operative and user systems, user services, computer networks and communications, text processing, computer graphics, and high power computers are discussed.

  1. Management of non-syndromic double tooth affecting permanent maxillary central incisors: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smail-Faugeron, Violaine; Terradot, Jeanne; Muller Bolla, Michèle; Courson, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    To assess management of non-syndromic double tooth affecting permanent maxillary central incisors, we performed a systematic review and also present 2 case reports. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed and the reference lists of included reports. Eligible studies were any type of clinical studies describing the management of non-syndromic double tooth affecting the crown of a permanent maxillary central incisor. We included 68 studies corresponding to 72 relevant case reports. Therapeutic options in descending order of priority were restorative dentistry (35%), hemisection (33%), abstention (17%) or extraction (15%). Orthodontic management resulted in 57% of cases. We report an 11-year-old boy with bilateral fusion of the two maxillary central incisors and a 9-year-old boy with a double left central incisor and a supernumerary lateral right incisor. A multidisciplinary approach is key to management of permanent maxillary central incisors affected by coronary anomalies. PMID:27307427

  2. Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Cheng, Jay J; Creamer, Kurt S

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive waste treatment practice in which both pollution control and energy recovery can be achieved. Many agricultural and industrial wastes are ideal candidates for anaerobic digestion because they contain high levels of easily biodegradable materials. Problems such as low methane yield and process instability are often encountered in anaerobic digestion, preventing this technique from being widely applied. A wide variety of inhibitory substances are the primary cause of anaerobic digester upset or failure since they are present in substantial concentrations in wastes. Considerable research efforts have been made to identify the mechanism and the controlling factors of inhibition. This review provides a detailed summary of the research conducted on the inhibition of anaerobic processes. The inhibitors commonly present in anaerobic digesters include ammonia, sulfide, light metal ions, heavy metals, and organics. Due to the difference in anaerobic inocula, waste composition, and experimental methods and conditions, literature results on inhibition caused by specific toxicants vary widely. Co-digestion with other waste, adaptation of microorganisms to inhibitory substances, and incorporation of methods to remove or counteract toxicants before anaerobic digestion can significantly improve the waste treatment efficiency. PMID:17399981

  3. Microalgae harvesting and processing: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Shelef, G.; Sukenik, A.; Green, M.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to present a discussion of the literature review performed on methods of harvesting microalgae. There is no single best method of harvesting microalgae. The choice of preferable harvesting technology depends on algae species, growth medium, algae production, end product, and production cost benefit. Algae size is an important factor since low-cost filtration procedures are presently applicable only for harvesting fairly large microalgae. Small microalgae should be flocculated into larger bodies that can be harvested by one of the methods mentioned above. However, the cells' mobility affects the flocculation process, and addition of nonresidual oxidants to stop the mobility should be considered to aid flocculation. The decision between sedimentation or flotation methods depends on the density difference between the algae cell and the growth medium. For oil-laden algae with low cell density, flotation technologies should be considered. Moreover, oxygen release from algae cells and oxygen supersaturation conditions in growth medium support the use of flotation methods. If high-quality algae are to be produced for human consumption, continuous harvesting by solid ejecting or nozzle-type disc centrifuges is recommended. These centrifuges can easily be cleaned and sterilized. They are suitable for all types of microalgae, but their high operating costs should be compared with the benefits from their use. Another basic criterion for selecting the suitable harvesting procedure is the final algae paste concentration required for the next process. Solids requirements up to 30% can be attained by established dewatering processes. For more concentrated solids, drying methods are required. The various systems for algae drying differ both in the extent of capital investment and the energy requirements. Selection of the drying method depends on the scale of operation and the use for which the dried product is intended.

  4. The Impact of Mild Central Auditory Processing Disorder on School Performance during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Chyrisse; Slone, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Central Auditory Processing (CAP) difficulties have attained increasing recognition leading to escalating rates of referrals for evaluation. Recognition of the association between (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder ((C)APD) and language, learning, and literacy difficulties has resulted in increased referrals and detection in school-aged…

  5. 10 CFR 1017.15 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... thinks may contain UCNI must send the document to a Reviewing Official for a determination before it is... thinks the information should be identified as UCNI, then the Reviewing Official must send the document... possesses material that he or she thinks may contain or reveal UCNI must consult with a Reviewing...

  6. Independence Community College Program Review Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, Robert J.

    Program review at Independence Community College (ICC) is structured so that every program of study will undergo review within a 5-year period. The purpose of the program review effort is to assess the relationship of inputs to outcomes, so that actual outcomes can be compared to expected outcomes. Each program of study is evaluated according to…

  7. 7 CFR 275.9 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... project area is large, medium, or small and shall contain: (i) Identification of the project area to be... shall ensure that the method used to review a program requirement does not bias the review findings. Bias can be introduced through leading questions, incomplete reviews, incorrect sampling...

  8. 7 CFR 275.9 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... project area is large, medium, or small and shall contain: (i) Identification of the project area to be... shall ensure that the method used to review a program requirement does not bias the review findings. Bias can be introduced through leading questions, incomplete reviews, incorrect sampling...

  9. 7 CFR 275.9 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... project area is large, medium, or small and shall contain: (i) Identification of the project area to be... shall ensure that the method used to review a program requirement does not bias the review findings. Bias can be introduced through leading questions, incomplete reviews, incorrect sampling...

  10. 7 CFR 275.9 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... project area is large, medium, or small and shall contain: (i) Identification of the project area to be... shall ensure that the method used to review a program requirement does not bias the review findings. Bias can be introduced through leading questions, incomplete reviews, incorrect sampling...

  11. 7 CFR 275.9 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... project area is large, medium, or small and shall contain: (i) Identification of the project area to be... shall ensure that the method used to review a program requirement does not bias the review findings. Bias can be introduced through leading questions, incomplete reviews, incorrect sampling...

  12. Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Is It a Meaningful Construct or a Twentieth Century Unicorn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.; Beasley, Daniel S.

    1985-01-01

    The article demonstrates how professional and theoretical perspectives (including psycholinguistics, behaviorist, and information processing perspectives) significantly influence the manner in which central auditory processing is viewed, assessed, and remediated. (Author/CL)

  13. Associative and Propositional Processes in Evaluation: An Integrative Review of Implicit and Explicit Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawronski, Bertram; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2006-01-01

    A central theme in recent research on attitudes is the distinction between deliberate, "explicit" attitudes and automatic, "implicit" attitudes. The present article provides an integrative review of the available evidence on implicit and explicit attitude change that is guided by a distinction between associative and propositional processes.…

  14. Improving management decision processes through centralized communication linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanton, D. F.; Garman, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Information flow is a critical element to intelligent and timely decision-making. At NASA's Johnson Space Center the flow of information is being automated through the use of a centralized backbone network. The theoretical basis of this network, its implications to the horizontal and vertical flow of information, and the technical challenges involved in its implementation are the focus of this paper. The importance of the use of common tools among programs and some future concerns related to file transfer, graphics transfer, and merging of voice and data are also discussed.

  15. 42 CFR 456.123 - Admission review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Admission review process. 456.123 Section 456.123... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Hospitals Ur Plan: Review of Need for Admission 1 § 456.123 Admission review process. The UR plan must provide that— (a)...

  16. 42 CFR 456.236 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continued stay review process. 456.236 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur Plan: Review of Need for Continued Stay § 456.236 Continued stay review process. The UR plan must provide...

  17. 42 CFR 456.436 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continued stay review process. 456.436 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Intermediate Care Facilities Ur Plan: Review of Need for Continued Stay § 456.436 Continued stay review process. The UR plan...

  18. 42 CFR 456.135 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continued stay review process. 456.135 Section 456... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Hospitals Ur Plan: Review of Need for Continued Stay § 456.135 Continued stay review process. The UR plan must provide that—...

  19. 7 CFR 276.7 - Administrative review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative review process. 276.7 Section 276.7... Administrative review process. (a) General. (1) Whenever FNS asserts a claim against a State agency, the State agency may appeal the claim by requesting an administrative review. FNS claims that may be appealed...

  20. Multiparallel decompression simultaneously using multicore central processing unit and graphic processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petta, Andrea; Serra, Luigi; De Nino, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The discrete wavelet transform (DWT)-based compression algorithm is widely used in many image compression systems. The time-consuming computation of the 9/7 discrete wavelet decomposition and the bit-plane decoding is usually the bottleneck of these systems. In order to perform real-time decompression on a massive bit stream of compressed images continuously down-linked from the satellite, we propose a different graphic processing unit (GPU)-accelerated decoding system. In this system, the GPU and multiple central processing unit (CPU) threads are run in parallel. To obtain the maximum throughput via a different pipeline structure for processing continuous satellite images, an additional balancing algorithm workload has been implemented to distribute the jobs to both CPU and GPU parts to have approximately the same processing speed. Through the pipelined CPU and GPU heterogeneous computing, the entire decoding system approaches a speedup of 15× as compared to its single-threaded CPU counterpart. The proposed channel and source decoding system is able to decompress 1024×1024 satellite images at a speed of 20 frames/s.

  1. Phase 5 storage (Project W-112) Central Waste Complex operational readiness review, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wight, R.H.

    1997-05-30

    This document is the final report for the RFSH conducted, Contractor Operational Readiness Review (ORR) for the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Project W-112 and Interim Safety Basis implementation. As appendices, all findings, observations, lines of inquiry and the implementation plan are included.

  2. 76 FR 4899 - Submission for OMB Review; OMB Control No. 3090-0290; Central Contractor Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. chapter 35), the Regulatory Secretariat will be submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an emergency new information collection requirement regarding Central Contractor Registration Requirements for Prime Grant Recipients. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether......

  3. Emotional language processing in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lartseva, Alina; Dijkstra, Ton; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2015-01-01

    In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social impairments of ASD, and research mostly focused on understanding how individuals with ASD recognize visual expressions of emotions from faces and body postures. However, it still remains unclear how emotions are processed outside of the visual domain. This systematic review aims to fill this gap by focusing on impairments of emotional language processing in ASD. We systematically searched PubMed for papers published between 1990 and 2013 using standardized search terms. Studies show that people with ASD are able to correctly classify emotional language stimuli as emotionally positive or negative. However, processing of emotional language stimuli in ASD is associated with atypical patterns of attention and memory performance, as well as abnormal physiological and neural activity. Particularly, younger children with ASD have difficulties in acquiring and developing emotional concepts, and avoid using these in discourse. These emotional language impairments were not consistently associated with age, IQ, or level of development of language skills. We discuss how emotional language impairments fit with existing cognitive theories of ASD, such as central coherence, executive dysfunction, and weak Theory of Mind. We conclude that emotional impairments in ASD may be broader than just a mere consequence of social impairments, and should receive more attention in future research. PMID:25610383

  4. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  5. 7 CFR 275.14 - Review processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC) Reviews...-380, shall be used by the reviewer to record required information from the case record, plan and..., release of information, etc., should be used when appropriate. (d) Schedules. Decisions reached by...

  6. 7 CFR 275.14 - Review processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC) Reviews...-380, shall be used by the reviewer to record required information from the case record, plan and..., release of information, etc., should be used when appropriate. (d) Schedules. Decisions reached by...

  7. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  8. Program Review: A Model Community College Process and Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlen, George L.

    An overview is provided of the development of a program review process and instrument, and the subsequent validation of the process on three programs at Delgado Community College (DCC) in Louisiana. First, introductory material describes DCC's commitment to the development of a program review process as a means of enabling the college to respond…

  9. 77 FR 1749 - Preliminary Amendment Request Review Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... COMMISSION Preliminary Amendment Request Review Process AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... provides guidance to the NRC staff on the Preliminary Amendment Request (PAR) review process available to... process. DATES: Submit comments by March 26, 2012. Comments received after this date will be...

  10. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... processing subgrants to applicants in accordance with 44 CFR part 13 and this part. (b) Timeframes. We will... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application and review process... ASSISTANCE § 209.8 Application and review process. (a) General. This section describes the procedures to...

  11. 15 CFR 747.5 - SIRL application review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SIRL application review process. 747.5 Section 747.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... RECONSTRUCTION LICENSE § 747.5 SIRL application review process. (a) Application processing time frames....

  12. 15 CFR 747.5 - SIRL application review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SIRL application review process. 747.5 Section 747.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... RECONSTRUCTION LICENSE § 747.5 SIRL application review process. (a) Application processing time frames....

  13. 15 CFR 747.5 - SIRL application review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SIRL application review process. 747.5 Section 747.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... RECONSTRUCTION LICENSE § 747.5 SIRL application review process. (a) Application processing time frames....

  14. Concise review: modeling central nervous system diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianmin; Hunsberger, Joshua G; Simeonov, Anton; Malik, Nasir; Pei, Ying; Rao, Mahendra

    2014-12-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an opportunity to delve into the mechanisms underlying development while also affording the potential to take advantage of a number of naturally occurring mutations that contribute to either disease susceptibility or resistance. Just as with any new field, several models of screening are being explored, and innovators are working on the most efficient methods to overcome the inherent limitations of primary cell screens using iPSCs. In the present review, we provide a background regarding why iPSCs represent a paradigm shift for central nervous system (CNS) disease modeling. We describe the efforts in the field to develop more biologically relevant CNS disease models, which should provide screening assays useful for the pharmaceutical industry. We also provide some examples of successful uses for iPSC-based screens and suggest that additional development could revolutionize the field of drug discovery. The development and implementation of these advanced iPSC-based screens will create a more efficient disease-specific process underpinned by the biological mechanism in a patient- and disease-specific manner rather than by trial-and-error. Moreover, with careful and strategic planning, shared resources can be developed that will enable exponential advances in the field. This will undoubtedly lead to more sensitive and accurate screens for early diagnosis and allow the identification of patient-specific therapies, thus, paving the way to personalized medicine. PMID:25368377

  15. Recognition of oral spelling is diagnostic of the central reading processes.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Teresa; McCloskey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The task of recognition of oral spelling (stimulus: "C-A-T", response: "cat") is often administered to individuals with acquired written language disorders, yet there is no consensus about the underlying cognitive processes. We adjudicate between two existing hypotheses: Recognition of oral spelling uses central reading processes, or recognition of oral spelling uses central spelling processes in reverse. We tested the recognition of oral spelling and spelling to dictation abilities of a single individual with acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia. She was impaired relative to matched controls in spelling to dictation but unimpaired in recognition of oral spelling. Recognition of oral spelling for exception words (e.g., colonel) and pronounceable nonwords (e.g., larth) was intact. Our results were predicted by the hypothesis that recognition of oral spelling involves the central reading processes. We conclude that recognition of oral spelling is a useful tool for probing the integrity of the central reading processes. PMID:25885676

  16. Results-Based Financing in Mozambique’s Central Medical Store: A Review After 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Spisak, Cary; Morgan, Lindsay; Eichler, Rena; Rosen, James; Serumaga, Brian; Wang, Angela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Public health commodity supply chains are typically weak in low-income countries, partly because they have many disparate yet interdependent functions and components. Approaches to strengthening supply chains in such settings have often fallen short—they address technical weaknesses, but not the incentives that motivate staff to perform better. Methods: We reviewed the first year of a results-based financing (RBF) program in Mozambique, which began in January 2013. The program aimed to improve the performance of the central medical store—Central de Medicamentos e Artigos Medicos (CMAM)—by realigning incentives. We completed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 33 key informants, including representatives from CMAM and donor agencies, and collected quantitative data on performance measures and use of funds. Implementation: The RBF agreement linked CMAM performance payments to quarterly results on 5 performance indicators related to supply planning, distribution planning, and warehouse management. RBF is predicated on the theory that a combination of carrot and stick—i.e., shared financial incentives, plus increased accountability for results—will spur changes in behavior. Important design elements: (1) indicators were measured against quarterly targets, and payments were made only for indicators that met those targets; (2) targets were set based on documented performance, at levels that could be reasonably attained, yet pushed for improvement; (3) payment was shared with and dependent on all staff, encouraging teamwork and collaboration; (4) results were validated by verifiable data sources; and (5) CMAM had discretion over how to use the funds. Findings: We found that CMAM’s performance continually improved over baseline and that CMAM achieved many of its performance targets, for example, timely submission of quarterly supply and distribution planning reports. Warehouse indicators, such as inventory management and

  17. Cooperative and Centralized Cataloging and Processing: A Bibliography, 1850-1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Lawrence E.

    Nine hundred and fifty-four references to articles on cooperative and centralized acquisitions, cataloging and processing, covering the period from 1850 to 1968, are included in this bibliography. Subject elements of the bibliography by the approximate date of appearance are: (1) Cooperative cataloging--1850-; (2) Centralized cataloging (Library…

  18. Cash Management Review of the Central Office of the Board of Trustees of Institutions of Higher Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Legislature, Jackson. Performance Evaluation and Expenditure Review Committee.

    This report to the Mississippi Legislature presents the findings of a review of the central office of the State Board of Trustees of Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL). The review committee sought to determine if the accounting practices and external controls over the IHL central office ensured an adequate level of accountability for public…

  19. Abnormal Large Central Occipital Emissary Vein: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dolati, Parviz; Fusco, Matthew R; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed description of the anatomy of the central occipital emissary vein, its embryology, anatomy, and abnormal variations is not available in the literature. This is the first known case report. A 48-year-old female underwent cerebral angiography to rule out dural arterio-venous fistula. Her angiography revealed an abnormally large central occipital emissary vein originating from the torcula, penetrating the cranium and draining into the suboccipital venous plexus. We provide discussion of the case with a review of the related literature. This case and its attached radiological images introduce a new type of entity to the existing data about the cranial emissary veins. PMID:27330871

  20. Central Auditory Processing of Temporal and Spectral-Variance Cues in Cochlear Implant Listeners.

    PubMed

    Pham, Carol Q; Bremen, Peter; Shen, Weidong; Yang, Shi-Ming; Middlebrooks, John C; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Mc Laughlin, Myles

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) listeners have difficulty understanding speech in complex listening environments. This deficit is thought to be largely due to peripheral encoding problems arising from current spread, which results in wide peripheral filters. In normal hearing (NH) listeners, central processing contributes to segregation of speech from competing sounds. We tested the hypothesis that basic central processing abilities are retained in post-lingually deaf CI listeners, but processing is hampered by degraded input from the periphery. In eight CI listeners, we measured auditory nerve compound action potentials to characterize peripheral filters. Then, we measured psychophysical detection thresholds in the presence of multi-electrode maskers placed either inside (peripheral masking) or outside (central masking) the peripheral filter. This was intended to distinguish peripheral from central contributions to signal detection. Introduction of temporal asynchrony between the signal and masker improved signal detection in both peripheral and central masking conditions for all CI listeners. Randomly varying components of the masker created spectral-variance cues, which seemed to benefit only two out of eight CI listeners. Contrastingly, the spectral-variance cues improved signal detection in all five NH listeners who listened to our CI simulation. Together these results indicate that widened peripheral filters significantly hamper central processing of spectral-variance cues but not of temporal cues in post-lingually deaf CI listeners. As indicated by two CI listeners in our study, however, post-lingually deaf CI listeners may retain some central processing abilities similar to NH listeners. PMID:26176553

  1. Central Auditory Processing of Temporal and Spectral-Variance Cues in Cochlear Implant Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Carol Q.; Bremen, Peter; Shen, Weidong; Yang, Shi-Ming; Middlebrooks, John C.; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Mc Laughlin, Myles

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) listeners have difficulty understanding speech in complex listening environments. This deficit is thought to be largely due to peripheral encoding problems arising from current spread, which results in wide peripheral filters. In normal hearing (NH) listeners, central processing contributes to segregation of speech from competing sounds. We tested the hypothesis that basic central processing abilities are retained in post-lingually deaf CI listeners, but processing is hampered by degraded input from the periphery. In eight CI listeners, we measured auditory nerve compound action potentials to characterize peripheral filters. Then, we measured psychophysical detection thresholds in the presence of multi-electrode maskers placed either inside (peripheral masking) or outside (central masking) the peripheral filter. This was intended to distinguish peripheral from central contributions to signal detection. Introduction of temporal asynchrony between the signal and masker improved signal detection in both peripheral and central masking conditions for all CI listeners. Randomly varying components of the masker created spectral-variance cues, which seemed to benefit only two out of eight CI listeners. Contrastingly, the spectral-variance cues improved signal detection in all five NH listeners who listened to our CI simulation. Together these results indicate that widened peripheral filters significantly hamper central processing of spectral-variance cues but not of temporal cues in post-lingually deaf CI listeners. As indicated by two CI listeners in our study, however, post-lingually deaf CI listeners may retain some central processing abilities similar to NH listeners. PMID:26176553

  2. Examining Marketing Journals' Publication Process and Reviewer Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Vicky L.; Reisenwitz, Timothy H.; Schibrowsky, John A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines reviewer practices at 11 marketing journals. The results for the top three journals are compared to eight comparable journals that are typically considered to be non-top-tier journals. The results suggest that the reviewers and the review processes at the top journals differ significantly from those of the non-top-tier…

  3. Biological treatment processes for fish processing wastewater--a review.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Pankaj; Viraraghavan, T; Srinivasan, A

    2010-01-01

    Water consumption in a fish-processing industry and high-strength wastewater from such an industry are of great concern world-wide. Liquid effluent regulations are becoming more stringent day by day. Biological treatment is the best option for such a wastewater. Anaerobic processes such as upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, anaerobic filter (AF) and anaerobic fluidized bed (AFB) reactor can achieve high (80-90%) organics removal and produce biogas. Aerobic processes such as activated sludge, rotating biological contactor, trickling filter and lagoons are also suitable for organics removal. Anaerobic digestion followed by an aerobic process is an optimal process option for fish processing wastewater treatment. PMID:19751972

  4. Highly energized inhibitory interneurons are a central element for information processing in cortical networks

    PubMed Central

    Kann, Oliver; Papageorgiou, Ismini E; Draguhn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Gamma oscillations (∼30 to 100 Hz) provide a fundamental mechanism of information processing during sensory perception, motor behavior, and memory formation by coordination of neuronal activity in networks of the hippocampus and neocortex. We review the cellular mechanisms of gamma oscillations about the underlying neuroenergetics, i.e., high oxygen consumption rate and exquisite sensitivity to metabolic stress during hypoxia or poisoning of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Gamma oscillations emerge from the precise synaptic interactions of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory GABAergic interneurons. In particular, specialized interneurons such as parvalbumin-positive basket cells generate action potentials at high frequency (‘fast-spiking') and synchronize the activity of numerous pyramidal cells by rhythmic inhibition (‘clockwork'). As prerequisites, fast-spiking interneurons have unique electrophysiological properties and particularly high energy utilization, which is reflected in the ultrastructure by enrichment with mitochondria and cytochrome c oxidase, most likely needed for extensive membrane ion transport and γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism. This supports the hypothesis that highly energized fast-spiking interneurons are a central element for cortical information processing and may be critical for cognitive decline when energy supply becomes limited (‘interneuron energy hypothesis'). As a clinical perspective, we discuss the functional consequences of metabolic and oxidative stress in fast-spiking interneurons in aging, ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia. PMID:24896567

  5. Centralized Alert-Processing and Asset Planning for Sensorwebs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Chien, Steve A.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Tang, Benyang

    2010-01-01

    A software program provides a Sensorweb architecture for alert-processing, event detection, asset allocation and planning, and visualization. It automatically tasks and re-tasks various types of assets such as satellites and robotic vehicles in response to alerts (fire, weather) extracted from various data sources, including low-level Webcam data. JPL has adapted cons iderable Sensorweb infrastructure that had been previously applied to NASA Earth Science applications. This NASA Earth Science Sensorweb has been in operational use since 2003, and has proven reliability of the Sensorweb technologies for robust event detection and autonomous response using space and ground assets. Unique features of the software include flexibility to a range of detection and tasking methods including those that require aggregation of data over spatial and temporal ranges, generality of the response structure to represent and implement a range of response campaigns, and the ability to respond rapidly.

  6. Solar augmentation for process heat with central receiver technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, Johannes P.; du Toit, Philip; Bode, Sebastian J.; Larmuth, James N.; Landman, Willem A.; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Coal fired boilers are currently one of the most widespread ways to deliver process heat to industry. John Thompson Boilers (JTB) offer industrial steam supply solutions for industry and utility scale applications in Southern Africa. Transport cost add significant cost to the coal price in locations far from the coal fields in Mpumalanga, Gauteng and Limpopo. The Helio100 project developed a low cost, self-learning, wireless heliostat technology that requires no ground preparation. This is attractive as an augmentation alternative, as it can easily be installed on any open land that a client may have available. This paper explores the techno economic feasibility of solar augmentation for JTB coal fired steam boilers by comparing the fuel savings of a generic 2MW heliostat field at various locations throughout South Africa.

  7. Productive Skills for Process Operatives. Skills Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, L.; Kodz, J.; Evans, C.

    A study of process operatives examined the developments in processing work in 20 organizations within the chemical and food and drink processing industries. Seven exploratory interviews were followed by 20 employer interviews. Technological innovations caused job losses and layoffs. Organizational responses adopted to meet increasing competitive…

  8. Central Sensitization Syndrome and the Initial Evaluation of a Patient with Fibromyalgia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Kevin C.; Volcheck, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    In both primary care and consultative practices, patients presenting with fibromyalgia (FM) often have other medically unexplained somatic symptoms and are ultimately diagnosed as having central sensitization (CS). Central sensitization encompasses many disorders where the central nervous system amplifies sensory input across many organ systems and results in myriad symptoms. A pragmatic approach to evaluate FM and related symptoms, including a focused review of medical records, interviewing techniques, and observations, is offered here, giving valuable tools for identifying and addressing the most relevant symptoms. At the time of the clinical evaluation, early consideration of CS may improve the efficiency of the visit, reduce excessive testing, and help in discerning between typical and atypical cases so as to avoid an inaccurate diagnosis. Discussion of pain and neurophysiology and sensitization often proves helpful. PMID:25973272

  9. What indication, morbidity and mortality for central pancreatectomy in oncological surgery? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Michele; Esposito, Anna; Tammaro, Vincenzo; Calogero, Armando; Criscitiello, Carmen; Roberti, Giuseppe; Candida, Maria; Rupealta, Niccolò; Pisani, Antonio; Carlomagno, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Conventional pancreatic resections for pancreatic neck and body diseases include pancreaticoduodenectomy, distal pancreatectomy with or without splenectomy, and total pancreatectomy. Recent studies have reported encouraging results of non-traditional pancreatic resections, including central pancreatectomy (CP), for central pancreatic disease. This surgical approach offers the potentials of low postoperative morbidity and preservation of metabolic functions. This study performs a systematic review on CP. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, for the period 1992-2015, on three worldwide databases: PubMed, Scopus, ISI-Web of Knowledge. We focused on indications, morbidity and mortality of this surgical procedure. The review shows that CP is particularly suitable for small-medium size diseases localized into the pancreatic body. This procedure is associated with an increased postoperative morbidity but an excellent postoperative pancreatic function. CP is a safe and effective procedure when performed following the right indications. PMID:26708862

  10. Efficacy of Epidural Injections in the Treatment of Lumbar Central Spinal Stenosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan David; Manchikanti, Kavita; Boswell, Mark; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Hirsch, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lumbar central spinal stenosis is common and often results in chronic persistent pain and disability, which can lead to multiple interventions. After the failure of conservative treatment, either surgical or nonsurgical modalities such as epidural injections are contemplated in the management of lumbar spinal stenosis. Evidence Acquisition: Recent randomized trials, systematic reviews and guidelines have reached varying conclusions about the efficacy of epidural injections in the management of central lumbar spinal stenosis. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of all three anatomical epidural injection approaches (caudal, interlaminar, and transforaminal) in the treatment of lumbar central spinal stenosis. A systematic review was performed on randomized trials published from 1966 to July 2014 of all types of epidural injections used in the management of lumbar central spinal stenosis. Methodological quality assessment and grading of the evidence was performed. Results: The evidence in managing lumbar spinal stenosis is Level II for long-term improvement for caudal and lumbar interlaminar epidural injections. For transforaminal epidural injections, the evidence is Level III for short-term improvement only. The interlaminar approach appears to be superior to the caudal approach and the caudal approach appears to be superior to the transforaminal one. Conclusions: The available evidence suggests that epidural injections with local anesthetic alone or with local anesthetic with steroids offer short- and long-term relief of low back and lower extremity pain for patients with lumbar central spinal stenosis. However, the evidence is Level II for the long-term efficacy of caudal and interlaminar epidural injections, whereas it is Level III for short-term improvement only with transforaminal epidural injections. PMID:25789241

  11. Review of biomedical signal and image processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article is a review of the book “Biomedical Signal and Image Processing” by Kayvan Najarian and Robert Splinter, which is published by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. It will evaluate the contents of the book and discuss its suitability as a textbook, while mentioning highlights of the book, and providing comparison with other textbooks.

  12. Process review of lignocellulose biochemical conversion to fuel ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review is meant to give a general technical review of the state-of-the-art in process technology for the biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to fuel ethanol. The proceeding details the chemical structure of biomass and basic process steps needed for extracting carbohydrates as sugars and ...

  13. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application review and award process. 152.6 Section 152.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Application review and award process. (a) As stated in § 152.5, we will evaluate each application in...

  14. 44 CFR 152.5 - Review process and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review process and evaluation criteria. 152.5 Section 152.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Review process and evaluation criteria. (a) Every application will be evaluated based on the answers...

  15. Marketing Academics' Perceptions of the Peer Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles D.; Hair, Joe F.; Hermanson, Dana R.; Crittenden, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    Publication in refereed journals is critical to career success for most marketing faculty members, and the peer review process is the gatekeeper for a refereed journal. The study reported here examines marketing academics' perceptions of this peer review process. Based on responses from 653 marketing academics, we find favorable overall…

  16. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to employees of the former INS, persons may contact the Office of Internal Audit, Bureau of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expedited internal review process. 287.10... OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.10 Expedited internal review process. (a) Violations of standards...

  17. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to employees of the former INS, persons may contact the Office of Internal Audit, Bureau of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited internal review process. 287.10... OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.10 Expedited internal review process. (a) Violations of standards...

  18. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to employees of the former INS, persons may contact the Office of Internal Audit, Bureau of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expedited internal review process. 287.10... OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.10 Expedited internal review process. (a) Violations of standards...

  19. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to employees of the former INS, persons may contact the Office of Internal Audit, Bureau of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expedited internal review process. 287.10... OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.10 Expedited internal review process. (a) Violations of standards...

  20. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to employees of the former INS, persons may contact the Office of Internal Audit, Bureau of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expedited internal review process. 287.10... OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.10 Expedited internal review process. (a) Violations of standards...

  1. 7 CFR 276.7 - Administrative review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative review process. 276.7 Section 276.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS § 276.7 Administrative review process....

  2. 7 CFR 276.7 - Administrative review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative review process. 276.7 Section 276.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS § 276.7 Administrative review process....

  3. 7 CFR 276.7 - Administrative review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative review process. 276.7 Section 276.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS § 276.7 Administrative review process....

  4. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application review and award process. 152.6 Section 152.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.6 Application review and award process....

  5. 42 CFR 456.123 - Admission review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admission review process. 456.123 Section 456.123 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Need for Admission 1 § 456.123 Admission review process. The UR plan must provide that— (a)...

  6. 42 CFR 456.123 - Admission review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Admission review process. 456.123 Section 456.123 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Need for Admission 1 § 456.123 Admission review process. The UR plan must provide that— (a)...

  7. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:27555221

  8. Contrasting serpentinization processes in the eastern Central Alps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhard, D.J.M.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope compositions have been determined for serpentinites from between Davos (Arosa-Platta nappe, Switzerland) and the Valmalenco (Italy). ??D and ??18O values (-120 to -60 and 6-10???, respectively) in the Arosa-Platta nappe indicate that serpentinization took place on the continent at relatively low temperatures in the presence of limited amounts of metamorphic fluids that contained a component of meteoric water. One sample of chrysotile has a ??18O value of 13??? providing evidence of high W/R ratios and low formation temperature of lizardite-chrysotile in this area. In contrast, relatively high ??D values (-42 to -34???) and low ??18O values (4.4-7.4???) for serpentine in the eastern part of the Valmalenco suggest a serpentinization process that took place at moderate temperatures in fluids that were dominated by ocean water. The antigorite in the Valmalenco is the first reported example of continental antigorite with an ocean water signature. An amphibole sample from a metasomatically overprinted contact zone to metasediments (??D=-36???) indicates that the metasomatic event also took place in the presence of ocean water. Lower ??D values (-93 to -60???) of serpentines in the western part of the Valmalenco suggest a different alteration history possibly influenced by fluids associated with contact metamorphism. Low water/rock ratios during regional metamorphism (and metasomatism) have to be assumed for both regions. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  9. 75 FR 70268 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; NIH NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Federal Register on August 16, 2010 (75 FR 49938) and allowed 60-days for public comment. No public... (Attachment 2K). Participants Facilitated Review (FR) 1,450 1 10/60 (.17 hour) 242 Acceptance Form (Attachment... Board Member Non- 16 1 15/60 (.25 hour) 4 Disclosure Agreement (NDA) (Attachment 3E). Board...

  10. Review of industry interest in space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowell, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The interest on the part of selected U.S. corporation in using the research facilities and capabilities for materials processing in space utilizing the Space Shuttle was assessed. The effectiveness of the interview techniques as a method for gaining insight into the complex array of issues related to materials processing in space was evaluated. The survey, conducted was intended as a random sample of individuals, representing industry, who were currently involved in materials processing in space.

  11. Predictive information processing in music cognition. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin A; Koelsch, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Expectation and prediction constitute central mechanisms in the perception and cognition of music, which have been explored in theoretical and empirical accounts. We review the scope and limits of theoretical accounts of musical prediction with respect to feature-based and temporal prediction. While the concept of prediction is unproblematic for basic single-stream features such as melody, it is not straight-forward for polyphonic structures or higher-order features such as formal predictions. Behavioural results based on explicit and implicit (priming) paradigms provide evidence of priming in various domains that may reflect predictive behaviour. Computational learning models, including symbolic (fragment-based), probabilistic/graphical, or connectionist approaches, provide well-specified predictive models of specific features and feature combinations. While models match some experimental results, full-fledged music prediction cannot yet be modelled. Neuroscientific results regarding the early right-anterior negativity (ERAN) and mismatch negativity (MMN) reflect expectancy violations on different levels of processing complexity, and provide some neural evidence for different predictive mechanisms. At present, the combinations of neural and computational modelling methodologies are at early stages and require further research. PMID:22245599

  12. Standardized severe maternal morbidity review: rationale and process.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Sarah J; Berg, Cynthia; Bernstein, Peter; Bingham, Debra; Delgado, Ana; Callaghan, William M; Harris, Karen; Lanni, Susan; Mahoney, Jeanne; Main, Elliot; Nacht, Amy; Schellpfeffer, Michael; Westover, Thomas; Harper, Margaret

    2014-08-01

    Severe maternal morbidity and mortality have been rising in the United States. To begin a national effort to reduce morbidity, a specific call to identify all pregnant and postpartum women experiencing admission to an intensive care unit or receipt of 4 or more units of blood for routine review has been made. While advocating for review of these cases, no specific guidance for the review process was provided. Therefore, the aim of this expert opinion is to present guidelines for a standardized severe maternal morbidity interdisciplinary review process to identify systems, professional, and facility factors that can be ameliorated, with the overall goal of improving institutional obstetric safety and reducing severe morbidity and mortality among pregnant and recently pregnant women. This opinion was developed by a multidisciplinary working group that included general obstetrician-gynecologists, maternal-fetal medicine subspecialists, certified nurse-midwives, and registered nurses all with experience in maternal mortality reviews. A process for standardized review of severe maternal morbidity addressing committee organization, review process, medical record abstraction and assessment, review culture, data management, review timing, and review confidentiality is presented. Reference is made to a sample severe maternal morbidity abstraction and assessment form. PMID:25004341

  13. The JSC Engineering Directorate Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Kenneth C.

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Engineering Directorate has developed a Product Peer Review process in support of NASA policies for project management and systems engineering. The process complies with the requirements of NPR 7120.5, NPR 7123.1 and NPR 7150.2 and follows the guidance in NASA/SP-2007-6105. This presentation will give an overview of the process followed by a brief demonstration of an actual peer review, with audience participation.

  14. Video Views and Reviews: Neurulation and the Fashioning of the Vertebrate Central Nervous System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is the first adult organ system to appear during vertebrate development, and the process of its emergence is commonly called neurulation. Such biological "urgency" is perhaps not surprising given the structural and functional complexity of the CNS and the importance of neural function to adaptive behavior and…

  15. Modeling Land Application of Food-Processing Wastewater in the Central Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Y.; Benito, P.; Miller, G.; McLaughlin, J.; Hou, Z.; Hermanowicz, S.; Mayer, U.

    2007-12-01

    California's Central Valley contains over 640 food-processing plants, serving a multi-billion dollar agricultural industry. These processors consume approximately 7.9 x 107 m3 of water per year. Approximately 80% of these processors discharge the resulting wastewater, which is typically high in organic matter, nitrogen, and salts, to land, and many of these use land application as a treatment method. Initial investigations revealed elevated salinity levels to be the most common form of groundwater degradation near land application sites, followed by concentrations of nitrogen compounds, namely ammonia and nitrate. Enforcement actions have been taken against multiple food processors, and the regulatory boards have begun to re-examine the land disposal permitting process. This paper summarizes a study that was commissioned in support of these actions. The study has multiple components which will be reviewed briefly, including: (1) characterization of the food-processing related waste stream; (2) fate and transport of the effluent waste stream in the unsaturated zone at the land application sites; (3) fate and transport of the effluent waste stream at the regional scale; (4) predictive uncertainty due to spatial variability and data scarcity at the land application sites and at the regional scale; (5) problem mitigation through off-site and in-situ actions; (6) long-term solutions. The emphasis of the talk will be placed on presenting and demonstrating a stochastic framework for modeling the transport and attenuation of these wastes in the vadose zone and in the saturated zone, and the related site characterization needs, as affected by site conditions, water table depth, waste water application rate, and waste constituent concentrations.

  16. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  17. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  18. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  19. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  20. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  1. Review and evaluation of space processing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Materials research in space which offers advantages in studying phenomena and preparing materials under conditions which cannot be realized in the gravity field of the Earth is discussed. Many techniques were developed to improve processing systems and reduce the effect of gravitationally induced restrictions. The space-based devices take advantage of a wide range of low-gravity facilities including drop towers and tubes, aircraft and sounding rocket parabolic trajectories, simple materials experiment accommodations in the Space Shuttle, and more complex capabilities in Spacelab. All these systems are used to produce novel materials and to study material processing under unique conditions.

  2. Improving the peer-review process from the perspective of an author and reviewer.

    PubMed

    Faggion, C M

    2016-02-26

    The peer-review process is a fundamental component in the advancement of science. In this process, independent reviewers evaluate the quality of a manuscript and its suitability for publication in a particular scientific journal. Thus, to favour the publication of the highest-level information, the peer-review system should be as unbiased as possible. Although the peer-review system is the most commonly used method to select manuscripts for publication, it has several potential limitations. The main objective of this manuscript is to discuss some limitations of the peer-review system and suggest potential solutions from the perspective of an author and reviewer. This article may contribute to the always-dynamic development of the peer-review process. PMID:26917302

  3. Peer Review Re-Viewed: Investigating the Juxtaposition of Composition Students' Eye Movements and Peer-Review Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Eric J.; Alexander, Jonathan; Armstrong, Sonya

    2007-01-01

    While peer review is a common practice in college composition courses, there is little consistency in approach and effectiveness within the field, owing in part to the dearth of empirical research that investigates peer-review processes. This study is designed to shed light on what a peer reviewer actually reads and attends to while providing…

  4. Nonlinear joint transmit-receive processing for coordinated multi-cell systems: centralized and decentralized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhirui; Feng, Chunyan; Zhang, Tiankui; Niu, Qin; Chen, Yue

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a nonlinear joint transmit-receive (tx-rx) processing scheme for downlink-coordinated multi-cell systems with multi-stream multi-antenna users. The nonlinear joint tx-rx processing is formulated as an optimization problem to maximize the minimum signal-to-interference noise ratio (SINR) of streams to guarantee the fairness among streams of each user. Nonlinear Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) is applied at transmitters, and linear receive processing is applied at receivers, to eliminate the inter-user interference and inter-stream interference. We consider multi-cell systems under two coordinated modes: centralized and decentralized, corresponding to systems with high- and low-capacity backhaul links, respectively. For the centralized coordinated mode, transmit and receive processing matrices are jointly determined by the central processing unit based on the global channel state information (CSI) shared by base stations (BSs). For the decentralized coordinated mode, transmit and receive processing matrices are computed independently based on the local CSI at each BS. In correspondence, we propose both a centralized and a decentralized algorithm to solve the optimization problem under the two modes, respectively. Feasibility and computational complexity of the proposed algorithms are also analyzed. Simulation results prove that the proposed nonlinear joint tx-rx processing scheme can achieve user fairness by equalizing the bit error rate (BER) among streams of each user and the proposed scheme outperforms the existing linear joint tx-rx processing. Moreover, consistent with previous research results, performance of the proposed centralized nonlinear joint tx-rx processing scheme is proved to be better than that of the decentralized nonlinear joint tx-rx processing.

  5. NASA/MSFC FY-82 atmospheric processes research review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC FY-82 Atmospheric Processes Research Program was reviewed. The review covered research tasks in the areas of upper atmosphere, global weather, and severe storms and local weather. Also included was research on aviation safety environmental hazards. The research project summaries, in narrative outline form, supplied by the individual investigators together with the agenda and other information about the review are presented.

  6. Contribution of psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology in revealing correlation of mental disorders with central auditory processing disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iliadou, V; Iakovides, S

    2003-01-01

    Background Psychoacoustics is a fascinating developing field concerned with the evaluation of the hearing sensation as an outcome of a sound or speech stimulus. Neuroaudiology with electrophysiologic testing, records the electrical activity of the auditory pathways, extending from the 8th cranial nerve up to the cortical auditory centers as a result of external auditory stimuli. Central Auditory Processing Disorders may co-exist with mental disorders and complicate diagnosis and outcome. Design A MEDLINE search was conducted to search for papers concerning the association between Central Auditory Processing Disorders and mental disorders. The research focused on the diagnostic methods providing the inter-connection of various mental disorders and central auditory deficits. Measurements and Main Results The medline research revealed 564 papers when using the keywords 'auditory deficits' and 'mental disorders'. 79 papers were referring specifically to Central Auditory Processing Disorders in connection with mental disorders. 175 papers were related to Schizophrenia, 126 to learning disabilities, 29 to Parkinson's disease, 88 to dyslexia and 39 to Alzheimer's disease. Assessment of the Central Auditory System is carried out through a great variety of tests that fall into two main categories: psychoacoustic and electrophysiologic testing. Different specialties are involved in the diagnosis and management of Central Auditory Processing Disorders as well as the mental disorders that may co-exist with them. As a result it is essential that they are all aware of the possibilities in diagnostic procedures. Conclusions Considerable evidence exists that mental disorders may correlate with CAPD and this correlation could be revealed through psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology. Mental disorders that relate to Central Auditory Processing Disorders are: Schizophrenia, attention deficit disorders, Alzheimer's disease, learning disabilities, dyslexia, depression, auditory

  7. Gender Differences in Processing Speed: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2011-01-01

    A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…

  8. 78 FR 18481 - Project-Level Predecisional Administrative Review Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 218 RIN 0596-AD07 Project-Level Predecisional Administrative Review Process... (the Department) is issuing this final rule to establish the ] sole process by which the public may... process. Section 428 further directs the Secretary to apply these procedures in lieu of the...

  9. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... processing subgrants to applicants in accordance with 44 CFR part 13 and this part. (b) Timeframes. We will... process. 209.8 Section 209.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... ASSISTANCE § 209.8 Application and review process. (a) General. This section describes the procedures to...

  10. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... processing subgrants to applicants in accordance with 44 CFR part 13 and this part. (b) Timeframes. We will... process. 209.8 Section 209.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... ASSISTANCE § 209.8 Application and review process. (a) General. This section describes the procedures to...

  11. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... processing subgrants to applicants in accordance with 44 CFR part 13 and this part. (b) Timeframes. We will... process. 209.8 Section 209.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... ASSISTANCE § 209.8 Application and review process. (a) General. This section describes the procedures to...

  12. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... processing subgrants to applicants in accordance with 44 CFR part 13 and this part. (b) Timeframes. We will... process. 209.8 Section 209.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... ASSISTANCE § 209.8 Application and review process. (a) General. This section describes the procedures to...

  13. Product review: lucis image processing software.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E

    1999-04-01

    Lucis is a software program that allows the manipulation of images through the process of selective contrast pattern emphasis. Using an image-processing algorithm called Differential Hysteresis Processing (DHP), Lucis extracts and highlights patterns based on variations in image intensity (luminance). The result is that details can be seen that would otherwise be hidden in deep shadow or excessive brightness. The software is contained on a single floppy disk, is easy to install on a PC, simple to use, and runs on Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows NT operating systems. The cost is $8,500 for a license, but is estimated to save a great deal of money in photographic materials, time, and labor that would have otherwise been spent in the darkroom. Superb images are easily obtained from unstained (no lead or uranium) sections, and stored image files sent to laser printers are of publication quality. The software can be used not only for all types of microscopy, including color fluorescence light microscopy, biological and materials science electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), but will be beneficial in medicine, such as X-ray films (pending approval by the FDA), and in the arts. PMID:10206154

  14. 42 CFR 456.135 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued stay review process. 456.135 Section 456.135 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... physician reviews the case to decide the need for continued stay; (f) If the committee or subgroup...

  15. 42 CFR 456.236 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued stay review process. 456.236 Section 456.236 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... stay; (f) If the committee or subgroup making the review under paragraph (e) of this section finds...

  16. Quality Assurance for Distance Education: A Faculty Peer Review Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kathryn R.; Batzer, Lyn; Bennington, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for quality assurance in distance education; describes evaluation criteria; and reports how Ivy Tech State College (Indiana) created a peer review process as a formative evaluation tool to assure the quality of its distance education courses. Explains roles of the participants and evaluation of the peer review prototype. (LRW)

  17. A Review of the Interpersonal Influence Process in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Dixon, David N.

    This article reviews research conducted on the interpersonal influence process in counseling, specifically those studies relating to counselor expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. The review is organized and analyzed in terms of variables affecting the client's perception of critical counselor characteristics and effects of the…

  18. Mountain building processes in intracontinental oblique deformation belts: Lessons from the Gobi Corridor, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Dickson

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the Quaternary-Recent deformation field and mountain building processes within the Gobi Corridor region of Central Asia, which includes the North Tibetan foreland, Beishan, Gobi Altai and easternmost Tien Shan. The region can be considered the ‘soft core' of Central Asia which has been reactivated due to the continuing Indo-Eurasia collision to the south. Favourable preconditions for reactivation of Gobi Corridor basement include a mechanically weak Palaeozoic terrane collage sandwiched between rigid Precambrian basement blocks to the north and south, thermally weakened crust due to Jurassic-Miocene volcanism and widespread Palaeozoic-Mesozoic granitic magmatism with associated high radiogenic heat production, and crustal thinning due to widespread Cretaceous rift basin development. The network of Quaternary-Recent faults within the entire region defines a diffuse sinistral transpressional deformation field that has generated a transpressional basin and range physiographic province. Typically, thrust and oblique-slip thrust faults are WNW-striking and reactivate basement faults and fabrics, whereas left-lateral strike-slip faults are ENE-striking and cut across basement trends. The angular relationship between SHmax and pre-existing basement structural trends is the fundamental control on the kinematics of Late Cenozoic deformation. Along-strike and across-strike growth and coalescence of restraining bends, other transpressional ranges and thrust ridges is an important mountain building process. Thrust faults throughout the region are both NNE and SSW directed and thus there is no common structural vergence, nor orogenic foreland or hinterland. Root structures appear to be vertical faults, not low-angle decollements and flower structure fault geometries within individual ranges are common. Published earthquake and geodetic data are consistent with a diffusely deforming continental interior region with tectonic loading shared

  19. Jet Fuel, Noise, and the Central Auditory Nervous System: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Warner, Rachelle; Fuente, Adrian; Hickson, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Prompted by the continued prevalence of hearing related disabilities accepted as eligible for compensation and treatment under Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs legislation, a review of recent literature regarding possible causation mechanisms and thus, possible prevention strategies, is timely. The emerging thoughts on the effects of a combination of jet fuel and noise exposure on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have relevance in the military aviation context because of the high exposures to solvents (including fuels) and unique noise hazards related to weapons systems and military aircraft. This literature review aimed to identify and analyze the current knowledge base of the effects of combined exposure to JP-8 jet fuel (or its aromatic solvent components) and noise on the CANS in human populations. We reviewed articles examining electrophysiological and behavioral measurement of the CANS following combined exposures to jet fuel (or its aromatic constituents) and noise. A total of 6 articles met the inclusion criteria for the review and their results are summarized. The articles considered in this review indicate that assessment of the CANS should be undertaken as part of a comprehensive test battery for military members exposed to both noise and solvents in the workplace. PMID:26327546

  20. Process as Content in Computer Science Education: Empirical Determination of Central Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendler, A.; Spannagel, C.; Klaudt, D.

    2008-01-01

    Computer science education should not be based on short-term developments but on content that is observable in multiple domains of computer science, may be taught at every intellectual level, will be relevant in the longer term, and is related to everyday language and/or thinking. Recently, a catalogue of "central concepts" for computer science…

  1. A review of preventing central sleep apnea by inspired CO2.

    PubMed

    Mulchrone, A; Shokoueinejad, M; Webster, J

    2016-05-01

    Although almost completely unknown half a century ago, sleep disorders are gaining recognition as major issues to public health due to their growing prevalence and dire societal consequences. Despite being linked to several infamous catastrophic events such as Chernobyl, it is estimated that 90% of sufferers fail to get diagnosed and receive treatment, and a significant portion of the ones that do are often non-compliant due to the side effects of current treatments. This article presents a review of the current standard treatment for central sleep apnea, and investigates the advantages and possible consequences of using inspired carbon dioxide (CO2) as an alternative treatment option. PMID:27093535

  2. L-serine synthesis in the central nervous system: a review on serine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, L; Klomp, L W; Berger, R; de Koning, T J

    2010-03-01

    The de novo synthesis of the amino acid L-serine plays an essential role in the development and functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). L-serine displays many metabolic functions during different developmental stages; among its functions providing precursors for amino acids, protein synthesis, nucleotide synthesis, neurotransmitter synthesis and L-serine derived lipids. Patients with congenital defects in the L-serine synthesizing enzymes present with severe neurological abnormalities and underscore the importance of this synthetic pathway. In this review, we will discuss the cellular functions of the L-serine pathway, structure and enzymatic properties of the enzymes involved and genetic defects associated with this pathway. PMID:19963421

  3. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging-Focused Review of a Reemerging Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Samadian, Mohammad; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging characteristics of the different forms of CNS tuberculosis, including meningitis, tuberculoma, miliary tuberculosis, abscess, cerebritis, and encephalopathy. PMID:25653877

  4. Central nervous system tuberculosis: an imaging-focused review of a reemerging disease.

    PubMed

    Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Pourghorban, Ramin; Samadian, Mohammad; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging characteristics of the different forms of CNS tuberculosis, including meningitis, tuberculoma, miliary tuberculosis, abscess, cerebritis, and encephalopathy. PMID:25653877

  5. Review of solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si Joon; Yoon, Seokhyun; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-02-01

    In this review, we summarize solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) researches based on our fulfillments. We describe the fundamental studies of precursor composition effects at the beginning in order to figure out the role of each component in oxide semiconductors, and then present low temperature process for the adoption of flexible devices. Moreover, channel engineering for high performance and reliability of solution-processed oxide TFTs and various coating methods: spin-coating, inkjet printing, and gravure printing are also presented. The last topic of this review is an overview of multi-functional solution-processed oxide TFTs for various applications such as photodetector, biosensor, and memory.

  6. Safeguarding children: the benefits of a peer-review process.

    PubMed

    Morris-Thompson, Trish; Shepherd, Janet; Rogers, Maggie; Ladbury, Briony; Kirk, Catherine; Marks-Maran, Di

    Nurses in hospitals and in the community are increasingly taking a leading role in safeguarding children. NHS London established a Safeguarding Improvement Team (SIT) in 2009. The SIT project was designed as a one-off activity to raise performance related to safeguarding children in London. This article presents a peer-review process that was established by NHS London and implemented across the 31 PCTs across London. This article presents the peer-review process methodology and a summary of the findings from the SIT visits. Feedback was requested from participants about participants' perceptions of the peer-review process immediately after the SIT visits and again, several months after the completion of all SIT visits. Findings show that the peer-review process was of value, both organisationally and professionally, and the process itself led to identification of good practice as well as gaps in existing practices. The non-threatening nature of the peer-review process was particularly valued, as was the feedback offered by the review teams. PMID:22874725

  7. A review of seismoelectric data processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warden, S. D.; Garambois, S.; Jouniaux, L.; Sailhac, P.

    2011-12-01

    Seismoelectric tomography is expected to combine the sensitivity of electromagnetic methods to hydrological properties such as water-content and permeability, to the high resolution of conventional seismic surveys. This innovative exploration technique seems very promising as it could characterize the fluids contained in reservoir rocks and detect thin layers invisible to other methods. However, it still needs to be improved before it can be successfully applied to real case problems. One of the main issues that need to be addressed is the development of wave separation techniques enabling to recover the signal of interest. Seismic waves passing through a fluid-saturated porous layered medium convert into at least two types of electromagnetic waves: the coseismic field (type I), accompanying seismic body and surface waves, and the independently propagating interface response (type II). The latter occurs when compressional waves encounter a contrast between electrical, chemical or mechanical properties in the subsurface, thus acting as a secondary source that can be generally approximated by a sum of electrical dipoles oscillating at the first Fresnel zone. Although properties of the medium in the vicinity of the receivers can be extracted from the coseismic waves, only the interface response provides subsurface information at depth, which makes it critical to separate both types of energy. This is a delicate problem, as the interface response may be several orders of magnitude weaker than the coseismic field. However, as reviewed by Haines et al. (2007), several properties of the interface response can be used to identify it: its dipolar amplitude pattern, its opposite polarity on opposite sides of the shot point and the electromagnetic velocity at which it travels, several orders of magnitude greater than seismic velocities. This latter attribute can be exploited to implement filtering techniques in frequency-wavenumber (f-k) and radon (tau-p) domain, which we

  8. The caBIG terminology review process.

    PubMed

    Cimino, James J; Hayamizu, Terry F; Bodenreider, Olivier; Davis, Brian; Stafford, Grace A; Ringwald, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing an integrated biomedical informatics infrastructure, the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG), to support collaboration within the cancer research community. A key part of the caBIG architecture is the establishment of terminology standards for representing data. In order to evaluate the suitability of existing controlled terminologies, the caBIG Vocabulary and Data Elements Workspace (VCDE WS) working group has developed a set of criteria that serve to assess a terminology's structure, content, documentation, and editorial process. This paper describes the evolution of these criteria and the results of their use in evaluating four standard terminologies: the Gene Ontology (GO), the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt), the Common Terminology for Adverse Events (known as CTCAE), and the laboratory portion of the Logical Objects, Identifiers, Names and Codes (LOINC). The resulting caBIG criteria are presented as a matrix that may be applicable to any terminology standardization effort. PMID:19154797

  9. The caBIG Terminology Review Process

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; Bodenreider, Olivier; Davis, Brian; Stafford, Grace A.; Ringwald, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing an integrated biomedical informatics infrastructure, the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®), to support collaboration within the cancer research community. A key part of the caBIG architecture is the establishment of terminology standards for representing data. In order to evaluate the suitability of existing controlled terminologies, the caBIG Vocabulary and Data Elements Workspace (VCDE WS) working group has developed a set of criteria that serve to assess a terminology's structure, content, documentation, and editorial process. This paper describes the evolution of these criteria and the results of their use in evaluating four standard terminologies: the Gene Ontology (GO), the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt), the Common Terminology for Adverse Events (known as CTCAE), and the laboratory portion of the Logical Objects, Identifiers, Names and Codes (LOINC). The resulting caBIG criteria are presented as a matrix that may be applicable to any terminology standardization effort. PMID:19154797

  10. Using a peer review exercise to teach students the value of the peer review process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, G. W.; Cook, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    The peer review process is integral to legitimate scientific study. Undergraduate students in geoscience classes often have a poor understanding of the process and specifically do not understand what constitutes peer-reviewed literature. This becomes especially apparent in situations where students are asked to write research-oriented papers or essays that make use of peer-reviewed scientific sources. Often, they believe that news articles and online sources such as blogs constitute valid (peer-reviewed) scientific sources. We make use of a relatively simple in-class exercise in our introductory geoscience classes that teaches students the necessity of the review process and educates them about the true nature and value of peer-reviewed literature. It also reinforces an understanding of the scientific method in the context of conducting literature-based research. Students report that they are better equipped to conduct research using scientific literature as a result of participating in the exercise.

  11. Coupling centrality and authority of co-processing model on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhanli; Li, Huibin

    2016-04-01

    Coupling centrality and authority of co-processing model on complex networks are investigated in this paper. As one crucial factor to determine the processing ability of nodes, the information flow with potential time lag is modeled by co-processing diffusion which couples the continuous time processing and the discrete diffusing dynamics. Exact results on master equation and stationary state are obtained to disclose the formation. Considering the influence of a node to the global dynamical behavior, coupling centrality and authority are introduced for each node, which determine the relative importance and authority of nodes in the diffusion process. Furthermore, the experimental results on large-scale complex networks confirm our analytical prediction.

  12. The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis for Central Processing of Autonomic Function

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Karin; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is of paramount importance for daily life. Its regulatory action on respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, and many other systems is controlled by a number of structures in the CNS. While the majority of these nuclei and cortices have been identified in animal models, neuroimaging studies have recently begun to shed light on central autonomic processing in humans. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation to conduct a meta-analysis of human neuroimaging experiments evaluating central autonomic processing to localize (1) cortical and subcortical areas involved in autonomic processing, (2) potential subsystems for the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS, and (3) potential subsystems for specific ANS responses to different stimuli/tasks. Across all tasks, we identified a set of consistently activated brain regions, comprising left amygdala, right anterior and left posterior insula and midcingulate cortices that form the core of the central autonomic network. While sympathetic-associated regions predominate in executive- and salience-processing networks, parasympathetic regions predominate in the default mode network. Hence, central processing of autonomic function does not simply involve a monolithic network of brain regions, instead showing elements of task and division specificity. PMID:23785162

  13. Evidence for central sensitization in patients with osteoarthritis pain: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Lluch, E; Torres, R; Nijs, J; Van Oosterwijck, J

    2014-11-01

    Hyperexcitability of the central nervous system (CNS) has been suggested to play an important role in the chronic pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients. A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was performed to evaluate the existing evidence from the literature related to the presence of central sensitization (CS) in patients with OA.Electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant articles using pre-defined keywords regarding CS and OA. Full-text clinical reports addressing studies of CS in human adults with chronic complaints due to osteoarthritis were included and screened for methodological quality by two independent reviewers. From the 40 articles that were initially eligible for methodological quality assessment, 36 articles achieved sufficient scores and therefore were discussed. The majority of these studies were case-control studies and addressed OA of the knee joint. Different subjective and objective parameters considered manifestations of CS, which have been previously reported in other chronic pain conditions such as whiplash or rheumatoid arthritis, were established in subjects with OA pain. Overall results suggest that, although peripheral mechanisms are involved in OA pain, hypersensitivity of the CNS plays a significant role in a subgroup of subjects within this population. Although the majority of the literature provides evidence for the presence of CS in chronic OA pain, clinical identification and treatment of CS in OA is still in its infancy, and future studies with good methodological quality are necessary. PMID:24700605

  14. Review of Solids Handling. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit which summarizes and reviews most of the solids handling processes in common use in municipal treatment plants. No attempt is made to detail the theory and operation of the processes. Topics discussed include: (1) sources of sludge; (2) the importance of sludge management;…

  15. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Procedures for Approval of Construction § 1304.4 Application review and approval process. (a)...

  16. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Procedures for Approval of Construction § 1304.4 Application review and approval process. (a)...

  17. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Procedures for Approval of Construction § 1304.4 Application review and approval process. (a)...

  18. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Procedures for Approval of Construction § 1304.4 Application review and approval process. (a)...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Procedures for Approval of Construction § 1304.4 Application review and approval process. (a)...

  20. Test Review: Process Assessment of the Learner-Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.; Martinez, Andrew; Turner, Terez L.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Process Assessment of the Learner-Second Edition" (PAL-II), an individual or group-administered instrument designed to assess the cognitive processes involved in academic tasks in kindergarten through sixth grade. The instrument allows the examiner to identify reasons for underachievement and connect these…

  1. NASA/MSFC FY-83 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The atmospheric processes research program was reviewed. Research tasks sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth Sciences and Applications Division in the areas of upper atmosphere, global weather, and mesoscale processes are discussed. The are: the research project summaries, together with the agenda and other information about the meeting.

  2. A Review of Literature: Training and the Change Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, Maurice

    This document is a review of literature on the educational change process; it is designed to detail the role of training in the process of dissemination in a changing climate of education. To do this, it gives attention to defining educational change. The document is divided into five chapters. Chapter one, entitled "Defining the Change…

  3. Targeting Academic Success: An Interdisciplinary Assessment Program for Children with Central Auditory Processing Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Kathleen M.; Mauer, Daria M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of interdisciplinary assessment procedures and criteria for diagnosis of central auditory processing (CAP) disorders. It describes use of a CAP test battery consisting of four measures with results integrated with a comprehensive speech-language pathology assessment. Practical strategies for classroom utilization…

  4. A Systematic Approach to Process Evaluation in the Central Oklahoma Turning Point (COTP) Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Cheney, Marshall K.; Chrislip, David D.; Blankenship, Derek; Troup, Pam; Hann, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Formation is an important stage of partnership development. Purpose: To describe the systematic approach to process evaluation of a Turning Point initiative in central Oklahoma during the formation stage. The nine-month collaborative effort aimed to develop an action plan to promote health. Methods: A sound planning framework was used in the…

  5. The Psychological Refractory Period: Central Capacity versus Modularity as Related to the Processing of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Vikki Kendrick; And Others

    This study compared the central capacity and the modularity models for explaining language processing in kindergarten children. Using a microcomputer, 19 kindergarten children completed a visual letter-matching task that required a manual response. An auditory tone was emitted by the computer in a separate trial also requiring a press. For the…

  6. Exploration of Teachers' Awareness and Knowledge of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder ((C)APD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Anita; Logue-Kennedy, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore primary school teachers' awareness and knowledge of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder ((C)APD). Teachers' awareness and knowledge are crucial for initial recognition and appropriate referral of children suspected of having (C)APD. When a child is diagnosed with (C)APD, teachers have a role in…

  7. Readability of Questionnaires Assessing Listening Difficulties Associated with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…

  8. Peripherally inserted central venous catheter safety in burn care: a single-center retrospective cohort review.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ryan E; Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Bolourani, Siavash; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    The use of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line for central venous access in thermally injured patients has increased in recent years despite a lack of evidence regarding safety in this patient population. A recent survey of invasive catheter practices among 44 burn centers in the United States found that 37% of burn units use PICC lines as part of their treatment protocol. The goal of this study was to compare PICC-associated complication rates with the existing literature in both the critical care and burn settings. The methodology involved is a single institution retrospective cohort review of patients who received a PICC line during admission to a regional burn unit between 2008 and 2013. Fifty-three patients were identified with a total of seventy-three PICC lines. The primary outcome measurement for this study was indication for PICC line discontinuation. The most common reason for PICC line discontinuation was that the line was no longer indicated (45.2%). Four cases of symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (5.5%) and three cases of central line-associated bloodstream infection (4.3%, 2.72 infections per 1000 line days) were identified. PICC lines were in situ an average of 15 days (range 1 to 49 days). We suggest that PICC line-associated complication rates are similar to those published in the critical care literature. Though these rates are higher than those published in the burn literature, they are similar to central venous catheter-associated complication rates. While PICC lines can be a useful resource in the treatment of the thermally injured patient, they are associated with significant and potentially fatal risks. PMID:25501778

  9. Traditional use of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine has remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system of resource poor communities in Zimbabwe. The local people have a long history of traditional plant usage for medicinal purposes. Despite the increasing acceptance of traditional medicine in Zimbabwe, this rich indigenous knowledge is not adequately documented. Documentation of plants used as traditional medicines is needed so that the knowledge can be preserved and the utilized plants conserved and used sustainably. The primary objective of this paper is to summarize information on traditional uses of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe, identifying research gaps and suggesting perspectives for future research. Methods This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional and international organizations, theses, conference papers and other grey materials. Results A total of 93 medicinal plant species representing 41 families and 77 genera are used in south-central Zimbabwe. These plant species are used to treat 18 diseases and disorder categories, with the highest number of species used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by sexually transmitted infections, cold, cough and sore throat and gynaecological problems. Shrubs and trees (38% each) were the primary sources of medicinal plants, followed by herbs (21%) and climbers (3%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants documented in south-central Zimbabwe are well supported by literature, with 82.8% of the plant species having similar applications in other regions of Zimbabwe as well as other parts of the world and 89.2% having documented biological and pharmacological properties. Conclusion This study illustrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment and management of human diseases and ailments in south-central Zimbabwe. Traditional medicines still play an important

  10. HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Donoghoe, Martin; Wilson, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV prevalence among PWID and a synthesis of key resources describing the response to HIV in this population. We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases to collect original research papers addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID since 2005. We summarised the extent of key harm reduction interventions, and using a simple index of ‘enabling’ environment described the policy environments in which they are implemented. Studies reviewed Of the 5644 research papers identified from electronic databases and 40 documents collected from our grey literature search, 70 documents provided unique estimates of HIV and 14 provided multivariate risk factors for HIV among PWID. Results HIV prevalence varies widely, with generally low or medium (<5%) prevalence in Central Europe and high (>10%) prevalence in Eastern Europe. We found evidence for a number of structural factors associated with HIV including gender, socio-economic position and contact with law enforcement agencies. Conclusions The HIV epidemic among PWID in the region is varied, with the greatest burden generally in Eastern Europe. Data suggest that the current response to HIV among PWID is insufficient, and hindered by multiple environmental barriers including restricted access to services and unsupportive policy or social environments. PMID:23087014

  11. Use of Trial Register Information during the Peer Review Process

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Sylvain; Chan, An-Wen; Ravaud, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evidence in the medical literature suggests that trial registration may not be preventing selective reporting of results. We wondered about the place of such information in the peer-review process. Method We asked 1,503 corresponding authors of clinical trials and 1,733 reviewers to complete an online survey soliciting their views on the use of trial registry information during the peer-review process. Results 1,136 authors (n = 713) and reviewers (n = 423) responded (37.5%); 676 (59.5%) had reviewed an article reporting a clinical trial in the past 2 years. Among these, 232 (34.3%) examined information registered on a trial registry. If one or more items (primary outcome, eligibility criteria, etc.) differed between the registry record and the manuscript, 206 (88.8%) mentioned the discrepancy in their review comments, 46 (19.8%) advised editors not to accept the manuscript, and 8 did nothing. The reviewers' reasons for not using the trial registry information included a lack of registration number in the manuscript (n = 132; 34.2%), lack of time (n = 128; 33.2%), lack of usefulness of registered information for peer review (n = 100; 25.9%), lack of awareness about registries (n = 54; 14%), and excessive complexity of the process (n = 39; 10.1%). Conclusion This survey revealed that only one-third of the peer reviewers surveyed examined registered trial information and reported any discrepancies to journal editors. PMID:23593154

  12. An Improved Effective Cost Review Process for Value Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Joo, D. S.; Park, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    Second-look value engineering (VE) is an approach that aims to lower the costs of products for which target costs are not being met during the production stage. Participants in second-look VE typically come up with a variety of ideas for cost cutting, but the outcomes often depend on their levels of experience, and not many good alternatives are available during the production stage. Nonetheless, good ideas have been consistently generated by VE experts. This paper investigates past second-look VE cases and the thinking processes of VE experts and proposes a cost review process as a systematic means of investigating cost-cutting ideas. This cost review process includes the use of an idea checklist and a specification review process. In addition to presenting the process, this paper reports on its feasibility, based on its introduction into a VE training course as part of a pilot study. The results indicate that the cost review process is effective in generating ideas for later analysis. PMID:25580459

  13. Central Gain Restores Auditory Processing following Near-Complete Cochlear Denervation.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Anna R; Resnik, Jennifer; Yuan, Yasheng; Whitton, Jonathon P; Edge, Albert S; Liberman, M Charles; Polley, Daniel B

    2016-02-17

    Sensory organ damage induces a host of cellular and physiological changes in the periphery and the brain. Here, we show that some aspects of auditory processing recover after profound cochlear denervation due to a progressive, compensatory plasticity at higher stages of the central auditory pathway. Lesioning >95% of cochlear nerve afferent synapses, while sparing hair cells, in adult mice virtually eliminated the auditory brainstem response and acoustic startle reflex, yet tone detection behavior was nearly normal. As sound-evoked responses from the auditory nerve grew progressively weaker following denervation, sound-evoked activity in the cortex-and, to a lesser extent, the midbrain-rebounded or surpassed control levels. Increased central gain supported the recovery of rudimentary sound features encoded by firing rate, but not features encoded by precise spike timing such as modulated noise or speech. These findings underscore the importance of central plasticity in the perceptual sequelae of cochlear hearing impairment. PMID:26833137

  14. Role of spinal cord glia in the central processing of peripheral pain perception

    PubMed Central

    Bradesi, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Background The discovery that glial activation plays a critical role in the modulation of neuronal functions and affects the spinal processing of nociceptive signalling has brought new understanding on the mechanisms underlying central sensitization involved in chronic pain facilitation. Spinal glial activation is now considered an important component in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia in various models of chronic pain, including neuropathic pain and pain associated with peripheral inflammation. In addition, spinal glial activation is also involved in some forms of visceral hyperalgesia. Purpose We discuss the signalling pathways engaged in central glial activation, including stress pathways, and the neuron-glia bidirectional relationships involved in the modulation of synaptic activity and pain facilitation. In this expanding field of research, the characterization of the mechanisms by which glia affect spinal neuro-transmission will increase our understanding of central pain facilitation, and has the potential for the development of new therapeutic agents for common chronic pain conditions. PMID:20236247

  15. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  16. Examining the Central and Peripheral Processes of Written Word Production Through Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Jeremy J.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Eden, Guinevere F.; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Producing written words requires “central” cognitive processes (such as orthographic long-term and working memory) as well as more peripheral processes responsible for generating the motor actions needed for producing written words in a variety of formats (handwriting, typing, etc.). In recent years, various functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates underlying the central and peripheral processes of written word production. This study provides the first quantitative meta-analysis of these studies by applying activation likelihood estimation (ALE) methods (Turkeltaub et al., 2002). For alphabet languages, we identified 11 studies (with a total of 17 experimental contrasts) that had been designed to isolate central and/or peripheral processes of word spelling (total number of participants = 146). Three ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the complete set of 17 contrasts; two others were applied to subsets of contrasts to distinguish the neural substrates of central from peripheral processes. These analyses identified a network of brain regions reliably associated with the central and peripheral processes of word spelling. Among the many significant results, is the finding that the regions with the greatest correspondence across studies were in the left inferior temporal/fusiform gyri and left inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, although the angular gyrus (AG) has traditionally been identified as a key site within the written word production network, none of the meta-analyses found it to be a consistent site of activation, identifying instead a region just superior/medial to the left AG in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus. These meta-analyses and the discussion of results provide a valuable foundation upon which future studies that examine the neural basis of written word production can build. PMID:22013427

  17. Spatiotemporal processing of linear acceleration: primary afferent and central vestibular neuron responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Spatiotemporal convergence and two-dimensional (2-D) neural tuning have been proposed as a major neural mechanism in the signal processing of linear acceleration. To examine this hypothesis, we studied the firing properties of primary otolith afferents and central otolith neurons that respond exclusively to horizontal linear accelerations of the head (0.16-10 Hz) in alert rhesus monkeys. Unlike primary afferents, the majority of central otolith neurons exhibited 2-D spatial tuning to linear acceleration. As a result, central otolith dynamics vary as a function of movement direction. During movement along the maximum sensitivity direction, the dynamics of all central otolith neurons differed significantly from those observed for the primary afferent population. Specifically at low frequencies (central otolith neurons peaked in phase with linear velocity, in contrast to primary afferents that peaked in phase with linear acceleration. At least three different groups of central response dynamics were described according to the properties observed for motion along the maximum sensitivity direction. "High-pass" neurons exhibited increasing gains and phase values as a function of frequency. "Flat" neurons were characterized by relatively flat gains and constant phase lags (approximately 20-55 degrees ). A few neurons ("low-pass") were characterized by decreasing gain and phase as a function of frequency. The response dynamics of central otolith neurons suggest that the approximately 90 degrees phase lags observed at low frequencies are not the result of a neural integration but rather the effect of nonminimum phase behavior, which could arise at least partly through spatiotemporal convergence. Neither afferent nor central otolith neurons discriminated between gravitational and inertial components of linear acceleration. Thus response sensitivity was indistinguishable during 0.5-Hz pitch oscillations and fore-aft movements

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: High-temperature microwave processing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Yu V.; Rybakov, K. I.; Semenov, V. E.

    2001-07-01

    This article reviews the physical aspects of a cross-disciplinary science and technology field: the microwave processing of materials. High-temperature microwave processing has a clear industrial perspective in such areas as the production of advanced ceramics, the deposition of thermal barrier coatings, the remediation of hazardous wastes etc. This review starts with the relevant fundamental notions regarding the absorption of electromagnetic waves, heat transfer and the electrodynamics of single- and multimode microwave cavities. Useful formulae, estimates, and interrelations between process variables are presented. This is followed by a review of process examples illustrating the specific features of microwave processing: reduction in energy consumption and process duration, rapid and controllable heating, peculiar temperature distribution, and selectivity of energy deposition. Much attention is given to the advantages of higher-frequency millimetre-wave processing, which include the enhanced absorption in many materials of industrial interest, improved uniformity of electromagnetic energy and temperature, and the possibility of surface treatment. The phenomenon of microwave process rate enhancement is addressed in connection with the problem of the non-thermal microwave effect on mass transport in solids. Both experimental and theoretical approaches to the identification of the mechanism responsible for this effect are illustrated. Finally, the physical and technical factors influencing microwave technology scaleup and transfer to industry are discussed.

  19. How "Central" Is Central Coherence?: Preliminary Evidence on the Link between Conceptual and Perceptual Processing in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Beatriz; Leekam, Susan R.; Arts, Gerda R. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to test the assumption drawn from weak central coherence theory that a central cognitive mechanism is responsible for integrating information at both conceptual and perceptual levels. A visual semantic memory task and a face recognition task measuring use of holistic information were administered to 15 children with autism and 16…

  20. Pediatric central auditory processing disorder showing elevated threshold on pure tone audiogram.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yukihide; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nagayasu, Rie; Sugaya, Akiko; Omichi, Ryotaro; Kariya, Shin; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a condition in which dysfunction in the central auditory system causes difficulty in listening to conversations, particularly under noisy conditions, despite normal peripheral auditory function. Central auditory testing is generally performed in patients with normal hearing on the pure tone audiogram (PTA). This report shows that diagnosis of CAPD is possible even in the presence of an elevated threshold on the PTA, provided that the normal function of the peripheral auditory pathway was verified by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), auditory brainstem response (ABR), and auditory steady state response (ASSR). Three pediatric cases (9- and 10-year-old girls and an 8-year-old boy) of CAPD with elevated thresholds on PTAs are presented. The chief complaint was difficulty in listening to conversations. PTA showed elevated thresholds, but the responses and thresholds for DPOAE, ABR, and ASSR were normal, showing that peripheral auditory function was normal. Significant findings of central auditory testing such as dichotic speech tests, time compression of speech signals, and binaural interaction tests confirmed the diagnosis of CAPD. These threshold shifts in PTA may provide a new concept of a clinical symptom due to central auditory dysfunction in CAPD. PMID:26922127

  1. Process monitoring for reprocessing plant safeguards: a summary review

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.

    1986-10-01

    Process monitoring is a term typically associated with a detailed look at plant operating data to determine plant status. Process monitoring has been generally associated with operational control of plant processes. Recently, process monitoring has been given new attention for a possible role in international safeguards. International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) Task C.59 has the goal to identify specific roles for process monitoring in international safeguards. As the preliminary effort associated with this task, a review of previous efforts in process monitoring for safeguards was conducted. Previous efforts mentioned concepts and a few specific applications. None were comprehensive in addressing all aspects of a process monitoring application for safeguards. This report summarizes the basic elements that must be developed in a comprehensive process monitoring application for safeguards. It then summarizes the significant efforts that have been documented in the literature with respect to the basic elements that were addressed.

  2. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL), and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.). Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594)=1.33; P=0.18). The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks. PMID:27354760

  3. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens.

    PubMed

    Packer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL), and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.). Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594)=1.33; P=0.18). The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks. PMID:27354760

  4. The spectrum of primary blastomycotic meningitis: a review of central nervous system blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Gonyea, E F

    1978-01-01

    Three cases of meningitis with initial and exclusive neurological involvement prompted a review of the clinical, cerebrospinal fluid, and pathological findings in an additional 78 patients with central nervous system blastomycosis. The first patient of the 3 had progressive cerebellar dysfunction as the result of chronic basilar meningitis. The second had a C8-T1 radiculopathy without other evidence of superior sulcus syndrome, and subsequent acute fatal meningitis. The third had aseptic, benign, self-limited meningitis followed by clinically obvious systemic blastomycosis. Diagnosis is difficult, and it is likely that other cases have been presumptively treated for tuberculous meningitis. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis is proposed that takes into account the condition of the patient, the likelihood of dissemination at necropsy, and the frequent meningeal infections that are negative on culture of lumbar CSF. PMID:655652

  5. Potential Roles of Adropin in Central Nervous System: Review of Current Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shahjouei, Shima; Ansari, Saeed; Pourmotabbed, Tayebeh; Zand, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Adropin is a 4.9 kDa peptide that is important for maintenance of metabolic and non-metabolic homeostasis. It regulates glucose and fatty acid metabolism and is involved in endothelial cell function and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase bioactivity as well as physical activity and motor coordination. Adropin is expressed in many tissues and organs including central nervous system (CNS). This peptide plays a crucial role in the development of various CNS disorders such as stroke, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder as well as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. In this comprehensive review, the potential roles of adropin in cellular signaling pathways that lead to pathogenesis and/or treatment of CNS disorders will be discussed. PMID:27446928

  6. Review of HIV Vulnerability and Condom Use in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological trend of increasing HIV incidence rates due to sexual transmission in Central and Eastern Europe has been documented. The current review analyzed research articles that report on a wide spectrum of vulnerable populations from this world region. Studies of injection drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, adolescents and young adults all reported inconsistent condom use. However, these patterns varied across populations and geographic areas. Populations in former Soviet countries—most affected by HIV—also often appeared to have lower condom use rates. Intensified, comprehensive, and locally-tailored measures to curb sexual HIV transmission are urgently needed. Social development programs need to incorporate HIV prevention. PMID:22348631

  7. A review of Central European methods for the biological estimation of water pollution levels*

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Hartmut

    1963-01-01

    With the increasing amount and variety of pollution of surface and other waters in the modern world, there is an increasing need for simple, rapid and reliable methods for assessing the degree of purity or contamination of water. Partly for historical reasons, chemical methods have been used more widely than biological ones, although the latter possess certain advantages not shared by the former. Much important work on the biological assessment of water pollution has been done in Central Europe, and the author of this paper reviews the more significant of the modern methods evolved there. Some are ecological, some physiological; and certain of them merit consideration as standardizable procedures, applicable over a wider range of waters than those for which they were developed. To this end it will be necessary to conduct carefully controlled field trials under varying climatic and other conditions. PMID:14058231

  8. Potential Roles of Adropin in Central Nervous System: Review of Current Literature.

    PubMed

    Shahjouei, Shima; Ansari, Saeed; Pourmotabbed, Tayebeh; Zand, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Adropin is a 4.9 kDa peptide that is important for maintenance of metabolic and non-metabolic homeostasis. It regulates glucose and fatty acid metabolism and is involved in endothelial cell function and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase bioactivity as well as physical activity and motor coordination. Adropin is expressed in many tissues and organs including central nervous system (CNS). This peptide plays a crucial role in the development of various CNS disorders such as stroke, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder as well as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. In this comprehensive review, the potential roles of adropin in cellular signaling pathways that lead to pathogenesis and/or treatment of CNS disorders will be discussed. PMID:27446928

  9. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales. PMID:26148991

  10. A multi-criteria assessment of scenarios on thermal processing of infectious hospital wastes: A case study for Central Macedonia

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannidis, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Perkoulidis, G.; Sanida, G.; Samaras, P.

    2010-02-15

    In Greece more than 14,000 tonnes of infectious hospital waste are produced yearly; a significant part of it is still mismanaged. Only one off-site licensed incineration facility for hospital wastes is in operation, with the remaining of the market covered by various hydroclave and autoclave units, whereas numerous problems are still generally encountered regarding waste segregation, collection, transportation and management, as well as often excessive entailed costs. Everyday practices still include dumping the majority of solid hospital waste into household disposal sites and landfills after sterilization, still largely without any preceding recycling and separation steps. Discussed in the present paper are the implemented and future treatment practices of infectious hospital wastes in Central Macedonia; produced quantities are reviewed, actual treatment costs are addressed critically, whereas the overall situation in Greece is discussed. Moreover, thermal treatment processes that could be applied for the treatment of infectious hospital wastes in the region are assessed via the multi-criteria decision method Analytic Hierarchy Process. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed and the analysis demonstrated that a centralized autoclave or hydroclave plant near Thessaloniki is the best performing option, depending however on the selection and weighing of criteria of the multi-criteria process. Moreover the study found that a common treatment option for the treatment of all infectious hospital wastes produced in the Region of Central Macedonia, could offer cost and environmental benefits. In general the multi-criteria decision method, as well as the conclusions and remarks of this study can be used as a basis for future planning and anticipation of the needs for investments in the area of medical waste management.

  11. An Assessment of the Human Subjects Protection Review Process for Exempt Research.

    PubMed

    Loe, Jonathan D; Winkelman, D Alex; Robertson, Christopher T

    2016-09-01

    Medical and public health research includes surveys, interviews, and biospecimens - techniques that do not present substantial risks to subjects. Consequently, this research is exempt from regulation under the Federal Common Rule. Nevertheless, at many institutions, exempt research is frequently subject to the same regulatory process that is required for non-exempt research, requiring the consumption of time and resources for review by Institutional Review Board members or staff. The federal government has indicated an intention to reform and centralize this system, but has not yet specified the form that it will use instead. By examining the policies of the top 50 research institutions, this article assesses institutional practices surrounding exempt research, quantifies the extent of exempt-research review requirements, documents a problem of "over-compliance," and makes recommendations for reform. PMID:27587452

  12. Second-Generation central venous catheter in the prevention of bloodstream infection: a systematic review 1

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Janislei Gislei Dorociaki; Hoers, Hellen; Pott, Franciele Soares; Crozeta, Karla; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Meier, Marineli Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness and safety in the use of second-generation central venous catheters impregnated in clorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine when compared with other catheters, being them impregnated or not, in order to prevent the bloodstream infection prevention. Method: systematic review with meta-analysis. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; search in Congress Proceedings and records from Clinical Trials. Results: 1.235 studies were identified, 97 were pre-selected and 4 were included. In catheter-related bloodstream infection, there was no statistical significance between second-generation impregnated catheter compared with the non-impregnated ones, absolute relative risk 1,5% confidence interval 95% (3%-1%), relative risk 0,68 (confidence interval 95%, 0,40-1,15) and number needed to treat 66. In the sensitivity analysis, there was less bloodstream infection in impregnated catheters (relative risk 0,50, confidence interval 95%, 0,26-0,96). Lower colonization, absolute relative risk 9,6% (confidence interval 95%, 10% to 4%), relative risk 0,51 (confidence interval 95% from 0,38-0,85) and number needed to treat 5. Conclusion: the use of second-generation catheters was effective in reducing the catheter colonization and infection when a sensitivity analysis is performed. Future clinical trials are suggested to evaluate sepsis rates, mortality and adverse effects. PMID:27508901

  13. A Review on Mathematical Modeling for Textile Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, R.

    2015-10-01

    Mathematical model is a powerful tool in engineering for studying variety of problems related to design and development of products and processes, optimization of manufacturing process, understanding a phenomenon and predicting product's behaviour in actual use. An insight of the process and use of appropriate mathematical tools are necessary for developing models. In the present paper, a review of types of model, procedure followed in developing them and their limitations have been discussed. Modeling techniques being used in few textile processes available in the literature have been cited as examples.

  14. Understanding Earthquake Processes in the Central and Eastern US and Implications for Nuclear Reactor Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, D.; Tabatabai, S.

    2012-12-01

    All of the early site permits and new reactor licensing applications, which have been submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), are located in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). Furthermore, among the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) already licensed to operate in the US, 96 are located in the CEUS. While there are many considerations in siting commercial NPPs, the perceived lower seismic hazard in the CEUS compared to the Western United States is one of the reasons why the majority of operating and potential future nuclear reactors are located in the CEUS. However, one important criterion used in the licensing and safe operation of a nuclear power plant is its seismic design basis, which establishes the plant's ability to withstand ground motions produced by moderate- to large-sized earthquakes without suffering any damage to its critical safety related structures, systems, and components. The seismic design basis for a NPP is site specific and determined using up-to-date knowledge and information about seismic sources surrounding the site and seismic wave propagation characteristics. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the processes generating earthquakes (tectonic or man-made) and the seismic wave propagation characteristics in the CEUS is crucial. The U.S. NRC's seismic review process for evaluating new reactor siting applications heavily relies upon up-to-date scientific knowledge of seismic sources within at least 320 km of a proposed site. However, the availability of up-to-date knowledge and information about potential seismic sources in low-seismicity regions is limited and relevant data are sparse. Recently, the NRC participated in a joint effort to develop new seismic source models to be used in the CEUS seismic hazard studies for nuclear facilities. In addition, efforts are underway to better understand the seismic potential of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone. While very large and successful scientific

  15. The influence of central review on outcome in malignant gliomas of the spinal cord: the CCG-945 experience.

    PubMed

    Bouffet, Eric; Allen, Jeffrey C; Boyett, James M; Yates, Allen; Gilles, Floyd; Burger, Peter C; Davis, Richard L; Becker, Laurence E; Pollack, Ian F; Finlay, Jonathan L

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT The impact of central pathology review on outcome has been described in pediatric patients with high-grade glioma (HGG). The objective of this report was to analyze the impact of the central pathology review on outcome in the subgroup of patients with institutional diagnosis of HGG of the spinal cord enrolled in the Children's Cancer Group 945 cooperative study. METHODS Five neuropathologists centrally reviewed the pathology of the 18 patients with HGG of the spinal cord who were enrolled in the study. These reviews were independent, and reviewers were blinded to clinical history and outcomes. A consensus diagnosis was established for each patient, based on the outcome of the review. RESULTS Of 18 patients, only 10 were confirmed to have HGG on central review. At a median follow-up of 12 years, event-free and overall survival for all 18 patients was 43.2% ± 13.3% and 50% ± 13.4%, respectively. After central review, 10-year event-free and overall survival for confirmed HGGs and discordant diagnoses was 30% ± 12.5% versus 58.3% ± 18.8% (p = 0.108) and 30% ± 12.5% versus 75% ± 14.2% (p = 0.0757), respectively. CONCLUSIONS The level of discordant diagnoses in children and adolescents with institutional diagnosis of HGG of the spinal cord was 44% in this experience. However, there was no significant difference in outcome between patients with confirmed and discordant diagnosis. This group of tumor deserves a specific attention in future trials. PMID:26684767

  16. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  17. Communications, Signal Processing, and Telemetering Research Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Communications, Signal Processing, and Telemetering Research Program Review was held on February 23, 1999. Research conducted under the grant was presented and reviewed, for progress, and for possible technology transfers. The research reviewed was in the following areas: (1) Bandwidth-efficient Modulation and nonlinear equalization; (2) Investigation of an architecture for parallel signal processing applicable to communications problems; (3)Coded partial response over satellites; (4) synchronization at Low SNR; (5) Serial concatenated convolutional codes and some implementation issues on high rate turbo codes; (6) Flight experiments; (7) Real time doppler tracking; (8) Space protocol testing; (9) Lightweight optical communications without carrying a laser in space. The presentations are given by the graduate students who performed the research.

  18. Design Review of the D0 Central Calorimeter Module Assembly to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, M.; ,

    1987-11-01

    The D-Zero Central Calorimeter Module Assembly is a segmented ring structure consisting of an assemblage of trapezoidal modules. It is housed inside a vessel containing liquid argon. The modules contain specialized equipment for use in particle physics experiments. The design review of the D-Zero Central Calorimeter Module Assembly evaluated all major structural elements for adequacy for their design loads. They were evaluated in accordance with applicable specifications from Reference 1. The allowable stresses of the Specifications provide an approximate safety factor of 2.0 or more on failure and 1.67 on serviceability of the structure. This margin is typical of buildings, bridges, and other large structures executed in steel. To the extent that calculated stresses are less than the allowable stresses, the margin is proportionately greater. For additional conservatism to account for inherent uncertainties in estimating design loads, an arbitrary load factor of 1.25 was also applied. Design loads were calculated for deadwe1ghted plus thermal expansion, neglecting the effects of friction, and for deadweight only, considering postulated effects of friction. All of the major structural elements were found to be provisionally acceptable for their intended service and the predicted design loads. The provisions are as follows: (1) That the connect pins be fabricated of Inconel 718 or functional equivalent, instead of the originally specified Type 304 stainless steel; and (2) That conditions on bearing surfaces be modified to effectively reduce the potential coefficient of friction. The affected bearing interfaces include those between the CH, FH, and EM rings, and between the CH ring and its support members. The D-Zero Central Calorimeter Module Assembly is a segmented ring structure consisting of an assemblage of trapezoidal modules. It is housed inside a vessel containing liquid argon. The modules contain specialized equipment for use in particle physics experiments

  19. Review of Solids Handling. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    This unit (which consists of a single lesson) summarizes and reviews most of the solids handling processes in common use in municipal treatment plants. The instructor's guide for the unit includes: (1) an overview of the lesson; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of 72 slides); (4) student worksheet (with answers); and (5) two…

  20. The Composing Process: A Critical Review of Some Recent Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crismore, Avon

    Six of the 10 existing research studies that attempt to characterize the composing process by examining certain components and behaviors are critically reviewed in this paper. For each study, the aims and data gathering and sampling procedures are described, and the findings, interpretations, design, and rationale of the research are critically…

  1. A Peer Review Process for Games and Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Bride

    2008-01-01

    A peer-review process for assessing the contribution of artifacts, such as games and software to research, is proposed. Games and software produced as research output by academics tend to be accredited within their institution through discussion of the artifact, rather than directly. An independent judgment by peers confirming an artifact's…

  2. Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Ellen; Visser-Bochane, Margot I.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Dijk, Pim; van der Schans, Cees P.; Luinge, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit specific to the auditory modality or as a…

  3. The Process of Technological Innovation: Reviewing the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This review of literature concerned with technological innovation and innovation process research is divided into five general parts. Part I defines basic concepts and terms and outlines major analytical themes. Part II develops the individual and organizational dimensions within which innovative activities take place. In Part III, the sequence of…

  4. 15 CFR 930.93 - Intergovernmental review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intergovernmental review process. 930.93 Section 930.93 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND...

  5. Understanding the Manuscript Review Process: Increasing the Participation of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Nancy Felipe; And Others

    For the process leading to the publication of one's professional work to be equitable, all authors must understand why and how publication decisions are made. Psychologists must understand how editors and reviewers look at manuscripts, and how the author's own attitudes and skills may affect the acceptance of manuscripts. These four papers are…

  6. Review of "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoliar, Stephen W.

    This review of the book, "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine," by John F. Sowa, argues that anyone who plans to get involved with issues of knowledge representation should have at least a passing acquaintance with Sowa's conceptual graphs for a database interface. (Used to model the underlying semantics of a…

  7. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review and appeal process. 17.904 Section 17.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects §...

  8. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Review and appeal process. 17.904 Section 17.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects...

  9. Teaching Undergraduates the Process of Peer Review: Learning by Doing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangachari, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    An active approach allowed undergraduates in Health Sciences to learn the dynamics of peer review at first hand. A four-stage process was used. In "stage 1", students formed self-selected groups to explore specific issues. In "stage 2", each group posted their interim reports online on a specific date. Each student read all the other reports and…

  10. 38 CFR 17.276 - Appeal/review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements may be appealed to the Board of Veterans' Appeals in accordance with 38 CFR part 20. Medical determinations are not appealable to the Board. 38 CFR 20.101. ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal/review process....

  11. 38 CFR 17.276 - Appeal/review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements may be appealed to the Board of Veterans' Appeals in accordance with 38 CFR part 20. Medical determinations are not appealable to the Board. 38 CFR 20.101. ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appeal/review process....

  12. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application review and award process. 152.6 Section 152.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... technical evaluation panel. Using the evaluation criteria detailed in the Program Guidance and in the...

  13. Main trends in the biotechnological processing of coals: a review

    SciTech Connect

    I.P. Ivanov

    2007-02-15

    A review of the literature concerning the studies of the biotechnological processing of coal in Russia and abroad is presented. This environmentally safe technology is demonstrated to be promising for the conversion of solid fossil fuels into valuable fuel and chemical products. 73 refs.

  14. 15 CFR 752.8 - SCL application review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SCL application review process. 752.8 Section 752.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.8 SCL...

  15. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Review and appeal process. 17.904 Section 17.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in...

  16. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Review of Current Evidence-based Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Amy; Nguyen, Christine; Lu, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    A central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) can induce an ischemic and hypoxic state with resulting sequelae of macular edema and neovascularization. Many treatment options have been studied. Our review aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of the multiple treatment options of CRVO. A PubMed and Cochrane literature search was performed. Well-controlled randomized clinical trials that demonstrated strong level 1 evidence-based on the rating scale developed by the British Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine were included. Seven clinical trials met inclusion criteria to be included in this review. These included studies that investigated the safety and efficacy of retinal photocoagulation (1 study), intravitreal steroid treatment (2 studies), and antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment (4 studies) for the treatment of CRVO. In addition, studies evaluating surgical treatment options for CRVO were also included. Many treatment modalities have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious in the treatment of CRVO. These treatment options offer therapeutic benefits for patients and clinically superior visual acuity and perhaps the quality of life after suffering from a CRVO. PMID:26957838

  17. Central and Peripheral Fatigue During Resistance Exercise – A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Zając, Adam; Chalimoniuk, Małgorzata; Maszczyk, Adam; Gołaś, Artur; Lngfort, Józef

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise is a popular form of conditioning for numerous sport disciplines, and recently different modes of strength training are being evaluated for health benefits. Resistance exercise differs significantly in nature, and several variables determine the direction and range of adaptive changes that occur in the muscular and skeletal system of the body. Some modes of resistance training can also be effective in stimulating the cardiovascular system. These variables include exercise selection (general, specific, single or multi joint, dynamic, explosive), type of resistance (free weights, variable resistance, isokinetics), order of exercise (upper and lower body or push and pull exercises), and most of all the training load which includes intensity expressed as % of 1RM, number of repetitions, number of sets and the rest interval between sets. Manipulating these variables allows for specific adaptive changes which may include gains in muscle mass, muscle strength or muscle endurance. It has been well established that during resistance exercise fatigue occurs, regardless of the volume and intensity of work applied. The peripheral mechanisms of fatigue have been studied and explained in more detail than those related to the CNS. This review is an attempt to bring together the latest knowledge regarding fatigue, both peripheral and central, during resistance exercise. The authors of this review concentrated on physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying fatigue in exercises performed with maximal intensity, as well as those performed to exhaustion with numerous repetitions and submaximal load. PMID:26839616

  18. Non-invasive neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions: an educational review.

    PubMed

    Schuhfried, Othmar; Crevenna, Richard; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this educational review is to provide an overview of the clinical application of transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the extremities in patients with upper motor neurone lesions. In general two methods of electrical stimulation can be distinguished: (i) therapeutic electrical stimulation, and (ii) functional electrical stimulation. Therapeutic electrical stimulation improves neuromuscular functional condition by strengthening muscles, increasing motor control, reducing spasticity, decreasing pain and increasing range of motion. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation may be used for neuromuscular electrical stimulation inducing repetitive muscle contraction, electromyography-triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation, position-triggered electrical stimulation and subsensory or sensory transcutaneous electric stimulation. Functional electrical stimulation provokes muscle contraction and thereby produces a functionally useful movement during stimulation. In patients with spinal cord injuries or stroke, electrical upper limb neuroprostheses are applied to enhance upper limb and hand function, and electrical lower limb neuroprostheses are applied for restoration of standing and walking. For example, a dropped foot stimulator is used to trigger ankle dorsiflexion to restore gait function. A review of the literature and clinical experience of the use of therapeutic electrical stimulation as well as of functional electrical stimulation in combination with botulinum toxin, exercise therapy and/or splinting are presented. Although the evidence is limited we conclude that neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions can be an effective modality to improve function, and that combination with other treatments has an additive therapeutic effect. PMID:22334346

  19. Altered central nervous system processing of baroreceptor input following hindlimb unloading in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, J. A.; Schadt, J. C.; Hasser, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of cardiovascular deconditioning on central nervous system processing of baroreceptor afferent activity was evaluated following 14 days of hindlimb unloading (HU). Inactin-anesthetized rats were instrumented with catheters, renal sympathetic nerve electrodes, and aortic depressor nerve electrodes for measurement of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and aortic depressor nerve activity (ADNA). Baroreceptor and baroreflex functions were assessed during infusion of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Central processing of baroreceptor afferent input was evaluated by linear regression relating RSNA to ADNA. The maximum baroreflex-elicited increase in RSNA was significantly reduced in HU rats (122 +/- 3.8 vs. 144 +/- 4.9% of baseline RSNA), whereas ADNA was not altered. The slope (-0.18 +/- 0.04 vs. -0.40 +/- 0.04) and y-intercept (121 +/- 3.2 vs. 146 +/- 4.3) of the linear regression relating increases in efferent RSNA to decreases in afferent ADNA during hypotension were significantly reduced in HU rats. There were no differences during increases in arterial pressure. Results demonstrate that the attenuation in baroreflex-mediated increases in RSNA following HU is due to changes in central processing of baroreceptor afferent information rather than aortic baroreceptor function.

  20. Symptomatic Central Venous Stenosis in a Hemodialysis Patient Leading to Loss of Arteriovenous Access: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tatapudi, Vasishta S.; Spinowitz, Noam; Goldfarb, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Central venous stenosis is a well-described sequel to the placement of hemodialysis catheters in the central venous system. The presence of an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula or graft often leads to severe venous dilatation, arm edema and recurrent infections. Vascular access thrombosis, compromised blood flow and inadequate dialysis delivery are dreaded complications that eventually render the access unusable. We report the case of a 58-year-old male hemodialysis patient who developed symptomatic central venous stenosis to illustrate the problem and review the pertinent literature. This patient developed severe enlargement of upper extremity veins due to central venous stenosis. The symptoms were refractory to multiple endovascular interventions and eventually necessitated ligation of his arteriovenous fistula. Central venous stenosis remains a pervasive problem despite advances in our understanding of its etiology and recognition of the enormity of its consequences. Due to the lack of effective therapeutic options, prevention is better than cure. PMID:24803921

  1. [Diagnostic studies in the planning process of human resources: the Central American experience].

    PubMed

    de Canales, F; Martínez Chopen, O; Tercero Talavera, I; González, G

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors analyze various aspects of one of the essential stages in the process of planning human resources--diagnostic studies and research which will serve as a starting point. They stress the role of diagnostic personnel studies in formulating human resources policies and planning, and describe the phases to be followed in their execution, according to the results obtained in the three Central American countries (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) in which the studies were completed. The paper concludes with a summary of the process in the three countries. PMID:3451871

  2. Central Data Processing System (CDPS) user's manual: Solar heating and cooling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The software and data base management system required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at multiple sites is presented. The instrumentation data associated with these systems is collected, processed, and presented in a form which supported continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. The CDPS consisted of three major elements: communication interface computer, central data processing computer, and performance evaluation data base. Users of the performance data base were identified, and procedures for operation, and guidelines for software maintenance were outlined. The manual also defined the output capabilities of the CDPS in support of external users of the system.

  3. Results from a National Central Auditory Processing Disorder Service: A Real-World Assessment of Diagnostic Practices and Remediation for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; King, Alison; Gillies, Karin

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a national service to diagnose and remediate central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Data were gathered from 38 participating Australian Hearing centers over an 18-month period from 666 individuals age 6, 0 (years, months) to 24, 8 (median 9, 0). A total of 408 clients were diagnosed with either a spatial processing disorder (n = 130), a verbal memory deficit (n = 174), or a binaural integration deficit (n = 104). A hierarchical test protocol was used so not all children were assessed on all tests in the battery. One hundred fifty clients decided to proceed with deficit-specific training (LiSN & Learn or Memory Booster) and/or be fitted with a frequency modulation system. Families were provided with communication strategies targeted to a child's specific listening difficulties and goals. Outcomes were measured using repeat assessment of the relevant diagnostic test, as well as the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement measure and Listening Inventories for Education teacher questionnaire. Group analyses revealed significant improvements postremediation for all training/management options. Individual posttraining performance and results of outcome measures also are discussed. PMID:27587910

  4. Pelletization processes for pharmaceutical applications: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Politis, Stavros N; Rekkas, Dimitrios M

    2011-01-01

    Pellets exhibit major therapeutic and technical advantages which have established them as an exceptionally useful dosage form. A plethora of processes and materials is available for the production of pellets, which practically allows inexhaustible configurations contributing to the flexibility and versatility of pellets as drug delivery systems. The scope of this review is to summarize the recent literature on pelletization processes for pharmaceutical applications, focusing on the awarded and pending patents in this technical field. The first part of the article provides an overview of innovation in pelletization processes, while the second part evaluates their novel applications. PMID:21143125

  5. The role of central dopamine D3 receptors in drug addiction: a review of pharmacological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Heidbreder, Christian A.; Gardner, Eliot L.; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Mugnaini, Manolo; Hagan, Jim J.; Ashby, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    The cDNA for the dopamine D3 receptor was isolated and characterized in 1990. Subsequent studies have indicated that D3 receptors, as well as D3 receptor mRNA, are primarily localized in limbic regions in mammals. This finding led to the postulate that D3 receptors may be involved in drug dependence and addiction. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to test due to the lack of compounds with high selectivity for central D3 receptors. The interpretation of results from studies using mixed D2/D3 agonists and/or antagonists is problematic because these agents have low selectivity for D3 over D2 receptors and it is likely that their actions are primarily related to D2 receptor antagonism and possibly interaction with other neurotransmitter receptors. Currently, with the synthesis and characterization of new highly selective D3 receptor antagonists such as SB-277011-A this difficulty has been surmounted. The purpose of the present article is to review, for the first time, the effects of various putative D3 receptor selective compounds in animal models of drug dependence and addiction. The results obtained with highly selective D3 receptor antagonists such as SB-277011-A, SB-414796, and NGB-2904 indicate that central D3 receptors may play an important role in drug-induced reward, drug-taking, and cue-, drug-, and stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. Provided these results can be extrapolated to human drug addicts, they suggest that selective DA D3 receptor antagonists may prove effective as potential pharmacotherapeutic agents to manage drug dependence and addiction. PMID:15960988

  6. Central Executive Dysfunction and Deferred Prefrontal Processing in Veterans with Gulf War Illness

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Nicholas A.; Hutchison, Joanna L.; Motes, Michael A.; Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Bennett, Ilana J.; Brigante, Ryan M.; Haley, Robert W.; Rypma, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Gulf War Illness is associated with toxic exposure to cholinergic disruptive chemicals. The cholinergic system has been shown to mediate the central executive of working memory (WM). The current work proposes that impairment of the cholinergic system in Gulf War Illness patients (GWIPs) leads to behavioral and neural deficits of the central executive of WM. A large sample of GWIPs and matched controls (MCs) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a varied-load working memory task. Compared to MCs, GWIPs showed a greater decline in performance as WM-demand increased. Functional imaging suggested that GWIPs evinced separate processing strategies, deferring prefrontal cortex activity from encoding to retrieval for high demand conditions. Greater activity during high-demand encoding predicted greater WM performance. Behavioral data suggest that WM executive strategies are impaired in GWIPs. Functional data further support this hypothesis and suggest that GWIPs utilize less effective strategies during high-demand WM. PMID:25767746

  7. Functional MRI demonstrates pain perception in hand osteoarthritis has features of central pain processing

    PubMed Central

    Sofat, Nidhi; Smee, Cori; Hermansson, Monika; Howard, Matthew; Baker, Emma H; Howe, Franklyn A; Barrick, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Background Hand osteoarthritis (HOA) is typified by pain and reduced function. We hypothesised that people with HOA have enhanced sensitivity and activation of peripheral nociceptors in the hand, thereby potentiating chronic pain. In our study we aimed to assess if central sensitisation mediates pain perception in osteoarthritis of the hand. Methods Participants with proximal and distal interphalangeal joint (PIP/DIP) HOA and non-OA controls were recruited. Clinical pain scores using the visual analogue scale (VAS) were recorded before and after performing a painful hand task. Central pain processing was evaluated with functional brain neuroimaging (fMRI) using a finger flexion-extension (FFE) task performed over 3 minutes. Data was analysed with FMRIB software (www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl). Group mean activation of functional MRI signal between hand osteoarthritis and control non-arthritic participants was compared. Results Our group of hand OA participants reported high pain levels compared with non-arthritic controls as demonstrated by the mean VAS in hand OA participants of 59.31± 8.19 mm compared to 4.00 ± 1.89 mm in controls (p < 0.0001), despite all participants reporting analgesic use. Functional MRI analysis showed increased activation in the thalamus, cingulate, frontal and somatosensory cortex in the hand OA group but not in controls (thresholded at p < 0.05). Regions of activation were mapped to Brodmann areas 3, 4, 6, 9, 13, 22, 24 and 44. Activated regions found in our study are recognised higher brain pain processing centres implicated in central sensitisation. Conclusions People with hand osteoarthritis demonstrated features of central sensitisation that was evident after a finger flexion-extension task using functional MRI. Functional MRI is a useful biomarker in detecting pain in hand osteoarthritis and could be used in future hand osteoarthritis pain studies to evaluate pain modulation strategies. PMID:24294351

  8. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward. PMID:24015572

  9. The NPG 7120.5A Electronic Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBrayer, Robert; Ives, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The use of electronics to review a document is well within the technical realm of today's state-of-the-art workplace. File servers and web site interaction are common tools for many NASA employees. The electronic comment processing described here was developed for the NPG 7120.5A review to augment the existing NASA Online Directives Information System (NODIS). The NODIS system is NASA's official system for formal review, approval and storage of NASA Directives. The electronic review process worked so well that NASA and other agencies may want to consider it as one of our "best practices." It was participatory decision making at its very best, a process that attracted dozens of very good ideas to improve the document as well as the way we can be managing projects far more effectively. The revision of NPG 7120.5A has significant implications for the way all elements of the Agency accomplish program and project management. Therefore, the review of NPG 7120.5A was an Agencywide effort with high visibility, heavy participation and a short schedule. The level of involvement created interest in supplementing the formal NODIS system with a system to collect comments efficiently and to allow the Centers and Codes to review and consolidate their comments into the official system in a short period of time. In addition, the Program Management Council Working Group (PMCWG), responsible for the revision of the document and the disposition of official comments, needed an electronic system to manage the disposition of comments, obtain PMCWG consensus on each disposition, and coordinate the disposition with the appropriate Headquarters Code that had submitted the official comment. The combined NASA and contractor talents and resources provided a system that supplemented the NODIS system and its operating personnel to produce a thorough review and approval of NPG 7120.5A on April 3, 1998, 7.5 months from the start of the process. The original six-month schedule is indicated. All

  10. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  11. Perfectionism as a transdiagnostic process: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Egan, Sarah J; Wade, Tracey D; Shafran, Roz

    2011-03-01

    Perfectionism is a risk and maintaining factor for eating disorders, anxiety disorders and depression. The objective of this paper is to review the four bodies of evidence supporting the notion that perfectionism is a transdiagnostic process. First, a review of the literature was conducted that demonstrates the elevation of perfectionism across numerous anxiety disorders, depression, and eating disorders compared to healthy controls. Data is presented that shows perfectionism increases vulnerability for eating disorders, and that it maintains obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety and depression as it predicts treatment outcome in these disorders. Second, evidence is examined showing that elevated perfectionism is associated with co-occurrence of psychopathology. Third, the different conceptualisations of perfectionism are reviewed, including a cognitive-behavioural conceptualisation of clinical perfectionism that can be utilised to understand this transdiagnostic process. Fourth, evidence that treatment of perfectionism results in reductions in anxiety, depression and eating pathology is reviewed. Finally, the importance of clinicians considering the routine assessment and treatment of perfectionism is outlined. PMID:20488598

  12. The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assesses the state of the science on the environmental impacts of mountaintop mines and valley fills (MTM-VF) on streams in the Central Appalachian Coalfields. Our review focused on the aquatic impacts of mountaintop removal coal mining, which, as its name suggests, ...

  13. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed. PMID:25598156

  14. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  15. REVIEW ARTICLE Tokamak equilibria with nearly zero central current: the current hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Takaaki

    2010-11-01

    The observation of stable sustainment of the 'current hole', namely the nearly zero current density region in the central part of a tokamak plasma, has opened a new class of configurations in tokamak plasmas, and a variety of research from the viewpoints of equilibrium, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability, particle orbits and radial transport has been generated. Some theories and codes have been tested and extended by being applied to extreme conditions in the current hole with very weak poloidal field. The current hole is generated due to a transient negative toroidal electric field established when a large off-axis non-inductive current is rapidly formed. It has been observed in high confinement plasmas with a large fraction of bootstrap current in advanced tokamak operation. The current hole is very stiff against current drive, which suggests that it is a saturated or self-organized system. Appearance of the current hole in ITER and DEMO would be expected in some of the operation scenarios, and its influence and its control methods have been studied. Results of experimental and theoretical studies on the current hole are reviewed.

  16. Laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation in right colon cancer: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Siani, Luca Maria; Garulli, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study is to comprehensively review the latest trends in laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation (CVL) for the multimodal management of right colon cancer. Historical and up-to-date anatomo-embryological concepts are analyzed in detail, focusing on the latest studies of the mesenteric organ, its dissection by mesofascial and retrofascial cleavage planes, and questioning the need for a new terminology in colonic resections. The rationale behind Laparoscopic CME with CVL is thoroughly investigated and explained. Attention is paid to the current surgical techniques and the quality of the surgical specimen, yielded through mesocolic, intramesocolic and muscularis propria plane of surgery. We evaluate the impact on long term oncologic outcome in terms of local recurrence, overall and disease-free survival, according to the plane of resection achieved. Conclusions are drawn on the basis of the available evidence, which suggests a pivotal role of laparoscopic CME with CVL in the multimodal management of right sided colonic cancer: performed in the right mesocolic plane of resection, laparoscopic CME with CVL demonstrates better oncologic results when compared to standard non-mesocolic planes of surgery, with all the advantages of laparoscopic techniques, both in faster recovery and better immunological response. The importance of minimally invasive meso-resectional surgery is thus stressed and highlighted as the new frontier for a modern laparoscopic total right mesocolectomy. PMID:26981184

  17. Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)

    PubMed Central

    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedlička, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedlička, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

  18. Central nervous system reorganization in a variety of chronic pain states: a review.

    PubMed

    Henry, Douglas E; Chiodo, Anthony E; Yang, Weibin

    2011-12-01

    Chronic pain can develop from numerous conditions and is one of the most widespread and disabling health problems today. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology of chronic pain in most of these conditions, along with consistently effective treatments, remain elusive. However, recent advances in neuroimaging and neurophysiology are rapidly expanding our understanding of these pain syndromes. It is now clear that substantial functional and structural changes, or plasticity, in the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with many chronic pain syndromes. A group of cortical and subcortical brain regions, often referred to as the "pain matrix," often show abnormalities on functional imaging studies in persons with chronic pain, even with different pain locations and etiologies. Changes in the motor and sensory homunculus also are seen. Some of these CNS changes return to a normal state with resolution of the pain. It is hoped that this knowledge will lead to more effective treatments or even new preventative measures. The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in the understanding of the CNS changes associated with chronic pain in a number of clinical entities encountered in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation. These clinical entities include nonspecific low back pain, fibromyalgia, complex regional pain syndrome, postamputation phantom pain, and chronic pain after spinal cord injury. PMID:22192321

  19. Occupational exposure and defects of the central nervous system in offspring: review.

    PubMed Central

    Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreëls, F

    1990-01-01

    A study of published work was carried out in a search for evidence of a causal role for parental occupational exposure in the origin of structural and functional defects of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. Studies that consider this topic are scarce and mostly refer to broad categories of exposures and effects. Non-occupational studies referring to environmental exposure of humans and studies on experimental animals were also reviewed. The studies on animals provided straightforward evidence about morphological and behavioural abnormalities resulting from some agents used occupationally. The studies on humans yielded a scala of defects that could be ascribed to exposure to high doses of various agents in the environment. Evidence for a causal role of occupational exposure has not been found, but a highly probable influence on the developing CNS is hypothesised for lead, methyl mercury, and ionising radiation. Parental occupational exposure to cadmium, organic solvents, anaesthetics, and pesticides may also play a part in causing defects of the CNS. Well designed future research is needed to test the above hypotheses. PMID:2207028

  20. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Nadia; Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; de Oliveira Pagan-Neves, Luciana; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central) auditory processing disorder. METHODS: Language, audiological and (central) auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central) auditory processing evaluation results. RESULTS: When a (central) auditory processing disorder was present in association with a speech disorder, the children tended to have lower scores on phonological assessments. A greater severity of speech disorder was related to a greater probability of the child having a (central) auditory processing disorder. The use of a cutoff value for the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index successfully distinguished between children with and without a (central) auditory processing disorder. CONCLUSIONS : The severity of speech-sound disorder in children was influenced by the presence of (central) auditory processing disorder. The attempt to identify a cutoff value based on a severity index was successful. PMID:26934233

  1. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Prévost, François; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss is a hallmark sign in the elderly population. Decline in auditory perception provokes deficits in the ability to localize sound sources and reduces speech perception, particularly in noise. In addition to a loss of peripheral hearing sensitivity, changes in more complex central structures have also been demonstrated. Related to these, this study examines the auditory directional maps in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the rat. Hence, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats underwent distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to assess cochlear function. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed, followed by extracellular single-unit recordings to determine age-related effects on central auditory functions. DPOAE amplitude levels were decreased in aged rats although they were still present between 3.0 and 24.0 kHz. ABR level thresholds in aged rats were significantly elevated at an early (cochlear nucleus - wave II) stage in the auditory brainstem. In the superior colliculus, thresholds were increased and the tuning widths of the directional receptive fields were significantly wider. Moreover, no systematic directional spatial arrangement was present among the neurons of the aged rats, implying that the topographical organization of the auditory directional map was abolished. These results suggest that the deterioration of the auditory directional spatial map can, to some extent, be attributable to age-related dysfunction at more central, perceptual stages of auditory processing. PMID:27306460

  2. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  3. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli PNPase: Central channel residues are involved in processive RNA degradation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhonghao; Yang, Wei-Zen; Lin-Chao, Sue; Chak, Kin-Fu; Yuan, Hanna S.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) plays a major role in mRNA turnover by the degradation of RNA from the 3′- to 5′-ends. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the wild-type and a C-terminal KH/S1 domain-truncated mutant (ΔKH/S1) of Escherichia coli PNPase at resolutions of 2.6 Å and 2.8 Å, respectively. The six RNase PH domains of the trimeric PNPase assemble into a ring-like structure containing a central channel. The truncated mutant ΔKH/S1 bound and cleaved RNA less efficiently with an eightfold reduced binding affinity. Thermal melting and acid-induced trimer dissociation studies, analyzed by circular dichroism and dynamic light scattering, further showed that ΔKH/S1 formed a less stable trimer than the full-length PNPase. The crystal structure of ΔKH/S1 is more expanded, containing a slightly wider central channel than that of the wild-type PNPase, suggesting that the KH/S1 domain helps PNPase to assemble into a more compact trimer, and it regulates the channel size allosterically. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis of several arginine residues in the channel neck regions produced defective PNPases that either bound and cleaved RNA less efficiently or generated longer cleaved oligonucleotide products, indicating that these arginines were involved in RNA binding and processive degradation. Taking these results together, we conclude that the constricted central channel and the basic-charged residues in the channel necks of PNPase play crucial roles in trapping RNA for processive exonucleolytic degradation. PMID:18812438

  4. A review on spectral processing methods for geological remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadzadeh, Saeid; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto

    2016-05-01

    In this work, many of the fundamental and advanced spectral processing methods available to geologic remote sensing are reviewed. A novel categorization scheme is proposed that groups the techniques into knowledge-based and data-driven approaches, according to the type and availability of reference data. The two categories are compared and their characteristics and geologic outcomes are contrasted. Using an oil-sand sample scanned through the sisuCHEMA hyperspectral imaging system as a case study, the effectiveness of selected processing techniques from each category is demonstrated. The techniques used to bridge between the spectral data and other geoscience products are then discussed. Subsequently, the hybridization of the two approaches is shown to yield some of the most robust processing techniques available to multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing. Ultimately, current and future challenges that spectral analysis are expected to overcome and some potential trends are highlighted.

  5. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. PMID:26153056

  6. Numerical simulation of tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Peryshkin, A. Yu.; Makarov, P. V. Eremin, M. O.

    2014-11-14

    An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the δ parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within δ = 1.1–1.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality.

  7. Framing and the health policy process: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Koon, Adam D; Hawkins, Benjamin; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-01-01

    Framing research seeks to understand the forces that shape human behaviour in the policy process. It assumes that policy is a social construct and can be cast in a variety of ways to imply multiple legitimate value considerations. Frames provide the cognitive means of making sense of the social world, but discordance among them forms the basis of policy contestation. Framing, as both theory and method, has proven to generate considerable insight into the nature of policy debates in a variety of disciplines. Despite its salience for understanding health policy debates; however, little is known about the ways frames influence the health policy process. A scoping review using the Arksey and O’Malley framework was conducted. The literature on framing in the health sector was reviewed using nine health and social science databases. Articles were included that explicitly reported theory and methods used, data source(s), at least one frame, frame sponsor and evidence of a given frame’s effect on the health policy process. A total of 52 articles, from 1996 to 2014, and representing 12 countries, were identified. Much of the research came from the policy studies/political science literature (n = 17) and used a constructivist epistemology. The term ‘frame’ was used as a label to describe a variety of ideas, packaged as values, social problems, metaphors or arguments. Frames were characterized at various levels of abstraction ranging from general ideological orientations to specific policy positions. Most articles presented multiple frames and showed how actors advocated for them in a highly contested political process. Framing is increasingly an important, yet overlooked aspect of the policy process. Further analysis on frames, framing processes and frame conflict can help researchers and policymakers to understand opaque and highly charged policy issues, which may facilitate the resolution of protracted policy controversies. PMID:26873903

  8. Framing and the health policy process: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Koon, Adam D; Hawkins, Benjamin; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-07-01

    Framing research seeks to understand the forces that shape human behaviour in the policy process. It assumes that policy is a social construct and can be cast in a variety of ways to imply multiple legitimate value considerations. Frames provide the cognitive means of making sense of the social world, but discordance among them forms the basis of policy contestation. Framing, as both theory and method, has proven to generate considerable insight into the nature of policy debates in a variety of disciplines. Despite its salience for understanding health policy debates; however, little is known about the ways frames influence the health policy process. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was conducted. The literature on framing in the health sector was reviewed using nine health and social science databases. Articles were included that explicitly reported theory and methods used, data source(s), at least one frame, frame sponsor and evidence of a given frame's effect on the health policy process. A total of 52 articles, from 1996 to 2014, and representing 12 countries, were identified. Much of the research came from the policy studies/political science literature (n = 17) and used a constructivist epistemology. The term 'frame' was used as a label to describe a variety of ideas, packaged as values, social problems, metaphors or arguments. Frames were characterized at various levels of abstraction ranging from general ideological orientations to specific policy positions. Most articles presented multiple frames and showed how actors advocated for them in a highly contested political process. Framing is increasingly an important, yet overlooked aspect of the policy process. Further analysis on frames, framing processes and frame conflict can help researchers and policymakers to understand opaque and highly charged policy issues, which may facilitate the resolution of protracted policy controversies. PMID:26873903

  9. Pulsed electric field processing of egg products: a review.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K

    2016-02-01

    Thermal processing ensures safety and enhances the shelf-life of most of the food products. It alters the structural-chemical composition, modifies heat labile components, as well as affects the functional properties of food products. This has driven the development of non-thermal food processing techniques, primarily for extending the shelf-life of different food products. These techniques are currently also being evaluated for their effects on product processing, quality and other safety parameters. Pulsed electric field (PEF) is an example of non-thermal technique which can be applied for a variety of purpose in the food processing industry. PEF can be used for antimicrobial treatment of various food products to improve the storability or food safety, for extraction and recovery of some high-value compounds from a food matrix or for stabilization of various food products through inactivation of some enzymes or catalysts. Research on the application of PEF to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in different egg products is being currently focused. It has been reported that PEF effectively reduces the activity of various microorganisms in a variety of egg products. However, the PEF treatment also alters the structural and functional properties to some extent and there is a high degree of variability between different studies. In addition to integrating findings, the present review also provides several explanations for the inconsistency in findings between different studies related to PEF processing of egg products. Several specific recommendations for future research directions on PEF processing are well discussed in this review. PMID:27162373

  10. A review of nanoparticle functionality and toxicity on the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Z.; Liu, Z. W.; Allaker, R. P.; Reip, P.; Oxford, J.; Ahmad, Z.; Ren, G.

    2010-01-01

    Although nanoparticles have tremendous potential for a host of applications, their adverse effects on living cells have raised serious concerns recently for their use in the healthcare and consumer sectors. As regards the central nervous system (CNS), research data on nanoparticle interaction with neurons has provided evidence of both negative and positive effects. Maximal application dosage of nanoparticles in materials to provide applications such as antibacterial and antiviral functions is approximately 0.1–1.0 wt%. This concentration can be converted into a liquid phase release rate (leaching rate) depending upon the host or base materials used. For example, nanoparticulate silver (Ag) or copper oxide (CuO)-filled epoxy resin demonstrates much reduced release of the metal ions (Ag+ or Cu2+) into their surrounding environment unless they are mechanically removed or aggravated. Subsequent to leaching effects and entry into living systems, nanoparticles can also cross through many other barriers, such as skin and the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and may also reach bodily organs. In such cases, their concentration or dosage in body fluids is considered to be well below the maximum drug toxicity test limit (10−5 g ml−1) as determined in artificial cerebrospinal solution. As this is a rapidly evolving area and the use of such materials will continue to mature, so will their exposure to members of society. Hence, neurologists have equal interests in nanoparticle effects (positive functionality and negative toxicity) on human neuronal cells within the CNS, where the current research in this field will be highlighted and reviewed. PMID:20519209

  11. Pulsed electric field processing of foods: a review.

    PubMed

    Jeyamkondan, S; Jayas, D S; Holley, R A

    1999-09-01

    Use of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) for inactivation of microorganisms is one of the more promising nonthermal processing methods. Inactivation of microorganisms exposed to high-voltage PEFs is related to the electromechanical instability of the cell membrane. Electric field strength and treatment time are the two most important factors involved in PEF processing. Encouraging results are reported at the laboratory level, but scaling up to the industrial level escalates the cost of the command charging power supply and of the high-speed electrical switch. In this paper, we critically review the results of earlier experimental studies on PEFs and we suggest the future work that is required in this field. Inactivation tests in viscous foods and in liquid food containing particulates must be conducted. A successful continuous PEF processing system for industrial applications has yet to be designed. The high initial cost of setting up the PEF processing system is the major obstacle confronting those who would encourage the system's industrial application. Innovative developments in high-voltage pulse technology will reduce the cost of pulse generation and will make PEF processing competitive with thermal-processing methods. PMID:10492486

  12. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE: Spectrophotometric applications of digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawski, Roman Z.

    2006-09-01

    Spectrophotometry is more and more often the method of choice not only in analysis of (bio)chemical substances, but also in the identification of physical properties of various objects and their classification. The applications of spectrophotometry include such diversified tasks as monitoring of optical telecommunications links, assessment of eating quality of food, forensic classification of papers, biometric identification of individuals, detection of insect infestation of seeds and classification of textiles. In all those applications, large numbers of data, generated by spectrophotometers, are processed by various digital means in order to extract measurement information. The main objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art methodology for digital signal processing (DSP) when applied to data provided by spectrophotometric transducers and spectrophotometers. First, a general methodology of DSP applications in spectrophotometry, based on DSP-oriented models of spectrophotometric data, is outlined. Then, the most important classes of DSP methods for processing spectrophotometric data—the methods for DSP-aided calibration of spectrophotometric instrumentation, the methods for the estimation of spectra on the basis of spectrophotometric data, the methods for the estimation of spectrum-related measurands on the basis of spectrophotometric data—are presented. Finally, the methods for preprocessing and postprocessing of spectrophotometric data are overviewed. Throughout the review, the applications of DSP are illustrated with numerous examples related to broadly understood spectrophotometry.

  14. Cortical Processing of Respiratory Occlusion Stimuli in Children with Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingtao; Marcus, Carole L.; Bandla, Preetam; Schwartz, Michael S.; Pepe, Michelle E.; Samuel, John M.; Panitch, Howard B.; Bradford, Ruth M.; Mosse, Yael P.; Maris, John M.; Colrain, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: The ability of patients with central hypoventilation syndrome (CHS) to produce and process mechanoreceptor signals is unknown. Objectives: Children with CHS hypoventilate during sleep, although they generally breathe adequately during wakefulness. Previous studies suggest that they have compromised central integration of afferent stimuli, rather than abnormal sensors or receptors. Cortical integration of afferent mechanical stimuli caused by respiratory loading or upper airway occlusion can be tested by measuring respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREPs). We hypothesized that patients with CHS would have blunted RREP during both wakefulness and sleep. Methods: RREPs were produced with multiple upper airway occlusions and were obtained during wakefulness, stage 2, slow-wave, and REM sleep. Ten patients with CHS and 20 control subjects participated in the study, which took place at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Each patient was age- and sex-matched to two control subjects. Wakefulness data were collected from 9 patients and 18 control subjects. Measurements and Main Results: During wakefulness, patients demonstrated reduced Nf and P300 responses compared with control subjects. During non-REM sleep, patients demonstrated a reduced N350 response. In REM sleep, patients had a later P2 response. Conclusions: CHS patients are able to produce cortical responses to mechanical load stimulation during both wakefulness and sleep; however, central integration of the afferent signal is disrupted during wakefulness, and responses during non-REM are damped relative to control subjects. The finding of differences between patients and control subjects during REM may be due to increased intrinsic excitatory inputs to the respiratory system in this state. PMID:18658113

  15. Mini Review: Circular RNAs as Potential Clinical Biomarkers for Disorders in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dan; Xu, An-Ding

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), produced in eukaryotic cells during post-transcriptional processes. They are more stable than linear RNAs, and possess spatio-temporal properties. CircRNAs do not distribute equally in the neuronal compartments in the brain, but largely enriched in the synapses. These ncRNA species can be used as potential clinical biomarkers in complex disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), which is supported by recent findings. For example, ciRS-7 was found to be a natural microRNAs sponge for miRNA-7 and regulate Parkinson’s disease/Alzheimer’s disease-related genes; circPAIP2 is an intron-retaining circRNA which upregulates memory-related parental genes PAIP2 to affect memory development through PABP reactivation. The quantity of circRNAs carry important messages, either when they are inside the cells, or in circulation, or in exosomes released from synaptoneurosomes and endothelial. In addition, small molecules such as microRNAs and microvesicles can pass through the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and get into blood. For clinical applications, the study population needs to be phenotypically well-defined. CircRNAs may be combined with other biomarkers and imaging tools to improve the diagnostic power. PMID:27092176

  16. Mini Review: Circular RNAs as Potential Clinical Biomarkers for Disorders in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Xu, An-Ding

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), produced in eukaryotic cells during post-transcriptional processes. They are more stable than linear RNAs, and possess spatio-temporal properties. CircRNAs do not distribute equally in the neuronal compartments in the brain, but largely enriched in the synapses. These ncRNA species can be used as potential clinical biomarkers in complex disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), which is supported by recent findings. For example, ciRS-7 was found to be a natural microRNAs sponge for miRNA-7 and regulate Parkinson's disease/Alzheimer's disease-related genes; circPAIP2 is an intron-retaining circRNA which upregulates memory-related parental genes PAIP2 to affect memory development through PABP reactivation. The quantity of circRNAs carry important messages, either when they are inside the cells, or in circulation, or in exosomes released from synaptoneurosomes and endothelial. In addition, small molecules such as microRNAs and microvesicles can pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and get into blood. For clinical applications, the study population needs to be phenotypically well-defined. CircRNAs may be combined with other biomarkers and imaging tools to improve the diagnostic power. PMID:27092176

  17. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Biomass Torrefaction is gaining attention as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties and chemical composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of approximately 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-280 C. Thus, the process can be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. The present review work looks into (a) torrefaction process and different products produced during the process and (b) solid torrefied material properties which include: (i) physical properties like moisture content, density, grindability, particle size distribution and particle surface area and pelletability; (ii) chemical properties like proximate and ultimate composition; and (iii) storage properties like off-gassing and spontaneous combustion.

  18. Review of Approximate Analyses of Sheet Forming Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Matthias; Rolfe, Bernard; Yang, Chunhui; de Souza, Tim; Hodgson, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Approximate models are often used for the following purposes: • in on-line control systems of metal forming processes where calculation speed is critical; • to obtain quick, quantitative information on the magnitude of the main variables in the early stages of process design; • to illustrate the role of the major variables in the process; • as an initial check on numerical modelling; and • as a basis for quick calculations on processes in teaching and training packages. The models often share many similarities; for example, an arbitrary geometric assumption of deformation giving a simplified strain distribution, simple material property descriptions—such as an elastic, perfectly plastic law—and mathematical short cuts such as a linear approximation of a polynomial expression. In many cases, the output differs significantly from experiment and performance or efficiency factors are developed by experience to tune the models. In recent years, analytical models have been widely used at Deakin University in the design of experiments and equipment and as a pre-cursor to more detailed numerical analyses. Examples that are reviewed in this paper include deformation of sandwich material having a weak, elastic core, load prediction in deep drawing, bending of strip (particularly of ageing steel where kinking may occur), process analysis of low-pressure hydroforming of tubing, analysis of the rejection rates in stamping, and the determination of constitutive models by an inverse method applied to bending tests.

  19. Does pre-surgical central modulation of pain influence outcome after total knee replacement? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baert, I A C; Lluch, E; Mulder, T; Nijs, J; Noten, S; Meeus, M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically review whether the presence of altered central pain modulation pre-surgical influences outcome after total knee replacement (TKR) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and if so which indices of central pain modulation predict poor outcome after TKR. To identify relevant articles, PubMed and Web of Science were searched. The search strategy was a combination of key words related to "Knee Osteoarthritis and Total Knee Replacement", "Central Pain Modulation" and "Post-Surgical Outcome Measures". Articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were screened for methodological quality and results were analyzed and summarized. Sixteen prospective cohort studies were included. Strong evidence is available that presence of catastrophic thinking and poor coping strategies predict more pain after TKR and that there is no association between fear of movement and post-surgical pain or function. Evidence on other psychosocial influences is limited or conflicting. Literature on the influence of other signs of altered central pain modulation on post-surgical outcome is scarce. It is plausible that pre-surgical signs of altered central pain modulation, such as joint pain at rest or widespread pain sensitization, predict more post-surgical pain. Surgeons should be attentive for patients with signs of altered central pain modulation before surgery as they might be at risk for unfavorable outcome. A broader therapeutic approach aiming to desensitize the central nervous system can be adapted in these patients. Further research is however needed to identify the influence of central pain modulation pre-surgical in predicting outcome after TKR. PMID:26382109

  20. Representation and processing of mass and count nouns: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fieder, Nora; Nickels, Lyndsey; Biedermann, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Comprehension and/or production of noun phrases and sentences requires the selection of lexical-syntactic attributes of nouns. These lexical-syntactic attributes include grammatical gender (masculine/feminine/neuter), number (singular/plural) and countability (mass/count). While there has been considerable discussion regarding gender and number, relatively little attention has focused on countability. Therefore, this article reviews empirical evidence for lexical-syntactic specification of nouns for countability. This includes evidence from studies of language production and comprehension with normal speakers and case studies which assess impairments of mass/count nouns in people with acquired brain damage. Current theories of language processing are reviewed and found to be lacking specification regarding countability. Subsequently, the theoretical implications of the empirical studies are discussed in the context of frameworks derived from these accounts of language production (Levelt, 1989; Levelt et al., 1999) and comprehension (Taler and Jarema, 2006). The review concludes that there is empirical support for specification of nouns for countability at a lexical-syntactic level. PMID:24966849

  1. 20 CFR 418.3625 - What is the process for administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the process for administrative review? 418.3625 Section 418.3625 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Determinations and the Administrative Review Process § 418.3625 What is the process for administrative review? The process...

  2. Affective picture processing: An integrative review of ERP findings

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Jonas K.; Nordin, Steven; Sequeira, Henrique; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    The review summarizes and integrates findings from 40 years of event-related potential (ERP) studies using pictures that differ in valence (unpleasant-to-pleasant) and arousal (low-to-high) and that are used to elicit emotional processing. Affective stimulus factors primarily modulate ERP component amplitude, with little change in peak latency observed. Arousal effects are consistently obtained, and generally occur at longer latencies. Valence effects are inconsistently reported at several latency ranges, including very early components. Some affective ERP modulations vary with recording methodology, stimulus factors, as well as task-relevance and emotional state. Affective ERPs have been linked theoretically to attention orientation for unpleasant pictures at earlier components (< 300 ms). Enhanced stimulus processing has been associated with memory encoding for arousing pictures of assumed intrinsic motivational relevance, with task-induced differences contributing to emotional reactivity at later components (> 300 ms). Theoretical issues, stimulus factors, task demands, and individual differences are discussed. PMID:18164800

  3. Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects

    PubMed Central

    Muscedere, Mario L.; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations. PMID:24741016

  4. Evaluation of central auditory processing in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Szkiełkowska, Agata; Piłka, Adam; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) affects about 7-15 % of children of school age and according to the currently accepted diagnostic criteria, it is presumed that these children do not suffer from hearing impairment. The goal of this work was to assess anomalies of central auditory processes in a group of children diagnosed with specific language impairment. Material consisted of 200 children aged 7-10 years (100 children in the study group and 100 hundred in the control group). Selected psychoacoustic tests (Frequency Pattern Test - FPT, Duration Pattern Test - DPT, Dichotic Digit Test - DDT, Time Compressed Sentence Test - CST, Gap Detection Test - GDT) were performed in all children. Results were subject to statistical analysis. It was observed that mean results obtained in individual age groups in the study group are significantly lower than in the control group. Based on the conducted studies we may conclude that children with SLI suffer from disorders of some higher auditory functions, which substantiates the diagnosis of hearing disorders according to the AHSA (American Hearing and Speech Association) guidelines. Use of sound-based, not verbal tests, eliminates the probability that observed problems with perception involve only perception of speech, therefore do not signify central hearing disorders, but problems with understanding of speech. Lack of literature data on the significance of FPT, DPT, DDT, CST and GDT tests in children with specific language impairment precludes comparison of acquired results and makes them unique. PMID:26540009

  5. Review of behavioral health integration in primary care at Baylor Scott and White Healthcare, Central Region

    PubMed Central

    Fluet, Norman R.; Reis, Michael D.; Stern, Charles H.; Thompson, Alexander W.; Jolly, Gillian A.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of behavioral health services in primary care has been referred to in many ways, but ultimately refers to common structures and processes. Behavioral health is integrated into primary care because it increases the effectiveness and efficiency of providing care and reduces costs in the care of primary care patients. Reimbursement is one factor, if not the main factor, that determines the level of integration that can be achieved. The federal health reform agenda supports changes that will eventually permit behavioral health to be fully integrated and will allow the health of the population to be the primary target of intervention. In an effort to develop more integrated services at Baylor Scott and White Healthcare, models of integration are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each model are discussed. Recommendations to increase integration include adopting a disease management model with care management, planned guideline-based stepped care, follow-up, and treatment monitoring. Population-based interventions can be completed at the pace of the development of alternative reimbursement methods. The program should be based upon patient-centered medical home standards, and research is needed throughout the program development process. PMID:27034543

  6. Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations. PMID:25389278

  7. Automatic endpoint detection to support the systematic review process.

    PubMed

    Blake, Catherine; Lucic, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Preparing a systematic review can take hundreds of hours to complete, but the process of reconciling different results from multiple studies is the bedrock of evidence-based medicine. We introduce a two-step approach to automatically extract three facets - two entities (the agent and object) and the way in which the entities are compared (the endpoint) - from direct comparative sentences in full-text articles. The system does not require a user to predefine entities in advance and thus can be used in domains where entity recognition is difficult or unavailable. As with a systematic review, the tabular summary produced using the automatically extracted facets shows how experimental results differ between studies. Experiments were conducted using a collection of more than 2million sentences from three journals Diabetes, Carcinogenesis and Endocrinology and two machine learning algorithms, support vector machines (SVM) and a general linear model (GLM). F1 and accuracy measures for the SVM and GLM differed by only 0.01 across all three comparison facets in a randomly selected set of test sentences. The system achieved the best performance of 92% for objects, whereas the accuracy for both agent and endpoints was 73%. F1 scores were higher for objects (0.77) than for endpoints (0.51) or agents (0.47). A situated evaluation of Metformin, a drug to treat diabetes, showed system accuracy of 95%, 83% and 79% for the object, endpoint and agent respectively. The situated evaluation had higher F1 scores of 0.88, 0.64 and 0.62 for object, endpoint, and agent respectively. On average, only 5.31% of the sentences in a full-text article are direct comparisons, but the tabular summaries suggest that these sentences provide a rich source of currently underutilized information that can be used to accelerate the systematic review process and identify gaps where future research should be focused. PMID:26003938

  8. Modelling Of Flotation Processes By Classical Mathematical Methods - A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Ivana; Miljanović, Igor

    2015-12-01

    Flotation process modelling is not a simple task, mostly because of the process complexity, i.e. the presence of a large number of variables that (to a lesser or a greater extent) affect the final outcome of the mineral particles separation based on the differences in their surface properties. The attempts toward the development of the quantitative predictive model that would fully describe the operation of an industrial flotation plant started in the middle of past century and it lasts to this day. This paper gives a review of published research activities directed toward the development of flotation models based on the classical mathematical rules. The description and systematization of classical flotation models were performed according to the available references, with emphasize exclusively given to the flotation process modelling, regardless of the model application in a certain control system. In accordance with the contemporary considerations, models were classified as the empirical, probabilistic, kinetic and population balance types. Each model type is presented through the aspects of flotation modelling at the macro and micro process levels.

  9. The combined influence of central and peripheral routes in the online persuasion process.

    PubMed

    SanJosé-Cabezudo, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-Arranz, Ana M; Gutiérrez-Cillán, Jesús

    2009-06-01

    The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) is one of the most widely used psychological theories in academic literature to account for how advertising information is processed. The current work seeks to overturn one of the basic principles of the ELM and takes account of new variables in the model that help to explain the online persuasion process more clearly. Specifically, we posit that in a context of high-involvement exposure to advertising (e.g., Web pages), central and peripheral processing routes may act together. In a repeated-measures experimental design, 112 participants were exposed to two Web sites of a fictitious travel agency, differing only in their design--serious versus amusing. Findings evidence that a peripheral cue, such as how the Web pages are presented, does prove relevant when attempting to reflect the level of effectiveness. Moreover, if we take account of individuals' motivation when accessing the Internet, whether cognitive or affective, the motivation will impact their response to the Web site design. The work contributes to ELM literature and may help firms to pinpoint those areas and features of Internet advertising that prove most efficient. PMID:19445636

  10. The role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in central processing limitation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Soutschek, Alexander; Taylor, Paul C J; Schubert, Torsten

    2016-09-01

    When humans perform two tasks simultaneously, responses to the second task are increasingly delayed as the interval between the two tasks decreases (psychological refractory period). This delay of the second task is thought to reflect a central processing limitation at the response selection stage. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this central processing limitation remain unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we examined the role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC) in a dual-task paradigm in which participants performed an auditory task 1 and a visual task 2. We found that dMFC TMS, relative to control conditions, reduced the psychological refractory period for task 2 processing, whereas we observed no dMFC TMS effects on task 1 processing. This suggests a causal role of the dMFC in coordinating response selection processes at the central bottleneck. PMID:27083589

  11. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  12. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  13. Satellite Remote Sensing Analysis to Monitor Desertification Processes in Central Plateau of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, R.; González Sosa, E.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Hernández-Tellez, M.

    2013-05-01

    Desertification is defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas due to climatic variations and human activities. Therefore there is a need to monitor the desertification process in the spatiotemporal scale in order to develop strategies to fight against desertification (Wu and Ci, 2002). In this sense, data provided by remote sensing is an important source for spatial and temporal information, which allows monitoring changes in the environment at low cost and high effectiveness. In Mexico, drylands hold 65% of the area, with about 1,280,494 km2 (UNESCO, 2010), where is located 46% of the national population (SEMARNAT, 2008). Given these facts, there is interest in monitoring the degradation of these lands, especially in Mexico because no specific studies have identified trends and progress of desertification in the country so far. However, it has been considered land degradation as an indicator of desertification process. Thus, it has been determined that 42% of soils in Mexico present some degradation degree. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal dynamics of desertification for 1993, 2000 and 2011 in the semiarid central plateau in Mexico based on demographic, climatic and satellite data. It took into consideration: 1) the Anthropogenic Impact Index (HII), based on the spatial population distribution and its influence on the use of resources and 2) the Aridity Index (AI), calculated with meteorological station records for annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Mosaics were made with Landsat TM scenes; considering they are a data source that allows evaluate surface processes regionally and with high spectral resolution. With satellite information five indices were estimated to assess the vegetation and soil conditions: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI), Grain Size Index (GSI) and Bare Soil Index (BSI). The rates

  14. Review of cost versus scale: water and wastewater treatment and reuse processes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianjiao; Englehardt, James; Wu, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The US National Research Council recently recommended direct potable water reuse (DPR), or potable water reuse without environmental buffer, for consideration to address US water demand. However, conveyance of wastewater and water to and from centralized treatment plants consumes on average four times the energy of treatment in the USA, and centralized DPR would further require upgradient distribution of treated water. Therefore, information on the cost of unit treatment processes potentially useful for DPR versus system capacity was reviewed, converted to constant 2012 US dollars, and synthesized in this work. A logarithmic variant of the Williams Law cost function was found applicable over orders of magnitude of system capacity, for the subject processes: activated sludge, membrane bioreactor, coagulation/flocculation, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, peroxone and granular activated carbon. Results are demonstrated versus 10 DPR case studies. Because economies of scale found for capital equipment are counterbalanced by distribution/collection network costs, further study of the optimal scale of distributed DPR systems is suggested. PMID:24473289

  15. Origin of the groundwater salinity and geochemical processes in detrital and carbonate aquifers: Case of Chougafiya basin (Central Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farid, Intissar; Zouari, Kamel; Rigane, Adel; Beji, Ridha

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive investigations of groundwaters were performed in the detrital and carbonate aquifers of the Chougafiya basin, central Tunisia. In the present review, hydrochemistry and isotopic tools were combined to get an insight into the processes controlling mineralization, recharge conditions, flow pattern of groundwater and C chemistry in the investigated hydrological system. Analysis of the dissolved constituents revealed that several processes controlled the observed chemical composition: (i) the dissolution of evaporitic minerals, (ii) cation exchange reactions, (iii) sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions, (iv) incongruent dissolution of carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite) coupled with gypsum dissolution and calcite precipitation, and (v) silicates weathering. Data inferred from 18O and deuterium isotopes in groundwater samples indicated recharge with modern rainfall. Water characterized by lower δ18O and δ2H values is interpreted as recharged by non-evaporated rainfall originating from Mediterranean and Atlantic air masses. However, water with relatively enriched δ18O and δ2H contents is thought to reflect the occurrence of an evaporation process related to the long term practice of flood irrigation. The radiogenic (3H) isotope data provided insight into the presence of two recharge periods in the investigated groundwaters. Waters with 3H contents of <1 TU indicated a pre-nuclear recharge. Waters with 3H contents of >1 TU clearly suggested the occurrence of a contemporaneous recharge probably during the last two decades. Carbon isotopes provided some insights into the timescales of groundwater flow, but mainly revealed that main sources of C are active in the system. These are likely: dissolved biogenic CO2, carbonate dissolution and incongruent reaction of the carbonate matrix. Mean residence times were determined after correction of the initial activities for dead C from the rock matrix and suggest ages ranging from the present day to the

  16. Family dynamics during the grieving process: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Delalibera, Mayra; Presa, Joana; Coelho, Alexandra; Barbosa, António; Franco, Maria Helena Pereira

    2015-04-01

    The loss of a loved one can affect family dynamics by changing the family system and creating the need for family members to reorganize. Good family functioning, which is characterized by open communication, expression of feelings and thoughts and cohesion among family members, facilitates adaptive adjustment to the loss. This study conducted a systematic review of the literature on family dynamics during the grieving process. A search was conducted in the EBSCO, Web of Knowledge and Bireme databases for scientific articles published from January 1980 to June 2013. Of the 389 articles found, only 15 met all the inclusion criteria. The selected studies provided evidence that dysfunctional families exhibit more psychopathological symptoms, more psychosocial morbidity, poorer social functioning, greater difficulty accessing community resources, lower functional capacity at work, and a more complicated grieving process. Family conflicts were also emphasized as contributing to the development of a complicated grieving process, while cohesion, expression of affection and good communication in families are believed to mitigate grief symptoms. PMID:25923623

  17. Modeling Central Carbon Metabolic Processes in Soil Microbial Communities: Comparing Measured With Modeled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, P.; Fairbanks, D.; Miller, E.; Salpas, E.; Hagerty, S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating C cycling is hindered by our inability to directly observe and measure the biochemical processes of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle in intact and complex microbial communities. Position-specific 13C labeled metabolic tracer probing is proposed as a new way to study microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, C use efficiency (the proportion of substrate incorporated into microbial biomass), and enables the quantification of C fluxes through the central C metabolic network processes (Dijkstra et al 2011a,b). We determined the 13CO2 production from U-13C, 1-13C, 2-13C, 3-13C, 4-13C, 5-13C, and 6-13C labeled glucose and 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate in parallel incubations in three soils along an elevation gradient. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the results indicate a high pentose phosphate pathway activity in soils. Agreement between modeled and measured CO2 production rates for the six C-atoms of 13C-labeled glucose indicate that the metabolic model used is appropriate for soil community processes, but that improvements can be made. These labeling and modeling techniques may improve our ability to analyze the biochemistry and (eco)physiology of intact microbial communities. Dijkstra, P., Blankinship, J.C., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011a. Probing C flux patterns of soil microbial metabolic networks using parallel position-specific tracer labeling. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 126-132. Dijkstra, P., Dalder, J.J., Selmants, P.C., Hart, S.C., Koch, G.W., Schwartz, E., Hungate, B.A., 2011b. Modeling soil metabolic processes using isotopologue pairs of position-specific 13C-labeled glucose and pyruvate. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43, 1848-1857.

  18. The Decision-Making Constraints and Processes of Grant Peer Review, and Their Effects on the Review Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langfeldt, Liv

    2001-01-01

    Questions how the review process affects the outcome of grant review. Considers the procedures of The Research Council of Norway which practices several different grant-review models and consequently is especially suited for explorations of the implications of different models. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  19. Central sorting and recovery of MSW recyclable materials: A review of technological state-of-the-art, cases, practice and implications for materials recycling.

    PubMed

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Jansen, Michael; Pretz, Thomas; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Today's waste regulation in the EU comprises stringent material recovery targets and calls for comprehensive programs in order to achieve them. A similar movement is seen in the US where more and more states and communities commit to high diversion rates from landfills. The present paper reviews scientific literature, case studies and results from pilot projects, on the topic of central sorting of recyclable materials commonly found in waste from households. The study contributes, inter alia, with background understanding on the development of materials recovery, both in a historical and geographical perspective. Physical processing and sorting technology has reached a high level of maturity, and many quality issues linked to cross-contamination by commingling have been successfully addressed to date. New sorting plants tend to benefit from economies of scale, and innovations in automation and process control, which are targeted at curtailing process inefficiencies shown by operational practice. Technology developed for the sorting of commingled recyclables from separate collection is also being successfully used to upgrade residual MSW processing plants. The strongest motivation for central sorting of residual MSW is found for areas where source separation and separate collection is difficult, such as urban agglomerations, and can in such areas contribute to increasing recycling rates, either complementary to- or as a substitute for source separation of certain materials, such as plastics and metals. PMID:25845999

  20. A review of greywater characteristics and treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Boyjoo, Yash; Pareek, Vishnu K; Ang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of different characteristics of greywater (GW) and current treatment methods. GW is domestic wastewater excluding toilet waste and can be classified as either low-load GW (excluding kitchen and laundry GW) or high-load GW (including kitchen and/or laundry). This review provides information on the quantity of GW produced, its constituents (macro and micro), existing guidelines for wastewater reuse, current treatment methods (from storage to disinfection) as well as related costs and environmental impacts. Moreover some successful examples from various countries around the world are examined. The current preferred treatments for GW use physical and biological/natural systems. Recently, chemical systems like coagulation, adsorption and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been considered and have been successful for low to moderate strength GW. The presence of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOC), which are hazardous micropollutants in GW, is emphasised. Since conventional treatments are not efficient at removing XOC, it is recommended that future studies look at chemical treatment, especially AOPs that have been found to be successful at mineralising recalcitrant organic compounds in wastewater. PMID:23552228

  1. Natural Language Processing in Radiology: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ewoud; Braun, Loes M M; Hunink, M G Myriam; Kors, Jan A

    2016-05-01

    Radiological reporting has generated large quantities of digital content within the electronic health record, which is potentially a valuable source of information for improving clinical care and supporting research. Although radiology reports are stored for communication and documentation of diagnostic imaging, harnessing their potential requires efficient and automated information extraction: they exist mainly as free-text clinical narrative, from which it is a major challenge to obtain structured data. Natural language processing (NLP) provides techniques that aid the conversion of text into a structured representation, and thus enables computers to derive meaning from human (ie, natural language) input. Used on radiology reports, NLP techniques enable automatic identification and extraction of information. By exploring the various purposes for their use, this review examines how radiology benefits from NLP. A systematic literature search identified 67 relevant publications describing NLP methods that support practical applications in radiology. This review takes a close look at the individual studies in terms of tasks (ie, the extracted information), the NLP methodology and tools used, and their application purpose and performance results. Additionally, limitations, future challenges, and requirements for advancing NLP in radiology will be discussed. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27089187

  2. Nursing Process in Post Tonsillectomy Pain Diagnosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Soleymanifard, Fateme; Khademolhoseyni, Seyyed Mohamad; Nouri, Jamile Mokhtari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Tonsillectomy is the most common surgery in the field of ENT. Pain is the most common post tonsillectomy complaint. Considering the importance of nursing cares in relieving post-surgery pain in general and post-tonsillectomy pain in particular, this study is conducted with the aim of presenting nursing process in post tonsillectomy pain diagnosis for decreasing loss of appropriate opportunities in nursing cares and achieving appropriate results in taking care of the patients. Methods: This study is a targeted systematic review focusing on “effective nursing measures in relieving children’s post tonsillectomy pain”. The main stages of searching strategy included searching in electronic sources of Latin databases; Pub Med, Science Direct, and EMBASE and Persian databases; SID, Iran medex, ISC to find published articles from 2009 to 2014. In the end, final synthesis was done on eight articles in English. Findings: Effective nursing measurements for relieving post tonsillectomy pain include: decreasing children’s anxiety through children and their families’ psychological preparation by nurses and other caregivers, using cold compress to reduce neck and jaw pain, presenting distraction techniques, offering fluids and cold foods immediately in the period after surgery, creating a comfortable environment for the children, avoiding too much of talking and adequate sleep. Conclusion: It is recommended to the nursing managers and nurses to perform cares achieved from this systematic review to achieve appropriate results in relieving post tonsillectomy pain. PMID:25560345

  3. A Quantitative Analysis of Rift Processes in the Northern North Sea and Central Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryon, J. G.; White, N. J.

    2003-12-01

    Actively extending sedimentary basins provide a snapshot of the way in which basins evolve. Our observations from such regions are temporally limited: we have little understanding of the long-term processes involved but an excellent understanding of the short-term motions (100-102 years). The converse is true of tectonically dead basins where the deformation has ceased and only the end product can be observed. Studies of active basin formation in central Greece have provided a quantitative understanding of the kinematics of extensional tectonics. The use of GPS, SAR interferometry and geomorphological analysis has constrained the rate of extension and fault kinematics and geometries. Central Greece has often been cited as a present-day analogue for formation of the now inactive East Shetland Basin (ESB) in the northern North Sea. A large 3D seismic dataset has been compiled giving complete coverage of the ESB, a region comparable in size to central Greece ( ˜10,000 km2). A quantitative comparison between Greece and the ESB will close the gap in knowledge between short-term and long-term motions. Whilst the two regions have many features in common, such as tilted fault blocks, fault segments of comparable length and similar fault geometries, there are also important differences. For example, one difference between Greece and the northern North Sea is the rate of extension. The North Sea had a peak strain rate that was an order of magnitude slower than the rate at which Greece is currently extending across the gulfs of Corinth and Evia. Another difference is that the distance between large active faults in Greece appears to be significantly longer than in the ESB. A specific example of this difference in scale is the Tern-Eider ridge, which is a horst block in the ESB that appears superficially similar to the island of Evia in Greece. However, the rigid island of Evia is significantly wider than the Tern-Eider ridge. A link between this inter-fault distance and

  4. 20 CFR 418.1340 - What are the rules for our administrative review process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Review Process § 418.1340 What are the rules for our administrative review process? To the extent that... reconsidered determinations, we will use the same rules for the administrative review process that we use for... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the rules for our...

  5. Visual processing of coherent rotation in the central visual field: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Mervi; Pääkkönen, Ari; Pihlajamäki, Maija; Partanen, Kaarina; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Soimakallio, Seppo; Aronen, Hannu J

    2003-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the brain areas that process coherent motion. To reduce the activity related to eye-movement planning and self-motion perception, rotation was used as coherent motion and the stimulus was restricted to the central visual field. Coherent rotation relative to incoherent random-dot motion resulted in consistent activation in the superior parietal lobule (SPL), in the lateral occipital gyrus (presumptive kinetic occipital region, KO), and in the fusiform gyrus (FG). The main novel finding in present study is the bilateral SPL activation, which has not been found in any previous study contrasting coherent and incoherent motion. It is suggested that the SPL activation is related to form-from-motion processing. The stimulus modification that prevented abrupt appearances of dots at the borders of the stimulus field increased the strength of rolling disk-like percept of the coherent stimulus. This perception of form may also be at least partly responsible for the activation in KO and FG. With this explanation, our three consistent activation areas are in line with previous findings. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that even delicate changes in some stimulus aspects can lead to significant changes in the activation of the brain. PMID:14700259

  6. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products. PMID:27109117

  7. [New approaches in the study of neuroplasticity process in patients with central nervous system lesion].

    PubMed

    Chernikova, L A; Kremneva, E I; Cherviakov, A V; Saenko, I V; Konovalov, R N; Piramidov, M A; Kozlovskaia, I B

    2013-01-01

    Methods which on one hand can ensure the patient's mobility and on other hand activate afferents inputs are the main in rehabilitation treatment. Recent studies has shown that plasticity is structural base of recovery after central nervous system injury. Reorganization of cortical areas and increase of preserved structures functional effectiveness (intensification afferent input) are an anatomical basis of plasticity. However, sensory correction methods, without accounting of functional condition of patients, can lead to the formation of pathological symptoms: spasticity, hyperreflexia, etc. So the main aim is to study adequate management of the neuroplasticity process. This problem cannot be solving without modern methods of neuroimaging and brain mapping. The new approach for study cortical mechanisms of neuroplasticity, responsible for locomotion, was developed in the present study. This approach is complex use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and navigation transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS). It was showed that vast fMRI activation area in the first and the second sensorimotor area emerges with passive sensorimotor paradigm using that imitate backing load during walking. The mechanical stimulator footsteps backing zones "Corvit" uses for create this paradigm, nTMS examination, which used after fMRI, help localize the motor representation of muscles which control locomotion more accurately. We guess that new approach can be used for neuroplasticity process study and assessment of neuroplasticity changes during rehabilitation for restore and correct the walking. PMID:23885553

  8. Mobilisation processes responsible for iron and manganese contamination of groundwater in Central Adriatic Italy.

    PubMed

    Palmucci, William; Rusi, Sergio; Di Curzio, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Iron and manganese are two of the most common contaminants that exceed the threshold imposed by international and national legislation. When these contamination occurs in groundwater, the use of the water resource is forbidden for any purposes. Several studies investigated these two metals in groundwater, but research focused in the Central Adriatic area are still lacking. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the origin of Fe and Mn contamination in groundwater and the hydrogeochemical processes that can enrich aquifers with these metals. This work is based on hydrogeochemical and multivariate statistical analysis of analytical results undertaken on soils and groundwater. Fe and Mn contamination are widespread in the alluvial aquifers, and their distribution is regulated by local conditions (i.e. long residence time, presence of peat or organic-rich fine sediments or anthropic pollution) that control redox processes in the aquifers and favour the mobilisation of these two metals in groundwater. The concentration of iron and manganese identified within soil indicates that the latter are a concrete source of the two metals. Anthropic impact on Fe and Mn contamination of groundwater is not related to agricultural activities, but on the contrary, the contribution of hydrocarbons (e.g. spills) is evident. PMID:26948970

  9. Maturation of the Central Auditory Nervous System in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tomlin, Dani; Rance, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental delay has been proposed as the underlying cause of the majority of cases of auditory processing disorder (APD). The current study employs the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) to assess if maturational differences of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) can be identified between children who do and do not meet the diagnostic criterion for APD. The P1-N1 complex of the CAEP has previously been used for tracking development of the CANS in children with hearing impairment. Twenty-seven children (7 to 12 years old) who failed an APD behavioral test battery were age-matched (within 3 months) to children who had passed the same battery. CAEP responses to 500-Hz tone burst stimuli were recorded and analyzed for latency and amplitude measures. The P1-N1 complex of the CAEP, which has previously been used for tracking development of the CANS in children with hearing impairment, showed significant group differences. The children diagnosed with APD showed significantly increased latency (∼10 milliseconds) and significantly reduced amplitude (∼10 μV) of the early components of the CAEP compared with children with normal auditory processing. No significant differences were seen in the later P2 wave. The normal developmental course is for a decrease in latency and increase in amplitude as a function of age. The results of this study are, therefore, consistent with an immaturity of the CANS as an underlying cause of APD in children. PMID:27587924

  10. Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W.O.; McFarlane, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

  11. Classification, processing and application of hydrogels: A review.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Faheem; Othman, Muhammad Bisyrul Hafi; Javed, Fatima; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Md Akil, Hazizan

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to review the literature concerning the choice of selectivity for hydrogels based on classification, application and processing. Super porous hydrogels (SPHs) and superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) represent an innovative category of recent generation highlighted as an ideal mould system for the study of solution-dependent phenomena. Hydrogels, also termed as smart and/or hungry networks, are currently subject of considerable scientific research due to their potential in hi-tech applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, bioseparation, biosensor, agriculture, oil recovery and cosmetics fields. Smart hydrogels display a significant physiochemical change in response to small changes in the surroundings. However, such changes are reversible; therefore, the hydrogels are capable of returning to its initial state after a reaction as soon as the trigger is removed. PMID:26354282

  12. Subduction and collision processes in the Central Andes constrained by converted seismic phases.

    PubMed

    Yuan, X; Sobolev, S V; Kind, R; Oncken, O; Bock, G; Asch, G; Schurr, B; Graeber, F; Rudloff, A; Hanka, W; Wylegalla, K; Tibi, R; Haberland, C; Rietbrock, A; Giese, P; Wigger, P; Röwer, P; Zandt, G; Beck, S; Wallace, T; Pardo, M; Comte, D

    The Central Andes are the Earth's highest mountain belt formed by ocean-continent collision. Most of this uplift is thought to have occurred in the past 20 Myr, owing mainly to thickening of the continental crust, dominated by tectonic shortening. Here we use P-to-S (compressional-to-shear) converted teleseismic waves observed on several temporary networks in the Central Andes to image the deep structure associated with these tectonic processes. We find that the Moho (the Mohorovicić discontinuity--generally thought to separate crust from mantle) ranges from a depth of 75 km under the Altiplano plateau to 50 km beneath the 4-km-high Puna plateau. This relatively thin crust below such a high-elevation region indicates that thinning of the lithospheric mantle may have contributed to the uplift of the Puna plateau. We have also imaged the subducted crust of the Nazca oceanic plate down to 120 km depth, where it becomes invisible to converted teleseismic waves, probably owing to completion of the gabbro-eclogite transformation; this is direct evidence for the presence of kinetically delayed metamorphic reactions in subducting plates. Most of the intermediate-depth seismicity in the subducting plate stops at 120 km depth as well, suggesting a relation with this transformation. We see an intracrustal low-velocity zone, 10-20 km thick, below the entire Altiplano and Puna plateaux, which we interpret as a zone of continuing metamorphism and partial melting that decouples upper-crustal imbrication from lower-crustal thickening. PMID:11140679

  13. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xinwen; Sakka, Yoshio

    2008-07-01

    Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4) has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW) and templated grain growth (TGG). The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3 N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured α-Sialon using the

  15. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches. PMID:27626084

  16. Global transcriptomic analysis of Cyanothece 51142 reveals robust diurnal oscillation of central metabolic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh V.; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-04-22

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, and the only prokaryotes known to have a circadian cycle. Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece 51142 can fix atmospheric nitrogen, a process exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. Thus, the intracellular environment of Cyanothece oscillates between aerobic and anaerobic conditions during a day-night cycle. This is accomplished by temporal separation of two processes: photosynthesis during the day, and nitrogen fixation at night. While previous studies have examined periodic changes transcript levels for a limited number of genes in Cyanothece and other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, a comprehensive study of transcriptional activity in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium is necessary to understand the impact of the temporal separation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation on global gene regulation and cellular metabolism. We have examined the expression patterns of nearly 5000 genes in Cyanothece 51142 during two consecutive diurnal periods. We found that ~30% of these genes exhibited robust oscillating expression profiles. Interestingly, this set included genes for almost all central metabolic processes in Cyanothece. A transcriptional network of all genes with significantly oscillating transcript levels revealed that the majority of genes in numerous individual pathways, such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and glycogen metabolism, were co-regulated and maximally expressed at distinct phases during the diurnal cycle. Our analyses suggest that the demands of nitrogen fixation greatly influence major metabolic activities inside Cyanothece cells and thus drive various cellular activities. These studies provide a comprehensive picture of how a physiologically relevant diurnal light-dark cycle influences the metabolism in a photosynthetic bacterium

  17. Association of Central Versus Brachial Blood Pressure With Target-Organ Damage: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kollias, Anastasios; Lagou, Styliani; Zeniodi, Maria Elena; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Stergiou, George S

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that central blood pressure (BP) may reflect the hemodynamic stress on target organs more accurately than brachial BP. A systematic review assessing the relationship of central versus brachial BP with preclinical target-organ damage was performed. Meta-analysis of cross-sectional data showed that central compared with brachial systolic BP was more closely associated with (1) left ventricular mass index (12 studies, n=6431; weighted age [SD], 49.9 [13.1] years; 51% hypertensives): pooled correlation coefficients r=0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.23-0.37 versus r=0.26; 95% CI, 0.19-0.33, respectively; P<0.01 for difference; (2) carotid intima-media thickness (7 studies, n=6136; weighted age, 55.6 [13.2] years; 48% hypertensives): r=0.27; 95% CI, 0.19-0.34 versus r=0.23; 95% CI, 0.16-0.30, respectively; P<0.01 for difference; (3) pulse-wave velocity (14 studies, n=3699; weighted age, 53.9 [13.3] years; 53% hypertensives): r=0.42; 95% CI, 0.37-0.47 versus r=0.39; 95% CI, 0.33-0.45, respectively; P<0.01 for difference. Four studies assessing urine albumin excretion (n=3718; weighted age, 56.4 [5] years; 69% hypertensives) reported similar correlations (P=not significant) with central (r=0.22; 95% CI, 0.14-0.29) and brachial systolic BP (r=0.22; 95% CI, 0.12-0.32). Similar findings were observed for central compared with brachial pulse pressure in terms of relationship with target-organ damage. Metaregression analyses did not reveal any significant effect of age. In conclusion, central compared with brachial BP seems to be more strongly associated with most of the investigated indices of preclinical organ damage. PMID:26597821

  18. Review of the Molten Salt Electric Experiment: A solar central receiver project

    SciTech Connect

    Delameter, W.R.; Bergan, N.E.

    1986-12-01

    The Molten Salt Electric Experiment was the first full solar-to-electric central receiver system to use molten nitrate salt as a primary working fluid. The experiment was built and tested at the Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between 1982 and 1985. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a molten salt central receiver system. The Molten Salt Electric Experiment was operated through a year of successful testing; system performance was measured, operating procedures and an effective receiver control algorithm were developed, and personnel from participating electrical utilities and solar industries were trained to operate the system. The testing culminated in a one-month power production campaign to measure daily performance, component reliability, and system availability. This paper discusses the major accomplishments and some of the more significant problems of the project.

  19. A qualitative systematic review of studies using the normalization process theory to research implementation processes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a well-recognized need for greater use of theory to address research translational gaps. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a set of sociological tools to understand and explain the social processes through which new or modified practices of thinking, enacting, and organizing work are implemented, embedded, and integrated in healthcare and other organizational settings. This review of NPT offers readers the opportunity to observe how, and in what areas, a particular theoretical approach to implementation is being used. In this article we review the literature on NPT in order to understand what interventions NPT is being used to analyze, how NPT is being operationalized, and the reported benefits, if any, of using NPT. Methods Using a framework analysis approach, we conducted a qualitative systematic review of peer-reviewed literature using NPT. We searched 12 electronic databases and all citations linked to six key NPT development papers. Grey literature/unpublished studies were not sought. Limitations of English language, healthcare setting and year of publication 2006 to June 2012 were set. Results Twenty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria; in the main, NPT is being applied to qualitatively analyze a diverse range of complex interventions, many beyond its original field of e-health and telehealth. The NPT constructs have high stability across settings and, notwithstanding challenges in applying NPT in terms of managing overlaps between constructs, there is evidence that it is a beneficial heuristic device to explain and guide implementation processes. Conclusions NPT offers a generalizable framework that can be applied across contexts with opportunities for incremental knowledge gain over time and an explicit framework for analysis, which can explain and potentially shape implementation processes. This is the first review of NPT in use and it generates an impetus for further and extended use of NPT. We recommend that in future

  20. 78 FR 52204 - Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request: NIH NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... review. The benefits to the National Clinical Trials Network and Experimental Therapy-Clinical Trials Network include a cost efficient approach that avoids duplication of efforts at each institution. A... Participants 15 1 15/60 4 Documents. Adult Initial Review of Cooperative Group Board Members 15 1 4 60...

  1. Central pontine myelinolysis: a case report and clinical-pathological review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa; Fayek, Sameh; Rand, Elizabeth B; Feygin, Tamara; Khrichenko, Dmitry; Shaked, Abraham

    2012-09-01

    An 11-yr-old child presented with acute mental status changes and spastic quadriplegia after orthotopic liver transplantation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings were consistent with central pontine and EPM. Initial immunosuppression included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids. Given that neurotoxicity is a well-established side effect of CNI, the patient was converted to rapamycin and subsequently experienced significant neurologic recovery. The temporal resolution of the patient's symptoms suggests that prompt recognition of central pontine and EPM and conversion from tacrolimus to rapamycin during the early post-operative course may have therapeutic benefits for patients undergoing pediatric transplant with CNI-related neurotoxicity. PMID:22023701

  2. Exploring the Neuroimmunopharmacology of Opioids: An Integrative Review of Mechanisms of Central Immune Signaling and Their Implications for Opioid Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Shavit, Yehuda; Grace, Peter M.; Rice, Kenner C.; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Vastly stimulated by the discovery of opioid receptors in the early 1970s, preclinical and clinical research was directed at the study of stereoselective neuronal actions of opioids, especially those played in their crucial analgesic role. However, during the past decade, a new appreciation of the non-neuronal actions of opioids has emerged from preclinical research, with specific appreciation for the nonclassic and nonstereoselective sites of action. Opioid activity at Toll-like receptors, newly recognized innate immune pattern recognition receptors, adds substantially to this unfolding story. It is now apparent from molecular and rodent data that these newly identified signaling events significantly modify the pharmacodynamics of opioids by eliciting proinflammatory reactivity from glia, the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system. These central immune signaling events, including the release of cytokines and chemokines and the associated disruption of glutamate homeostasis, cause elevated neuronal excitability, which subsequently decreases opioid analgesic efficacy and leads to heightened pain states. This review will examine the current preclinical literature of opioid-induced central immune signaling mediated by classic and nonclassic opioid receptors. A unification of the preclinical pharmacology, neuroscience, and immunology of opioids now provides new insights into common mechanisms of chronic pain, naive tolerance, analgesic tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and allodynia. Novel pharmacological targets for future drug development are discussed in the hope that disease-modifying chronic pain treatments arising from the appreciation of opioid-induced central immune signaling may become practical. PMID:21752874

  3. Open, single-blind, double-blind: which peer review process do you prefer?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology was created from the merger of two journals within the BMC series published by BioMed Central: BMC Pharmacology and BMC Clinical Pharmacology. BMC Pharmacology operated anonymous peer review whereas BMC Clinical Pharmacology operated a fully open peer review policy where the identity of the reviewers was known to the editors, authors and readers. The merged journal also adopted a fully open peer review policy. Two years on we discuss the views and experiences of our Editorial Board Members towards open peer review on this biomedical journal. PMID:25266119

  4. Nanoemulsion: process selection and application in cosmetics--a review.

    PubMed

    Yukuyama, M N; Ghisleni, D D M; Pinto, T J A; Bou-Chacra, N A

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, considerable and continuous growth in consumer demand in the cosmetics field has spurred the development of sophisticated formulations, aiming at high performance, attractive appearance, sensorial benefit and safety. Yet despite increasing demand from consumers, the formulator faces certain restrictions regarding the optimum equilibrium between the active compound concentration and the formulation base taking into account the nature of the skin structure, mainly concerning to the ideal penetration of the active compound, due to the natural skin barrier. Emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible phases, and the interest in nanoscale emulsion has been growing considerably in recent decades due to its specific attributes such as high stability, attractive appearance and drug delivery properties; therefore, performance is expected to improve using a lipid-based nanocarrier. Nanoemulsions are generated by different approaches: the so-called high-energy and low-energy methods. The global overview of these mechanisms and different alternatives for each method are presented in this paper, along with their benefits and drawbacks. As a cosmetics formulation is reflected in product delivery to consumers, nanoemulsion development with prospects for large-scale production is one of the key attributes in the method selection process. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the main high- and low-energy methods applicable in cosmetics and dermatological product development, their specificities, recent research on these methods in the cosmetics and consideration for the process selection optimization. The specific process with regard to inorganic nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles and nanocapsule formulation is not considered in this paper. PMID:26171789

  5. Central and peripheral peptides regulating eating behaviour and energy homeostasis in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, Alfonso; Brambilla, Francesca; Fabrazzo, Michele; Volpe, Umberto; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Mastromo, Daniele; Monteleone, Palmiero

    2014-09-01

    A large body of literature suggests the occurrence of a dysregulation in both central and peripheral modulators of appetite in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), but at the moment, the state or trait-dependent nature of those changes is far from being clear. It has been proposed, although not definitively proved, that peptide alterations, even when secondary to malnutrition and/or to aberrant eating behaviours, might contribute to the genesis and the maintenance of some symptomatic aspects of AN and BN, thus affecting the course and the prognosis of these disorders. This review focuses on the most significant literature studies that explored the physiology of those central and peripheral peptides, which have prominent effects on eating behaviour, body weight and energy homeostasis in patients with AN and BN. The relevance of peptide dysfunctions for the pathophysiology of eating disorders is critically discussed. PMID:24942507

  6. Licensing the future: report on BioMed Central's public consultation on open data in peer-reviewed journals.

    PubMed

    Hrynaszkiewicz, Iain; Busch, Stefan; Cockerill, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    We report the outcomes of BioMed Central's public consultation on implementing open data-compliant licensing in peer-reviewed open access journals. Respondents (42) to the 2012 consultation were six to one in favor (29 in support; 5 against; 8 abstentions) of changing our authors' default open access copyright license agreement, to introduce the Creative Commons CC0 public domain waiver for data published in BioMed Central's journals. We summarize the different questions we received in response to the consultation and our responses to them - matters such as citation, plagiarism, patient privacy, and commercial use were raised. In light of the support for open data in our journals we outline our plans to implement, in September 2013, a combined Creative Commons Attribution license for published articles (papers) and Creative Commons CC0 waiver for published data. PMID:23962139

  7. REVIEW ARTICLE: In vivo magnetic resonance imaging: insights into structure and function of the central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natt, Oliver; Frahm, Jens

    2005-04-01

    Spatially resolved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques provide structural, metabolic and functional insights into the central nervous system and allow for repetitive in vivo studies of both humans and animals. Complementing its prominent role in diagnostic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved into an indispensable research tool in system-oriented neurobiology where contributions to functional genomics and translational medicine bridge the gap from molecular biology to animal models and clinical applications. This review presents an overview on some of the most relevant advances in MRI. An introduction covering the basic principles is followed by a discussion of technological improvements in instrumentation and imaging sequences including recent developments in parallel acquisition techniques. Because MRI is noninvasive in contrast to most other imaging modalities, examples focus on in vivo studies of the central nervous system in a variety of species ranging from humans to mice and insects.

  8. A review of the North and Central American Megachile subgenus Argyropile subgenus Argyropile mitchell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A synopsis of the North and Central American subgenus Megachile (Argyropile) and an illustrated key to the species in Spanish and English are provided, Megachile longuisetosa Gonzalez & Griswold, new species, from Mexico and Guatemala, and the previously unknown males of M. sabinensis and M. rossi a...

  9. Seasonal dynamics of physical and biological processes in the central California Current System: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lin; Chai, Fei; Xiu, Peng; Xue, Huijie; Rao, Shivanesh; Liu, Yuguang; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2014-08-01

    A 3-D physical and biological model is used to study the seasonal dynamics of physical and biological processes in the central California Current System. Comparisons of model results with remote sensing and in situ observations along CalCOFI Line 67 indicate our model can capture the spatial variations of key variables (temperature, nutrients, chlorophyll, and so on) on annual mean and seasonal cycle. In the coastal upwelling system, it is the alongshore wind stress that upwells high nutrients to surface from 60 m and stimulates enhanced plankton biomass and productivity in the upwelling season. As a result, coastal species peak in the late upwelling period (May-July), and oceanic species reach the annual maxima in the oceanic period (August-October). The annual maximum occurs in the late upwelling period for new production and in the oceanic period for regenerated production. From the late upwelling period to the oceanic period, stratification is intensified while coastal upwelling becomes weaker. Correspondingly, the coastal ecosystem retreats from ˜300 to ˜100 km offshore with significant decline in chlorophyll and primary production, and the oceanic ecosystem moves onshore. During this transition, the decline in phytoplankton biomass is due to the grazing pressure by mesozooplankton in the 0-150 km domain, but is regulated by low growth rates in the 150-500 km offshore domain. Meanwhile, the growth rates of phytoplankton increase in the coastal waters due to deeper light penetration, while the decrease in offshore growth rates is caused by lower nitrate concentrations.

  10. 42 CFR 456.436 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in the ICF, the group or its designee reviews and evaluates the documentation described under § 456... the ICF is needed, the group assigns a new continued stay review date in accordance with § 456.434; (e... the review under paragraph (h) of this section find that the recipient no longer needs ICF...

  11. IMPLEMENTING THE NFPA 805 PROCESS: Observations of a Technical Reviewer

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Steven M.; Coles, Garill A.; Bohlander, Karl L.; Layton, Robert F.; Ivans, William J.; dePeralta, Fleurdeliza A.; Lowry, Peter P.

    2015-04-26

    submittals, PNNL is in a position to observe the array of implementation tactics taken in these submittals, and observe different ways licensees are making the NFPA 805 process work. For example, we see differences in how fire areas are being transitioned, the kinds of plant modifications being implemented, the changes being made to plant procedures, the number and types of recovery actions being credited, and the kinds and extent of detailed modeling being performed in support of the Fire PRAs. As a caveat, we note that it is probably too early to comment on the overall success or limitations of the NFPA 805 process or provide lessons learned for the future. Furthermore, it is not our intention to endorse any particular approach taken in a submittal over another or to critique the industry or the regulator. Rather our goal in this paper is to summarize a set of interesting and useful differences across submittals that may provide context for further future discussions about what we (i.e., reviewers, industry, and regulators) have learned in being part of the NFPA process; and how to best use that information to inform future NFPA 805 activities or other risk-informed endeavors.

  12. A Review of Medical and Substance Use Co-Morbidities in Central Asian Prisons: Implications for HIV Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Polonsky, Maxim; Kerimi, Nina; Mamyrov, Mirlan; Dvoryak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV incidence in Central Asia is rising rapidly. People who inject drugs (PWIDs) contribute greatest to the epidemic, with more than a quarter of all HIV cases being in the criminal justice system (CJS). This review assembled and aggregated recent data on drug-related health problems and respective healthcare services in the CJS of Central Asia and the Republic of Azerbaijan. Methods Online databases and published literature (peer-reviewed and grey) were reviewed. Additionally, prison officials in the 6 countries were invited to participate in a survey and prison administrators from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan completed it. Results The data on conditions and healthcare in Central Asian prisons are inconsistent and lack unbiased details. Reporting is primarily based on “official” disease registries, which markedly underestimate prevalence. Even these limited data, however, indicate that HIV prevalence and drug-related health problems are high, concentrated and, in some countries, rising rapidly. Only some of the range of HIV prevention interventions recommended by international organizations have been implemented in the region with two of the crucial interventions, needle and syringe exchange programs (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST), only available in Kyrgyzstan prisons, with Tajikistan implementing a pilot NSP and contemplating introduction of prison-based OST. Conclusions Despite deficiencies in routine health reporting and insufficient HIV sentinel surveillance undertaken in prisons, the data available on the concentration of HIV within at-risk populations in prisons indicate a necessity to broaden the range and increase the scale the scale of HIV prevention and treatment services. PMID:23932844

  13. 75 FR 49938 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Review (FR) 1450 1 10/60 (.17 hour)......... 247 Acceptance Form (Attachment 2L). Participants Study... Board Member Non- 16 1 15/60 (.25 hour)......... 4 Disclosure Agreement (NDA) (Attachment 3E)....

  14. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Pauline

    1972-01-01

    A case is described in which the clinical and pathological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) occurred in a patient with cysticercosis of the central nervous system and associated pachymeningitis of the cervical spinal cord. This is an extremely rare finding. The patient also presented the two symptom complexes more commonly encountered in this condition: focal and generalized epilepsy, and signs of obstructive hydrocephalus. The literature relevant to this case, and to cysticercosis in Great Britain, is briefly reviewed. The case described adds to the concept of motor neurone disease as a syndrome rather than a disease entity of undetermined aetiology. Images PMID:5026014

  15. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty. PMID:24846528

  16. 34 CFR 350.50 - What is the peer review process for this Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the peer review process for this Program? 350... peer review process for this Program? (a) The Secretary refers each application for a grant governed by those regulations in this part to a peer review panel established by the Secretary. (b) Peer...

  17. 34 CFR 350.50 - What is the peer review process for this Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the peer review process for this Program? 350... peer review process for this Program? (a) The Secretary refers each application for a grant governed by those regulations in this part to a peer review panel established by the Secretary. (b) Peer...

  18. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  19. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  20. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  1. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  2. 34 CFR 350.50 - What is the peer review process for this Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the peer review process for this Program? 350... peer review process for this Program? (a) The Secretary refers each application for a grant governed by those regulations in this part to a peer review panel established by the Secretary. (b) Peer...

  3. 30 CFR 250.209 - What is the MMS review process for the notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the MMS review process for the notice? 250.209 Section 250.209 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Activities § 250.209 What is the MMS review process for the notice? The Regional Supervisor will review...

  4. Intravascular Lymphomatosis Mimicking Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Oomura, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Shugo; Wakita, Atsushi; Mori, Yuji; Kamimoto, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a 75-year-old female patient with intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) who presented with fever of unknown origin. Examination, including contrast-enhanced CT and 67Ga scintigraphy, failed to show any lesions. Her blood levels of lactate dehydrogenase and soluble interleukin-2 receptors were high, suggesting a lymphomatous tumor. A bone marrow puncture was negative, and a random skin biopsy revealed a monoclonal proliferation of naked, large lymphocytes in the vascular space of the subcutaneous tissue, confirming the diagnosis of IVL. MRI, performed 7 weeks after admission, showed a brain mass mimicking primary central nervous system lymphoma. The mass was considered to be a collection of malignant lymphocyte cells invading from the vessels. Without the random skin biopsy, this case may have been misdiagnosed as primary central nervous system lymphoma. PMID:24761147

  5. Impact of prophylactic central neck dissection on oncologic outcomes of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Mamelle, Elisabeth; Borget, Isabelle; Leboulleux, Sophie; Mirghani, Haïtham; Suárez, Carlos; Pellitteri, Phillip K.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K. Thomas; Khafif, Avi; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Silver, Carl E.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio; Hartl, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic neck dissection (PND) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is controversial. Our aim was to assess current levels of evidence (LE) according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine (http://www.cebm.net/?O=1025) regarding the oncologic benefits of PND. Data were analyzed via MEDLINE key-words: PTC, differentiated thyroid carcinoma, PND, central lymph node metastases, central compartment, recurrence-free survival. There was conflicting evidence regarding the rate of reoperation for recurrence, with some studies showing a lower rate after PND with increased recurrence-free survival and a higher rate of undetectable pre- and post-ablation thyroglobulin levels (LE 4), whereas other studies did not show a difference (LE 4). Only one study (LE 4) showed improved disease-specific survival with PND. PND may improve recurrence-free survival, although this is supported by only a low LE. Current recommendations can only be based on low-level evidence. PMID:25022716

  6. A Review of Aeromagnetic Anomalies in the Sawatch Range, Central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki

    2010-01-01

    This report contains digital data and image files of aeromagnetic anomalies in the Sawatch Range of central Colorado. The primary product is a data layer of polygons with linked data records that summarize previous interpretations of aeromagnetic anomalies in this region. None of these data files and images are new; rather, they are presented in updated formats that are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map-plotting packages.

  7. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion: A Literature Review and the Rationale for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    PubMed

    Olson, Evan A; Lentz, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Central retinal artery occlusion is visually devastating and has no proven treatments. The therapeutic interval between symptom onset and potentially sight-saving intervention is narrow. Traditional conservative approaches include digital massage, administration of systemic vasodilators and diuretics, and lowering of intraocular pressure. Systemic and targeted fibrinolytic therapy is under investigation but is associated with significant adverse reactions. We report a case in which hyperbaric oxygen therapy restored retinal perfusion, and the patient's vision was improved. PMID:27039492

  8. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals

    PubMed Central

    Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process. Methods and Findings Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals’ websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors’ ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal’s impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA) journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Results show high reliability across items (α = .91) and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar. Conclusions The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic

  9. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a discussion of proposed

  10. The ISO 14001 EMS Implementation Process and Its Implications: A Case Study of Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed

    2000-02-01

    / This study aims to investigate the ISO 14001 implementation process and its implications for regional environmental management. The region of Central Japan (known as Chubu in Japanese, which literally means center) was chosen for this case study. The study focuses on selected issues such as the: (1) trends and motives of private firms in the implementation of an ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS); (2) obstacles during system implementation; (3) role of the system in enhancing environmental performance within the certified organization; and (4) relation between the major stakeholders, local citizens, governments, and firms after adopting the system. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was mailed to all certified firms in the region. A 58% response was achieved overall. The results show that the main aims behind the adoption of ISO 14001 by firms in the Chubu region are to improve the environmental aspects within the enterprises and to enhance the employees' environmental awareness and capacity. The results have also shown that the ISO 14001-based EMS has had a great effect on a firm's environmental status as certified firms have claimed that natural resources such as fuel, water, and paper consumption have been more efficiently managed after adopting the system. Implementation of the system causes the firms to consider the role of the local people and the government in more effectively involving the local people in the firm's daily environmental activities. It also helps to enhance the environmental awareness among the local people. Adopting the system also promotes a better relation within the enterprises affiliated to the same group, such as more attention given by the parent firms (head offices) towards other firms working for the same group, or branches-mainly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)-in the field of EMS. Finally, the results show that firms give serious consideration to their final products' impacts on the

  11. Historical changes in the shoreline and littoral processes on a headland bay beach in central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Carolina; Quezada, Matías; Rubio, Patricio

    2011-12-01

    We applied parabolic and logarithmic adjustments and methods of cartographic overlay to the sandy littoral of Concón bay (Central Chile) to determine the changes associated with the shoreline and their relation with littoral processes, in a typical bay on an active continental margin and with a microtidal regime. A set of historical reference points was built by means of aerial photographs and topographies for the period 1945-2008. Given the form of the shoreline, to the southern section of the bay we applied the classical logarithmic formula of Yasso (1965) and the functions incorporated in the Coastal Modeling System (Sistema de Modelamiento Costero, SMC) of the Universidad de Cantabria. In the northern section a method of map overlay was applied. The Oluca-SP model of the SMC was used to determine the influence of waves (refraction) on the types of changes of the shoreline. Information on waves (1985-2006), mean sea level (2001-2006) and variations in the mean size of beach sediment were used to relate the changes in the plan form of the bay. There has been little spatio-temporal variability in the shoreline of the bay over the last 65 years. The southern section had a mean shoreline retreat rate of - 0.55 m/year (1945-2008) in spite of the large variability produced in an estuary dominated by waves. The best adjustment was obtained with the logarithmic function. In the northern section the mean accretion rate was 0.39 m/year (1954-2008). The plan form and the historical changes of the shoreline are closely associated with the seasonal changes of the waves and the presence of rocky thresholds in the area. The mean sea level did not produce important effects in the types of change.

  12. The pituri story: a review of the historical literature surrounding traditional Australian Aboriginal use of nicotine in Central Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The harmful outcomes of nicotine self administration have been the focus of sustained global health education campaigns that have targeted tobacco smoking and to a lesser extent, smokeless tobacco use. 'Smokeless tobacco' infers that the nicotine is not burnt, and administration can be through a range of methods including chewing. The chewing of wild tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp.) is practiced across a broad inland area of Central Australia by traditional Aboriginal groups. Collectively these plants are known by a variety of names - one common name being 'pituri'. This is the first paper to examine the historical literature and consider the linkage between pituri use and health outcomes. Using a narrative approach, this paper reviews the literature generated since 1770 surrounding the term pituri and the behaviours associated with its use. The review examines the scientific literature, as well as the diaries and journals of nineteenth century explorers, expedition notes, and early Australian novels to expound the scientific evidence and broaden the sense of understanding related to pituri, particularly the behavioural elements. The evaluation considers the complexities of ethnobotany pertaining to language and distance and the ethnopharmacology of indigenous plant usage. The review compares the use of burnt and smokeless tobacco to pituri and establishes the foundation for research into the clinical significance and health outcomes of pituri use. Additionally, this review provides contemporary information for clinicians providing care for patients who chew pituri. PMID:20831827

  13. The pituri story: a review of the historical literature surrounding traditional Australian Aboriginal use of nicotine in Central Australia.

    PubMed

    Ratsch, Angela; Steadman, Kathryn J; Bogossian, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    The harmful outcomes of nicotine self administration have been the focus of sustained global health education campaigns that have targeted tobacco smoking and to a lesser extent, smokeless tobacco use. 'Smokeless tobacco' infers that the nicotine is not burnt, and administration can be through a range of methods including chewing.The chewing of wild tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp.) is practiced across a broad inland area of Central Australia by traditional Aboriginal groups. Collectively these plants are known by a variety of names - one common name being 'pituri'. This is the first paper to examine the historical literature and consider the linkage between pituri use and health outcomes. Using a narrative approach, this paper reviews the literature generated since 1770 surrounding the term pituri and the behaviours associated with its use. The review examines the scientific literature, as well as the diaries and journals of nineteenth century explorers, expedition notes, and early Australian novels to expound the scientific evidence and broaden the sense of understanding related to pituri, particularly the behavioural elements. The evaluation considers the complexities of ethnobotany pertaining to language and distance and the ethnopharmacology of indigenous plant usage. The review compares the use of burnt and smokeless tobacco to pituri and establishes the foundation for research into the clinical significance and health outcomes of pituri use. Additionally, this review provides contemporary information for clinicians providing care for patients who chew pituri. PMID:20831827

  14. Processing and Memory of Central versus Peripheral Information as a Function of Reading Goals: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeari, Menahem; van den Broek, Paul; Oudega, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of reading goals on the processing and memory of central and peripheral textual information. Using eye-tracking methodology, we compared the effect of four common reading goals--entertainment, presentation, studying for a close-ended (multiple-choice) questions test, and studying for an open-ended questions…

  15. A Module for Hospital Central Processing Technicians on Decontamination, Assembly and Wrapping Concepts of GYN Hysterectomy Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojcik, Roseann B.; Moseley, James L.

    This learning module can be used as an orientation guide, inservice tool, or resource guide for hospital central processing department technicians and instructors. It contains information sheets, worksheets, worksheet answers, a posttest, and posttest answers on correct procedures for decontaminating, assembling, and wrapping the medical…

  16. Application of a process-based shallow landslide hazard model over a broad area in Central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gioia, Eleonora; Speranza, Gabriella; Ferretti, Maurizio; Godt, Jonathan W.; Baum, Rex L.; Marincioni, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Process-based models are widely used for rainfall-induced shallow landslide forecasting. Previous studies have successfully applied the U.S. Geological Survey’s Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) model (Baum et al. 2002) to compute infiltration-driven changes in the hillslopes’ factor of safety on small scales (i.e., tens of square kilometers). Soil data input for such models are difficult to obtain across larger regions. This work describes a novel methodology for the application of TRIGRS over broad areas with relatively uniform hydrogeological properties. The study area is a 550-km2 region in Central Italy covered by post-orogenic Quaternary sediments. Due to the lack of field data, we assigned mechanical and hydrological property values through a statistical analysis based on literature review of soils matching the local lithologies. We calibrated the model using rainfall data from 25 historical rainfall events that triggered landslides. We compared the variation of pressure head and factor of safety with the landslide occurrence to identify the best fitting input conditions. Using calibrated inputs and a soil depth model, we ran TRIGRS for the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, comparing the model’s output with a shallow landslide inventory, shows that TRIGRS effectively simulated the instability conditions in the post-orogenic complex during historical rainfall scenarios. The implication of this work is that rainfall-induced landslides over large regions may be predicted by a deterministic model, even where data on geotechnical and hydraulic properties as well as temporal changes in topography or subsurface conditions are not available.

  17. Sedimentary signatures and processes during marine bolide impacts: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dypvik, Henning; Jansa, Lubomir F.

    2003-10-01

    Studies of submarine impact craters resulting from impacts of comets or asteroids demonstrate that the presence of water and the physical properties of target rocks have a major influence on sedimentary processes associated with meteorite impacts. This results in difference in sedimentary signature of bolide impacts in marine environments compared to subaerial impact craters. In subaerial impacts, the targets are commonly hard rocks, frequently of igneous and/or metamorphic origin, whereas in submarine impacts, the targets are mostly unconsolidated or poorly lithified sediments, or sedimentary rocks, with high volumes of pore water. Such differences result in variability in crater morphology and in sedimentary processes inside and outside the impact area. Impacts in shallow-water marine (neritic) environments produced craters with low or absent rims and wide and shallow brims, as characterize by both the Montagnais (on the Scotian shelf), the Mjølnir (in the Barents Sea), 45 and 40 km in diameter, respectively, and the Chesapeake Bay (90 km in diameter). Lack of elevated rims is thought to be the result of current reworking and resurge of the water back into the excavated cavity, as the water in the crater is vaporized. During this process, resurge gullies can be cut across the rim, while mass- and debris-flows, turbidites, and other gravity deposits are produced as results of tsunami and crater-wall and central high collapse, during and after the crater excavation stage. Such deposits are found both within and outside the crater structure. The only difference between gravity deposits triggered by an impact or other rare events, such as earthquakes, is the admixture of various melt particles and possible enrichments in iridium in the former. Impacts near the shelf edge may cause partial collapse of the continental margin as shown by the Montagnais and Chicxulub impacts. Some of the gravity and debris flows generated by margin collapse may be channelized, with

  18. If it quacks like a duck: reviewing health care providers' speech restrictions under the first prong of Central Hudson.

    PubMed

    Fultz, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    The First Amendment protects the speech of health care providers. This protection can limit states' abilities to protect patients from harmful therapies involving speech, such as sexual orientation change efforts. Because providers' speech is more similar to commercial speech than traditional political discourse, it is possible to create a First Amendment review analysis that better balances states' police powers with providers' First Amendment rights. Under a "single-prong" approach, the first prong of Central Hudson can be used to identify quackery, which is analogous to false or misleading commercial speech and would therefore be outside the protection of the First Amendment. Because health care must be tailored to individual patients, restrictions on speech that survive the first prong of Central Hudson would be subject to strict scrutiny in order to leave the therapeutic decision to the provider and her patient, and maintain consistency with current jurisprudence. This Comment examines litigation from California's attempted ban on sexual orientation change therapy to illustrate the conflicts created by the current approach to First Amendment review of health care provider speech. This Comment then demonstrates the benefit of the proposed single-prong approach, including how it simultaneously protects patients from harm while protecting health care providers' speech. PMID:25335201

  19. The antalgic effects of non-invasive physical modalities on central post-stroke pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Chung; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Huang, Andrew Chih-Wei; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study systematically reviewed the antalgic effects of non-invasive physical modalities (NIPMs) on central post-stroke pain (CPSP). [Subjects and Methods] Clinical studies were sought on September 2015 in 10 electronic databases, including Medline and Scopus. The searching strings were “central pain and stroke” and “treatment, and physical or non-pharmacological”. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were set for screening the clinical articles by two reviewers. Pain scores on visual analog scale in an article were used as the outcome measure for resulting judgment. The NIPMs intervention summarized from the eligible articles was rated from Levels A to C according to Evidence Classification Scheme for Therapeutic Interventions. [Results] Over 1200 articles were identified in the initial searches and 85 studies were retrieved. Sixteen studies were eligible and judged. Caloric vestibular stimulation (n=3), heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation (n=1), and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (n=1) were rated below Level C. Transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS; n=2) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS; n=9) were rated as Level B. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that TMS and TDCS were better than other treatments for CPSP relief but the studies were of insufficient quality. PMID:27190485

  20. Incidence of Sarcoma Histotypes and Molecular Subtypes in a Prospective Epidemiological Study with Central Pathology Review and Molecular Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ducimetière, Françoise; Lurkin, Antoine; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Decouvelaere, Anne-Valérie; Péoc'h, Michel; Istier, Luc; Chalabreysse, Philippe; Muller, Christine; Alberti, Laurent; Bringuier, Pierre-Paul; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Schott, Anne-Marie; Bergeron, Christophe; Cellier, Dominic; Blay, Jean-Yves; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Background The exact overall incidence of sarcoma and sarcoma subtypes is not known. The objective of the present population-based study was to determine this incidence in a European region (Rhone-Alpes) of six million inhabitants, based on a central pathological review of the cases. Methodology/Principal Findings From March 2005 to February 2007, pathology reports and tumor blocks were prospectively collected from the 158 pathologists of the Rhone-Alpes region. All diagnosed or suspected cases of sarcoma were collected, reviewed centrally, examined for molecular alterations and classified according to the 2002 World Health Organization classification. Of the 1287 patients screened during the study period, 748 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. The overall crude and world age-standardized incidence rates were respectively 6.2 and 4.8 per 100,000/year. Incidence rates for soft tissue, visceral and bone sarcomas were respectively 3.6, 2.0 and 0.6 per 100,000. The most frequent histological subtypes were gastrointestinal stromal tumor (18%; 1.1/100,000), unclassified sarcoma (16%; 1/100,000), liposarcoma (15%; 0.9/100,000) and leiomyosarcoma (11%; 0.7/100,000). Conclusions/Significance The observed incidence of sarcomas was higher than expected. This study is the first detailed investigation of the crude incidence of histological and molecular subtypes of sarcomas. PMID:21826194

  1. The antalgic effects of non-invasive physical modalities on central post-stroke pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chung; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Huang, Andrew Chih-Wei; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study systematically reviewed the antalgic effects of non-invasive physical modalities (NIPMs) on central post-stroke pain (CPSP). [Subjects and Methods] Clinical studies were sought on September 2015 in 10 electronic databases, including Medline and Scopus. The searching strings were "central pain and stroke" and "treatment, and physical or non-pharmacological". The inclusion and exclusion criteria were set for screening the clinical articles by two reviewers. Pain scores on visual analog scale in an article were used as the outcome measure for resulting judgment. The NIPMs intervention summarized from the eligible articles was rated from Levels A to C according to Evidence Classification Scheme for Therapeutic Interventions. [Results] Over 1200 articles were identified in the initial searches and 85 studies were retrieved. Sixteen studies were eligible and judged. Caloric vestibular stimulation (n=3), heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation (n=1), and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (n=1) were rated below Level C. Transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS; n=2) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS; n=9) were rated as Level B. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that TMS and TDCS were better than other treatments for CPSP relief but the studies were of insufficient quality. PMID:27190485

  2. A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Wei Lo2, Wei-Hau Wang1, Tim-Byrne 3, Ruey-Juen Rau 41. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3. Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA 4. Department of Earth Science, National Chen-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan mountain belt results from collision between Eurasia continental crust and Philippine Sea plate that result in exposing the metamorphic complex with high exhumation rate in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. In this study we combine with field survey, zircon fission track (ZFT), metamorphic grade, and tomography data to identify there exists a major out of sequence fault (MOSF) in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. This MOSF extends from north to south of eastern central Range with several segments and the total length is more than 250 km. The ZFT shows total annealing age of ca.1-3 Ma on the hanging wall and partial annealing ages on the foot wall. The seismicity data indicates the MOSF is still active from central to southern central Range. We consider that the MOSF is related with crustal channel flow in depth. To the western side of crustal flow it shows thrusting mechanism associated with MOSF and the normal faults (or normal shearing zone) develop in eastern side of the crustal channel flow. This crustal channel flow is also related with exposing the metamorphic complex in Central Range that is important mechanism for the mountain building process of Taiwan orogenic belt.

  3. The tree water isoscape of a central Pennsylvania catchment: ecohydrologic patterns and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, K. M.; Gaines, K.

    2015-12-01

    The connections between vegetation and catchment hydrology are important for tree physiology, plant geography, stream flow, and transport of solutes within a watershed. While water isotopes from tree stems have been studied extensively to examine source-water differences at a small scale, there has been little emphasis on modeling of plant stem water isotopes at larger scales, due to the expensive and laborious extraction and analysis processes. We characterized the tree stem water for stable isotopes over a landscape (isoscape) at a first-order catchment in central Pennsylvania in order to address the following questions: 1) How does tree water isotopic composition relate to catchment topography and tree characteristics? 2) What are the underlying hydrologic processes that are revealed by tree water isotopes? We used 267 observations of tree xylem water δ18O from 121 trees to build a statistical model with candidate variables related to topography and tree characteristics. We then applied the final model to predict the tree xylem water δ18O composition during the growing season of the remaining trees defined as > 18-cm diameter (at breast height; DBH) in the catchment. The final model included tree canopy height and slope magnitude as predictors, and explained about 56% of variance in tree water δ18O composition in the catchment. Tree canopy height and degree of slope were both negatively related to tree water δ18O suggesting the tallest trees and trees on the steepest slopes had tree water isotopic compositions most depleted in heavy isotopes. Each of these suggested the influence of cool-season isotopic inputs. On the valley floor, where tree canopy heights were tallest, the tree water δ18O composition was likely due to early growing season soil saturation from a shallow ground water table. Conversely, the steep hill slope δ18O composition may be a result of tree water use of tightly-bound soil water originating from cool season precipitation. The model

  4. A systematic review on prevalence and risk factors associated with treatment- emergent central sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Gaurav; Pathak, Charu; Riaz, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TECSA) is the appearance of central apneas and hypopneas after significant resolution of the obstructive events has been attained using positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of TECSA and to understand what factors are associated with its development. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochran Library databases were searched with Mesh headings to locate studies linking TECSA and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). RESULTS: Nine studies were identified that reported the prevalence of TECSA ranging from 5.0% to 20.3%. Prevalence of TECSA for studies using only full night titration was between 5.0% and 12.1% where as it was between 6.5% and 20.3% for studies using split-night polysomnogram. The mean effective continuous PAP (CPAP) setting varied between 7.5 cm and 15.2 cm of water for patients in TECSA group and between 7.4 cm and 13.6 cm of water for the group without TECSA. CONCLUSIONS: The aggregate point prevalence of TECSA is about 8% with the estimated range varying from 5% to 20% in patients with untreated OSA. The prevalence tends to be higher for split-night studies compared to full night titration studies. TECSA can occur at any CPAP setting although extremely high CPAP settings could increase the likelihood. Male gender, higher baseline apnea-hypopnea index, and central apnea index at the time of diagnostic study could be associated with the development of TECSA at a subsequent titration study. PMID:27512510

  5. Apollo experience report the command and service module milestone review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brendle, H. L.; York, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sequence of the command and service module milestone review process is given, and the Customer Acceptance Readiness Review and Flight Readiness Review plans are presented. Contents of the System Summary Acceptance Documents for the two formal spacecraft reviews are detailed, and supplemental data required for presentation to the review boards are listed. Typical forms, correspondence, supporting documentation, and minutes of a board meeting are included.

  6. Late Isolated Central Nervous System Relapse from Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    de Castria, Tiago Biachi; Rodrigues, Sylvia Regina Quintanilha; Diz, Maria del Pilar Estevez

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system involvement by ovarian serous adenocarcinoma is rare. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman that developed brain metastasis as isolated site of relapse 4.5 years after a complete resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for a stage Ic disease. She proceeded to a craniotomy with resection of the lesion and, subsequently, to a whole brain radiotherapy. Nineteen months later, she developed carcinomatous meningitis as isolated site of recurrence. Patient was submitted to intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexate; however, she died from progressive neurologic involvement disease few weeks later. PMID:25506007

  7. The thiol pool in human plasma: The central contribution of albumin to redox processes

    PubMed Central

    Turell, Lucía; Radi, Rafael; Alvarez, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The plasma compartment has particular features regarding the nature and concentration of low and high molecular weight thiols and oxidized derivatives. Plasma is relatively poor in thiol-based antioxidants; thiols are in lower concentrations than in cells and mostly oxidized. The different thiol-disulfide pairs are not in equilibrium and the steady-state concentrations of total thiols as well as reduced versus oxidized ratios are maintained by kinetic barriers, including the rates of reactions and transport processes. The single thiol of human serum albumin (HSA-SH) is the most abundant plasma thiol. It is an important target for oxidants and electrophiles due to its reactivity with a wide variety of species and its relatively high concentration. A relatively stable sulfenic (HSA-SO3H) acid can be formed in albumin exposed to oxidants. Plasma increases in mixed disulfides (HSA-SSR) or in sulfinic (HSA-SO2H) and sulfonic (HSA-SO3H) acids are associated with different pathologies and may constitute biomarkers of the antioxidant role of the albumin thiol. In this work we provide a critical review of the plasma thiol pool with a focus on human serum albumin. PMID:23747983

  8. Chiari 1 Malformation Presenting as Central Sleep Apnea during Pregnancy: A Case Report, Treatment Considerations, and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Erik K.; Jinnur, Praveen; McCarter, Stuart J.; Duwell, Ethan J.; Benarroch, Eduardo E.; Kantarci, Kejal; Pichelmann, Mark A.; Silber, Michael H.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Olson, Eric J.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Chiari malformation (CM) type-1 frequently causes obstructive or central sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in both adults and children, although SDB is relatively rare as a presenting manifestation in the absence of other neurological symptoms. The definitive treatment of symptomatic CM is surgical decompression. We report a case that is, to our knowledge, a novel manifestation of central sleep apnea (CSA) due to CM type-1 with severe exacerbation and initial clinical presentation during pregnancy. Methods: Case report from tertiary care comprehensive sleep medicine center with literature review of SDB manifestations associated with CM type-1. PubMed search was conducted between January 1982 and October 2013. Results: We report a 25-year-old woman with severe CSA initially presenting during her first pregnancy that eventually proved to be caused by CM type-1. The patient was successfully treated preoperatively by adaptive servoventilation (ASV), with effective resolution of SDB following surgical decompression, and without recurrence in a subsequent pregnancy. Our literature review found that 58% of CM patients with SDB had OSA alone, 28% had CSA alone, 8 (10%) had mixed OSA/CSA, and 6 (8%) had hypoventilation. Of CM patients presenting with SDB, 50% had OSA, 42% had CSA, 8% had mixed OSA/CSA, and 10.4% had hypoventilation. We speculate that CSA may develop in CM patients in whom brainstem compression results in excessive central chemoreflex sensitivity with consequent hypocapnic CSA. Conclusion: Chiari malformation type-1 may present with a diversity of SDB manifestations, and timely recognition and surgical referral are necessary to prevent further neurological deficits. ASV therapy can effectively manage CSA caused by CM type-1, which may initially present during pregnancy. PMID:25386156

  9. Quaternary Tectonic and Climatic Processes shaping the Central Andean hyperarid forearc (southern Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audin, Laurence; Benavente, Carlos; Zerathe, Swann; Saillard, Marianne; Hall, Sarah R.; Farber, Daniel L.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the forearc structure and processes related to Quaternary evolution and uplift of the Western Andean Cordillera remains an outstanding scientific issue. Models of Andean Plateau evolution based on Tertiary volcanic stratigraphy since 5Ma suggest that the deformation was focused along the eastern margin of the plateau and that minimal uplift occurred along the Pacific margin. On the contrary, new tectonic data and Quaternary surface 10Be dating highlight the presence of recently active deformation, incision and alluvial processes within the upper Andean forearc together with a regional uplift of the coastal zone. Additionally, the high obliquity observed in the northern Arica Bend region makes it an ideal target to discuss whether partitioning of the oblique convergence is accommodated by the neotectonic features that dissect the Quaternary forearc. Our goals are both to decipher the Quaternary tectonic and climatic processes shaping the hyperarid forearc along strike and across strike. Finally, we aim to quantify the respective influence of these factors in the overall uplift of the Western Andes. Indeed, sequences of pediment surfaces, landslide products, paleolake deposits and marine terraces found along the oblique Peruvian margin are a unique set of datable markers that can be used to quantify the rates of Quaternary processes. In this study, we focus on the southern Peru hyperarid Atacama area where regional surfaces and tectonic markers (scarps, folds, temporary streams and paleolake levels offsets…) are well preserved for the Quaternary timescale. Numerous landsliding events align on the major fault segments and reflect Plio-Pleistocene climatic and tectonic activity together with filled and strath terraces. As the present day sea-level is one of the highest levels recorded for Quaternary time span, any emerged marine terrace is preserved by tectonic coastal uplift. In particular, the geomorphic and chronologic correlation between marine and

  10. Electromagnetic processes at low momentum transfer : a review for users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizet, M. J.; Borie, E.; Grossetête, B.; Isabelle, D. B.; Proriol, J.

    Electromagnetic processes at low momentum transfer are often sources of background in many experiments. To be removed these effects must be calculated by the experimentalist, who must have a good knowledge of the validity of the theoretical formulas that he must use. Then we thought that it will be useful to prepare this review whose presentation is such that it should allow everyone to appreciate the accuracy of formulas that he must use in very complex situations. In this paper, we examine the problem related to bremsstrahlung, pair production and radiative corrections. The first part is devoted to kinematic and to the methods used to establish the corresponding cross sections. Les phénomènes électromagnétiques à faible transfert d'impulsion interviennent dans de nombreuses expériences comme des phénomènes parasites. Pour les éliminer, l'expérimentateur doit les calculer, mais il connait généralement mal la validité des formules théoriques qu'il doit alors utiliser. Il nous a donc paru utile de faire une revue dont la présentation doit permettre à chacun d'apprécier la précision des formules qu'il doit appliquer dans des situations très souvent complexes. Dans cet article, nous faisons le point, tant pour la théorie que pour l'expérience, en ce qui concerne : le rayonnement de freinage, la production de paires et les corrections radiatives. La première partie est consacrée à la cinématique des processus appréciés et aux méthodes permettant d'établir les sections efficaces correspondantes.

  11. Review of nekton patterns and ecological processes in seagrass landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Rod M.; Hindell, Jeremy S.

    2006-07-01

    We reviewed seagrass landscape studies on nekton (fish and larger mobile crustaceans) to summarise: (1) patterns of nekton abundance in relation to patch attributes; and (2) models used to explain processes underpinning observed patterns. The response of nekton to landscape attributes is highly variable. Different taxa showed increasing densities with: increasing and decreasing patch size (12 and 11 taxa, respectively), increasing and decreasing proximity within a patch to edge (9, 14), increasing and decreasing distances from nearest seagrass patch (4, 11), and with patches perpendicular and parallel to currents (1, 2). The majority of taxa (213 out of 281, or 82%) showed no relationships. Landscape scale patterns are important for some species but evidence so far does not demonstrate major landscape effects overall. The lack of pattern might reflect the overriding importance of other factors such as within-patch characteristics, water depth or position within an estuary. It might also result from measurements at the wrong scale. The rigour of surveys can be improved by avoiding confounding of patch attributes by other factors, increasing awareness of statistical power, and more considered survey designs for attributes such as edge effects. The predation model is the most frequently invoked and tested model. Other explanatory models are based on disturbance, rates of encounter, food availability, larval supply, migration and reproductive success, but in many cases are not based on observed patterns. The best experimental work has been done on nekton species for which landscape studies have been built on a detailed understanding of the ecology of the species, such as for blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus). As this basic ecological platform is laid for more species, the landscape approach will become increasingly fruitful.

  12. 45 CFR 2506.17 - What must I do to obtain a review of my debt, and how will the review process work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... how will the review process work? 2506.17 Section 2506.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... Provisions. § 2506.17 What must I do to obtain a review of my debt, and how will the review process work? (a) Request for review. (1) You have the right to request a review by the Corporation of the existence or...

  13. Sedimentary Processes Observed on Offshore of Zonguldak-Kozlu Region, Central Black SEA*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küçük, H. M.; Dondurur, D.; ćifçi, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Black Sea has a narrow shelf and steepy continental slope at southern side. Recent studies show the active sedimentary processes sediment transportation from shelf to abyssal depths. Study area is located in the central Black Sea Turkish continental slope and is under compressional tectonic regime of Western Pontides. A total of 1950 km of high resolution multichannel seismic reflection, Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetry data were collected offshore of Zonguldak from continental shelf to abyssal plain of Black Sea along the margin. We used 216 channel 1350 m long digital streamer and a 45+45 cubic inch Generator-Injector (GI) gun fired at every 25 m. Chirp sub-bottom profiler system has 9 transducers operating at 2,7-6,7 kHz frequency band with 3,5 kHz central frequency. Side mounted multibeam bathymetry system has 50 kHz transducers with 153 degrees max. swath width. Southern Black Sea has a very narrow shelf and a very steep continental slope. Both seismic and bathymetry data show that the shelf break in the study area is located at a water depth of about 100 m and continental slope deepens to 2200 m maximum water depths of the abyssal plain with a maximum slope of about 27 degrees. The acoustic data also show that there are significant erosional structures along the margin especially on the continental slope and rise offshore of Zonguldak. An unstable area in the NW consisting of relatively larger slides and buried debris lobes is named Amasra mass failure zone. Different type of sliding with varying sizes including sliding in the steep slope zones, smaller-scale slides on the canyon walls, and relatively larger slides exist in the Amasra mass failure zone. We suggest that the slides in the Amasra mass failure zone is possibly triggered by excess pore pressures in shallow sediments due to the submarine fluid flow possibly produced from gas hydrate dissociation. Warmer Mediterranean water transportation during the rapid transgression period

  14. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Northern and Central Appalachian basin areas for the potential application of a production process patented by Jack W. McIntyre

    SciTech Connect

    Kvasnicka, D.

    1994-03-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of a patented (US Patent Office No. 4,766,957) process developed by Jack W. McIntyre for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Northern and Central Appalachian basin areas. General research, based on a review of published literature from both public and private sources, indicates that the generally thin, but numerous coalbeds found in the greater Appalachian Basin area do exhibit some potential for the application of this patented process. Estimates of total gas reserves in-place (Gas Research Institute, July 1991) for coalbeds in the Central and Northern Appalachian Basin areas are 5 trillion cubic feet (TCF) and 61 TCF respectively. Produced waters associated with coal deposits in the greater Appalachian Basin area can be characterized on the basis of established but limited production of coalbed methane. Central Appalachian coals generally produce small quantities of water (less than 50 barrels of water per day for the average producing well) which is high in total dissolved solids (TDS), greater than 30,000 parts per million (ppM). The chemical quality of water produced from these coal seams represents a significant disposal challenge to the operators of methane-producing wells in the Central Appalachian Basin. By contrast, water associated with the production of coalbed methane in the Northern Appalachian Basin is generally fair to good quality, and daily production volumes are low. However, the relatively slow desorption of methane gas from Northern Appalachian coals may result in a greater net volume of produced water over the economic life of the well. The well operator must respond to long-term disposal needs.

  15. The effects of an editor serving as one of the reviewers during the peer-review process

    PubMed Central

    Giordan, Marco; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Collings, Andrew M.; Vaggi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background Publishing in scientific journals is one of the most important ways in which scientists disseminate research to their peers and to the wider public. Pre-publication peer review underpins this process, but peer review is subject to various criticisms and is under pressure from growth in the number of scientific publications. Methods Here we examine an element of the editorial process at eLife, in which the Reviewing Editor usually serves as one of the referees, to see what effect this has on decision times, decision type, and the number of citations. We analysed a dataset of 8,905 research submissions to eLife since June 2012, of which 2,750 were sent for peer review, using R and Python to perform the statistical analysis. Results The Reviewing Editor serving as one of the peer reviewers results in faster decision times on average, with the time to final decision ten days faster for accepted submissions (n=1,405) and 5 days faster for papers that were rejected after peer review (n=1,099). There was no effect on whether submissions were accepted or rejected, and a very small (but significant) effect on citation rates for published articles where the Reviewing Editor served as one of the peer reviewers. Conclusions An important aspect of eLife’s peer-review process is shown to be effective, given that decision times are faster when the Reviewing Editor serves as a reviewer. Other journals hoping to improve decision times could consider adopting a similar approach. PMID:27508056

  16. The effects of an editor serving as one of the reviewers during the peer-review process.

    PubMed

    Giordan, Marco; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Collings, Andrew M; Vaggi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background Publishing in scientific journals is one of the most important ways in which scientists disseminate research to their peers and to the wider public. Pre-publication peer review underpins this process, but peer review is subject to various criticisms and is under pressure from growth in the number of scientific publications. Methods Here we examine an element of the editorial process at eLife, in which the Reviewing Editor usually serves as one of the referees, to see what effect this has on decision times, decision type, and the number of citations. We analysed a dataset of 8,905 research submissions to eLife since June 2012, of which 2,750 were sent for peer review, using R and Python to perform the statistical analysis. Results The Reviewing Editor serving as one of the peer reviewers results in faster decision times on average, with the time to final decision ten days faster for accepted submissions (n=1,405) and 5 days faster for papers that were rejected after peer review (n=1,099). There was no effect on whether submissions were accepted or rejected, and a very small (but significant) effect on citation rates for published articles where the Reviewing Editor served as one of the peer reviewers. Conclusions An important aspect of eLife's peer-review process is shown to be effective, given that decision times are faster when the Reviewing Editor serves as a reviewer. Other journals hoping to improve decision times could consider adopting a similar approach. PMID:27508056

  17. NASA/MSFC FY-85 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W. (Compiler); Porter, F. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The two main areas of focus for the research program are global scale processes and mesoscale processes. Geophysical fluid processes, satellite doppler lidar, satellite data analysis, atmospheric electricity, doppler lidar wind research, and mesoscale modeling are among the topics covered.

  18. Aquatic ecosystems in Central Colorado are influenced by mineral forming processes and historical mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, T.S.; Church, S.E.; Clements, W.H.; Mitchell, K.A.; Fey, D. L.; Wanty, R.B.; Verplanck, P.L.; San, Juan C.A.; Klein, T.L.; deWitt, E.H.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Stream water and sediment toxicity to aquatic insects were quantified from central Colorado catchments to distinguish the effect of geologic processes which result in high background metals concentrations from historical mining. Our sampling design targeted small catchments underlain by rocks of a single lithology, which allowed the development of biological and geochemical baselines without the complication of multiple rock types exposed in the catchment. By accounting for geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish between the environmental effects caused by mining and the weathering of different mineralized areas. Elevated metal concentrations in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments. Impairment of aquatic communities also occurred in unmined catchments influenced by hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal alteration style, deposit type, and mining were important determinants of water and sediment quality and aquatic community structure. Weathering of unmined porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences resulted in water (median toxic unit (TU) = 108) and sediment quality (TU = 1.9) that exceeded concentrations thought to be safe for aquatic ecosystems (TU = 1). Metalsensitive aquatic insects were virtually absent from streams draining catchments with porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences (1.1 individuals/0.1 m2 ). However, water and sediment quality (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively) and presence of metalsensitive aquatic insects (204 individuals/0.1 m2 ) for unmined polymetallic vein occurrences were indistinguishable from that for unmined and unaltered streams (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively; 201 individuals/0.1 m2 ). In catchments with mined quartz-sericite-pyrite altered polymetallic vein deposits, water (TU = 8.4) and sediment quality (TU = 3.1) were degraded and more toxic to aquatic insects (36 individuals/0.1 m2 ) than water (TU = 0.4) and sediment quality (TU = 1.7) from mined propylitically altered

  19. Five years of ozonesoundings from the central Himalayas: role of dynamical processes and biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naja, Manish; Bhardhwaj, Piyush; Lal, Shyam; Venkataramani, Sethuram; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-04-01

    Higher water vapour, intense solar radiation and increasing levels of trace species over the tropical Asia are making this region more complex for understanding the physical, dynamical and chemical process over here. One of the most populated regions (The Indo-Gangetic Plain, IGP) of the world and a variety of anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources are also housing in the foothill of one of the pristine region, i.e. Himalaya. Uplifting and transport of polluted air-masses to the higher heights is a major concern in the South Asia. However, observations of vertical distribution of ozone, and other trace gases including water vapour, aerosols and meteorological parameters are very limited in South Asia. In view of this, an observational facility was setup at ARIES, Nainital (29.4N, 79.5E; 1950 m) in the central Himalayas. Regular, once in a week, balloon borne measurements of ozone, RH, temperature and GPS winds are being made since January 2011. Surface observations of different trace gases (Ozone, CO, NO, NOy, light NMHCs, SO2, CO2 and other GHGs) and aerosols are also being made at this site. Here, we present five years of ozonesoundings observations. A strong seasonal cycle in the lower tropospheric ozone with highest values during spring (~ 100 ppbv) and lowest during summer-monsoon (20-40 ppbv) is discerned. Elevated ozone levels (~120 ppbv) were observed in the middle-upper troposphere along with very high wind speed (~50 m/s) which indicates the role of dynamics in bringing ozone rich air from higher altitude. The signatures of ozone downward transport have also been noticed in TES water vapour and PV. In contrast, such influence is seen to be weaker in the eastern part of the Himalayas. A very clear enhancement (20-30 ppbv) in the lower tropospheric ozone is seen that is induced by the biomass burning. Further analysis of these observations with the help of air trajectories and satellite data will be presented.

  20. Memory and Working-with-Memory: A Component Process Model Based on Modules and Central Systems.

    PubMed

    Moscovitch, M

    1992-01-01

    Abstract A neuropsychological model of memory is proposed that incorporates Fodor's (1983) idea of modules and central systems. The model has four essential components: (1) a non-frontal neocortical component that consists of perceptual (and perhaps interpretative semantic) modules that mediate performance on item-specific, implicit tests of memory, (2) a modular medial temporal/hippocampal component that mediates encoding, storage, and retrieval on explicit, episodic tests of memory that are associative/cue dependent, (3) a central system, frontal-lobe component that mediates performance on explicit tests that are strategic and on procedural tests that are rule-bound, and (4) a basal ganglia component that mediates performance on sensorimotor, procedural tests of memory. The usefulness of the modular/central system construct is explored and evidence from studies of normal, amnesic, agnosic, and demented people is provided to support the model. PMID:23964882

  1. Central venous port system associated thromboses: outcome in 3498 implantations and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Martina; Wagner, Roland H.

    2007-01-01

    Methods: From 1 July 1995 to 31 June 2006 we implanted 3498 intravenous port systems. In nearly all cases the indication was vascular access for chemotherapy. Results: We registered 199 complications (5.7%), mostly infections (n=85 i.e. 2.4%) and thromboses (n=63 i.e. 1.8%). Conclusions: Permanent central venous catheters have become standard in the management of patients with malignancies. Because of the improvement of material and design during the past twenty years technical complications have been reduced significantly. The most frequent occurring medical complications are infection and thromboses. In order to further minimize these disadvantages we developed a “best practices“ standard for port implantation combining own data with recent studies. PMID:19675714

  2. Multifocal central nervous system hemangioblastoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chu, L Z; Guan, Z Z; Liu, J; Yang, H; Qi, X L; Dong, M G; Chen, Y M; Xiang, Y N; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    An effective therapy for multifocal central nervous system hemangioblastoma (CNS HB) is needed. Here, we report a case of multifocal CNS HB. A 43-year-old man was diagnosed with CNS HB by enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Six solid tumors and one cystic nodule were detected in his cerebellum. The patient underwent three surgeries followed by knife radiosurgery and had regular visits after the operation. In addition, histological observation with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for α-inhibin, Ki67, and vascular endothelial growth factor further provided evidence of cerebral HB. The symptoms of the patient were prominently improved after each operation, suggesting that multiple surgeries and radiation therapy are needed to prevent the proliferation and relapse of multifocal CNS HB. In addition, long-term, regular hospital visits were useful. Furthermore, genetic diagnosis and gene-targeted therapy might be a promising strategy against familial CNS HB in the future. PMID:25299105

  3. Journal Reviewer Ratings: Issues of Particularistic Bias, Agreement, and Predictive Validity within the Manuscript Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchio, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Reviewer evaluations and recommendations for 853 manuscript submissions, over a span of 4 years, are analyzed for evidence of particularistic bias, reviewer agreement, and predictive validity for forecasting a published manuscript's citation impact. Attributes of the submitters, their affiliated institutions, and the reviewers have little…

  4. Waste receiving and processing drum weight measurement uncertainty review findings

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-05-12

    The purpose of reviewing the weight scale operation at the WRAP facility was to determine the uncertainty associated with weight measurements. Weight measurement uncertainty is needed to support WRAP Nondestructive Examination (NDE) and Non-destructive Assay (NDA) analysis.

  5. 15 CFR 930.94 - State review process for consistency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal... approved management programs should review applications from applicant agencies for federal assistance...

  6. 15 CFR 752.8 - SCL application review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... consignee's firm intention to place orders on a continuing basis is required. (d) Criteria for review. BIS...; (8) Information on all parties' compliance with the provisions of the EAR; and (9) All...

  7. A review of the Tagus river tufa deposits (central Spain): age and palaeoenvironmental record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, J. E.; Torres, T.; Delgado, A.; Reyes, E.; Díaz-Bautista, A.

    2009-05-01

    Here we determined the aminostratigraphy and aminochronology of tufa deposits located in central Spain associated with the Tagus river and some of its tributaries (the Henares, Dulce, Cifuentes, Ruguilla, Trabaque, Escabas and Guadiela rivers). We used aspartic acid and glutamic acid racemization ratios obtained from the ostracod Herpetocypris reptans. Tufa accumulations were found to be of different origins; those in the Henares, Cifuentes and Ruguilla rivers are of paludal origin, while those in the Dulce and Tagus rivers are of fluvial origin. A generally good correspondence was found between the age of the deposits and the position of the terraces above the current thalweg. However, the geomorphological evolution of the Henares, Cifuentes and Ruguilla rivers (infilling of pre-existing valleys) has produced deposits of distinct ages at the same elevation above the current river thalweg, and sometimes, older tufas are located below younger ones. We distinguished eight main tufa-deposition episodes. These occurred predominantly during even Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS), at 406 ± 90 (MIS 11), 264 ± 68 (MIS 7e), 189 ± 40 (MIS 7a), 130 ± 27 (MIS 6-5e), 101 ± 25 (MIS 5c), 32 ± 10 (MIS 3), 14 ± 4 (MIS 1), and 6 ± 2 (MIS 1) ka. These results are in agreement with the dating of similar deposits from nearby areas and other zones of Spain and Europe. The tufa stable-isotope compositions were similar to other examples in central and southern Spain and their plot falls in the same field as other lowland European stream tufas. Oxygen stable isotopes were influenced mainly by temperature and rainfall. The δ13C values indicated a major effect of soil-derived carbon rather than carbon from the catchment area, but moderated in each tributary by evaporation, flow regime and biological effects (photosynthesis).

  8. Late Quaternary sea-level highstands in the central and eastern Indian Ocean: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2005-11-01

    The relative sea-level history of several atolls in the central and eastern Indian Ocean, including the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Chagos Archipelago, and the Maldives-Laccadive Archipelagoes, has been debated for over a century but takes on a particular significance in the face of anticipated climate change. For each of these central and eastern Indian Ocean atolls Pleistocene limestone is encountered at depths of 6-20 m below sea level. On the Cocos (Keeling) Islands this has been dated to Last Interglacial age. Conglomerate platform underlies the reef islands on Cocos within which a sequence of fossil microatolls of massive and branching Porites records a gradual fall of sea level relative to the atoll. In the Maldives, the significance of outcrops of 'reef rock' has been vigorously debated without resolving sea-level history. Although in situ Heliopora occurs on the reef flat of Addu Atoll, dated at around 2700 radiocarbon yrs BP, other evidence for higher sea level remains poorly constrained. Conglomerates of a similar age have been described from the Chagos Archipelago, but it has not been unequivocally demonstrated that they formed under conditions of relatively higher sea level. In contrast to reefs further west in the Indian Ocean, each of these atolls has living microatolls of massive Porites that have been constrained in their upward growth by sea level. Interpretation of the upper surface of two such specimens from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands indicates broad fluctuations in the sea surface over the past century; similar microatolls are described from the Maldives implying little change in sea level over recent years. Regardless of minor past fluctuations, most reef islands in the Maldives are particularly low-lying and appear vulnerable to inundation, and extracting a more detailed sea-level history remains an important challenge.

  9. Central nervous system demyelinating diseases and recombinant hepatitis B vaccination: a critical systematic review of scientific production.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sernández, V; Figueiras, A

    2013-08-01

    The etiology of multiple sclerosis has not yet been fully described. A potential link between the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and an increased risk of onset or exacerbation of multiple sclerosis emerged in the mid-1990s, leading to several spontaneous reports and studies investigating this association. We conducted a critical systematic review aimed at assessing whether hepatitis B vaccination increases the risk of onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis and other central nervous system demyelinating diseases. MEDLINE and EMBASE were used as data sources, and the search covered the period between 1981 and 2011. Twelve references met the inclusion criteria. No significant increased risk of onset or relapse of the diseases considered was associated with hepatitis B vaccination, except in one study. Most studies included in this review displayed methodological limitations and heterogeneity among them, which rendered it impossible to draw robust conclusions about the safety of hepatitis B vaccination in healthy subjects and patients with multiple sclerosis. Therefore, on the basis of current data there is no need to modify the vaccination recommendations; however, there is a need to improve the quality of observational studies with emphasis on certain considerations that are discussed in this review. PMID:23086181

  10. The Distinct Role of the Amygdala, Superior Colliculus and Pulvinar in Processing of Central and Peripheral Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Inês; Soares, Sandra C.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visual processing of ecologically relevant stimuli involves a central bias for stimuli demanding detailed processing (e.g., faces), whereas peripheral object processing is based on coarse identification. Fast detection of animal shapes holding a significant phylogenetic value, such as snakes, may benefit from peripheral vision. The amygdala together with the pulvinar and the superior colliculus are implicated in an ongoing debate regarding their role in automatic and deliberate spatial processing of threat signals. Methods Here we tested twenty healthy participants in an fMRI task, and investigated the role of spatial demands (the main effect of central vs. peripheral vision) in the processing of fear-relevant ecological features. We controlled for stimulus dependence using true or false snakes; snake shapes or snake faces and for task constraints (implicit or explicit). The main idea justifying this double task is that amygdala and superior colliculus are involved in both automatic and controlled processes. Moreover the explicit/implicit instruction in the task with respect to emotion is not necessarily equivalent to explicit vs. implicit in the sense of endogenous vs. exogenous attention, or controlled vs. automatic processes. Results We found that stimulus-driven processing led to increased amygdala responses specifically to true snake shapes presented in the centre or in the peripheral left hemifield (right hemisphere). Importantly, the superior colliculus showed significantly biased and explicit central responses to snake-related stimuli. Moreover, the pulvinar, which also contains foveal representations, also showed strong central responses, extending the results of a recent single cell pulvinar study in monkeys. Similar hemispheric specialization was found across structures: increased amygdala responses occurred to true snake shapes presented to the right hemisphere, with this pattern being closely followed by the superior colliculus and the

  11. Investigation of the Evolution of Central Defects in Ultra-Heavy Plate Rolled Using Gradient Temperature Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaosheng, Li; Wei, Yu; Qingwu, Cai

    2015-04-01

    To eliminate flaws, such as shrinkage, porosity, and micro-cracks, in heavy plates, the slab or ingot needs to be subjected to a sufficiently large cumulative reduction in central area. Traditionally, a large slab size is considered to be necessary for thick plate rolling. The evolution of central cracks in heavy plate was investigated by finite element modeling using two different rolling processes: gradient temperature rolling (GTR) with 1073 K (800 °C) on the surface and 1373 K (1100 °C) in the core, and uniform temperature rolling (UTR). The results of simulation were confirmed by clad rolling experiments. Results reveal that, using GTR, the central crack closes easily because of increased central strain and stress. Clad plate produced by GTR has a good bonding interface and fine microstructure. Ferrite grains in GTR plate are refined to 22 µm and the quarter- and half thickness impact energies are increased by 25.8 and 50.1 pct, respectively, compared with UTR plate, the properties of central layer decrease slightly, compared with those of the base materials.

  12. Cancellation of the central singularity of the Schwarzschild solution with natural mass inversion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Jean-Pierre; D'Agostini, G.

    2015-02-01

    We reconsider the classical Schwarzschild solution in the context of a Janus cosmological model. We show that the central singularity can be eliminated through a simple coordinate change and that the subsequent transit from one fold to the other is accompanied by mass inversion. In such scenario matter swallowed by black holes could be ejected as invisible negative mass and dispersed in space.

  13. Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed community structure in vegetable crops of the North Central Region (NCR) is poor. To characterize weed composition of species persisting in sweet corn to harvest, hereafter called residual weeds, 175 sweet corn fields were surveyed in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2005 to...

  14. Controls on supergene enrichment of porphyry copper deposits in the Central Andes: A review and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Adrian J.; Rice, Clive M.

    2005-12-01

    The Central Andes host some of the world’s largest porphyry copper deposits. The economic viability of these deposits is dependent on the size and quality of their supergene enrichment blanket. Published models that have strongly influenced exploration policy suggest that supergene enrichment ceased at 14 Ma due to an increase in aridity. Here we discuss these models using published geochronological, geomorphological and geological data. Geochronological data indicate that supergene oxidation and enrichment has been active between 17 and 27°S across the forearc of northern Chile and southern Peru from 44 to 6 Ma, and on the Bolivian Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera of Argentina from 11 Ma to present. There is evidence for cessation at 20, 14 and 6 Ma. However, a major problem is that as more geochronological data become available the age ranges and periods of enrichment increase. This suggests that the full spectrum of enrichment ages may not have been sampled. The relationship between supergene enrichment and the age of regional pediplain surface development is not well constrained. Only in two areas have surfaces related to enrichment been directly dated (southern Peru and south of 26°S in Chile) and suggest formation post 14 Ma. Sedimentological data indicate that a fluctuating arid/semi-arid climate prevailed across the Atacama Desert until between 4 and 3 Ma, climatic conditions that are thought to be favourable for supergene enrichment. The balance between uplift, erosion, burial and sufficient water supply to promote enrichment is complex. This suggests that a simple model for controlling supergene enrichment is unlikely to be widely applicable in northern Chile. General models that involve climatic desiccation at 14 Ma related to rainshadow development and/or the presence of an ancestral cold-upwelling Humboldt Current are not supported by the available geological evidence. The integration of disparate sedimentological, geomorphological and supergene

  15. 25 CFR 170.501 - What happens when the review process identifies areas for improvement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens when the review process identifies areas for... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Program Reviews and Management Systems § 170.501 What happens when the review...

  16. 25 CFR 170.501 - What happens when the review process identifies areas for improvement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens when the review process identifies areas for... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Program Reviews and Management Systems § 170.501 What happens when the review...

  17. 25 CFR 170.501 - What happens when the review process identifies areas for improvement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens when the review process identifies areas for... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Program Reviews and Management Systems § 170.501 What happens when the review...

  18. 25 CFR 170.501 - What happens when the review process identifies areas for improvement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What happens when the review process identifies areas for... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Program Reviews and Management Systems § 170.501 What happens when the review...

  19. 25 CFR 170.501 - What happens when the review process identifies areas for improvement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens when the review process identifies areas for... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Program Reviews and Management Systems § 170.501 What happens when the review...

  20. 34 CFR 350.50 - What is the peer review process for this Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is the peer review process for this Program? 350.50... RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 350.50 What is the peer... regulations in this part to a peer review panel established by the Secretary. (b) Peer review panels...

  1. 34 CFR 350.50 - What is the peer review process for this Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What is the peer review process for this Program? 350.50... RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 350.50 What is the peer... regulations in this part to a peer review panel established by the Secretary. (b) Peer review panels...

  2. 28 CFR 91.58 - Timing of the environmental review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of the environmental review process. 91.58 Section 91.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.58 Timing of the...

  3. 28 CFR 91.58 - Timing of the environmental review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of the environmental review process. 91.58 Section 91.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.58 Timing of the...

  4. 28 CFR 91.58 - Timing of the environmental review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of the environmental review process. 91.58 Section 91.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.58 Timing of the...

  5. Concomitant multiple myeloma spectrum diagnosis in a central retinal vein occlusion: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Borgman, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Multiple myeloma is a neoplastic plasma-cell disorder resulting from malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. It can cause a hyperviscosity syndrome secondary to the paraproteinaemia associated with the disease. The increased hyperviscosity can lead to retinal vein occlusions and other ocular problems that may challenge clinicians. In patients with multiple myeloma and hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus, retinal changes appear similar and changes due to one disease or the other may be difficult to determine. A 48-year-old white female presented to the clinic with a complaint of blurry vision in her left eye. A full comprehensive ocular examination revealed a central retinal vein occlusion presumably from the patient's history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia. Further bloodwork revealed monoclonal protein in the patient's serum and an increased percentage of plasma cells in the bone marrow. She was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, part of the multiple myeloma disease spectrum. She was referred to a retinal specialist for initiation of intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Multiple myeloma has been implicated in younger patients as an underlying cause of retinal vein occlusions. Multiple myeloma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal vein occlusions, even if other risk factors for venous occlusion like hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia are present. Timely referral to the patient's primary care physician and haematologist is important for appropriate treatment and control of underlying systemic conditions. PMID:27079282

  6. Review of the Ordovician stratigraphy and fauna of the Anarak Region in Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Leonid E.; Hairapetian, Vachik; Evans, David H.; Pour, Mansoureh Ghobadi; Holmer, Lars E.; Baars, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The Ordovician sedimentary succession of the Pol-e Khavand area, situated on the northern margin of the Yazd block, has important differences from those in other parts of Central Iran. It has been established that the presumably terminal Cambrian to Lower Ordovician volcano-sedimentary Polekhavand Formation, exposed in the Pol-e Khavand area, has non-conformable contact with greenschists of the Doshakh Metamorphic Complex. The succeeding, mainly siliciclastic Chahgonbad Formation contains low to moderately diverse faunal assemblages, including brachiopods, cephalopods, trilobites and tentaculitids. The Darriwilian age of the lower part of the formation is well established by the co-occurrence of brachiopod genera Camerella, Phragmorthis, Tritoechia and Yangtzeella. The associated rich cephalopod fauna is different from the Darriwilian cephalopod associations of the Alborz terrane and may show some affinity with warm water faunas of North China and South Korea. It is likely that the Mid Ordovician fauna recovered from the lower part of the Chahgonbad Formation settled in the area sometime during a warming episode in the late Darriwilian. By contrast the low diversity mid Katian brachiopod association includes only three taxa, which occur together with the trilobite Vietnamia cf. teichmulleri and abundant, but poorly preserved tentaculitids questionably assigned to the genus Costatulites. This faunal association bears clear signatures linking it to the contemporaneous cold water faunas of the Arabian, Mediterranean and North African segments of Gondwana. Four brachiopod species recovered from the Chahgonbad Formation, including Hibernodonta lakhensis, Hindella prima, Lomatorthis? multilamellosa and Yangtzeella chupananica are new to science.

  7. Sulfonylurea receptor 1 in central nervous system injury: a focused review

    PubMed Central

    Simard, J Marc; Woo, S Kyoon; Schwartzbauer, Gary T; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    The sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1)-regulated NCCa-ATP channel is a nonselective cation channel that is regulated by intracellular calcium and adenosine triphosphate. The channel is not constitutively expressed, but is transcriptionally upregulated de novo in all cells of the neurovascular unit, in many forms of central nervous system (CNS) injury, including cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The channel is linked to microvascular dysfunction that manifests as edema formation and delayed secondary hemorrhage. Also implicated in oncotic cell swelling and oncotic (necrotic) cell death, the channel is a major molecular mechanism of ‘accidental necrotic cell death' in the CNS. In animal models of SCI, pharmacological inhibition of Sur1 by glibenclamide, as well as gene suppression of Abcc8, prevents delayed capillary fragmentation and tissue necrosis. In models of stroke and TBI, glibenclamide ameliorates edema, secondary hemorrhage, and tissue damage. In a model of SAH, glibenclamide attenuates the inflammatory response due to extravasated blood. Clinical trials of an intravenous formulation of glibenclamide in TBI and stroke underscore the importance of recent advances in understanding the role of the Sur1-regulated NCCa-ATP channel in acute ischemic, traumatic, and inflammatory injury to the CNS. PMID:22714048

  8. An Unusual Case of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion and Review of the Toxicity Profile of Regorafenib in GIST Patients.

    PubMed

    Schvartsman, Gustavo; Wagner, Michael J; Zobniw, Chrystia M; Trinh, Van Anh; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Somaiah, Neeta

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract with around 5000 new cases per year. Outcomes for patients with GIST dramatically improved after the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeted against the aberrant signaling pathways that drive GIST oncogenesis. Majority of patients derive benefit from first-line imatinib, and the type of driver mutation is predictive of response. However, almost half of the patients eventually develop resistance to initial targeted therapy and further lines of treatment do not have the same impact. Regorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor approved as a third-line therapy for advanced GIST and though its efficacy is limited in comparison to imatinib, it has activity across the various driver mutation categories in GIST even in the setting of imatinib resistance. Herein, we describe a case of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) secondary to regorafenib and review regorafenib's efficacy and toxicity profile. PMID:27319943

  9. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, DAWEI; GU, WEIHONG; LI, WENZHONG; LIU, XIAOLIANG; YANG, XIAOYU

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the clinical diagnosis and management of a patient with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Bcl) of the central nervous system (CNS). Making an early diagnosis of primary diffuse large Bcl is challenging due to the variable and complicated clinical manifestations of the disease. The relevant literature was reviewed, and high-dose methotrexate, whole brain radiotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy was recommended for the patient. The present study elucidates the role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans for the diagnosis and management of primary diffuse large Bcl of the CNS, and demonstrates the importance of resection surgery in the management of the disease. Specifically, the present study proposes that resection surgery may be applied in the early stages of disease for patients with a single occupied lesion and increased intracranial pressure. PMID:27123068

  10. Ten Years Evidence-based High-Tech Acupuncture–A Short Review of Centrally Measured Effects* (Part II)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of acupuncture-induced effects on brain function is crucial. Ultrasound-assisted brain function monitoring and bioelectrical methods as well as near infrared spectroscopic procedures and functional magnetic resonance investigations form the basis for the latest scientific examination methods for acupuncture research. The laserneedle acupuncture, which was examined scientifically for the first time in Graz, represents a new painless and non-invasive acupuncture method. In this way, individual combinations of acupuncture points can be stimulated simultaneously according to traditional Chinese medicine. In the context of double-blind studies, effects in the brain could be demonstrated in a reproducible manner for the first time. This second part of the short review article summarizes some of the centrally measured effects of acupuncture obtained at the Medical University of Graz within the last 10 years. PMID:18955280

  11. Zircon dating of Neoproterozoic and Cambrian ophiolites in West Mongolia and implications for the timing of orogenic processes in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Ping; Kröner, Alfred; Jahn, Bor-ming; Windley, Brian F.; Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fuqin; Miao, Laicheng; Tomurhuu, Dondov; Liu, Dunyi

    2014-06-01

    We present new isotopic and trace element data to review the geochronological/geochemical/geological evolution of the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and find a fundamental geological problem in West Mongolia, which has traditionally been subdivided into northwestern early Paleozoic (formerly Caledonian) and southerly late Paleozoic (formerly Hercynian) belts by the Main Mongolian Lineament (MML). We resolve this problem with SHRIMP zircon dating of ophiolites and re-evaluation of much published literature. In Northwest Mongolia the Dariv-Khantaishir ophiolite marks the boundary between the Lake arc in the west and the Dzabkhan-Baydrag microcontinent in the east. Zircons from a microgabbro and four plagiogranites yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 568 ± 5 Ma, 567 ± 4 Ma, 560 ± 8 Ma (Dariv), 573 ± 8 Ma and 566 ± 7 Ma (Khantaishir) that we interpret as reflecting the time of ophiolite formation (ca. 573-560 Ma). Metamorphic zircons from an amphibolite on a thrust boundary between the Khantaishir ophiolite and the Dzabkhan-Baydrag microcontinent formed at 514 ± 8 Ma, which we interpret as the time of overthrusting. In South Mongolia the Gobi Altai ophiolite and the Trans-Altai Gurvan Sayhan-Zoolen forearc with an ophiolite basement were investigated. Zircons of a layered gabbro (lower ophiolite crust) and a leucogabbro (mid-upper crust) of the Gobi Altai ophiolite yielded crystallization ages of 523 ± 5 Ma and 518 ± 6 Ma. The age data constrain the formation time of ophiolite within ca. 523-518 Ma. Zircons from four samples of the Gurvan Sayhan-Zoolen forearc, with similar hybrid adakite-boninite affinities, yielded 519 ± 4 Ma for an anorthosite, ≥ 512 ± 4 Ma for a hornblendite and 520 ± 5 and 511 ± 5 Ma for two diorites. The ophiolite basement has an upper age limit of 494 ± 6 Ma, determined by dating a tonalite dike cutting the Zoolen ophiolite. Integrating available zircon ages as well as geochemical and geological data

  12. Evaluating the implementation of environmental review mitigation in local planning and development processes

    SciTech Connect

    Slotterback, Carissa Schively

    2008-11-15

    The implementation of mitigation strategies and outcomes of environmental review remains a challenge for planners and regulators. While the process and content of environmental review is clearly defined, there is often little attention to what happens after the review is completed. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the implementation of the outcomes of environmental review, specifically mitigation measures designed to respond to environmental impacts identified in the environmental impact analysis. Drawing on previous evaluations of environmental review outcomes and plan implementation, the research provides a methodology for evaluating the implementation of mitigation efforts, points to the challenges associated with implementing the mitigation outcomes of local environmental review in planning and development processes, and identifies opportunities to integrate planning and environmental review processes.

  13. A literature review of the regional implementation of the central Swedish government's health care reforms on choice and privatization.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Björn; Wilkens, Jens

    2015-12-01

    The introduction in 2010 of the Freedom of Choice Act represents one of the most far-reaching reforms of the Swedish health system. While it is mandatory for the regional counties to introduce choice plans for primary care it is voluntary for ambulatory specialist services. The voluntary nature of the regulations for the latter types of care generates a potential gap between the central government's reform attempts and the regional implementation of the plans. We review the regional implementation of this reform with respect to specialist services from a political economy perspective. Data on the scope of implementation show that counties of the same political ideology as the central government have introduced the most choice plans for specialist care. In particular, counties ruled by right-wing majorities have introduced the Choice Act to a considerably larger extent than left-wing counties. This creates a highly uneven situation across the various parts of the country, possibly at odds with the basic premises of the country's health law of equal access to care. The introduction of choice plans forms part of a decidedly contentious set of issues that are high on the political agenda of Sweden. The nature and impacts of these reforms are also a concern to the general public and the broader industry. Considerably more rigorous analyses will be needed to assess the impact on key policy parameters such as overall system efficiency and equitable access to services as a result of these changes to the health care markets. PMID:26650814

  14. SHH mutation is associated with solitary median maxillary central incisor: a study of 13 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nanni, L; Ming, J E; Du, Y; Hall, R K; Aldred, M; Bankier, A; Muenke, M

    2001-07-22

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) or single central incisor is a rare dental anomaly. It has been reported in holoprosencephaly (HPE) cases with severe facial anomalies or as a microform in autosomal dominant HPE (ADHPE). In our review of the literature, we note that SMMCI may also occur as an isolated finding or in association with other systemic abnormalities. These anomalies include short stature, pituitary insufficiency, microcephaly, choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis, and congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis. SMMCI can also be a feature of recognized syndromes or associations or a finding in patients with specific chromosomal abnormalities. We performed a molecular study on a cohort of 13 SMMCI patients who did not have HPE. We studied two genes, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and SIX3, in which mutations have been reported in patients showing SMMCI as part of the HPE spectrum. A new missense mutation in SHH (I111F), segregating in one SMMCI family, was identified. Our results suggest that this mutation may be specific for the SMMCI phenotype since it has not been found in the HPE population or in normal controls. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11471164

  15. Prevention of Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infections Through Quality Improvement Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Trish M.; Blot, Koen; Bergs, Jochen; Vogelaers, Dirk; Blot, Stijn; Vandijck, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the impact of quality improvement interventions on central line–associated bloodstream infections in adult intensive care units. Studies were identified through Medline and manual searches (1995–June 2012). Random-effects meta-analysis obtained pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Meta-regression assessed the impact of bundle/checklist interventions and high baseline rates on intervention effect. Forty-one before–after studies identified an infection rate decrease (OR, 0.39 [95% CI, .33–.46]; P < .001). This effect was more pronounced for trials implementing a bundle or checklist approach (P = .03). Furthermore, meta-analysis of 6 interrupted time series studies revealed an infection rate reduction 3 months postintervention (OR, 0.30 [95% CI, .10–.88]; P = .03). There was no difference in infection rates between studies with low or high baseline rates (P = .18). These results suggest that quality improvement interventions contribute to the prevention of central line–associated bloodstream infections. Implementation of care bundles and checklists appears to yield stronger risk reductions. PMID:24723276

  16. NASA/MSFC FY-84 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W. (Compiler); Porter, F. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The two main areas of focus for NASA/MSFC's atmospheric research program are: (1) global scale processes (geophysical fluid processes, satellite Doppler lidar wind profiler, and satellite data analyses) and (2) mesoscale processes (atmospheric electricity (lightning), ground/airborne Doppler lidar wind measurements, and mesoscale analyses and space sensors). Topics within these two general areas are addressed.

  17. Developmental Foundations and Clinical Applications of Social Information Processing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Molly; Lyon, Aaron R.; Oti, Rosalind; Tininenko, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Social information processing has emerged as an important construct in understanding children’s interpersonal functioning. This article reviews (a) the theoretical models guiding research, (b) the development of normative and atypical social problem solving, and (c) the connection between social information processing and individual differences in functioning. Finally, this review ends with a summary of efficacy of programs aimed at preventing social information processing biases or intervening with youth who display dysfunctional social information processing skills. PMID:21686067

  18. Volcano-Hydrothermal Systems of the Central and Northern Kuril Island Arc - a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, E.; Taran, Y.; Voloshina, E.; Ptashinsky, L.

    2015-12-01

    More than 20 active volcanoes with historical eruptions are known on 17 islands composing the Central and Northern part of the Kurilian Arc. Six islands - Paramushir, Shiashkotan, Rasshua, Ushishir, Ketoy and Simushir - are characterized by hydrothermal activity, complementary to the fumarolic activity in their craters. There are several types of volcano-hydrothermal systems on the islands. At Paramushir, Shiashkotan and Ketoy the thermal manifestations are acidic to ultra-acidic water discharges associated with hydrothermal aquifers inside volcano edifices and formed as the result of the absorption of magmatic gases by ground waters. A closest known analogue of such activity is Satsuma-Iwojima volcano-island at the Ryukyu Arc. Another type of hydrothermal activity are wide spread coastal hot springs (Shiashkotan, Rasshua), situated as a rule within tide zones and formed by mixing of the heated seawater with cold groundwater or, in opposite, by mixing of the steam- or conductively heated groundwater with seawater. This type of thermal manifestation is similar to that reported for other volcanic islands of the world (Satsuma Iwojima, Monserrat, Ischia, Socorro). Ushishir volcano-hydrothermal system is formed by the absorption of magmatic gases by seawater. Only Ketoy Island hosts a permanent acidic crater lake. At Ebeko volcano (Paramushir) rapidly disappearing small acidic lakes (formed after phreatic eruptions) have been reported. The main hydrothermal manifestation of Simushir is the Zavaritsky caldera lake with numerous coastal thermal springs and weak steam vents. The last time measured temperatures of fumaroles at the islands are: >500ºC at Pallas Peak (Ketoy), 480ºC at Kuntamintar volcano (Shiashkotan), variable and fast changing temperatures from 120º C to 500ºC at Ebeko volcano (Paramushir), 150ºC in the Rasshua crater, and > 300ºC in the Chirpoy crater (Black Brothers islands). The magmatic and rock-forming solute output by the Kurilian volcano

  19. Multimodality Review of Amyloid-related Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Miller-Thomas, Michelle M; Sipe, Adam L; Benzinger, Tammie L S; McConathy, Jonathan; Connolly, Sarah; Schwetye, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is ubiquitous in the central nervous system (CNS), but pathologic accumulation of Aβ results in four distinct neurologic disorders that affect middle-aged and elderly adults, with diverse clinical presentations ranging from chronic debilitating dementia to acute life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. The characteristic imaging patterns of Aβ-related CNS diseases reflect the pathophysiology of Aβ deposition in the CNS. Aβ is recognized as a key component in the neuronal damage that characterizes the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease, the most common form of dementia. Targeted molecular imaging shows pathologic accumulation of Aβ and tau protein, and fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and anatomic imaging allow differentiation of typical patterns of neuronal dysfunction and loss in patients with Alzheimer disease from those seen in patients with other types of dementia. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is an important cause of cognitive impairment and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly. Hemorrhage and white matter injury seen at imaging reflect vascular damage caused by the accumulation of Aβ in vessel walls. The rare forms of inflammatory angiopathy attributed to Aβ, Aβ-related angiitis and CAA-related inflammation, cause debilitating neurologic symptoms that improve with corticosteroid therapy. Imaging shows marked subcortical and cortical inflammation due to perivascular inflammation, which is incited by vascular Aβ accumulation. In the rarest of the four disorders, cerebral amyloidoma, the macroscopic accumulation of Aβ mimics the imaging appearance of tumors. Knowledge of the imaging patterns and pathophysiology is essential for accurate diagnosis of Aβ-related diseases of the CNS. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27399239

  20. Diagnosis and management of traumatic cervical central spinal cord injury: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Hollingsworth, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Background: The classical clinical presentation, neuroradiographic features, and conservative vs. surgical management of traumatic cervical central spinal cord (CSS) injury remain controversial. Methods: CSS injuries, occurring in approximately 9.2% of all cord injuries, are usually attributed to significant hyperextension trauma combined with congenital/acquired cervical stenosis/spondylosis. Patients typically present with greater motor deficits in the upper vs. lower extremities accompanied by patchy sensory loss. T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) scans usually show hyperintense T2 intramedullary signals reflecting acute edema along with ligamentous injury, while noncontrast computed tomography (CT) studies typically show no attendant bony pathology (e.g. no fracture, dislocation). Results: CSS constitute only a small percentage of all traumatic spinal cord injuries. Aarabi et al. found CSS patients averaged 58.3 years of age, 83% were male and 52.4% involved accidents/falls in patients with narrowed spinal canals (average 5.6 mm); their average American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score was 63.8, and most pathology was at the C3-C4 and C4-C5 levels (71%). Surgery was performed within 24 h (9 patients), 24–48 h (10 patients), or after 48 h (23 patients). In the Brodell et al. study of 16,134 patients with CSS, 39.7% had surgery. In the Gu et al. series, those with CSS and stenosis/ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) exhibited better outcomes following laminoplasty. Conclusions: Recognizing the unique features of CSS is critical, as the clinical, neuroradiological, and management strategies (e.g. conservative vs. surgical management: early vs. late) differ from those utilized for other spinal cord trauma. Increased T2-weighted MR images best document CSS, while CT studies confirm the absence of fracture/dislocation. PMID:26005576

  1. 38 CFR 17.276 - Appeal/review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs (champva)-Medical Care for... requirements may be appealed to the Board of Veterans' Appeals in accordance with 38 CFR part 20. Medical... date of the decision he or she may make a written request for review by the Director,...

  2. Interdisciplinary Coordination Reviews: A Process to Reduce Construction Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fewell, Dennis A.

    1998-01-01

    Interdisciplinary Coordination design review is instrumental in detecting coordination errors and omissions in construction documents. Cleansing construction documents of interdisciplinary coordination errors reduces time extensions, the largest source of change orders, and limits exposure to liability claims. Improving the quality of design…

  3. Managing the Process of Review: Playing "Baseball" in Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Donald B.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes using a game entitled "Baseball" to help students with special needs review test questions. Students, organized into teams, use practice test questions to quiz each other. Benefits, in addition to making practice sessions enjoyable, include learning content effectively and teaching students how to self-assess their…

  4. A Statewide School Tobacco Policy Review: Process, Results, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Yvonne D.; English, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Reviewed all district tobacco policies in New York state, developing a policy rubric to assess five policy components (policy development/oversight/communication, purpose and goals, tobacco-free environment, tobacco use prevention education, and assistance to overcome addiction). School policies were evaluated for compliance with state and federal…

  5. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... previous grant awards funded by this program and/or grantees' performance on previous grants and a...) Our award decisions will be based on the stated priorities of the grant program first, then on the... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application review and...

  6. Thermal macrotransport processes in porous media. A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batycky, Richard P.; Brenner, Howard

    This paper reviews recent work by the authors involving nonconservative convective-conductive internal energy transport phenomena in porous media. Where appropriate, these heat-transfer results are contrasted and compared with their classical mass-transfer counterparts. Commonalities as well as differences are pointed out, arising from the distinction between molecular diffusivity vs thermal diffusivity. Differences raise from the fact that the latter — in contrast with the former — is a composite material property (derived jointly from separate thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity properties). This contrasts with the case of molecular diffusivity, which is a fundamental rather than composite material property. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic systems are studied, with the latter characterized by a rate of heat loss to the surroundings described by a 'Newton's law of colling' heat transfer coefficient, h. Taylor dispersion theory is used to effect the coarse-graining of the thermal problem posed by the microscale equations, thereby producing a macroscale or effective-medium theory of the mean thermal transport process. Various porous media, each possessing a spatially periodic skeletal geometry, are analyzed. General expressions are presented for the macroscale thermal propagation velocity vector Ū ∗ (which is not generally equal to the interstitial Darcy-scale velocity V¯ ∗ of the flowing fluid) and effective thermal dispersivity dyadic ᾱ∗ in terms of the prescribed microscale data. Additionally, in the nonadiabatic case, an expression is obtained for a third macrotransport coefficient, H¯∗, representing the effective or overall macroscale heat-transfer coefficient, and distinct from the microscale heat-transfer coefficient h. (The former, macrotransport coefficient represents the same type of macroscale material property as arises in so-called 'fin' heat-transfer problems.) Furthermore, it is shown that when solving the transient

  7. 20 CFR 418.3625 - What is the process for administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... may designate a personal representative (as defined in 42 CFR 423.772) to represent you during the... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the process for administrative review... Medicare Part D Subsidies Determinations and the Administrative Review Process § 418.3625 What is...

  8. 20 CFR 418.3625 - What is the process for administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... may designate a personal representative (as defined in 42 CFR 423.772) to represent you during the... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the process for administrative review... Medicare Part D Subsidies Determinations and the Administrative Review Process § 418.3625 What is...

  9. 20 CFR 418.3625 - What is the process for administrative review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... may designate a personal representative (as defined in 42 CFR 423.772) to represent you during the... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the process for administrative review... Medicare Part D Subsidies Determinations and the Administrative Review Process § 418.3625 What is...

  10. 7 CFR 1940.315 - Timing of the environmental review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Timing of the environmental review process. 1940.315... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Timing of the environmental review process. (a) The FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  11. 48 CFR 1019.202-70-11 - OSBD review and approval process of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... process of agreement. 1019.202-70-11 Section 1019.202-70-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1019.202-70-11 OSBD review and approval process of agreement. (a) OSBD will review the information specified in DTAR...

  12. 29 CFR 30.12 - Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing. 30.12 Section 30.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.12 Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing. If,...

  13. 29 CFR 30.12 - Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing. 30.12 Section 30.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.12 Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing. If,...

  14. 29 CFR 30.12 - Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing. 30.12 Section 30.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.12 Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing. If,...

  15. 29 CFR 30.12 - Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing. 30.12 Section 30.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.12 Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing. If,...

  16. 29 CFR 30.12 - Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing. 30.12 Section 30.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.12 Adjustments in schedule for compliance review or complaint processing. If,...

  17. 36 CFR 9.86 - Application review process and approval standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application review process and approval standards. 9.86 Section 9.86 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program § 9.86 Application review process and approval standards....

  18. 43 CFR 429.13 - How long will the application review process take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How long will the application review process take? 429.13 Section 429.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... application review process take? (a) Reclamation will acknowledge in writing your completed and...

  19. A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D.W.L; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

    2009-01-01

    The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes. PMID:19662153

  20. 10 CFR 26.39 - Review process for fitness-for-duty policy violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review process for fitness-for-duty policy violations. 26.39 Section 26.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.39 Review process for fitness-for-duty policy violations. (a) Each licensee and other entity who...