Non-Obtuse Remeshing with Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation.
Yan, Dong-Ming; Wonka, Peter
2016-09-01
We present a novel remeshing algorithm that avoids triangles with small (acute) angles and those with large (obtuse) angles. Our solution is based on an extension of Centroidal Voronoi Tesselation (CVT). We augment the original CVT formulation with a penalty term that penalizes short Voronoi edges, while the CVT term helps to avoid small angles. Our results show significant improvements in remeshing quality over the state of the art. PMID:26661470
GPU-assisted computation of centroidal Voronoi tessellation.
Rong, Guodong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wenping; Yin, Xiaotian; Gu, Xianfeng David; Guo, Xiaohu
2011-03-01
Centroidal Voronoi tessellations (CVT) are widely used in computational science and engineering. The most commonly used method is Lloyd's method, and recently the L-BFGS method is shown to be faster than Lloyd's method for computing the CVT. However, these methods run on the CPU and are still too slow for many practical applications. We present techniques to implement these methods on the GPU for computing the CVT on 2D planes and on surfaces, and demonstrate significant speedup of these GPU-based methods over their CPU counterparts. For CVT computation on a surface, we use a geometry image stored in the GPU to represent the surface for computing the Voronoi diagram on it. In our implementation a new technique is proposed for parallel regional reduction on the GPU for evaluating integrals over Voronoi cells. PMID:21233516
Romero, Vicente Jose; Peterson, Janet S.; Burkhardt, John V.; Gunzburger, Max Donald
2003-09-01
A recently developed Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) unstructured sampling method is investigated here to assess its suitability for use in statistical sampling and function integration. CVT efficiently generates a highly uniform distribution of sample points over arbitrarily shaped M-Dimensional parameter spaces. It has recently been shown on several 2-D test problems to provide superior point distributions for generating locally conforming response surfaces. In this paper, its performance as a statistical sampling and function integration method is compared to that of Latin-Hypercube Sampling (LHS) and Simple Random Sampling (SRS) Monte Carlo methods, and Halton and Hammersley quasi-Monte-Carlo sequence methods. Specifically, sampling efficiencies are compared for function integration and for resolving various statistics of response in a 2-D test problem. It is found that on balance CVT performs best of all these sampling methods on our test problems.
Ringler, Todd; Ju, Lili; Gunzburger, Max
2008-01-01
During the next decade and beyond, climate system models will be challenged to resolve scales and processes that are far beyond their current scope. Each climate system component has its prototypical example of an unresolved process that may strongly influence the global climate system, ranging from eddy activity within ocean models, to ice streams within ice sheet models, to surface hydrological processes within land system models, to cloud processes within atmosphere models. These new demands will almost certainly result in the develop of multiresolution schemes that are able, at least regionally, to faithfully simulate these fine-scale processes. Spherical centroidal Voronoi tessellations (SCVTs) offer one potential path toward the development of a robust, multiresolution climate system model components. SCVTs allow for the generation of high quality Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations through the use of an intuitive, user-defined density function. In each of the examples provided, this method results in high-quality meshes where the quality measures are guaranteed to improve as the number of nodes is increased. Real-world examples are developed for the Greenland ice sheet and the North Atlantic ocean. Idealized examples are developed for ocean–ice shelf interaction and for regional atmospheric modeling. In addition to defining, developing, and exhibiting SCVTs, we pair this mesh generation technique with a previously developed finite-volume method. Our numerical example is based on the nonlinear, shallow water equations spanning the entire surface of the sphere. This example is used to elucidate both the potential benefits of this multiresolution method and the challenges ahead.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faisal, Tanvir R.; Hristozov, Nicolay; Rey, Alejandro D.; Western, Tamara L.; Pasini, Damiano
2012-09-01
Plant petioles and stems are hierarchical cellular structures, displaying structural features defined at multiple length scales. One or more of the intermediate hierarchical levels consists of tissues, in which the cellular distribution is quasirandom. The current work focuses on the realistic modeling of plant tissue microstructures. The finite-edge centroidal Voronoi tessellation (FECVT) is here introduced to overcome the drawbacks of the semi-infinite edges of a typical Voronoi model. FECVT can generate a realistic model of a tissue microstructure, which might have finite edges at its border, be defined by a boundary contour of any shape, and include complex heterogeneity and cellular gradients. The centroid-based Voronoi tessellation is applied to model the microstructure of the Philodendron melinonii petiole and the Arabidopsis thaliana stem, which both display intense cellular gradients. FECVT coupled with a digital image processing algorithm is implemented to capture the nonperiodic microstructures of plant tissues. The results obtained via this method satisfactorily obey the geometric, statistical, and topological laws of naturally evolved cellular solids. The predicted models are also validated by experimental data.
Low-Resolution Remeshing Using the Localized Restricted Voronoi Diagram.
Yan, Dong-Ming; Bao, Guanbo; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter
2014-10-01
A big problem in triangular remeshing is to generate meshes when the triangle size approaches the feature size in the mesh. The main obstacle for Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT)-based remeshing is to compute a suitable Voronoi diagram. In this paper, we introduce the localized restricted Voronoi diagram (LRVD) on mesh surfaces. The LRVD is an extension of the restricted Voronoi diagram (RVD), but it addresses the problem that the RVD can contain Voronoi regions that consist of multiple disjoint surface patches. Our definition ensures that each Voronoi cell in the LRVD is a single connected region. We show that the LRVD is a useful extension to improve several existing mesh-processing techniques, most importantly surface remeshing with a low number of vertices. While the LRVD and RVD are identical in most simple configurations, the LRVD is essential when sampling a mesh with a small number of points and for sampling surface areas that are in close proximity to other surface areas, e.g., nearby sheets. To compute the LRVD, we combine local discrete clustering with a global exact computation. PMID:26357388
Heterogeneous locational optimisation using a generalised Voronoi partition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guruprasad, K. R.; Ghose, Debasish
2013-06-01
In this paper a generalisation of the Voronoi partition is used for locational optimisation of facilities having different service capabilities and limited range or reach. The facilities can be stationary, such as base stations in a cellular network, hospitals, schools, etc., or mobile units, such as multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, automated guided vehicles, etc., carrying sensors, or mobile units carrying relief personnel and materials. An objective function for optimal deployment of the facilities is formulated, and its critical points are determined. The locally optimal deployment is shown to be a generalised centroidal Voronoi configuration in which the facilities are located at the centroids of the corresponding generalised Voronoi cells. The problem is formulated for more general mobile facilities, and formal results on the stability, convergence and spatial distribution of the proposed control laws responsible for the motion of the agents carrying facilities, under some constraints on the agents' speed and limit on the sensor range, are provided. The theoretical results are supported with illustrative simulation results.
Quantifying Void Ratio in Granular Materials Using Voronoi Tessellation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alshibli, Khalid A.; El-Saidany, Hany A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Voronoi technique was used to calculate the local void ratio distribution of granular materials. It was implemented in an application-oriented image processing and analysis algorithm capable of extracting object edges, separating adjacent particles, obtaining the centroid of each particle, generating Voronoi polygons, and calculating the local void ratio. Details of the algorithm capabilities and features are presented. Verification calculations included performing manual digitization of synthetic images using Oda's method and Voronoi polygon system. The developed algorithm yielded very accurate measurements of the local void ratio distribution. Voronoi tessellation has the advantage, compared to Oda's method, of offering a well-defined polygon generation criterion that can be implemented in an algorithm to automatically calculate local void ratio of particulate materials.
Voronoi Tessellations and Their Application to Climate and Global Modeling
Ju, Lili; Ringler, Todd; Gunzburger, Max
2011-01-01
We review the use of Voronoi tessellations for grid generation, especially on the whole sphere or in regions on the sphere. Voronoi tessellations and the corresponding Delaunay tessellations in regions and surfaces on Euclidean space are defined and properties they possess that make them well-suited for grid generation purposes are discussed, as are algorithms for their construction. This is followed by a more detailed look at one very special type of Voronoi tessellation, the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT). After defining them, discussing some of their properties, and presenting algorithms for their construction, we illustrate the use of CVTs for producing both quasi-uniform and variable resolution meshes in the plane and on the sphere. Finally, we briefly discuss the computational solution of model equations based on CVTs on the sphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamagishi, Yoshikazu; Sushida, Takamichi; Hizume, Akio
2015-04-01
The parameter set of Voronoi spiral tilings gives a dual of van Iterson's bifurcation diagram for phyllotactic spirals. We study the Voronoi tilings for the Bernoulli spiral site sets, as the simplest spirals in the centric representation with similarity symmetry. Their parameter set is composed of a family of real algebraic curves in the complex plane, with the Farey sequence structure. This naturally extends to the parameter set for multiple tilings, i.e., the tilings of the covering spaces of the punctured plane. We show the denseness of the parameters z = reiθ for quadrilateral Voronoi spiral multiple tilings. The techniques of dynamical systems are applied to the group of similarity symmetry. The parastichy numbers and the distortion of the Voronoi regions depend on the rational approximations of θ/2π. We consider the limit set of the shapes of the quadrilateral tiles by taking the limit as r → 1, with θ fixed. If θ/2π is a quadratic irrational number, then the limit set is a finite set of rectangles. In particular, if θ/2π is linearly equivalent to the golden section, then the limit is the square.
Thompson, William A.; Newberg, Lee A.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann; Lawrence, Charles E.
2007-07-01
The Gibbs Centroid Sampler is a software package designed for locating conserved elements in biopolymer sequences. The Gibbs Centroid Sampler reports a centroid alignment, i.e., an alignment that has the minimum total distance to the set of samples chosen from the a posteriori probability distribution of transcription factor binding site alignments. In so doing, it garners information from the full ensemble of solutions, rather than only the single most probable point that is the target of many motif finding algorithms, including its predecessor, the Gibbs Recursive Sampler. Centroid estimators have been shown to yield substantial improvements, in both sensitivity and positive predictive values, to the prediction of RNA secondary structure and motif finding. The Gibbs Centroid Sampler, along with interactive tutorials, an online user manual, and information on downloading the software, is available at http://bayesweb.wadsworth.org/gibbs/gibbs.html.
PARAVT: Parallel Voronoi Tessellation code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez, Roberto E.
2016-01-01
We present a new open source code for massive parallel computation of Voronoi tessellations(VT hereafter) in large data sets. The code is focused for astrophysical purposes where VT densities and neighbors are widely used. There are several serial Voronoi tessellation codes, however no open source and parallel implementations are available to handle the large number of particles/galaxies in current N-body simulations and sky surveys. Parallelization is implemented under MPI and VT using Qhull library. Domain decomposition take into account consistent boundary computation between tasks, and support periodic conditions. In addition, the code compute neighbors lists, Voronoi density and Voronoi cell volumes for each particle, and can compute density on a regular grid.
Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams
Klein, R. )
1989-01-01
The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.
Centroid calculation using neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Himes, Glenn S.; Inigo, Rafael M.
1992-01-01
Centroid calculation provides a means of eliminating translation problems, which is useful for automatic target recognition. a neural network implementation of centroid calculation is described that used a spatial filter and a Hopfield network to determine the centroid location of an object. spatial filtering of a segmented window creates a result whose peak vale occurs at the centroid of the input data set. A Hopfield network then finds the location of this peak and hence gives the location of the centroid. Hardware implementations of the networks are described and simulation results are provided.
Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.
2011-01-01
The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…
Schultz, Benjamin A; Damasceno, Pablo F; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C
2015-03-24
The relationship between colloidal building blocks and their assemblies is an active field of research. As a strategy for targeting novel crystal structures, we examine the use of Voronoi particles, which are hard, space-filling particles in the shape of Voronoi cells of a target structure. Although Voronoi particles stabilize their target structure in the limit of high pressure by construction, the thermodynamic assembly of the same structure at moderate pressure, close to the onset of crystallization, is not guaranteed. Indeed, we find that a more symmetric crystal is often preferred due to additional entropic contributions arising from configurational or occupational degeneracy. We characterize the assembly behavior of the Voronoi particles in terms of the symmetries of the building blocks as well as the symmetries of crystal structures and demonstrate how controlling the degeneracies through a modification of particle shape and field-directed assembly can significantly improve the assembly propensity. PMID:25692863
Optical generation of Voronoi diagram.
Giavazzi, F; Cerbino, R; Mazzoni, S; Giglio, M; Vailati, A
2008-03-31
We present results of experiments of diffraction by an amplitude screen, made of randomly distributed circular holes. By careful selection of the experimental parameters we obtain an intensity pattern strongly connected to the Voronoi diagram (VD) generated by the centers of the apertures. With the help of simulations we give a description of the observed phenomenon and elucidate the optimal parameters for its observation. Finally, we also suggest how it can be used for a fast, all-optical generation of VDs. PMID:18542580
Non-universal Voronoi cell shapes in amorphous ellipsoid packs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaller, Fabian M.; Kapfer, Sebastian C.; Hilton, James E.; Cleary, Paul W.; Mecke, Klaus; De Michele, Cristiano; Schilling, Tanja; Saadatfar, Mohammad; Schröter, Matthias; Delaney, Gary W.; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E.
2015-07-01
In particulate systems with short-range interactions, such as granular matter or simple fluids, local structure determines the macroscopic physical properties. We analyse local structure metrics derived from the Voronoi diagram of oblate ellipsoids, for various aspect ratios α and global packing fractions φ\\text{g} . We focus on jammed static configurations of frictional ellipsoids, obtained by tomographic imaging and by discrete element method simulations. The rescaled distribution of local packing fractions φ\\text{l} , defined as the ratio of particle volume and its Voronoi cell volume, is found to be independent of the particle aspect ratio, and coincide with results for sphere packs. By contrast, the typical Voronoi cell shape, quantified by the Minkowski tensor anisotropy index β=β_02,0 , points towards a difference between random packings of spheres and those of oblate ellipsoids. While the average cell shape β of all cells with a given value of φ\\text{l} is similar in dense and loose jammed sphere packings, the structure of dense and loose ellipsoid packings differs substantially such that this does not hold true.
Contact process on a Voronoi triangulation.
de Oliveira, Marcelo M; Alves, S G; Ferreira, S C; Dickman, Ronald
2008-09-01
We study the continuous absorbing-state phase transition in the contact process on the Voronoi-Delaunay lattice. The Voronoi construction is a natural way to introduce quenched coordination disorder in lattice models. We simulate the disordered system using the quasistationary simulation method and determine its critical exponents and moment ratios. Our results suggest that the critical behavior of the disordered system is unchanged with respect to that on a regular lattice, i.e., that of directed percolation. PMID:18851019
The Method of Centroids in Plane Geometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pinker, Aron
1980-01-01
Archimedes viewed the method of centroids as a valuable tool for intuitive discoveries. This article presents several uses of this technique and discusses how the method of centroids could be used in secondary schools. (Author/MK)
Centroid of a Polygon--Three Views.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shilgalis, Thomas W.; Benson, Carol T.
2001-01-01
Investigates the idea of the center of mass of a polygon and illustrates centroids of polygons. Connects physics, mathematics, and technology to produces results that serve to generalize the notion of centroid to polygons other than triangles. (KHR)
Ka-me: a Voronoi image analyzer
Khiripet, Noppadon; Khantuwan, Wongarnet; Jungck, John R.
2012-01-01
Summary: Ka-me is a Voronoi image analyzer that allows users to analyze any image with a convex polygonal tessellation or any spatial point distribution by fitting Voronoi polygons and their dual, Delaunay triangulations, to the pattern. The analytical tools include a variety of graph theoretic and geometric tools that summarize the distribution of the numbers of edges per face, areas, perimeters, angles of Delaunay triangle edges (anglograms), Gabriel graphs, nearest neighbor graphs, minimal spanning trees, Ulam trees, Pitteway tests, circumcircles and convexhulls, as well as spatial statistics (Clark–Evans Nearest Neighborhood and Variance to Mean Ratio) and export functions for standard relationships (Lewis's Law, Desch's Law and Aboav–Weaire Law). Availability: Ka-me: a Voronoi image analyzer is available as an executable with documentation and sample applications from the BioQUEST Library (http://bioquest.org/downloads/kame_1.0.rar). Contact: noppadon.khiripet@nectec.or.th PMID:22556369
The Voronoi spatio-temporal data structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mioc, Darka
2002-04-01
Current GIS models cannot integrate the temporal dimension of spatial data easily. Indeed, current GISs do not support incremental (local) addition and deletion of spatial objects, and they can not support the temporal evolution of spatial data. Spatio-temporal facilities would be very useful in many GIS applications: harvesting and forest planning, cadastre, urban and regional planning, and emergency planning. The spatio-temporal model that can overcome these problems is based on a topological model---the Voronoi data structure. Voronoi diagrams are irregular tessellations of space, that adapt to spatial objects and therefore they are a synthesis of raster and vector spatial data models. The main advantage of the Voronoi data structure is its local and sequential map updates, which allows us to automatically record each event and performed map updates within the system. These map updates are executed through map construction commands that are composed of atomic actions (geometric algorithms for addition, deletion, and motion of spatial objects) on the dynamic Voronoi data structure. The formalization of map commands led to the development of a spatial language comprising a set of atomic operations or constructs on spatial primitives (points and lines), powerful enough to define the complex operations. This resulted in a new formal model for spatio-temporal change representation, where each update is uniquely characterized by the numbers of newly created and inactivated Voronoi regions. This is used for the extension of the model towards the hierarchical Voronoi data structure. In this model, spatio-temporal changes induced by map updates are preserved in a hierarchical data structure that combines events and corresponding changes in topology. This hierarchical Voronoi data structure has an implicit time ordering of events visible through changes in topology, and it is equivalent to an event structure that can support temporal data without precise temporal
Decomposing trimmed surfaces using the Voronoie tesselation
Tsai, Po-Yu; Hamann, B.
1996-12-31
Many applications deal with the rendering of trimmed surfaces and the generation of grids for trimmed surfaces. Usually, a structured or unstructured grid must be constructed in the parameter space of the trimmed surface. Trimmed surfaces not only cause problems in the context of grid generation but also when exchanging data between different CAD systems. This paper describes a new approach for decomposing the valid part of the parameter space of a trimmed surface into a set of four-sided surfaces. The boundaries of these four-sided surfaces axe line segments, segments of the trimming curves themselves, and segments of bisecting curves that are defined by a generalized Voronoi diagram implied by the trimming curves in parameter space. We use a triangular background mesh for the approximation of the bisecting curves of the generalized Voronoi diagram.
Full Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer, FAME, CCD Centroiding Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triebes, K.; Gilliam, L.; Harris, F.; Hilby, T.; Horner, S.; Monet, D.; Perkins, P.; Vassar, R.
1999-12-01
FAME is a MIDEX astrometry experiment designed to map the positions of 40,000,000 stars to an accuracy of 50 micro-arc seconds. Optimized between mission requirements, size, weight, and cost, the FAME instrument consists of a 0.6 x 0.25 m2 aperture whose point spread function central peak is linearly sampled by two pixels. In order to achieve its astrometric mapping mission requirements, this instrument must achieve a single look centroiding accuracy on a visual magnitude 9.0 star of <0.003 pixels while operating the focal plane in a time domain integration, TDI, mode. As this performance requirement represents a significant improvement over the current state of the art of 0.02 to 0.01 pixel resolution, a risk reduction experiment was conducted to determine our centroiding ability using a flight traceable CCD operated in TDI mode. An ultra-stable optical system was configured to project a simulated starfield onto the CCD which was mounted on a high precision moveable stage. Moving the stage across the projected starfield in synchronization with the TDI rate simulated the sensing environment expected in the final instrument, and intensities were adjusted to simulate 9th visual magnitude stars. Experimental results demonstrated single look centroiding accuracy of <0.002 pixels in addition to yielding unexpected dividends in refining CCD operations and centroid data analysis. This poster paper describes the experiment design, centroiding results, CCD operating techniques and data analysis methods. This work was jointly sponsored by Lockheed Martin and the U.S. Naval Observatory.
Voronoi particle merging algorithm for PIC codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luu, Phuc T.; Tückmantel, T.; Pukhov, A.
2016-05-01
We present a new particle-merging algorithm for the particle-in-cell method. Based on the concept of the Voronoi diagram, the algorithm partitions the phase space into smaller subsets, which consist of only particles that are in close proximity in the phase space to each other. We show the performance of our algorithm in the case of the two-stream instability and the magnetic shower.
Deployment Control of Wireless Multi-Hop-Relay Mobile Robots Based on Voronoi Partition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imaizumi, Takaaki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Uchimura, Yutaka
This paper describes a new method for the deployment of wireless relay nodes. When using rescue robots in a building or underground city, the wireless radio signal is attenuated significantly, and therefore, multi-hop extension involving wireless communication relays is required. The goal of this research is to deploy wireless relay nodes to maintain connectivity between the base station and the leader robot that explores around the front line. To move the relay robot autonomously, a distributed algorithm is required. The proposed method is suitable when it is applied for wireless relay purposes. In the method, a virtual force drives a node to the centroid of Voronoi neighbors, and it maintains the connectivity of wireless communication. The proposed method is evaluated by conducting numerical simulations and experiments. In the simulation, one or two leader robots are assumed. In the experiment, a mobile robot equipped with omni-wheels is used.
Voronoi and void statistics for superhomogeneous point processes.
Gabrielli, Andrea; Torquato, Salvatore
2004-10-01
We study the Voronoi and void statistics of superhomogeneous (or hyperuniform) point patterns in which the infinite-wavelength density fluctuations vanish. Superhomogeneous or hyperuniform point patterns arise in one-component plasmas, primordial density fluctuations in the Universe, and jammed hard-particle packings. We specifically analyze a certain one-dimensional model by studying size fluctuations and correlations of the associated Voronoi cells. We derive exact results for the complete joint statistics of the size of two Voronoi cells. We also provide a sum rule that the correlation matrix for the Voronoi cells must obey in any space dimension. In contrast to the conventional picture of superhomogeneous systems, we show that infinitely large Voronoi cells or voids can exist in superhomogeneous point processes in any dimension. We also present two heuristic conditions to identify and classify any superhomogeneous point process in terms of the asymptotic behavior of the void size distribution. PMID:15600395
Ringler, Todd D; Gunzburger, Max; Ju, Lili
2008-01-01
During the next decade and beyond, climate system models will be challenged to resolve scales and processes that are far beyond their current scope. Each climate system component has its prototypical example of an unresolved process that may strongly influence the global climate system, ranging from eddy activity within ocean models, to ice streams within ice sheet models, to surface hydrological processes within land system models, to cloud processes within atmosphere models. These new demands will almost certainly result in the develop of multi-resolution schemes that are able, at least regional to faithfully simulate these fine-scale processes. Spherical Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations (SCVTs) offer one potential path toward the development of robust, multi-resolution climate system component models, SCVTs allow for the generation of high quality Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations through the use of an intuitive, user-defined density function, each of the examples provided, this method results in high-quality meshes where the quality measures are guaranteed to improve as the number of nodes is increased. Real-world examples are developed for the Greenland ice sheet and the North Atlantic ocean. Idealized examples are developed for ocean-ice shelf interaction and for regional atmospheric modeling. In addition to defining, developing and exhibiting SCVTs, we pair this mesh generation technique with a previously developed finite-volume method. Our numerical example is based on the nonlinear shallow-water equations spanning the entire surface of the sphere. This example is used to elucidate both the potential benefits of this multi-resolution method and the challenges ahead.
Reaction diffusion Voronoi diagrams: from sensors data to computing.
Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Faigl, Jan; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad
2015-01-01
In this paper, a new method to solve computational problems using reaction diffusion (RD) systems is presented. The novelty relies on the use of a model configuration that tailors its spatiotemporal dynamics to develop Voronoi diagrams (VD) as a part of the system's natural evolution. The proposed framework is deployed in a solution of related robotic problems, where the generalized VD are used to identify topological places in a grid map of the environment that is created from sensor measurements. The ability of the RD-based computation to integrate external information, like a grid map representing the environment in the model computational grid, permits a direct integration of sensor data into the model dynamics. The experimental results indicate that this method exhibits significantly less sensitivity to noisy data than the standard algorithms for determining VD in a grid. In addition, previous drawbacks of the computational algorithms based on RD models, like the generation of volatile solutions by means of excitable waves, are now overcome by final stable states. PMID:26035349
Revisiting the Voronoi description of protein-protein interfaces.
Cazals, Frédéric; Proust, Flavien; Bahadur, Ranjit P; Janin, Joël
2006-09-01
We developed a model of macromolecular interfaces based on the Voronoi diagram and the related alpha-complex, and we tested its properties on a set of 96 protein-protein complexes taken from the Protein Data Bank. The Voronoi model provides a natural definition of the interfaces, and it yields values of the number of interface atoms and of the interface area that have excellent correlation coefficients with those of the classical model based on solvent accessibility. Nevertheless, some atoms that do not lose solvent accessibility are part of the interface defined by the Voronoi model. The Voronoi model provides robust definitions of the curvature and of the connectivity of the interfaces, and leads to estimates of these features that generally agree with other approaches. Our implementation of the model allows an analysis of protein-water contacts that highlights the role of structural water molecules at protein-protein interfaces. PMID:16943442
Characterization of maximally random jammed sphere packings: Voronoi correlation functions.
Klatt, Michael A; Torquato, Salvatore
2014-11-01
We characterize the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings by computing the Minkowski functionals (volume, surface area, and integrated mean curvature) of their associated Voronoi cells. The probability distribution functions of these functionals of Voronoi cells in MRJ sphere packings are qualitatively similar to those of an equilibrium hard-sphere liquid and partly even to the uncorrelated Poisson point process, implying that such local statistics are relatively structurally insensitive. This is not surprising because the Minkowski functionals of a single Voronoi cell incorporate only local information and are insensitive to global structural information. To improve upon this, we introduce descriptors that incorporate nonlocal information via the correlation functions of the Minkowski functionals of two cells at a given distance as well as certain cell-cell probability density functions. We evaluate these higher-order functions for our MRJ packings as well as equilibrium hard spheres and the Poisson point process. It is shown that these Minkowski correlation and density functions contain visibly more information than the corresponding standard pair-correlation functions. We find strong anticorrelations in the Voronoi volumes for the hyperuniform MRJ packings, consistent with previous findings for other pair correlations [A. Donev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090604 (2005)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.090604], indicating that large-scale volume fluctuations are suppressed by accompanying large Voronoi cells with small cells, and vice versa. In contrast to the aforementioned local Voronoi statistics, the correlation functions of the Voronoi cells qualitatively distinguish the structure of MRJ sphere packings (prototypical glasses) from that of not only the Poisson point process but also the correlated equilibrium hard-sphere liquids. Moreover, while we did not find any perfect icosahedra (the locally densest possible structure in which a
Centroid tracking with area array detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glavich, T. A.
1986-01-01
A computer program (ALGEVAL) has been developed to simulate the position estimating behavior of a centroid estimator algorithm using data typical of optical point spread function data recorded by an area array detector. Typical results are shown of varying detector properties and optical point spread function types. The detector parameters currently available for study include read noise mean value, dark current mean value and spatial variation, charge transfer efficiency and point spread function location, saturation level, signal level and pixel size. The program is capable of calculating any order centroid using an array size from 2 x 2 to 15 x 15 pixels. The output of the program is either a performance map, histogram data or tabluar data. A number of further developments are recommended.
Sheet nacre growth mechanism: a Voronoi model.
Rousseau, Marthe; Lopez, Evelyne; Couté, Alain; Mascarel, Gérard; Smith, David C; Naslain, Roger; Bourrat, Xavier
2005-02-01
Shell nacre (mother of pearl) of Pinctada margaritifera was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The originality of this work concerns the sampling performed to observe incipient nacre on the mantle side. The whole animal is embedded in methyl methacrylate followed by separation of the shell from the hardened mantle. It is revealed this way how each future nacre layer pre-exists as a film or compartment. Experimental observations also show for the first time, the progressive lateral crystallization inside this film, finishing under the form of a non-periodic pattern of polygonal tablets of bio-aragonite. It is evidenced that nuclei appear in the film in the vicinity of the zone where aragonite tablets of the underlying layer get in contact to each other. A possible explanation is given to show how nucleation is probably launched in time and space by a signal coming from the underlying layer. Finally, it is evidenced that tablets form a Voronoi tiling of the space: this suggests that their growth is controlled by an "aggregation-like" process of "crystallites" and not directly by the aragonite lattice growth. PMID:15681231
Leaf Shape Recognition using Centroid Contour Distance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasim, Abdurrasyid; Herdiyeni, Yeni; Douady, Stephane
2016-01-01
This research recognizes the leaf shape using Centroid Contour Distance (CCD) as shape descriptor. CCD is an algorithm of shape representation contour-based approach which only exploits boundary information. CCD calculates the distance between the midpoint and the points on the edge corresponding to interval angle. Leaf shapes that included in this study are ellips, cordate, ovate, and lanceolate. We analyzed 200 leaf images of tropical plant. Each class consists of 50 images. The best accuracy is obtained by 96.67%. We used Probabilistic Neural Network to classify the leaf shape. Experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach for shape recognition with high accuracy.
JASMINE project Instrument design and centroiding experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yano, Taihei; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yamada, Yoshiyuki
JASMINE will study the fundamental structure and evolution of the Milky Way Galaxy. To accomplish these objectives, JASMINE will measure trigonometric parallaxes, positions and proper motions of about 10 million stars with a precision of 10 μarcsec at z = 14 mag. In this paper the instrument design (optics, detectors, etc.) of JASMINE is presented. We also show a CCD centroiding experiment for estimating positions of star images. The experimental result shows that the accuracy of estimated distances has a variance of less than 0.01 pixel.
Pocket extraction on proteins via the Voronoi diagram of spheres.
Kim, Donguk; Cho, Cheol-Hyung; Cho, Youngsong; Ryu, Joonghyun; Bhak, Jonghwa; Kim, Deok-Soo
2008-04-01
Proteins consist of atoms. Given a protein, the automatic recognition of depressed regions, called pockets, on the surface of proteins is important for protein-ligand docking and facilitates fast development of new drugs. Recently, computational approaches have emerged for recognizing pockets from the geometrical point of view. Presented in this paper is a geometric method for the pocket recognition which is based on the Voronoi diagram for atoms. Given a Voronoi diagram, the proposed algorithm transforms the atomic structure to meshes which contain the information of the proximity among atoms, and then recognizes depressions on the surface of a protein using the meshes. PMID:18023220
An algorithm for three-dimensional Voronoi S-network.
Medvedev, N N; Voloshin, V P; Luchnikov, V A; Gavrilova, M L
2006-11-15
The paper presents an algorithm for calculating the three-dimensional Voronoi-Delaunay tessellation for an ensemble of spheres of different radii (additively-weighted Voronoi diagram). Data structure and output of the algorithm is oriented toward the exploration of the voids between the spheres. The main geometric construct that we develop is the Voronoi S-network (the network of vertices and edges of the Voronoi regions determined in relation to the surfaces of the spheres). General scheme of the algorithm and the key points of its realization are discussed. The principle of the algorithm is that for each determined site of the network we find its neighbor sites. Thus, starting from a known site of the network, we sequentially find the whole network. The starting site of the network is easily determined based on certain considerations. Geometric properties of ensembles of spheres of different radii are discussed, the conditions of applicability and limitations of the algorithm are indicated. The algorithm is capable of working with a wide variety of physical models, which may be represented as sets of spheres, including computer models of complex molecular systems. Emphasis was placed on the issue of increasing the efficiency of algorithm to work with large models (tens of thousands of atoms). It was demonstrated that the experimental CPU time increases linearly with the number of atoms in the system, O(n). PMID:16900490
Simulations of elastic wave propagation through Voronoi polycrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, Joseph A.; Ghoshal, Goutam
2002-11-01
The scattering of elastic waves in polycrystalline media is relevant for ultrasonic materials characterization and nondestructive evaluation. Ultrasonic attenuation and backscatter are routinely used for extracting microstructural parameters such as grain size and grain texture. The inversion of experimental data requires robust ultrasonic scattering models. Such models are often idealizations of real media through assumptions such as constant density, single grain size, and randomness hypotheses. The accuracy and limits of applicability of these models cannot be fully tested due to practical limits of real materials processing. Here, this problem is examined in terms of numerical simulations of elastic waves through two-dimensional polycrystals. The numerical models are based on the Voronoi polycrystal. Voronoi tessellations have been shown to model accurately the microstructure of polycrystalline metals and ceramics. The Voronoi cells are discretized using finite elements and integrated directly in time. The material properties of the individual Voronoi cells are chosen according to appropriate distributions here, cubic crystals that are statistically isotropic. Results are presented and compared with scattering theories. Issues relevant to spatial/ensemble averaging will also be discussed. These simulations will provide insight into the attenuation models relevant for polycrystalline materials. [Work supported by DOE.
Lagrangian fluid dynamics using the Voronoi-Delauanay mesh
Dukowicz, J.K.
1981-01-01
A Lagrangian technique for numerical fluid dynamics is described. This technique makes use of the Voronoi mesh to efficiently locate new neighbors, and it uses the dual (Delaunay) triangulation to define computational cells. This removes all topological restrictions and facilitates the solution of problems containing interfaces and multiple materials. To improve computational accuracy a mesh smoothing procedure is employed.
Voronoi tessellation of the packing of fine uniform spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, R. Y.; Zou, R. P.; Yu, A. B.
2002-04-01
The packing of uniform fine spherical particles ranging from 1 to 1000 μm has been simulated by means of discrete particle simulation. The packing structure is analyzed, facilitated by the well established Voronoi tessellation. The topological and metric properties of Voronoi polyhedra are quantified as a function of particle size and packing density. The results show that as particle size or packing density decreases, (i) the average face number of Voronoi polyhedra decreases, and the distributions of face number and edge number become broader and more asymmetric; (ii) the average perimeter and area of polyhedra increase, and the distributions of polyhedron surface area and volume become more flat and can be described by the log-normal distribution. The topological and metric properties depicted for the packing of fine particles differ either quantitatively or qualitatively from those reported in the literature although they all can be related to packing density. In particular, our results show that the average sphericity coefficient of Voronoi polyhedra varies with packing density, and although Aboav-Weaire's law is generally applicable, Lewis's law is not valid when packing density is low, which are contrary to the previous findings for other packing systems.
Voronoi tessellation of the packing of fine uniform spheres.
Yang, R Y; Zou, R P; Yu, A B
2002-04-01
The packing of uniform fine spherical particles ranging from 1 to 1000 microm has been simulated by means of discrete particle simulation. The packing structure is analyzed, facilitated by the well established Voronoi tessellation. The topological and metric properties of Voronoi polyhedra are quantified as a function of particle size and packing density. The results show that as particle size or packing density decreases, (i) the average face number of Voronoi polyhedra decreases, and the distributions of face number and edge number become broader and more asymmetric; (ii) the average perimeter and area of polyhedra increase, and the distributions of polyhedron surface area and volume become more flat and can be described by the log-normal distribution. The topological and metric properties depicted for the packing of fine particles differ either quantitatively or qualitatively from those reported in the literature although they all can be related to packing density. In particular, our results show that the average sphericity coefficient of Voronoi polyhedra varies with packing density, and although Aboav-Weaire's law is generally applicable, Lewis's law is not valid when packing density is low, which are contrary to the previous findings for other packing systems. PMID:12005816
CCD centroiding experiment for JASMINE and ILOM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yano, Taihei; Araki, Hiroshi; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Nakajima, Tadashi; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Tazawa, Seiichi; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Hanada, Hideo; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruta, Seiitsu
2006-06-01
JASMINE and ILOM are space missions which are in progress at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. These two projects need a common astrometric technique to obtain precise positions of star images on solid state detectors to accomplish the objectives. We have carried out measurements of centroid of artificial star images on a CCD to investigate the accuracy of the positions of the stars, using an algorithm for estimating them from photon weighted means of the stars. We find that the accuracy of the star positions reaches 1/300 pixel for one measurement. We also measure positions of stars, using an algorithm for correcting the distorted optical image. Finally, we find that the accuracy of the measurement for the positions of the stars from the strongly distorted image is under 1/150 pixel for one measurement.
Computing the apparent centroid of radar targets
Lee, C.E.
1996-12-31
A high-frequency multibounce radar scattering code was used as a simulation platform for demonstrating an algorithm to compute the ARC of specific radar targets. To illustrate this simulation process, several targets models were used. Simulation results for a sphere model were used to determine the errors of approximation associated with the simulation; verifying the process. The severity of glint induced tracking errors was also illustrated using a model of an F-15 aircraft. It was shown, in a deterministic manner, that the ARC of a target can fall well outside its physical extent. Finally, the apparent radar centroid simulation based on a ray casting procedure is well suited for use on most massively parallel computing platforms and could lead to the development of a near real-time radar tracking simulation for applications such as endgame fuzing, survivability, and vulnerability analyses using specific radar targets and fuze algorithms.
Accurate Alignment of Plasma Channels Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations
Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim
2011-03-23
A technique has been developed to accurately align a laser beam through a plasma channel by minimizing the shift in laser centroid and angle at the channel outptut. If only the shift in centroid or angle is measured, then accurate alignment is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel properties are scanned. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique is important for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.
Centroid and moments of an area using a digitizer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patch, R. W.
1976-01-01
The centroid and moments of an area program provides the centroid, moments of inertia, product of inertia, radii of gyration, and area of any closed planar geometric figure. The figure must be available in graphic form and is digitized once with chart digitizer (graphic tablet). The digitizer origin may be set anywhere on the digitizer table. After digitizing, fifteen quantities are calculated and displayed: (1) area (2) moment of inertia of area with respect to digitizer x-axis, (3) moment of inertia of area with respect to digitizer y-axis, (4) product of inertia of area with respect to digitizer axes, (5) first moment of x for digitizer axes, (6) first moment of y for digitizer axes, (7) x coordinate of centroid, (8) y coordinate of centroid, (9) moment of area inertia of with respect to x axis through centroid, (10) moment of inertia of area with respect to y axis through centroid, (11) product inertia of area with respect to x and y axes through centroid, (12) polar moment of inertia of area around centroid, (13) radius of gyration about digitizer x axis, (14) radius of gyration about digitizer y-axis; and (15) variance in the x-direction.
Adaptive centroid-finding algorithm for freeform surface measurements.
Guo, Wenjiang; Zhao, Liping; Tong, Chin Shi; I-Ming, Chen; Joshi, Sunil Chandrakant
2013-04-01
Wavefront sensing systems measure the slope or curvature of a surface by calculating the centroid displacement of two focal spot images. Accurately finding the centroid of each focal spot determines the measurement results. This paper studied several widely used centroid-finding techniques and observed that thresholding is the most critical factor affecting the centroid-finding accuracy. Since the focal spot image of a freeform surface usually suffers from various types of image degradation, it is difficult and sometimes impossible to set a best threshold value for the whole image. We propose an adaptive centroid-finding algorithm to tackle this problem and have experimentally proven its effectiveness in measuring freeform surfaces. PMID:23545985
CCD centroiding analysis for Nano-JASMINE observation data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niwa, Yoshito; Yano, Taihei; Araki, Hiroshi; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Tazawa, Seiichi; Hanada, Hideo
2010-07-01
Nano-JASMINE is a very small satellite mission for global space astrometry with milli-arcsecond accuracy, which will be launched in 2011. In this mission, centroids of stars in CCD image frames are estimated with sub-pixel accuracy. In order to realize such a high precision centroiding an algorithm utilizing a least square method is employed. One of the advantages is that centroids can be calculated without explicit assumption of the point spread functions of stars. CCD centroiding experiment has been performed to investigate whether this data analysis is available, and centroids of artificial star images on a CCD are determined with a precision of less than 0.001 pixel. This result indicates parallaxes of stars within 300 pc from Sun can be observed in Nano-JASMINE.
Transverse centroid oscillations in solenoidially focused beam transport lattices
Lund, Steven M.; Wootton, Christopher J.; Lee, Edward P.
2008-08-01
Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable"alignment functions" and"bending functions" that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by mechanical misalignments of the solenoids and dipole steering elements. The alignment and bending functions depend only on properties of the ideal lattice in the absence of errors and steering and have associated expansion amplitudes set by the misalignments and steering fields. Applications of this formulation are presented for statistical analysis of centroid deviations, calculation of actual lattice misalignments from centroid measurements, and optimal beam steering.
Transverse Centroid Oscillations in Solenoidially Focused Beam Transport Lattices
Lund, S M; Wootton, C J; Lee, E P
2008-08-01
Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable 'alignment functions' and 'bending functions' that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by mechanical misalignments of the solenoids and dipole steering elements. The alignment and bending functions depend only on properties of the ideal lattice in the absence of errors and steering and have associated expansion amplitudes set by the misalignments and steering fields. Applications of this formulation are presented for statistical analysis of centroid deviations, calculation of actual lattice misalignments from centroid measurements, and optimal beam steering.
Fast tracking mode predictive centroiding scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehman, Masood-Ur; Fang, Jiancheng; Saffih, Faycal; Quan, Wei
2008-10-01
The autonomous star trackers, using charge couple device CCD camera, or active pixel sensor APS, as natural sensors for optical input, has assumed a permanent position. This is due to their highly accurate attitude determination, small size, light weight and simple functionality, making them devices of choice in nearly all modern space vehicles especially for Nano-satellites. In all star trackers, star centroiding is a fundamental process necessary for pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method is presented, which predicts centers of regions of star locations, in successive image frames, from the current knowledge of boresight direction, which is updated successively. This method is very attractive for hardware implementation using APS imagers known for their random accessibility feature lacked in CCD's. The big advantage of this method is that it does not need pattern recognition, thus making it fast. This reduction of computational budget, power consumption and time, added to the capability of incorporating them in APS imagers, is appealing to Nano-satellites navigational instrumentation.
JASMINE Project --Instrument Design and Centroiding Experiment--
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yano, T.; Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Jasmine Working Group
JASMINE is the acronym of the Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared z-band 0 9 micron Exploration and is planned to be launched around 2015 The main objective of JASMINE is to study the fundamental structure and evolution of the Milky Way Galaxy Another important objective is to investigate stellar physics In order to accomplish these objectives JASMINE will measure trigonometric parallaxes positions and proper motions of about ten million stars during the observational program with the precision of 10 microarcsec at z 14mag We present the instrument design of JASMINE optics detectors etc and techniques for estimating the centroiding of satar images to accomplish the objectives In order to obtain measurements of astrometric parameters with high accuracy the optics with a long focal length and a wide focal plane is requested The Korsch system 3-mirror system is one of the convincing models However the center of the field is totally vignetted because of the fold mirror Therefore we consider the improved Korsch system in which the center of the field is not vignetted We obtain the diffraction limited optical design with small distortion We place dozens of CCD arrays with high quantum efficiency at z-band on the focal plane This new type of detectors is now being developed mainly at National Astronomical Observatory of Japan In order to accomplish the objective we must estimate positions of star images on the CCD array with sub-pixel accuracy Therefore we need a technique to obtain precise positions of star
Voro++: a three-dimensional Voronoi cell library in C++
Rycroft, Chris
2009-01-15
Voro++ is a free software library for the computation of three dimensional Voronoi cells. It is primarily designed for applications in physics and materials science, where the Voronoi tessellation can be a useful tool in the analysis of densely-packed particle systems, such as granular materials or glasses. The software comprises of several C++ classes that can be modified and incorporated into other programs. A command-line utility is also provided that can use most features of the code. Voro++ makes use of a direct cell-by-cell construction, which is particularly suited to handling special boundary conditions and walls. It employs algorithms which are tolerant for numerical precision errors, and it has been successfully employed on very large particle systems.
Voronoi Diagram Based Optimization of Dynamic Reactive Power Sources
Huang, Weihong; Sun, Kai; Qi, Junjian; Xu, Yan
2015-01-01
Dynamic var sources can effectively mitigate fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) issues or even voltage collapse. This paper proposes a new approach to optimization of the sizes of dynamic var sources at candidate locations by a Voronoi diagram based algorithm. It first disperses sample points of potential solutions in a searching space, evaluates a cost function at each point by barycentric interpolation for the subspaces around the point, and then constructs a Voronoi diagram about cost function values over the entire space. Accordingly, the final optimal solution can be obtained. Case studies on the WSCC 9-bus system and NPCC 140-bus system have validated that the new approach can quickly identify the boundary of feasible solutions in searching space and converge to the global optimal solution.
Multidimensional, compressible viscous flow on a moving Voronoi mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz, D. J.; Springel, V.; Marcus, R.; Vogelsberger, M.; Hernquist, L.
2013-01-01
Numerous formulations of finite-volume schemes for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations exist, but in the majority of cases they have been developed for structured and stationary meshes. In many applications, more flexible mesh geometries that can dynamically adjust to the problem at hand and move with the flow in a (quasi-)Lagrangian fashion would, however, be highly desirable, as this can allow a significant reduction of advection errors and an accurate realization of curved and moving boundary conditions. Here we describe a novel formulation of viscous continuum hydrodynamics that solves the equations of motion on a Voronoi mesh created by a set of mesh-generating points. The points can move in an arbitrary manner, but the most natural motion is that given by the fluid velocity itself, such that the mesh dynamically adjusts to the flow. Owing to the mathematical properties of the Voronoi tessellation, pathological mesh-twisting effects are avoided. Our implementation considers the full Navier-Stokes equations and has been realized in the arepo code both in two and three dimensions. We propose a new approach to compute accurate viscous fluxes for a dynamic Voronoi mesh, and use this to formulate a finite-volume solver of the Navier-Stokes equations. Through a number of test problems, including circular Couette flow and flow past a cylindrical obstacle, we show that our new scheme combines good accuracy with geometric flexibility, and hence promises to be competitive with other highly refined Eulerian methods. This will in particular allow astrophysical applications of the arepo code where physical viscosity is important, such as in the hot plasma in galaxy clusters, or for viscous accretion disc models.
Voronoi based microstructure modelling for elastic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shivaprasad, S.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Krishnamurthy, C. V.
2016-02-01
Ultrasonic assessment of materials and defects are affected by microstructural parameters like grain size and texture. When a beam of ultrasound propagates in a polycrystalline medium, it undergoes extensive scattering by grains, grain boundaries and other microstructural features such as dislocations, voids, micro cracks etc. To understand the role of anisotropy and grain size distribution on an ultrasonic beam, a model system is proposed for carrying out ultrasonic wave propagation in a model characterized by grain size distribution and grain orientation distribution. A 2D polycrystalline medium constructed using Voronoi tessellations with a specific grain size distribution is considered and orientational averaging studies are carried out.
BALANCING THE LOAD: A VORONOI BASED SCHEME FOR PARALLEL COMPUTATIONS
Steinberg, Elad; Yalinewich, Almog; Sari, Re'em; Duffell, Paul
2015-01-01
One of the key issues when running a simulation on multiple CPUs is maintaining a proper load balance throughout the run and minimizing communications between CPUs. We propose a novel method of utilizing a Voronoi diagram to achieve a nearly perfect load balance without the need of any global redistributions of data. As a show case, we implement our method in RICH, a two-dimensional moving mesh hydrodynamical code, but it can be extended trivially to other codes in two or three dimensions. Our tests show that this method is indeed efficient and can be used in a large variety of existing hydrodynamical codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Xi-Zhong
2007-08-01
Micro structures of equal sphere packing (ranging from loose to dense packing) generated numerically by discrete element method under different vibration conditions are characterized using Voronoi/Delaunay tessellation, which is applied on a wide range of packing densities. The analysis on micro properties such as the total perimeter, surface area, and the face number distribution of each Voronoi polyhedron, and the pore size distribution in each Voronoi/Delaunay subunit is systematically carried out. The results show that with the increasing density of sphere packing, the Voronoi/Delaunay pore size distribution is narrowed. That indicates large pores to be gradually substituted by small uniformed ones during densification. Meanwhile, the distributions of face number, total perimeter, and surface area of Voronoi polyhedra at high packing densities tend to be narrower and higher, which is in good agreement with those in random loose packing.
A LAGUERRE VORONOI BASED SCHEME FOR MESHING PARTICLE SYSTEMS
Bajaj, Chandrajit
2009-01-01
We present Laguerre Voronoi based subdivision algorithms for the quadrilateral and hexahedral meshing of particle systems within a bounded region in two and three dimensions, respectively. Particles are smooth functions over circular or spherical domains. The algorithm first breaks the bounded region containing the particles into Voronoi cells that are then subsequently decomposed into an initial quadrilateral or an initial hexahedral scaffold conforming to individual particles. The scaffolds are subsequently refined via applications of recursive subdivision (splitting and averaging rules). Our choice of averaging rules yield a particle conforming quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh, of good quality, along with being smooth and differentiable in the limit. Extensions of the basic scheme to dynamic re-meshing in the case of addition, deletion, and moving particles are also discussed. Motivating applications of the use of these static and dynamic meshes for particle systems include the mechanics of epoxy/glass composite materials, bio-molecular force field calculations, and gas hydrodynamics simulations in cosmology PMID:20454544
Plasma Channel Diagnostic Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations
Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim
2010-09-09
A technique has been developed for measuring the properties of discharge-based plasma channels by monitoring the centroid location of a laser beam exiting the channel as a function of input alignment offset between the laser and the channel. The centroid position of low-intensity (<10{sup 14}Wcm{sup -2}) laser pulses focused at the input of a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide was scanned and the exit positions recorded to determine the channel shape and depth with an accuracy of a few %. In addition, accurate alignment of the laser beam through the plasma channel can be provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel depth is scanned either by scanning the plasma density or the discharge timing. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique will be crucial for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.
Voronoi diagrams generated by regressing edges of precipitation fronts.
de Lacy Costello, Benjamin P J; Hantz, Peter; Ratcliffe, Norman M
2004-02-01
Reaction-diffusion systems where one of the reagents (outer electrolyte) penetrates into a gel by diffusion and forms a precipitate with the other reagent (inner electrolyte) homogenized in the gel, are able to produce various complex precipitation patterns. The previously studied NaOH + AgNO3 and recently discovered CuCl2 + K3[Fe(CN)6] processes, (where the first reagent is the outer electrolyte and the other is the inner electrolyte homogenized in the gel), when reacted using the above mentioned method, are able to generate tessellations of a plane by a mechanism dependant on the dynamics of so-called regressing edges of the reaction fronts. The spontaneous partitioning of the reacted phases results in the construction of a pattern analogous to a Voronoi diagram or one of their generalizations. PMID:15268381
Approximating the Generalized Voronoi Diagram of Closely Spaced Objects
Edwards, John; Daniel, Eric; Pascucci, Valerio; Bajaj, Chandrajit
2015-06-22
We present an algorithm to compute an approximation of the generalized Voronoi diagram (GVD) on arbitrary collections of 2D or 3D geometric objects. In particular, we focus on datasets with closely spaced objects; GVD approximation is expensive and sometimes intractable on these datasets using previous algorithms. With our approach, the GVD can be computed using commodity hardware even on datasets with many, extremely tightly packed objects. Our approach is to subdivide the space with an octree that is represented with an adjacency structure. We then use a novel adaptive distance transform to compute the distance function on octree vertices. The computed distance field is sampled more densely in areas of close object spacing, enabling robust and parallelizable GVD surface generation. We demonstrate our method on a variety of data and show example applications of the GVD in 2D and 3D.
Approximating the Generalized Voronoi Diagram of Closely Spaced Objects
Edwards, John; Daniel, Eric; Pascucci, Valerio; Bajaj, Chandrajit
2016-01-01
We present an algorithm to compute an approximation of the generalized Voronoi diagram (GVD) on arbitrary collections of 2D or 3D geometric objects. In particular, we focus on datasets with closely spaced objects; GVD approximation is expensive and sometimes intractable on these datasets using previous algorithms. With our approach, the GVD can be computed using commodity hardware even on datasets with many, extremely tightly packed objects. Our approach is to subdivide the space with an octree that is represented with an adjacency structure. We then use a novel adaptive distance transform to compute the distance function on octree vertices. The computed distance field is sampled more densely in areas of close object spacing, enabling robust and parallelizable GVD surface generation. We demonstrate our method on a variety of data and show example applications of the GVD in 2D and 3D. PMID:27540272
Layout pattern analysis using the Voronoi diagram of line segments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Sandeep Kumar; Cheilaris, Panagiotis; Gabrani, Maria; Papadopoulou, Evanthia
2016-01-01
Early identification of problematic patterns in very large scale integration (VLSI) designs is of great value as the lithographic simulation tools face significant timing challenges. To reduce the processing time, such a tool selects only a fraction of possible patterns which have a probable area of failure, with the risk of missing some problematic patterns. We introduce a fast method to automatically extract patterns based on their structure and context, using the Voronoi diagram of line-segments as derived from the edges of VLSI design shapes. Designers put line segments around the problematic locations in patterns called "gauges," along which the critical distance is measured. The gauge center is the midpoint of a gauge. We first use the Voronoi diagram of VLSI shapes to identify possible problematic locations, represented as gauge centers. Then we use the derived locations to extract windows containing the problematic patterns from the design layout. The problematic locations are prioritized by the shape and proximity information of the design polygons. We perform experiments for pattern selection in a portion of a 22-nm random logic design layout. The design layout had 38,584 design polygons (consisting of 199,946 line segments) on layer Mx, and 7079 markers generated by an optical rule checker (ORC) tool. The optical rules specify requirements for printing circuits with minimum dimension. Markers are the locations of some optical rule violations in the layout. We verify our approach by comparing the coverage of our extracted patterns to the ORC-generated markers. We further derive a similarity measure between patterns and between layouts. The similarity measure helps to identify a set of representative gauges that reduces the number of patterns for analysis.
The Integration of Math and Science via Centroids.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Cheng-Shyong
1997-01-01
Explores the new proving of Ceva and Menelaus's results from Archimedes's Law of the Lever. Presents the geometrical construction of the weighted centroid of the gravity of finite particles along with some properties of vector representation, and sets up a related result to spatial shape. (Author/ASK)
Preliminary results of centroiding experiment for the STEP mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Haitao; Li, Baoquan; Cao, Yang; Chen, Ding; Li, Ligang
2015-08-01
Search for Terrestrial Exo-Planet (STEP)[1] was originally proposed in 2013 by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which is currently being under background engineering study phase in China. The STEP mission is a space astrometry telescope working at visible light wavelengths. The STEP aims at the nearby terrestrial planets detection through micro-arcsecond-level astrometry. Determination of the separation between star images on a detector with high precision is very important for astrometric exoplanets detection through the observation of star wobbles due to planets. The requirement of centroiding accuracy for STEP is 1e-5 pixel. A centroiding experiment have been carried out on a metrology testbed in open laboratory. In this paper, we present the preliminary results of determining the separations between star images. Without calibration of pixel positions and intra-pixel response, we have demonstrated that the standard deviation of differential centroiding is below 7.4e-3 pixel by the algorithm of linear corrected photon weighted means(LCPWM)[2,3]. For comparison, the photon weighted means(PWM) and Gauss fitting are also used in the data reduction. These results pave the way for the geometrical calibration and the intra-pixel quantum efficiency(QE) calibration of detector array equipment for micro-pixel accuracy centroiding.
Application of Voronoi tesselation for modeling randomly packed hollow-fiber bundles
Chen, V.; Hlavacek, M. . Centre for Membrane Science and Technology)
1994-04-01
Hollow-fiber modules consisting of fiber bundles in a tube and shell configuration have been used in many applications such as filtration or contactor devices. They are being studied for use in membrane distillation and other separation processes. Recent applications also include bioreactors. Influence of local voids on flow maldistribution in randomly packed fiber bundles is examined by Voronoi tessellation. A theoretical expression for the local void distribution caused by random placement of fibers is developed by using a random-cell model. Simulations and packing experiments have been conducted to assess the accuracy of the theoretical distribution of cell sizes: In the case of shell side, laminar flow parallel to the fibers, the theoretical distribution is used to estimate fRe (friction factor times Reynolds number) and volumetric flows, and to compare results with ordered arrays and experimental data from literature. The results are used to assess the contributions of local voidage variations to flow bypass. This has implications for the prediction of pressure drop and heat and mass transfer in hollow-fiber module applications where transport is dominated by flow on the shell side.
tiReaction Diffusion Voronoi Diagrams: From Sensors Data to Computing
Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Faigl, Jan; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad
2015-01-01
In this paper, a new method to solve computational problems using reaction diffusion (RD) systems is presented. The novelty relies on the use of a model configuration that tailors its spatiotemporal dynamics to develop Voronoi diagrams (VD) as a part of the system's natural evolution. The proposed framework is deployed in a solution of related robotic problems, where the generalized VD are used to identify topological places in a grid map of the environment that is created from sensor measurements. The ability of the RD-based computation to integrate external information, like a grid map representing the environment in the model computational grid, permits a direct integration of sensor data into the model dynamics. The experimental results indicate that this method exhibits significantly less sensitivity to noisy data than the standard algorithms for determining VD in a grid. In addition, previous drawbacks of the computational algorithms based on RD models, like the generation of volatile solutions by means of excitable waves, are now overcome by final stable states. PMID:26035349
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McDowell, Mark
2004-01-01
An integrated algorithm for decomposing overlapping particle images (multi-particle objects) along with determining each object s constituent particle centroid(s) has been developed using image analysis techniques. The centroid finding algorithm uses a modified eight-direction search method for finding the perimeter of any enclosed object. The centroid is calculated using the intensity-weighted center of mass of the object. The overlap decomposition algorithm further analyzes the object data and breaks it down into its constituent particle centroid(s). This is accomplished with an artificial neural network, feature based technique and provides an efficient way of decomposing overlapping particles. Combining the centroid finding and overlap decomposition routines into a single algorithm allows us to accurately predict the error associated with finding the centroid(s) of particles in our experiments. This algorithm has been tested using real, simulated, and synthetic data and the results are presented and discussed.
Voronoi-Delaunay analysis of voids in systems of nonspherical particles.
Luchnikov, V A; Medvedev, N N; Oger, L; Troadec, J P
1999-06-01
The Voronoi network is known to be a useful tool for the structural description of voids in the packings of spheres produced by computer simulations. In this article we extend the Voronoi-Delaunay analysis to packings of nonspherical convex objects. Main properties of the Voronoi network, which are known for systems of spheres, are valid for systems of any convex objects. A general numerical algorithm for calculation of the Voronoi network in three dimensions is proposed. It is based on the calculation of the trajectory of the imaginary empty sphere of variable size, moving inside a system (the Delaunay empty sphere method). Analysis of voids is presented for an ensemble of random straight lines and for a molecular dynamics model of liquid crystal. The spatial distribution of voids and a simple percolation analysis are obtained. The distributions of the bottleneck radii and the radii of spheres inscribed in the voids are calculated. PMID:11969711
Dynamic load balancing algorithm for molecular dynamics based on Voronoi cells domain decompositions
Fattebert, J.-L.; Richards, D.F.; Glosli, J.N.
2012-12-01
We present a new algorithm for automatic parallel load balancing in classical molecular dynamics. It assumes a spatial domain decomposition of particles into Voronoi cells. It is a gradient method which attempts to minimize a cost function by displacing Voronoi sites associated with each processor/sub-domain along steepest descent directions. Excellent load balance has been obtained for quasi-2D and 3D practical applications, with up to 440·10^{6} particles on 65,536 MPI tasks.
Centroid precision and orientation precision of planar localization microscopy.
McGray, C; Copeland, C R; Stavis, S M; Geist, J
2016-09-01
The concept of localization precision, which is essential to localization microscopy, is formally extended from optical point sources to microscopic rigid bodies. Measurement functions are presented to calculate the planar pose and motion of microscopic rigid bodies from localization microscopy data. Physical lower bounds on the associated uncertainties - termed centroid precision and orientation precision - are derived analytically in terms of the characteristics of the optical measurement system and validated numerically by Monte Carlo simulations. The practical utility of these expressions is demonstrated experimentally by an analysis of the motion of a microelectromechanical goniometer indicated by a sparse constellation of fluorescent nanoparticles. Centroid precision and orientation precision, as developed here, are useful concepts due to the generality of the expressions and the widespread interest in localization microscopy for super-resolution imaging and particle tracking. PMID:26970565
Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) CCD centroiding experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triebes, Kenneth J.; Gilliam, Larry; Hilby, Timothy; Horner, Scott D.; Perkins, Patrick; Vassar, Richard H.; Harris, Frederick H.; Monet, David G.
2000-07-01
FAME is a MIDEX astrometry mission designed to map the position of 40,000,000 stars to an accuracy of 50 micro-arc seconds. Optimized between mission requirements, size, weight, and cost, the FAME instrument consists of a 0.6 X 0.5 m2 aperture whose point spread function central peak is linearly sampled by two pixels. To achieve its astrometric mapping mission requirements, this instrument must achieve a single look centroiding accuracy on a visual magnitude 9.0 (or brighter) star of < 0.003 pixels while operating the focal plane in a time domain integration, TDI, mode. As this performance requirement represents a significant improvement over the current state of the art of 0.02 to 0.01 pixel resolution, a risk reduction experiment was conducted to determine our centroiding ability using a flight traceable CCD operated in TDI mode.
Apparent Stress and Centroid Time Shift: Oceanic vs Continental Earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez-Campos, X.; McGuire, J. J.; Beroza, G. C.
2001-12-01
Seismic energy is a broadband measure of the strength of radiation in an earthquake. Slow earthquakes, for which the rupture velocity and/or the rise time, are longer than usual, are characterized by having anomalously little seismic radiation at high frequencies. Thus, the apparent stress, the ratio of the seismic energy to the seismic moment times the shear modulus, is a natural measure of whether or not an earthquake is slow. Slow events have long been associated with oceanic tranforms. It is unusual then, that in a global study of strike slip earthquakes, Choy and Boatwright (1995) found that oceanic transform events have values of apparent stress approximately an order of magnitude higher than normal and reverse faulting events. Part of this discrepancy appears to be a selection bias in that some slow events that are deficient in high frequency energy are not routinely reported by the NEIC. We find that the average apparent stress for oceanic ridge-ridge transform events is lower than for continental strike-slip events. Another possible measure of whether or not an earthquake is slow is the centroid time shift. We find a population of slow events on oceanic transforms with both a very low apparent stress and a very large centroid time shift, as might be expected. Continental transform events that have similarly low apparent stress do not show the same correlation with centroid time shift. It is not clear why these two populations differ, but by comparing spectra for different events with low apparent stress but different centroid time shift, we should be able to test possible sources of the differences, such as variations in the spectral shape for continental versus oceanic events, that could explain these observations.
Plasma channel diagnostic based on laser centroid oscillations
Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Lin, C.; Osterhoff, J.; Shiraishi, S.; Schroeder, C. B.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Tóth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.
2010-05-01
A technique has been developed for measuring the properties of discharge-based plasma channels by monitoring the centroid location of a laser beam exiting the channel as a function of input alignment offset between the laser and the channel. Experiments were performed using low-intensity (<10^{14} Wcm^{-2}) laser pulses focused onto the entrance of a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide. Scanning the laser centroid position at the input of the channel and recording the exit position allows determination of the channel depth with an accuracy of a few percent, measurement of the transverse channel shape, and inference of the matched spot size. In addition, accurate alignment of the laser beam through the plasma channel is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel depth is scanned either by scanning the plasma density or the discharge timing. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique will be crucial for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.
Evaluation of centroiding algorithm error for Nano-JASMINE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hara, Takuji; Gouda, Naoteru; Yano, Taihei; Yamada, Yoshiyuki
2014-08-01
The Nano-JASMINE mission has been designed to perform absolute astrometric measurements with unprecedented accuracy; the end-of-mission parallax standard error is required to be of the order of 3 milli arc seconds for stars brighter than 7.5 mag in the zw-band(0.6μm-1.0μm) .These requirements set a stringent constraint on the accuracy of the estimation of the location of the stellar image on the CCD for each observation. However each stellar images have individual shape depend on the spectral energy distribution of the star, the CCD properties, and the optics and its associated wave front errors. So it is necessity that the centroiding algorithm performs a high accuracy in any observables. Referring to the study of Gaia, we use LSF fitting method for centroiding algorithm, and investigate systematic error of the algorithm for Nano-JASMINE. Furthermore, we found to improve the algorithm by restricting sample LSF when we use a Principle Component Analysis. We show that centroiding algorithm error decrease after adapted the method.
Optimum threshold selection method of centroid computation for Gaussian spot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xuxu; Li, Xinyang; Wang, Caixia
2015-10-01
Centroid computation of Gaussian spot is often conducted to get the exact position of a target or to measure wave-front slopes in the fields of target tracking and wave-front sensing. Center of Gravity (CoG) is the most traditional method of centroid computation, known as its low algorithmic complexity. However both electronic noise from the detector and photonic noise from the environment reduces its accuracy. In order to improve the accuracy, thresholding is unavoidable before centroid computation, and optimum threshold need to be selected. In this paper, the model of Gaussian spot is established to analyze the performance of optimum threshold under different Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. Besides, two optimum threshold selection methods are introduced: TmCoG (using m % of the maximum intensity of spot as threshold), and TkCoG ( usingμn +κσ n as the threshold), μn and σn are the mean value and deviation of back noise. Firstly, their impact on the detection error under various SNR conditions is simulated respectively to find the way to decide the value of k or m. Then, a comparison between them is made. According to the simulation result, TmCoG is superior over TkCoG for the accuracy of selected threshold, and detection error is also lower.
Improved Envelope And Centroid Equations for High Current Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genoni, Thomas C.; Hughes, Thomas P.
2002-04-01
The standard envelope equation for electron beams (e.g., Lee-Cooper), neglects self-field contributions from the beam rotation and the slope of the beam envelope. We have carried out an expansion which includes these effects to first order, resulting in a new equation for the beam edge radius. The change in beam kinetic energy due to spacecharge depression as the beam radius varies is also included. For the centroid equation, we have included the "self-steering" effect due to the curvature of the beam orbit. To leading order, there is a cancellation between the self-steering effect and the spacecharge depression of the beam energy, so that a more accurate centroid equation is obtained by using the undepressed value of the energy (i.e., the total beam energy) to calculate the orbit. We have implemented the envelope and centroid equations in the LAMDA code. The effect of the new terms will be illustrated with calculations for the DARHT accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Improved Envelope and Centroid Equations for High Current Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genoni, Thomas C.; Hughes, Thomas P.; Thoma, Carsten H.
2002-12-01
The standard envelope equation for charged particle beams (e.g., Lee-Cooper) neglects self-field contributions from the beam rotation and the slope of the beam envelope. We have carried out an expansion that includes these effects to first order, resulting in a new equation for the edge radius. The change in beam kinetic energy due to space-charge depression as the beam radius varies is also included. For the centroid equation, we have included the "self-steering" effect due to the curvature of the beam orbit. To leading order, there is a cancellation between the self-steering effect and the space-charge depression of the beam energy, so that a more accurate centroid equation is obtained by using the undepressed value of the energy (i.e., the total beam energy) to calculate the orbit. We have implemented the envelope and centroid equations in the Lamda code [1]. The effect of the new terms will be illustrated with calculations for the DARHT accelerators at the Los Alamos National Laboratory [2].
Voronoi-based extraction and visualization of molecular paths.
Lindow, Norbert; Baum, Daniel; Hege, Hans-Christian
2011-12-01
Visual analysis is widely used to study the behavior of molecules. Of particular interest are the analysis of molecular interactions and the investigation of binding sites. For large molecules, however, it is difficult to detect possible binding sites and paths leading to these sites by pure visual inspection. In this paper, we present new methods for the computation and visualization of potential molecular paths. Using a novel filtering method, we extract the significant paths from the Voronoi diagram of spheres. For the interactive visualization of molecules and their paths, we present several methods using deferred shading and other state-of-the-art techniques. To allow for a fast overview of reachable regions of the molecule, we illuminate the molecular surface using a large number of light sources placed on the extracted paths. We also provide a method to compute the extension surface of selected paths and visualize it using the skin surface. Furthermore, we use the extension surface to clip the molecule to allow easy visual tracking of even deeply buried paths. The methods are applied to several proteins to demonstrate their usefulness. PMID:22034320
Automatic aneurysm neck detection using surface Voronoi diagrams.
Cárdenes, Rubén; Pozo, José María; Bogunovic, Hrvoje; Larrabide, Ignacio; Frangi, Alejandro F
2011-10-01
A new automatic approach for saccular intracranial aneurysm isolation is proposed in this work. Due to the inter- and intra-observer variability in manual delineation of the aneurysm neck, a definition based on a minimum cost path around the aneurysm sac is proposed that copes with this variability and is able to make consistent measurements along different data sets, as well as to automate and speedup the analysis of cerebral aneurysms. The method is based on the computation of a minimal path along a scalar field obtained on the vessel surface, to find the aneurysm neck in a robust and fast manner. The computation of the scalar field on the surface is obtained using a fast marching approach with a speed function based on the exponential of the distance from the centerline bifurcation between the aneurysm dome and the parent vessels. In order to assure a correct topology of the aneurysm sac, the neck computation is constrained to a region defined by a surface Voronoi diagram obtained from the branches of the vessel centerline. We validate this method comparing our results in 26 real cases with manual aneurysm isolation obtained using a cut-plane, and also with results obtained using manual delineations from three different observers by comparing typical morphological measures. PMID:21622072
Evolving generalized Voronoi diagrams for accurate cellular image segmentation.
Yu, Weimiao; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Hariharan, Srivats; Bu, Wenyu; Ahmed, Sohail
2010-04-01
Analyzing cellular morphologies on a cell-by-cell basis is vital for drug discovery, cell biology, and many other biological studies. Interactions between cells in their culture environments cause cells to touch each other in acquired microscopy images. Because of this phenomenon, cell segmentation is a challenging task, especially when the cells are of similar brightness and of highly variable shapes. The concept of topological dependence and the maximum common boundary (MCB) algorithm are presented in our previous work (Yu et al., Cytometry Part A 2009;75A:289-297). However, the MCB algorithm suffers a few shortcomings, such as low computational efficiency and difficulties in generalizing to higher dimensions. To overcome these limitations, we present the evolving generalized Voronoi diagram (EGVD) algorithm. Utilizing image intensity and geometric information, EGVD preserves topological dependence easily in both 2D and 3D images, such that touching cells can be segmented satisfactorily. A systematic comparison with other methods demonstrates that EGVD is accurate and much more efficient. PMID:20169588
Particle splitting in smoothed particle hydrodynamics based on Voronoi diagram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiaki, Gen; Yoshida, Naoki
2015-08-01
We present a novel method for particle splitting in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Our method utilizes the Voronoi diagram for a given particle set to determine the position of fine daughter particles. We perform several test simulations to compare our method with a conventional splitting method in which the daughter particles are placed isotropically over the local smoothing length. We show that, with our method, the density deviation after splitting is reduced by a factor of about 2 compared with the conventional method. Splitting would smooth out the anisotropic density structure if the daughters are distributed isotropically, but our scheme allows the daughter particles to trace the original density distribution with length-scales of the mean separation of their parent. We apply the particle splitting to simulations of the primordial gas cloud collapse. The thermal evolution is accurately followed to the hydrogen number density of 1012 cm-3. With the effective mass resolution of ˜10-4 M⊙ after the multistep particle splitting, the protostellar disc structure is well resolved. We conclude that the method offers an efficient way to simulate the evolution of an interstellar gas and the formation of stars.
The Voronoi Tessellation Cluster Finder in 2 1 Dimensions
Soares-Santos, Marcelle; de Carvalho, Reinaldo R.; Annis, James; Gal, Roy R.; La Barbera, Francesco; Lopes, Paulo A.A.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Busha, Michael T.; Gerke, Brian F.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2011-06-23
We present a detailed description of the Voronoi Tessellation (VT) cluster finder algorithm in 2+1 dimensions, which improves on past implementations of this technique. The need for cluster finder algorithms able to produce reliable cluster catalogs up to redshift 1 or beyond and down to 10{sup 13.5} solar masses is paramount especially in light of upcoming surveys aiming at cosmological constraints from galaxy cluster number counts. We build the VT in photometric redshift shells and use the two-point correlation function of the galaxies in the field to both determine the density threshold for detection of cluster candidates and to establish their significance. This allows us to detect clusters in a self-consistent way without any assumptions about their astrophysical properties. We apply the VT to mock catalogs which extend to redshift 1.4 reproducing the ?CDM cosmology and the clustering properties observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. An objective estimate of the cluster selection function in terms of the completeness and purity as a function of mass and redshift is as important as having a reliable cluster finder. We measure these quantities by matching the VT cluster catalog with the mock truth table. We show that the VT can produce a cluster catalog with completeness and purity >80% for the redshift range up to {approx}1 and mass range down to {approx}10{sup 13.5} solar masses.
Otaka, Akihisa; Kachi, Naoyoshi D; Hatano, Naoya; Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Tamada, Yasushi; Tomita, Naohide
2013-05-01
Cell migration is one of the fundamental processes in histogenesis, and it is necessary to investigate such multicellular behavior quantitatively in cell regeneration studies. In this study, Voronoi diagram analysis was first confirmed in simulation testing, and then used to evaluate the multicellular behavior of chondrocytes on three different substrates: (1) wild-type fibroin (FIB); (2) L-RGDSx2 transgenic fibroin; (3) and collagen. The indices for the round factor average, round factor homogeneity, and area disorder (AD), calculated from Voronoi diagram analysis, were used to characterize the difference in spatiotemporal changes for the different chondrocyte populations, and a regression analysis of the AD index was used to measure the speed of cell aggregation. The results suggested that the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine sequence affects aggregate formation of chondrocytes cultured on FIB. The Voronoi diagram analysis represents one of the promising quantitative analyses for cell regeneration studies. PMID:23083372
Solving elliptic problems with discontinuities on irregular domains - the Voronoi Interface Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guittet, Arthur; Lepilliez, Mathieu; Tanguy, Sebastien; Gibou, Frédéric
2015-10-01
We introduce a simple method, dubbed the Voronoi Interface Method, to solve Elliptic problems with discontinuities across the interface of irregular domains. This method produces a linear system that is symmetric positive definite with only its right-hand-side affected by the jump conditions. The solution and the solution's gradients are second-order accurate and first-order accurate, respectively, in the L∞ norm, even in the case of large ratios in the diffusion coefficient. This approach is also applicable to arbitrary meshes. Additional degrees of freedom are placed close to the interface and a Voronoi partition centered at each of these points is used to discretize the equations in a finite volume approach. Both the locations of the additional degrees of freedom and their Voronoi discretizations are straightforward in two and three spatial dimensions.
BetaVoid: molecular voids via beta-complexes and Voronoi diagrams.
Kim, Jae-Kwan; Cho, Youngsong; Laskowski, Roman A; Ryu, Seong Eon; Sugihara, Kokichi; Kim, Deok-Soo
2014-09-01
Molecular external structure is important for molecular function, with voids on the surface and interior being one of the most important features. Hence, recognition of molecular voids and accurate computation of their geometrical properties, such as volume, area and topology, are crucial, yet most popular algorithms are based on the crude use of sampling points and thus are approximations even with a significant amount of computation. In this article, we propose an analytic approach to the problem using the Voronoi diagram of atoms and the beta-complex. The correctness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm is mathematically proved and experimentally verified. The benchmark test clearly shows the superiority of BetaVoid to two popular programs: VOIDOO and CASTp. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the BetaVoid program which is freely available at the Voronoi Diagram Research Center (http://voronoi.hanyang.ac.kr). PMID:24677176
Ryu, Joonghyun; Lee, Mokwon; Cha, Jehyun; Laskowski, Roman A.; Ryu, Seong Eon; Kim, Deok-Soo
2016-01-01
Many applications, such as protein design, homology modeling, flexible docking, etc. require the prediction of a protein's optimal side-chain conformations from just its amino acid sequence and backbone structure. Side-chain prediction (SCP) is an NP-hard energy minimization problem. Here, we present BetaSCPWeb which efficiently computes a conformation close to optimal using a geometry-prioritization method based on the Voronoi diagram of spherical atoms. Its outputs are visual, textual and PDB file format. The web server is free and open to all users at http://voronoi.hanyang.ac.kr/betascpweb with no login requirement. PMID:27151195
Ryu, Joonghyun; Lee, Mokwon; Cha, Jehyun; Laskowski, Roman A; Ryu, Seong Eon; Kim, Deok-Soo
2016-07-01
Many applications, such as protein design, homology modeling, flexible docking, etc. require the prediction of a protein's optimal side-chain conformations from just its amino acid sequence and backbone structure. Side-chain prediction (SCP) is an NP-hard energy minimization problem. Here, we present BetaSCPWeb which efficiently computes a conformation close to optimal using a geometry-prioritization method based on the Voronoi diagram of spherical atoms. Its outputs are visual, textual and PDB file format. The web server is free and open to all users at http://voronoi.hanyang.ac.kr/betascpweb with no login requirement. PMID:27151195
Feature selection and nearest centroid classification for protein mass spectrometry
Levner, Ilya
2005-01-01
Background The use of mass spectrometry as a proteomics tool is poised to revolutionize early disease diagnosis and biomarker identification. Unfortunately, before standard supervised classification algorithms can be employed, the "curse of dimensionality" needs to be solved. Due to the sheer amount of information contained within the mass spectra, most standard machine learning techniques cannot be directly applied. Instead, feature selection techniques are used to first reduce the dimensionality of the input space and thus enable the subsequent use of classification algorithms. This paper examines feature selection techniques for proteomic mass spectrometry. Results This study examines the performance of the nearest centroid classifier coupled with the following feature selection algorithms. Student-t test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the P-test are univariate statistics used for filter-based feature ranking. From the wrapper approaches we tested sequential forward selection and a modified version of sequential backward selection. Embedded approaches included shrunken nearest centroid and a novel version of boosting based feature selection we developed. In addition, we tested several dimensionality reduction approaches, namely principal component analysis and principal component analysis coupled with linear discriminant analysis. To fairly assess each algorithm, evaluation was done using stratified cross validation with an internal leave-one-out cross-validation loop for automated feature selection. Comprehensive experiments, conducted on five popular cancer data sets, revealed that the less advocated sequential forward selection and boosted feature selection algorithms produce the most consistent results across all data sets. In contrast, the state-of-the-art performance reported on isolated data sets for several of the studied algorithms, does not hold across all data sets. Conclusion This study tested a number of popular feature selection methods using the
Reducing Centroid Error Through Model-Based Noise Reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Shinhak
2006-01-01
A method of processing the digitized output of a charge-coupled device (CCD) image detector has been devised to enable reduction of the error in computed centroid of the image of a point source of light. The method involves model-based estimation of, and correction for, the contributions of bias and noise to the image data. The method could be used to advantage in any of a variety of applications in which there are requirements for measuring precise locations of, and/or precisely aiming optical instruments toward, point light sources. In the present method, prior to normal operations of the CCD, one measures the point-spread function (PSF) of the telescope or other optical system used to project images on the CCD. The PSF is used to construct a database of spot models representing the nominal CCD pixel outputs for a point light source projected onto the CCD at various positions incremented by small fractions of a pixel.
ACE: Automatic Centroid Extractor for real time target tracking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cameron, K.; Whitaker, S.; Canaris, J.
1990-01-01
A high performance video image processor has been implemented which is capable of grouping contiguous pixels from a raster scan image into groups and then calculating centroid information for each object in a frame. The algorithm employed to group pixels is very efficient and is guaranteed to work properly for all convex shapes as well as most concave shapes. Processing speeds are adequate for real time processing of video images having a pixel rate of up to 20 million pixels per second. Pixels may be up to 8 bits wide. The processor is designed to interface directly to a transputer serial link communications channel with no additional hardware. The full custom VLSI processor was implemented in a 1.6 mu m CMOS process and measures 7200 mu m on a side.
Vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethanol by molecular dynamics simulation and Voronoi tessellation.
Fern, Jared T; Keffer, David J; Steele, William V
2007-11-22
Explicit atom simulations of ethanol were performed by molecular dynamics using the OPLS-AA potential. The phase densities were determined self-consistently by comparing the distribution of Voronoi volumes from two-phase and single-phase simulations. This is the first demonstration of the use of Voronoi tessellation in two-phase molecular dynamics simulation of polyatomic fluids. This technique removes all arbitrary determination of the phase diagram by using single-phase simulations to self-consistently validate the probability distribution of Voronoi volumes of the liquid and vapor phases extracted from the two-phase molecular dynamics simulations. Properties from the two phase simulations include critical temperature, critical density, critical pressure, phase diagram, surface tension, and molecule orientation at the interface. The simulations were performed from 375 to 472 K. Also investigated were the vapor pressure and hydrogen bonding along the two phase envelope. The phase envelope agrees extremely well with literature values from GEMC at lower temperatures. The combined use of two-phase molecular dynamics simulation and Voronoi tessellation allows us to extend the phase diagram toward the critical point. PMID:17973521
Classification of Voronoi and Delone tiles in quasicrystals: I. General method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masáková, Z.; Patera, J.; Zich, J.
2003-02-01
A new general method is presented which allows one to find all distinct Voronoi and Delone tiles in any quasicrystal from a large family. This includes the tiles which may be present with arbitrarily low density >0. At all stages, the method requires only consideration of a (possibly large) finite number of cases. Our method is applicable, in principle, to quasicrystals in any dimension and with any irrationality. This is the first of three papers where the Voronoi and Delone tilings are studied. Two-dimensional point sets, 'quasicrystals', arising from the A4-root lattice by means of the standard projection to a two-dimensional plane with the irrationality tau = 1/2(1 + surd5), are considered. In general, we require that the acceptance window be bounded with non-empty interior. Specific results are provided here for rhombic acceptance windows of any size oriented along the direction of simple roots of the Coxeter group H2. Within one quasicrystal the tiles are distinguished by their shape, size and orientation. The rhombic window case is indispensable for subsequent classification of Voronoi and Delone tiles in quasicrystals with general shape of the acceptance window. Voronoi and Delone tiles of quasicrystals with circular and decagonal windows of any size are given in subsequent papers. Let VT denote the set of distinct Voronoi tiles making up a quasicrystal with a given acceptance window. There are three VT sets of the 'generic' type and three of the 'singular' type. The latter occur for one precise value of the size of the acceptance window. Any other VT set is a uniform scaling of the tiles listed here. Similar results, differing in detail, are provided for the sets of distinct Delone tiles DT. Altogether there are four different sets DT of Delone tiles.
Lu, Bo; Samant, Sanjiv; Mittauer, Kathryn; Lee, Soyoung; Huang, Yin; Li, Jonathan; Kahler, Darren; Liu, Chihray
2013-10-15
Purpose: Our previous study [B. Lu et al., “A patient alignment solution for lung SBRT setups based on a deformable registration technique,” Med. Phys. 39(12), 7379–7389 (2012)] proposed a deformable-registration-based patient setup strategy called the centroid-to-centroid (CTC) method, which can perform an accurate alignment of internal-target-volume (ITV) centroids between averaged four-dimensional computed tomography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Scenarios with variations between CBCT and simulation CT caused by irregular breathing and/or tumor change were not specifically considered in the patient study [B. Lu et al., “A patient alignment solution for lung SBRT setups based on a deformable registration technique,” Med. Phys. 39(12), 7379–7389 (2012)] due to the lack of both a sufficiently large patient data sample and a method of tumor tracking. The aim of this study is to thoroughly investigate and compare the impacts of breathing pattern and tumor change on both the CTC and the translation-only (T-only) gray-value mode strategies by employing a four-dimensional (4D) lung phantom.Methods: A sophisticated anthropomorphic 4D phantom (CIRS Dynamic Thorax Phantom model 008) was employed to simulate all desired respiratory variations. The variation scenarios were classified into four groups: inspiration to expiration ratio (IE ratio) change, tumor trajectory change, tumor position change, tumor size change, and the combination of these changes. For each category the authors designed several scenarios to demonstrate the effects of different levels of breathing variation on both of the T-only and the CTC methods. Each scenario utilized 4DCT and CBCT scans. The ITV centroid alignment discrepancies for CTC and T-only were evaluated. The dose-volume-histograms (DVHs) of ITVs for two extreme cases were analyzed.Results: Except for some extreme cases in the combined group, the accuracy of the CTC registration was about 2 mm for all cases for
A Doppler centroid estimation algorithm for SAR systems optimized for the quasi-homogeneous source
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jin, Michael Y.
1989-01-01
Radar signal processing applications frequently require an estimate of the Doppler centroid of a received signal. The Doppler centroid estimate is required for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing. It is also required for some applications involving target motion estimation and antenna pointing direction estimation. In some cases, the Doppler centroid can be accurately estimated based on available information regarding the terrain topography, the relative motion between the sensor and the terrain, and the antenna pointing direction. Often, the accuracy of the Doppler centroid estimate can be improved by analyzing the characteristics of the received SAR signal. This kind of signal processing is also referred to as clutterlock processing. A Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) algorithm is described which contains a linear estimator optimized for the type of terrain surface that can be modeled by a quasi-homogeneous source (QHS). Information on the following topics is presented: (1) an introduction to the theory of Doppler centroid estimation; (2) analysis of the performance characteristics of previously reported DCE algorithms; (3) comparison of these analysis results with experimental results; (4) a description and performance analysis of a Doppler centroid estimator which is optimized for a QHS; and (5) comparison of the performance of the optimal QHS Doppler centroid estimator with that of previously reported methods.
Olechnovič, Kliment; Venclovas, Ceslovas
2014-03-30
The Voronoi diagram of balls, corresponding to atoms of van der Waals radii, is particularly well-suited for the analysis of three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules. However, due to the shortage of practical algorithms and the corresponding software, simpler approaches are often used instead. Here, we present a simple and robust algorithm for computing the vertices of the Voronoi diagram of balls. The vertices of Voronoi cells correspond to the centers of the empty tangent spheres defined by quadruples of balls. The algorithm is implemented as an open-source software tool, Voronota. Large-scale tests show that Voronota is a fast and reliable tool for processing both experimentally determined and computationally modeled macromolecular structures. Voronota can be easily deployed and may be used for the development of various other structure analysis tools that utilize the Voronoi diagram of balls. Voronota is available at: http://www.ibt.lt/bioinformatics/voronota. PMID:24523197
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Barber, Matthew J.; Suhling, Klaus
2016-06-01
Photon event centroiding in photon counting imaging and single-molecule localisation in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy share many traits. Although photon event centroiding has traditionally been performed with simple single-iteration algorithms, we recently reported that iterative fitting algorithms originally developed for single-molecule localisation fluorescence microscopy work very well when applied to centroiding photon events imaged with an MCP-intensified CMOS camera. Here, we have applied these algorithms for centroiding of photon events from an electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD). We find that centroiding algorithms based on iterative fitting of the photon events yield excellent results and allow fitting of overlapping photon events, a feature not reported before and an important aspect to facilitate an increased count rate and shorter acquisition times.
Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Barber, Matthew J.; Suhling, Klaus
2016-01-01
Photon event centroiding in photon counting imaging and single-molecule localisation in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy share many traits. Although photon event centroiding has traditionally been performed with simple single-iteration algorithms, we recently reported that iterative fitting algorithms originally developed for single-molecule localisation fluorescence microscopy work very well when applied to centroiding photon events imaged with an MCP-intensified CMOS camera. Here, we have applied these algorithms for centroiding of photon events from an electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD). We find that centroiding algorithms based on iterative fitting of the photon events yield excellent results and allow fitting of overlapping photon events, a feature not reported before and an important aspect to facilitate an increased count rate and shorter acquisition times. PMID:27274604
Locating earthquakes with surface waves and centroid moment tensor estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shengji; Zhan, Zhongwen; Tan, Ying; Ni, Sidao; Helmberger, Don
2012-04-01
Traditionally, P wave arrival times have been used to locate regional earthquakes. In contrast, the travel times of surface waves dependent on source excitation and the source parameters and depth must be determined independently. Thus surface wave path delays need to be known before such data can be used for location. These delays can be estimated from previous earthquakes using the cut-and-paste technique, Ambient Seismic Noise tomography, and from 3D models. Taking the Chino Hills event as an example, we show consistency of path corrections for (>10 s) Love and Rayleigh waves to within about 1 s obtained from these methods. We then use these empirically derived delay maps to determine centroid locations of 138 Southern California moderate-sized (3.5 > Mw> 5.7) earthquakes using surface waves alone. It appears that these methods are capable of locating the main zone of rupture within a few (˜3) km accuracy relative to Southern California Seismic Network locations with 5 stations that are well distributed in azimuth. We also address the timing accuracy required to resolve non-double-couple source parameters which trades-off with location with less than a km error required for a 10% Compensated Linear Vector Dipole resolution.
Radar attenuation tomography using the centroid frequency downshift method
Liu, L.; Lane, J.W.; Quan, Y.
1998-01-01
A method for tomographically estimating electromagnetic (EM) wave attenuation based on analysis of centroid frequency downshift (CFDS) of impulse radar signals is described and applied to cross-hole radar data. The method is based on a constant-Q model, which assumes a linear frequency dependence of attenuation for EM wave propagation above the transition frequency. The method uses the CFDS to construct the projection function. In comparison with other methods for estimating attenuation, the CFDS method is relatively insensitive to the effects of geometric spreading, instrument response, and antenna coupling and radiation pattern, but requires the data to be broadband so that the frequency shift and variance can be easily measured. The method is well-suited for difference tomography experiments using electrically conductive tracers. The CFDS method was tested using cross-hole radar data collected at the U.S. Geological Survey Fractured Rock Research Site at Mirror Lake, New Hampshire (NH) during a saline-tracer injection experiment. The attenuation-difference tomogram created with the CFDS method outlines the spatial distribution of saline tracer within the tomography plane. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Rezende, F A; Almeida, R M; Nobre, F F
2000-01-01
One of the most important pieces of information for health resources planning is the definition of catchment areas for health units. Voronoi Diagrams are a potential technique for this purpose. They are polygons with the property whereby adjacent polygons have their borders located within the same distance of the respective generator points. One possible adjustment to the catchment areas thus defined is the use of weighted Voronoi Diagrams, which result in an improved representation of a health unit's actual capacity. In this study, the 21 public general hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were used as generator points for Voronoi Diagrams. Non-weighted Voronoi Diagrams were initially implemented and then used as the basis for obtaining weighted Voronoi Diagrams, using as weights the annual admission rates estimated for each unit. In the classic Voronoi Diagram case, some catchment areas had similar sizes, although their respective health units had different characteristics. In the weighted case the areas were modified in a way that appeared closer to the actual functioning of the units. The method appeared simple to implement, used easy-to-access data, and did not rely on geopolitical considerations such as existing administrative areas. It thus provided a more realistic picture of a unit's capacity to support basic health programs. PMID:10883045
Frenning, Göran
2015-01-01
When the discrete element method (DEM) is used to simulate confined compression of granular materials, the need arises to estimate the void space surrounding each particle with Voronoi polyhedra. This entails recurring Voronoi tessellation with small changes in the geometry, resulting in a considerable computational overhead. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method with the following features:•A local determination of the polyhedron volume is used, which considerably simplifies implementation of the method.•A linear approximation of the polyhedron volume is utilised, with intermittent exact volume calculations when needed.•The method allows highly accurate volume estimates to be obtained at a considerably reduced computational cost. PMID:26150975
Voronoi dipole moments for the simulation of bulk phase vibrational spectra.
Thomas, Martin; Brehm, Martin; Kirchner, Barbara
2015-02-01
We present the Voronoi tessellation of electron density data to obtain molecular dipole moments in bulk phase ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for the calculation of vibrational spectra. Opposed to the established scheme of maximally localized Wannier functions, this approach does not rely on computationally demanding localization procedures. Nevertheless, we show at the examples of methanol, benzene, and phenol that it provides infrared and Raman spectra of similar quality and is even superior in specific cases like the Raman spectra of benzene and phenol. We have also applied the Voronoi method to a mixture of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate with water, and show that it is advantageous in systems with significant charge transfer. PMID:25519776
Felfer, P; Ceguerra, A V; Ringer, S P; Cairney, J M
2015-03-01
The analysis of the formation of clusters in solid solutions is one of the most common uses of atom probe tomography. Here, we present a method where we use the Voronoi tessellation of the solute atoms and its geometric dual, the Delaunay triangulation to test for spatial/chemical randomness of the solid solution as well as extracting the clusters themselves. We show how the parameters necessary for cluster extraction can be determined automatically, i.e. without user interaction, making it an ideal tool for the screening of datasets and the pre-filtering of structures for other spatial analysis techniques. Since the Voronoi volumes are closely related to atomic concentrations, the parameters resulting from this analysis can also be used for other concentration based methods such as iso-surfaces. PMID:25497494
Percolation thresholds on two-dimensional Voronoi networks and Delaunay triangulations.
Becker, Adam M; Ziff, Robert M
2009-10-01
The site percolation threshold for the random Voronoi network is determined numerically, with the result pc=0.714 10+/-0.000,02 , using Monte Carlo simulation on periodic systems of up to 40,000 sites. The result is very close to the recent theoretical estimate pc approximately 0.7151 of Neher For the bond threshold on the Voronoi network, we find pc=0.666, 931+/-0.000,005 implying that, for its dual, the Delaunay triangulation pc=0.333 069+/-0.000 005 . These results rule out the conjecture by Hsu and Huang that the bond thresholds are 2/3 and 1/3, respectively, but support the conjecture of Wierman that, for fully triangulated lattices other than the regular triangular lattice, the bond threshold is less than 2 sin pi/18 approximately 0.3473 . PMID:19905267
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domański, Zbigniew; Ciesielski, Mariusz; Mochnacki, Bohdan
2010-03-01
The paper presents the method to analyse the thermal processes occurring in the cast composite solidification. The cast is formed by a bundle of parallel fibres randomly immersed in a host metal matrix. The heat is transferred from the metal matrix and absorbed by the fibres. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the volumetric fraction of the fibres for which the solidification of the metal matrix occurs only due to the presence of fibres playing a role of internal chills. Our method is to compute Voronoi diagrams with Voronoi regions representing the geometric location of the fibres in the metal matrix and to use these regions as control volumes within a variant of the Control Volume Method.
Interplay between Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics and Poisson-Voronoi tessellation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomellini, M.; Fanfoni, M.
2016-05-01
In this paper we investigate the connection between Voronoi tessellation and the KJMA approach of space filling. In particular, we study how nuclei, in their growth, cover a given Voronoi cell. This approach leads to an integral equation for the cell-size distribution function. Starting from the 1D case, that is solved exactly, we extend the results to the dD case. The analysis allows to find a rationale to the phenomenological parameter entering the Gamma distribution function and to improve the description of the transformation through the knowledge of the kinetics of grain formation. Moreover, the nucleus size distribution function has been calculated as a function of the transformed fraction.
Analyzing the reflections from single ommatidia in the butterfly compound eye with Voronoi diagrams.
Vanhoutte, Kurt J A; Michielsen, Kristel F L; Stavenga, Doekele G
2003-12-30
This paper presents a robust method for the automated segmentation and quantitative measurement of reflections from single ommatidia in the butterfly compound eye. Digital pictures of the butterfly eye shine recorded with a digital camera are processed to yield binary images from which single facet centers can be extracted using a morphological image analysis procedure. The location of the facet centers is corrected by fitting in-line facet centers to a second-order polynomial. Based on the new centers a Voronoi diagram is constructed. In the case of the eye shine images, the Voronoi diagram defines a hexagonal lattice that overlaps with the original facet borders, allowing instantaneous quantification of the reflections from single ommatidia. We provide two typical examples to demonstrate that the developed technique may be a powerful tool to characterize in vivo the heterogeneity of butterfly eyes and to study the dynamic control of the light flux by the pupil mechanism. PMID:14659839
High-Performance Computation of Distributed-Memory Parallel 3D Voronoi and Delaunay Tessellation
Peterka, Tom; Morozov, Dmitriy; Phillips, Carolyn
2014-11-14
Computing a Voronoi or Delaunay tessellation from a set of points is a core part of the analysis of many simulated and measured datasets: N-body simulations, molecular dynamics codes, and LIDAR point clouds are just a few examples. Such computational geometry methods are common in data analysis and visualization; but as the scale of simulations and observations surpasses billions of particles, the existing serial and shared-memory algorithms no longer suffice. A distributed-memory scalable parallel algorithm is the only feasible approach. The primary contribution of this paper is a new parallel Delaunay and Voronoi tessellation algorithm that automatically determines which neighbor points need to be exchanged among the subdomains of a spatial decomposition. Other contributions include periodic and wall boundary conditions, comparison of our method using two popular serial libraries, and application to numerous science datasets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagatani, Keiji; Choset, Howie M.
1999-01-01
Sensor based exploration is a task which enables a robot to explore and map an unknown environment, using sensor information. The map used in this paper is the generalized Voronoi graph (GVG). The robot explores an unknown environment using an already developed incremental construction procedure to generate the GVG using sensor information. This paper presents some initial results which uses the GVG for robot localization, while mitigating the need to update encoder values. Experimental result verify the described work.
Voronoi analysis of the short–range atomic structure in iron and iron–carbon melts
Sobolev, Andrey; Mirzoev, Alexander
2015-08-17
In this work, we simulated the atomic structure of liquid iron and iron–carbon alloys by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. Voronoi analysis was used to highlight changes in the close environments of Fe atoms as carbon concentration in the melt increases. We have found, that even high concentrations of carbon do not affect short–range atomic order of iron atoms — it remains effectively the same as in pure iron melts.
An algorithm for point cluster generalization based on the Voronoi diagram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Haowen; Weibel, Robert
2008-08-01
This paper presents an algorithm for point cluster generalization. Four types of information, i.e. statistical, thematic, topological, and metric information are considered, and measures are selected to describe corresponding types of information quantitatively in the algorithm, i.e. the number of points for statistical information, the importance value for thematic information, the Voronoi neighbors for topological information, and the distribution range and relative local density for metric information. Based on these measures, an algorithm for point cluster generalization is developed. Firstly, point clusters are triangulated and a border polygon of the point clusters is obtained. By the border polygon, some pseudo points are added to the original point clusters to form a new point set and a range polygon that encloses all original points is constructed. Secondly, the Voronoi polygons of the new point set are computed in order to obtain the so-called relative local density of each point. Further, the selection probability of each point is computed using its relative local density and importance value, and then mark those will-be-deleted points as 'deleted' according to their selection probabilities and Voronoi neighboring relations. Thirdly, if the number of retained points does not satisfy that computed by the Radical Law, physically delete the points marked as 'deleted' forming a new point set, and the second step is repeated; else physically deleted pseudo points and the points marked as 'deleted', and the generalized point clusters are achieved. Owing to the use of the Voronoi diagram the algorithm is parameter free and fully automatic. As our experiments show, it can be used in the generalization of point features arranged in clusters such as thematic dot maps and control points on cartographic maps.
Seismotectonics of Morocco from regional centroid moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villaseñor, Antonio; el Moudnib, Lahcen; Herrmann, Robert B.; Harnafi, Mimoun
2014-05-01
We have obtained new regional centroid moment tensors (RCMTs) for 35 earthquakes occurred in Morocco and vicinity between 2008 and 2012. During this time period an unprecedented number of broadband stations (more than 100) were operating in the region, providing high-quality waveform data that were used to obtain RCMTs from waveform inversion. The main part of this dataset was composed of temporary broadband stations that were concurrently deployed in different seismic experiments (i.e. IberArray, PICASSO, Muenster, Bristol). The events analyzed in this study are moderate in size, ranging in moment magnitude Mw from 3.5 to 4.8. Their predominant mechanisms correspond to reverse and strike-slip faulting, although normal and "mixed" mechanisms are also observed. In spite of this variability in mechanism type, when analyzed in terms of the orientation of the P (compression) axes two major groups can be distinguished. The first group, corresponding to earthquakes in the Altas and NE Morocco is characterized by near-horizontal P axes oriented in an approximately NW-SE direction that coincides with the direction of convergence between Africa and Eurasia. A small clockwise rotation of the orientation of the P axes is observed from eastern Morocco to the western Atlas. The second group corresponds to earthquakes in the western Rif, that are characterized also by horizontal P axes, but oriented in a SW-NE direction, almost perpendicular to the first group. These earthquakes are part of a cluster located north of Ouezzane. The mechanisms in this second cluster are consistent with recent GPS results that show that the western Rif is moving in a SW direction with respect to the African (Nubia) plate.
Comparison of performance of some common Hartmann-Shack centroid estimation methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thatiparthi, C.; Ommani, A.; Burman, R.; Thapa, D.; Hutchings, N.; Lakshminarayanan, V.
2016-03-01
The accuracy of the estimation of optical aberrations by measuring the distorted wave front using a Hartmann-Shack wave front sensor (HSWS) is mainly dependent upon the measurement accuracy of the centroid of the focal spot. The most commonly used methods for centroid estimation such as the brightest spot centroid; first moment centroid; weighted center of gravity and intensity weighted center of gravity, are generally applied on the entire individual sub-apertures of the lens let array. However, these processes of centroid estimation are sensitive to the influence of reflections, scattered light, and noise; especially in the case where the signal spot area is smaller compared to the whole sub-aperture area. In this paper, we give a comparison of performance of the commonly used centroiding methods on estimation of optical aberrations, with and without the use of some pre-processing steps (thresholding, Gaussian smoothing and adaptive windowing). As an example we use the aberrations of the human eye model. This is done using the raw data collected from a custom made ophthalmic aberrometer and a model eye to emulate myopic and hyper-metropic defocus values up to 2 Diopters. We show that the use of any simple centroiding algorithm is sufficient in the case of ophthalmic applications for estimating aberrations within the typical clinically acceptable limits of a quarter Diopter margins, when certain pre-processing steps to reduce the impact of external factors are used.
Computational analysis of RNA-protein interaction interfaces via the Voronoi diagram.
Mahdavi, Sedigheh; Mohades, Ali; Salehzadeh Yazdi, Ali; Jahandideh, Samad; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali
2012-01-21
Cellular functions are mediated by various biological processes including biomolecular interactions, such as protein-protein, DNA-protein and RNA-protein interactions in which RNA-Protein interactions are indispensable for many biological processes like cell development and viral replication. Unlike the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, accurate mechanisms and structures of the RNA-Protein complexes are not fully understood. A large amount of theoretical evidence have shown during the past several years that computational geometry is the first pace in understanding the binding profiles and plays a key role in the study of intricate biological structures, interactions and complexes. In this paper, RNA-Protein interaction interface surface is computed via the weighted Voronoi diagram of atoms. Using two filter operations provides a natural definition for interface atoms as classic methods. Unbounded parts of Voronoi facets that are far from the complex are trimmed using modified convex hull of atom centers. This algorithm is implemented to a database with different RNA-Protein complexes extracted from Protein Data Bank (PDB). Afterward, the features of interfaces have been computed and compared with classic method. The results show high correlation coefficients between interface size in the Voronoi model and the classical model based on solvent accessibility, as well as high accuracy and precision in comparison to classical model. PMID:22004995
Geometrical Formation of Compound Starch Grains in Rice Implements Voronoi Diagram.
Matsushima, Ryo; Maekawa, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Wataru
2015-11-01
Starch forms transparent grains, called starch grains (SGs), in amyloplasts. One of the major morphological SG forms in Poaceae, called a compound SG, is formed by assemblies of small starch granules in an amyloplast. Starch granules assemble as a well-ordered structure; however, the mechanism that regulates this organization has not been identified. In this study, we examined how starch granules grow and converge into the final SG morphology. First, we found that the number of starch granules in an amyloplast is almost constant from the early developmental stage until endosperm maturity. Next, we quantitatively evaluated the geometrical similarities between starch granules and a Voronoi diagram, which is a mathematical tessellation of space based on the distance to a specific set of points in the space. The in silico growth simulation showed that the geometrical patterns of compound SGs resembling a Voronoi diagram is determined by physical interactions among the free-growing starch granules and the amyloplast envelope membrane. The geometrical similarity between compound SGs and a Voronoi diagram is likely a result of maximum loading and storage of starch in the amyloplast. The simulation described in this study provides a greater understanding of how compound SGs are formed and also has the potential to explain morphological variations of SGs. PMID:26320209
Gatsonis, Nikolaos A. Spirkin, Anton
2009-06-01
The mathematical formulation and computational implementation of a three-dimensional particle-in-cell methodology on unstructured Delaunay-Voronoi tetrahedral grids is presented. The method allows simulation of plasmas in complex domains and incorporates the duality of the Delaunay-Voronoi in all aspects of the particle-in-cell cycle. Charge assignment and field interpolation weighting schemes of zero- and first-order are formulated based on the theory of long-range constraints. Electric potential and fields are derived from a finite-volume formulation of Gauss' law using the Voronoi-Delaunay dual. Boundary conditions and the algorithms for injection, particle loading, particle motion, and particle tracking are implemented for unstructured Delaunay grids. Error and sensitivity analysis examines the effects of particles/cell, grid scaling, and timestep on the numerical heating, the slowing-down time, and the deflection times. The problem of current collection by cylindrical Langmuir probes in collisionless plasmas is used for validation. Numerical results compare favorably with previous numerical and analytical solutions for a wide range of probe radius to Debye length ratios, probe potentials, and electron to ion temperature ratios. The versatility of the methodology is demonstrated with the simulation of a complex plasma microsensor, a directional micro-retarding potential analyzer that includes a low transparency micro-grid.
Star sub-pixel centroid calculation based on multi-step minimum energy difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Duo; Han, YanLi; Sun, Tengfei
2013-09-01
The star's centroid plays a vital role in celestial navigation, star images which be gotten during daytime, due to the strong sky background, have a low SNR, and the star objectives are nearly submerged in the background, takes a great trouble to the centroid localization. Traditional methods, such as a moment method, weighted centroid calculation method is simple but has a big error, especially in the condition of a low SNR. Gaussian method has a high positioning accuracy, but the computational complexity. Analysis of the energy distribution in star image, a location method for star target centroids based on multi-step minimum energy difference is proposed. This method uses the linear superposition to narrow the centroid area, in the certain narrow area uses a certain number of interpolation to pixels for the pixels' segmentation, and then using the symmetry of the stellar energy distribution, tentatively to get the centroid position: assume that the current pixel is the star centroid position, and then calculates and gets the difference of the sum of the energy which in the symmetric direction(in this paper we take the two directions of transverse and longitudinal) and the equal step length(which can be decided through different conditions, the paper takes 9 as the step length) of the current pixel, and obtain the centroid position in this direction when the minimum difference appears, and so do the other directions, then the validation comparison of simulated star images, and compare with several traditional methods, experiments shows that the positioning accuracy of the method up to 0.001 pixel, has good effect to calculate the centroid of low SNR conditions; at the same time, uses this method on a star map which got at the fixed observation site during daytime in near-infrared band, compare the results of the paper's method with the position messages which were known of the star, it shows that :the multi-step minimum energy difference method achieves a better
High-speed on-chip windowed centroiding using photodiode-based CMOS imager
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor)
2003-01-01
A centroid computation system is disclosed. The system has an imager array, a switching network, computation elements, and a divider circuit. The imager array has columns and rows of pixels. The switching network is adapted to receive pixel signals from the image array. The plurality of computation elements operates to compute inner products for at least x and y centroids. The plurality of computation elements has only passive elements to provide inner products of pixel signals the switching network. The divider circuit is adapted to receive the inner products and compute the x and y centroids.
High-speed on-chip windowed centroiding using photodiode-based CMOS imager
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A centroid computation system is disclosed. The system has an imager array, a switching network, computation elements, and a divider circuit. The imager array has columns and rows of pixels. The switching network is adapted to receive pixel signals from the image array. The plurality of computation elements operates to compute inner products for at least x and y centroids. The plurality of computation elements has only passive elements to provide inner products of pixel signals the switching network. The divider circuit is adapted to receive the inner products and compute the x and y centroids.
Rapid estimation of tsunami source centroid location using a dense offshore observation network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, N.; Hirata, K.; Aoi, S.; Suzuki, W.; Nakamura, H.; Kunugi, T.
2016-05-01
This paper proposes a rapid method of estimating tsunami source locations using real-time ocean-bottom hydrostatic pressure data from a dense offshore observation network. We defined two characteristic locations representing the real-time tsunami disturbance and the initial sea surface height distribution. First, we defined the tsunami centroid location (TCL), which is the centroid location of the maximum absolute amplitude of the real-time ocean-bottom hydrostatic pressure changes. Second, we defined the centroid location of the absolute values of the initial sea surface height displacements. To determine whether the TCL can approximate the centroid location of the tsunami source, we examined approximately 1000 near-field synthetic tsunami scenarios and a realistic tsunami scenario of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in the Japan Trench. From these examinations, it was confirmed that in most scenarios, the TCLs obtained within a few minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake were close to the actual corresponding tsunami source locations.
A Computer Program to Create a Population with Any Desired Centroid and Covariance Matrix
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, John D.
1975-01-01
A Computer program written in FORTRAN IV is presented which will create a population of desired size with marginally normal score vectors manifesting any desired centroid and covariance matrix. Uses and documentation are provided. (Author)
A quantum generalization of intrinsic reaction coordinate using path integral centroid coordinates
Shiga, Motoyuki; Fujisaki, Hiroshi
2012-05-14
We propose a generalization of the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) for quantum many-body systems described in terms of the mass-weighted ring polymer centroids in the imaginary-time path integral theory. This novel kind of reaction coordinate, which may be called the ''centroid IRC,'' corresponds to the minimum free energy path connecting reactant and product states with a least amount of reversible work applied to the center of masses of the quantum nuclei, i.e., the centroids. We provide a numerical procedure to obtain the centroid IRC based on first principles by combining ab initio path integral simulation with the string method. This approach is applied to NH{sub 3} molecule and N{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup -} ion as well as their deuterated isotopomers to study the importance of nuclear quantum effects in the intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer reactions. We find that, in the intramolecular proton transfer (inversion) of NH{sub 3}, the free energy barrier for the centroid variables decreases with an amount of about 20% compared to the classical one at the room temperature. In the intermolecular proton transfer of N{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup -}, the centroid IRC is largely deviated from the ''classical'' IRC, and the free energy barrier is reduced by the quantum effects even more drastically.
A quantum generalization of intrinsic reaction coordinate using path integral centroid coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiga, Motoyuki; Fujisaki, Hiroshi
2012-05-01
We propose a generalization of the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) for quantum many-body systems described in terms of the mass-weighted ring polymer centroids in the imaginary-time path integral theory. This novel kind of reaction coordinate, which may be called the "centroid IRC," corresponds to the minimum free energy path connecting reactant and product states with a least amount of reversible work applied to the center of masses of the quantum nuclei, i.e., the centroids. We provide a numerical procedure to obtain the centroid IRC based on first principles by combining ab initio path integral simulation with the string method. This approach is applied to NH3 molecule and N2H_5^- ion as well as their deuterated isotopomers to study the importance of nuclear quantum effects in the intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer reactions. We find that, in the intramolecular proton transfer (inversion) of NH3, the free energy barrier for the centroid variables decreases with an amount of about 20% compared to the classical one at the room temperature. In the intermolecular proton transfer of N2H_5^-, the centroid IRC is largely deviated from the "classical" IRC, and the free energy barrier is reduced by the quantum effects even more drastically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucarini, Valerio
2009-01-01
We perturb the simple cubic (SC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and face-centered cubic (FCC) structures with a spatial Gaussian noise whose adimensional strength is controlled by the parameter α and analyze the statistical properties of the cells of the resulting Voronoi tessellations using an ensemble approach. We concentrate on topological properties of the cells, such as the number of faces, and on metric properties of the cells, such as the area, volume and the isoperimetric quotient. The topological properties of the Voronoi tessellations of the SC and FCC crystals are unstable with respect to the introduction of noise, because the corresponding polyhedra are geometrically degenerate, whereas the tessellation of the BCC crystal is topologically stable even against noise of small but finite intensity. Whereas the average volume of the cells is the intensity parameter of the system and does not depend on the noise, the average area of the cells has a rather interesting behavior with respect to noise intensity. For weak noise, the mean area of the Voronoi tessellations corresponding to perturbed BCC and FCC perturbed increases quadratically with the noise intensity. In the case of perturbed SCC crystals, there is an optimal amount of noise that minimizes the mean area of the cells. Already for a moderate amount of noise ( α>0.5), the statistical properties of the three perturbed tessellations are indistinguishable, and for intense noise ( α>2), results converge to those of the Poisson-Voronoi tessellation. Notably, 2-parameter gamma distributions constitute an excellent model for the empirical pdf of all considered topological and metric properties. By analyzing jointly the statistical properties of the area and of the volume of the cells, we discover that also the cells shape, measured by the isoperimetric quotient, fluctuates. The Voronoi tessellations of the BCC and of the FCC structures result to be local maxima for the isoperimetric quotient among space
Configurational entropy of glass-forming systems from graph isomorphism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yuxing; Milner, Scott
The configurational entropy plays a central role in the thermodynamic scenarios of glass transition, such as Adam-Gibbs theory and random first-order transition theory. By definition, the configurational entropy Sc is the difference between the entropy of liquid and the vibrational entropy with structural rearrangement restricted, both of which can be obtained by means of thermodynamic integration. On the other hand, Sc is essentially a measure of the number of basins in the energy landscape, and therefore it can also be estimated by explicitly enumerating inherent structures. To this end, we first coarse-grain the vibrational motions by mapping configurations to Voronoi diagrams and then categorize them using canonical labelling. The Voronoi graph entropy is calculated as SG /kB = - ∑pi log (pi) , where pi is the probability of finding distinct graph i. We find for an n-particle subsystem of glass-forming hard-disk/sphere fluids, SG (n) scales linearly with n, and Sc can be estimated from the slope.
Minimization of diffraction peaks of spatial light modulators using Voronoi diagrams.
Benoît-Pasanau, Céline; Goudail, Francois; Chavel, Pierre; Cano, Jean-Paul; Ballet, Jérôme
2010-07-01
It is possible to reduce the diffraction peaks of a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) by breaking the periodicity of the pixels shape. We propose a theoretical investigation of a SLM that would be based on a Voronoi diagram, obtained by deforming a regular grid, and show that for a specific deformation parameter the diffraction peaks disappear and are replaced with a speckle-like diffraction halo. We also develop a simple model to determine the shape and the level of this halo. PMID:20640008
Potts model on directed small-world Voronoi-Delaunay lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marques, R. M.; Lima, F. W. S.; Costa Filho, Raimundo N.
2016-06-01
The critical properties of the Potts model with q = 3 and 4 states in two-dimensions on directed small-world Voronoi-Delaunay random lattices with quenched connectivity disorder are investigated. This disordered system is simulated by applying the Monte Carlo update heat bath algorithm. The Potts model on these directed small-world random lattices presents in fact a second-order phase transition with new critical exponents for q = 3 and value of the rewiring probability p = 0.01, but for q = 4 the system exhibits only a first-order phase transition independent of p (0 < p < 1).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labibzadeh, Mojtaba
2016-01-01
A new technique is used in Discrete Least Square Meshfree(DLSM) method to remove the common existing deficiencies of meshfree methods in handling of the problems containing cracks or concave boundaries. An enhanced Discrete Least Squares Meshless method named as VDLSM(Voronoi based Discrete Least Squares Meshless) is developed in order to solve the steady-state heat conduction problem in irregular solid domains including concave boundaries or cracks. Existing meshless methods cannot estimate precisely the required unknowns in the vicinity of the above mentioned boundaries. Conducted researches are limited to domains with regular convex boundaries. To this end, the advantages of the Voronoi tessellation algorithm are implemented. The support domains of the sampling points are determined using a Voronoi tessellation algorithm. For the weight functions, a cubic spline polynomial is used based on a normalized distance variable which can provide a high degree of smoothness near those mentioned above discontinuities. Finally, Moving Least Squares(MLS) shape functions are constructed using a varitional method. This straight-forward scheme can properly estimate the unknowns(in this particular study, the temperatures at the nodal points) near and on the crack faces, crack tip or concave boundaries without need to extra backward corrective procedures, i.e. the iterative calculations for modifying the shape functions of the nodes located near or on these types of the complex boundaries. The accuracy and efficiency of the presented method are investigated by analyzing four particular examples. Obtained results from VDLSM are compared with the available analytical results or with the results of the well-known Finite Elements Method(FEM) when an analytical solution is not available. By comparisons, it is revealed that the proposed technique gives high accuracy for the solution of the steady-state heat conduction problems within cracked domains or domains with concave boundaries
ASTROMETRIC IMAGE CENTROID DISPLACEMENTS DUE TO GRAVITATIONAL MICROLENSING BY THE ELLIS WORMHOLE
Toki, Yukiharu; Kitamura, Takao; Asada, Hideki; Abe, Fumio
2011-10-20
Continuing work initiated in an earlier publication, we study the gravitational microlensing effects of the Ellis wormhole in the weak-field limit. First, we find a suitable coordinate transformation, such that the lens equation and analytic expressions of the lensed image positions can become much simpler. Second, we prove that two images always appear for the weak-field lens by the Ellis wormhole. By using these analytic results, we discuss astrometric image centroid displacements due to gravitational microlensing by the Ellis wormhole. The astrometric image centroid trajectory by the Ellis wormhole is different from the standard one by a spherical lensing object that is expressed by the Schwarzschild metric. The anomalous shift of the image centroid by the Ellis wormhole lens is smaller than that by the Schwarzschild lens, provided that the impact parameter and the Einstein ring radius are the same. Therefore, the lensed image centroid by the Ellis wormhole moves slower. Such a difference, although it is very small, will be, in principle, applicable for detecting or constraining the Ellis wormhole by using future high-precision astrometry observations. In particular, the image centroid position gives us additional information, so that the parameter degeneracy existing in photometric microlensing can be partially broken. The anomalous shift reaches the order of a few micro arcseconds, if our galaxy hosts a wormhole with throat radius larger than 10{sup 5} km. When the source moves tangentially to the Einstein ring, for instance, the maximum position shift of the image centroid by the Ellis wormhole is 0.18 normalized by the Einstein ring radius. For the same source trajectory, the maximum difference between the centroid displacement by the Ellis wormhole lens and that by the Schwarzschild one with the same Einstein ring radius is -0.16 in the units of the Einstein radius, where the negative means that the astrometric displacement by the Ellis wormhole lens is
Comparing the performance of open loop centroiding techniques in the Raven MOAO system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, David R.; Bradley, Colin; Gamroth, Darryl; Kerley, Dan; Lardière, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre
2014-08-01
Raven is a multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) demonstrator that will be mounted on the NIR Nasmyth platform of the Subaru telescope in May, 2014. Raven can use three open-loop NGS WFSs and an on-axis LGS WFS to control DMs in two separate science pick-off arms. Centroiding in open loop AO systems like Raven is more difficult than in closed loop AO systems because the Shack-Hartmann spots will not be driven to the same spot on a detector. Rather the spots can fall on any combination of pixels because the WFSs need to have sufficient dynamic range to measure the full turbulence. In this paper, we compare correlation and thresholded center of gravity (tCOG) centroiding methods in simulation, with Raven using its calibration unit, and on-sky. Each method has its own advantages. Correlation centroiding is superior to tCOG centroiding for faint NGSs and for extended sources (Raven open loop WFSs do not contain ADCs so spots will become elongated). We expect that correlation centroiding will push the limiting magnitude of Raven NGSs fainter by roughly one magnitude. Correlation centroiding is computationally more intensive, however, and actually will limit Raven's sampling rate for shorter integrations. Therefore, for bright stars with sufficiently high signal-to-noise, Raven can be run significantly faster and with superior performance using the tCOG method. Here we quantify both the performance and timing differences of these two centroiding methods in simulation, in the lab and on sky using Raven.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bee Cheng, Sew
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one of the widely used remote sensing sensors which produces high resolution image by using advance signal processing technique. SAR managed to operate in all sorts of weather and cover wide range of area. To produce a high-quality image, accurate parameters such as Doppler centroid are required for precise SAR signal processing. In the azimuth matched filtering of SAR signal processing, Doppler centroid is an important azimuth parameter that helps to focus the image pixels. Doppler centroid has always been overlooked during SAR signal processing. It is due to the fact that estimation of Doppler centroid involved complicated calculation and increased computational load. Therefore, researcher used to apply only the approximate Doppler value which is not precise and cause defocus effort in the generated SAR image. In this study, several conventional Doppler centroid estimation algorithms are reviewed and developed using Matlab software program to extract the Doppler parameter from received SAR data, namely Spectrum Fit Algorithm, Wavelength Diversity Algorithm (WDA), Multilook Cross Correlation Algorithm (MLCC), and Multilook Beat Frequency Algorithm (MLBF). Two sets of SAR data are employed to evaluate the performance of each estimator, i.e. simulated point target data and RADARSAT-1 Vancouver scene raw data. These experiments gave a sense of accuracy for the estimated results together with computational time consumption. Point target is simulated to generate ideal case SAR data with pre-defined SAR system parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coleman, J. E.; Ekdahl, C. A.; Moir, D. C.; Sullivan, G. W.; Crawford, M. T.
2014-09-01
Axial beam centroid and beam breakup (BBU) measurements were conducted on an 80 ns FWHM, intense relativistic electron bunch with an injected energy of 3.8 MV and current of 2.9 kA. The intense relativistic electron bunch is accelerated and transported through a nested solenoid and ferrite induction core lattice consisting of 64 elements, exiting the accelerator with a nominal energy of 19.8 MeV. The principal objective of these experiments is to quantify the coupling of the beam centroid motion to the BBU instability and validate the theory of this coupling for the first time. Time resolved centroid measurements indicate a reduction in the BBU amplitude, ⟨ξ⟩, of 19% and a reduction in the BBU growth rate (Γ) of 4% by reducing beam centroid misalignments ˜50% throughout the accelerator. An investigation into the contribution of the misaligned elements is made. An alignment algorithm is presented in addition to a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results which include axial beam centroid oscillations, BBU amplitude, and growth with different dipole steering.
Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.
2002-06-04
A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.
Cooperation among cancer cells as public goods games on Voronoi networks.
Archetti, Marco
2016-05-01
Cancer cells produce growth factors that diffuse and sustain tumour proliferation, a form of cooperation that can be studied using mathematical models of public goods in the framework of evolutionary game theory. Cell populations, however, form heterogeneous networks that cannot be described by regular lattices or scale-free networks, the types of graphs generally used in the study of cooperation. To describe the dynamics of growth factor production in populations of cancer cells, I study public goods games on Voronoi networks, using a range of non-linear benefits that account for the known properties of growth factors, and different types of diffusion gradients. The results are surprisingly similar to those obtained on regular graphs and different from results on scale-free networks, revealing that network heterogeneity per se does not promote cooperation when public goods diffuse beyond one-step neighbours. The exact shape of the diffusion gradient is not crucial, however, whereas the type of non-linear benefit is an essential determinant of the dynamics. Public goods games on Voronoi networks can shed light on intra-tumour heterogeneity, the evolution of resistance to therapies that target growth factors, and new types of cell therapy. PMID:26930167
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Q. H.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.
2016-06-01
This paper presents a novel segmentation method for automatically determining the number of classes in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images by combining Voronoi tessellation and Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) strategy. Instead of giving the number of classes a priori, it is considered as a random variable and subject to a Poisson distribution. Based on Voronoi tessellation, the image is divided into homogeneous polygons. By Bayesian paradigm, a posterior distribution which characterizes the segmentation and model parameters conditional on a given SAR image can be obtained up to a normalizing constant; Then, a Revisable Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo(RJMCMC) algorithm involving six move types is designed to simulate the posterior distribution, the move types including: splitting or merging real classes, updating parameter vector, updating label field, moving positions of generating points, birth or death of generating points and birth or death of an empty class. Experimental results with real and simulated SAR images demonstrate that the proposed method can determine the number of classes automatically and segment homogeneous regions well.
APL@Voro: a Voronoi-based membrane analysis tool for GROMACS trajectories.
Lukat, Gunther; Krüger, Jens; Sommer, Björn
2013-11-25
APL@Voro is a new program developed to aid in the analysis of GROMACS trajectories of lipid bilayer simulations. It can read a GROMACS trajectory file, a PDB coordinate file, and a GROMACS index file to create a two-dimensional geometric representation of a bilayer. Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations--generated for different selection models of lipids--support the analysis of the bilayer. The values calculated on the geometric structures can be visualized in a user-friendly interactive environment and, then, plotted and exported to different file types. APL@Voro supports complex bilayers with a mix of various lipids and proteins. For the calculation of the projected area per lipid, a modification of the well-known Voronoi approach is presented as well as the presentation of a new approach for including atoms into an existing triangulation. The application of the developed software is discussed for three example systems simulated with GROMACS. The program is written in C++, is open source, and is available free of charge. PMID:24175728
Many-faced cells and many-edged faces in 3D Poisson-Voronoi tessellations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilhorst, H. J.; Lazar, E. A.
2014-10-01
Motivated by recent new Monte Carlo data we investigate a heuristic asymptotic theory that applies to n-faced 3D Poisson-Voronoi cells in the limit of large n. We show how this theory may be extended to n-edged cell faces. It predicts the leading order large-n behavior of the average volume and surface area of the n-faced cell, and of the average area and perimeter of the n-edged face. Such a face is shown to be surrounded by a toroidal region of volume n/λ (with λ the seed density) that is void of seeds. Two neighboring cells sharing an n-edged face are found to have their seeds at a typical distance that scales as n-1/6 and whose probability law we determine. We present a new data set of 4 × 109 Monte Carlo generated 3D Poisson-Voronoi cells, larger than any before. Full compatibility is found between the Monte Carlo data and the theory. Deviations from the asymptotic predictions are explained in terms of subleading corrections whose powers in n we estimate from the data.
Comparison of selected approaches for urban roughness determination based on voronoi cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ketterer, Christine; Gangwisch, Marcel; Fröhlich, Dominik; Matzarakis, Andreas
2016-07-01
Wind speed is reduced above urban areas due to their high aerodynamic roughness. This not only holds for above the urban canopy. The local vertical wind profile is modified. Aerodynamic roughness (both roughness length and displacement height) therefore is relevant for many fields within human biometeorology, e.g. for the identification of ventilation paths, the concentration and dispersion of air pollutants at street level or to simulate wind speed and direction in urban environments and everything depending on them. Roughness, thus, also shows strong influence on human thermal comfort. Currently, roughness parameters are mostly estimated using classifications. However, such classifications only provide limited assessment of roughness in urban areas. In order to calculate spatially resolved roughness on the micro-scale, three different approaches were implemented in the SkyHelios model. For all of them, the urban area is divided into reference areas for each of the obstacles using a voronoi diagram. The three approaches are based on building and [+one of them also on] vegetation (trees and forests) data. They were compared for the city of Stuttgart, Germany. Results show that the approach after Bottema and Mestayer (J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 74-76:163-173 1998) on the spatial basis of a voronoi diagram provides the most plausible results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, W.; Ai, T.
2014-11-01
Accessibility analysis usually requires special models of spatial location analysis based on some geometric constructions, such as Voronoi diagram (abbreviated to VD). There are many achievements in classic Voronoi model research, however suffering from the following limitations for location-based services (LBS) applications. (1) It is difficult to objectively reflect the actual service areas of facilities by using traditional planar VDs, because human activities in LBS are usually constrained only to the network portion of the planar space. (2) Although some researchers have adopted network distance to construct VDs, their approaches are used in a static environment, where unrealistic measures of shortest path distance based on assumptions about constant travel speeds through the network were often used. (3) Due to the computational complexity of the shortest-path distance calculating, previous researches tend to be very time consuming, especially for large datasets and if multiple runs are required. To solve the above problems, a novel algorithm is developed in this paper. We apply network-based quadrat system and 1-D sequential expansion to find the corresponding subnetwork for each focus. The idea is inspired by the natural phenomenon that water flow extends along certain linear channels until meets others or arrives at the end of route. In order to accommodate the changes in traffic conditions, the length of network-quadrat is set upon the traffic condition of the corresponding street. The method has the advantage over Dijkstra's algorithm in that the time cost is avoided, and replaced with a linear time operation.
Effects of window size and shape on accuracy of subpixel centroid estimation of target images
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Sharon S.
1993-01-01
A new algorithm is presented for increasing the accuracy of subpixel centroid estimation of (nearly) point target images in cases where the signal-to-noise ratio is low and the signal amplitude and shape vary from frame to frame. In the algorithm, the centroid is calculated over a data window that is matched in width to the image distribution. Fourier analysis is used to explain the dependency of the centroid estimate on the size of the data window, and simulation and experimental results are presented which demonstrate the effects of window size for two different noise models. The effects of window shape were also investigated for uniform and Gaussian-shaped windows. The new algorithm was developed to improve the dynamic range of a close-range photogrammetric tracking system that provides feedback for control of a large gap magnetic suspension system (LGMSS).
Jones, Stephen G; Ashby, Avery J; Momin, Soyal R; Naidoo, Allen
2010-01-01
Objective To determine the effect of using Euclidean measurements and zip-code centroid geo-imputation versus more precise spatial analytical techniques in health care research. Data Sources Commercially insured members from a southeastern managed care organization. Study Design Distance from admitting inpatient facility to member's home and zip-code centroid (geographic placement) was compared using Euclidean straight-line and shortest-path drive distances (measurement technique). Data Collection Administrative claims from October 2005 to September 2006. Principal Findings Measurement technique had a greater impact on distance values compared with geographic placement. Drive distance from the geocoded address was highly correlated (r=0.99) with the Euclidean distance from the zip-code centroid. Conclusions Actual differences were relatively small. Researchers without capabilities to produce drive distance measurements and/or address geocoding techniques could rely on simple linear regressions to estimate correction factors with a high degree of confidence. PMID:19780852
Robustness of regularities for energy centroids in the presence of random interactions
Zhao, Y.M.; Arima, A.; Yoshida, N.; Ogawa, K.; Yoshinaga, N.; Kota, V. K. B.
2005-12-15
In this paper we study energy centroids such as those with fixed spin and isospin and those with fixed irreducible representations for both bosons and fermions, in the presence of random two-body and/or three-body interactions. Our results show that regularities of energy centroids of fixed-spin states reported in earlier works are very robust in these more complicated cases. We suggest that these behaviors might be intrinsic features of quantum many-body systems interacting by random forces.
Veran; Herriot
2000-08-01
In an adaptive optics system with an undersampled Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (WFS), variations in seeing, laser guide star quality, and sodium layer thickness and range distance all combine to vary WFS centroid gain across the pupil during an exposure. While using the minimum of 4 pixels per WFS subaperture improves frame rate and read noise, the WFS centroid gain uncertainty may introduce static aberrations and degrade servo loop phase margin. We present a novel method to estimate and compensate WFS gains of each subaperture individually in real time for both natural and laser guide stars. PMID:10935871
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hubber, D. A.; Ercolano, B.; Dale, J.
2016-02-01
Ionizing feedback from massive stars dramatically affects the interstellar medium local to star-forming regions. Numerical simulations are now starting to include enough complexity to produce morphologies and gas properties that are not too dissimilar from observations. The comparison between the density fields produced by hydrodynamical simulations and observations at given wavelengths relies however on photoionization/chemistry and radiative transfer calculations. We present here an implementation of Monte Carlo radiation transport through a Voronoi tessellation in the photoionization and dust radiative transfer code MOCASSIN. We show for the first time a synthetic spectrum and synthetic emission line maps of a hydrodynamical simulation of a molecular cloud affected by massive stellar feedback. We show that the approach on which previous work is based, which remapped hydrodynamical density fields on to Cartesian grids before performing radiative transfer/photoionization calculations, results in significant errors in the temperature and ionization structure of the region. Furthermore, we describe the mathematical process of tracing photon energy packets through a Voronoi tessellation, including optimizations, treating problematic cases and boundary conditions. We perform various benchmarks using both the original version of MOCASSIN and the modified version using the Voronoi tessellation. We show that for uniform grids, or equivalently a cubic lattice of cell generating points, the new Voronoi version gives the same results as the original Cartesian grid version of MOCASSIN for all benchmarks. For non-uniform initial conditions, such as using snapshots from smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, we show that the Voronoi version performs better than the Cartesian grid version, resulting in much better resolution in dense regions.
Xiong, Kun; Jiang, Jie
2015-01-01
Compared with traditional star trackers, intensified high-accuracy star trackers equipped with an image intensifier exhibit overwhelmingly superior dynamic performance. However, the multiple-fiber-optic faceplate structure in the image intensifier complicates the optoelectronic detecting system of star trackers and may cause considerable systematic centroid errors and poor attitude accuracy. All the sources of systematic centroid errors related to fiber optic faceplates (FOFPs) throughout the detection process of the optoelectronic system were analyzed. Based on the general expression of the systematic centroid error deduced in the frequency domain and the FOFP modulation transfer function, an accurate expression that described the systematic centroid error of FOFPs was obtained. Furthermore, reduction of the systematic error between the optical lens and the input FOFP of the intensifier, the one among multiple FOFPs and the one between the output FOFP of the intensifier and the imaging chip of the detecting system were discussed. Two important parametric constraints were acquired from the analysis. The correctness of the analysis on the optoelectronic detecting system was demonstrated through simulation and experiment. PMID:26016920
Centroid and Theoretical Rotation: Justification for Their Use in Q Methodology Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramlo, Sue
2016-01-01
This manuscript's purpose is to introduce Q as a methodology before providing clarification about the preferred factor analytical choices of centroid and theoretical (hand) rotation. Stephenson, the creator of Q, designated that only these choices allowed for scientific exploration of subjectivity while not violating assumptions associated with…
Finger vein identification using fuzzy-based k-nearest centroid neighbor classifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Jaafar, Haryati; Ramli, Dzati Athiar
2015-02-01
In this paper, a new approach for personal identification using finger vein image is presented. Finger vein is an emerging type of biometrics that attracts attention of researchers in biometrics area. As compared to other biometric traits such as face, fingerprint and iris, finger vein is more secured and hard to counterfeit since the features are inside the human body. So far, most of the researchers focus on how to extract robust features from the captured vein images. Not much research was conducted on the classification of the extracted features. In this paper, a new classifier called fuzzy-based k-nearest centroid neighbor (FkNCN) is applied to classify the finger vein image. The proposed FkNCN employs a surrounding rule to obtain the k-nearest centroid neighbors based on the spatial distributions of the training images and their distance to the test image. Then, the fuzzy membership function is utilized to assign the test image to the class which is frequently represented by the k-nearest centroid neighbors. Experimental evaluation using our own database which was collected from 492 fingers shows that the proposed FkNCN has better performance than the k-nearest neighbor, k-nearest-centroid neighbor and fuzzy-based-k-nearest neighbor classifiers. This shows that the proposed classifier is able to identify the finger vein image effectively.
Xiong, Kun; Jiang, Jie
2015-01-01
Compared with traditional star trackers, intensified high-accuracy star trackers equipped with an image intensifier exhibit overwhelmingly superior dynamic performance. However, the multiple-fiber-optic faceplate structure in the image intensifier complicates the optoelectronic detecting system of star trackers and may cause considerable systematic centroid errors and poor attitude accuracy. All the sources of systematic centroid errors related to fiber optic faceplates (FOFPs) throughout the detection process of the optoelectronic system were analyzed. Based on the general expression of the systematic centroid error deduced in the frequency domain and the FOFP modulation transfer function, an accurate expression that described the systematic centroid error of FOFPs was obtained. Furthermore, reduction of the systematic error between the optical lens and the input FOFP of the intensifier, the one among multiple FOFPs and the one between the output FOFP of the intensifier and the imaging chip of the detecting system were discussed. Two important parametric constraints were acquired from the analysis. The correctness of the analysis on the optoelectronic detecting system was demonstrated through simulation and experiment. PMID:26016920
MOLE: a Voronoi diagram-based explorer of molecular channels, pores, and tunnels.
Petrek, Martin; Kosinová, Pavlína; Koca, Jaroslav; Otyepka, Michal
2007-11-01
We have developed an algorithm, "MOLE," for the rapid, fully automated location and characterization of molecular channels, tunnels, and pores. This algorithm has been made freely available on the Internet (http://mole.chemi.muni.cz/) and overcomes many of the shortcomings and limitations of the recently developed CAVER software. The core of our MOLE algorithm is a Dijkstra's path search algorithm, which is applied to a Voronoi mesh. Tests on a wide variety of biomolecular systems including gramicidine, acetylcholinesterase, cytochromes P450, potassium channels, DNA quadruplexes, ribozymes, and the large ribosomal subunit have demonstrated that the MOLE algorithm performs well. MOLE is thus a powerful tool for exploring large molecular channels, complex networks of channels, and molecular dynamics trajectories in which analysis of a large number of snapshots is required. PMID:17997961
An improved Voronoi-diagram-based neural net for pattern classification.
Gentile, C; Sznaier, M
2001-01-01
We propose a novel two-layer neural network to answer a point query in R(n) which is partitioned into polyhedral regions; such a task solves among others nearest neighbor clustering. As in previous approaches to the problem, our design is based on the use of Voronoi diagrams. However, our approach results in substantial reduction of the number of neurons, completely eliminating the second layer, at the price of requiring only two additional clock steps. In addition, the design process is also simplified while retaining the main advantage of the approach, namely its ability to furnish precise values for the number of neurons and the connection weights necessitating neither trial and error type iterations nor ad hoc parameters. PMID:18249949
Generic remeshing of 3D triangular meshes with metric-dependent discrete voronoi diagrams.
Valette, Sebastien; Chassery, Jean Marc; Prost, Rémy
2008-01-01
In this paper, we propose a generic framework for 3D surface remeshing. Based on a metric-driven Discrete Voronoi Diagram construction, our output is an optimized 3D triangular mesh with a user defined vertex budget. Our approach can deal with a wide range of applications, from high quality mesh generation to shape approximation. By using appropriate metric constraints the method generates isotropic or anisotropic elements. Based on point-sampling, our algorithm combines the robustness and theoretical strength of Delaunay criteria with the efficiency of entirely discrete geometry processing . Besides the general described framework, we show experimental results using isotropic, quadric-enhanced isotropic and anisotropic metrics which prove the efficiency of our method on large meshes, for a low computational cost. PMID:18192716
Morse, Peter K; Corwin, Eric I
2016-01-28
A jammed packing of frictionless spheres at zero temperature is perfectly specified by the network of contact forces from which mechanical properties can be derived. However, we can alternatively consider a packing as a geometric structure, characterized by a Voronoi tessellation which encodes the local environment around each particle. We find that this local environment characterizes systems both above and below jamming and changes markedly at the transition. A variety of order parameters derived from this tessellation carry signatures of the jamming transition, complete with scaling exponents. Furthermore, we define a real space geometric correlation function which also displays a signature of jamming. Taken together, these results demonstrate the validity and usefulness of a purely geometric approach to jamming. PMID:26611105
Continuous and discontinuous absorbing-state phase transitions on Voronoi-Delaunay random lattices.
de Oliveira, Marcelo M; Alves, Sidiney G; Ferreira, Silvio C
2016-01-01
We study absorbing-state phase transitions (APTs) in two-dimensional Voronoi-Delaunay (VD) random lattices with quenched coordination disorder. Quenched randomness usually changes the criticality and destroys discontinuous transitions in low-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. We performed extensive simulations of the Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model, and verified that the VD disorder does not change the nature of its discontinuous transition. Our results corroborate recent findings of Barghathi and Vojta [H. Barghathi and T. Vojta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120602 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.120602], stating the irrelevance of topological disorder in a class of random lattices that includes VD, and raise the interesting possibility that disorder in nonequilibrium APT may, under certain conditions, be irrelevant for the phase coexistence. We also verify that the VD disorder is irrelevant for the critical behavior of models belonging to the directed percolation and Manna universality classes. PMID:26871027
Zhao, Quanhua; Li, Yu; Liu, Zhenggang
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new segmentation-based algorithm for oil spill feature extraction from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) intensity images. The proposed algorithm combines a Voronoi tessellation, Bayesian inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme. The shape and distribution features of dark spots can be obtained by segmenting a scene covering an oil spill and/or look-alikes into two homogenous regions: dark spots and their marine surroundings. The proposed algorithm is applied simultaneously to several real SAR intensity images and simulated SAR intensity images which are used for accurate evaluation. The results show that the proposed algorithm can extract the shape and distribution parameters of dark spot areas, which are useful for recognizing oil spills in a further classification stage. PMID:24233074
Continuous and discontinuous absorbing-state phase transitions on Voronoi-Delaunay random lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Oliveira, Marcelo M.; Alves, Sidiney G.; Ferreira, Silvio C.
2016-01-01
We study absorbing-state phase transitions (APTs) in two-dimensional Voronoi-Delaunay (VD) random lattices with quenched coordination disorder. Quenched randomness usually changes the criticality and destroys discontinuous transitions in low-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. We performed extensive simulations of the Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model, and verified that the VD disorder does not change the nature of its discontinuous transition. Our results corroborate recent findings of Barghathi and Vojta [H. Barghathi and T. Vojta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120602 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.120602], stating the irrelevance of topological disorder in a class of random lattices that includes VD, and raise the interesting possibility that disorder in nonequilibrium APT may, under certain conditions, be irrelevant for the phase coexistence. We also verify that the VD disorder is irrelevant for the critical behavior of models belonging to the directed percolation and Manna universality classes.
Time-domain calculation of spectral centroid from backscattered ultrasound signals.
Kim, Hyungsuk; Heo, Seo Weon
2012-06-01
Spectral centroid estimation from backscattered ultrasound RF signals is the preliminary step for quantitative ultrasound analysis in many medical applications. The traditional approach of estimating the spectral centroid in the frequency domain takes a long time because discrete Fourier transform (DFT) processing for each RF segment is required. To avoid this, we propose time-domain methods to estimate the spectral centroid in this paper. First, we derive the continuous-time-domain equations for the spectral centroid estimation using Parseval's theorem and Hilbert transform theory. Then, we extend the method to the discrete-time domain to ease the implementation while maintaining the same accuracy as the calculation in the frequency domain. From the result, we observe that it is not practical to apply the discrete-time equations directly, because a high sampling rate is needed to approximate the time derivative in the discrete-time domain. Therefore, we also derive the feasible version of the discrete-time equations using a circular autocorrelation function, which has no constraints on the sampling rate for real RF signals acquired from pulse-echo ultrasound systems. Simulation results using numerical phantoms show that the time-domain calculation is approximately 4.4 times faster on average than the frequency-domain method when the software's built-in functions were used. The average estimation error compared with that of the frequency-domain method using DFT is less than 0.2% for the entire propagation depths. The proposed time-domain approach to estimate the spectral centroid can be easily implemented in real-time ultrasound systems. PMID:22711414
RICH: OPEN-SOURCE HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION ON A MOVING VORONOI MESH
Yalinewich, Almog; Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re’em
2015-02-01
We present here RICH, a state-of-the-art two-dimensional hydrodynamic code based on Godunov’s method, on an unstructured moving mesh (the acronym stands for Racah Institute Computational Hydrodynamics). This code is largely based on the code AREPO. It differs from AREPO in the interpolation and time-advancement schemeS as well as a novel parallelization scheme based on Voronoi tessellation. Using our code, we study the pros and cons of a moving mesh (in comparison to a static mesh). We also compare its accuracy to other codes. Specifically, we show that our implementation of external sources and time-advancement scheme is more accurate and robust than is AREPO when the mesh is allowed to move. We performed a parameter study of the cell rounding mechanism (Lloyd iterations) and its effects. We find that in most cases a moving mesh gives better results than a static mesh, but it is not universally true. In the case where matter moves in one way and a sound wave is traveling in the other way (such that relative to the grid the wave is not moving) a static mesh gives better results than a moving mesh. We perform an analytic analysis for finite difference schemes that reveals that a Lagrangian simulation is better than a Eulerian simulation in the case of a highly supersonic flow. Moreover, we show that Voronoi-based moving mesh schemes suffer from an error, which is resolution independent, due to inconsistencies between the flux calculation and the change in the area of a cell. Our code is publicly available as open source and designed in an object-oriented, user-friendly way that facilitates incorporation of new algorithms and physical processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brostow, Witold; Chybicki, Mieczyslaw; Laskowski, Robert; Rybicki, Jaroslaw
1998-06-01
Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations are applied to pattern recognition of atomic environments and to investigation of the nonlocal order in molecular-dynamics (MD)-simulated materials. The method is applicable also to materials generated using other computer techniques such as Monte Carlo. The pattern recognition is based on an analysis of the shapes of the Voronoi polyhedron (VP). A procedure for contraction of short edges and small faces of the polyhedron is presented. It involves contraction to vertices of all edges shorter than a certain fraction x of the average edge length, with concomitant contraction of the associated faces. Thus, effects of fluctuations are eliminated, providing ``true'' values of the geometric coordination numbers f, both local and averaged over the material. Nonlocal order analysis involves geometric relations between Delaunay simplexes. The methods proposed are used to analyze the structure of MD-simulated solid lead [J. Rybicki, W. Alda, S. Feliziani, and W. Sandowski, in Proceedings of the Conference on Intermolecular Interactions in Matter, edited by K. Sangwal, E. Jartych, and J. M. Olchowik (Technical University of Lublin, Lublin, 1995), p. 57; J. Rybicki, R. Laskowski, and S. Feliziani, Comput. Phys. Commun. 97, 185 (1997)] and germianium dioxide [T. Nanba, T. Miyaji, T. Takada, A. Osaka, Y. Minura, and I. Yosui, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 177, 131 (1994)]. For Pb the contraction results are independent of x. For the open structure of GeO2 there is an x dependence of the contracted structure, so that using several values of x is preferable. In addition to removing effects of thermal perturbation, in open structures the procedure also cleans the resulting VP from faces contributed by the second neighbors. The analysis can be combined with that in terms of the radial distribution g(R), making possible comparison of geometric coordination numbers with structural ones [W. Brostow, Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 285 (1977)].
Single- and two-phase flow in microfluidic porous media analogs based on Voronoi tessellation
Wu, Mengjie; Xiao, Feng; Johnson-Paben, Rebecca; Retterer, Scott T; Yin, Xiaolong; Neeves, Keith B
2012-01-01
The objective of this study was to create a microfluidic model of complex porous media for studying single and multiphase flows. Most experimental porous media models consist of periodic geometries that lend themselves to comparison with well-developed theoretical predictions. However, most real porous media such as geological formations and biological tissues contain a degree of randomness and complexity that is not adequately represented in periodic geometries. To design an experimental tool to study these complex geometries, we created microfluidic models of random homogeneous and heterogeneous networks based on Voronoi tessellations. These networks consisted of approximately 600 grains separated by a highly connected network of channels with an overall porosity of 0.11 0.20. We found that introducing heterogeneities in the form of large cavities within the network changed the permeability in a way that cannot be predicted by the classical porosity-permeability relationship known as the Kozeny equation. The values of permeability found in experiments were in excellent agreement with those calculated from three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulations. In two-phase flow experiments of oil displacement with water we found that the surface energy of channel walls determined the pattern of water invasion, while the network topology determined the residual oil saturation. These results suggest that complex network topologies lead to fluid flow behavior that is difficult to predict based solely on porosity. The microfluidic models developed in this study using a novel geometry generation algorithm based on Voronoi tessellation are a new experimental tool for studying fluid and solute transport problems within complex porous media.
Jung, Jin Woo; Shin, Jun Ho; Kwon, Yu Jin; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong
2015-01-01
Background A number of conditions can alter a person's fingernail configuration. The ratio between fingernail width and length (W/L) is an important aesthetic criterion, and some underlying diseases can alter the size of the fingernail. Fingernail curvature can be altered by systemic disorders or disorders of the fingernail itself. Although the shape and curvature of the fingernail can provide diagnostic clues for various diseases, few studies have precisely characterized normal fingernail configuration. Methods We measured the W/L ratio of the fingernail, transverse fingernail curvature, hand length, hand breadth, and distal interphalangeal joint width in 300 volunteers with healthy fingernails. We also investigated whether age, sex, height, and handedness influenced the fingernail W/L ratio and transverse fingernail curvature. Results In women, fingernail W/L ratios were similar across all five fingers, and were lower than those in men. The highest value of transverse fingernail curvature was found in the thumb, followed by the index, middle, ring, and little fingers. Handedness and aging influenced transverse fingernail curvature, but not the fingernail W/L ratio. Fingernails were flatter on the dominant hand than on the non-dominant hand. The radius of transverse fingernail curvature increased with age, indicating that fingernails tended to flatten with age. Conclusions Our quantitative data on fingernail configuration can be used as a reference range for diagnosing various diseases and deformities of the fingernail, and for performing reconstructive or aesthetic fingernail surgery. PMID:26618124
Son, Sang-Kil
2011-03-01
We introduce a new numerical grid-based method on unstructured grids in the three-dimensional real-space to investigate the electronic structure of polyatomic molecules. The Voronoi-cell finite difference (VFD) method realizes a discrete Laplacian operator based on Voronoi cells and their natural neighbors, featuring high adaptivity and simplicity. To resolve multicenter Coulomb singularity in all-electron calculations of polyatomic molecules, this method utilizes highly adaptive molecular grids which consist of spherical atomic grids. It provides accurate and efficient solutions for the Schroedinger equation and the Poisson equation with the all-electron Coulomb potentials regardless of the coordinate system and the molecular symmetry. For numerical examples, we assess accuracy of the VFD method for electronic structures of one-electron polyatomic systems, and apply the method to the density-functional theory for many-electron polyatomic molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toriwaki, Jun-Ichiro; Mase, Kenji; Yashima, Yoshiyuki; Fukumura, Teruo
1982-11-01
The Dirichlet tessellation (DT), the Voronoi diagram (VD) and the relative neighbor (RN) on a digitized picture plane are presented with their applications to image processing. In the past the DT and the VD were defined for a finite point set in the continuous space. Here the modified digital Dirichlet tessellation (MDDT), the modified digital Voronoi diagram (MDVD) and the modified digital relative neighbor (MDRN) are newly introduced as the counterparts of the DT, the VD and the RN defined for a finite set of connected components in a digitized binary picture. Two algorithms - a sequential type and a parallel type are given to obtain the MDDT and the MDVD. Experimental results are shown concerning applications of the MDDT, the MDVD, and the MDRN to image processing, which include texture analysis of microscopic images of pathological samples and region devision of chest x-ray images.
Yoshiara, Luciane Yuri; Madeira, Tiago Bervelieri; Delaroza, Fernanda; da Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio; Ida, Elza Iouko
2012-12-01
The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of different isoflavone forms (glycosidic, malonyl-glycosidic, aglycone and total) from defatted cotyledon soy flour using the simplex-centroid experimental design with four solvents of varying polarity (water, acetone, ethanol and acetonitrile). The obtained extracts were then analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profile of the different soy isoflavones forms varied with different extractions solvents. Varying the solvent or mixture used, the extraction of different isoflavones was optimized using the centroid-simplex mixture design. The special cubic model best fitted to the four solvents and its combination for soy isoflavones extraction. For glycosidic isoflavones extraction, the polar ternary mixture (water, acetone and acetonitrile) achieved the best extraction; malonyl-glycosidic forms were better extracted with mixtures of water, acetone and ethanol. Aglycone isoflavones, water and acetone mixture were best extracted and total isoflavones, the best solvents were ternary mixture of water, acetone and ethanol. PMID:22621769
Hough transform used on the spot-centroiding algorithm for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chia, Chou-Min; Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Chang, Elmer
2016-01-01
An approach to the spot-centroiding algorithm for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) is presented. The SHWS has a common problem, in that while measuring high-order wavefront distortion, the spots may exceed each of the subapertures, which are used to restrict the displacement of spots. This artificial restriction may limit the dynamic range of the SHWS. When using the SHWS to measure adaptive optics or aspheric lenses, the accuracy of the traditional spot-centroiding algorithm may be uncertain because the spots leave or cross the confined area of the subapertures. The proposed algorithm combines the Hough transform with an artificial neural network, which requires no confined subapertures, to increase the dynamic range of the SHWS. This algorithm is then explored in comprehensive simulations and the results are compared with those of the existing algorithm.
Hele, Timothy J. H.; Willatt, Michael J.; Muolo, Andrea; Althorpe, Stuart C.
2015-05-21
We recently obtained a quantum-Boltzmann-conserving classical dynamics by making a single change to the derivation of the “Classical Wigner” approximation. Here, we show that the further approximation of this “Matsubara dynamics” gives rise to two popular heuristic methods for treating quantum Boltzmann time-correlation functions: centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). We show that CMD is a mean-field approximation to Matsubara dynamics, obtained by discarding (classical) fluctuations around the centroid, and that RPMD is the result of discarding a term in the Matsubara Liouvillian which shifts the frequencies of these fluctuations. These findings are consistent with previous numerical results and give explicit formulae for the terms that CMD and RPMD leave out.
Statistical Properties of Line Centroid Velocity Increments in the rho Ophiuchi Cloud
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lis, D. C.; Keene, Jocelyn; Li, Y.; Phillips, T. G.; Pety, J.
1998-01-01
We present a comparison of histograms of CO (2-1) line centroid velocity increments in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud with those computed for spectra synthesized from a three-dimensional, compressible, but non-starforming and non-gravitating hydrodynamic simulation. Histograms of centroid velocity increments in the rho Ophiuchi cloud show clearly non-Gaussian wings, similar to those found in histograms of velocity increments and derivatives in experimental studies of laboratory and atmospheric flows, as well as numerical simulations of turbulence. The magnitude of these wings increases monotonically with decreasing separation, down to the angular resolution of the data. This behavior is consistent with that found in the phase of the simulation which has most of the properties of incompressible turbulence. The time evolution of the magnitude of the non-Gaussian wings in the histograms of centroid velocity increments in the simulation is consistent with the evolution of the vorticity in the flow. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the wings are associated with the shock interaction regions. Moreover, in an active starforming region like the rho Ophiuchi cloud, the effects of shocks may be more important than in the simulation. However, being able to identify shock interaction regions in the interstellar medium is also important, since numerical simulations show that vorticity is generated in shock interactions.
Bishop, Joseph E.
2008-09-01
Under extreme loading conditions most often the extent of material and structural fracture is pervasive in the sense that a multitude of cracks are nucleating, propagating in arbitrary directions, coalescing, and branching. Pervasive fracture is a highly nonlinear process involving complex material constitutive behavior, material softening, localization, surface generation, and ubiquitous contact. Two primary applications in which pervasive fracture is encountered are (1) weapons effects on structures and (2) geomechanics of highly jointed and faulted reservoirs. A pure Lagrangian computational method based on randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellations is proposed as a rational approach for simulating the pervasive fracture of materials and structures. Each Voronoi cell is formulated as a finite element using the reproducing kernel method. Fracture surfaces are allowed to nucleate only at the intercell faces. The randomly seeded Voronoi cells provide an unbiased network for representing cracks. In this initial study two approaches for allowing the new surfaces to initiate are studied: (1) dynamic mesh connectivity and the instantaneous insertion of a cohesive traction when localization is detected, and (2) a discontinuous Galerkin approach in which the interelement tractions are an integral part of the variational formulation, but only become active once localization is detected. Pervasive fracture problems are extremely sensitive to initial conditions and system parameters. Dynamic problems exhibit a form of transient chaos. The primary numerical challenge for this class of problems is the demonstration of model objectivity and, in particular, the identification and demonstration of a measure of convergence for engineering quantities of interest.
Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Logan, B. Grant
2010-04-28
The centroid and envelope dynamics of a high-intensity charged particle beam are investigated as a beam smoothing technique to achieve uniform illumination over a suitably chosen region of the target for applications to ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion. The motion of the beam centroid projected onto the target follows a smooth pattern to achieve the desired illumination, for improved stability properties during the beam-target interaction. The centroid dynamics is controlled by an oscillating "wobbler", a set of electrically-biased plates driven by RF voltage. __________________________________________________
Semi-Continuity of Skeletons in Two-Manifold and Discrete Voronoi Approximation.
Liu, Yong-Jin
2015-09-01
The skeleton of a 2D shape is an important geometric structure in pattern analysis and computer vision. In this paper we study the skeleton of a 2D shape in a two-manifold M , based on a geodesic metric. We present a formal definition of the skeleton S(Ω) for a shape Ω in M and show several properties that make S(Ω) distinct from its Euclidean counterpart in R(2). We further prove that for a shape sequence {Ωi} that converge to a shape Ω in M, the mapping Ω→ S̅(Ω) is lower semi-continuous. A direct application of this result is that we can use a set P of sample points to approximate the boundary of a 2D shape Ω, and the Voronoi diagram of P inside Ω ⊂ M gives a good approximation to the skeleton S(Ω) . Examples of skeleton computation in topography and brain morphometry are illustrated. PMID:26353138
The Forest Method as a New Parallel Tree Method with the Sectional Voronoi Tessellation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahagi, Hideki; Mori, Masao; Yoshii, Yuzuru
1999-09-01
We have developed a new parallel tree method which will be called the forest method hereafter. This new method uses the sectional Voronoi tessellation (SVT) for the domain decomposition. The SVT decomposes a whole space into polyhedra and allows their flat borders to move by assigning different weights. The forest method determines these weights based on the load balancing among processors by means of the overload diffusion (OLD). Moreover, since all the borders are flat, before receiving the data from other processors, each processor can collect enough data to calculate the gravity force with precision. Both the SVT and the OLD are coded in a highly vectorizable manner to accommodate on vector parallel processors. The parallel code based on the forest method with the Message Passing Interface is run on various platforms so that a wide portability is guaranteed. Extensive calculations with 15 processors of Fujitsu VPP300/16R indicate that the code can calculate the gravity force exerted on 105 particles in each second for some ideal dark halo. This code is found to enable an N-body simulation with 107 or more particles for a wide dynamic range and is therefore a very powerful tool for the study of galaxy formation and large-scale structure in the universe.
CoDA: Collaborative Data Aggregation in Emerging Sensor Networks Using Bio-Level Voronoi Diagrams.
Tang, Chengpei; Yang, Nian
2016-01-01
To implement minimum power consumption of the link, cluster heads adopt the multi-hop manner for inter-cluster communication so as to forward the aggregation data to the relay nodes. This paper proposes a collaborative data aggregation in emerging sensor networks using a bio-level Voronoi diagram, which is an energy-efficient data aggregation protocol that integrates topology control, Multiple Access Control (MAC) and routing. The sensor nodes situated in the lower level of the diagram are responsible for listening and gathering data, and should be organized by optimal clustering node. In the inter-cluster communication stage, a particle swarm optimization algorithm is addressed to seek optimal transmission path which could simultaneously achieve the minimization of the maximum next hop distance between two nodes in the routing path and the minimization of the maximum hop count, so the minimization of whole network energy consumption is realized. The results of theoretical analysis and simulation results show that energy efficiency and synchronization accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be much better than with traditional routing protocols, and the energy consumption of nodes in the whole network can be more balanced. PMID:27527181
Metrology calibration and very high accuracy centroiding with the NEAT testbed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Preis, O.; Henault, F.; Kern, P.; Martin, G.; Feautrier, P.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Delboulbe, A.; Behar, E.; Saint-Pe, M.; Dupont, J.; Potin, S.; Cara, C.; Donati, M.; Doumayrou, E.; Lagage, P. O.; Léger, A.; Le Duigou, J. M.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.
2014-08-01
NEAT is an astrometric mission proposed to ESA with the objectives of detecting Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby solar-type stars. NEAT requires the capability to measure stellar centroids at the precision of 5 x 10-6 pixel. Current state-of-the-art methods for centroid estimation have reached a precision of about 2 x 10-5 pixel at two times Nyquist sampling, this was shown at the JPL by the VESTA experiment. A metrology system was used to calibrate intra and inter pixel quantum efficiency variations in order to correct pixelation errors. The European part of the NEAT consortium is building a testbed in vacuum in order to achieve 5 x 10-6 pixel precision for the centroid estimation. The goal is to provide a proof of concept for the precision requirement of the NEAT spacecraft. The testbed consists of two main sub-systems. The first one produces pseudo stars: a blackbody source is fed into a large core fiber and lights-up a pinhole mask in the object plane, which is imaged by a mirror on the CCD. The second sub-system is the metrology, it projects young fringes on the CCD. The fringes are created by two single mode fibers facing the CCD and fixed on the mirror. In this paper we present the experiments conducted and the results obtained since July 2013 when we had the first light on both the metrology and pseudo stars. We explain the data reduction procedures we used.
Performance Evaluation of the Spectral Centroid Downshift Method for Attenuation Estimation
Samimi, Kayvan; Varghese, Tomy
2015-01-01
Estimation of frequency-dependent ultrasonic attenuation is an important aspect of tissue characterization. Along with other acoustic parameters studied in quantitative ultrasound, the attenuation coefficient can be used to differentiate normal and pathological tissue. The spectral centroid downshift (CDS) method is one the most common frequency-domain approaches applied to this problem. In this study, a statistical analysis of this method’s performance was carried out based on a parametric model of the signal power spectrum in the presence of electronic noise. The parametric model used for the power spectrum of received RF data assumes a Gaussian spectral profile for the transmit pulse, and incorporates effects of attenuation, windowing, and electronic noise. Spectral moments were calculated and used to estimate second-order centroid statistics. A theoretical expression for the variance of a maximum likelihood estimator of attenuation coefficient was derived in terms of the centroid statistics and other model parameters, such as transmit pulse center frequency and bandwidth, RF data window length, SNR, and number of regression points. Theoretically predicted estimation variances were compared with experimentally estimated variances on RF data sets from both computer-simulated and physical tissue-mimicking phantoms. Scan parameter ranges for this study were electronic SNR from 10 to 70 dB, transmit pulse standard deviation from 0.5 to 4.1 MHz, transmit pulse center frequency from 2 to 8 MHz, and data window length from 3 to 17 mm. Acceptable agreement was observed between theoretical predictions and experimentally estimated values with differences smaller than 0.05 dB/cm/MHz across the parameter ranges investigated. This model helps predict the best attenuation estimation variance achievable with the CDS method, in terms of said scan parameters. PMID:25965681
Centroiding algorithms for high speed crossed strip readout of microchannel plate detectors.
Vallerga, John; Tremsin, Anton; Raffanti, Rick; Siegmund, Oswald
2011-05-01
Imaging microchannel plate (MCP) detectors with cross strip (XS) readout anodes require centroiding algorithms to determine the location of the amplified charge cloud from the incident radiation, be it photon or particle. We have developed a massively parallel XS readout electronic system that employs an amplifier and ADC for each strip and uses this digital data to calculate the centroid of each event in real time using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). Doing the calculations in real time in the front end electronics using an FPGA enables a much higher input event rate, nearly two orders of magnitude faster, by avoiding the bandwidth limitations of the raw data transfer to a computer. We report on our detailed efforts to optimize the algorithms used on both an 18 mm and 40 mm diameter XS MCP detector with strip pitch of 640 microns and read out with multiple 32 channel "Preshape32" ASIC amplifiers (developed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory). Each strip electrode is continuously digitized to 12 bits at 50 MHz with all 64 digital channels (128 for the 40 mm detector) transferred to a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. We describe how events are detected in the continuous data stream and then multiplexed into firmware modules that spatially and temporally filter and weight the input after applying offset and gain corrections. We will contrast a windowed "center of gravity" algorithm to a convolution with a special centroiding kernel in terms of resolution and distortion and show results with < 20 microns FWHM resolution at input rates > 1 MHz. PMID:21918588
Centroid Moment Tensor Inversion in a 3D heterogeneous Earth: Application to the Australasian region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hejrani, B.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.
2015-12-01
Australia is surrounded by active complex tectonic belts causing significant seismicity. The recent expansion of permanent seismic networks in the Australasian region provides great opportunity to study Earth structure and a great variety of physical mechanisms responsible for earthquakes.On one hand, a better understanding of the Australasian lithosphere, which is now available through tomographic images from full waveform modelling (Fichtner et al. 2010), provides a powerful tool to scrutinize the determination of earthquake source parameters. Even at relatively long periods (40-200s), the 3D effects of regional structure were shown to significantly alter the global centroid moment tensor solutions (Hingee et al. 2012). Thus, we can now explore other types of uncertainties and test the accuracy of global centroid moment tensor (GCMT) solution for the earthquakes in the Australasian region while checking for the systematic inconsistencies in the solutions. This has a significant bearing on tectonic interpretations. For example, azimuth and plunge of fault planes can be investigated in search for systematic biases.On the other hand, the time has come to take a full advantage of the 3D Earth structural model and embrace ongoing advances in computational power and storage. We develop a semi-automated procedure to calculate the Centroid Moment Tensors in a 3D heterogeneous Earth. We utilize the reciprocity theorem to create Green's functions for point sources covering seismogenic zones of Australasia. We focus on improving the capacity of the method to fully complement the existing monitoring tools at Geosciences Australia. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of detailed velocity structure on Centroid location and double-couple percentages. Moreover Azimuth and Plunge of focal mechanisms in GCMT (Global CMT), were investigated in search for any systematic bias.References: Fichtner, A., Kennett, B.L.N., Igel, H., Bunge, H.-P., 2010. Full waveform tomography for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yan; Zhang, Yun
2015-09-01
Three-dimensional (3-D) face recognition provides a potential to handle challenges caused by illumination and pose variations. However, extreme expression variations still complicate the task of recognition. An accurate and robust method for expression-invariant 3-D face recognition is proposed. A 3-D face is partitioned into a set of isogeodesic stripes and the spatial relationships of the stripes are described by 3-D weighted walkthrough and the centroid distance. Moreover, the method of the similarity measure is given. Experiments are performed on the CASIA dataset and the FRGC v2.0 dataset. The results show that our method has advantages for recognition performance despite large expression variations.
A centroid molecular dynamics study of liquid para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium.
Hone, Tyler D; Voth, Gregory A
2004-10-01
Centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) is applied to the study of collective and single-particle dynamics in liquid para-hydrogen at two state points and liquid ortho-deuterium at one state point. The CMD results are compared with the results of classical molecular dynamics, quantum mode coupling theory, a maximum entropy analytic continuation approach, pair-product forward- backward semiclassical dynamics, and available experimental results. The self-diffusion constants are in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements for all systems studied. Furthermore, it is shown that the method is able to adequately describe both the single-particle and collective dynamics of quantum liquids. PMID:15446940
Centers and centroids of the cone-beam projection of a ball.
Clackdoyle, R; Mennessier, C
2011-12-01
In geometric calibration of cone-beam (CB) scanners, point-like marker objects such as small balls are imaged to obtain positioning information from which the unknown geometric parameters are extracted. The procedure is sensitive to errors in the positioning information, and one source of error is a small bias which can occur in estimating the detector locations of the CB projections of the centers of the balls. We call these detector locations the center projections. In general, the CB projection of a ball of uniform density onto a flat detector forms an ellipse. Inside the ellipse lie the center projection M, the ellipse center C and the centroid G of the intensity values inside the ellipse. The center projection is invariably estimated from C or G which are much easier to extract directly from the data. In this work, we quantify the errors incurred in using C or G to estimate M. We prove mathematically that the points C, G, M and O are always distinct and lie on the major axis of the ellipse, where O is the detector origin, defined as the orthogonal projection of the cone vertex onto the detector. (The ellipse can only degenerate to a circle if the ball is along the direct line of sight to O, and in this case all four points coincide.) The points always lie in the same order: O, M, G, C which establishes that the centroid has less geometric bias than the ellipse center for estimating M. However, our numerical studies indicate that the centroid bias is only 20% less than the ellipse center bias so the benefit in using centroid estimates is not substantial. For the purposes of quantifying the bias in practice, we show that the ellipse center bias ||CM|| can be conveniently estimated by eA/(π ƒ(≈) where A is the area of the elliptical projection, e is the eccentricity of the ellipse and ƒ(≈) is an estimate of the focal length of the system. Finally, we discuss how these results are affected by physical factors such as beam hardening, and indicate extensions
A stochastic model for the polygonal tundra based on Poisson-Voronoi Diagrams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cresto Aleina, F.; Brovkin, V.; Muster, S.; Boike, J.; Kutzbach, L.; Sachs, T.; Zuyev, S.
2012-12-01
Sub-grid and small scale processes occur in various ecosystems and landscapes (e.g., periglacial ecosystems, peatlands and vegetation patterns). These local heterogeneities are often important or even fundamental to better understand general and large scale properties of the system, but they are either ignored or poorly parameterized in regional and global models. Because of their small scale, the underlying generating processes can be well explained and resolved only by local mechanistic models, which, on the other hand, fail to consider the regional or global influences of those features. A challenging problem is then how to deal with these interactions across different spatial scales, and how to improve our understanding of the role played by local soil heterogeneities in the climate system. This is of particular interest in the northern peatlands, because of the huge amount of carbon stored in these regions. Land-atmosphere greenhouse gas fluxes vary dramatically within these environments. Therefore, to correctly estimate the fluxes a description of the small scale soil variability is needed. Applications of statistical physics methods could be useful tools to upscale local features of the landscape, relating them to large-scale properties. To test this approach we considered a case study: the polygonal tundra. Cryogenic polygons, consisting mainly of elevated dry rims and wet low centers, pattern the terrain of many subartic regions and are generated by complex crack-and-growth processes. Methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes vary largely within the environment, as an effect of the small scale processes that characterize the landscape. It is then essential to consider the local heterogeneous behavior of the system components, such as the water table level inside the polygon wet centers, or the depth at which frozen soil thaws. We developed a stochastic model for this environment using Poisson-Voronoi diagrams, which is able to upscale statistical
The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The Voronoi-Delaunay Method Catalog of Galaxy Groups
Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Marc; Marinoni, Christian; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Conroy, Charlie; Cooper, Michael C.; Faber, S.M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kaiser, Nick; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; /Maryland U.
2012-02-14
We use the first 25% of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey spectroscopic data to identify groups and clusters of galaxies in redshift space. The data set contains 8370 galaxies with confirmed redshifts in the range 0.7 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, over one square degree on the sky. Groups are identified using an algorithm (the Voronoi-Delaunay Method) that has been shown to accurately reproduce the statistics of groups in simulated DEEP2-like samples. We optimize this algorithm for the DEEP2 survey by applying it to realistic mock galaxy catalogs and assessing the results using a stringent set of criteria for measuring group-finding success, which we develop and describe in detail here. We find in particular that the group-finder can successfully identify {approx}78% of real groups and that {approx}79% of the galaxies that are true members of groups can be identified as such. Conversely, we estimate that {approx}55% of the groups we find can be definitively identified with real groups and that {approx}46% of the galaxies we place into groups are interloper field galaxies. Most importantly, we find that it is possible to measure the distribution of groups in redshift and velocity dispersion, n({sigma}, z), to an accuracy limited by cosmic variance, for dispersions greater than 350 km s{sup -1}. We anticipate that such measurements will allow strong constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy in the future. Finally, we present the first DEEP2 group catalog, which assigns 32% of the galaxies to 899 distinct groups with two or more members, 153 of which have velocity dispersions above 350 km s{sup -1}. We provide locations, redshifts and properties for this high-dispersion subsample. This catalog represents the largest sample to date of spectroscopically detected groups at z {approx} 1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Said, Bassam; Ivanov, Dmitry; Long, Andrew C.; Hallett, Stephen R.
2016-03-01
3D composite materials are characterized by complex internal yarn architectures, leading to complex deformation and failure development mechanisms. Net-shaped preforms, which are originally periodic in nature, lose their periodicity when the fabric is draped, deformed on a tool, and consolidated to create geometrically complex composite components. As a result, the internal yarn architecture, which dominates the mechanical behaviour, becomes dependent on the structural geometry. Hence, predicting the mechanical behaviour of 3D composites requires an accurate representation of the yarn architecture within structural scale models. When applied to 3D composites, conventional finite element modelling techniques are limited to either homogenised properties at the structural scale, or the unit cell scale for a more detailed material property definition. Consequently, these models fail to capture the complex phenomena occurring across multiple length scales and their effects on a 3D composite's mechanical response. Here a multi-scale modelling approach based on a 3D spatial Voronoi tessellation is proposed. The model creates an intermediate length scale suitable for homogenisation to deal with the non-periodic nature of the final material. Information is passed between the different length scales to allow for the effect of the structural geometry to be taken into account on the smaller scales. The stiffness and surface strain predictions from the proposed model have been found to be in good agreement with experimental results. The proposed modelling framework has been used to gain important insight into the behaviour of this category of materials. It has been observed that the strain and stress distributions are strongly dependent on the internal yarn architecture and consequently on the final component geometry. Even for simple coupon tests, the internal architecture and geometric effects dominate the mechanical response. Consequently, the behaviour of 3D woven
Iteratively Weighted Centroiding for Shack-Hartmann Wave-Front Sensors
Baker, K L; Moallem, M M
2007-02-28
Several techniques have been used with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to determine the local wave-front gradient across each lenslet. In this article we introduce an iterative weighted technique which is specifically targeted for open-loop applications such as aberrometers and metrology. In this article the iterative centroiding technique is compared to existing techniques such as center-of-mass with thresholding, weighted center-of-gravity, matched filter and cross-correlation. Under conditions of low signal-to-noise ratio, the iterative weighted centroiding algorithm is demonstrated to produce a lower variance in the reconstructed phase than existing techniques. The iteratively weighted algorithm was also compared in closed-loop and demonstrated to have the lowest error variance along with the weighted center-of-gravity, however, the iteratively weighted algorithm removes the bulk of the aberration in roughly half the iterations than the weighted center-of-gravity algorithm. This iterative weighted algorithm is also well suited to applications such as guiding on telescopes.
Nano-JASMINE: cosmic radiation degradation of CCD performance and centroid detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Shimura, Yuki; Niwa, Yoshito; Yano, Taihei; Gouda, Naoteru; Yamada, Yoshiyuki
2012-09-01
Nano-JASMINE (NJ) is a very small astrometry satellite project led by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The satellite is ready for launch, and the launch is currently scheduled for late 2013 or early 2014. The satellite is equipped with a fully depleted CCD and is expected to perform astrometry observations for stars brighter than 9 mag in the zw-band (0.6 µm-1.0 µm). Distances of stars located within 100 pc of the Sun can be determined by using annual parallax measurements. The targeted accuracy for the position determination of stars brighter than 7.5 mag is 3 mas, which is equivalent to measuring the positions of stars with an accuracy of less than one five-hundredth of the CCD pixel size. The position measurements of stars are performed by centroiding the stellar images taken by the CCD that operates in the time and delay integration mode. The degradation of charge transfer performance due to cosmic radiation damage in orbit is proved experimentally. A method is then required to compensate for the effects of performance degradation. One of the most effective ways of achieving this is to simulate observed stellar outputs, including the effect of CCD degradation, and then formulate our centroiding algorithm and evaluate the accuracies of the measurements. We report here the planned procedure to simulate the outputs of the NJ observations. We also developed a CCD performance-measuring system and present preliminary results obtained using the system.
A fast method for computing the centroid of a type-2 fuzzy set.
Wu, Hsin-Jung; Su, Yao-Lung; Lee, Shie-Jue
2012-06-01
Type reduction does the work of computing the centroid of a type-2 fuzzy set. The result is a type-1 fuzzy set from which a corresponding crisp number can then be obtained through defuzzification. Type reduction is one of the major operations involved in type-2 fuzzy inference. Therefore, making type reduction efficient is a significant task in the application of type-2 fuzzy systems. Liu introduced a horizontal slice representation, called the α-plane representation, and proposed a type-reduction method for a type-2 fuzzy set. By exploring some useful properties of the α-plane representation and of the type reduction for interval type-2 fuzzy sets, a fast method is developed for computing the centroid of a type-2 fuzzy set. The number of computations and comparisons involved is greatly reduced. Convergence in each iteration can then speed up, and type reduction can be done much more efficiently. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analyzed mathematically and demonstrated by experimental results. PMID:22180511
Andronov, Leonid; Orlov, Igor; Lutz, Yves; Vonesch, Jean-Luc; Klaholz, Bruno P.
2016-01-01
Super-resolution microscopy (PALM, STORM etc.) provides a plethora of fluorescent signals in dense cellular environments which can be difficult to interpret. Here we describe ClusterViSu, a method for image reconstruction, visualization and quantification of labelled protein clusters, based on Voronoi tessellation of the individual fluorescence events. The general applicability of this clustering approach for the segmentation of super-resolution microscopy data, including for co-localization, is illustrated on a series of important biological objects such as chromatin complexes, RNA polymerase, nuclear pore complexes and microtubules. PMID:27068792
Exact asymptotic statistics of the n-edged face in a 3D Poisson-Voronoi tessellation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilhorst, H. J.
2016-05-01
This work considers the 3D Poisson-Voronoi tessellation. It investigates the joint probability distribution {πn}(L) for an arbitrarily selected cell face to be n-edged and for the distance between the seeds of the two adjacent cells to be equal to 2L. For this quantity an exact expression is derived, valid in the limit n\\to ∞ with n 1/6 L fixed. The leading order correction term is determined. Good agreement with earlier Monte Carlo data is obtained. The cell face is shown to be surrounded by a three-dimensional domain that is empty of seeds and is the union of n balls; it is pumpkin-shaped and analogous to the flower of the 2D Voronoi cell. For n\\to ∞ this domain tends towards a torus of equal major and minor radii. The radii scale as n 1/3, in agreement with earlier heuristic work. A detailed understanding is achieved of several other statistical properties of the n-edged cell face.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lardière, Olivier; Conan, Rodolphe; Clare, Richard; Bradley, Colin; Hubin, Norbert
2010-07-01
Variations of the sodium layer altitude and atom density profile induce errors on laser-guide-star (LGS) adaptive optics systems. These errors must be mitigated by (i), optimizing the LGS wavefront sensor (WFS) and the centroiding algorithm, and (ii), by adding a high-pass filter on the LGS path and a low-bandwidth natural-guide-star WFS. In the context of the ESO E-ELT project, five centroiding algorithms, namely the centre-of-gravity (CoG), the weighted CoG, the matched filter, the quad-cell and the correlation, have been evaluated in closedloop on the University of Victoria LGS wavefront sensing test bed. Each centroiding algorithm performance is compared for a central versus side-launch laser, different fields of view, pixel sampling, and LGS flux.
THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: THE VORONOI-DELAUNAY METHOD CATALOG OF GALAXY GROUPS
Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Marc; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael C.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Noeske, Kai; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Yan, Renbin
2012-05-20
We present a public catalog of galaxy groups constructed from the spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fourth data release from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) Galaxy Redshift Survey, including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). The catalog contains 1165 groups with two or more members in the EGS over the redshift range 0 < z < 1.5 and 1295 groups at z > 0.6 in the rest of DEEP2. Twenty-five percent of EGS galaxies and fourteen percent of high-z DEEP2 galaxies are assigned to galaxy groups. The groups were detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay method (VDM) after it has been optimized on mock DEEP2 catalogs following similar methods to those employed in Gerke et al. In the optimization effort, we have taken particular care to ensure that the mock catalogs resemble the data as closely as possible, and we have fine-tuned our methods separately on mocks constructed for the EGS and the rest of DEEP2. We have also probed the effect of the assumed cosmology on our inferred group-finding efficiency by performing our optimization on three different mock catalogs with different background cosmologies, finding large differences in the group-finding success we can achieve for these different mocks. Using the mock catalog whose background cosmology is most consistent with current data, we estimate that the DEEP2 group catalog is 72% complete and 61% pure (74% and 67% for the EGS) and that the group finder correctly classifies 70% of galaxies that truly belong to groups, with an additional 46% of interloper galaxies contaminating the catalog (66% and 43% for the EGS). We also confirm that the VDM catalog reconstructs the abundance of galaxy groups with velocity dispersions above {approx}300 km s{sup -1} to an accuracy better than the sample variance, and this successful reconstruction is not strongly dependent on cosmology. This makes the DEEP2 group catalog a promising probe of the growth of cosmic structure that can potentially be used for cosmological tests.
Wedge-and-strip anodes for centroid-finding position-sensitive photon and particle detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, C.; Jelinsky, P.; Lampton, M.; Malina, R. F.
1981-01-01
The paper examines geometries employing position-dependent charge partitioning to obtain a two-dimensional position signal from each detected photon or particle. Requiring three or four anode electrodes and signal paths, images have little distortion and resolution is not limited by thermal noise. An analysis of the geometrical image nonlinearity between event centroid location and the charge partition ratios is presented. In addition, fabrication and testing of two wedge-and-strip anode systems are discussed. Images obtained with EUV radiation and microchannel plates verify the predicted performance, with further resolution improvements achieved by adopting low noise signal circuitry. Also discussed are the designs of practical X-ray, EUV, and charged particle image systems.
Quan, Y.; Harris, J.M.; Chen, X.
1994-12-31
The centroid frequency shift method is proposed to estimate seismic attenuation from full waveform acoustic logs. This approach along with the amplitude ratio method is applied to investigate the attenuation properties of the P head wave in fluid-filled boreholes. The generalized reflection and transmission coefficients method is used to perform forward modeling. The authors suggest an empirical formula to describe the frequency-dependent geometrical spreading of the P-wave in a borehole. They simulate a more realistic borehole by including a mudcake and an invaded zone which are modeled by a large number of radially symmetric thin layers. The numerical tests show that this invaded zone exhibits very strong influence on the attenuation measurement.
Centroid Detector Assembly for the AXAF-I Alignment Test System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glenn, Paul
1995-01-01
The High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (imaging) (AXAF-I) consists of four nested paraboloids and four nested hyperboloids, all of meter-class size, and all of which are to be assembled and aligned in a special 15 meter tower at Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, NY. The goals of the alignment are (1) to make the images of the four telescopes coincident; (2) to remove coma from each image individually; and (3) to control and determine the final position of the composite focus. This will be accomplished by the HRMA Aligment Test System (HATS) which is essentially a scanning Hartmann test system. The scanning laser source and the focal plane of the HATS are part of the Centroid Detector Assembly (CDA) which also includes processing electronics and software. In this paper we discuss the design and the measured performance of the CDA.
Simplex-centroid mixture formulation for optimised composting of kitchen waste.
Abdullah, N; Chin, N L
2010-11-01
Composting is a good recycling method to fully utilise all the organic wastes present in kitchen waste due to its high nutritious matter within the waste. In this present study, the optimised mixture proportions of kitchen waste containing vegetable scraps (V), fish processing waste (F) and newspaper (N) or onion peels (O) were determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve the desired initial moisture content and carbon-to-nitrogen (CN) ratio for effective composting process. The best mixture was at 48.5% V, 17.7% F and 33.7% N for blends with newspaper while for blends with onion peels, the mixture proportion was 44.0% V, 19.7% F and 36.2% O. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions fall in the acceptable limits of moisture content of 50% to 65% and CN ratio of 20-40 and were also validated experimentally. PMID:20624604
Grand-Canonical Adaptive Resolution Centroid Molecular Dynamics: Implementation and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Animesh; Delle Site, Luigi
2016-09-01
We have implemented the Centroid Molecular Dynamics scheme (CMD) into the Grand Canonical-like version of the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Molecular Dynamics (GC-AdResS) method. We have tested the implementation on two different systems, liquid parahydrogen at extreme thermodynamic conditions and liquid water at ambient conditions; the reproduction of structural as well as dynamical results of reference systems are highly satisfactory. The capability of performing GC-AdResS CMD simulations allows for the treatment of a system characterized by some quantum features and open boundaries. This latter characteristic not only is of computational convenience, allowing for equivalent results of much larger and computationally more expensive systems, but also suggests a tool of analysis so far not explored, that is the unambiguous identification of the essential degrees of freedom required for a given property.
Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent
2006-09-01
We describe modeling and simulation results for the Thirty Meter Telescope on the degradation of sodium laser guide star Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement accuracy that will occur due to the spatial structure and temporal variations of the mesospheric sodium layer. By using a contiguous set of lidar measurements of the sodium profile, the performance of a standard centroid and of a more refined noise-optimal matched filter spot position estimation algorithm is analyzed and compared for a nominal mean signal level equal to 1000 photodetected electrons per subaperture per integration time, as a function of subaperture to laser launch telescope distance and CCD pixel readout noise. Both algorithms are compared in terms of their rms spot position estimation error due to noise, their associated wavefront error when implemented on the Thirty Meter Telescope facility adaptive optics system, their linear dynamic range, and their bias when detuned from the current sodium profile. PMID:16912797
European Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor catalog: Solutions for years 2003 and 2004
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pondrelli, S.; Salimbeni, S.; Morelli, A.; Ekström, G.; Boschi, E.
2007-09-01
We present an update, for years 2003 and 2004, of the European- Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) catalog that we maintain since 1997. This update adds 177 new solutions to the database, relating to moderate-magnitude ( 4.5≤M<5.5) earthquakes. About 30% of our new solutions also appear in the global CMT catalog: comparison of the two independent determinations generally shows very good agreement. Within the time span covered, the most noticeable seismic sequences occurred in Northern Africa (Boumerdes, Algerian coast in 2003 and Al Hoceima, Morocco in 2004) and in Southern Greece and Dodecanese region (August 2003 and 2004). The complete RCMT catalog for the European and Mediterranean region now covers 8 years, and contains about 600 solutions.
Centroid position measurements and subpixel sensitivity variations with the MAMA detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Slater, D. C.; Timothy, John G.; Jenkins, E. B.
1989-01-01
Initial measurements of the position sensitivity of a visible-light multianode microchannel array detector show that centroid calculations for image spots are accurate to better than 0.04 pixels even with sources that are essentially delta functions at the photocathode.Subpixel sensitivity variations of 10-15 percent are typically found for pixels in the array. Variations as large as 30 percent are possible in the worst conditions. These variations limit the photometric accuracy of the detector when very small scale features are observed. The photometric accuracy and the position sensitivity of the detector appear to be limited by cross-coupling effects within the anode array. Initial measurements with more recent designs of the detector show that most or all of this cross-coupling has been eliminated.
2016-01-01
Drastic shifts in species distributions are a cause of concern for ecologists. Such shifts pose great threat to biodiversity especially under unprecedented anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Many studies have documented recent shifts in species distributions. However, most of these studies are limited to regional scales, and do not consider the abundance structure within species ranges. Developing methods to detect systematic changes in species distributions over their full ranges is critical for understanding the impact of changing environments and for successful conservation planning. Here, we demonstrate a centroid model for range-wide analysis of distribution shifts using the North American Breeding Bird Survey. The centroid model is based on a hierarchical Bayesian framework which models population change within physiographic strata while accounting for several factors affecting species detectability. Yearly abundance-weighted range centroids are estimated. As case studies, we derive annual centroids for the Carolina wren and house finch in their ranges in the U.S. We further evaluate the first-difference correlation between species’ centroid movement and changes in winter severity, total population abundance. We also examined associations of change in centroids from sub-ranges. Change in full-range centroid movements of Carolina wren significantly correlate with snow cover days (r = −0.58). For both species, the full-range centroid shifts also have strong correlation with total abundance (r = 0.65, and 0.51 respectively). The movements of the full-range centroids of the two species are correlated strongly (up to r = 0.76) with that of the sub-ranges with more drastic population changes. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of centroids for analyzing distribution changes in a two-dimensional spatial context. Particularly it highlights applications that associate the centroid with factors such as environmental stressors, population characteristics
Use of a Hybrid Edge Node-Centroid Node Approach to Thermal Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peabody, Hume L.
2010-01-01
A recent proposal submitted for an ESA mission required that models be delivered in ESARAD/ESATAN formats. ThermalDesktop was the preferable analysis code to be used for model development with a conversion done as the final step before delivery. However, due to some differences between the capabilities of the two codes, a unique approach was developed to take advantage of the edge node capability of ThermalDesktop while maintaining the centroid node approach used by ESARAD. In essence, two separate meshes were used: one for conduction and one for radiation. The conduction calculations were eliminated from the radiation surfaces and the capacitance and radiative calculations were eliminated from the conduction surfaces. The resulting conduction surface nodes were coincident with all nodes of the radiation surface and were subsequently merged, while the nodes along the edges remained free. Merging of nodes on the edges of adjacent surfaces provided the conductive links between surfaces. Lastly, all nodes along edges were placed into the subnetwork and the resulting supernetwork included only the nodes associated with radiation surfaces. This approach had both benefits and disadvantages. The use of centroid, surface based radiation reduces the overall size of the radiation network, which is often the most computationally intensive part of the modeling process. Furthermore, using the conduction surfaces and allowing ThermalDesktop to calculate the conduction network can save significant time by not having to manually generate the couplings. Lastly, the resulting GMM/TMM models can be exported to formats which do not support edge nodes. One drawback, however, is the necessity to maintain two sets of surfaces. This requires additional care on the part of the analyst to ensure communication between the conductive and radiative surfaces in the resulting overall network. However, with more frequent use of this technique, the benefits of this approach can far outweigh the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pondrelli, S.; Morelli, A.; Ekström, G.; Postpischl, L.; Salimbeni, S.
2008-12-01
The European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) Catalog collects seismic moment tensor solutions that have been routinely computed since 1997 for earthquakes with moderate magnitude (4.5 < M < 5.5) in the Mediterranean region. This database represents an extension to smaller magnitudes of the Global CMT catalog (http://www.globalcmt.org). RCMT computation is based on the analysis of seismograms recorded at regional distances, and modeling of intermediate period surface waves. The Catalog is regularly updated a few months behind real time, and reports are published in Phys. Earth Planet. Int. and on the worldwide web (http://www.bo.ingv.it/RCMT). However, moment tensors can also be computed on the basis of data available in quasi-real time. Such preliminary solutions are available within one or a few hours after an earthquake occurs, and published as a Quick RCMTs. The European- Mediterranean RCMT Catalog currently includes more than 850 seismic moment tensor solutions, mainly located in the most seismically active areas, such as northern Greece and the Hellenic trench. In the consideration of the size of the Catalog, we developed a web-search interface that allows to query the SQL database on geographical, time and magnitudes (mb, Ms and Mw) ranges. The results can then be formatted and exported in various formats, or mapped directly on the web page (beach balls). Two important flags were introduced, allowing us to include in the database new events still in the preliminary stages of analysis or in need of further refinements. The first flag distinguishes Definitive and Quick solutions, while the second one categorizes events in 4 Quality levels on the basis of changes of centroid coordinates or when the depth needs to be fixed or when the double couple component is too big (Pondrelli et al., PEPI, 2006).
An improved Q estimation approach: the weighted centroid frequency shift method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jingnan; Wang, Shangxu; Yang, Dengfeng; Dong, Chunhui; Tao, Yonghui; Zhou, Yatao
2016-06-01
Seismic wave propagation in subsurface media suffers from absorption, which can be quantified by the quality factor Q. Accurate estimation of the Q factor is of great importance for the resolution enhancement of seismic data, precise imaging and interpretation, and reservoir prediction and characterization. The centroid frequency shift method (CFS) is currently one of the most commonly used Q estimation methods. However, for seismic data that contain noise, the accuracy and stability of Q extracted using CFS depend on the choice of frequency band. In order to reduce the influence of frequency band choices and obtain Q with greater precision and robustness, we present an improved CFS Q measurement approach—the weighted CFS method (WCFS), which incorporates a Gaussian weighting coefficient into the calculation procedure of the conventional CFS. The basic idea is to enhance the proportion of advantageous frequencies in the amplitude spectrum and reduce the weight of disadvantageous frequencies. In this novel method, we first construct a Gauss function using the centroid frequency and variance of the reference wavelet. Then we employ it as the weighting coefficient for the amplitude spectrum of the original signal. Finally, the conventional CFS is adopted for the weighted amplitude spectrum to extract the Q factor. Numerical tests of noise-free synthetic data demonstrate that the WCFS is feasible and efficient, and produces more accurate results than the conventional CFS. Tests for noisy synthetic data indicate that the new method has better anti-noise capability than the CFS. The application to field vertical seismic profile (VSP) data further demonstrates its validity5.
Hermeline, F. )
1993-05-01
This paper deals with the approximation of Vlasov-Poisson and Vlasov-Maxwell equations. We present two coupled particle-finite volume methods which use the properties of Delaunay-Voronoi meshes. These methods are applied to benchmark calculations and engineering problems such as simulation of electron injector devices. 42 refs., 13 figs.
Mello, Alexandre J T S; Pipa, Daniel R
2016-05-10
Adaptive optics in the new generation of large telescopes, over 24 m in diameter, present new challenges. One of them is spot elongation in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors when using laser guide stars. The laser brightness depends on the sodium layer density profile, and this is reproduced in the format of an elongated spot. The pattern of the spot is a problem for centroiding techniques, and knowledge of the sodium layer profile is essential for adequate centroiding. In this work, we propose a super-resolution reconstruction technique that combines the information available in various low-resolution elongated spots over the sub-apertures of the sensor to obtain a high-resolution sodium layer density profile that can be used as a reference in centroiding. This is achieved with the information available in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor only, dispensing with external measurements. Finally, we present simulation results of an iterative method that yields a super-resolved sodium layer density profile jointly with improved centroiding. PMID:27168279
Yang, Jun; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Tao; Song, Jingyan
2011-01-01
The star centroid estimation is the most important operation, which directly affects the precision of attitude determination for star sensors. This paper presents a theoretical study of the systematic error introduced by the star centroid estimation algorithm. The systematic error is analyzed through a frequency domain approach and numerical simulations. It is shown that the systematic error consists of the approximation error and truncation error which resulted from the discretization approximation and sampling window limitations, respectively. A criterion for choosing the size of the sampling window to reduce the truncation error is given in this paper. The systematic error can be evaluated as a function of the actual star centroid positions under different Gaussian widths of star intensity distribution. In order to eliminate the systematic error, a novel compensation algorithm based on the least squares support vector regression (LSSVR) with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel is proposed. Simulation results show that when the compensation algorithm is applied to the 5-pixel star sampling window, the accuracy of star centroid estimation is improved from 0.06 to 6 × 10−5 pixels. PMID:22164021
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Z.; Ni, S.
2014-12-01
Reliable and accurate focal depth of moderate size earthquakes (Mw5.5-Mw7) is important in many aspects of seismological studies, such as mapping the thermal-mechanical fault structure variation and revealing depth-dependent plate tectonics process. Identification of teleseismic depth phase (e.g. pP and sP) is usually performed to determine focal depth. However, as for shallow events, a relatively long source rupture duration may cause waveform interference to picking of depth phase. Fortunately, both long period teleseismic body-wave and Rayleigh wave spectral amplitude are sensitive to variation of centroid depth. In order to combine depth phase signals in teleseismic body-wave and broadband frequency information in Rayleigh wave's spectral amplitude, we propose a new joint inversion method performed using grid search for centroid depth. Because of the increased global coverage of seismometer networks and relatively high signal-to-noise ratio of teleseismic recording, firstly, focal mechanism is determined based on Cut-and-Paste method of teleseismic body-wave. Then an optimal centroid depth is inverted to best fit observed teleseismic body-wave and regional Rayleigh wave spectral amplitude. Application of this joint method to several well studied moderate size earthquakes verify not only robustness of the method, but also quantitatively improved accuracy of estimates of centroid depth.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Lutein has been identified by various studies as a dietary compound that may help delay the onset of macular degeneration. Random centroid optimization was applied to design, prepare, and characterize lutein-enriched oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions containing corn oil (15-25%), whey proteins (1.5-3.5%...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galindo-Torres, S. A.; Muñoz, J. D.; Alonso-Marroquín, F.
2010-11-01
Minkowski operators (dilation and erosion of sets in vector spaces) have been extensively used in computer graphics, image processing to analyze the structure of materials, and more recently in molecular dynamics. Here, we apply those mathematical concepts to extend the discrete element method to simulate granular materials with complex-shaped particles. The Voronoi-Minkowski diagrams are introduced to generate random packings of complex-shaped particles with tunable particle roundness. Contact forces and potentials are calculated in terms of distances instead of overlaps. By using the Verlet method to detect neighborhood, we achieve CPU times that grow linearly with the body’s number of sides. Simulations of dissipative granular materials under shear demonstrate that the method maintains conservation of energy in accord with the first law of thermodynamics. A series of simulations for biaxial test, shear band formation, hysteretic behavior, and ratcheting show that the model can reproduce the main features of real granular-soil behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skamarock, W. C.
2015-12-01
One of the major problems in atmospheric model applications is the representation of deep convection within the models; explicit simulation of deep convection on fine meshes performs much better than sub-grid parameterized deep convection on coarse meshes. Unfortunately, the high cost of explicit convective simulation has meant it has only been used to down-scale global simulations in weather prediction and regional climate applications, typically using traditional one-way interactive nesting technology. We have been performing real-time weather forecast tests using a global non-hydrostatic atmospheric model (the Model for Prediction Across Scales, MPAS) that employs a variable-resolution unstructured Voronoi horizontal mesh (nominally hexagons) to span hydrostatic to nonhydrostatic scales. The smoothly varying Voronoi mesh eliminates many downscaling problems encountered using traditional one- or two-way grid nesting. Our test weather forecasts cover two periods - the 2015 Spring Forecast Experiment conducted at the NOAA Storm Prediction Center during the month of May in which we used a 50-3 km mesh, and the PECAN field program examining nocturnal convection over the US during the months of June and July in which we used a 15-3 km mesh. An important aspect of this modeling system is that the model physics be scale-aware, particularly the deep convection parameterization. These MPAS simulations employ the Grell-Freitas scale-aware convection scheme. Our test forecasts show that the scheme produces a gradual transition in the deep convection, from the deep unstable convection being handled entirely by the convection scheme on the coarse mesh regions (dx > 15 km), to the deep convection being almost entirely explicit on the 3 km NA region of the meshes. We will present results illustrating the performance of critical aspects of the MPAS model in these tests.
Rapid Centroids and the Refined Position Accuracy of the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Catalogue
Hill, J. E.; Angelini, L.; Moretti, A.; Campana, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Chincarini, G.; Morris, D. C.; Racusin, J.; Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. A.; Nousek, J. A.; Beardmore, A. P.; Osborne, J. P.; Capalbi, M.; Pagani, C.; Gehrels, N.
2006-05-19
The Swift X-ray Telescope autonomously refines the Burst Alert Telescope positions ({approx}1-4' uncertainty) to better than 5 arcsec, within 5 seconds of target acquisition by the observatory for typical bursts. The results of the rapid positioning capability of the XRT are presented here for both known sources and newly discovered GRBs, demonstrating the ability to automatically utilise one of two integration times according to the burst brightness, and to correct the position for alignment offsets caused by the fast pointing performance and variable thermal environment of the satellite as measured by the Telescope Alignment Monitor. We present an evaluation of the position accuracy for both the onboard centroiding software and the ground software for the calibration targets and show that a significant improvement in position accuracy is obtained if the boresight detector position is optimised relative to the spacecraft pointing. Finally, we present an updated catalogue of Swift GRB X-ray positions obtained in Photon Counting Mode using the improved, calibrated boresight.
THE VELOCITY CENTROID PERIODICITY OF L2 PUPPIS' SiO MASER EMISSION
McIntosh, Gordon C.; Indermuehle, Balthasar
2013-09-01
We report the first short term velocity centroid (VC) periodicity derived from SiO maser emission. L2 Puppis, a semi-regular AGB star, was observed using the Mopra radio telescope of the Australia Telescope National Facility in the SiO v = 1, J = 1-0 and v = 1, J = 2-1 transitions. It exhibits a 139 day period in its SiO maser VC based on a period folding analysis and a Lomb Scargle analysis. L2 Pup's SiO maser emission has an unusually large velocity range and an unusual three-peaked spectrum. To create the change in VC the entire spectrum does not shift in velocity, but changes in the relative emission of the peaks generate the variation. The changes in the VC may be due to differential illumination, an asymmetric circumstellar distribution of material, or a mixture of causes. The unusual velocity structure, similar to that observed in Orion source 1, may be due to revolution of the circumstellar material or asymmetries in the circumstellar environment.
Automatic segmentation and centroid detection of skin sensors for lung interventions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Kongkuo; Xu, Sheng; Xue, Zhong; Wong, Stephen T.
2012-02-01
Electromagnetic (EM) tracking has been recognized as a valuable tool for locating the interventional devices in procedures such as lung and liver biopsy or ablation. The advantage of this technology is its real-time connection to the 3D volumetric roadmap, i.e. CT, of a patient's anatomy while the intervention is performed. EM-based guidance requires tracking of the tip of the interventional device, transforming the location of the device onto pre-operative CT images, and superimposing the device in the 3D images to assist physicians to complete the procedure more effectively. A key requirement of this data integration is to find automatically the mapping between EM and CT coordinate systems. Thus, skin fiducial sensors are attached to patients before acquiring the pre-operative CTs. Then, those sensors can be recognized in both CT and EM coordinate systems and used calculate the transformation matrix. In this paper, to enable the EM-based navigation workflow and reduce procedural preparation time, an automatic fiducial detection method is proposed to obtain the centroids of the sensors from the pre-operative CT. The approach has been applied to 13 rabbit datasets derived from an animal study and eight human images from an observation study. The numerical results show that it is a reliable and efficient method for use in EM-guided application.
Power centroid radar and its rise from the universal cybernetics duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feria, Erlan H.
2014-05-01
Power centroid radar (PC-Radar) is a fast and powerful adaptive radar scheme that naturally surfaced from the recent discovery of the time-dual for information theory which has been named "latency theory." Latency theory itself was born from the universal cybernetics duality (UC-Duality), first identified in the late 1970s, that has also delivered a time dual for thermodynamics that has been named "lingerdynamics" and anchors an emerging lifespan theory for biological systems. In this paper the rise of PC-Radar from the UC-Duality is described. The development of PC-Radar, US patented, started with Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded research on knowledge-aided (KA) adaptive radar of the last decade. The outstanding signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) performance of PC-Radar under severely taxing environmental disturbances will be established. More specifically, it will be seen that the SINR performance of PC-Radar, either KA or knowledgeunaided (KU), approximates that of an optimum KA radar scheme. The explanation for this remarkable result is that PC-Radar inherently arises from the UC-Duality, which advances a "first principles" duality guidance theory for the derivation of synergistic storage-space/computational-time compression solutions. Real-world synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images will be used as prior-knowledge to illustrate these results.
Rapid Centroids and the Refined Position Accuracy of the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Catalogue
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, J. E.; Angelini, L.; Moretti, A.; Morris, D. C.; Racusin, J.; Burrows, D. N.; Beardmore, A. P.; Campana, S.; Capalbi, M.; Kennea, J. A.
2005-01-01
The Swift X-ray Telescope autonomously refines the Burst Alert Telescope positions (approx.1-4' uncertainty) to better than 5 arcsec, within 5 seconds of target acquisition by the observatory for typical bursts. The results of the rapid positioning capability of the XRT are presented here for both known sources and newly discovered GRBs, demonstrating the ability to automatically utilize one of two integration times according to the burst brightness, and to correct the position for alignment offsets caused by the fast pointing performance and variable thermal environment of the satellite as measured by the Telescope Alignment Monitor. We present an evaluation of the position accuracy for both the onboard centroiding software and the ground software for the calibration targets and show that a significant improvement in position accuracy is obtained if the boresight detector position is optimized relative to the spacecraft pointing. Finally, we present an updated catalogue of Swift GRB X-ray positions obtained in Photon Counting Mode using the improved, calibrated boresight.
The dynamical climate network, its major centroids, and their close relation to the ENSO cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gozolchiani, Avi; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Berezin, Yehiel; Guez, Oded; Dijkstra, Henk; Havlin, Shlomo
2013-04-01
The observed relations between temperature fluctuations in different geographical regions yields a very robust climate network pattern that remains highly stable during time. Here, we break up the different elements that contribute to this stability, and quantify them [Y. Berezin, et. al., Nat. Sci. Rep. (2012)]. Due to its high stability, the climate network adjacency matrix can be regarded as a spatial field on its own right, and its typical profiles indeed have been the topic of recent studies. We have demonstrated [K. Yamasaki et. al. PRL (2008),A. Gozolchiani et. al. EPL (2008)] that during El-Nino times large portions of this field have a reduced value, corresponding to a less correlated atmosphere. We are now able to pinpoint a peculiar and rich pattern in this effect - the unique autonomous component in the eastern pacific [A. Gozolchiani et. al. PRL 107, 148501 (2011)]. In contrast to our and others earlier works, the different stages of the ENSO cycle come out as the 2 dominant K-means centroids, without pre-identification based on ENSO indices. Finally, the different feedback mechanisms which contribute to events are shown to be reflected in the network profile.
A phylogenetic Gibbs sampler that yields centroid solutions of cis-regulatory sites
Newberg, Lee A.; Thompson, William A.; Conlan, Sean; Smith, Thomas M.; McCue, Lee Ann; Lawrence, Charles E.
2007-07-15
Identification of functionally conserved regulatory elements in sequence data from closely related organisms is becoming feasible, due to the rapid growth of public sequence databases. Closely related organisms are most likely to have common regulatory motifs, however the recent speciation of such organisms results in the high degree of correlation in their genome sequences, confounding the detection of functional elements. Additionally, alignment algorithms that use optimization techniques are limited to the detection of a single alignment that may not be representative. Comparative-genomics studies must be able to address the phylogenetic correlation in the data and efficiently explore the alignment space, in order to make specific and biologically relevant predictions. Results: We describe here a Gibbs sampler that employs a full phylogenetic model and reports an ensemble centroid solution. We describe regulatory motif detection using both simulated and real data, and demonstrate that this approach achieves improved specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value over non-phylogenetic algorithms, and over phylogenetic algorithms that report a maximum likelihood solution.
Spot centroid sensitivity to angle of intensity on image detector with lenslet array.
Hui, Mei; Zhou, Ping; Su, Peng; Zhao, Zhu
2015-05-20
Lenslet array was introduced to an image detector to compensate for low sensitivity. These lenses deviate the light from different incident angles and potentially introduce errors when subpixel accuracy is needed. We investigated the spot centroid position because the angle of incidence changes on a Kodak KAI-16000 image detector with lenslet array. In our experiment, we noticed that there is a cubic dependency on the incident angle. The experimental results show that dependence on the angle of incidence is related to the lenslet array in the Kodak detector used for the pentaprism test. This situation caused an error in spherical aberration on the test surface after integration. The magnitude of the cubic component at incident angle of 14° (equivalent to F/2) is 11.6 μm, which corresponds to a 48 nm rms spherical aberration for the test surface and brings the scanning pentaprism test closer to the principal test while there is a 56 nm rms discrepancy. The discrepancy in spherical aberration between the two tests reduced to 8 nm after this calibration. It also showed the contrast measurement results for the Kodak detector and PointGrey detector. We performed experiments with two different detectors to quantify this effect. PMID:26192498
Mitigation of Angle Tracking Errors Due to Color Dependent Centroid Shifts in SIM-Lite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemati, Bijan; An, Xin; Goullioud, Renaud; Shao, Michael; Shen, Tsae-Pyng; Wehmeier, Udo J.; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Werne, Thomas A.; Wu, Janet P.; Zhai, Chengxing
2010-01-01
The SIM-Lite astrometric interferometer will search for Earth-size planets in the habitable zones of nearby stars. In this search the interferometer will monitor the astrometric position of candidate stars relative to nearby reference stars over the course of a 5 year mission. The elemental measurement is the angle between a target star and a reference star. This is a two-step process, in which the interferometer will each time need to use its controllable optics to align the starlight in the two arms with each other and with the metrology beams. The sensor for this alignment is an angle tracking CCD camera. Various constraints in the design of the camera subject it to systematic alignment errors when observing a star of one spectrum compared with a start of a different spectrum. This effect is called a Color Dependent Centroid Shift (CDCS) and has been studied extensively with SIM-Lite's SCDU testbed. Here we describe results from the simulation and testing of this error in the SCDU testbed, as well as effective ways that it can be reduced to acceptable levels.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Gupta, Pawan; Bhartia, P. K.; Veefkind, Pepijn; Sneep, Maarten; deHaan, Johan; Polonsky, Igor; Spurr, Robert
2011-01-01
We have developed a relatively simple scheme for simulating retrieved cloud optical centroid pressures (OCP) from satellite solar backscatter observations. We have compared simulator results with those from more detailed retrieval simulators that more fully account for the complex radiative transfer in a cloudy atmosphere. We used this fast simulator to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of cloud OCPs from the two OMI algorithms using collocated data from CloudSat and Aqua MODIS, a unique situation afforded by the A-train formation of satellites. We find that both OMI algorithms perform reasonably well and that the two algorithms agree better with each other than either does with the collocated CloudSat data. This indicates that patchy snow/ice, cloud 3D, and aerosol effects not simulated with the CloudSat data are affecting both algorithms similarly. We note that the collocation with CloudSat occurs mainly on the East side of OMI's swath. Therefore, we are not able to address cross-track biases in OMI cloud OCP retrievals. Our fast simulator may also be used to simulate cloud OCP from output generated by general circulation models (GCM) with appropriate account of cloud overlap. We have implemented such a scheme and plan to compare OMI data with GCM output in the near future.
Virbhadra, K. S.; Keeton, C. R.
2008-06-15
We model the massive dark object at the center of the Galaxy as a Schwarzschild black hole as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities, characterized by the mass and scalar charge parameters, and study gravitational lensing (particularly time delay, magnification centroid, and total magnification) by them. We find that the lensing features are qualitatively similar (though quantitatively different) for Schwarzschild black holes, weakly naked, and marginally strongly naked singularities. However, the lensing characteristics of strongly naked singularities are qualitatively very different from those due to Schwarzschild black holes. The images produced by Schwarzschild black hole lenses and weakly naked and marginally strongly naked singularity lenses always have positive time delays. On the other hand, strongly naked singularity lenses can give rise to images with positive, zero, or negative time delays. In particular, for a large angular source position the direct image (the outermost image on the same side as the source) due to strongly naked singularity lensing always has a negative time delay. We also found that the scalar field decreases the time delay and increases the total magnification of images; this result could have important implications for cosmology. As the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric also describes the exterior gravitational field of a scalar star, naked singularities as well as scalar star lenses, if these exist in nature, will serve as more efficient cosmic telescopes than regular gravitational lenses.
Wu, Xia; Yu, Xiong; Jing, Hao
2011-01-01
The extraction optimization and composition analysis of polyphenols in the fresh pulp of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) have been investigated in this study. The extraction process of polyphenols from Wuweizi pulp was optimized using Random-Centroid Optimization (RCO) methodology. Six factors including liquid and solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH, temperature, heating time and extraction times, and three extraction targets of polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and extract yield were considered in the RCO program. Three sets of optimum proposed factor values were obtained corresponding to three extraction targets respectively. The set of optimum proposed factor values for polyphenol extraction given was chosen in further experiments as following: liquid and solid ratio (v/w) 8, ethanol 67.3% (v/v), initial pH 1.75, temperature 55 °C for 4 h and extraction repeated for 4 times. The Wuweizi polyphenol extract (WPE) was obtained with a yield of 16.37 mg/g and composition of polyphenols 1.847 mg/g, anthocyanins 0.179 mg/g, sugar 9.573 mg/g and protein 0.327 mg/g. The WPE demonstrated high scavenging activities against DPPH radicals. PMID:22016656
CCD Centroiding Experiment for Correcting a Distorted Image on the Focal Plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yano, Taihei; Araki, Hiroshi; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Nakajima, Tadashi; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Tazawa, Seiichi; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Hanada, Hideo; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruta, Seiitsu
2006-10-01
JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration) and ILOM (In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement) are space missions that are in progress at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. These two projects require a common astrometric technique to obtain precise positions of star images on solid-state detectors in order to accomplish their objectives. In the laboratory, we have carried out measurements of the centroid of artificial star images on a CCD array in order to investigate the precision of the positions of the stars, using an algorithm for estimating them from photon-weighted means of the stars. In the calibration of the position of a star image at the focal plane, we have also taken into account the lowest order distortion due to optical aberrations, which is proportional to the cube of the distance from the optical axis. Accordingly, we find that the precision of the measurement for the positions of the stars reaches below 1/100 pixel for one measurement.
Neutron radiography with sub-15 μm resolution through event centroiding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tremsin, Anton S.; McPhate, Jason B.; Vallerga, John V.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Bruce Feller, W.; Lehmann, Eberhard; Kaestner, Anders; Boillat, Pierre; Panzner, Tobias; Filges, Uwe
2012-10-01
Conversion of thermal and cold neutrons into a strong ˜1 ns electron pulse with an absolute neutron detection efficiency as high as 50-70% makes detectors with 10B-doped Microchannel Plates (MCPs) very attractive for neutron radiography and microtomography applications. The subsequent signal amplification preserves the location of the event within the MCP pore (typically 6-10 μm in diameter), providing the possibility to perform neutron counting with high spatial resolution. Different event centroiding techniques of the charge landing on a patterned anode enable accurate reconstruction of the neutron position, provided the charge footprints do not overlap within the time required for event processing. The new fast 2×2 Timepix readout with >1.2 kHz frame rates provides the unique possibility to detect neutrons with sub-15 μm resolution at several MHz/cm2 counting rates. The results of high resolution neutron radiography experiments presented in this paper, demonstrate the sub-15 μm resolution capability of our detection system. The high degree of collimation and cold spectrum of ICON and BOA beamlines combined with the high spatial resolution and detection efficiency of MCP-Timepix detectors are crucial for high contrast neutron radiography and microtomography with high spatial resolution. The next generation of Timepix electronics with sparsified readout should enable counting rates in excess of 107 n/cm2/s taking full advantage of high beam intensity of present brightest neutron imaging facilities.
A centroid-based gene selection method for microarray data classification.
Guo, Shun; Guo, Donghui; Chen, Lifei; Jiang, Qingshan
2016-07-01
For classification problems based on microarray data, the data typically contains a large number of irrelevant and redundant features. In this paper, a new gene selection method is proposed to choose the best subset of features for microarray data with the irrelevant and redundant features removed. We formulate the selection problem as a L1-regularized optimization problem, based on a newly defined linear discriminant analysis criterion. Instead of calculating the mean of the samples, a kernel-based approach is used to estimate the class centroid to define both the between-class separability and the within-class compactness for the criterion. Theoretical analysis indicates that the global optimal solution of the L1-regularized criterion can be reached with a general condition, on which an efficient algorithm is derived to the feature selection problem in a linear time complexity with respect to the number of features and the number of samples. The experimental results on ten publicly available microarray datasets demonstrate that the proposed method performs effectively and competitively compared with state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27056739
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patton, Howard J.
1998-11-01
Surface waves recorded on the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) station Urumqi (WMQ) are analyzed for 26 centroid moment tensor (CMT) earthquakes located within an epicentral distance of 1300 km. Applying a simple grid search method for source parameter retrieval, I obtain revised estimates of the focal depth, fault strike, and seismic moment (M0) from amplitude spectra of Love and Rayleigh waves and compare these estimates with the CMT best double-couple solutions. The comparisons show that residuals are unbiased for focal depth and fault strike, where population spreads are ±13 km and ±17°, respectively. On the other hand, M0 estimates are found to be biased, with CMT M0 larger than regional estimates by an average of 0.27±0.04 log units. The results for focal depth and strike are consistent with previous global and regional studies comparing independent estimates with CMT results. Recent full-waveform modeling studies for central Asian earthquakes support the findings of bias in M0 estimates. I suggest that causes for M0 bias may be related to great thicknesses of continental crust in Hindu Kush and Tien Shan regions and to data censoring practices at small magnitudes. M0:mb scaling relationships for central Asian earthquakes show better agreement with western U.S. scaling when M0 estimates determined in this study are used.
Operational Dynamic Configuration Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lai, Chok Fung; Zelinski, Shannon
2010-01-01
Sectors may combine or split within areas of specialization in response to changing traffic patterns. This method of managing capacity and controller workload could be made more flexible by dynamically modifying sector boundaries. Much work has been done on methods for dynamically creating new sector boundaries [1-5]. Many assessments of dynamic configuration methods assume the current day baseline configuration remains fixed [6-7]. A challenging question is how to select a dynamic configuration baseline to assess potential benefits of proposed dynamic configuration concepts. Bloem used operational sector reconfigurations as a baseline [8]. The main difficulty is that operational reconfiguration data is noisy. Reconfigurations often occur frequently to accommodate staff training or breaks, or to complete a more complicated reconfiguration through a rapid sequence of simpler reconfigurations. Gupta quantified a few aspects of airspace boundary changes from this data [9]. Most of these metrics are unique to sector combining operations and not applicable to more flexible dynamic configuration concepts. To better understand what sort of reconfigurations are acceptable or beneficial, more configuration change metrics should be developed and their distribution in current practice should be computed. This paper proposes a method to select a simple sequence of configurations among operational configurations to serve as a dynamic configuration baseline for future dynamic configuration concept assessments. New configuration change metrics are applied to the operational data to establish current day thresholds for these metrics. These thresholds are then corroborated, refined, or dismissed based on airspace practitioner feedback. The dynamic configuration baseline selection method uses a k-means clustering algorithm to select the sequence of configurations and trigger times from a given day of operational sector combination data. The clustering algorithm selects a simplified
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zábranová, Eliška; Matyska, Ctirad
2016-04-01
After the 2015 Illapel earthquake the radial and spheroidal modes up to 1 mHz were registered by the network of superconducting gravimeters. These data provide unique opportunity to obtain ultralow-frequency estimates of several centroid moment tensor components. We employ the superconducting-gravimeter records of 60-h lengths and perform the joint inversion for M_{rr}, (M_{\\vartheta \\vartheta }-M_{\\varphi \\varphi })/2 and M_{\\vartheta \\varphi } centroid moment tensor components from spheroidal modes up to 1 mHz. The M_{rr} component is also obtained from independent inversion of the radial modes _0S_0 and _1S_0. Our results are consistent with the published solutions obtained from higher frequency data, suggesting thus negligible slow afterslip phenomenon.
Centroiding Experiment for Determining the Positions of Stars with High Precision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yano, T.; Araki, H.; Hanada, H.; Tazawa, S.; Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Niwa, Y.
2010-12-01
We have experimented with the determination of the positions of star images on a detector with high precision such as 10 microarcseconds, required by a space astrometry satellite, JASMINE. In order to accomplish such a precision, we take the following two procedures. (1) We determine the positions of star images on the detector with the precision of about 0.01 pixel for one measurement, using an algorithm for estimating them from photon weighted means of the star images. (2) We determine the positions of star images with the precision of about 0.0001-0.00001 pixel, which corresponds to that of 10 microarcseconds, using a large amount of data over 10000 measurements, that is, the error of the positions decreases according to the amount of data. Here, we note that the procedure 2 is not accomplished when the systematic error in our data is not excluded adequately even if we use a large amount of data. We first show the method to determine the positions of star images on the detector using photon weighted means of star images. This algorithm, used in this experiment, is very useful because it is easy to calculate the photon weighted mean from the data. This is very important in treating a large amount of data. Furthermore, we need not assume the shape of the point spread function in deriving the centroid of star images. Second, we show the results in the laboratory experiment for precision of determining the positions of star images. We obtain that the precision of estimation of positions of star images on the detector is under a variance of 0.01 pixel for one measurement (procedure 1). We also obtain that the precision of the positions of star images becomes a variance of about 0.0001 pixel using about 10000 measurements (procedure 2).
Measurement Precision and Accuracy of the Centre Location of AN Ellipse by Weighted Centroid Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuoka, R.
2015-03-01
Circular targets are often utilized in photogrammetry, and a circle on a plane is projected as an ellipse onto an oblique image. This paper reports an analysis conducted in order to investigate the measurement precision and accuracy of the centre location of an ellipse on a digital image by an intensity-weighted centroid method. An ellipse with a semi-major axis a, a semi-minor axis b, and a rotation angle θ of the major axis is investigated. In the study an equivalent radius r = (a2cos2θ + b2sin2θ)1/2 is adopted as a measure of the dimension of an ellipse. First an analytical expression representing a measurement error (ϵx, ϵy,) is obtained. Then variances Vx of ϵx are obtained at 1/256 pixel intervals from 0.5 to 100 pixels in r by numerical integration, because a formula representing Vx is unable to be obtained analytically when r > 0.5. The results of the numerical integration indicate that Vxwould oscillate in a 0.5 pixel cycle in r and Vx excluding the oscillation component would be inversely proportional to the cube of r. Finally an effective approximate formula of Vx from 0.5 to 100 pixels in r is obtained by least squares adjustment. The obtained formula is a fractional expression of which numerator is a fifth-degree polynomial of {r-0.5×int(2r)} expressing the oscillation component and denominator is the cube of r. Here int(x) is the function to return the integer part of the value x. Coefficients of the fifth-degree polynomial of the numerator can be expressed by a quadratic polynomial of {0.5×int(2r)+0.25}.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A.; Gupta, P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Veefkind, P.; Sneep, M.; de Haan, J.; Polonsky, I.; Spurr, R.
2012-01-01
The cloud Optical Centroid Pressure (OCP), also known as the effective cloud pressure, is a satellite-derived parameter that is commonly used in trace-gas retrievals to account for the effects of clouds on near-infrared through ultraviolet radiance measurements. Fast simulators are desirable to further expand the use of cloud OCP retrievals into the operational and climate communities for applications such as data assimilation and evaluation of cloud vertical structure in general circulation models. In this paper, we develop and validate fast simulators that provide estimates of the cloud OCP given a vertical profile of optical extinction. We use a pressure-weighting scheme where the weights depend upon optical parameters of clouds and/or aerosol. A cloud weighting function is easily extracted using this formulation. We then use fast simulators to compare two different satellite cloud OCP retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with estimates based on collocated cloud extinction profiles from a combination of CloudS at radar and MODIS visible radiance data. These comparisons are made over a wide range of conditions to provide a comprehensive validation of the OMI cloud OCP retrievals. We find generally good agreement between OMI cloud OCPs and those predicted by CloudSat. However, the OMI cloud OCPs from the two independent algorithms agree better with each other than either does with the estimates from CloudSat/MODIS. Differences between OMI cloud OCPs and those based on CloudSat/MODIS may result from undetected snow/ice at the surface, cloud 3-D effects, low altitude clouds missed by CloudSat, and the fact that CloudSat only observes a relatively small fraction of an OMI field-of-view.
Lin, Sheng-Huang; Chen, Shih-Wei; Lo, Yu-Chun; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Chich-Haung; Chen, Shin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Chen, Chin-Hsing; Huang, Wen-Tzeng; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chen, You-Yin; Tsang, Siny; Liao, Lun-De
2016-03-01
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that results from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Abnormal gait begins in the early stage and becomes severe as the disease progresses; therefore, the assessment of gait becomes an important issue in evaluating the progression of PD and the effectiveness of treatment. To provide a clinically useful gait assessment in environments with budget and space limitations, such as a small clinic or home, we propose and develop a portable method utilizing the monocular image sequences of walking to track and analyze a Parkinsonian gait pattern. In addition, a centroid tracking algorithm is developed and used here to enhance the method of quantifying kinematic gait parameters of PD in different states. Twelve healthy subjects and twelve mild patients with PD participate in this study. This method requires one digital video camera and subjects with two joint markers attached on the fibula head and the lateral malleolus of the leg. All subjects walk with a natural pace in front of a video camera during the trials. Results of our study demonstrate the stride length and walking velocity significantly decrease in PD without drug compared to PD with drug in both proposed method and simultaneous gait assessment performed by GAITRite(®) system. In gait initiation, step length and swing velocity also decrease in PD without drug compared to both PD with drug and controls. Our results showed high correlation in gait parameters between the two methods and prove the reliability of the proposed method. With the proposed method, quantitative measurement and analysis of Parkinsonian gait could be inexpensive to implement, portable within a small clinic or home, easy to administer, and simple to interpret. Although this study is assessed Parkinsonian gait, the proposed method has the potential to help clinicians and researchers assess the gait of patients with other
Ronald C. Davidson and B. Grant Logan
2011-07-19
Recent heavy ion fusion target studies show that it is possible to achieve ignition with direct drive and energy gain larger than 100 at 1MJ. To realize these advanced, high-gain schemes based on direct drive, it is necessary to develop a reliable beam smoothing technique to mitigate instabilities and facilitate uniform deposition on the target. The dynamics of the beam centroid can be explored as a possible beam smoothing technique to achieve a uniform illumination over a suitably chosen region of the target. The basic idea of this technique is to induce an oscillatory motion of the centroid for each transverse slice of the beam in such a way that the centroids of different slices strike different locations on the target. The centroid dynamics is controlled by a set of biased electrical plates called 'wobblers'. Using a model based on moments of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations, we show that the wobbler deflection force acts only on the centroid motion, and that the envelope dynamics are independent of the wobbler fields. If the conducting wall is far away from the beam, then the envelope dynamics and centroid dynamics are completely decoupled. This is a preferred situation for the beam wobbling technique, because the wobbler system can be designed to generate the desired centroid motion on the target without considering its effects on the envelope and emittance. A conceptual design of the wobbler system for a heavy ion fusion driver is briefly summarized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Sang-Kil; Chu, Shih-I.
2008-05-01
We introduce a new computational method on unstructured grids in the three-dimensional (3D) spaces to investigate the electronic structure of polyatomic molecules. The Voronoi-cell finite difference (VFD) method realizes a simple discrete Laplacian operator on unstructured grids based on Voronoi cells and their natural neighbors. The feature of unstructured grids enables us to choose intuitive pictures for an optimal molecular grid system. The new VFD method achieves highly adaptability by the Voronoi-cell diagram and yet simplicity by the finite difference scheme. It has no limitation in local refinement of grids in the vicinity of nuclear positions and provides an explicit expression at each grid without any integration. This method augmented by unstructured molecular grids is suitable for solving the Schr"odinger equation with the realistic 3D Coulomb potentials regardless of symmetry of molecules. For numerical examples, we test accuracies for electronic structures of one-electron polyatomic systems: linear H2^+ and triangular H3^++. We also extend VFD to the density functional theory (DFT) for many-electron polyatomic molecules.
4D tumor centroid tracking using orthogonal 2D dynamic MRI: Implications for radiotherapy planning
Tryggestad, Erik; Flammang, Aaron; Shea, Steven M.; Hales, Russell; Herman, Joseph; Lee, Junghoon; McNutt, Todd; Roland, Teboh; Wong, John
2013-09-15
distribution functions. The surrogate respiratory information allowed the authors to show how this technique can be used to study correlations between internal and external (surrogate) information over these prolonged durations. However, compared against the gold standard of the time stamps in the dMRI frames, the temporal synchronization of the surrogate 1D respiratory information was shown to be likely unreliable.Conclusions: The authors have established viability of a novel and practical pretreatment, 4D tumor centroid tracking method employing a commercially available dynamic MRI sequence. Further developments from the vendor are likely needed to provide a reliably synchronized surrogate 1D respiratory signal, which will likely broaden the utility of this method in the pretreatment radiotherapy planning context.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wodarz, Nan
2003-01-01
Describes the layout and elements of an effective school computer lab. Includes configuration, storage spaces, cabling and electrical requirements, lighting, furniture, and computer hardware and peripherals. (PKP)
Vologzhanina, Anna V; Kats, Svitlana V; Penkova, Larisa V; Pavlenko, Vadim A; Efimov, Nikolay N; Minin, Vadim V; Eremenko, Igor L
2015-10-01
Interaction of 1-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)ethanone oxime (H2PzOx) with copper(II) chloride in the presence of pyridine afforded a binuclear discrete [Cu2(HPzOx)2Cl2py2] complex, which was characterized by Fourier transform-IR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, magnetochemistry and high-resolution X-ray diffraction experiments. Multipole refinement of X-ray diffraction data and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of an isolated molecule allowed charge and spin distributions to be obtained for this compound. Magnetochemistry data, EPR spectra and DFT calculations of an isolated molecule show antiferromagnetic coupling between copper(II) ions. The spin distribution suggests an exchange pathway via the bridging pyrazole ring in the equatorial plane of the CuN4Cl coordination polyhedron, thus providing support for the classical superexchange mechanism; the calculated value of the magnetic coupling constant -2J is equal to 220 cm(-1), which compares well with the experimental value of 203 ± 2 cm(-1). Chemical connectivity was derived by Bader's 'quantum theory of atoms in molecules' and compared with Voronoi tessellation and Hirshfeld surface representations of crystal space. All methodologies gave a similar qualitative and semi-quantitative description of intra- and intermolecular connectivity. PMID:26428404
The Minkowski sum of a zonotope and the Voronoi polytope of the root lattice E{sub 7}
Grishukhin, Vyacheslav P
2012-11-30
We show that the Minkowski sum P{sub V}(E{sub 7})+Z(U) of the Voronoi polytope P{sub V}(E{sub 7}) of the root lattice E{sub 7} and the zonotope Z(U) is a 7-dimensional parallelohedron if and only if the set U consists of minimal vectors of the dual lattice E{sub 7}{sup *} up to scalar multiplication, and U does not contain forbidden sets. The minimal vectors of E{sub 7} are the vectors r of the classical root system E{sub 7}. If the r{sup 2}-norm of the roots is set equal to 2, then the scalar products of minimal vectors from the dual lattice only take the values {+-}1/2. A set of minimal vectors is referred to as forbidden if it consists of six vectors, and the directions of some of these vectors can be changed so as to obtain a set of six vectors with all the pairwise scalar products equal to 1/2. Bibliography: 11 titles.
MeshVoro: A three-dimensional Voronoi mesh building tool for the TOUGH family of codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freeman, C. M.; Boyle, K. L.; Reagan, M.; Johnson, J.; Rycroft, C.; Moridis, G. J.
2014-09-01
Few tools exist for creating and visualizing complex three-dimensional simulation meshes, and these have limitations that restrict their application to particular geometries and circumstances. Mesh generation needs to trend toward ever more general applications. To that end, we have developed MeshVoro, a tool that is based on the Voro++ (Chris H. Rycroft, 2009. Chaos 19, 041111) library and is capable of generating complex three-dimensional Voronoi tessellation-based (unstructured) meshes for the solution of problems of flow and transport in subsurface geologic media that are addressed by the TOUGH (Pruess, K., Oldenburg C., Moridis G., 1999. Report LBNL-43134, 582. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA) family of codes. MeshVoro, which includes built-in data visualization routines, is a particularly useful tool because it extends the applicability of the TOUGH family of codes by enabling the scientifically robust and relatively easy discretization of systems with challenging 3D geometries. We describe several applications of MeshVoro. We illustrate the ability of the tool to straightforwardly transform a complex geological grid into a simulation mesh that conforms to the specifications of the TOUGH family of codes. We demonstrate how MeshVoro can describe complex system geometries with a relatively small number of grid blocks, and we construct meshes for geometries that would have been practically intractable with a standard Cartesian grid approach. We also discuss the limitations and appropriate applications of this new technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collon, Pauline; Steckiewicz-Laurent, Wendy; Pellerin, Jeanne; Laurent, Gautier; Caumon, Guillaume; Reichart, Guillaume; Vaute, Laurent
2015-04-01
In this paper we demonstrate how recent geomodelling techniques can be combined and used to build a 3D geological model on a real case study: the former coal mine of Merlebach (France), that is targeted to be exploited for low-temperature geothermal energy production. From geological maps, cross-sections, borehole and mine exploitation data, we build a 3D model in which are identified the rocks and infrastructures having significantly different permeabilities. First, a structural model of the main geological interfaces in our area of interest (2 horizons and 13 faults) is built with classical geomodelling techniques. Then, we propose to model by surfaces the 71 irregularly stacked, very close and very thin, sub-vertical coal beds. To ease their construction, we use an implicit method which represents 3D surfaces as isovalues of a scalar field defined in a 3D tetrahedral grid of the area. The corresponding triangulated surfaces are remeshed with a recently proposed method based on Voronoi diagrams so that the exploited parts of the coal beds, now filled by sand, can be computed. The 3D surface-based geological model, in which infrastructures can be inserted as piecewise lines, can be volumetrically meshed. It is available for download as supplemental material, as well as a volumetric grid.
Cheng, Sara Y.; Duong, Hai V.; Compton, Campbell; Vaughn, Mark W.; Nguyen, Hoa; Cheng, Kwan H.
2015-01-01
Quantifying protein-induced lipid disruptions at the atomistic level is a challenging problem in membrane biophysics. Here we propose a novel 3D Voronoi tessellation nearest-atom-neighbor shell method to classify and characterize lipid domains into discrete concentric lipid shells surrounding membrane proteins in structurally heterogeneous lipid membranes. This method needs only the coordinates of the system and is independent of force fields and simulation conditions. As a proof-of-principle, we use this multiple lipid shell method to analyze the lipid disruption profiles of three simulated membrane systems: phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, and beta-amyloid/phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol. We observed different atomic volume disruption mechanisms due to cholesterol and beta-amyloid Additionally, several lipid fractional groups and lipid-interfacial water did not converge to their control values with increasing distance or shell order from the protein. This volume divergent behavior was confirmed by bilayer thickness and chain orientational order calculations. Our method can also be used to analyze high-resolution structural experimental data. PMID:25637891
MeshVoro: A Three-Dimensional Voronoi Mesh Building Tool for the TOUGH Family of Codes
Freeman, C. M.; Boyle, K. L.; Reagan, M.; Johnson, J.; Rycroft, C.; Moridis, G. J.
2013-09-30
Few tools exist for creating and visualizing complex three-dimensional simulation meshes, and these have limitations that restrict their application to particular geometries and circumstances. Mesh generation needs to trend toward ever more general applications. To that end, we have developed MeshVoro, a tool that is based on the Voro (Rycroft 2009) library and is capable of generating complex threedimensional Voronoi tessellation-based (unstructured) meshes for the solution of problems of flow and transport in subsurface geologic media that are addressed by the TOUGH (Pruess et al. 1999) family of codes. MeshVoro, which includes built-in data visualization routines, is a particularly useful tool because it extends the applicability of the TOUGH family of codes by enabling the scientifically robust and relatively easy discretization of systems with challenging 3D geometries. We describe several applications of MeshVoro. We illustrate the ability of the tool to straightforwardly transform a complex geological grid into a simulation mesh that conforms to the specifications of the TOUGH family of codes. We demonstrate how MeshVoro can describe complex system geometries with a relatively small number of grid blocks, and we construct meshes for geometries that would have been practically intractable with a standard Cartesian grid approach. We also discuss the limitations and appropriate applications of this new technology.
FEL phased array configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shellan, Jeffrey B.
1986-01-01
The advantages and disadvantages of various phased array and shared aperture concepts for FEL configurations are discussed. Consideration is given to the characteristics of intra- and inter-micropulse phasing; intra-macropulse phasing; an internal coupled resonator configuration; and an injection locked oscillator array. The use of a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration with multiple or single master oscillators for FELs is examined. The venetian blind, rotating plate, single grating, and grating rhomb shared aperture concepts are analyzed. It is noted that the shared aperture approach using a grating rhomb and the MOPA concept with a single master oscillator and a coupled resonator are useful for FEL phased array configurations; and the MOPA concept is most applicable.
Sudbø, J; Marcelpoil, R; Reith, A
2000-01-01
An adequate reproducibility in the description of tissue architecture is still a challenge to diagnostic pathology, sometimes with unfortunate prognostic implications. To assess a possible diagnostic and prognostic value of quantitiative tissue architecture analysis, structural features based on the Voronoi Diagram (VD) and its subgraphs were developed and tested. A series of 27 structural features were developed and tested in a pilot study of 30 cases of prostate cancer, 10 cases of cervical carcinomas, 8 cases of tongue cancer and 8 cases of normal oral mucosa. Grey level images were acquired from hematoxyline-eosine (HE) stained sections by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera mounted on a microscope connected to a personal computer (PC) with an image array processor. From the grey level images obtained, cell nuclei were automatically segmented and the geometrical centres of cell nuclei were computed. The resulting 2-dimensional (2D) swarm of pointlike seeds distributed in a flat plane was the basis for construction of the VD and its subgraphs. From the polygons, triangulations and arborizations thus obtained, 27 structural features were computed as numerical values. Comparison of groups (normal vs. cancerous oral mucosa, cervical and prostate carcinomas with good and poor prognosis) with regard to distribution in the values of the structural features was performed with Student's t-test. We demonstrate that some of the structural features developed are able to distinguish structurally between normal and cancerous oral mucosa (P = 0.001), and between good and poor outcome groups in prostatic (P = 0.001) and cervical carcinomas (P = 0.001). We present results confirming previous findings that graph theory based algorithms are useful tools for describing tissue architecture (e.g., normal versus malignant). The present study also indicates that these methods have a potential for prognostication in malignant epithelial lesions. PMID:11310643
Idrissi, Abdenacer; Marekha, B; Kiselev, M; Jedlovszky, Pál
2015-02-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of water-DMSO mixtures, containing 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 mol% DMSO, respectively, have been performed on the isothermal-isobaric (N,p,T) ensemble at T = 298 K and at the pressure equal to the experimental vapor pressure at each mixture composition. In addition, simulations of the two neat systems have also been performed for reference. The potential models used in the simulations are known to excellently reproduce the mixing properties of these compounds. The simulation results have been analyzed in detail by means of the Voronoi polyhedra (VP) of the molecules. Distributions of the VP volume and the asphericity parameter as well as that of the radius of the spherical intermolecular voids have been calculated. Detailed analyses of these distributions have revealed that both molecules prefer to be in an environment consisting of both types of molecules, but the affinity of DMSO for mixing with water is clearly stronger than that of water for mixing with DMSO. As a consequence, the dilution of the two neat liquids by the other component has been found to follow different mechanisms: when DMSO is added to neat water small domains of neat-like water persist up to the equimolar composition, whereas no such domains are found when neat DMSO is diluted by water. The observed behaviour is also in line with the fact that the main thermodynamic driving force behind the full miscibility of water and DMSO is the energy change accompanying their mixing, and that the entropy change accompanying this mixing is negative in systems of low and positive in systems of high DMSO mole fractions. Finally, we have found a direct evidence for the existence of strong hydrogen bonded complexes formed by one DMSO and two water molecules, but it has also been shown that these complexes are in equilibrium with single (monomeric) water and DMSO molecules in the mixed systems. PMID:25533427
Wright, James Joseph; Bourke, Paul David; Favorov, Oleg Vyachesslavovich
2014-01-01
Receptive fields of neurons in the forelimb region of areas 3b and 1 of primary somatosensory cortex, in cats and monkeys, were mapped using extracellular recordings obtained sequentially from nearly radial penetrations. Locations of the field centroids indicated the presence of a functional system in which cortical homotypic representations of the limb surfaces are entwined in three-dimensional Möbius-strip-like patterns of synaptic connections. Boundaries of somatosensory receptive field in nested groups irregularly overlie the centroid order, and are interpreted as arising from the superposition of learned connections upon the embryonic order. Since the theory of embryonic synaptic self-organization used to model these results was devised and earlier used to explain findings in primary visual cortex, the present findings suggest the theory may be of general application throughout cortex and may reveal a modular functional synaptic system, which, only in some parts of the cortex, and in some species, is manifest as anatomical ordering into columns. PMID:25400552
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roch, Julien; Duperray, Pierre; Schindelé, François
2016-03-01
Most of the tsunami potential seismic sources in the NEAM region are in a magnitude range of 6.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.5 (e.g. the tsunami triggered by the Boumerdes earthquake of 2003 with Mw=6.9 ). The CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis (CENALT), in operation since 2012 as the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) and Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP), has to issue warning messages within 15 min of earthquake origin time. These warnings are based on the seismic source parameters (Mw magnitude, focal depth and type of fault), which are computed by focal mechanisms and centroid inversion methods. The W-phase method, developed by Kanamori and Rivera, allows quick computation of seismic source parameters due to the early arrival time between P-waves and surface waves, and is therefore particularly useful for monitoring. We assess the W-phase method with 29 events of magnitude M_w ≥ 5.8 for the period 2010-2015 in the NEAM region. Results with 10 min of signal length are in good agreement compared to the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) catalog.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borgen, Richard L.
2013-01-01
The configuration of ION (Inter - planetary Overlay Network) network nodes is a manual task that is complex, time-consuming, and error-prone. This program seeks to accelerate this job and produce reliable configurations. The ION Configuration Editor is a model-based smart editor based on Eclipse Modeling Framework technology. An ION network designer uses this Eclipse-based GUI to construct a data model of the complete target network and then generate configurations. The data model is captured in an XML file. Intrinsic editor features aid in achieving model correctness, such as field fill-in, type-checking, lists of valid values, and suitable default values. Additionally, an explicit "validation" feature executes custom rules to catch more subtle model errors. A "survey" feature provides a set of reports providing an overview of the entire network, enabling a quick assessment of the model s completeness and correctness. The "configuration" feature produces the main final result, a complete set of ION configuration files (eight distinct file types) for each ION node in the network.
A finite element formulation for supersonic flows around complex configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1974-01-01
The problem of small perturbation potential supersonic flow around complex configurations is considered. This problem requires the solution of an integral equation relating the values of the potential on the surface of the body to the values of the normal derivative, which is known from the small perturbation boundary conditions. The surface of the body is divided into small (hyperboloidal quadrilateral) surface elements which are described in terms of the Cartesian components of the four corner points. The values of the potential (and its normal derivative) within each element are assumed to be constant and equal to its value at the centroid of the element. This yields a set of linear algebraic equations whose coefficients are given by source and doublet integrals over the surface elements. Closed form evaluations of the integrals are presented.
Software Configuration Management Guidebook
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
The growth in cost and importance of software to NASA has caused NASA to address the improvement of software development across the agency. One of the products of this program is a series of guidebooks that define a NASA concept of the assurance processes which are used in software development. The Software Assurance Guidebook, SMAP-GB-A201, issued in September, 1989, provides an overall picture of the concepts and practices of NASA in software assurance. Lower level guidebooks focus on specific activities that fall within the software assurance discipline, and provide more detailed information for the manager and/or practitioner. This is the Software Configuration Management Guidebook which describes software configuration management in a way that is compatible with practices in industry and at NASA Centers. Software configuration management is a key software development process, and is essential for doing software assurance.
Oxygen configurations in silica
Chelikowsky, James R.; Chadi, D. J.; Binggeli, N.
2000-07-15
We propose a transition state for oxygen in silica. This state is produced by the insertion of an oxygen molecule into the Si-O-Si bond, i.e., it consists of producing a Si-O-O-O-Si bond. This state allows molecular oxygen diffusion in silica without breaking the molecular O{sub 2} bond and it is energetically more stable than a peroxy configuration. This configuration may allow for exchange of molecular oxygen with the oxygen in the silica framework. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.