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Sample records for cerebral glucose consumption

  1. A genetic perspective on glucose consumption in the cerebral cortex during human development.

    PubMed

    Caravas, J; Wildman, D E

    2014-09-01

    As the major glucose-consuming organ in the human body, the dynamics of glucose metabolism in the brain deserve special attention. It has been shown that the brain's energy allocation as a percentage of the total energy budget of the individual peaks during childhood and declines through adolescence until reaching the stable allocation level seen in the adult. This pattern of glucose consumption has not been observed in other species, including our close primate relatives, and is therefore potentially either a driver or a consequence of human cognition. Furthermore, the allocation of glucose usage in the brain changes as the individual ages, with a surprising amount dedicated to glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation pathway. This suggests that, at certain developmental stages, glucose-fuelled anabolic pathways, in addition to ATP generation, are the driving forces behind the brain's high energy requirement. In this study, we explore the most recent work pertaining to the dynamic glucose uptake and allocation of the developing human brain and investigate several genes that may play a role in regulating these processes. PMID:25200292

  2. Age and sex differences in cerebral glucose consumption measured by pet using (18-F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

    SciTech Connect

    Duara, R.; Barker, W.; Chang, J.; Apicella, A.; Finn, R.; Gilson, A.

    1985-05-01

    Resting cerebral glucose metabolic rates (CMRglc) were measured in 23 subjects by PET using FDG. Subjects were divided into several groups (mean age +- S.D.) 5 young males (YM) (27 +- 6); 6 young females (YF)(33 +9); 5 elderly males (EM)(73 +- 5); 7 elderly females (EF)(69 +- 7). Additionally, from these groups 4 YM, 3YF, 5EM and 4EF were studied again within 6 weeks under identical conditions. CMRglc in the YF group again was significantly hider than YM (p 0.05). No obvious relationships of CMRglc to the phase of the menstrual cycle was found in this small group. There was a trend (p=0.06) toward a higher CMRglc in YF than EF. These results support the findings of higher CBF in YF versus YM. The differences between the results of Kuhl et al (J. Cereb. and a reduction of CMRglc with age was found in a mixed group of males and females (58and female), and where no age effect was found the males, are also resolved by these findings. The authors suggest that the apparent age effect, in females in this study, is principally a hormonal one.

  3. Cerebral glucose metabolism in the course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, M.; Herholz, K.; Pawlik, G.; Szelies, B.; Juergens, R.H.; Heiss, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was studied in a 15-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis before and after therapy with human interferon beta, using positron emission tomography of fluorine 18-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose. At first examination, metabolism was symmetrically decreased in the thalamus, cerebellum, and all cortical areas except prerolandic motor cortex, but increased in lentiform nucleus. A computed tomographic scan was normal. Six months later, bilateral focal necrosis centered in the previously hypermetabolic putamen was demonstrated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The caudate nucleus and the superoposterior part of the putamen were spared, still showing increased metabolism. Corresponding with some clinical improvement, cortical glucose consumption rates had returned to a normal level.

  4. Patterns of human local cerebral glucose metabolism during epileptic seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.

    1982-10-01

    Ictal patterns of local cerebral metabolic rate have been studied in epileptic patients by positron computed tomography with /sup 18/F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Partial seizures were associated with activation of anatomic structures unique to each patient studied. Ictal increases and decreases in local cerebral metabolism were observed. Scans performed during generalized convulsions induced by electroshock demonstrated a diffuse ictal increase and postictal decrease in cerebral metabolism. Petit mal absences were associated with a diffuse increase in cerebral metabolic rate. The ictal fluorodeoxyglucose patterns obtained from patients do not resemble autoradiographic patterns obtained from common experimental animal models of epilepsy.

  5. Impaired fasting glucose is associated with increased regional cerebral amyloid.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D; Wilkins, Heather M; Archer, Ashley E; Burns, Nicole C; Karcher, Rainer T; Graves, Rasinio S; Swerdlow, Russell H; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2016-08-01

    The Alzheimer's disease risk gene apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE ε4) is associated with increased cerebral amyloid. Although impaired glucose metabolism is linked to Alzheimer's disease risk, the relationship between impaired glycemia and cerebral amyloid is unclear. To investigate the independent effects of APOE ε4 and impaired glycemia on cerebral amyloid, we stratified nondemented subjects (n = 73) into 4 groups: normal glucose, APOE ε4 noncarrier (control [CNT]; n = 31), normal glucose, APOE ε4 carrier (E4 only; n = 14) impaired glycemia, APOE ε4 noncarrier (IG only; n = 18), and impaired glycemia, APOE ε4 carrier (IG+E4; n = 10). Cerebral amyloid differed both globally (p = 0.023) and regionally; precuneus (p = 0.007), posterior cingulate (PCC; p = 0.020), superior parietal cortex (SPC; p = 0.029), anterior cingulate (p = 0.027), and frontal cortex (p = 0.018). Post hoc analyses revealed that E4 only subjects had increased cerebral amyloid versus CNT globally and regionally in the precuneus, PCC, SPC, anterior cingulate, and frontal cortex. In IG only subjects, increased cerebral amyloid compared with CNT was restricted to precuneus, PCC, and SPC. IG+E4 subjects exhibited higher cerebral amyloid only in the precuneus relative to CNT. These results indicate that impaired glycemia and APOE ε4 genotype are independent risk factors for regional cerebral amyloid deposition. However, APOE ε4 and impaired glycemia did not have an additive effect on cerebral amyloid. PMID:27318141

  6. Relationship between cerebral sodium-glucose transporter and hyperglycemia in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yui; Harada, Shinichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-09-14

    Post-ischemic hyperglycemia exacerbates the development of cerebral ischemia. To elucidate this exacerbation mechanism, we focused on sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) as a mediator that lead hyperglycemia to cerebral ischemia. SGLT transport glucose into the cell, together with sodium ion, using the sodium concentration gradient. We have previously reported that suppression of cerebral SGLT ameliorates cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. However, detail relationship cerebral between SGLT and post-ischemic hyperglycemia remain incompletely defined. Therefore, we examined the involvement of cerebral SGLT on cerebral ischemic neuronal damage with or without hyperglycemic condition. Cell survival rate of primary cultured neurons was assessed by biochemical assay. A mouse model of focal ischemia was generated using a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neuronal damage was assessed with histological and behavioral analyses. Concomitant hydrogen peroxide/glucose treatment exacerbated hydrogen peroxide alone-induced cell death. Although a SGLT family-specific inhibitor, phlorizin had no effect on developed hydrogen peroxide alone-induced cell death, it suppressed cell death induced by concomitant hydrogen peroxide/glucose treatment. α-MG induced a concentration-dependent and significant decrease in neuronal survival. PHZ administered on immediately after reperfusion had no effect, but PHZ given at 6h after reperfusion had an effect. Our in vitro study indicates that SGLT is not involved in neuronal cell death in non-hyperglycemic condition. We have already reported that post-ischemic hyperglycemia begins to develop at 6h after MCAO. Therefore, current our in vivo study show post-ischemic hyperglycemic condition may be necessary for the SGLT-mediated exacerbation of cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. PMID:26254165

  7. Local cerebral glucose utilization during status epilepticus in newborn primates

    SciTech Connect

    Fujikawa, D.G.; Dwyer, B.E.; Lake, R.R.; Wasterlain, C.G.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of bicuculline-induced status epilepticus (SE) on local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (LCMRglc) was studied in 2-wk-old ketamine-anesthetized marmoset monkeys, using the 2-(/sup 14/C)-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographical technique. To estimate LCMRglc in cerebral cortex and thalamus during SE, the lumped constant (LC) for 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and the rate constants for 2-DG and glucose were calculated for these regions. The control LC was 0.43 in frontoparietal cortex, 0.51 in temporal cortex, and 0.50 in thalamus; it increased to 1.07 in frontoparietal cortex, 1.13 in temporal cortex, and 1.25 in thalamus after 30 min of seizures. With control LC values, LCMRglc in frontoparietal cortex, temporal cortex, and dorsomedial thalamus appeared to increase four to sixfold. With seizure LC values, LCMRglc increased 1.5- to 2-fold and only in cortex. During 45-min seizures, LCMRglc in cortex and thalamus probably increases 4- to 6-fold initially and later falls to the 1.5- to 2-fold level as tissue glucose concentrations decrease. Together with our previous results demonstrating depletion of high-energy phosphates and glucose in these regions, the data suggest that energy demands exceed glucose supply. The long-term effects of these metabolic changes on the developing brain remain to be determined.

  8. Glucose consumption of inflammatory cells masks metabolic deficits in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Heiko; Walberer, Maureen; Ladwig, Anne; Rueger, Maria A.; Neumaier, Bernd; Endepols, Heike; Hoehn, Mathias; Fink, Gereon R.; Schroeter, Michael; Graf, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cells such as microglia need energy to exert their functions and to maintain their cellular integrity and membrane potential. Subsequent to cerebral ischemia, inflammatory cells infiltrate tissue with limited blood flow where neurons and astrocytes died due to insufficient supply with oxygen and glucose. Using dual tracer positron emission tomography (PET), we found that concomitant with the presence of inflammatory cells, transport and consumption of glucose increased up to normal levels but returned to pathological levels as soon as inflammatory cells disappeared. Thus, inflammatory cells established sufficient glucose supply to satisfy their energy demands even in regions with insufficient supply for neurons and astrocytes to survive. Our data suggest that neurons and astrocytes died from oxygen deficiency and inflammatory cells metabolized glucose non-oxidatively in regions with residual availability. As a consequence, glucose metabolism of inflammatory cells can mask metabolic deficits in neurodegenerative diseases. We further found that the PET tracer did not bind to inflammatory cells in severely hypoperfused regions and thus only a part of the inflammation was detected. We conclude that glucose consumption of inflammatory cells should be taken into account when analyzing disease-related alterations of local cerebral metabolism. PMID:26747749

  9. Glucose consumption of inflammatory cells masks metabolic deficits in the brain.

    PubMed

    Backes, Heiko; Walberer, Maureen; Ladwig, Anne; Rueger, Maria A; Neumaier, Bernd; Endepols, Heike; Hoehn, Mathias; Fink, Gereon R; Schroeter, Michael; Graf, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory cells such as microglia need energy to exert their functions and to maintain their cellular integrity and membrane potential. Subsequent to cerebral ischemia, inflammatory cells infiltrate tissue with limited blood flow where neurons and astrocytes died due to insufficient supply with oxygen and glucose. Using dual tracer positron emission tomography (PET), we found that concomitant with the presence of inflammatory cells, transport and consumption of glucose increased up to normal levels but returned to pathological levels as soon as inflammatory cells disappeared. Thus, inflammatory cells established sufficient glucose supply to satisfy their energy demands even in regions with insufficient supply for neurons and astrocytes to survive. Our data suggest that neurons and astrocytes died from oxygen deficiency and inflammatory cells metabolized glucose non-oxidatively in regions with residual availability. As a consequence, glucose metabolism of inflammatory cells can mask metabolic deficits in neurodegenerative diseases. We further found that the PET tracer did not bind to inflammatory cells in severely hypoperfused regions and thus only a part of the inflammation was detected. We conclude that glucose consumption of inflammatory cells should be taken into account when analyzing disease-related alterations of local cerebral metabolism. PMID:26747749

  10. Cerebral glucose utilization is reduced in second test session.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, J M; Morgan, M J; Liu, X; Yung, B C; Phillips, R L; Wong, D F; Shaya, E K; Dannals, R F; London, E D

    1997-06-01

    Cerebral glucose utilization was higher during the first positron emission tomography (PET) session than during the second session, as assayed using the PET [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose method in male human volunteers. This difference was due largely to data from subjects with low-trait anxiety, since subjects with high anxiety showed similar metabolism in both PET sessions. High-anxiety subjects showed greater right/ left ratios of cerebral metabolism than low-anxiety subjects, particularly during the second PET session. These findings suggest that the level of anxiety may be an important variable to consider in PET studies using multiple sessions. PMID:9236727

  11. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.M.; Parker, E.S.; Clark, C.M.; Martin, P.R.; George, D.T.; Weingartner, H.; Sokoloff, L.; Ebert, M.H.; Mishkin, M.

    1985-05-01

    Seven alcoholic male subjects diagnosed as having Korsakoff's syndrome and eight age-matched male normal volunteers were studied with /sup 18/F 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2/sup 18/FDG). All subjects were examined at rest with eyes covered in a quiet, darkened room. Serial plasma samples were obtained following injection of 4 to 5 mCi of 2/sup 18/FDG. Tomographic slices spaced at 10mm axial increments were obtained (in-plane resolution = 1.75 cm, axial resolution = 1.78 cm). Four planes were selected from each subject, and a total of 46 regions of interest were sampled and glucose metabolic rates for each region calculated. The mean glucose metalbolic rate for the 46 regions in the Korsakoff subjects was significantly lower than that in the normal controls (5.17 +- .43 versus 6.6 +- 1.31). A Q-component analysis, which examined each subject's regional rates relative to his mean rate, revealed two distinct patterns in the Korsakoff group. Glucose metabolism was significantly reduced in 37 of the 46 regions sampled. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in a nondemented group of subjects has not previously been reported. The reduction in cortical metabolism may be the result of damage to sub-cortical projecting systems. The differing patterns of cerebral metabolism in Korsakoff's syndrome suggests subgroups with differing neuropathology. Regions implicated in memory function, medial temporal, thalamic and medial prefrontal were among the regions reduced in metabolism.

  12. Effects of rapamycin on cerebral oxygen supply and consumption during reperfusion after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chi, O Z; Barsoum, S; Vega-Cotto, N M; Jacinto, E; Liu, X; Mellender, S J; Weiss, H R

    2016-03-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) leads to cell growth and survival. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mTOR would increase infarct size and decrease microregional O2 supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. This was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1h and reperfusion for 2h with and without rapamycin (20mg/kg once daily for two days prior to ischemia). Regional cerebral blood flow was determined using a C(14)-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique. Regional small-vessel arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined microspectrophotometrically. The control ischemic-reperfused cortex had a similar blood flow and O2 consumption to the contralateral cortex. However, microregional O2 supply/consumption balance was significantly reduced in the ischemic-reperfused cortex. Rapamycin significantly increased cerebral O2 consumption and further reduced O2 supply/consumption balance in the reperfused area. This was associated with an increased cortical infarct size (13.5±0.8% control vs. 21.5±0.9% rapamycin). We also found that ischemia-reperfusion increased AKT and S6K1 phosphorylation, while rapamycin decreased this phosphorylation in both the control and ischemic-reperfused cortex. This suggests that mTOR is important for not only cell survival, but also for the control of oxygen balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:26742793

  13. EFFECTS OF RAPAMYCIN ON CEREBRAL OXYGEN SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION DURING REPERFUSION AFTER CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    PubMed Central

    CHI, O. Z.; BARSOUM, S.; VEGA-COTTO, N. M.; JACINTO, E.; LIU, X.; MELLENDER, S. J.; WEISS, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) leads to cell growth and survival. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mTOR would increase infarct size and decrease microregional O2 supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia–reperfusion. This was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1 h and reperfusion for 2 h with and without rapamycin (20 mg/kg once daily for two days prior to ischemia). Regional cerebral blood flow was determined using a C14-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique. Regional small-vessel arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined microspectrophotometrically. The control ischemic-reperfused cortex had a similar blood flow and O2 consumption to the contralateral cortex. However, microregional O2 supply/consumption balance was significantly reduced in the ischemic-reperfused cortex. Rapamycin significantly increased cerebral O2 consumption and further reduced O2 supply/consumption balance in the reperfused area. This was associated with an increased cortical infarct size (13.5 ± 0.8% control vs. 21.5 ± 0.9% rapamycin). We also found that ischemia–reperfusion increased AKT and S6K1 phosphorylation, while rapamycin decreased this phosphorylation in both the control and ischemic-reperfused cortex. This suggests that mTOR is important for not only cell survival, but also for the control of oxygen balance after cerebral ischemia–reperfusion. PMID:26742793

  14. Regional cerebral glucose utilization during morphine withdrawal in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, G F; DiStefano, P; Collins, R C

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral glucose utilization was studied by 2-deoxy[14C]glucose autoradiography in morphine-dependent rats and during naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. In morphine-dependent rats, glucose utilization was increased compared with naive controls uniformly (23-54%) in hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and subiculum and reduced in frontal cortex, striatum, anterior ventral thalamus, and medial habenular nucleus. On precipitation of morphine withdrawal by subcutaneous administration of naloxone at 0.5 mg/kg to morphine-dependent rats, glucose utilization was increased in the central nucleus of amygdala (51%), lateral mammillary nucleus (40%), lateral habenular nucleus (39%), medial mammillary nucleus (35%), and medial septal nucleus (35%) (all, P less than 0.01). Significant increases also occurred in several other limbic structures including interpeduncular nucleus, anterior medial and ventral thalamic nuclei, and lateral septal nucleus. Knowledge of the functional cerebral anatomy of the morphine-withdrawal syndrome should facilitate studies directed toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of opiate withdrawal. Images PMID:6954484

  15. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that become dysregulated with age. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study used data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2012 to 2013, to assess curry consumption frequency as well as blood glucose and blood lipid levels. The levels of blood glucose and lipids were subdivided by age, sex, and body mass index, and compared according to the curry consumption level. The estimates in each subgroup were further adjusted for potential confounding factors, including the diagnosis of diseases, physical activity, and smoking. RESULTS After adjusting for the above confounding factors, the blood glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the moderate curry consumption group compared to the low curry consumption group, both in older (> 45) male and younger (30 to 44) female overweight individuals who have high blood glucose and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that curcumin consumption, in an ordinary diet, can have health-beneficial effects, including being helpful in maintaining blood glucose and triglyceride levels that become dysregulated with age. The results should be further confirmed in future studies. PMID:27087906

  16. Cerebral glucose utilization after vasopressin barrel rotation or bicuculline seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Wurpel, J.; Dundore, R.; Bryan, R.; Keil, L.; Severs, W.B.

    1986-03-05

    Intraventricular (ivt) arginine vasopressin (AVP) causes a violent motor behavior termed barrel rotation (BR). AVP-BR is affected by visual/vestibular sensory input and may be related to other CNS motor disorders (seizures). Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was compared in SD rats during AVP-BR and bicuculline (BIC) seizures. Three groups were used: saline-ivt; AVP-ivt 0.5 ..mu..g; BIC-5.5 mg/kg,sc. /sup 14/C-glucose (40 ..mu..CI iv) was injected 15 sec. after ivt-saline or AVP or onset of BIC seizures. Rats were decapitated 10 min. after /sup 14/C-glucose. Brains were removed and dissected into 19 regions which were digested and glucose uptake quantified by liquid scintillation counting. LCGU was significantly increased in all CNS areas during BIC seizures vs controls (21-92%; p < 0.05 ANOVA). LCGU exhibits variable (upward arrow, downward arrow) changes in discrete areas during AVP-BR (p < .05). Glucose uptake increased in: cortex-olfactory (21%), sensory (9%), motor (8%) cerebellum-rt (13%) and 1t (17%) hemispheres, vermis (6%); pyramidal tract (6%); mesencephalon (5%); and pons (8%). Two areas decreased LCGU during AVP-BR: auditory cortex (-8%) and hippocampus (-11%). AVP-BR exhibits distinct changes in LCGU vs BIC seizures.

  17. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Wernicke's, Broca's, and conduction aphasia

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Kempler, D.; Jackson, C.; Hanson, W.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolism was evaluated in patients with either Wernicke's (N = 7), Broca's (N = 11), or conduction (N = 10) aphasia using /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose with positron emission tomography. The three aphasic syndromes differed in the degree of left-to-right frontal metabolic asymmetry, with Broca's aphasia showing severe asymmetry and Wernicke's aphasia mild-to-moderate metabolic asymmetry, while patients with conduction aphasia were metabolically symmetric. On the other hand, the three syndromes showed the same degree of metabolic decline in the left temporal region. The parietal region appeared to separate conduction aphasia from both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias. Common aphasic features in the three syndromes appear to be due to common changes in the temporal region, while unique features were associated with frontal and parietal metabolic differences.

  18. Cerebral metabolism of glucose in benign hereditary chorea

    SciTech Connect

    Suchowersky, O.; Hayden, M.R.; Martin, W.R.; Stoessl, A.J.; Hildebrand, A.M.; Pate, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by chorea of early onset with little or no progression. There is marked clinical variability in this disease with some subjects having onset in infancy and others with onset in early adulthood. In contrast to Huntington's disease (HD), there is no dementia. Computed tomography is normal in all subjects with no evidence of caudate nucleus atrophy. We present the results of positron emission tomography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose on three patients with this disorder from two families. Cerebral glucose metabolism in one patient was decreased in the caudate nucleus, as previously reported in HD. The other two persons from a second family showed a relative decrease in metabolic rates of glucose in the caudate when compared with the thalamus. It appears that caudate hypometabolism is not specific for HD. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some persons with BHC.

  19. Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Weon Wook; Suh, Kuen Tak; Kim, Jeung Il; Ku, Ja Gyung; Lee, Hong Seok; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ki; Lee, Jung Sub

    2008-07-01

    A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The mean mini-mental status exam score in the congenital scoliosis group was significantly lower than that in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis group. Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus. From this study, we could find the metabolic abnormalities of brain in patients with congenital scoliosis and suggest the possible role of voxel-based analysis of brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. PMID:18446384

  20. Effects of CDP-choline on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kakihana, M.; Fukuda, N.; Suno, M.; Nagaoka, A.

    1988-02-01

    The effects of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism were studied in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries for 20 or 30 minutes 24 hours after the vertebral arteries were permanently occluded by electrocautery. CDP-choline was administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 4 days after reestablishing carotid blood flow. CDP-choline at two dosages (50 and 250 mg/kg) shortened the time required for recovery of spontaneous motor activity in a dose-related manner; recovery time was measured early after reperfusion. Neurologic signs were observed for 10 days. High-dose CDP-choline improved neurologic signs in the rats within 20-30 minutes of ischemia. When cerebral glucose metabolism was assessed on Day 4, increases in the levels of glucose and pyruvate were accompanied by decreases in the synthesis of labeled acetylcholine from uniformly labeled (/sup 14/C)glucose measured in the cerebral cortex of rats with 30 minutes of ischemia. High-dose CDP-choline also attenuated changes in these variables. CDP-(1,2-/sup 14/C)choline injected intravenously 10 minutes after reperfusion was used for membrane lipid biosynthesis. These results indicate that CDP-choline has beneficial effects on brain dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia, which may be due in part to the restorative effects of CDP-choline on disturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, probably by stimulating phospholipid biosynthesis.

  1. Reproducibility of cerebral glucose metabolic measurements in resting human subjects.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, E J; Brodie, J D; Wolf, A P; Christman, D R; Laska, E; Meissner, M

    1988-08-01

    Positron emission tomography with 11C-2-deoxyglucose was used to determine the test-retest variability of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in 22 young normal right-handed men scanned twice in a 24-h period under baseline (resting) conditions. To assess the effects of scan order and time of day on variability, 12 subjects were scanned in the morning and afternoon of the same day (a.m.-p.m.) and 10 in the reverse order (p.m.-a.m.) with a night in between. The effect of anxiety on metabolism was also assessed. Seventy-three percent of the total subject group showed changes in whole brain metabolism from the first to the second measurement of 10% or less, with comparable changes in various cortical and subcortical regions. When a scaling factor was used to equate the whole brain metabolism in the two scans for each individual, the resulting average regional changes for each group were no more than 1%. This suggests that the proportion of the whole brain metabolism utilized regionally is stable in a group of subjects over time. Both groups of subjects had lower morning than afternoon metabolism, but the differences were slight in the p.m.-a.m. group. One measure of anxiety (pulse at run 1) was correlated with run 1 metabolism and with the percentage of change from run 1 to run 2. No significant run 2 correlations were observed. This is the first study to measure test-retest variability in cerebral glucose metabolism in a large sample of young normal subjects. It demonstrates that the deoxyglucose method yields low intrasubject variability and high stability over a 24-h period. PMID:3260593

  2. Serotonin modulation of cerebral glucose metabolism: sex and age effects.

    PubMed

    Munro, Cynthia A; Workman, Clifford I; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; Smith, Gwenn S

    2012-11-01

    The serotonin system is implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders whose clinical presentation and response to treatment differ between males and females, as well as with aging. However, human neurobiological studies are limited. Sex differences in the cerebral metabolic response to an increase in serotonin concentrations were measured, as well as the effect of aging, in men compared to women. Thirty-three normal healthy individuals (14 men/19 women, age range 20-79 years) underwent two resting positron emission tomography studies with the radiotracer [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]-FDG) after placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) infusions on two separate days. Results indicated that women demonstrated widespread areas of increased cortical glucose metabolism with fewer areas of decrease in metabolism in response to citalopram. Men, in contrast, demonstrated several regions of decreased cortical metabolism, but no regions of increased metabolism. Age was associated with greater increases in women and greater decreases in men in most brain regions. These results support prior studies indicating that serotonin function differs in men and women across the lifespan. Future studies aimed at characterizing the influences of age and sex on the serotonin system in patients with psychiatric disorders are needed to elucidate the relationship between sex and age differences in brain chemistry and associated differences in symptom presentation and treatment response. PMID:22836227

  3. Alteration of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects by glucose loading.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kenji; Wagatsuma, Kei; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    High plasma glucose (PG) levels can reduce fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG) uptake, especially in the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related regions. This fact is supported by studies showing that the resting-state activity in diabetes can be altered in the default mode network (DMN)-related regions, which considerably overlap with the AD-related regions. In order to expand the current knowledge, we aimed to investigate the relationship between increasing PG levels and the regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc ) as a direct index of brain activity. We performed dynamic (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography with arterial blood sampling once each in the fasting and glucose-loading conditions on 12 young, healthy volunteers without cognitive impairment or insulin resistance. The absolute CMRglc values were calculated for the volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis, and normalized CMRglc maps were generated for the voxelwise analysis. The normalized measurement is known to have smaller intersubject variability than the absolute measurement, and may, thus, lead to greater statistical power. In VOI analysis, no regional difference in the CMRglc was found between the two conditions. In exploratory voxelwise analysis, however, significant clusters were identified in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, lateral parietotemporal, and medial prefrontal regions where the CMRglc decreased upon glucose loading (P < 0.05, corrected). These regions include the representative components of both the DMN and AD pathology. Taken together with the previous knowledge on the relationships between the DMN, AD, and diabetes, it may be inferred that glucose loading induces hypometabolism in the AD-related and DMN-related regions. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2823-2832, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061859

  4. Reduction of cerebral glucose utilization by the HIV envelope glycoprotein Gp-120

    SciTech Connect

    Kimes, A.S.; London, E.D.; Szabo, G.; Raymon, L.; Tabakoff, B. )

    1991-05-01

    Gp-120 is a glycoprotein constituent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope. The effects of gp-120 on cerebral glucose utilization in rats were studied by the quantitative 2-deoxy-D-(1-14C) glucose method. Intracerebroventricular injection of gp-120 significantly reduced glucose utilization in the lateral habenula and the suprachiasmatic nucleus and decreased the global cerebral metabolic rate for glucose. The findings suggest that gp-120 and closely related peptides can alter neuronal function, thereby contributing to the sequelae of HIV infection.

  5. EFFECTS OF 2-DEOXY-D-GLUCOSE ON FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA IN HYPERGLYCEMIC RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of pretreatment with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) on the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model in hyperglycemic rats. Proton magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI/MRS) were used to measure the lesion size, the level of cerebral perfusion deficit, a...

  6. Effect of hypocapnia on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Samra, S.K.; Turk, P.; Arens, J.F.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of hypocapnia on regional cerebral glucose utilization (L-CMRg) was studied in 14 Sprague Dawley rats. After cannulation of femoral vessels, halothane was discontinued and anesthesia was maintained with 70% N/sub 2/O in oxygen. The animals' lungs were mechanically ventilated to achieve normocapnia (PaCO/sub 2/ = 40 +/- 2 mmHg) in group A or hypocapnia (PaCO/sub 2/ = 25 +/- 2 mmHg) in group B. L-CMRg was measured by the /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic method. Twenty-six anatomically discrete structures representing cortical, subcortical, limbic, and brainstem areas were studied. In hypocapnic animals, mean values for L-CMRg were higher in 25 out of 26 structures studied. The increase in L-CMRg was heterogenous. The structures that had higher L-CMRg during normocapnia showed the greatest increase in L-CMRg. When the two groups were compared using a profile analysis, in six regions (lateral and ventral thalamus, inferior colliculus, lateral habenulla, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex), a value of P less than 0.05 was obtained.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits glucose intolerance after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xu, Han; Kang, Kai; Cai, Donglian

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with the insulin signaling pathway and glucose tabolism. We hypothesized that expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor may be involved in glucose intolerance following ischemic stress. To verify this hypothesis, this study aimed to observe the changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase B receptor expression in glucose metabolism-associated regions following cerebral ischemic stress in mice. At day 1 after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor were significantly decreased in the ischemic cortex, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The expression levels of tyrosine kinase B receptor were decreased in the hypothalamus and liver, and increased in the skeletal muscle and pancreas, but remained unchanged in the cortex. Intrahypothalamic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (40 ng) suppressed the decrease in insulin receptor and tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor expression in the liver and skeletal muscle, and inhibited the overexpression of gluconeogenesis-associated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver of cerebral ischemic mice. However, serum insulin levels remained unchanged. Our experimental findings indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote glucose metabolism, reduce gluconeogenesis, and decrease blood glucose levels after cerebral ischemic stress. The low expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor following cerebral ischemia may be involved in the development of glucose intolerance. PMID:25206547

  8. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  9. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  10. Age differences in intercorrelations between regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, B.; Duara, R.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Patterns of cerebral metabolic intercorrelations were compared in the resting state in 15 healthy young men (ages 20 to 32 years) and 15 healthy elderly men (ages 64 to 83 years). Controlling for whole-brain glucose metabolism, partial correlation coefficients were determined between pairs of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose determined by positron emission tomography using (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose and obtained in 59 brain regions. Compared with the young men, the elderly men had fewer statistically significant correlations, with the most notable reductions observed between the parietal lobe regions, and between the parietal and frontal lobe regions. These results suggest that cerebral functional interactions are reduced in healthy elderly men.

  11. Cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow in Huntington's Disease (HD)

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Wapenski, J.; Riege, W.; Baxter, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    Previous studies in the authors' Laboratory have been carried out on 13 patients symptomatic of HD (SHD) and 15 asymptomatic at-risk for HD (ARHD) with a ECAT II and identification of changes in caudate metabolism using an index technique. The authors report now studies of additional 28 subjects (11 SHD, 17 ARHD) studied drug free and compared to age/sex matched controls using the higher resolution NeuroECAT, FDG for glucose utilization (LCMRGlc) and 0-15 water for cerebral blood flow (CBF). Patients had neurological, psychiatric-tests, x-ray CT and were video taped to determine type, timing and amount of choreathetic movements during study. In SHD (disease duration 4.9 +- 2.7 yrs), significant decreases (30%) in LCMRGlc were found in striatum (SHD=19.3 +- 7.7, controls = 29.9 +- 5.8 ..mu.. moles/min/100g) despite no to moderate caudate atrophy on x-ray CT. Hemisphere and cortical CMRGlc were not significantly decreased. There was a significant correlation between disease duration and ratio of caudate to putamen (Cd/Put). Pattern of LCMRGlc and CBF matched in SHD. The caudate to hemisphere LCMRGlc ratio was not different between ARHD and controls except variance was about 4 times greater for ARHD (ARHD=1.21 +- 0.15, controls = 1.28 +- 0.04) indicating presence of subpopulations in ARHD group. Four ARHD subjects had a ratio of 1 Std. Dev. from mean of SHD (no normals had values in this range). The 2 ARHD subjects with lowest caudate LCMRGlc had Cd/Put ratios > 2 Std. Dev. from controls. Results show 1) LCMRGlc abnormalities in all SHD patients and subpopulations in ARHD, 2) metabolic alterations appear to begin in caudate and spread to putamen and that a Cd/Put value of 0.7 should be found at start of symptoms, and 3) cortex and thalamus are relatively spared in ARHD and early SHD.

  12. Effects of cochlear ablation on local cerebral glucose utilization in fetal sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, R.M.; Hutchison, A.A.; McTiernan, M.J.; Merwin, G.E.

    1987-12-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization was measured by the (/sup 14/C)-deoxyglucose method in five near-term fetal sheep in whom bilateral ablation of the cochleae had been accomplished aseptically 5 to 8 days earlier. The tympanic membrane and ossicles were removed and all turns of each cochlea were unroofed with destruction carried to the modiolus. Mean local cerebral glucose utilization of 33 of 34 gray matter structures and four of four white matter structures in operated animals were significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than that in unoperated control fetuses. The depression in local cerebral glucose utilization was greatest (p less than 0.002) in brain stem auditory nuclei, in which the mean rate of glucose utilization was approximately 25% of the levels in unoperated fetuses. The pattern of glucose utilization in these structures was clearly altered, with a reversal of the normal distribution in density of the inferior colliculus. Tonotopic bands of high local cerebral glucose utilization frequently seen in autoradiographs of inferior colliculus in unoperated fetuses were not observed in operated fetuses. These results show that the glucose utilization of the brain, and by implication the normal growth and maturation of the brain, depends on an intact auditory system during prenatal life.

  13. Glucose oxidation and oxygen consumption of isolated guinea pig and muskrat hearts.

    PubMed

    McKean, T A

    1987-01-01

    Glucose in Krebs-Henseleit buffer was presented to isolated Langendorff perfused muskrat and guinea pig hearts that were paced at 240 beats/min. Glucose uptake (amount removed from the perfusion fluid) was 3 times greater in the muskrat hearts than in the guinea pig heart. Glucose oxidation (amount converted to CO2) and oxygen consumption did not differ in the hearts of the two species. When glucose is the only exogenous substrate, isolated muskrat hearts extract more glucose than guinea pig hearts but oxidize similar amounts of glucose and have a similar myocardial oxygen consumption. PMID:2881679

  14. Decoding Alzheimer's disease from perturbed cerebral glucose metabolism: implications for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhichun; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related devastating neurodegenerative disorder, which severely impacts on the global economic development and healthcare system. Though AD has been studied for more than 100 years since 1906, the exact cause(s) and pathogenic mechanism(s) remain to be clarified. Also, the efficient disease-modifying treatment and ideal diagnostic method for AD are unavailable. Perturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, an invariant pathophysiological feature of AD, may be a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of this disease. In this review, we firstly discussed the features of cerebral glucose metabolism in physiological and pathological conditions. Then, we further reviewed the contribution of glucose transportation abnormality and intracellular glucose catabolism dysfunction in AD pathophysiology, and proposed a hypothesis that multiple pathogenic cascades induced by impaired cerebral glucose metabolism could result in neuronal degeneration and consequently cognitive deficits in AD patients. Among these pathogenic processes, altered functional status of thiamine metabolism and brain insulin resistance are highly emphasized and characterized as major pathogenic mechanisms. Finally, considering the fact that AD patients exhibit cerebral glucose hypometabolism possibly due to impairments of insulin signaling and altered thiamine metabolism, we also discuss some potential possibilities to uncover diagnostic biomarkers for AD from abnormal glucose metabolism and to develop drugs targeting at repairing insulin signaling impairment and correcting thiamine metabolism abnormality. We conclude that glucose metabolism abnormality plays a critical role in AD pathophysiological alterations through the induction of multiple pathogenic factors such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and so forth. To clarify the causes, pathogeneses and consequences of cerebral hypometabolism in AD will help break the bottleneck of current AD study in finding

  15. Increase of glucose consumption in basal ganglia, thalamus and frontal cortex of patients with spasmodic torticollis

    SciTech Connect

    Grassi, F.; Bressi, S.; Antoni, M.

    1994-05-01

    The pathophysiology of spasmodic torticollis, a focal dystonia involving neck muscles, is still unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed either an increase as well as a decrease of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) in basal ganglia. In the present study, [18F]FDG and PET was used to measure rCMRglu in 10 patients with spasmodic torticollis (mean age 50.37 {plus_minus} 11.47) and 10 age matched controls. All cases with a short disease duration, were untreated. A factorial analysis of variance revealed a significant bilateral increase of glucose consumption in caudate nucleus and pallidum/putamen complex (p>0.004) and in the cerebellum (p>0.001). The rCMRglu increase in the motor/premotor cortex and in the thalamus reached a trend towards significance (p<0.05). These preliminary data show enhanced metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum as the functional correlate of focal dystonia. A recently proposed model suggests that dystonia would be the consequence of a putaminal hyperactivity, leading to the breakdown of the pallidal inhibitory control on thalamus and thalamo-cortical projections.

  16. Local cerebral glucose utilisation in chronic alcoholics: a positron tomographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Y; Baron, J C; Feline, A; Bories, J; Crouzel, C

    1986-01-01

    Using positron tomography, a study of regional cerebral glucose utilisation was performed prospectively in a highly selected group of six neurologically unaffected primary chronic alcoholics. In this group, neuropsychological, behavioural and CT scan anomalies were comparable with those previously reported in more extensive studies. With respect to age-matched control values, cerebral metabolic rate was not significantly modified in the selected cortical, subcortical and cerebellar regions of interest. However, the metabolic regional distribution index, which reflects the distribution pattern of glucose utilisation, was selectively and significantly decreased in the medio-frontal area, pointing to a limbic metabolic dysfunction apparently linked to chronic alcoholism. Images PMID:3491181

  17. Brain Size and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate in Nonspecific Retardation and Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haier, Richard J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Brain size and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were determined for 10 individuals with mild mental retardation (MR), 7 individuals with Down syndrome (DS), and 10 matched controls. MR and DS groups both had brain volumes of about 80% compared to controls, with variance greatest within the MR group. (SLD)

  18. Cerebral glucose metabolism in corticobasal degeneration comparison with progressive supranuclear palsy using statistical mapping analysis.

    PubMed

    Juh, Rahyeong; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Tae-Suk; Lee, Chang-Uk; Choe, Boyoung; Suh, Taesuk

    This study measured the cerebral glucose metabolism in patients suffering from corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The aim was to determine if there is a different metabolic pattern using (18)F-labeled 2-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). The regional cerebral glucose metabolism was examined in 8 patients diagnosed clinically with CBD (mean age 69.6 +/- 7.8 years; male/female: 5/3), 8 patients with probable PSP (mean age 67.8 +/- 4.5 years; male/female: 4/4) and 22 healthy controls. The regional cerebral glucose metabolism between the three groups was compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) with a voxel-by-voxel approach (p < 0.001, 200-voxel level). Compared with the normal controls, asymmetry in the regional glucose metabolism was observed in the parietal, frontal and cingulate in the CBD patients. In the PSP patients, the glucose metabolism was lower in the orbitofrontal, middle frontal, cingulate, thalamus and mid-brain than their age matched normal controls. A comparison of the two patient groups demonstrated relative hypometabolism in the thalamus, the mid-brain in the PSP patients and the parietal lobe in CBD patients. These results suggest that when making a differential diagnosis of CBD and PSP, voxel-based analysis of the (18)F-FDG PET images using a SPM might be a useful tool in clinical examinations. PMID:15936506

  19. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35–69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (Ptrend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (Ptrend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (Ptrend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  20. Program for PET image alignment: Effects on calculated differences in cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.L.; London, E.D.; Links, J.M.; Cascella, N.G. )

    1990-12-01

    A program was developed to align positron emission tomography images from multiple studies on the same subject. The program allowed alignment of two images with a fineness of one-tenth the width of a pixel. The indications and effects of misalignment were assessed in eight subjects from a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study on the effects of cocaine on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Visual examination of a difference image provided a sensitive and accurate tool for assessing image alignment. Image alignment within 2.8 mm was essential to reduce variability of measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Misalignment by this amount introduced errors on the order of 20% in the computed metabolic rate for glucose. These errors propagate to the difference between metabolic rates for a subject measured in basal versus perturbed states.

  1. Impaired cerebral development in fetuses with congenital cardiovascular malformations: Is it the result of inadequate glucose supply?

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Abraham M

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral development may be impaired in fetuses with congenital cardiovascular malformations, particularly hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and aortopulmonary transposition (APT). The decreased cerebral arterial pusatility index observed in some of these fetuses led to the belief that cerebral vascular resistance was reduced as a result of arterial hypoxemia and cerebral hypoxia is thought to be responsible for impaired cerebral growth. However, other hemodynamic factors could affect pulsatility index. I propose that cerebral blood flow is reduced in fetuses with HLHS and that reduced glucose, rather than oxygen, delivery interferes with cerebral development. This is based on the fact that most of these fetuses do not have lactate accumulation in the brain.In fetuses with APT, umbilical venous blood, containing oxygen and glucose derived across the placenta, is distributed to the lungs and lower body; venous blood, with low oxygen and glucose content, is delivered to the ascending aorta and brain. Oxygen and glucose delivery may further be reduced by decreased cerebral blood flow resulting from run-off of aortic blood through the ductus arteriosus to the pulmonary circulation during diastole. In APT fetuses, lack of lactate in the brain also supports my proposal that glucose deficiency interferes with cerebral development. PMID:27055190

  2. Regional brain blood flow and cerebral hemispheric oxygen consumption during acute hypoxaemia in the llama fetus

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Aníbal J; Riquelme, Raquel A; Sanhueza, Emilia M; Herrera, Emilio; Cabello, Gertrudis; Giussani, Dino A; Parer, Julian T

    2002-01-01

    Unlike fetal animals of lowland species, the llama fetus does not increase its cerebral blood flow during an episode of acute hypoxaemia. This study tested the hypothesis that the fetal llama brain maintains cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption by increasing cerebral O2 extraction rather than decreasing cerebral oxygen utilisation during acute hypoxaemia. Six llama fetuses were surgically instrumented under general anaesthesia at 217 days of gestation (term ca 350 days) with vascular and amniotic catheters in order to carry out cardiorespiratory studies. Following a control period of 1 h, the llama fetuses underwent 3 × 20 min episodes of progressive hypoxaemia, induced by maternal inhalational hypoxia. During basal conditions and during each of the 20 min of hypoxaemia, fetal cerebral blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres, cerebral oxygen extraction was calculated, and fetal cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption was determined by the modified Fick principle. During hypoxaemia, fetal arterial O2 tension and fetal pH decreased progressively from 24 ± 1 to 20 ± 1 Torr and from 7.36 ± 0.01 to 7.33 ± 0.01, respectively, during the first 20 min episode, to 16 ± 1 Torr and 7.25 ± 0.05 during the second 20 min episode and to 14 ± 1 Torr and 7.21 ± 0.04 during the final 20 min episode. Fetal arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Pa,CO2, 42 ± 2 Torr) remained unaltered from baseline throughout the experiment. Fetal cerebral hemispheric blood flow and cerebral hemispheric oxygen extraction were unaltered from baseline during progressive hypoxaemia. In contrast, a progressive fall in fetal cerebral hemispheric oxygen consumption occurred during the hypoxaemic challenge. In conclusion, these data do not support the hypothesis that the fetal llama brain maintains cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption by increasing cerebral hemispheric O2 extraction. Rather, the data show that in the llama fetus, a reduction in cerebral hemispheric metabolism occurs during acute

  3. Effects of Treatment for Tobacco Dependence on Resting Cerebral Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Matthew R; Mandelkern, Mark A; Shoptaw, Stephen; Shulenberger, Stephanie; Baker, Stephanie K; Abrams, Anna L; Xia, Catherine; London, Edythe D; Brody, Arthur L

    2010-01-01

    While bupropion HCl and practical group counseling (PGC) are commonly used treatments for tobacco dependence, the effects of these treatments on brain function are not well established. For this study, 54 tobacco-dependent cigarette smokers underwent resting 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography (FDG–PET) scanning before and after 8 weeks of treatment with bupropion HCl, PGC, or pill placebo. Using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 2), changes in cerebral glucose metabolism from before to after treatment were compared between treatment groups and correlations were determined between amount of daily cigarette usage and cerebral glucose metabolism. Compared with placebo, the two active treatments (bupropion HCl and PGC) had reductions in glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus. Further analysis suggested that PGC had a greater effect than bupropion HCl on glucose metabolism in this region. We also found positive correlations between daily cigarette use and glucose metabolism in the left occipital gyrus and parietal–temporal junction. There were no significant negative correlations between daily cigarette use and glucose metabolism. Our findings suggest that bupropion HCl and PGC reduce neural activity much as the performance of a goal-oriented task does in the default mode network of the brain, including the posterior cingulate gyrus. Thus, this study supports the theory that active treatments for tobacco dependence move the brain into a more goal-oriented state. PMID:19865076

  4. Glucose consumption rate critically depends on redox state in Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Yota; Uematsu, Kimio; Yamamoto, Shogo; Suda, Masako; Yukawa, Hideaki; Inui, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Rapid sugar consumption is important for the microbial production of chemicals and fuels. Here, we show that overexpression of the NADH dehydrogenase gene (ndh) increased glucose consumption rate in Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen-deprived conditions through investigating the relationship between the glucose consumption rate and intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio in various mutant strains. The NADH/NAD(+) ratio was strongly repressed under oxygen deprivation when glucose consumption was accelerated by the addition of pyruvate or sodium hydrogen carbonate. Overexpression of the ndh gene in the wild-type strain under oxygen deprivation decreased the NADH/NAD(+) ratio from 0.32 to 0.13, whereas the glucose consumption rate increased by 27%. Similarly, in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene (ppc)- or malate dehydrogenase gene (mdh)-deficient strains, overexpression of the ndh gene decreased the NADH/NAD(+) ratio from 1.66 to 0.37 and 2.20 to 0.57, respectively, whereas the glucose consumption rate increased by 57 and 330%, respectively. However, in a lactate dehydrogenase gene (L-ldhA)-deficient strain, although the NADH/NAD(+) ratio decreased from 5.62 to 1.13, the glucose consumption rate was not markedly altered. In a tailored D-lactate-producing strain, which lacked ppc and L-ldhA genes, but expressed D-ldhA from Lactobacillus delbrueckii, overexpression of the ndh gene decreased the NADH/NAD(+) ratio from 1.77 to 0.56, and increased the glucose consumption rate by 50%. Overall, the glucose consumption rate was found to be inversely proportional to the NADH/NAD(+) ratio in C. glutamicum cultured under oxygen deprivation. These findings could provide an option to increase the productivity of chemicals and fuels under oxygen deprivation. PMID:25808520

  5. Effects of nicotine on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in awake resting tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    Domino, E F; Minoshima, S; Guthrie, S K; Ohl, L; Ni, L; Koeppe, R A; Cross, D J; Zubieta, J

    2000-01-01

    Eleven healthy tobacco smoking adult male volunteers of mixed race were tobacco abstinent overnight for this study. In each subject, positron emission tomographic images of regional cerebral metabolism of glucose with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose were obtained in two conditions in the morning on different days: about 3min after approximately 1-2mg of nasal nicotine spray and after an equivalent volume of an active placebo spray of oleoresin of pepper in a random counterbalanced design. A Siemens/CTI 931/08-12 scanner with the capability of 15 horizontal brain slices was used. The images were further converted into a standard uniform brain format in which the mean data of all 11 subjects were obtained. Images were analysed in stereotactic coordinates using pixel-wise t statistics and a smoothed Gaussian model. Peak plasma nicotine levels varied three-fold and the areas under the curve(0-30min) varied seven-fold among the individual subjects. Nicotine caused a small overall reduction in global cerebral metabolism of glucose but, when the data were normalized, several brain regions showed relative increases in activity. Cerebral structures specifically activated by nicotine (nicotine minus pepper, Z score >4.0) included: left inferior frontal gyrus, left posterior cingulate gyrus and right thalamus. The visual cortex, including the right and left cuneus and left lateral occipito-temporal gyrus fusiformis, also showed an increase in regional cerebral metabolism of glucose with Z scores >3. 6. Structures with a decrease in regional cerebral metabolism of glucose (pepper minus nicotine) were the left insula and right inferior occipital gyrus, with Z scores >3.5. Especially important is the fact that the thalamus is activated by nicotine. This is consistent with the high density of nicotinic cholinoceptors in that brain region. However, not all brain regions affected by nicotine are known to have many nicotinic cholinoceptors. The results are discussed in relation to the

  6. Low Cerebral Glucose Metabolism: A Potential Predictor for the Severity of Vascular Parkinsonism and Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunqi; Wei, Xiaobo; Liu, Xu; Liao, Jinchi; Lin, Jiaping; Zhu, Cansheng; Meng, Xiaochun; Xie, Dongsi; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Cheng, Muhua; Tang, Beisha; Zhang, Zhuohua; Xia, Ying; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    This study explored the association between cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRGlc) and the severity of Vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). A cross-sectional study was performed to compare CMRGlc in normal subjects vs. VP and PD patients. Twelve normal subjects, 22 VP, and 11 PD patients were evaluated with the H&Y and MMSE, and underwent 18F-FDG measurements. Pearson's correlations were used to identify potential associations between the severity of VP/PD and CMRGlc. A pronounced reduction of CMRGlc in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen was detected in patients with VP and PD when compared with normal subjects. The VP patients displayed a slight CMRGlc decrease in the caudate putamen and frontal lobe in comparison with PD patients. These decreases in CMRGlc in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen were significantly correlated with the VP patients' H&Y, UPDRS II, UPDRS III, MMSE, cardiovascular, and attention/memory scores. Similarly, significant correlations were observed in patients with PD. This is the first clinical study finding strong evidence for an association between low cerebral glucose metabolism and the severity of VP and PD. Our findings suggest that these changes in glucose metabolism in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen may underlie the pathophysiological mechanisms of VP and PD. As the scramble to find imaging biomarkers or predictors of the disease intensifies, a better understanding of the roles of cerebral glucose metabolism may give us insight into the pathogenesis of VP and PD. PMID:26618044

  7. Local cerebral glucose utilization in the beagle puppy model of intraventricular hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ment, L.R.; Stewart, W.B.; Duncan, C.C.

    1982-09-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization has been measured by means of carbon-14(/sup 14/C)-autoradiography with 2-deoxyglucose in the newborn beagle puppy model of intraventricular hemorrhage. Our studies demonstrate gray matter/white matter differentiation of uptake of /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose in the control pups, as would be expected from adult animal studies. However, there is a marked homogeneity of /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose uptake in all brain regions in the puppies with intraventricular hemorrhage, possibly indicating a loss of the known coupling between cerebral blood flow and metabolism in this neuropathological condition.

  8. Similarities of cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's and Parkinsonian dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.; Metter, E.J.; Benson, D.F.; Ashford, J.W.; Riege, W.H.; Fujikawa, D.G.; Markham, C.H.; Maltese, A.

    1985-05-01

    In the dementia of probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD), there is a decrease in the metabolic ratio of parietal cortex/caudate-thalamus which relates measures in the most and in the least severely affected locations. Since some demented patients with Parkinson's Disease (PDD) are known to share pathological and neurochemical features with AD patients, the authors evaluated if the distribution of cerebral hypometabolism in PDD and AD were the same. Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined using the FDG method and positron tomography in subjects with AD (N=23), and PDD (N=7), multiple infarct dementia (MID)(N=6), and controls (N=10). In MID, the mean par/caudthal ratio was normal (0.79 +- 0.9, N=6). In AD and PDD patients, this ratio correlated negatively with both the severity (r=-0.624, rho=0.001) and duration (r=-0.657, rho=0.001) of dementia. The ratio was markedly decreased in subjects with mild to severe dementia (0.46 +- 0.09, N=21) and with dementia duration greater than two years (0.44 +- 0.08, N=18), but the ratio was also significantly decreased in patients with less advanced disease, i.e., when dementia was only questionable (0.64 +- 0.14, N=9) (t=2.27, rho<0.037) and when duration was two years or less (0.62 +- 0.13, N=12)(t=2.88, rho<0.009). This similarity of hypometabolism in AD and PDD is additional evidence that a common mechanism may operate in both disorders. The par/caud-thal metabolic ratio may be an index useful in the differential diagnosis of early dementia.

  9. Activation of cerebral sodium-glucose transporter type 1 function mediated by post-ischemic hyperglycemia exacerbates the development of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Y; Ogihara, S; Harada, S; Tokuyama, S

    2015-12-01

    The regulation of post-ischemic hyperglycemia plays an important role in suppressing neuronal damage in therapeutic strategies for cerebral ischemia. We previously reported that the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) was involved in the post-ischemic hyperglycemia-induced exacerbation of cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. Cortical SGLT-1, one of the cerebral SGLT isoforms, is dramatically increased by focal cerebral ischemia. In this study, we focused on the involvement of cerebral SGLT-1 in the development of cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. It was previously reported that activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases SGLT-1 expression. Moreover, ischemic stress-induced activation of AMPK exacerbates cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. Therefore, we directly confirmed the relationship between cerebral SGLT-1 and cerebral AMPK activation using in vitro primary culture of mouse cortical neurons. An in vivo mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia was generated using a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The development of infarct volume and behavioral abnormalities on day 3 after MCAO were ameliorated in cerebral SGLT-1 knock down mice. Cortical and striatal SGLT-1 expression levels were significantly increased at 12h after MCAO. Immunofluorescence revealed that SGLT-1 and the neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) were co-localized in the cortex and striatum of MCAO mice. In the in vitro study, primary cortical neurons were cultured for five days before each treatment with reagents. Concomitant treatment with hydrogen peroxide and glucose induced the elevation of SGLT-1 and phosphorylated AMPK/AMPK ratio, and this elevation was suppressed by compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in primary cortical neurons. Moreover, compound C suppressed neuronal cell death induced by concomitant hydrogen peroxide/glucose treatment in primary cortical neurons. Therefore, we concluded that enhanced cerebral SGLT-1 function mediated by post

  10. Induction of microcin B17 formation in Escherichia coli ZK650 by limitation of oxygen and glucose is independent of glucose consumption rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Q.; Fang, A.; Demain, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the consumption of glucose from the media in which Escherichia coli ZK650 was grown. This organism, which produces the polypeptide antibiotic microcin B17 best under conditions of limiting supplies of glucose and air, was grown with a low level of glucose (0.5 mg/ml) as well as a high level (5.0 mg/ml) under both high and low aeration. Glucose consumption rates were virtually identical under both high and low aeration. Thus, glucose consumption rate is not a regulating factor in microcin B17 formation.

  11. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders. PMID:27574485

  12. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-08-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders. PMID:27574485

  13. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35-69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (P trend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (P trend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (P trend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  14. Brain metabolism in autism. Resting cerebral glucose utilization rates as measured with positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Rumsey, J.M.; Duara, R.; Grady, C.; Rapoport, J.L.; Margolin, R.A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Cutler, N.R.

    1985-05-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in ten men (mean age = 26 years) with well-documented histories of infantile autism and in 15 age-matched normal male controls using positron emission tomography and (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Positron emission tomography was completed during rest, with reduced visual and auditory stimulation. While the autistic group as a whole showed significantly elevated glucose utilization in widespread regions of the brain, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. No brain region showed a reduced metabolic rate in the autistic group. Significantly more autistic, as compared with control, subjects showed extreme relative metabolic rates (ratios of regional metabolic rates to whole brain rates and asymmetries) in one or more brain regions.

  15. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Swedo, S.E.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Cheslow, D.L.; Leonard, H.L.; Kumar, A.; Friedland, R.; Rapoport, S.I.; Rapoport, J.L.

    1989-06-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system.

  16. Effects of blockade of NMDA receptors on cerebral oxygen consumption during hyperosmolar BBB disruption in rats.

    PubMed

    Chi, Oak Z; Barsoum, Sylviana; Grayson, Jeremy; Hunter, Christine; Liu, Xia; Weiss, Harvey R

    2013-03-15

    Hyperosmolar blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has been reported to increase cerebral O2 consumption. This study was performed to test whether blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor would affect cerebral O2 consumption during hyperosmolar BBB disruption. A competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CGS-19755 10mg/kg was injected iv 15min before intracarotid infusion of 25% mannitol. Twelve min after BBB disruption, the BBB transfer coefficient (Ki) of (14)C-α-aminoisobutyric acid ((14)C-AIB) was measured. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), regional arteriolar and venular O2 saturation (SaO2 and SvO2 respectively), and O2 consumption were determined using (14)C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography and cryomicrospectrophotometry in alternate slices of the brain tissue. The Ki of (14)C-AIB was markedly increased with hyperosmolar mannitol in both the control (5.8×) and the CGS treated rats (5.2×). With BBB disruption, the O2 consumption was significantly increased (+39%) only in the control but not in the CGS treated rats and was significantly lower (-29%) in the CGS treated than the control rats. The distribution of SvO2 was significantly shifted to the higher concentrations with CGS treatment. Our data demonstrated an increase of O2 consumption by hyperosmolar BBB disruption and attenuation of the increase with NMDA blockade without affecting the degree of BBB disruption. PMID:23357315

  17. Adaptive use of a personal glucose meter (PGM) for acute biotoxicity assessment based on the glucose consumption of microbes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Deyu; Gao, Guanyue; Yu, Yuan; Shen, Jie; Zhi, Jinfang

    2016-05-10

    In this study, a new method for acute biotoxicity assessment was proposed by measuring the glucose consumption of microbes with a personal glucose meter (PGM). To obtain an ideal biotoxicity assessment performance, an appropriate microbe was selected first, and then the relevant parameters, such as temperature and microbial concentration were optimized. Under the optimized parameters, the acute biotoxicity of four environmental pollutants (As(3+), Ni(2+), 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol), three wastewater samples and three soil samples were evaluated. This technology breakthrough will help us develop a low cost, easy to use water-environmental early-warning kit. PMID:27055358

  18. Sugarcoated isolation: evidence that social avoidance is linked to higher basal glucose levels and higher consumption of glucose

    PubMed Central

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Coan, James A.; Reizer, Abira; Gross, Elizabeth B.; Dahan, Dana; Wegener, Meredyth A.; Carel, Rafael; Cloninger, Claude R.; Zohar, Ada H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The human brain adjusts its level of effort in coping with various life stressors as a partial function of perceived access to social resources. We examined whether people who avoid social ties maintain a higher fasting basal level of glucose in their bloodstream and consume more sugar-rich food, reflecting strategies to draw more on personal resources when threatened. Methods: In Study 1 (N = 60), we obtained fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations data. In Study 2 (N = 285), we collected measures of fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations from older adults of mixed gender, using a measure of attachment style different from Study 1. In Study 3 (N = 108), we examined the link between trait-like attachment avoidance, manipulation of an asocial state, and consumption of sugar-rich food. In Study 4 (N = 115), we examined whether manipulating the social network will moderate the effect of attachment avoidance on consumption of sugar-rich food. Results: In Study 1, fasting blood glucose levels corresponded with higher attachment avoidance scores after statistically adjusting for time of assessment and interpersonal anxiety. For Study 2, fasting blood glucose continued to correspond with higher adult attachment avoidance even after statistically adjusting for interpersonal anxiety, stress indices, age, gender, social support and body mass. In Study 3, people high in attachment avoidance consume more sugar-rich food, especially when reminded of asocial tendencies. Study 4 indicated that after facing a stressful task in the presence of others, avoidant people gather more sugar-rich food than more socially oriented people. Conclusion: Results are consistent with the suggestion that socially avoidant individuals upwardly adjust their basal glucose levels and consume more glucose-rich food with the expectation of increased personal effort because of limited access to social resources. Further investigation of this link is warranted

  19. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations. PMID:26435060

  20. Evidence for the absence of cerebral glucose-6-phosphatase activity in glycogen storage disease type I (Von Gierke's disease)

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Hawkins, R.A.; Philippart, M.

    1981-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type I (GSD-I) is characterized by a functional deficit in glucose-6-phosphatase that normally hydrolyzes glucose-6-PO/sub 4/ to glucose. This enzyme is primarily found in liver, kidney, and muscle but it is also present in brain, where it appears to participate in the regulation of cerebral tissue glucose. Since most neurological symptoms in GSD-I patients involve systemic hypoglycemia, previous reports have not examined possible deficiencies in phosphatase activity in the brain. Positron computed tomography, F-18-labeled 2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and a tracer kinetic model for FDG were used to measure the cortical plasma/tissue forward and reverse transport, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation rate constants, tissue/plasma concentration gradient, tissue concentration turnover rate for this competitive analog of glucose, and the cortical metabolic rates for glucose. Studies were carried out in age-matched normals (N = 13) and a single GSD-I patient. The dephosphorylation rate constant in the GSD-I patient was about one tenth the normal value indicating a low level of cerebral phosphatase activity. The other measured parameters were within normal limits except for the rate of glucose phosphorylation which reflected a cortical glucose metabolic rate one half the normal value. Since glucose transport and tissue glucose concentration was normal, the reduced cortical glucose metabolism probably results from the use of alternative substrates (..beta..-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) which are consistently elevated in the plasma of GSD-I patients.

  1. Patterns of cerebral glucose utilization in depression, multiple infarct dementia, and Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.; Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    Patterns of local cerebral glucose utilization were determined in moderately to severely disabled patients with depression (n=7), multiple infarct dementia (n=6), and Alzheimer's disease (n=6), and in normal controls (n=6), using positron emission tomography with the /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose method. Average global metabolic rate was decreased 30% in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but overlap among the other groups reduced the discriminant value of this measure. In depressed patients, the cerebral metabolic pattern was normal, except for evidence of hypometabolic zone in the posterior-inferior frontal cortex which was of marginal statistical significance. In multiple infarct dementia, focal metabolic defects were scattered throughout the brain and exceeded the extent of infarction. In Alzheimer's disease, metabolism was markedly reduced in cortex, especially parietal cortex, but relatively preserved in caudate, thalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, pre and post central gyrus, and calcarine occipital cortex, a pattern duplicating the degree and location of pathological and neurochemical alterations characteristic of this disorder.

  2. Comparison of cerebral glucose metabolic rates measured with fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose labeled in the 1, 2, 3-4, and 6 positions using double label quantitative digital autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, J.L.; Ackermann, R.F.

    1988-08-01

    We compared local cerebral glucose metabolic rates (LCMRglu) that were determined with (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and (/sup 14/C)glucose labeled in the 1, 2, 3-4, and 6 positions. Double label digital autoradiography was used with published kinetic models to determine LCMRglu for FDG and glucose in the same animals. Glucose showed metabolic rate dependent underestimation of LCMRglu compared to FDG, which worsened with increasing experimental times. The least underestimation occurred with glucose labeled in the 6 position at 6 min, reaching 10% in areas of high metabolism. Labeling in the 1 position, the 2 position and the 3-4 position caused progressively worse underestimation at all times. In addition, some structures showed differences not directly related to metabolic rate, indicating regional variations in relationships between individual kinetic constants of FDG and glucose.

  3. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N.; Bunney, W.E. Jr. ); Gillin, J.C. )

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep.

  4. Effects of electroacupuncture preconditioning on jugular vein glucose level and cerebral edema in rats undergoing cerebral ischemia reperfusion that induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiuxia; Pan, Peng; Xu, Changqing; Li, Wenzhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning on the blood glucose level in jugular vein and water content in brain tissues in rats undergoing cerebral ischemia reperfusion that induced injury. Methods: 90 healthy male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: sham-operation (SH) group, cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) group and electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning plus IR group. EA group was pretreated with EA delivered to acupoints of “Baihui” (Du 20) and “Shuigou” (Du 26) 30 min before cerebral ischemia. Results: No marked difference was observed in brain water content 2 h after procedure in IR group, SH group and EA group. Compared with SH group, the brain water contents in IR group and EA group were significantly higher 6 h after reperfusion and peaked at 48 h (P < 0.01). The blood glucose levels in EA and IR groups were significantly higher than that of SH group 2 h after reperfusion, which peaked at 6 h and tended to decline up to 24 h after reperfusion (P < 0.01). 2 h, 6 h, and 24 h after reperfusion, EA group had significantly lower blood glucose levels than IR group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Electroacupuncture preconditioning can significantly inhibit the augmentation of the blood glucose level and attenuate cerebral edema induced by reperfusion, which leads to alleviation of injury caused by ischemia reperfusion. PMID:25550958

  5. Controlled glucose consumption in yeast using a transistor-like device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Jiapeng; Yau, Siu-Tung

    2014-06-01

    From the point of view of systems biology, insight into controlling the functioning of biological systems is conducive to the understanding of their complexness. The development of novel devices, instrumentation and approaches facilitates this endeavor. Here, we show a transistor-like device that can be used to control the kinetics of the consumption of glucose at a yeast-immobilised electrode. The gating voltage of the device applied at an insulated gating electrode was used to control both the rate of glucose consumption and the rate of the production of ATP and ethanol, the end-products of normal glucose metabolism. Further, a correlation between the glucose consumption and the production of ethanol controlled by the gating voltage was observed using two different forms of the device. The results suggest the relevance of glucose metabolism in our work and demonstrate the electrostatic nature of the device. An attempt to explain the effect of the gating voltage on the kinetics is made in terms of transfer of electrons from NADH to enzymes in the electron transport chain. This novel technique is applicable to general cells and the reported results show a possible role for electrostatic means in controlling processes in cells.

  6. Effects of oxotremorine on local glucose utilization in the rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, M.; Wamsley, J.K.; Rapoport, S.I.; London, E.D.

    1982-08-01

    The (/sup 14/C)2-deoxy-D-glucose technique was used to examine the effects of central muscarinic stimulation on local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) in the cerebral cortex of the unanesthetized rat. Systemic administration of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (OXO, 0.1 to 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) increased LCGU in the neocortex, mesocortex, and paleocortex. In the neocortex, OXO was more potent in elevating LCGU of the auditory, frontal, and sensorimotor regions compared with the visual cortex. Within these neocortical regions, OXO effects were greatest in cortical layers IV and V. OXO effects were more dramatic in the neocortex than in the meso- or paleocortex, and no significant effect occurred in the perirhinal and pyriform cortices. OXO-induced LCGU increases were not influenced by methylatropine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) but were antagonized completely by scopolamine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Scopolamine reduced LCGU in layer IV of the auditory cortex and in the retrosplenial cortex. The distribution and magnitude of the cortical LCGU response to OXO apparently were related to the distributions of cholinergic neurochemical markers, especially high affinity muscarinic binding sites.

  7. Determination of patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Hurtig, H.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Kushner, M.; Silver, F.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRGlc) were measured using 18F-FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age=64), 9 elderly controls (age=61), and 9 young controls (age=28). PET studies were performed without sensory stimulation or deprivation. Metabolic rates in individual brain regions were determined using an atlas overlay. Relative metabolic rates (rCMRGl c/global CMRGlc) were determined for all subjects. Comparison of young and elderly controls demonstrated significant decreases in frontal metabolism (rho<0.005) and right inferior parietal (IP) metabolism (rho<0.02) with normal aging. Patients with mild-moderate AD (NMAD) (n=8) when compared to age-matched controls, showed further reduction in right IP metabolism (rho<0.02). SAD patients also demonstrated metabolic decrements in left hemisphere language areas (rho<0.01). This latter finding is consistent with language disturbance observed late in the course of the disease. Out data reveal progressive changes in patterns of cerebral glucose utilization with aging and demential with reflect salient clinical features of these processes.

  8. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Andrew A.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A.; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations. PMID:26435060

  9. Metabolic, enzymatic and gene involvement in cerebral glucose dysmetabolism after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Amorini, Angela Maria; Lazzarino, Giacomo; Di Pietro, Valentina; Signoretti, Stefano; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Belli, Antonio; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the metabolic, enzymatic and gene changes causing cerebral glucose dysmetabolism following graded diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) were evaluated. TBI was induced in rats by dropping 450g from 1 (mild TBI; mTBI) or 2m height (severe TBI; sTBI). After 6, 12, 24, 48, and 120h gene expressions and enzymatic activities of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzymes, and levels of lactate, ATP, ADP, ATP/ADP (indexing mitochondrial phosphorylating capacity), NADP(+), NADPH and GSH were determined in whole brain extracts (n=9 rats at each time for both TBI levels). Sham-operated animals (n=9) were used as controls. Results demonstrated that mTBI caused a late increase (48-120h post injury) of glycolytic gene expression and enzymatic activities, concomitantly with mitochondrial functional recovery (ATP and ATP/ADP normalization). No changes in lactate and PPP genes and enzymes, were accompanied by transient decrease in GSH, NADP(+), NADPH and NADPH/NADP(+). Animals following sTBI showed early increase (6-24h post injury) of glycolytic gene expression and enzymatic activities, occurring during mitochondrial malfunctioning (50% decrease in ATP and ATP/ADP). Higher lactate and lower GSH, NADP(+), NADPH, NADPH/NADP(+) than controls were recorded at anytime post injury (p<0.01). Both TBI levels caused metabolic and gene changes affecting glucose metabolism. Following mTBI, increased glucose flux through glycolysis is coupled to mitochondrial glucose oxidation. "True" hyperglycolysis occurs only after sTBI, where metabolic changes, caused by depressed mitochondrial phosphorylating capacity, act on genes causing net glycolytic flux increase uncoupled from mitochondrial glucose oxidation. PMID:26844378

  10. Chronic levodopa treatment alters basal and dopamine agonist-stimulated cerebral glucose utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Engber, T.M.; Susel, Z.; Kuo, S.; Chase, T.N. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of chronic levodopa administration on the functional activity of the basal ganglia and its output regions was evaluated by means of the 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiographic technique in rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway. The rates of local cerebral glucose utilization were studied under basal conditions as well as in response to challenge with a selective D1 or D2 dopamine-receptor agonist. Levodopa (100 mg/kg/d, i.p.) was administered for 19 d either continuously via infusion with an osmotic pump or intermittently by twice-daily injections. Following a 3-d washout, glucose utilization was found to be decreased by both levodopa regimens in the nucleus accumbens; intermittent levodopa also decreased glucose utilization in the entopeduncular nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, ventrolateral thalamus, ventromedial thalamus, ventroposterolateral thalamus, and lateral habenula. In control (lesioned and treated chronically with saline) rats, the D1 agonist SKF 38393 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) increased 2-DG uptake in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and entopeduncular nucleus ipsilateral to the lesion by 84% and 56%, respectively. Both continuous and intermittent levodopa blunted the SKF 38393-induced elevation in glucose metabolism in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, while intermittent levodopa also attenuated the increase in the entopeduncular nucleus. The D2 agonist quinpirole (0.4 mg/kg, i.v.) did not increase glucose utilization in any brain region in control animals; following intermittent levodopa treatment, however, quinpirole increased 2-DG uptake by 64% in the subthalamic nucleus and by 39% in the deep layers of the superior colliculus on the ipsilateral side.

  11. Effect of moderate level x-radiation to brain on cerebral glucose utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, M.; Patronas, N.J.; Di Chiro, G.; Mansi, L.; Kennedy, C.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of x-radiation in doses used in treatment of brain malignancies has previously been established largely by histologic examination of the tissue or by observation of a deficit in function. At moderate dose levels such effects are usually delayed and are vascular in origin. We have used the 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method for the quantitative measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization to learn whether x-radiation administered to rat brain in a dose below that which is known to result in any histologic change may nevertheless affect the brain's local rates of glucose utilization. Measurements were made 4 days and 4 weeks after exposure of groups of rats to 1500 rad. Rates of glucose utilization in 54 gray and eight white matter structures in both groups were compared with rates in sham-irradiated controls. Statistically significantly lower rates were found in 16 structures in rats 4 days after radiation and in 25 structures 4 weeks after radiation exposure. A weighted average rate for the brain as a whole was approximately 15% below that of the controls for both radiated groups, but this difference was short of being of statistical significance. It is clear from this study that the metabolic rates of some brain structures are reduced following moderate doses of x-radiation.

  12. Local cerebral glucose utilization in monkeys with hemiparkinsonism induced by intracarotid infusion of the neurotoxin MPTP.

    PubMed

    Palombo, E; Porrino, L J; Bankiewicz, K S; Crane, A M; Sokoloff, L; Kopin, I J

    1990-03-01

    Quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to map the pattern of alterations in local cerebral glucose utilization associated with unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta produced by the infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) into one internal carotid artery of rhesus monkeys. These monkeys become hemiparkinsonian, displaying rigidity, bradykinesia, and tremor of the limbs contralateral to the side of MPTP infusion; during spontaneous activity they turn toward the side of the lesion. Eighty-two brain areas were examined, and statistically significant metabolic changes were confined mainly to basal ganglia structures ipsilateral to the side of the lesion. Glucose utilization was reduced in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area, i.e., in the areas of cell loss. Increases in glucose utilization in regions normally innervated by the lesioned area were observed in the post-commissural portions of the putamen and dorsolateral caudate. Other structures showing statistically significant metabolic changes were the external segment of the globus pallidus (+40%), subthalamic nucleus (-17%), and pedunculopontine nucleus (+15%). There were also smaller changes in portions of the thalamus (ventral anterior nucleus, parafascicular nucleus) and premotor cortex. All significant metabolic changes were confined to the side of the substantia nigra lesion and were essentially restricted to regions involved in the production of movement or maintenance of posture. PMID:2319306

  13. Metabolic responses to prolonged consumption of glucose- and fructose-sweetened beverages are not associated with postprandial or 24-hour glucose and insulin excursions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that the adverse metabolic effects of chronic consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages which contain both glucose and fructose are a consequence of increased circulating glucose and insulin excursions, i.e dietary glycemic index (GI). Objective: We determined if the greater adv...

  14. Effects of MK-801 upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane

    SciTech Connect

    Kurumaji, A.; McCulloch, J. )

    1989-12-01

    The effects of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg i.v.), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, upon local cerebral glucose utilization were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane in nitrous oxide by means of the quantitative autoradiographic (14C)-2-deoxyglucose technique. In the conscious rats, MK-801 produced a heterogenous pattern of altered cerebral glucose utilization with significant increases being observed in 12 of the 28 regions of gray matter examined and significant decreases in 6 of the 28 regions. Pronounced increases in glucose use were observed after MK-801 in the olfactory areas and in a number of brain areas in the limbic system (e.g., hippocampus molecular layer, dentate gyrus, subicular complex, posterior cingulate cortex, and mammillary body). In the cerebral cortices, large reductions in glucose use were observed after administration of MK-801, whereas in the extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas, glucose use remained unchanged after MK-801 administration in conscious rats. In the halothane-anaesthetised rats, the pattern of altered glucose use after MK-801 differed qualitatively and quantitatively from that observed in conscious rats. In anaesthetised rats, significant reductions in glucose use were noted after MK-801 in 10 of the 28 regions examined, with no area displaying significantly increased glucose use after administration of the drug. In halothane-anaesthetised rats, MK-801 failed to change the rates of glucose use in the olfactory areas, the hippocampus molecular layer, and the dentate gyrus.

  15. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain capillary permeability following high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy: a positron emission tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, P.C.; Dhawan, V.; Strother, S.C.; Sidtis, J.J.; Evans, A.C.; Allen, J.C.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Regional glucose metabolic rate constants and blood-to-brain transport of rubidium were estimated using positron emission tomography in an adolescent patient with a brain tumor, before and after chemotherapy with intravenous high-dose methotrexate. Widespread depression of cerebral glucose metabolism was apparent 24 hours after drug administration, which may reflect reduced glucose phosphorylation, and the influx rate constant for /sup 82/Rb was increased, indicating a drug-induced alteration in blood-brain barrier function. Associated changes in neuropsychological performance, electroencephalogram, and plasma amino acid concentration were identified in the absence of evidence of systemic methotrexate toxicity, suggesting primary methotrexate neurotoxicity.

  16. Stability of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal brain measured by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, J.L.; Strother, S.C.; Zatorre, R.J.; Alivisatos, B.; Worsley, K.J.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.

    1988-05-01

    Cerebral glucose utilization (LCMRGI) was measured using the (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose method with PET in two groups of ten healthy young volunteers, each scanned in a resting state under different methodological conditions. In addition, five subjects had a second scan within 48 hr. Mean hemispheric values averaged 45.8 +/- 3.3 mumol/100 g/min in the right cerebral hemisphere and 47.0 +/- 3.7 mumol/100 g/min in the left hemisphere. A four-way analysis of variance (group, sex, region, hemisphere) was carried out on the results using three different methods of data manipulation: (a) the raw values of glucose utilization, (b) LCMRGI values normalized by the mean hemispheric gray matter LCMRGI value, and (c) log transformed LCMRGI values. For all analysis techniques, significantly higher LCMRGI values were consistently seen in the left mid and posterior temporal area and caudate nucleus relative to the right, and in the right occipital region relative to the left. The coefficient of variation of intrasubject regional differences (9.9%) was significantly smaller than the coefficient of variation for regions between subjects (16.5%). No differences were noted between the sexes and no effect of repeat procedures was seen in subjects having multiple scans. In addition, inter-regional LCMRGI correlations were examined both in values from the 20 normal subjects, as well as in a set of hypothetical abnormal values. Results were compared with those reported from other PET centers; despite certain methodological differences, the intersubject and inter-regional variation of LCMRGI is fairly constant.

  17. Cerebral Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism Measured With Positron Emission Tomography Are Decreased in Human Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    van Golen, Larissa W.; Huisman, Marc C.; Ijzerman, Richard G.; Hoetjes, Nikie J.; Schwarte, Lothar A.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Diamant, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical systemic microvascular dysfunction exists in asymptomatic patients with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that microangiopathy, resulting from long-standing systemic hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, may be generalized to the brain, resulting in changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in these patients. We performed dynamic [15O]H2O and [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose brain positron emission tomography scans to measure CBF and cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu), respectively, in 30 type 1 diabetic patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls after an overnight fast. Regions of interest were automatically delineated on coregistered magnetic resonance images and full kinetic analysis was performed. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were higher in patients versus controls. Total gray matter CBF was 9%, whereas CMRglu was 21% lower in type 1 diabetic subjects versus control subjects. We conclude that at real-life fasting glucose and insulin levels, type 1 diabetes is associated with decreased resting cerebral glucose metabolism, which is only partially explained by the decreased CBF. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than generalized microangiopathy account for the altered CMRglu observed in well-controlled type 1 diabetes. PMID:23530004

  18. A venous outflow method for measurement of rapid changes of the cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, B; Siesjö, B K

    1983-01-01

    A technique for continuous measurement of cerebral venous outflow in the rat is described. The method involves cannulation of one retroglenoid vein close to its exit from the skull, and diversion of cerebral venous blood through a closed extracorporal circuit with a drop recording device, the blood being returned to the central venous circulation via a catheter in the external jugular vein. Occlusion of the contralateral retroglenoid vein increases measured flow and minimizes extracerebral contamination of the diverted cerebral venous blood. The venous outflow system is not further isolated from cerebral or potential extracerebral collaterals. Thus, the mass of tissue drained cannot be exactly defined anatomically. However, the experiments involving changes of PP, arterial CO2 tension, and induction of epileptic seizure activity, and simultaneous indirect measurements with radioactive tracer technique, indicate that significant extracerebral contamination does not occur and that in short term measurements the venous outflow represents cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a constant mass of (dorsal and central, mainly forebrain) cerebral tissue. Measurement of arterial blood pressure and pressure in the cisterna magna allows calculation of cerebral perfusion pressure (PP). By simultaneous measurement of arterial and cerebral venous oxygen content changes in cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) can be calculated. The method has been applied to document several situations of transient CBF and CMRO2 changes. PMID:6658967

  19. Fish oil consumption prevents glucose intolerance and hypercorticosteronemy in footshock-stressed rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Environmental stress plays an important role in the development of glucose intolerance influencing lipid and glucose metabolism through sympathetic nervous system, cytokines and hormones such as glucocorticoids, catecholamines and glucagon. Otherwise, fish oil prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Although the mechanisms involved are not fully understood, it is known that sympathetic and HPA responses are blunted and catecholamines and glucocorticoids concentrations can be modulated by fish consumption. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fish oil, on a normal lipidic diet: 1) could prevent the effect of footshock-stress on the development of glucose intolerance; 2) modified adiponectin receptor and serum concentration; and 3) also modified TNF-α, IL-6 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in adipose tissue and liver. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into four groups: no stressed (C) and stressed (CS) rats fed with control diet, and no stressed (F) and stressed (FS) rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. The stress was performed as a three daily footshock stress sessions. Results Body weight, carcass fat and protein content were not different among groups. FS presented a reduction on the relative weight of RET. Basal serum glucose levels were higher in CS and FS but 15 min after glucose load just CS remained with higher levels than other groups. Serum corticosterone concentration was increased in CS, this effect was inhibited in FS. However, 15 min after footshock-stress, corticosterone levels were similar among groups. IL-6 was increased in EPI of CS but fish oil consumption prevented IL-6 increase in FS. Similar levels of TNF-α and IL-10 in RET, EPI, and liver were observed among groups. Adipo R1 protein concentration was not different among groups. Footshock-stress did not modify AdipoR2 concentration, but fish oil diet increases AdipoR2 protein concentration. Conclusions Footshock

  20. Somatosensory evoked changes in cerebral oxygen consumption measured non-invasively in premature neonates

    PubMed Central

    Roche-Labarbe, Nadege; Fenoglio, Angela; Radakrishnan, Harsha; Kocienski-Filip, Marcia; Carp, Stefan A.; Dubb, Jay; Boas, David A.; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2013-01-01

    The hemodynamic functional response is used as a reliable marker of neuronal activity in countless studies of brain function and cognition. In newborns and infants, however, conflicting results have appeared in the literature concerning the typical response, and there is little information on brain metabolism and functional activation. Measurement of all hemodynamic components and oxygen metabolism is critical for understanding neurovascular coupling in the developing brain. To this end, we combined multiple near infrared spectroscopy techniques to measure oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and relative cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the somatosensory cortex of 6 preterm neonates during passive tactile stimulation of the hand. By combining these measures we estimated relative changes in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (rCMRO2). CBF starts increasing immediately after stimulus onset, and returns to baseline before blood volume. This is consistent with the model of pre-capillary arteriole active dilation driving the CBF response, with a subsequent CBV increase influenced by capillaries and veins dilating passively to accommodate the extra blood. rCMRO2 estimated using the steady-state formulation shows a biphasic pattern: an increase immediately after stimulus onset, followed by a post-stimulus undershoot due to blood flow returning faster to baseline than oxygenation. However, assuming a longer mean transit time from the arterial to the venous compartment, due to the immature vascular system of premature infants, reduces the post-stimulus undershoot and increases the flow/consumption ratio to values closer to adult values reported in the literature. We are the first to report changes in local rCBF and rCMRO2 during functional activation in preterm infants. The ability to measure these variables in addition to hemoglobin concentration changes is critical for understanding neurovascular coupling in the developing

  1. Impacts of small arteriovenous malformations (AVM) on regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.S.; Yeh, S.H.; Chu, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of small AVMs (<3 cm) on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and on the glucose metabolism (rCGlcM) by [F-18]-FDG PET. Seven AVM patients (pts) were studied. All AVMs were confirmed by cerebral angiography and CT/MR scans. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and [F-18]-PDG PET images were interpreted visually to detect the changes of rCBF and rCGlcM. All pts except one brain stem AVM had defects in the regions of nidi on HMPAO and FDG images. FDG PET disclosed low rCGlcM in surrounding areas of AVMs in 6 pts, while HMPAO SPECT detected only 4 cases. One AVM had increased rCBF surrounding the nidus despite of decreased rCGlcM in the same region. Five pts had abnormal rCGlcM over ipsilateral remote cortex but only one had corresponding abnormal rCBF. Contralateral cortical hypofunction was noted in 3 pts by FDG PET but none by HMPAO SPECT. Cross cerebellar diaschisis was found in 2 AVMs by FDG PET and only one by HMPAO SPECT. All regions with abnormal HMPAO uptake did not look as discernibly as seen on the FDG PET scan. CT/MR scans detected the nidi of AVMs of all pts and old hemorrhage in one pt. In conclusion, either HMPAO SPECT or FDG PET is sensitive to detect the functional abnormalities in the region of nidus of small AVM and the surrounding brain tissue. FDG PET is better than HMPAO SPECT to detect functional changes in the remote cortex and diaschisis.

  2. Interruptin B induces brown adipocyte differentiation and glucose consumption in adipose-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    KAEWSUWAN, SIREEWAN; PLUBRUKARN, ANUCHIT; UTSINTONG, MALEERUK; KIM, SEOK-HO; JEONG, JIN-HYUN; CHO, JIN GU; PARK, SANG GYU; SUNG, JONG-HYUK

    2016-01-01

    Interruptin B has been isolated from Cyclosorus terminans, however, its pharamcological effect has not been fully identified. In the present study, the effects of interruptin B, from C. terminans, on brown adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were investigated. The results revealed that interruptin B dose-dependently enhanced the adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, with an induction in the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ. In addition, interruptin B efficiently increased the number and the membrane potential of mitochondria and upregulated the mRNA expression levels of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, which are all predominantly expressed in brown adipocytes. Interruptin B increased glucose consumption in differentiated ASCs, accompanied by the upregulation in the mRNA expression levels of glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and GLUT-4. The computational analysis of molecular docking, a luciferase reporter assay and surface plasmon resonance confirmed the marked binding affinity of interruptin B to PPAR-α and PPAR-γ (KD values of 5.32 and 0.10 µM, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report to show the stimulatory effects of interruptin B on brown adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in ASCs, through its role as a dual PPAR-α and PPAR-γ ligand. Therefore, interruptin B could be further developed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:26781331

  3. In vivo dynamic turnover of cerebral 13C isotopomers from [U- 13C]glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Su; Shen, Jun

    2006-10-01

    An INEPT-based 13C MRS method and a cost-effective and widely available 11.7 Tesla 89-mm bore vertical magnet were used to detect dynamic 13C isotopomer turnover from intravenously infused [U- 13C]glucose in a 211 μL voxel located in the adult rat brain. The INEPT-based 1H → 13C polarization transfer method is mostly adiabatic and therefore minimizes signal loss due to B 1 inhomogeneity of the surface coils used. High quality and reproducible data were acquired as a result of combined use of outer volume suppression, ISIS, and the single-shot three-dimensional localization scheme built in the INEPT pulse sequence. Isotopomer patterns of both glutamate C4 at 34.00 ppm and glutamine C4 at 31.38 ppm are dominated first by a doublet originated from labeling at C4 and C5 but not at C3 (with 1JC4C5 = 51 Hz) and then by a quartet originated from labeling at C3, C4, and C5 (with 1JC3C4 = 35 Hz). A lag in the transition of glutamine C4 pattern from doublet-dominance to quartet dominance as compared to glutamate C4 was observed, which provides an independent verification of the precursor-product relationship between neuronal glutamate and glial glutamine and a significant intercompartmental cerebral glutamate-glutamine cycle between neurons and glial cells.

  4. Early life stress affects cerebral glucose metabolism in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Parr, Lisa A; Boudreau, Matthew; Hecht, Erin; Winslow, James T; Nemeroff, Charles B; Sánchez, Mar M

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for anxiety, mood disorders and alterations in stress responses. Less is known about the long-term neurobiological impact of ELS. We used [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) to assess neural responses to a moderate stress test in adult monkeys that experienced ELS as infants. Both groups of monkeys showed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-induced activations and cardiac arousal in response to the stressor. A whole brain analysis detected significantly greater regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in superior temporal sulcus, putamen, thalamus, and inferotemporal cortex of ELS animals compared to controls. Region of interest (ROI) analyses performed in areas identified as vulnerable to ELS showed greater activity in the orbitofrontal cortex of ELS compared to control monkeys, but greater hippocampal activity in the control compared to ELS monkeys. Together, these results suggest hyperactivity in emotional and sensory processing regions of adult monkeys with ELS, and greater activity in stress-regulatory areas in the controls. Despite these neural responses, no group differences were detected in neuroendocrine, autonomic or behavioral responses, except for a trend towards increased stillness in the ELS monkeys. Together, these data suggest hypervigilance in the ELS monkeys in the absence of immediate danger. PMID:22682736

  5. Cerebral glucose metabolic patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Effect of gender and age at dementia onset

    SciTech Connect

    Small, G.W.; Kuhl, D.E.; Riege, W.H.; Fujikawa, D.G.; Ashford, J.W.; Metter, E.J.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1989-06-01

    No previous study of Alzheimer's disease has, to our knowledge, assessed the effect of both age at dementia onset and gender on cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (fludeoxyglucose F 18 method) to study 24 patients with clinical diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease. Comparisons of the 13 patients with early-onset dementia (less than 65 years of age) with the 11 patients with late-onset dementia (greater than 65 years of age) revealed significantly lower left parietal metabolic ratios (left posterior parietal region divided by the hemispheric average) in the early-onset group. The metabolic ratio of posterior parietal cortex divided by the relatively disease-stable average of caudate and thalamus also separated patients with early-onset dementia from those with late-onset dementia, but not men from women. Further comparisons between sexes showed that, in all brain regions studied, the 9 postmenopausal women had higher nonweighted mean metabolic rates than the 15 men from the same age group, with hemispheric sex differences of 9% on the right and 7% on the left. These results demonstrate decreased parietal ratios in early-onset dementia of Alzheimer's disease, independent of a gender effect.

  6. Cerebral metabolic rate of glucose computed by Bayes regression of deoxyglucose PET scans

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.D.; Links, J.M.; Huang, S.C.; Douglass, K.H.; Wong, D.F.; Frost, J.J.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (LCMRG) is currently measured using a PET scan of deoxyglucose at 40-60 min postinjection and computed using assumed mean normal rate constants. While the method is accurate in normal tissue, another study showed that for ischemic regions the use of mean normal rate constants underestimated LCMRG by 50%. The authors used computer simulation to study the use of Bayes Regression, a useful method for combining prior information with patient data to estimate the patient's LCMRG. Prior information (means and variances of rate constants in the population) is combined with the patient's data with weighting factors determined by the variances of the rate constants in the population and the noise in the data. The authors simulated noisy data from both a normal and an ischemic population. Each simulation was based on different randomly-selected rate constants from the parent population. They compared the current method with Bayes Regression in each of 100 simulated experiments in each of 3 cases: (1) normal patient, normal prior; (2) ischemic patient, ischemic prior; (3) ischemic patient, normal prior. In patients with ischemic, Bayes Regression appears to provide truer estimates of LCMRG.

  7. High consumption of pulses is associated with lower risk of abnormal glucose metabolism in women in Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, M.; Söderberg, S.; Uusitalo, U.; Tuomilehto, J.; Shaw, J. E.; Zimmet, P. Z.; Kowlessur, S.; Pauvaday, V.; Magliano, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate if consumption of pulses was associated with a reduced risk of developing abnormal glucose metabolism, increases in body weight and increases in waist circumference in a multi-ethnic cohort in Mauritius. Methods Population-based surveys were performed in Mauritius in 1992 and in 1998. Pulse consumption was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire in 1992 and outcomes were measured in 1998. At both time points, anthropometry was undertaken and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Results Mauritian women with the highest consumption of pulses (highest tertile) had a reduced risk of developing abnormal glucose metabolism [odds ratio 0.52; 95% CI 0.27, 0.99) compared with those with the lowest consumption, and also after multivariable adjustments. In women, a high consumption of pulses was associated with a smaller increase in BMI. Conclusions High consumption of pulses was associated with a reduced risk of abnormal glucose metabolism and a smaller increase in BMI in Mauritian women. Promotion of pulse consumption could be an important dietary intervention for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes and obesity in Mauritius and should be examined in other populations and in clinical trials. PMID:25346062

  8. Schisandra polysaccharide increased glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dun; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Wei-Wei; Mao, Guang-Hua; Zou, Ye; Wang, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Yao; Wang, Xin-Tong; Yang, Liu-Qing; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2016-06-01

    In our previous study, a polysaccharide was extracted from Schisandra Chinensis (Trucz.) Baill and found with anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of the low weight molecular polysaccharide (SCPP11) purified from crude Schisandra polysaccharide and illustrate the underlying mechanism in buffalo rat liver cells. The insulin resistance model of BRL cells was established by incubating with insulin solution for 24h. The effects of SCPP11 on regulating related protein and mRNA expression in an insulin and AMPK signal pathway were investigated by western blot and RT-PCR analysis. SCPP11 showed no cytotoxicity to BRL cells and could improve the glucose consumption in BRL cells. SCPP11 increased the protein expression of Akt, p-AMPK and GLUT-4 in BRL cells. Moreover, SCPP11 could enhance the mRNA expression levels of IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, GLUT-4, AMPKα and PPAR-γ in BRL cells at the same time. In conclusion, SCPP11 possessed effects in improving glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4 which might occur via insulin and AMPK signal pathway and could be a potential functional food to prevent and mitigate the insulin resistance condition. PMID:26993529

  9. Brazilein inhibits neuronal inflammation induced by cerebral ischemia and oxygen-glucose deprivation through targeting NOD2 expression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Jin; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Yuan, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Xin-Pei; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Lei, Fan; Xing, Dong-Ming; DU, Li-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Brazilein is reported to have immunosuppressive effect on cardiovascular and cerebral-vascular diseases. The essential roles of innate immunity in cerebral ischemia are increasingly identified, but no studies concerning the influence of brazilein on the innate immunity receptors have been reported. The present study was designed to investigate the regulation of NOD2 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2) by brazilein for its protection of neuron in cerebral ischemia in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro. The results showed that brazilein could reverse the elevated expression of NOD2 and TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) elicited by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. This reduction could also be detected in normal mice and C17.2 cells, indicating that this suppressive effect of brazilein was correlated with NOD2. The results from GFP reporter plasmid assay suggested brazilein inhibited NOD2 gene transcription. In conclusion, brazilein could attenuate NOD2 and TNFα expression in cerebral ischemia and NOD2 may be one possible target of brazilein for its immune suppressive effect in neuro-inflammation. PMID:27478098

  10. Interruptin B induces brown adipocyte differentiation and glucose consumption in adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kaewsuwan, Sireewan; Plubrukarn, Anuchit; Utsintong, Maleeruk; Kim, Seok-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Cho, Jin Gu; Park, Sang Gyu; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    Interruptin B has been isolated from Cyclosorus terminans, however, its pharamcological effect has not been fully identified. In the present study, the effects of interruptin B, from C. terminans, on brown adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in adipose‑derived stem cells (ASCs) were investigated. The results revealed that interruptin B dose‑dependently enhanced the adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, with an induction in the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)‑α and PPAR‑γ. In addition, interruptin B efficiently increased the number and the membrane potential of mitochondria and upregulated the mRNA expression levels of uncoupling protein (UCP)‑1 and cyclooxygenase (COX)‑2, which are all predominantly expressed in brown adipocytes. Interruptin B increased glucose consumption in differentiated ASCs, accompanied by the upregulation in the mRNA expression levels of glucose transporter (GLUT)‑1 and GLUT‑4. The computational analysis of molecular docking, a luciferase reporter assay and surface plasmon resonance confirmed the marked binding affinity of interruptin B to PPAR‑α and PPAR‑γ (KD values of 5.32 and 0.10 µm, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report to show the stimulatory effects of interruptin B on brown adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in ASCs, through its role as a dual PPAR‑α and PPAR‑γ ligand. Therefore, interruptin B could be further developed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:26781331

  11. Michaelis-Menten constraints improved cerebral glucose metabolism and regional lumped constant measurements with ( sup 18 F)fluorodeoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, H.; Evans, A.C.; Gjedde, A. )

    1990-03-01

    In the three-compartment model of transfer of native glucose and (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) into brain, both transport across the blood-brain barrier and phosphorylation by hexokinase can be described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. This permits the use of fixed transport (tau = K*1/K1) and phosphorylation (psi = k*3/k3) ratios and a common partition volume (Ve = K1/k2) for tracer and glucose. By substituting transfer constants of FDG for those of glucose, using tau and psi, the lumped constant was determined directly by positron tomography. The same constraints also eliminated k*2 and k*3 from the model, thus limiting the parameters to K* (equivalent to K*1k*3/(k*2 + k*3)), K*1, and the cerebral vascular volume (Vo). In six healthy elderly men (aged 61 +/- 5 years), time-activity records of cerebral cortical regions were analyzed with tau = 1.1 and psi = 0.3. The results were compared with those of the conventional FDG method. At 20 min, the goodness of fit by the new equation was as good as that of the conventional method at 45 min. The estimates obtained by the constrained method had stable coefficients of variation. After 20 min, regional differences between the estimates were independent of time, although we observed steady decreases of K* and (k*3). The decrease strongly suggested dephosphorylation of FDG-6-phosphate, particularly after 20 min. All estimates of variables with the constrained method were more accurate than those of the conventional method, including the cerebral glucose metabolic rate itself, as well as physiologically more meaningful, particularly with respect to k*2 and k*3.

  12. Low Cerebral Glucose Metabolism: A Potential Predictor for the Severity of Vascular Parkinsonism and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunqi; Wei, Xiaobo; Liu, Xu; Liao, Jinchi; Lin, Jiaping; Zhu, Cansheng; Meng, Xiaochun; Xie, Dongsi; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Cheng, Muhua; Tang, Beisha; Zhang, Zhuohua; Xia, Ying; Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRGlc) and the severity of Vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). A cross-sectional study was performed to compare CMRGlc in normal subjects vs. VP and PD patients. Twelve normal subjects, 22 VP, and 11 PD patients were evaluated with the H&Y and MMSE, and underwent 18F-FDG measurements. Pearson’s correlations were used to identify potential associations between the severity of VP/PD and CMRGlc. A pronounced reduction of CMRGlc in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen was detected in patients with VP and PD when compared with normal subjects. The VP patients displayed a slight CMRGlc decrease in the caudate putamen and frontal lobe in comparison with PD patients. These decreases in CMRGlc in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen were significantly correlated with the VP patients’ H&Y, UPDRS II, UPDRS III, MMSE, cardiovascular, and attention/memory scores. Similarly, significant correlations were observed in patients with PD. This is the first clinical study finding strong evidence for an association between low cerebral glucose metabolism and the severity of VP and PD. Our findings suggest that these changes in glucose metabolism in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen may underlie the pathophysiological mechanisms of VP and PD. As the scramble to find imaging biomarkers or predictors of the disease intensifies, a better understanding of the roles of cerebral glucose metabolism may give us insight into the pathogenesis of VP and PD. PMID:26618044

  13. Effects of chronic cocaine self-administration on cognition and cerebral glucose utilization in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Robert W; Gage, H. Donald; Nader, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic cocaine use is associated with neurobiological and cognitive deficits that persist into abstinence, hindering success of behavioral treatment strategies and perhaps increasing likelihood of relapse. The effects of current cocaine use and abstinence on neurobiology and cognition are not well characterized. Methods Adult male rhesus monkeys with an extensive cocaine self-administration history (~ 5 years) and age-matched controls (n=4/group) performed cognitive tasks in morning sessions and self-administered cocaine or food in afternoon sessions. Positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was employed to assess cerebral metabolic rates of glucose utilization (MRglu) during cognitive testing. Results Cocaine-experienced monkeys required significantly more trials and committed more errors on reversal learning and multi-dimensional discriminations, compared to controls. Cocaine-naive but not cocaine-experienced monkeys showed greater MRglu during a multi-dimensional discrimination task in the caudate nucleus, hippocampus, anterior and posterior cingulate, regions associated with attention, error-detection, memory, and reward. Using a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task, there were no differences in baseline working memory performance between groups. High dose cocaine self-administration disrupted DMS performance, but tolerance developed. Acute abstinence from cocaine did not affect performance but by day 30 of abstinence, accuracy increased significantly while performance of cocaine-naive monkeys was unchanged. Conclusions These data document direct effects of cocaine self-administration on cognition and neurobiological sequelae underlying cognitive deficits. Improvements in working memory can occur in abstinence, albeit across an extended period critical for treatment-seekers, suggesting pharmacotherapies designed to enhance cognition may improve success of current behavioral modification strategies. PMID:22672928

  14. Use of 2-deoxy-D(1-/sup 11/C)glucose for the determination of local cerebral glucose metabolism in humans: variation within and between subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Wolf, A.; Greenberg, J.H.; Fowler, J.; Christman, D.; MacGregor, R.; Jones, S.C.; London, J.; Shiue, C.; Yonekura, Y.

    1982-09-01

    The deoxyglucose technique for the measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (LCMRgl) has been widely applied in animals utilizing /sup 14/C-deoxyglucose and in humans employing /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Repeat studies in humans over a relatively brief period of time have not been possible because of the 110-min half-life of /sup 18/F. With the synthesis of /sup 11/C-deoxyglucose it has now become possible to utilize this short-lived (20 min) tracer for the measurement of LCMRgl and to determine its variability within subjects over a 2-h period. The kinetic rate constants for /sup 11/C-deoxyglucose were determined for gray and white matter and found to be very similar to those for /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose, suggesting that these two analogues of glucose have similar affinities for the facilitated transport system and are similar substrates for hexokinase in the brain. The coefficient of variation of repeated measurements of LCMRgl in a series of six normal subjects was 5.5% to 8.7% for various gray matter structures and 9.7% and 14.0% for white matter structures. The pattern of cerebral metabolic rates is relatively constant in a given individual when the conditions of the study are unchanged. The ability to make repeat measurements in the same subject reduces the variance due to between-subject differences, allowing smaller changes in LCMRgl to be detected with confidence.

  15. Restoration of Normal Cerebral Oxygen Consumption with Rapamycin Treatment in a Rat Model of Autism-Tuberous Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chi, Oak Z; Wu, Chang-Chih; Liu, Xia; Rah, Kang H; Jacinto, Estela; Weiss, Harvey R

    2015-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is associated with autism spectrum disorders and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction and unrestrained signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin can mitigate some of the phenotypic abnormalities associated with TSC and autism, but whether this is due to the mTOR-related function in energy metabolism remains to be elucidated. In young Eker rats, an animal model of TSC and autism, which harbors a germ line heterozygous Tsc2 mutation, we previously reported that cerebral oxygen consumption was pronouncedly elevated. Young (4 weeks) male control Long-Evans and Eker rats were divided into control and rapamycin-treated (20 mg/kg once daily for 2 days) animals. Cerebral regional blood flow ((14)C-iodoantipyrine) and O2 consumption (cryomicrospectrophotometry) were determined in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. We found significantly increased basal O2 consumption in the cortex (8.7 ± 1.5 ml O2/min/100 g Eker vs. 2.7 ± 0.2 control), hippocampus, pons and cerebellum. Regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral O2 extractions were also elevated in all brain regions. Rapamycin had no significant effect on O2 consumption in any brain region of the control rats, but significantly reduced consumption in the cortex (4.1 ± 0.3) and all other examined regions of the Eker rats. Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 was similar in the two groups and equally reduced by rapamycin. Thus, a rapamycin-sensitive, mTOR-dependent but S6K1-independent, signal led to enhanced oxidative metabolism in the Eker brain. We found decreased Akt phosphorylation in Eker but not Long-Evans rat brains, suggesting that this may be related to the increased cerebral O2 consumption in the Eker rat. Our findings suggest that rapamycin targeting of Akt to restore normal cerebral metabolism could have therapeutic potential in tuberous sclerosis and autism. PMID:26048361

  16. Restoration of Normal Cerebral Oxygen Consumption with Rapamycin Treatment in a Rat Model of Autism–Tuberous Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Oak Z.; Wu, Chang-Chih; Liu, Xia; Rah, Kang H.; Jacinto, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is associated with autism spectrum disorders and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction and unrestrained signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin can mitigate some of the phenotypic abnormalities associated with TSC and autism, but whether this is due to the mTOR-related function in energy metabolism remains to be elucidated. In young Eker rats, an animal model of TSC and autism, which harbors a germ line heterozygous Tsc2 mutation, we previously reported that cerebral oxygen consumption was pronouncedly elevated. Young (4 weeks) male control Long–Evans and Eker rats were divided into control and rapamycin-treated (20 mg/kg once daily for 2 days) animals. Cerebral regional blood flow (14C-iodoantipyrine) and O2 consumption (cryomicrospectrophotometry) were determined in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. We found significantly increased basal O2 consumption in the cortex (8.7 ± 1.5 ml O2/min/100 g Eker vs. 2.7 ± 0.2 control), hippocampus, pons and cerebellum. Regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral O2 extractions were also elevated in all brain regions. Rapamycin had no significant effect on O2 consumption in any brain region of the control rats, but significantly reduced consumption in the cortex (4.1 ± 0.3) and all other examined regions of the Eker rats. Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 was similar in the two groups and equally reduced by rapamycin. Thus, a rapamycin-sensitive, mTOR-dependent but S6K1-independent, signal led to enhanced oxidative metabolism in the Eker brain. We found decreased Akt phosphorylation in Eker but not Long–Evans rat brains, suggesting that this may be related to the increased cerebral O2 consumption in the Eker rat. Our findings suggest that rapamycin targeting of Akt to restore normal cerebral metabolism could have therapeutic potential in tuberous sclerosis and autism. PMID:26048361

  17. Mechanical work and energy consumption in children with cerebral palsy after single-event multilevel surgery.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Valeria; Hachez, Hélèn; Renders, Anne; Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Detrembleur, Chrisitine

    2014-09-01

    Multilevel surgery is commonly performed to improve walking in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Classical gait analysis (kinetics, kinematics) demonstrated positive outcomes after this intervention, however it doesn't give global indication about gait's features. The assessment of energy cost and mechanical work of locomotion can provide an overall description of walking functionality. Therefore, we propose to describe the effects of multilevel surgery in children with CP, considering energetics, mechanical work, kinetic and kinematic of walking. We measured external, internal, total work, energy cost, recovery, efficiency, kinetic and kinematic of walking in 10 children with CP (4 girls, 6 boys; 13 years ± 2) before and 1 year after multilevel surgery. Kinetic and kinematic results are partially comparable to previous findings, energy cost of walking is significantly reduced (p < 0.05); external, internal, total work, recovery, efficiency are not significantly different (p = 0.129; p = 0.147; p = 0.795; p = 0.119; p = 0.21). The improvement of the walking's energy consumption is not accompanied by a corresponding improvement of mechanical work. Therefore it is conceivable that the improvement of walking economy depend on a reduced effort of the muscle to maintain the posture, rather then to an improvement of the mechanism of energy recovery typical of human locomotion. PMID:25107323

  18. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders. Studies with positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.R. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.; Selin, C.E.; Sumida, R.M.

    1985-05-01

    Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were examined in patients with unipolar depression (N = 11), bipolar depression (N = 5), mania (N = 5), bipolar mixed states (N = 3), and in normal controls (N = 9) using positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18. All subjects were studied supine under ambient room conditions with eyes open. Bipolar depressed and mixed patients had supratentorial whole brain glucose metabolic rates that were significantly lower than those of the other comparison groups. The whole brain metabolic rates for patients with bipolar depression increased going from depression or a mixed state to a euthymic or manic state. Patients with unipolar depression showed a significantly lower ratio of the metabolic rate of the caudate nucleus, divided by that of the hemisphere as a whole, when compared with normal controls and patients with bipolar depression.

  19. Triheptanoin for glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D): Modulation of human ictogenesis, cerebral metabolic rate and cognitive indices by a food supplement

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Juan M.; Liu, Peiying; Mao, Deng; Kelly, Dorothy; Hernandez, Ana; Sheng, Min; Good, Levi B.; Ma, Qian; Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Zhang, Xuchen; Park, Jason Y.; Hynan, Linda S.; Stavinoha, Peter; Roe, Charles R.; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective G1D is commonly associated with electrographic spike-wave and - less-noticeably – with absence seizures. The G1D syndrome has long been attributed to energy (i.e., ATP-synthetic) failure, as have experimental, toxic-rodent epilepsies to impaired brain metabolism and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate depletion. Indeed, a (seldom-acknowledged) function of glucose and other substrates is the generation of brain TCAs via carbon-donor reactions collectively named anaplerosis. However, TCAs are preserved in murine G1D. This renders inferences about energy failure premature and suggests a different hypothesis, also grounded on our findings, that consumption of alternate TCA precursors is stimulated, potentially detracting from other functions. Second, common ketogenic diets can ameliorate G1D seizures, but lead to a therapeutically-counterintuitive reduction in blood glucose available to the brain, and they can prove ineffective in 1/3 of cases. While developing G1D treatments, all of this motivated us to: a) uphold (rather than attenuate) the residual brain glucose flux that all G1D patients possess; and b) stimulate the TCA cycle, including anaplerosis. Therefore, we tested the medium-chain triglyceride triheptanoin, a widely-used medical food supplement that can fulfill both of these metabolic roles. The rationale is that ketone bodies derived from ketogenic diets are not anaplerotic, in contrast with triheptanoin metabolites, as we have shown in the G1D mouse brain. Design We supplemented the regular diet of a case series of G1D patients with food-grade triheptanoin. First we confirmed that, despite their frequent electroencephalographic (EEG) presence as spike-waves, most seizures are rarely visible, such that perceptions by patients or others are inadequate for treatment evaluation. Thus, we used EEG, quantitative neuropsychological, blood analytical, and MRI cerebral metabolic rate measurements as main outcomes. Setting Academic and

  20. Resting cerebral glucose metabolism and perfusion patterns in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Young; Chung, Young-Ki; Kim, Bom Sahn; Lee, Su Jin; Yoon, Joon-Kee; An, Young-Sil

    2012-03-31

    In the literature, numerous trials using neuroimaging techniques have investigated brain function in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the contrasting results showed that improvements, including in the study design, were required to reach consistent and convincing conclusions. This study evaluated the functional neuroimaging pattern of resting cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in patients with PTSD related to sexual assault. Twelve patients were enrolled for both brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) investigations. All data were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping 2 (SPM2). The PTSD patients showed significant relative decreases in perfusion in the left hippocampus and in the basal ganglia compared with the control group. The PTSD group also had significantly lower cerebral glucosemetabolic activity in the left hippocampus and the superior temporal and precentral gyri than in the control group. These specific patterns of perfusion and glucose metabolism may be closely related to various neurophysiologic symptoms of PTSD. PMID:22464826

  1. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in the rat: cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism during the late phase of cerebral vasospasm

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, T.J.; Arbab, M.A.; Diemer, N.H.; Svendgaard, N.A.

    1986-10-01

    A double-isotope technique for the simultaneous measurement of CBF and CMRglu was applied to a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model in the rat. Cisternal injection of 0.07 ml blood caused a rather uniform 20% reduction in CBF together with an increase in glucose utilization of 30% during the late phase of vasospasm. In one-third of the SAH animals, there were focal areas where the flow was lowered to 30% of the control values and the glucose uptake increased to approximately 250% of control. We suggest that blood in the subarachnoid space via a neural mechanism induces the global flow and metabolic changes, and that the foci are caused by vasospasm superimposed on the global flow and metabolic changes. In the double-isotope autoradiographic technique, (/sup 14/C)iodoantipyrine and (/sup 3/H)deoxyglucose were used for CBF and CMRglu measurements, respectively, in the same animal. In half of the sections, the (/sup 14/C)iodoantipyrine was extracted using 2,2-dimethoxypropane before the section was placed on a /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-sensitive film. The other sections were placed on x-ray film with an emulsion insensitive to /sup 3/H. The validity of the double-isotope method was tested by comparing the data with those obtained in animals receiving a single isotope. The CBF and metabolic values obtained in the two groups were similar.

  2. Multimodal Neuroprotection Induced by PACAP38 in Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation and Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke Models

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gadi; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Chen, Jieli; Zhang, Chunling; Chopp, Michael; Jiang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), a potent neuropeptide which crosses the blood–brain barrier, is known to provide neuroprotection in rat stroke models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by mechanism(s) which deserve clarification. We confirmed that following i.v. injection of 30 ng/kg of PACAP38 in rats exposed to 2 h of MCAO focal cerebral ischemia and 48 h reoxygenation, 50 % neuroprotection was measured by reduced caspase-3 activity and volume of cerebral infarction. Similar neuroprotective effects were measured upon PACAP38 treatment of oxygen–glucose deprivation and reoxygenation of brain cortical neurons. The neuroprotection was temporally associated with increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylation of its receptor—tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (trkB), activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt, and reduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 phosphorylation. PACAP38 increased expression of neuronal markers beta-tubulin III, microtubule-associated protein-2, and growth-associated protein-43. PACAP38 induced stimulation of Rac and suppression of Rho GTPase activities. PACAP38 down-regulated the nerve growth factor receptor (p75NTR) and associated Nogo-(Neurite outgrowth-A) receptor. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo results propose that PACAP exhibits neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia by three mechanisms: a direct one, mediated by PACAP receptors, and two indirect, induced by neurotrophin release, activation of the trkB receptors and attenuation of neuronal growth inhibitory signaling molecules p75NTR and Nogo receptor. PMID:22678884

  3. Direct neuronal glucose uptake heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu; Kang, Hongyi; Sanggaard, Simon; Haswell, John Douglas R; Sun, Wei; Goldman, Siri; Blekot, Solomiya; Nielsen, Michael; Takano, Takahiro; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-01-01

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using 2-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover, hexokinase, which catalyze the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identifies the neuron as the principal locus of glucose uptake as visualized by functional brain imaging. PMID:25904018

  4. Consumption of honey, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup produce similar metabolic effects in glucose tolerant and glucose intolerant individuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Current public health recommendations call for reduction of added sugars; however, controversy exits over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Objective: To compare effects of chronic consumption of three nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructo...

  5. Anti-CD3 Antibody Treatment Induces Hypoglycemia and Super Tolerance to Glucose Challenge in Mice through Enhancing Glucose Consumption by Activated Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chernatynskaya, Anna V.; Looney, Benjamin; Wan, Suigui; Clare-Salzler, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Anti-CD3 antibody has been employed for various immune-mediated disorders. However, whether anti-CD3 administration leads to rapid metabolic alternation has not been well investigated. In the current study, we studied how anti-CD3 treatment affected blood glucose levels in mice. We found that anti-CD3 treatment induced immediate reduction of blood glucose after administration. Furthermore, a single dose of anti-CD3 treatment corrected hyperglycemia in all nonobese diabetic mice with recently diagnosed diabetes. This glucose-lowering effect was not attributable to major T cell produced cytokines. Of interest, when tested in a normal strain of mice (C57BL/6), the serum levels of C-peptide in anti-CD3 treated animals were significantly lower than control mice. Paradoxically, anti-CD3 treated animals were highly tolerant to exogenous glucose challenge. Additionally, we found that anti-CD3 treatment significantly induced activation of T and B cells in vitro and in vivo. Further studies demonstrated that anti-CD3 treatment lowered the glucose levels in T cell culture media and increased the intracellular transportation of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2 deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) particularly in activated T and B cells. In addition, injection of anti-CD3 antibodies induced enhanced levels of Glut1 expression in spleen cells. This study suggests that anti-CD3 therapy-induced hypoglycemia likely results from increased glucose transportation and consumption by the activated lymphocytes. PMID:24741590

  6. Anti-CD3 antibody treatment induces hypoglycemia and super tolerance to glucose challenge in mice through enhancing glucose consumption by activated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-Qing; Chernatynskaya, Anna V; Looney, Benjamin; Wan, Suigui; Clare-Salzler, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Anti-CD3 antibody has been employed for various immune-mediated disorders. However, whether anti-CD3 administration leads to rapid metabolic alternation has not been well investigated. In the current study, we studied how anti-CD3 treatment affected blood glucose levels in mice. We found that anti-CD3 treatment induced immediate reduction of blood glucose after administration. Furthermore, a single dose of anti-CD3 treatment corrected hyperglycemia in all nonobese diabetic mice with recently diagnosed diabetes. This glucose-lowering effect was not attributable to major T cell produced cytokines. Of interest, when tested in a normal strain of mice (C57BL/6), the serum levels of C-peptide in anti-CD3 treated animals were significantly lower than control mice. Paradoxically, anti-CD3 treated animals were highly tolerant to exogenous glucose challenge. Additionally, we found that anti-CD3 treatment significantly induced activation of T and B cells in vitro and in vivo. Further studies demonstrated that anti-CD3 treatment lowered the glucose levels in T cell culture media and increased the intracellular transportation of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2 deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) particularly in activated T and B cells. In addition, injection of anti-CD3 antibodies induced enhanced levels of Glut1 expression in spleen cells. This study suggests that anti-CD3 therapy-induced hypoglycemia likely results from increased glucose transportation and consumption by the activated lymphocytes. PMID:24741590

  7. Characterization of the interaction between local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose and acid-base index in ischemic rat brain employing a double-isotope methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, K.E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The association between increases in cerebral glucose metabolism and the development of acidosis is largely inferential, based on reports linking hyperglycemia with poor neurological outcome, lactate accumulation, and the severity of acidosis. We measured local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (lCMRglc) and an index of brain pH-the acid-base index (ABI)-concurrently and characterized their interaction in a model of focal cerebral ischemia in rats in a double-label autoradiographic study, using ({sup 14}C)2-deoxyglucose and ({sup 14}C)dimethyloxazolidinedione. Computer-assisted digitization and analysis permitted the simultaneous quantification of the two variables on a pixel-by-pixel basis in the same brain slices.

  8. Effects of physostigmine on local cerebral glucose utilization in the central components of the rat visual system.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, F; Crane, A; Mende, M; Suda, S; Kennedy, C; Pettigrew, K D; Biersack, H J; Sokoloff, L; Kuschinsky, W

    1993-11-26

    The effects of intravenous administration of physostigmine at doses of 0.03, 0.095, or 0.3 mg/kg on local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) were determined in 3 structures of the visual system of the rat brain by means of the quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method. LCGU was increased in the superior colliculus (superficial gray layer), but unchanged in the visual cortex and the lateral geniculate body. To determine whether the observed effect of physostigmine on the superior colliculus depended on input from the retina, the highest dose of physostigmine was administered to rats which had previously been enucleated bilaterally. Enucleation decreased LCGU in the superior colliculus of the animals not treated with physostigmine and blocked the effect of physostigmine on LCGU. The effect of physostigmine in the superior colliculus appears, therefore, to depend on input from the retina. PMID:8295735

  9. Decrease in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose after high-dose methotrexate in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsu, K.; Takada, G.; Uemura, K.; Shishido, F.; Kanno, I. )

    1990-09-01

    We measured changes in the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlu) using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography for the assessment of neurotoxicity in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) therapy. We studied 8 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (mean age: 9.6 years) treated with HD-MTX (200 mg/kg or 2,000 mg/M2) therapy. CMRGlu after HD-MTX therapy was most reduced (40%) in the patient who had central nervous system leukemia and was treated with the largest total doses of both intrathecal MTX (IT-MTX) and HD-MTX. CMRGlu in the whole brain after HD-MTX therapy was reduced by an average of 21% (P less than 0.05). The reductions of CMRGlu in 8 patients were correlated with total doses of both IT-MTX (r = 0.717; P less than 0.05) and systemic HD-MTX (r = 0.784; P less than 0.05). CMRGlu of the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal and occipital cortex, was reduced more noticeably than that of the basal ganglia and white matter. We suggest that the measurement of changes in rCMRGlu after HD-MTX therapy is useful for detecting accumulated MTX neurotoxicity.

  10. Statistical mapping of effects of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) on blood flow and oxygen consumption in porcine brain.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hideaki; Sakoh, Masaharu; Andersen, Flemming; Rodell, Anders; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Østergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim; Cumming, Paul

    2007-02-15

    The volume of cerebral tissue perturbed in experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) can be highly variable. Thus, the territories of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) or oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) following MCAO might properly be defined using statistical parametric mapping within a population. In order to establish such a method, we mapped CBF and CMRO(2) in 18 pigs with acute MCAO. Parametric maps were flipped about the axis of symmetry, and CBF and CMRO(2) in the infarcted hemisphere were calculated as percentages of the magnitudes in mirror-image pixels. There were log-linear relationships between the volumes of affected tissue and the percentages of normal CFB or CMRO(2). This graphical analysis showed that the volume of the core deficit was smaller for CBF that for CMRO(2), but expanded more rapidly with decreasing CBF deficit than did the corresponding volumes of reduced CMRO(2). Thus, acute changes in CBF and CMRO(2) following MCAO in the pig can be defined as probabilistic volumes. PMID:17129609

  11. Regional cerebral incorporation of plasma (/sup 14/C)palmitate, and cerebral glucose utilization, in water-deprived Long-Evans and Brattleboro rats

    SciTech Connect

    Noronha, J.G.; Larson, D.M.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1989-03-01

    Regional rates of incorporation into brain of intravenously administered (/sup 14/C)palmitate and regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglc) were measured in water-provided (WP) and water-deprived (WD) homozygous (DI) and heterozygous (HZ) Brattleboro rats, a mutant strain unable to synthesize vasopressin, and in the parent Long-Evans (LE) strain. Following 15 h or 4 days of water deprivation, rCMRglc was elevated threefold in the pituitary neural lobe of LE-WD and DI-WD as compared with LE-WP rats, and in the paraventricular nucleus of LE-WD, and the supraoptic nucleus of DI-WD rats. However, incorporation of (/sup 14/C)palmitate into these regions was not specifically altered. The results indicate that water deprivation for up to 4 days increases rCMRglc in some brain regions involved with vasopressin, but does not alter (/sup 14/C)palmitate incorporation into these regions. Incorporation of plasma (/sup 14/C)palmitate is independent of unlabeled plasma palmitate at brain regions which have an intact blood-brain barrier, but at nonbarrier regions falls according to saturation kinetics as cold plasma concentration rises, with a mean half-saturation constant (Km) equal to 0.136 mumol.ml-1.

  12. PCP-induced alterations in cerebral glucose utilization in rat brain: blockade by metaphit, a PCP-receptor-acylating agent

    SciTech Connect

    Tamminga, C.A.; Tanimoto, K.; Kuo, S.; Chase, T.N.; Contreras, P.C.; Rice, K.C.; Jackson, A.E.; O'Donohue, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of phencyclidine (PCP) on regional cerebral glucose utilization was determined by using quantitative autoradiography with (/sup 14/C)-2-deoxyglucose. PCP increased brain metabolism in selected areas of cortex, particularly limbic, and in the basal ganglia and thalamus, whereas the drug decreased metabolism in areas related to audition. These results are consistent with the known physiology of central PCP neurons and may help to suggest brain areas involved in PCP-mediated actions. Moreover, based on the behavioral similarities between PCP psychosis and an acute schizophrenic episode, these data may be relevant to the understanding of schizophrenia. The PCP-receptor-acylating agent, metaphit, blocked most of these PCP actions. In addition, metaphit by itself was found to diminish glucose utilization rather uniformly throughout brain. These results indicate an antagonist effect of metaphit on the PCP system and suggest a widespread action of metaphit, putatively at a PCP-related site, possibly in connection with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.

  13. Intelligence and Changes in Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate Following Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haier, Richard J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of eight normal right-handed men demonstrates widespread significant decreases in brain glucose metabolic rate (GMR) following learning a complex computer task, a computer game. Correlations between magnitude of GMR change and intelligence scores are also demonstrated. (SLD)

  14. Simultaneous double-isotope autoradiographic measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolic rate and acid-base status in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, A H; Peek, K E; Berridge, M; Bogue, L; Yap, E

    1987-03-01

    We developed a double-isotope autoradiographic method for the simultaneous measurement of the local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (1CMRG) and index of regional acid-base status (rABI) in single brain slices using [2-14C]deoxy-D-glucose (DG) and 5,5-dimethyl-[2-14C]oxazolidine-2,4,dione (DMO). After iv isotope administration, paper chromatography separates plasma DMO from DG activity using a methanol-methylene chloride solvent system. Initial tissue autoradiograms depict regional DMO plus DG and DG metabolite distribution. After 14 days in a well-ventilated hood, 97.5 +/- 0.5% of all DMO is lost from tissue sections by sublimation, and a second autoradiogram depicts DG plus DG metabolite distribution. Retention of brain lipids does not alter beta-particle self-absorption, avoiding problems associated with isotope extraction with solvents. Autoradiograms are digitized and converted to isotope-content images. The second autoradiogram is used for 1CMRG computation. After subtracting the second regional isotope-content value from the first, the DMO content is obtained and used to compute rABI. Application of this method to normal animals yields expected values for 1CMRG and rABI. This method is amenable to whole-slice digitization and creation of functional images of 1CMRG and ABI followed by pixel-by-pixel correlations of the two variables, making this a potentially valuable tool for the investigation of the relationships between glucose metabolism and brain acid-base balance. PMID:3505334

  15. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of General and Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    MIRMIRAN, Parvin; EJTAHED, Hanieh-Sadat; BAHADORAN, Zahra; BASTAN, Sara; AZIZI, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: General and abdominal obesity are major global health problems. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body mass index and waist circumference status in 5852 Iranian adults within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods: Intakes of SSBs including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The association between body mass index, waist circumference and body adiposity index in each quartile category of SSB consumption were determined using the multivariable linear regression models. The odds ratio (OR) of general and abdominal obesity in each quartile of SSB consumption was also determined using the multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Mean dietary intake of SSBs was 48.9 g/d or 0.25 servings/d. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, significant associations were observed between SSB consumption and BMI (β: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.13–0.86), and waist circumference (β: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.40–2.16) in the fourth quartile. There was no significant association between SSB consumption and body adiposity index. Participants who consumed > 57.1 g/d of SSBs had 22% higher risk of general obesity (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00–1.48) and 35% higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.12–1.61), compared with those in the lowest quartile of SSB consumption. Conclusion: Higher intakes of SSBs were associated with the higher risk of general and abdominal obesity in adults suggesting that limiting the consumption of SSBs may be a practical approach to prevent and manage obesity. PMID:26744712

  16. Blast Overpressure Waves Induce Transient Anxiety and Regional Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism and Delayed Hyperarousal in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Hibah O.; Gonzalez, Larry P.; Tompkins, Paul; Lerner, Megan; Brackett, Daniel J.; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Standifer, Kelly M.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological alterations, anxiety, and cognitive disorders are strongly associated with blast-induced traumatic brain injury (blast TBI), and are common symptoms in service personnel exposed to blasts. Since 2006, 25,000–30,000 new TBI cases are diagnosed annually in U.S. Service members; increasing evidence confirms that primary blast exposure causes diffuse axonal injury and is often accompanied by altered behavioral outcomes. Behavioral and acute metabolic effects resulting from blast to the head in the absence of thoracic contributions from the periphery were examined, following a single blast wave directed to the head of male Sprague-Dawley rats protected by a lead shield over the torso. An 80 psi head blast produced cognitive deficits that were detected in working memory. Blast TBI rats displayed increased anxiety as determined by elevated plus maze at day 9 post-blast compared to sham rats; blast TBI rats spent significantly more time than the sham controls in the closed arms (p < 0.05; n = 8–11). Interestingly, anxiety symptoms were absent at days 22 and 48 post-blast. Instead, blast TBI rats displayed increased rearing behavior at day 48 post-blast compared to sham rats. Blast TBI rats also exhibited suppressed acoustic startle responses, but similar pre-pulse inhibition at day 15 post-blast compared to sham rats. Acute physiological alterations in cerebral glucose metabolism were determined by positron emission tomography 1 and 9 days post-blast using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Global glucose uptake in blast TBI rat brains increased at day 1 post-blast (p < 0.05; n = 4–6) and returned to sham levels by day 9. Our results indicate a transient increase in cerebral metabolism following a blast injury. Markers for reactive astrogliosis and neuronal damage were noted by immunoblotting motor cortex tissue from day 10 post-blast in blast TBI rats compared to sham controls (p < 0.05; n = 5–6). PMID:26136722

  17. Blast Overpressure Waves Induce Transient Anxiety and Regional Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism and Delayed Hyperarousal in Rats.

    PubMed

    Awwad, Hibah O; Gonzalez, Larry P; Tompkins, Paul; Lerner, Megan; Brackett, Daniel J; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Standifer, Kelly M

    2015-01-01

    Physiological alterations, anxiety, and cognitive disorders are strongly associated with blast-induced traumatic brain injury (blast TBI), and are common symptoms in service personnel exposed to blasts. Since 2006, 25,000-30,000 new TBI cases are diagnosed annually in U.S. Service members; increasing evidence confirms that primary blast exposure causes diffuse axonal injury and is often accompanied by altered behavioral outcomes. Behavioral and acute metabolic effects resulting from blast to the head in the absence of thoracic contributions from the periphery were examined, following a single blast wave directed to the head of male Sprague-Dawley rats protected by a lead shield over the torso. An 80 psi head blast produced cognitive deficits that were detected in working memory. Blast TBI rats displayed increased anxiety as determined by elevated plus maze at day 9 post-blast compared to sham rats; blast TBI rats spent significantly more time than the sham controls in the closed arms (p < 0.05; n = 8-11). Interestingly, anxiety symptoms were absent at days 22 and 48 post-blast. Instead, blast TBI rats displayed increased rearing behavior at day 48 post-blast compared to sham rats. Blast TBI rats also exhibited suppressed acoustic startle responses, but similar pre-pulse inhibition at day 15 post-blast compared to sham rats. Acute physiological alterations in cerebral glucose metabolism were determined by positron emission tomography 1 and 9 days post-blast using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). Global glucose uptake in blast TBI rat brains increased at day 1 post-blast (p < 0.05; n = 4-6) and returned to sham levels by day 9. Our results indicate a transient increase in cerebral metabolism following a blast injury. Markers for reactive astrogliosis and neuronal damage were noted by immunoblotting motor cortex tissue from day 10 post-blast in blast TBI rats compared to sham controls (p < 0.05; n = 5-6). PMID:26136722

  18. The effects of wild blueberry consumption on plasma markers and gene expression related to glucose metabolism in the obese Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Stefano; Zhao, Alice; Merrow, Thomas; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2015-06-01

    Impaired fasting blood glucose is one of the landmark signs of metabolic syndrome, together with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and a chronic proinflammatory, pro-oxidative, and prothrombotic environment. This study investigates the effect of wild blueberry (WB) consumption on blood glucose levels and other parameters involved in glucose metabolism in the obese Zucker rat (OZR), an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. Sixteen OZRs and 16 lean littermate controls (lean Zucker rat [LZR]) were fed an 8% enriched WB diet or a control (C) diet for 8 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin GHbA1c, resistin, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured. Expression of the resistin, RBP4, and glucose transporter GLUT4 genes was also determined both in the liver and the abdominal adipose tissue (AAT). Plasma glycated hemoglobin HbA1c, RBP4, and resistin concentrations were significantly lower in OZRs following the WB diet (-20%, -22%, and -27%, respectively, compared to C diet, P<.05). Following WB consumption, resistin expression was significantly downregulated in the liver of both OZRs and LZRs (-28% and -61%, respectively, P<.05), while RBP4 expression was significantly downregulated in the AAT of both OZRs and LZRs (-87% and -43%, respectively, P<.05). All other markers were not significantly affected following WB consumption. In conclusion, WB consumption normalizes some markers related to glucose metabolism in the OZR model of metabolic syndrome, but has no effect on fasting blood glucose or insulin concentrations. PMID:25383490

  19. The change in cerebral glucose metabolism after electroacupuncture: a possible marker to predict the therapeutic effect of deep brain stimulation for refractory anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao-Tao; Hong, Qing-Xiong; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Some reports have demonstrated that deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for patients who suffer from intractable anorexia nervosa. However, the nature of DBS may not be viewed as a standard clinical treatment option for anorexia nervosa because of the unpredictable outcome before DBS. Just like DBS in the brain, electroacupuncture at acupoints is also efficient in treating refractory anorexia nervosa. Some neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) had revealed that both DBS and electroacupuncture at acupoints with electrical stimulation are related to the changes in cerebral glucose metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesize that the changes in cerebral glucose metabolism after electroacupuncture might be useful to predict the therapeutic effect of deep brain stimulation for refractory anorexia nervosa. PMID:26770596

  20. The change in cerebral glucose metabolism after electroacupuncture: a possible marker to predict the therapeutic effect of deep brain stimulation for refractory anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao-Tao; Hong, Qing-Xiong; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Some reports have demonstrated that deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for patients who suffer from intractable anorexia nervosa. However, the nature of DBS may not be viewed as a standard clinical treatment option for anorexia nervosa because of the unpredictable outcome before DBS. Just like DBS in the brain, electroacupuncture at acupoints is also efficient in treating refractory anorexia nervosa. Some neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) had revealed that both DBS and electroacupuncture at acupoints with electrical stimulation are related to the changes in cerebral glucose metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesize that the changes in cerebral glucose metabolism after electroacupuncture might be useful to predict the therapeutic effect of deep brain stimulation for refractory anorexia nervosa. PMID:26770596

  1. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism is normal in young adults with Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Kumar, A.; Herscovitch, P.; Haxby, J.V.; Moore, A.M.; White, B.; Friedland, R.P.; Rapoport, S.I. )

    1990-03-01

    Regional CMRglc (rCMRglc) values were measured with ({sup 18}F)2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET), using a Scanditronix PC-1024-7B scanner, in 14 healthy, noninstitutionalized subjects with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome; DS) (mean age 30.0 years, range 25-38 years) and in 13 sex-matched, healthy volunteers (mean age 29.5 years, range 22-38 years). In the DS group, mean mental age on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was 7.8 years and dementia was not present. Resting rCMRglc was determined with eyes covered and ears occluded in a quiet, darkened room. Global gray CMRglc equaled 8.76 +/- 0.76 mg/100 g/min (mean +/- SD) in the DS group as compared with 8.74 +/- 1.19 mg/100 g/min in the control group (p greater than 0.05). Gray matter regional measurements also did not differ between groups. The ratio of rCMRglc to global CMRglc, calculated to reduce the variance associated with absolute rCMRglc, and right/left ratios did not show any consistent differences. These results show that healthy young DS adults do not have alterations in regional or global brain glucose metabolism, as measured with 18FDG and PET, prior to an age at which the neuropathological changes in Alzheimer disease are reported to occur.

  2. Altered cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in patients with liver disease and minimal encephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, A.H.; Yap, E.W.; Rhoades, H.M.; Wong, W.H. )

    1991-03-01

    We measured CBF and the CMRglc in normal controls and in patients with severe liver disease and evidence for minimal hepatic encephalopathy using positron emission tomography. Regions were defined in frontal, temporal, parietal, and visual cortex; the thalamus; the caudate; the cerebellum; and the white matter along with a whole-slice value obtained at the level of the thalamus. There was no difference in whole-slice CBF and CMRglc values. Individual regional values were normalized to the whole-slice value and subjected to a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. When normalized CBF and CMRglc values for regions were compared between groups, significant differences were demonstrated (F = 5.650, p = 0.00014 and F = 4.58, p = 0.0073, respectively). These pattern differences were due to higher CBF and CMRglc in the cerebellum, thalamus, and caudate in patients and lower values in the cortex. Standardized coefficients extracted from a discriminant function analysis permitted correct group assignment for 95.5% of the CBF studies and for 92.9% of the CMRglc studies. The similarity of the altered pattern of cerebral metabolism and flow in our patients to that seen in rats subjected to portacaval shunts or ammonia infusions suggests that this toxin may alter flow and metabolism and that this, in turn, causes the clinical expression of encephalopathy.

  3. Noninvasive quantification of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in rats using (18)F-FDG PET and standard input function.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yuki; Ihara, Naoki; Teramoto, Noboru; Kunimi, Masako; Honda, Manabu; Kato, Koichi; Hanakawa, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of arterial input function (AIF) for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) studies is technically challenging. The present study aimed to develop a method based on a standard arterial input function (SIF) to estimate input function without blood sampling. We performed (18)F-fluolodeoxyglucose studies accompanied by continuous blood sampling for measurement of AIF in 11 rats. Standard arterial input function was calculated by averaging AIFs from eight anesthetized rats, after normalization with body mass (BM) and injected dose (ID). Then, the individual input function was estimated using two types of SIF: (1) SIF calibrated by the individual's BM and ID (estimated individual input function, EIF(NS)) and (2) SIF calibrated by a single blood sampling as proposed previously (EIF(1S)). No significant differences in area under the curve (AUC) or cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRGlc) were found across the AIF-, EIF(NS)-, and EIF(1S)-based methods using repeated measures analysis of variance. In the correlation analysis, AUC or CMRGlc derived from EIF(NS) was highly correlated with those derived from AIF and EIF(1S). Preliminary comparison between AIF and EIF(NS) in three awake rats supported an idea that the method might be applicable to behaving animals. The present study suggests that EIF(NS) method might serve as a noninvasive substitute for individual AIF measurement. PMID:25966947

  4. Daily consumption of Reliv Glucaffect for 8 weeks significantly lowered blood glucose and body weight in 50 subjects.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria; Silvia, Errichi; Ledda, Andrea; Stuard, Stefano; G, Vinciguerra; Dougall, Mark; Cornelli, Umberto; Hastings, Carl; Schönlau, Frank

    2009-12-01

    A public change to healthier lifestyles with more physical activity and better nutrition, including caloric restriction, is required to address the obesity epidemic. Weight loss can be achieved by caloric restrictions; current research suggests that this may be achieved by consumption of slowly absorbed carbohydrates owing to the resulting prolonged satiety. Our rationale was to prolong the satiety of overweight volunteers by supplementation with a proprietary formulation Glucaffect which delays absorption of carbohydrates. Glucaffect provides potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors of herbal source such Pycnogenol, Madeglucyl and various others which obstruct absorption of carbohydrates, such as starch. Fifty overweight subjects received either Glucaffect or an inactive control product for eight weeks. Consumption of Glucaffect was found to statistically significantly lower blood-fasting glucose from baseline 145.3 mg/dL to 101.1 mg/dL (-30.4%) and Hba1c from 7.59% to 6.33% as compared to the control group where values decreased only marginally. The weight and the body mass index (BMI) decreased significantly from an average of 88.5 kg (BMI 26.8 kg/m2) to 81.3 kg (BMI 24.5 kg/m2) as compared to the control group. In conclusion, Glucaffect enabled subjects with metabolic syndrome to achieve healthy BMI and blood glucose levels. Glucaffect was well tolerated and no subject dropped out. PMID:19405040

  5. High Glucose-Induced Mitochondrial Respiration and Reactive Oxygen Species in Mouse Cerebral Pericytes is Reversed by Pharmacological Inhibition of Mitochondrial Carbonic Anhydrases: Implications for Cerebral Microvascular Disease in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gul N.; Morofuji, Yoichi; Banks, William A.; Price, Tulin O.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress leads to diabetes-associated damage to the microvasculature of the brain. Pericytes in close proximity to endothelial cells in the brain microvessels are vital to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and are especially susceptible to oxidative stress. According to our recently published results, streptozotocin-diabetic mouse brain exhibits oxidative stress and loose pericytes by twelve weeks of diabetes, and cerebral pericytes cultured in high glucose media suffer intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. Oxidative stress in diabetes is hypothesized to be caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during hyperglycemia-induced enhanced oxidative metabolism of glucose (respiration). To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of high glucose on respiration rate and ROS production in mouse cerebral pericytes. Previously, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases protects the brain from oxidative stress and pericyte loss. The high glucose-induced intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis of pericytes in culture were also reversed by inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases. Therefore, we extended our current study to determine the effect of these inhibitors on high glucose-induced increases in pericyte respiration and ROS. We now report that both the respiration and ROS are significantly increased in pericytes challenged with high glucose. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases significantly slowed down both the rate of respiration and ROS production. These data provide new evidence that pharmacological inhibitors of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases, already in clinical use, may prove beneficial in protecting the brain from oxidative stress caused by ROS produced as a consequence of hyperglycemia-induced enhanced respiration. PMID:24076121

  6. Imaging the time-integrated cerebral metabolic activity with subcellular resolution through nanometer-scale detection of biosynthetic products deriving from (13)C-glucose.

    PubMed

    Takado, Yuhei; Knott, Graham; Humbel, Bruno M; Masoodi, Mojgan; Escrig, Stéphane; Meibom, Anders; Comment, Arnaud

    2015-11-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the brain but also an important source of building blocks for proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Little is known about the use of glucose for biosynthesis in tissues at the cellular level. We demonstrate that local cerebral metabolic activity can be mapped in mouse brain tissue by quantitatively imaging the biosynthetic products deriving from [U-(13)C]glucose metabolism using a combination of in situ electron microscopy and secondary ion mass-spectroscopy (NanoSIMS). Images of the (13)C-label incorporated into cerebral ultrastructure with ca. 100 nm resolution allowed us to determine the timescale on which the metabolic products of glucose are incorporated into different cells, their sub-compartments and organelles. These were mapped in astrocytes and neurons in the different layers of the motor cortex. We see evidence for high metabolic activity in neurons via the nucleus (13)C enrichment. We observe that in all the major cell compartments, such as e.g. nucleus and Golgi apparatus, neurons incorporate substantially higher concentrations of (13)C-label than astrocytes. PMID:26409162

  7. Comparison of cerebral regional glucose metabolic relationships in resting and auditory stimulated states

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    FDG positron computed tomography has demonstrated strong correlations between high frontal and occipital glucose metabolism in normal resting subjects, which varied by age and were lost in Huntington's and Parkinson's Diseases. The studies raised the question whether the findings may be explained by anatomic and not metabolic factors. An approach to the issue was to examine subjects scanned under two states, where functional and not anatomic features would account for relationship differences. Seventeen subjects were identified who had scans under resting and auditory stimulated states. Measurements were taken from 12 brain regions and were expressed as percentage of mean metabolism. A principal components analysis of the resting state demonstrated 3 components (73% of variance), while the stimulated states showed 4 (79% of variance). The first resting factor related frontal, right posterior inferior frontal and superior temporal regions, while in the stimulated, the frontal associated with the occipital. The second resting factor related both angular gyri and posterior temporal, while the third related left posterior inferior frontal, superior temporal and right occipital. With stimulation both factors were replaced by three others. The change in the first factor and its presence in other subject groups points to a functional relationship between the regions. Comparison to previous studies suggest the frontal-occipital association may involve aspects of attention. The variability in other factors was similar to loose correlations noted in normal studies and may reflect the differential response to several tasks.

  8. The effect of moderate glycemic energy bar consumption on blood glucose and mood in dancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Derrick; Wyon, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Ingesting quality carbohydrates has been shown to be essential for dancers. Given that most dance classes take place in the morning, it has been recommended that dancers eat a well-balanced breakfast containing carbohydrates, fats, and protein as a means of fuelling this activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a moderate glycemic index energy (MGI) bar or a fasting condition on dancers' blood glucose levels and perceived pleasure-displeasure response during the first dance class of the day. In a randomized counterbalanced design, 10 female preprofessional dance students took their regular scheduled contemporary dance class, on four separate occasions. On each occasion, they consumed either a commercially prepared carbohydrate (CHO)-dense energy bar (47.3 g CHO) or water (FAST). Plasma glucose responses and pleasure-displeasure affect were measured before and at two time points during the class. Dancers who consumed the MGI bar had significantly greater peak blood glucose levels at all time points than those who fasted (p<0.05). Regarding affective state measures, participants who had breakfast had significantly greater pleasure scores than those who only ingested water(p<0.05). In conclusion, results suggest that CHO with an MGI value positively impacts blood glucose concentrations during a dance class. Further, we conclude that skipping breakfast can have an unfavorable effect on the pleasure-displeasure state of dancers. These findings highlight the impact of breakfast on how one feels, as well as the physiological and metabolic benefits of CHO as an exogenous energy source in dancers. PMID:24647459

  9. Effects of consumption of main and side dishes with white rice on postprandial glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in healthy Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Noriko; Maruyama, Chizuko; Matsui, Sadako; Araki, Risa; Yamada, Yuichiro; Maruyama, Taro

    2014-05-01

    The co-ingestion of protein, fat and fibre with carbohydrate reportedly affects postprandial glucose, insulin and incretin (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)) responses. However, the effects of combination dishes with carbohydrate-rich foods at typically eaten amounts remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of consuming recommended amounts of side dishes with boiled white rice in the same meal on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin and incretin hormone responses. A total of nine healthy male volunteers consumed four different meals in a random order on separate days. The test meals were as follows: S, white rice; SM, addition of protein-rich main dishes to the S meal; SMF, addition of a fat-rich food item to the SM meal; SMFV, addition of vegetables to the SMF meal. Plasma glucose, GIP and GLP-1 and serum insulin concentrations were determined during a 3 h period after consumption of these meals. Postprandial glucose responses were lower after SMFV meal consumption than after consumption of the other meals. The incremental AUC for GIP (0-180 min) were largest after consumption of the SMF and SMFV meals, followed by that after SM meal consumption, and was smallest after S meal consumption (P< 0·05). Furthermore, we found GIP concentrations to be dose dependently increased by the fat content of meals of ordinary size, despite the amount of additional fat being small. In conclusion, the combination of recommended amounts of main and vegetable side dishes with boiled white rice is beneficial for lowering postprandial glucose concentrations, with an increased incretin response, when compared with white rice alone. PMID:24507870

  10. Characterisation of a mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (bEnd.3) after oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Ku, Jacqueline M; Taher, Mohammadali; Chin, Kai Yee; Grace, Megan; McIntyre, Peter; Miller, Alyson A

    2016-08-01

    Studies have utilised immortalised mouse cerebral endothelial cells (bEnd.3) exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) to study blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after ischaemia. However, there is a paucity of literature describing the duration of OGD (and reoxygenation [RO]) required to best simulate BBB disruption in vivo. In this study we assessed BBB disruption in bEnd.3 cells after exposure to a range of OGD periods, and also after OGD + RO. Exposure of bEnd.3 monolayers to 4, 6, 16, or 24 hours of OGD resulted in a significant increase in permeability. The hyperpermeability after 16 or 24 hours was associated with decreased expression of tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin-5). Furthermore, there was a decrease in cell viability and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, cleaved caspase-3. Exposure of bEnd.3 monolayers to 1 hour OGD+ 23 hours RO exacerbated hyperpermeability relative to 1 hour OGD, which was associated with decreased expression levels of occludin and ZO-1, but no change in cell viability or caspase-3. 4 hours OGD + 23 hours RO exacerbated hyperpermeability, decreased expression levels of tight junction proteins, decreased cell viability, and increased caspase-3 expression. Thus, bEnd.3 cells exhibit hyperpermeability, a loss of tight junction proteins, and undergo cell death, after exposure to prolonged periods of OGD. Moreover, they exhibit exacerbated hyperpermeability, a loss of tight junction proteins, and increased expression of caspase-3 after OGD + RO. These findings will facilitate the use of this cell line in studies of BBB disruption and for the testing of therapeutics. PMID:27128638

  11. Cerebral Glucose Metabolism is Associated with Verbal but not Visual Memory Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gardener, Samantha L; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kai-Kai; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Weinborn, Michael; Bates, Kristyn A; Shah, Tejal; Foster, Jonathan K; Lenzo, Nat; Salvado, Olivier; Laske, Christoph; Laws, Simon M; Taddei, Kevin; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-03-31

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers show region-specific reductions in cerebral glucose metabolism, as measured by [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). We investigated preclinical disease stage by cross-sectionally examining the association between global cognition, verbal and visual memory, and 18F-FDG PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) in 43 healthy control individuals, subsequently focusing on differences between subjective memory complainers and non-memory complainers. The 18F-FDG PET regions of interest investigated include the hippocampus, amygdala, posterior cingulate, superior parietal, entorhinal cortices, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and inferior parietal region. In the cohort as a whole, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in both the left hippocampus and right amygdala. There were no associations observed between global cognition, delayed recall in logical memory, or visual reproduction and 18F-FDG PET SUVR. Following stratification of the cohort into subjective memory complainers and non-complainers, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in the right amygdala in those with subjective memory complaints. There were no significant associations observed in non-memory complainers between 18F-FDG PET SUVR in regions of interest and cognitive performance. We observed subjective memory complaint-specific associations between 18F-FDG PET SUVR and immediate verbal memory performance in our cohort, however found no associations between delayed recall of verbal memory performance or visual memory performance. It is here argued that the neural mechanisms underlying verbal and visual memory performance may in fact differ in their pathways, and the characteristic reduction of 18F-FDG PET SUVR observed in this and previous studies likely reflects the pathophysiological changes in specific

  12. Bioassay-based isolation and identification of phenolics from sweet cherry that promote active glucose consumption by HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinping; Li, Xin; Liu, Yunxi; Leng, Feng; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-02-01

    A variety of phenolics had been found to be functional in promoting cellular glucose consumption that is important for blood glucose regulation. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) is rich in such kinds of phenolics, including hydrocinnamic acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols. Furthermore, a sweet cherry phenolics-rich extract (PRE) was found to be effective in promoting HepG2 glucose consumption. Seventeen components were preliminarily identified by HPLC-ESI-MS, including 9 hydrocinnamic acids, 4 anthocyanins, 3 flavonols, and 1 flavan-3-ol. To investigate the cellular glucose consumption-promotion activity of different phneolics subclasses, the phenolics were further fractionated into an anthocyanin-rich fraction (ARF), hydrocinnamic acid-rich fraction (HRF), and flavonol-rich fraction (FRF) through liquid-liquid extraction and mix-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction. The 3 fractions promoted HepG2 glucose consumption to different levels, with the promotion effects of HRF and FRF stronger than that of the ARF. The results provide guidance on the use of sweet cherry as a functional fruit. PMID:25559482

  13. Neuropilin 2 deficiency does not affect cortical neuronal viability in response to oxygen-glucose-deprivation and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sheng T; Jiang, Susan X; Slinn, Jacqueline; O'Hare, Michael; Karchewski, Laurie

    2010-04-01

    Neuropilin 2 (NRP2) is a type I transmembrane protein that binds to distinct members of the class III secreted Semaphorin subfamily. NRP2 plays important roles in repulsive axon guidance, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis through partnering with co-receptors such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) during development. Emerging evidence also suggests that NRP2 contributes to injury response and environment changes in adult brains. In this study, we examined the contribution of NRP2 gene to cerebral ischemia-induced brain injury using NRP2 deficient mouse. To our surprise, the lack of NRP2 expression does not affect the outcome of brain injury induced by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in mouse. The cerebral vasculature in terms of the middle cerebral artery anatomy and microvessel density in the cerebral cortex of NRP2 deficient homozygous (NRP2(-/-)) mice are normal and almost identical to those of the heterozygous (NRP2(+/-)) and wild type (NRP2(+/+)) littermates. MCAO (1h) and 24h reperfusion caused a brain infarction of 23% (compared to the contralateral side) in NRP2(-/-) mice, which is not different from those in NRP2(+/- and +/+) mice at 22 and 21%, respectively (n=19, p>0.05). Correspondingly, NRP2(-/-) mouse also showed a similar level of deterioration of neurological functions after stroke compared with their NRP2(+/- and +/+) littermates. Oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD) caused a significant neuronal death in NRP2(-/-) cortical neurons, at the level similar to that in NRP(+/+) cortical neurons (72% death in NRP(-/-) neurons vs. 75% death in NRP2(+/+) neurons; n=4; p>0.05). Together, these loss-of-function studies demonstrated that despite of its critical role in neuronal guidance and vascular formation during development, NRP2 expression dose not affect adult brain response to cerebral ischemia. PMID:20036291

  14. 3-Fluoro-Deoxyglucose for the assessment of cerebral perfusion and glucose transport - Indications for extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass and followup studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdorn, H.M.; Vyska, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluor-Deoxyglucose (3FDG) is a glucose-analogue which is transported across the blood-brain-barrier by the same carrier as glucose but is only phoshorylated to a minor part. By a newly developed model, it became possible to estimate both cerebral perfusion and glucose transport in a single examination, determining the Michaelis-Menten-constant K/sub M/ and the maximal velocity v/sub m/. Normal values were determined as follows: gray matter perfusion 88+-8 ml/ 100g min; v/sub m/ was 2.46 ..mu..mol/g min; K/sub M/ was 6.42 ..mu..mol/g. This method was applied successfully in a series of 15 patients with cerebral ischemia to select suitable candidates for extacranial-intracranial (EC-IC) arterial bypass surgery and to follow them up to 15 months postop. In patients with minor strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIA), areas which appeared normal in conventional CT presented with reduced perfusion values (down to 67 ml/ 100 g min) and either normal or reduced v/sub m/ (down to 0.8 ..mu..mol/g min). These patients were thought optimal candidates for EC-IC bypass in order to improve the misery perfusion rate.

  15. Compartmentalized Cerebral Metabolism of [1,6-13C]Glucose Determined by in vivo 13C NMR Spectroscopy at 14.1 T

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, João M. N.; Lanz, Bernard; Gruetter, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism is compartmentalized between neurons and glia. Although glial glycolysis is thought to largely sustain the energetic requirements of neurotransmission while oxidative metabolism takes place mainly in neurons, this hypothesis is matter of debate. The compartmentalization of cerebral metabolic fluxes can be determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy upon infusion of 13C-enriched compounds, especially glucose. Rats under light α-chloralose anesthesia were infused with [1,6-13C]glucose and 13C enrichment in the brain metabolites was measured by 13C NMR spectroscopy with high sensitivity and spectral resolution at 14.1 T. This allowed determining 13C enrichment curves of amino acid carbons with high reproducibility and to reliably estimate cerebral metabolic fluxes (mean error of 8%). We further found that TCA cycle intermediates are not required for flux determination in mathematical models of brain metabolism. Neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle rate (VTCA) and neurotransmission rate (VNT) were 0.45 ± 0.01 and 0.11 ± 0.01 μmol/g/min, respectively. Glial VTCA was found to be 38 ± 3% of total cerebral oxidative metabolism, accounting for more than half of neuronal oxidative metabolism. Furthermore, glial anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation rate (VPC) was 0.069 ± 0.004 μmol/g/min, i.e., 25 ± 1% of the glial TCA cycle rate. These results support a role of glial cells as active partners of neurons during synaptic transmission beyond glycolytic metabolism. PMID:21713114

  16. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Bahadoran, Zahra; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of multiple metabolic abnormalities, is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The current study was conducted to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and MetS and its components in Iranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 5,852 men and women, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the fourth phase (2009 to 2011) of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics, biochemical measurements, and blood pressure (BP) were assessed and MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Frequency and quantity of SSB intakes including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Mean age of participants (43%, men) was 40.6±12.9 years. Significant positive associations between SSBs and waist circumference, triglyceride level, systolic and diastolic BP in the third and fourth quartile of SSBs were observed, after adjustment for all potential confounding variables. The odds of MetS in the third and fourth quartiles compared to the first quartile category of SSBs was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.45) and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.58), respectively (P for trend=0.03). The odds of MetS, abdominal obesity, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated BP had increasing trends across increasing of SSB consumption (P for trend <0.05). Conclusion Higher intake of SSBs was associated with the higher odds of MetS in adults. It is suggested that reducing consumption of SSBs could be a practical approach to prevent metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26435135

  17. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P < 0.001, respectively). C. ficifolia plus yogurt consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). All interventions led to a significant decrease in blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hsCRP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level within groups. Blood pressure decreased significantly in Cucurbita group and yogurt group (within groups P < 0.001, and P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure [SBP] and P < 0.001, and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure [DBP], respectively). All variables changed between groups significantly except LDL-C level. Conclusions: Variables including TG, HDL-C, TC, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, and hsCRP changed beneficially between groups. It seems that consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:26955460

  18. Whole and fractionated yellow pea flours modulate insulin, glucose, oxygen consumption, and the caecal microbiome in Golden Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Krause, Denis; Harding, Scott V; Rideout, Todd C; Zhu, Fuqin; Jones, Peter J H

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of whole and fractionated yellow peas on circulating lipids, glucose and insulin levels, energy expenditure, and body composition, as well as to assess their prebiotic actions in Golden Syrian hamsters. Forty-five hamsters consumed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 28 days, then were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: control (CON), whole pea flour (WPF), and fractionated pea flour (hulls only) (FPF). WPF and FPF were incorporated into the diets, replacing 10% of the cornstarch. WPF and FPF feeding produced negligible effects on circulating cholesterol and triglyceride levels. However, both WPF (56.76 ± 9.22 pmol·L⁻¹, p = 0.002) and FPF (89.27 ± 19.82 pmol·L⁻¹, p = 0.032) reduced circulating insulin levels compared with the CON group (131.70 ± 17.70 pmol·L⁻¹). Moreover, FPF decreased (p = 0.03) circulating glucose levels (6.26 ± 0.51 mmol·L⁻¹) compared with CON (8.27 ± 0.81 mmol·L⁻¹). Energy expenditure analysis revealed that hamsters consuming WPF demonstrated a higher (p = 0.036) oxygen consumption (2.00 ± 0.31 mL O₂·g⁻¹ lean body mass) vs. the CON group (1.56 ± 0.089 mL O₂·g⁻¹ lean body mass). Analysis of caecal digesta showed that WPF produced shifts in the abundance of microbial taxa with the most predominant changes occurring within the phylum Firmicutes. Yellow peas and their constituents should be investigated as future functional food ingredients that help prevent and manage lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes and obesity. PMID:22026418

  19. Neuroprotective effects of erythromycin on cerebral ischemia reperfusion-injury and cell viability after oxygen-glucose deprivation in cultured neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Yasuo; Inaba, Toshiki; Nito, Chikako; Ueda, Masayuki; Katsura, Kenichiro

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to determine if erythromycin has neuroprotective effects against transient ischemia and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured neuronal cells. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 min, followed by reperfusion. The animals received a subcutaneous single injection of erythromycin lactobionate (EM, 50mg/kg) or vehicle immediately after ischemia. Infarct volume, edema index, and neurological performance were evaluated at 24 and 72 h after reperfusion. Immunohistochemical analyses for oxidative stress (4-HNE, 8-OHdG) and inflammation (Iba-1, TNF-α) were conducted in the cortex at 24h. Primary cortical neuronal cell cultures were prepared from the cerebral cortices of the animals and then subjected to OGD for 3h. Ten or 100 μM EM was added before OGD to determine the effect of EM on cell viability after OGD. EM significantly reduced infarct volume (p<0.01) and edema volume (p<0.05) and improved neurological deficit scores (p<0.05) at 24 and 72 h. EM significantly suppressed the accumulation of 4-HNE (p<0.01) and 8-OHdG (p<0.01) and markedly reduced Iba-1 (p<0.01) and TNF-α expression (p<0.01). Treatment with 100 μM EM in vitro significantly reduced cell death after OGD. EM reduces neuronal damage following cerebral ischemia and OGD and may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25264351

  20. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides

  1. Consumption of glucose drinks slows sensorimotor processing: double-blind placebo-controlled studies with the Eriksen flanker task

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Christopher; Seiss, Ellen; Dean, Philip J. A.; Williams, Katie E. M.; Sterr, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Modulations of blood glucose concentration (BGC) in the normal range are known to facilitate performance in memory and other cognitive tasks but few studies have investigated the effects of BGC variations on complex sensorimotor task so far. The present study aimed to examine glucose effects with the Eriksen flanker task. This task was chosen because it can dissociate between the effects of BGC on sensorimotor processing and cognitive control by assessing congruency effects. In two linked double-blind placebo-controlled experiments BGC was elevated within the normal BGC range (4–7 mmol/l) by approx. 1.5 mmol/l with glucose drinks and compared to a placebo drink condition while a flanker task with either strong or weak stimulus-response (SR) mapping was performed. Modulation of the performance in the flanker task by glucose was linked to the strength of the SR mapping but not congruency effects. Under weak SR mapping, reaction times (RTs) were slowed in the glucose condition compared to placebo while error rates remained unchanged, whereas cognitive control was not affected by glucose. When SR mapping was strong, no differences were found between glucose and placebo. Enhanced glucose levels differentially affect behavior. Whereas the literature mainly reports facilitating characteristics of enhanced glucose levels in the normal range, the present study shows that higher glucose levels can slow RTs. This suggests that glucose does not have a uniform effect on cognition and that it might be differential depending on the cognitive domain. PMID:24167479

  2. Effects of oral administration of some herbal extracts on food consumption and blood glucose levels in normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Musabayane, C T; Bwititi, P T; Ojewole, J A O

    2006-05-01

    Previous studies in our laboratories suggest that oral administration of some herbal extracts reduce blood glucose concentrations in rats, possibly by interfering with food consumption and/or gastrointestinal absorption of food. Accordingly, we monitored the amounts of food consumed and body weights in separate groups of nondiabetic and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats, orally treated with some plant extracts (20 mg 100 g -1 body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Control animals were administered the vehicle, citrate buffer (0.1 ml 100 g -1 body weight). Separate groups of rats administered allopathic hypoglycemic drugs metformin (50 mg 100 g -1 body weight) or glibenclamide (5 microg 100 g -1 body weight) acted as positive control animals. After 5 weeks, blood glucose concentrations were reduced in all the groups. Tapinanthus nyasicus leaf, Ficus thoningii bark, Solanum incanum fruit, and Morus alba leaf extracts decreased weekly food consumption throughout the 5-week study period. Similar results were obtained for the groups treated with metformin or glibenclamide. However, food consumption was increased by S. incanum root, Aloe chabaudii leaf, or Allium sativum bulb extracts, and this was associated with high prevalence of diarrhea. The herbal extracts and metformin did not affect serum insulin concentration in nondiabetic rats, while glibenclamide increased serum insulin concentration. In conclusion, it may be inferred that the herbal extracts examined produced hypoglycemia, probably by interfering with either food intake or gastrointestinal glucose absorption (as reported for metformin). These findings merit long-term investigation. PMID:16801983

  3. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  4. Effect of the consumption of β-lactoglobulin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate with or without calcium on glucose tolerance in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Carnovale, Valérie; Pilon, Geneviève; Britten, Michel; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may modulate their health benefits. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the synergistic effect of consuming β-lg and EGCG complexes on glucose tolerance of C57BL/6 male mice given an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and randomized to one of the following treatments administered prior to the OGTT: 1) simulated milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF(-)), 2) SMUF(-) + EGCG, 3) SMUF(-) + β-lg, 4) SMUF(-) + EGCG + β-lg, 5) SMUF + calcium (SMUF(+)) and 6) SMUF(+) + EGCG + β-lg. We found no significant between-group difference in postprandial glucose response. However, when mice were separated in those who received β-lg from those who did not, we found that the latter displayed significantly higher postprandial glucose concentrations. Our results support the beneficial impact of β-lg on glycemic control and suggest that concomitant EGCG or calcium consumption does not improve this effect. PMID:26960683

  5. No effect of acute beetroot juice ingestion on oxygen consumption, glucose kinetics, or skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in males.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Scott; Bescós, Raúl; Martorell, Miquel; Pons, Antoni; Garnham, Andrew P; Stathis, Christos C; McConell, Glenn K

    2016-02-15

    Beetroot juice, which is rich in nitrate (NO3 (-)), has been shown in some studies to decrease oxygen consumption (V̇o2) for a given exercise workload, i.e., increasing efficiency and exercise tolerance. Few studies have examined the effect of beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation on exercise metabolism. Eight healthy recreationally active males participated in three trials involving ingestion of either beetroot juice (Beet; ∼8 mmol NO3 (-)), Placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet), or Beet + mouthwash (Beet+MW), all of which were performed in a randomized single-blind crossover design. Two-and-a-half hours later, participants cycled for 60 min on an ergometer at 65% of V̇o2 peak. [6,6-(2)H]glucose was infused to determine glucose kinetics, blood samples obtained throughout exercise, and skeletal muscle biopsies that were obtained pre- and postexercise. Plasma nitrite [NO2 (-)] increased significantly (∼130%) with Beet, and this was attenuated in MW+Beet. Beet and Beet+MW had no significant effect on oxygen consumption, blood glucose, blood lactate, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, or plasma insulin during exercise. Beet and Beet+MW also had no significant effect on the increase in glucose disposal during exercise. In addition, Beet and Beet+MW had no significant effect on the decrease in muscle glycogen and phosphocreatine and the increase in muscle creatine, lactate, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase during exercise. In conclusion, at the dose used, acute ingestion of beetroot juice had little effect on skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise. PMID:26635348

  6. Regional kinetic constants and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in normal human volunteers determined by dynamic positron emission tomography of (/sup 18/F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, W.D.; Pawlik, G.; Herholz, K.; Wagner, R.; Goeldner, H.; Wienhard, K.

    1984-06-01

    Using dynamic (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with a high-resolution, seven-slice positron camera, the kinetic constants of the original three-compartment model of Sokoloff and co-workers (1977) were determined in 43 distinct topographic brain regions of seven healthy male volunteers aged 28-38 years. Regional averages of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglu) were calculated both from individually fitted rate constants (CMRglukinetic) and from activity maps recorded 30-40 min after FDG injection, employing a four-parameter operational equation with standard rate constants from the literature (CMRgluautoradiographic). Metabolic rates and kinetic constants varied significantly among regions and subjects, but not between hemispheres. k1 ranged between 0.0485 +/- 0.00778 min-1 in the oval center and 0.0990 +/- 0.01347 min-1 in the primary visual cortex. k2 ranged from 0.1198 +/- 0.01533 min-1 in the temporal white matter to 0.1472 +/- 0.01817 min-1 in the cerebellar dentate nucleus. k3 was lowest (0.0386 +/- 0.01482 min-1) in temporal white matter and highest (0.0823 +/- 0.02552 min-1) in the caudate nucleus. Maximum likelihood cluster analysis revealed four homogeneous groups of brain regions according to their respective kinetic constants: (1) white matter and mixed brainstem structures; (2) cerebellar gray matter and hippocampal formations; (3) basal ganglia and frontolateral and primary visual cortex; and (4) other cerebral cortex and thalamus. Across the entire brain, k1 and k2 were positively correlated (r . 0.79); k1 and k3 showed some correlation (r . 0.59); but no significant linear association was found between k2 and k3. A strong correlation with CMRglu could be demonstrated for k1 (r . 0.88) and k3 (r . 0.90), but k2 was loosely correlated (r . 0.56).

  7. Consumption of Cross-Linked Resistant Starch (RS4XL) on Glucose and Insulin Responses in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tamimi, Enas K.; Seib, Paul A.; Snyder, Brian S.; Haub, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to compare the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses to nutrition bars containing either cross-linked RS type 4 (RS4XL) or standard wheat starch in normoglycemic adults (n = 13; age = 27 ± 5 years; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg/m2). Methods. Volunteers completed three trials during which they consumed a glucose beverage (GLU), a puffed wheat control bar (PWB), and a bar containing cross-linked RS4 (RS4XL) matched for available carbohydrate content. Serial blood samples were collected over two hours and glucose and insulin concentrations were determined and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was calculated. Results. The RS4XL peak glucose and insulin concentrations were lower than the GLU and PWB (P < .05). The iAUC for glucose and insulin were lower following ingestion of RS4 compared with the GLU and PWB trials. Conclusions. These data illustrate, for the first time, that directly substituting standard starch with RS4XL, while matched for available carbohydrates, attenuated postprandial glucose and insulin levels in humans. It remains to be determined whether this response was due to the dietary fiber and/or resistant starch aspects of the RS4XL bar. PMID:20798767

  8. Multiple approaches to predicting oxygen and glucose consumptions by HepG2 cells on porous scaffolds in an axial-flow bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Podichetty, Jagdeep T; Bhaskar, Prasana R; Singarapu, Kumar; Madihally, Sundararajan V

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the distribution of oxygen and glucose was evaluated along with consumption by hepatocytes using three different approaches. The methods include (i) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation, (ii) residence time distribution (RTD) analysis using a step-input coupled with segregation model or dispersion model, and (iii) experimentally determined consumption by HepG2 cells in an open-loop. Chitosan-gelatin (CG) scaffolds prepared by freeze-drying and polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds prepared by salt leaching technique were utilized for RTD analyses. The scaffold characteristics were used in CFD simulations i.e. Brinkman's equation for flow through porous medium, structural mechanics for fluid induced scaffold deformation, and advection-diffusion equation coupled with Michaelis-Menten rate equations for nutrient consumption. With the assumption that each hepatocyte behaves like a micro-batch reactor within the scaffold, segregation model was combined with RTD to determine exit concentration. A flow rate of 1 mL/min was used in the bioreactor seeded with 0.6 × 10(6) HepG2 cells/cm(3) on CG scaffolds and oxygen consumption was measured using two flow-through electrodes located at the inlet and outlet. Glucose in the spent growth medium was also analyzed. RTD results showed distribution of nutrients to depend on the surface characteristics of scaffolds. Comparisons of outlet oxygen concentrations between the simulation results, and experimental results showed good agreement with the dispersion model. Outlet oxygen concentrations from segregation model predictions were lower. Doubling the cell density showed a need for increasing the flow rate in CFD simulations. This integrated approach provide a useful strategy in designing bioreactors and monitoring tissue regeneration. PMID:25116006

  9. Associations of Sleep Apnea, NRG1 Polymorphisms, Alcohol Consumption, and Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities: Analysis with Genome-Wide Association Data

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Inkyung; Seo, Hyung Suk; Yoon, Daewui; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: There are few studies on gene-environment interactions with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our study aimed to explore genetic polymorphisms associated with OSA using genome-wide association (GWA) data and evaluate the effects of relevant polymorphisms on the association between risk factors, including obesity and alcohol consumption, and OSA. We also investigated on these associations in relation to cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance images. Design: A cross-sectional design. Setting: A polysomnography study embedded in a population-based cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study was conducted in 2011–2013. Participants: 1,763 participants aged 48–78 years. Results: 251 individuals were identified to have OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15. A common polymorphism of neuregulin-1 gene (NRG1), rs10097555, was selected as the most suggestive locus associated with OSA (P value < 10−5) based on the results of GWA analysis in a matched case-control subsample (n = 470). Among 1,763 participants, we found that the presence of the NRG1 polymorphism is inversely associated with OSA (P value < 0.01) even after taking into account potential risk factors; the multivariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the mutant alleles was 0.57 (0.39–0.82) compared with the wild-type. We observed that this association is modified by alcohol consumption (P < 0.05), not by obesity. We also observed that WMH are positively associated with OSA independent of the NRG1 polymorphism and alcohol consumption (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the neuregulin-1 gene (NRG1) may be involved in the etiological mechanisms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and that carriers of a particular NRG1 mutation may be less likely to have OSA if they do not drink alcoholic beverages. Citation: Baik I, Seo HS, Yoon D, Kim SH, Shin C. Associations of sleep apnea, NRG1 polymorphisms, alcohol consumption, and cerebral white

  10. Cerebral circulatory and metabolic effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine in anesthetized baboons.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, M A; MacKenzie, E T

    1977-01-01

    1. The cerebral circulatory effects of the intracarotid administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine were examined in anaesthetized baboons. Cerebral blood flow was measured by the intracarotid 133Xe technique, cerebral O2 consumption and glucose uptake were measured as indices of brain metabolism and electrocortical activity was continuously monitored. 2. Despite a marked reduction in the calibre of the internal carotid artery (assessed angiographically), the intracarotid infusion of 5-hydroxytryptamine 0-1 microgram/kg. min did not effect any significant changes in cerebral blood flow, O2 consumption or glucose uptake. 3. Following transient osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier with the intracarotid infusion of hypertonic urea, the same dose of 5-hydroxytryptamine effected a marked reduction in cerebral blood flow from 51 +/- 2 to 36 +/- 2 ml./100 g. min (mean +/- S.E.; P less than 0-01). Both indices of cerebral metabolism were reduced significantly and the e.e.g. showed a more pronounced suppression-burst pattern. 4. We postulate that the cerebral circulatory responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine are dependent upon the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and the predominant effect of the intravascular administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine is on cortical activity or metabolism, rather than on cerebrovascular smooth muscle. Images Plate 1 PMID:411921

  11. Purification and Characterization of Aporphine Alkaloids from Leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn and Their Effects on Glucose Consumption in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chengjun; Wang, Jinjun; Chu, Hongmei; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Zhenhua; Wang, Honglun; Li, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Aporphine alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn are substances of great interest because of their important pharmacological activities, particularly anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidant, and anti-HIV’s activities. In order to produce large amounts of pure alkaloid for research purposes, a novel method using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed. Without any initial cleanup steps, four main aporphine alkaloids, including 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine, pronuciferine, nuciferine and roemerine were successfully purified from the crude extract by HSCCC in one step. The separation was performed with a simple two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetonitrile-water (5:3:3:2.5:5, v/v/v/v/v). In each operation, 100 mg crude extracts was separated and yielded 6.3 mg of 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine (95.1% purity), 1.1 mg of pronuciferine (96.8% purity), 8.5 mg of nuciferine (98.9% purity), and 2.7 mg of roemerine (97.4%) respectively. The chemical structure of four aporphine alkaloids are identified by means of electrospray ionization MS (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Moreover, the effects of four separated aporphine alkaloids on insulin-stimulated glucose consumption were examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results showed that 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine and pronuciferine increased the glucose consumption significantly as rosiglitazone did. PMID:24577311

  12. Purification and characterization of aporphine alkaloids from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn and their effects on glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chengjun; Wang, Jinjun; Chu, Hongmei; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Zhenhua; Wang, Honglun; Li, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Aporphine alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn are substances of great interest because of their important pharmacological activities, particularly anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidant, and anti-HIV's activities. In order to produce large amounts of pure alkaloid for research purposes, a novel method using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed. Without any initial cleanup steps, four main aporphine alkaloids, including 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine, pronuciferine, nuciferine and roemerine were successfully purified from the crude extract by HSCCC in one step. The separation was performed with a simple two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetonitrile-water (5:3:3:2.5:5, v/v/v/v/v). In each operation, 100 mg crude extracts was separated and yielded 6.3 mg of 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine (95.1% purity), 1.1 mg of pronuciferine (96.8% purity), 8.5 mg of nuciferine (98.9% purity), and 2.7 mg of roemerine (97.4%) respectively. The chemical structure of four aporphine alkaloids are identified by means of electrospray ionization MS (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Moreover, the effects of four separated aporphine alkaloids on insulin-stimulated glucose consumption were examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results showed that 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine and pronuciferine increased the glucose consumption significantly as rosiglitazone did. PMID:24577311

  13. Sensory-specific appetition: Postingestive detection of glucose rapidly promotes continued consumption of a recently encountered flavor.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kevin P; Taddeo, Marisa S; Richards, Emily K

    2013-09-10

    It is generally thought that macronutrients stimulate intake when sensed in the mouth (e.g., sweet taste) but as food enters the GI tract its effects become inhibitory, triggering satiation processes leading to meal termination. Here we report experiments extending recent work (see Zukerman et al., 2011 [1]) showing that under some circumstances nutrients sensed in the gut produce a positive feedback effect, immediately promoting continued intake. In one experiment, rats with intragastric (IG) catheters were accustomed to consuming novel flavors in saccharin daily while receiving water infused IG (5ml/15min). The very first time glucose (16% w/w) was infused IG instead of water, intake accelerated within 6min of infusion onset and total intake increased 29% over baseline. Experiment 2 replicated this stimulatory effect with glucose infusion but not fructose nor maltodextrin. Experiment 3 showed that the immediate intake stimulation is specific to the flavor accompanying the glucose infusion. Rats were accustomed to flavored saccharin being removed and replaced with the same or a different flavor. When glucose infusion accompanied the first bottle, intake from the second bottle was stimulated only when it contained the same flavor, not when the flavor switched. Thus we confirm not only that glucose sensed postingestively can have a rapid, positive feedback effect ('appetition' as opposed to 'satiation') but that it is sensory-specific, promoting continued intake of a recently encountered flavor. This sensory-specific motivation may represent an additional psychobiological influence on meal size, and further, has implications for the mechanisms of learned flavor-nutrient associations. PMID:23562868

  14. Effects of Acute Caffeinated Coffee Consumption on Energy Utilization Related to Glucose and Lipid Oxidation from Short Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Sedentary Men

    PubMed Central

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Sallepan, Maliwan; Charoenwattana, Sukanya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study was to evaluate the short term effect of coffee drinking on energy utilization in sedentary men. Methods: This study was performed in healthy sedentary men, who were randomized into three groups, control (n = 6), decaffeinated (n = 10), and caffeine (n = 10). The caffeine dose in coffee was rechecked and calculated for individual volunteers at 5 mg/kg. Baseline before drinking, complete blood count (CBC), glucose, antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxide, and caffeine in blood was evaluated. After drinking coffee for 1 hr, the submaximal exercise test with a modified Bruce protocol was carried out, and the VO2 and RER were analyzed individually at 80% maximal heart rate, then the blood was repeat evaluated. Results: Three groups showed a nonsignificant difference in CBC results and physical characteristics. The caffeine group showed significant changes in all parameters; higher VO2 levels, (P = 0.037) and lower RER (P = 0.047), when compared to the baseline. Furthermore, the glucose level after exercise test increased significantly (P = 0.033) as well as lipid peroxide levels (P = 0.005), whereas antioxidant capacity did not change significantly (P = 0.759), when compared to the before exercise testing. In addition, the blood caffeine level also increased only in the caffeine group (P = 0.008). Conclusion: Short consumption of caffeinated coffee (5 mg/kg of caffeine), improves energy utilization and relates to glucose derivation and lipid oxidation. PMID:23946663

  15. Co-consumption of glucose and xylose for organic acid production by Aspergillus carbonarius cultivated in wheat straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Lübeck, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius exhibits excellent abilities to utilize a wide range of carbon sources and to produce various organic acids. In this study, wheat straw hydrolysate containing high concentrations of glucose and xylose was used for organic acid production by A. carbonarius. The results indicated that A. carbonarius efficiently co-consumed glucose and xylose and produced various types of organic acids in hydrolysate adjusted to pH 7. The inhibitor tolerance of A. carbonarius to the hydrolysate at different pH values was investigated and compared using spores and recycled mycelia. This comparison showed a slight difference in the inhibitor tolerance of the spores and the recycled mycelia based on their growth patterns. Moreover, the wild-type and a glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutant were compared for their abilities to produce organic acids using the hydrolysate and a defined medium. The two strains showed a different pattern of organic acid production in the hydrolysate where the Δgox mutant produced more oxalic acid but less citric acid than the wild-type, which was different from the results obtained in the defined medium This study demonstrates the feasibility of using lignocellulosic biomass for the organic acid production by A. carbonarius. PMID:26925619

  16. Intestinal Fluid and Glucose Transport in Wistar Rats following Chronic Consumption of Fresh or Oxidised Palm Oil Diet

    PubMed Central

    Obembe, Agona O.; Owu, Daniel U.; Okwari, Obem O.; Antai, Atim B.; Osim, Eme E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of thermoxidized palm oil causes functional derangement of various tissues. This study was therefore carried out to determine the effect of chronic ingestion of thermoxidized and fresh palm oil diets on intestinal fluid and glucose absorption in rats using the everted sac technique. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats per group. The first group was the control and was fed on normal rat chow while the second (FPO) and third groups (TPO) were fed diet containing either fresh or thermoxidized palm oil (15% wt/wt) for 14 weeks. Villus height and crypt depth were measured. The gut fluid uptake and gut glucose uptake were significantly (P < .001) lower in the TPO group than those in the FPO and control groups, respectively. The villus height in the TPO was significantly (P < .01) lower than that in FPO and control. The villus depth in TPO was significantly (P < .05) higher than that in FPO and control groups, respectively. These results suggest that ingestion of thermoxidized palm oil and not fresh palm oil may lead to distortion in villus morphology with a concomitant malabsorption of fluid and glucose in rats due to its harmful free radicals. PMID:21991537

  17. Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft-drink and fruit juice beverages differentially associated with glucose-related measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observational studies have linked sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption to weight gain, metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 DM. Impaired insulin sensitivity is a key metabolic abnormality associated with these conditions and high-fructose corn syrup, the main caloric sweetener in sodas, has bee...

  18. Use of glucose consumption rate (GCR) as a tool to monitor and control animal cell production processes in packed-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Meuwly, F; Papp, F; Ruffieux, P-A; Bernard, A R; Kadouri, A; von Stockar, U

    2006-03-01

    For animal cell cultures growing in packed-bed bioreactors where cell number cannot be determined directly, there is a clear need to use indirect methods that are not based on cell counts in order to monitor and control the process. One option is to use the glucose consumption rate (GCR) of the culture as an indirect measure to monitor the process in bioreactors. This study was done on a packed-bed bioreactor process using recombinant CHO cells cultured on Fibra-Cel disk carriers in perfusion mode at high cell densities. A key step in the process is the switch of the process from the cell growth phase to the production phase triggered by a reduction of the temperature. In this system, we have used a GCR value of 300 g of glucose per kilogram of disks per day as a criterion for the switch. This paper will present results obtained in routine operations for the monitoring and control of an industrial process at pilot-scale. The process operated with this GCR-based strategy yielded consistent, reproducible process performance across numerous bioreactor runs performed on multiple production sites. PMID:16153735

  19. Zinc stimulates glucose consumption by modulating the insulin signaling pathway in L6 myotubes: essential roles of Akt-GLUT4, GSK3β and mTOR-S6K1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuntang; Lu, Huizi; Yang, Huijun; Li, Chunlei; Sang, Qian; Liu, Xinyan; Liu, Yongzhe; Wang, Yongming; Sun, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the insulin-like effects of zinc in normal L6 myotubes as well as its ability to alleviate insulin resistance. Glucose consumption was measured in both normal and insulin-resistant L6 myotubes. Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed that zinc exhibited insulin-like glucose transporting effects by activating key markers that are involved in the insulin signaling cascade (including Akt, GLUT4 and GSK3β), and downregulating members of the insulin signaling feedback cascade such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1). In normal L6 myotubes, zinc enhanced glucose consumption via a mechanism that might involve the activation of Akt phosphorylation, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and GSK3β phosphorylation. In contrast, zinc exerted insulin-mimetic effects in insulin-resistant L6 myotubes by upregulating Akt phosphorylation, GLUT4 translocation and GSK3β phosphorylation, and downregulating the expression of mTOR and S6K1. In conclusion, zinc might enhance glucose consumption by modulating insulin signaling pathways including Akt-GLUT4, GSK3β, mTOR and S6K1. PMID:27295130

  20. Estimation of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption with proton detected 17O MRI during precision 17O2 inhalation in swine

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Eric A.; Beesam, R. Shashank; Baumgardner, James E.; Borthakur, Arijitt; Witschey, Walter R.; Reddy, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of metabolic disturbances in many diseases, there are currently no clinically used methods for the detection of oxidative metabolism in vivo. To address this deficiency, 17O MRI techniques are scaled from small animals to swine as a large animal model of human inhalation and circulation. The hemispheric cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) is estimated in swine by detection of metabolically produced H217O by rapid T1ρ-weighted proton magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5 Tesla clinical scanner. The 17O is delivered as oxygen gas by a custom, minimal-loss, precision-delivery breathing circuit and converted to H217O by oxidative metabolism. A model for gas arterial input is presented for the deeply breathing large animal. The arterial input function for recirculation of metabolic water is measured by arterial blood sampling and high field 17O spectroscopy. It is found that minimal metabolic water “wash-in” occurs before 60 seconds. A high temporal resolution pulse sequence is employed to measure CMRO2 during those 60 seconds after delivery begins. Only about one tidal volume of 17O enriched oxygen gas is used per measurement. Proton measurements of signal change due to metabolically produced water are correlated with 17O in vivo spectroscopy. Using these techniques, the hemispheric CMRO2 in swine is estimated to be 1.23 ± 0.26 μmol/g/min, consistent with existing literature values. All of the technology used to perform these CMRO2 estimates can easily be adapted to clinical MR scanners, and it is hoped that this work will lead to future studies of human disease. PMID:19428508

  1. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  2. BID Mediates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neuronal Injury in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures and Modulates Tissue Inflammation in a Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model without Changing Lesion Volume

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Nellie Anne; Bonner, Helena; Elkjær, Maria Louise; D’Orsi, Beatrice; Chen, Gang; König, Hans Georg; Svensson, Martina; Deierborg, Tomas; Pfeiffer, Shona; Prehn, Jochen H.; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in death receptor-induced and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Recently, it has also been suggested that BID is involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. We found that BID deficiency protected organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in vitro from neuronal injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. In vivo, BID-knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to 60 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) to induce focal cerebral ischemia, and allowed to recover for 24 h. Infarct volumes and functional outcome were assessed and the inflammatory response was evaluated using immunofluorescence, Western blotting, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Mesoscale multiplex analysis. We observed no difference in the infarct volume or neurological outcome between BID-KO and WT mice. The inflammatory response was reduced by BID deficiency as indicated by a change in microglial/leukocyte response. In conclusion, our data suggest that BID deficiency is neuroprotective in an in vitro model and modulates the inflammatory response to focal cerebral ischemia in vivo. However, this is not translated into a robust neuroprotection in vivo. PMID:26869884

  3. Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. hydroalcoholic seed extract increases glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Parimala, Mabel; Debjani, M; Vasanthi, Hannah Rachel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

    2015-01-01

    Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. (Family - Nymphaeaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant used in the Indian ayurvedic system of medicine for treating diabetes. The seeds especially have been prescribed for diabetes. The hydroalcoholic extract of N. nouchali seeds has been demonstrated to possess anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic rats, but the functional mechanism remains unknown. The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is noted to play an important role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study was hence focused in evaluating the effect of the extract on PPARγ activation, adipocyte differentiation, and glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 cells. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), followed by adipogenesis assay using Oil Red O technique. Glucose consumption of preadipocytes and adipocytes in the presence of the extract was also determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the expression of genes involved in glucose consumption in the adipocytes. MTT assay confirmed the extract to be nontoxic, and Oil Red O staining confirmed enhanced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also increased the expression of PPARγ target gene, which in turn enhanced the expression of GLUT-4. The data, therefore, suggests that N. nouchali seed extract promotes adipocyte differentiation and glucose consumption by inducing PPARγ activation, which in turn increases mRNA GLUT-4 expression and subsequently enhances insulin-responsiveness in insulin target tissues. PMID:26605160

  4. Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. hydroalcoholic seed extract increases glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Parimala, Mabel; Debjani, M.; Vasanthi, Hannah Rachel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

    2015-01-01

    Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. (Family – Nymphaeaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant used in the Indian ayurvedic system of medicine for treating diabetes. The seeds especially have been prescribed for diabetes. The hydroalcoholic extract of N. nouchali seeds has been demonstrated to possess anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic rats, but the functional mechanism remains unknown. The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is noted to play an important role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study was hence focused in evaluating the effect of the extract on PPARγ activation, adipocyte differentiation, and glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 cells. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), followed by adipogenesis assay using Oil Red O technique. Glucose consumption of preadipocytes and adipocytes in the presence of the extract was also determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the expression of genes involved in glucose consumption in the adipocytes. MTT assay confirmed the extract to be nontoxic, and Oil Red O staining confirmed enhanced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also increased the expression of PPARγ target gene, which in turn enhanced the expression of GLUT-4. The data, therefore, suggests that N. nouchali seed extract promotes adipocyte differentiation and glucose consumption by inducing PPARγ activation, which in turn increases mRNA GLUT-4 expression and subsequently enhances insulin-responsiveness in insulin target tissues. PMID:26605160

  5. Twenty-four Hour Endocrine and Metabolic Profiles Following Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup-, Sucrose- Fructose-, and Glucose-Sweetened Beverages with Meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. ...

  6. Using simple models to describe the kinetics of growth, glucose consumption, and monoclonal antibody formation in naive and infliximab producer CHO cells.

    PubMed

    López-Meza, Julián; Araíz-Hernández, Diana; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi Maribel; López-Pacheco, Felipe; Rocha-Pizaña, María Del Refugio; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2016-08-01

    Despite their practical and commercial relevance, there are few reports on the kinetics of growth and production of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-the most frequently used host for the industrial production of therapeutic proteins. We characterize the kinetics of cell growth, substrate consumption, and product formation in naive and monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing recombinant CHO cells. Culture experiments were performed in 125 mL shake flasks on commercial culture medium (CD Opti CHO™ Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) diluted to different glucose concentrations (1.2-4.8 g/L). The time evolution of cell, glucose, lactic acid concentration and monoclonal antibody concentrations was monitored on a daily basis for mAb-producing cultures and their naive counterparts. The time series were differentiated to calculate the corresponding kinetic rates (rx = d[X]/dt; rs = d[S]/dt; rp = d[mAb]/dt). Results showed that these cell lines could be modeled by Monod-like kinetics if a threshold substrate concentration value of [S]t = 0.58 g/L (for recombinant cells) and [S]t = 0.96 g/L (for naïve cells), below which growth is not observed, was considered. A set of values for μmax, and Ks was determined for naive and recombinant cell cultures cultured at 33 and 37 °C. The yield coefficient (Yx/s) was observed to be a function of substrate concentration, with values in the range of 0.27-1.08 × 10(7) cell/mL and 0.72-2.79 × 10(6) cells/mL for naive and recombinant cultures, respectively. The kinetics of mAb production can be described by a Luedeking-Piret model (d[mAb]/dt = αd[X]/dt + β[X]) with values of α = 7.65 × 10(-7) µg/cell and β = 7.68 × 10(-8) µg/cell/h for cultures conducted in batch-agitated flasks and batch and instrumented bioreactors operated in batch and fed-batch mode. PMID:26091615

  7. Short-term consumption of sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, is similar to water with regard to select markers of hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis in women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Onken, Kristine L; Beitz, Donald C

    2011-12-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners have been used to lower the energy density of foods with the intention of affecting weight loss or weight maintenance. However, some epidemiological and animal evidence indicates an association between weight gain or insulin resistance and artificial sweetener consumption. In the present study, we hypothesized that the nonnutritive sweetener sucralose, a trichlorinated sucrose molecule, would elicit responses similar to water but different from sucrose and sucrose combined with sucralose on subjective and hormonal indications of hunger and short-term glucose homeostasis. Eight female volunteers (body mass index, 22.16 ± 1.71 kg/m(2); age, 21.75 ± 2.25 years) consumed sucrose and/or sucralose in water in a factorial design. Blood samples were taken at fasting and 30 and 60 minutes after treatment followed by a standardized breakfast across treatments, and blood samples were taken 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after breakfast. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin, glucagon, triacylglycerols (TAG), and acylated ghrelin. Perceptions of hunger and other subjective measurements were assessed before each blood sample. No differences were detected in subjective responses, circulating triacylglycerol, or glucagon concentrations among treatments over time. Significant differences were observed in insulin, glucose, and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time only between sucrose-containing treatments and non-sucrose-containing treatments regardless of sucralose consumption. Therefore, sucralose may be a relatively inert nonnutritive sweetener with regard to hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis. PMID:22153513

  8. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of mea...

  9. Cerebral Hypoxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page Synonym(s): Hypoxia, Anoxia Table of Contents ( ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Cerebral Hypoxia? Cerebral hypoxia refers to a condition in which ...

  10. Berberine treatment attenuates the palmitate-mediated inhibition of glucose uptake and consumption through increased 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerol synthesis and accumulation in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wenguang; Chen, Li; Hatch, Grant M

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunction of lipid metabolism and accumulation of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (DAG) may be a key factor in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid extract that has shown promise as a hypoglycemic agent in the management of diabetes in animal and human studies. However, its mechanism of action is not well understood. To determine the effect of BBR on lipid synthesis and its relationship to insulin resistance in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, we measured neutral lipid and phospholipid synthesis and their relationship to glucose uptake. Compared with controls, BBR treatment stimulated 2-[1,2-(3)H(N)]deoxy-D-glucose uptake and consumption in palmitate-mediated insulin resistant H9c2 cells. The mechanism was though an increase in protein kinase B (AKT) activity and GLUT-4 glucose transporter expression. DAG accumulated in palmitate-mediated insulin resistant H9c2 cells and treatment with BBR reduced this DAG accumulation and increased accumulation of 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerol (TAG) compared to controls. Treatment of palmitate-mediated insulin resistant H9c2 cells with BBR increased [1,3-(3)H]glycerol and [1-(14)C]glucose incorporation into TAG and reduced their incorporation into DAG compared to control. In addition, BBR treatment of these cells increased [1-(14)C]palmitic acid incorporation into TAG and decreased its incorporation into DAG compared to controls. BBR treatment did not alter phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis. The mechanism for the BBR-mediated decreased precursor incorporation into DAG and increased incorporation into TAG in palmitate-incubated cells was an increase in DAG acyltransferase-2 activity and its expression and a decrease in TAG hydrolysis. Thus, BBR treatment attenuates palmitate-induced reduction in glucose uptake and consumption, in part, through reduction in cellular DAG levels and accumulation of TAG in H9c2 cells. PMID:26774040

  11. Consumption of the slow-digesting waxy maize starch leads to blunted plasma glucose and insulin response but does not influence energy expenditure or appetite in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Amanda L.; Leidy, Heather J.; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Maguire, Paul; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2015-01-01

    Limited research in humans suggests that slowly digestible starch may blunt the postprandial increase and subsequent decline of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, leading to prolonged energy availability and satiety, compared to more rapidly digestible starch. This study examined the postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of waxy maize starch (WM), a slow-digestible starch. It was hypothesized that the waxy maize treatment would result in a blunted and more sustained glucose and insulin response, as well as energy expenditure and appetitive responses. Twelve subjects (6 men and 6 women) (age, 23 ± 1 years; body mass index, 22.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2; insulin sensitivity [homeostatic model assessment], 16% ± 2%; physical activity, 556 ± 120 min/wk) consumed, on separate days, 50 g of available carbohydrate as WM, a maltodextrin-sucrose mixture (MS), or white bread (control). Postprandial plasma glucose and insulin, energy expenditure, and appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat) were measured over 4 hours. Compared to control, the 4-hour glucose response was not different for MS and WM, and the 4-hour insulin response was higher for MS (P < .005) and lower for WM (P < .05). Compared to MS, WM led to lower 4-hour glucose and insulin responses (P < .001). These differences were driven by blunted glucose and insulin responses during the first hour for WM. Postprandial energy expenditure and appetite were not different among treatments. These results support that WM provides sustained glucose availability in young, insulin-sensitive adults. PMID:19628104

  12. Dynamics of Substrate Consumption and Enzyme Synthesis in Chelatobacter heintzii during Growth in Carbon-Limited Continuous Culture with Different Mixtures of Glucose and Nitrilotriacetate

    PubMed Central

    Bally, M.; Egli, T.

    1996-01-01

    Regulation of nitrilotriacetate (NTA) degradation and expression of NTA monooxygenase (NTA-MO) in the NTA-degrading strain Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600 in continuous culture at a dilution rate of 0.06 h(sup-1) under transient growth conditions when the feed was switched between media containing NTA, glucose, or different mixtures thereof as the sole carbon and energy sources was investigated. A transition from NTA to glucose was accompanied by a rapid loss of NTA-MO. A transition from glucose to NTA resulted in a lag phase of some 25 h until NTA-MO expression started, and approximately 100 h was needed before a steady state for NTA-MO specific activity was reached. This transient lag phase was markedly shortened when mixtures of NTA plus glucose were supplied instead of NTA only; for example, when a mixture of 90% glucose and 10% NTA was used, induction of NTA-MO was detected after 30 min. This suggests a strong positive influence of alternative carbon substrates on the expression of other enzymes under natural environmental conditions. Regulation of NTA-MO expression and the fate of NTA-MO were also studied during starvation of both glucose-grown and NTA-grown cultures. Starvation of NTA-grown cells led to a loss of NTA-MO protein. No synthesis of NTA-MO (derepression) was observed when glucose-grown cells were starved. PMID:16535204

  13. Consumption of the slow-digesting waxy maize starch leads to blunted plasma glucose and insulin response but does not influence energy expenditure or appetite in humans.

    PubMed

    Sands, Amanda L; Leidy, Heather J; Hamaker, Bruce R; Maguire, Paul; Campbell, Wayne W

    2009-06-01

    Limited research in humans suggests that slowly digestible starch may blunt the postprandial increase and subsequent decline of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, leading to prolonged energy availability and satiety, compared to more rapidly digestible starch. This study examined the postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of waxy maize starch (WM), a slow-digestible starch. It was hypothesized that the waxy maize treatment would result in a blunted and more sustained glucose and insulin response, as well as energy expenditure and appetitive responses. Twelve subjects (6 men and 6 women) (age, 23 +/- 1 years; body mass index, 22.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2); insulin sensitivity [homeostatic model assessment], 16% +/- 2%; physical activity, 556 +/- 120 min/wk) consumed, on separate days, 50 g of available carbohydrate as WM, a maltodextrin-sucrose mixture (MS), or white bread (control). Postprandial plasma glucose and insulin, energy expenditure, and appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat) were measured over 4 hours. Compared to control, the 4-hour glucose response was not different for MS and WM, and the 4-hour insulin response was higher for MS (P < .005) and lower for WM (P < .05). Compared to MS, WM led to lower 4-hour glucose and insulin responses (P < .001). These differences were driven by blunted glucose and insulin responses during the first hour for WM. Postprandial energy expenditure and appetite were not different among treatments. These results support that WM provides sustained glucose availability in young, insulin-sensitive adults. PMID:19628104

  14. The effect of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) on postprandial blood glucose, incretins, and antioxidant activity in Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes after consumption of two different composition breakfasts.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Patricia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Vázquez-Manjarrez, Natalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Torres, Nimbe

    2014-11-01

    Nopal is a plant used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat diabetes. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to demonstrate whether nopal can regulate postprandial glucose. The purpose for conducting this study was to evaluate the glycemic index, insulinemic index, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) index, and the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) index, and the effect of nopal on patients with type 2 diabetes after consumption of a high-carbohydrate breakfast (HCB) or high-soy-protein breakfast (HSPB) on the postprandial response of glucose, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and antioxidant activity. In study 1, the glycemic index, insulinemic index, GIP index, and GLP-1 index were calculated for seven healthy participants who consumed 50 g of available carbohydrates from glucose or dehydrated nopal. In study 2, 14 patients with type 2 diabetes consumed nopal in HCB or HSPB with or without 300 g steamed nopal. The glycemic index of nopal was 32.5±4, insulinemic index was 36.1±6, GIP index was 6.5±3.0, and GLP-1 index was 25.9±18. For those patients with type 2 diabetes who consumed the HCB+nopal, there was significantly lower area under the curve for glucose (287±30) than for those who consumed the HCB only (443±49), and lower incremental area under the curve for insulin (5,952±833 vs 7,313±1,090), and those patients with type 2 diabetes who consumed the HSPB avoided postprandial blood glucose peaks. Consumption of the HSPB+nopal significantly reduced the postprandial peaks of GIP concentration at 30 and 45 minutes and increased the antioxidant activity after 2 hours measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidracyl method. These findings suggest that nopal could reduce postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma GIP peaks, as well as increase antioxidant activity in healthy people and patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25132122

  15. Comparison of clinical types of Wilson's disease and glucose metabolism in extrapyramidal motor brain regions.

    PubMed

    Hermann, W; Barthel, H; Hesse, S; Grahmann, F; Kühn, H-J; Wagner, A; Villmann, T

    2002-07-01

    In Wilson's disease a disturbed glucose metabolism especially in striatal and cerebellar areas has been reported. This is correlated with the severity of extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS). These findings are only based on a small number of patients. Up to now it is unknown whether EPS are caused by various patterns of disturbed basal ganglia glucose metabolism. We investigated 37 patients and 9 normal volunteers to characterize the disturbed glucose metabolism in Wilson's disease more precisely. The glucose metabolism was determined in 5 cerebellar and cerebral areas (putamen, caput nuclei caudati, cerebellum, midbrain and thalamic area) by using (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography ( [(18)F]FDG-PET). The database was evaluated by a cluster analysis. Additionally, the severity extrapyramidal motor symptoms were judged by a clinical score system. Three characteristic patterns of glucose metabolism in basal ganglia were obtained. Two of them may be assigned to patients with neurological symptoms whereas the third cluster corresponds to most patients without EPS or normal volunteers. The clusters can be identified by characteristic consumption rates in this 5 brain areas. The severity of EPS can not clearly be assigned to one of the clusters with disturbed glucose metabolism. However, the most severe cases are characterized by the lowest consumption in the striatal area. When there is marked improvement of EPS impaired glucose consumption reveals a persistent brain lesion. Finally, the neurological symptoms in Wilson's disease are caused by (at least) two different patterns of disturbed glucose metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum. The severity of EPS seems to be determined by a disturbed consumption in the striatal area. PMID:12140675

  16. Blood glucose and meal patterns in time-blinded males, after aspartame, carbohydrate, and fat consumption, in relation to sweetness perception.

    PubMed

    Melanson, K J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Campfield, L A; Saris, W H

    1999-12-01

    In a study of the impact of aspartame, fat, and carbohydrate on appetite, we monitored blood glucose continuously for 431 (SE 16) min. Ten healthy males (19-31 years) participated in three time-blinded visits. As blood glucose was monitored, appetite ratings were scored at randomized times. On the first meal initiation, volunteers consumed one of three isovolumetric drinks (aspartame, 1 MJ simple carbohydrate, and 1 MJ high-fat; randomized order). High-fat and high-carbohydrate foods were available ad libitum subsequently. Blood glucose patterns following the carbohydrate drink (+1.78 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 38 (SE 3) min) and high-fat drink (+0.83 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 49 (SE 6) min) were predictive of the next intermeal interval (R 0.64 and R 0.97 respectively). Aspartame ingestion was followed by blood glucose declines (40% of subjects), increases (20%), or stability (40%). These patterns were related to the volunteers' perception of sweetness of the drink (R 0.81, P = 0.014), and were predictive of subsequent intakes (R -0.71, P = 0.048). For all drinks combined, declines in blood glucose and meal initiation were significantly associated (chi 2 16.8, P < 0.001), the duration of blood glucose responses and intermeal intervals correlated significantly (R 0.715, P = 0.0001), and sweetness perception correlated negatively with hunger suppression (R -0.471, P = 0.015). Effects of fat, carbohydrate, and aspartame on meal initiation, meal size, and intermeal interval relate to blood glucose patterns. Varied blood glucose responses after aspartame support the controversy over its effects, and may relate to sweetness perception. PMID:10690159

  17. Serial PET studies of human cerebral malignancy with (1-/sup 11/C)putrescine and (1-/sup 11/C)2-deoxy-D-glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Hiesiger, E.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.; Logan, J.; Brodie, J.D.; McPherson, D.; MacGregor, R.R.; Christman, D.R.; Volkow, N.D.; Flamm, E.

    1987-08-01

    Serial PET measurements of (1-/sup 11/C)putrescine ((/sup 11/C)PUT) uptake and glucose metabolic rate (GMR) using (1-/sup 11/C)2-deoxy-D-glucose ((/sup 11/C)2DG) were made on eight human subjects with a radiological and, in most cases, pathological diagnosis of primary or metastatic brain tumor. Blood-to-brain influx constants (Ki) were calculated for (/sup 11/C)PUT. Tumor uptake of /sup 11/C after (/sup 11/C)PUT injection was unidirectional peaking at 15 min. The mean +/- s.d. Kis for (/sup 11/C)PUT for tumor and normal brain tissue were 0.78 +/- 0.045 and 0.024 +/- 0.007 ml cc-1 min-1, respectively (average of ratio, 3.11 whereas the ratio of GMR for tumor and normal brain tissue was 1.2 +/- 0.5. The mean Ki for four active, high grade astrocytomas was 0.098 +/- 0.030 in contrast to 0.027 +/- 0.008 ml cc-1 min-1 for two patients with low grade astrocytoma. Active high grade astrocytomas also showed marked CT contrast enhancement and regional glucose hypermetabolism. In one subject with brain metastases, both (/sup 11/C)PUT and GMR correlated with a declining clinical picture in repeated studies over a 4-mo period. PET studies with (/sup 11/C)PUT provide a better signal:noise ratio than GMR measurements, are useful for locating small glycolytically hypometabolic tumors and, when used in longitudinal studies in a single subject, appear to provide an index of degree of malignancy.

  18. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Kids > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... the things that kids do every day. What's CP? Some kids with CP use wheelchairs and others ...

  19. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... movement problems a child has. What is spastic CP? Spastic means tight or stiff muscles, or muscles ...

  20. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  1. Cerebral palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that can involve brain and nervous system functions, such as movement, ... and thinking. There are several different types of cerebral palsy, including spastic, dyskinetic, ataxic, hypotonic, and mixed.

  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in the rat: cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism after selective lesions of the catecholamine systems in the brainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, T.J.; Diemer, N.H.; Svendgaard, N.A.

    1986-10-01

    A double-isotope autoradiographic technique was used to evaluate CBF and glucose metabolism 2 days after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats with lesions in the lower brainstem. Lesioning in the mesencephalon of the ascending catecholamine pathways from locus ceruleus and from the A1 and A2 nuclei, or lesioning in the medulla oblongata of the ascending fibers from A1 and A2, prevents the development of the global changes in flow and metabolism seen in normal animals post SAH. Also the focal low-flow areas with markedly elevated deoxyglucose uptake, which can develop in normal animals 2 days post SAH, were not seen in the lesioned animals after the SAH. The findings indicate that the A1 and A2 nuclei, which project to the hypothalamus-pituitary, are essential for the flow and metabolic changes after an SAH. The lesions per se did not change baseline flow and metabolism as compared with sham-lesioned animals.

  3. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Palsy Information Page Clinical Trials Trial of Erythropoietin Neuroprotection ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Cerebral Palsy? The term cerebral palsy refers to a group ...

  4. Cerebral Aneurysms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Aneurysms Information Page Synonym(s): Aneurysm, Brain Aneurysm Condensed from ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Cerebral Aneurysms? A cerebral aneurysm is a weak or thin ...

  5. Consumption of Fructose- But not Glucose-Sweetened Beverages for 10 Weeks Increases Postprandial Triglyceride and Apolipoprotein B Concentrations in Overweight/Obese Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructose consumption in the U.S. has increased over the past three decades. During this time, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome have increased in prevalence. While fructose- rich diets promote insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in animals, there are insufficient data re...

  6. GABAA Receptor-Mediated Bidirectional Control of Synaptic Activity, Intracellular Ca2+, Cerebral Blood Flow, and Oxygen Consumption in Mouse Somatosensory Cortex In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Sanne Barsballe; Brazhe, Alexey; Lind, Barbara Lykke; Mathiesen, Claus; Thomsen, Kirsten; Jensen, Kimmo; Lauritzen, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Neural activity regulates local increases in cerebral blood flow (ΔCBF) and the cortical metabolic rate of oxygen (ΔCMRO2) that constitutes the basis of BOLD functional neuroimaging signals. Glutamate signaling plays a key role in brain vascular and metabolic control; however, the modulatory effect of GABA is incompletely understood. Here we performed in vivo studies in mice to investigate how THIP (which tonically activates extrasynaptic GABAARs) and Zolpidem (a positive allosteric modulator of synaptic GABAARs) impact stimulation-induced ΔCBF, ΔCMRO2, local field potentials (LFPs), and fluorescent cytosolic Ca(2+) transients in neurons and astrocytes. Low concentrations of THIP increased ΔCBF and ΔCMRO2 at low stimulation frequencies. These responses were coupled to increased synaptic activity as indicated by LFP responses, and to Ca(2+) activities in neurons and astrocytes. Intermediate and high concentrations of THIP suppressed ΔCBF and ΔCMRO2 at high stimulation frequencies. Zolpidem had similar but less-pronounced effects, with similar dependence on drug concentration and stimulation frequency. Our present findings suggest that slight increases in both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAAR activity might selectively gate and amplify transient low-frequency somatosensory inputs, filter out high-frequency inputs, and enhance vascular and metabolic responses that are likely to be reflected in BOLD functional neuroimaging signals. PMID:24692513

  7. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer: Repression in Chronic Hyperglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjedde, Albert; Crone, Christian

    1981-10-01

    Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.

  8. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Marie H.; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P.; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance. PMID:26397098

  9. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Marie H; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance. PMID:26397098

  10. [Contribution of the kidney to glucose homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2013-09-01

    The kidney is involved in glucose homeostasis through three major mechanisms: renal gluconeogenesis, renal glucose consumption, and glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule. Glucose reabsorption is one of the most important physiological functions of the kidney, allowing full recovery of filtered glucose, elimination of glucose from the urine, and prevention of calorie loss. Approximately 90% of the glucose is reabsorbed in the S1 segment of the proximal tubule, where glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) are located, while the remaining 10% is reabsorbed in the S3 segment by SGLT1 and GLUT1 transporters. In patients with hyperglycemia, the kidney continues to reabsorb glucose, thus maintaining hyperglycemia. Most of the renal glucose reabsorption is mediated by SGLT2. Several experimental and clinical studies suggest that pharmacological blockade of this transporter might be beneficial in the management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24444521

  11. Cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Wimalasundera, Neil; Stevenson, Valerie L

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral palsy has always been known as a disorder of movement and posture resulting from a non-progressive injury to the developing brain; however, more recent definitions allow clinicians to appreciate more than just the movement disorder. Accurate classification of cerebral palsy into distribution, motor type and functional level has advanced research. It also facilitates appropriate targeting of interventions to functional level and more accurate prognosis prediction. The prevalence of cerebral palsy remains fairly static at 2-3 per 1000 live births but there have been some changes in trends for specific causal groups. Interventions for cerebral palsy have historically been medical and physically focused, often with limited evidence to support their efficacy. The use of more appropriate outcome measures encompassing quality of life and participation is helping to deliver treatments which are more meaningful for people with cerebral palsy and their carers. PMID:26837375

  12. Cerebral Lactate Metabolism After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Patet, Camille; Suys, Tamarah; Carteron, Laurent; Oddo, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral energy dysfunction has emerged as an important determinant of prognosis following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A number of studies using cerebral microdialysis, positron emission tomography, and jugular bulb oximetry to explore cerebral metabolism in patients with TBI have demonstrated a critical decrease in the availability of the main energy substrate of brain cells (i.e., glucose). Energy dysfunction induces adaptations of cerebral metabolism that include the utilization of alternative energy resources that the brain constitutively has, such as lactate. Two decades of experimental and human investigations have convincingly shown that lactate stands as a major actor of cerebral metabolism. Glutamate-induced activation of glycolysis stimulates lactate production from glucose in astrocytes, with subsequent lactate transfer to neurons (astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle). Lactate is not only used as an extra energy substrate but also acts as a signaling molecule and regulator of systemic and brain glucose use in the cerebral circulation. In animal models of brain injury (e.g., TBI, stroke), supplementation with exogenous lactate exerts significant neuroprotection. Here, we summarize the main clinical studies showing the pivotal role of lactate and cerebral lactate metabolism after TBI. We also review pilot interventional studies that examined exogenous lactate supplementation in patients with TBI and found hypertonic lactate infusions had several beneficial properties on the injured brain, including decrease of brain edema, improvement of neuroenergetics via a "cerebral glucose-sparing effect," and increase of cerebral blood flow. Hypertonic lactate represents a promising area of therapeutic investigation; however, larger studies are needed to further examine mechanisms of action and impact on outcome. PMID:26898683

  13. 21 CFR 168.120 - Glucose sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glucose sirup. 168.120 Section 168.120 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.120 Glucose sirup. (a) Glucose sirup is the purified, concentrated, aqueous solution of...

  14. 21 CFR 168.120 - Glucose sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glucose sirup. 168.120 Section 168.120 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.120 Glucose sirup. (a) Glucose sirup is the purified, concentrated, aqueous solution of...

  15. 21 CFR 168.120 - Glucose sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glucose sirup. 168.120 Section 168.120 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.120 Glucose sirup. (a) Glucose sirup is the purified, concentrated, aqueous solution of...

  16. Cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Graham, H Kerr; Rosenbaum, Peter; Paneth, Nigel; Dan, Bernard; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Damiano, Diane L; Becher, Jules G; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Colver, Allan; Reddihough, Dinah S; Crompton, Kylie E; Lieber, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood-onset, lifelong physical disability in most countries, affecting about 1 in 500 neonates with an estimated prevalence of 17 million people worldwide. Cerebral palsy is not a disease entity in the traditional sense but a clinical description of children who share features of a non-progressive brain injury or lesion acquired during the antenatal, perinatal or early postnatal period. The clinical manifestations of cerebral palsy vary greatly in the type of movement disorder, the degree of functional ability and limitation and the affected parts of the body. There is currently no cure, but progress is being made in both the prevention and the amelioration of the brain injury. For example, administration of magnesium sulfate during premature labour and cooling of high-risk infants can reduce the rate and severity of cerebral palsy. Although the disorder affects individuals throughout their lifetime, most cerebral palsy research efforts and management strategies currently focus on the needs of children. Clinical management of children with cerebral palsy is directed towards maximizing function and participation in activities and minimizing the effects of the factors that can make the condition worse, such as epilepsy, feeding challenges, hip dislocation and scoliosis. These management strategies include enhancing neurological function during early development; managing medical co-morbidities, weakness and hypertonia; using rehabilitation technologies to enhance motor function; and preventing secondary musculoskeletal problems. Meeting the needs of people with cerebral palsy in resource-poor settings is particularly challenging. PMID:27188686

  17. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a ... ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. ...

  18. Cerebral Arteriosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cerebral arteriosclerosis is the result of thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries in the ... cause an ischemic stroke. When the thickening and hardening is uneven, arterial walls can develop bulges (called ...

  19. Cerebral angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cerebral angiography is done in the hospital or radiology center. You lie on an x-ray table. ... be done in preparation for medical treatment (interventional radiology procedures) by way of certain blood vessels. What ...

  20. Rosemary tea consumption results to anxiolytic- and anti-depressant-like behavior of adult male mice and inhibits all cerebral area and liver cholinesterase activity; phytochemical investigation and in silico studies.

    PubMed

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Katsikoudi, Antigoni; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Kellici, Tahsin F; Iatrou, Grigoris; Lamari, Fotini N; Tzakos, Andreas G; Margarity, Marigoula

    2015-07-25

    Our aim was to investigate the possible effects of regular drinking of Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf infusion on behavior and on AChE activity of mice. Rosemary tea (2% w/w) phytochemical profile was investigated through LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n). Adult male mice were randomly divided into two groups: "Rosemary-treated" that received orally the rosemary tea for 4weeks and "control" that received drinking water. The effects of regular drinking of rosemary tea on behavioral parameters were assessed by passive avoidance, elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests. Moreover, its effects on cerebral and liver cholinesterase (ChE) isoforms activity were examined colorimetricaly. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of diterpenes, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives in rosemary tea; the major compounds were quantitatively determined. Its consumption rigorously affected anxiety/fear and depression-like behavior of mice, though memory/learning was unaffected. ChE isoforms activity was significantly decreased in brain and liver of "rosemary treated" mice. In order to explain the tissue ChE inhibition, principal component analysis, pharmacophore alignment and molecular docking were used to explore a possible relationship between main identified compounds of rosemary tea, i.e. rosmarinic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, caffeic acid and known AChE inhibitors. Results revealed potential common pharmacophores of the phenolic components with the inhibitors. Our findings suggest that rosemary tea administration exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects on mice and inhibits ChE activity; its main phytochemicals may function in a similar way as inhibitors. PMID:25910439

  1. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... kids who are living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ...

  2. Cerebral palsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy. ...

  3. 21 CFR 168.121 - Dried glucose sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried glucose sirup. 168.121 Section 168.121 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.121 Dried glucose sirup. (a) Dried glucose sirup is glucose sirup from which...

  4. 21 CFR 168.121 - Dried glucose sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried glucose sirup. 168.121 Section 168.121 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.121 Dried glucose sirup. (a) Dried glucose sirup is glucose sirup from which...

  5. 21 CFR 168.121 - Dried glucose sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried glucose sirup. 168.121 Section 168.121 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.121 Dried glucose sirup. (a) Dried glucose sirup is glucose sirup from which...

  6. Chronic ketosis and cerebral metabolism.

    PubMed

    DeVivo, D C; Leckie, M P; Ferrendelli, J S; McDougal, D B

    1978-04-01

    The effects of chronic ketosis on cerebral metabolism were determined in adult rats maintained on a high-fat diet for approximately three weeks and compared to a control group of animals. The fat-fed rats had statistically significantly lower blood glucose concentrations and higher blood beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate concentrations; higher brain concentrations of bound glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, pyruvate, lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, alanine, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP); lower brain concentrations of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, aspartate, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), creatine, cyclic nucleotides, succinyl coenzyme A (CoA), acid-insoluble CoA, and total CoA; and similar brain concentrations of glucose, malate, calculated oxaloacetate, glutamate, glutamine, adenosine monophosphate, phosphocreatine, reduced CoA, acetyl CoA, sodium, potassium, chloride, and water content. The metabolite data in the chronically ketotic rats demonstrate an increase in the cerebral energy reserve and energy charge. These data also suggest negative modification of the enzymes phosphofructokinase, pyruvic dehydrogenase, and alpha-ketoglutaric dehydrogenase; positive modification of glycogen synthase; and possible augmentation of the hexose transport system. There was no demonstrable difference in brain pH, water content, or electrolytes in the two groups of animals. We speculate that the increased brain ATP/ADP ratio is central to most, if not all, the observed metabolic perturbations and may account for the increased neuronal stability that accompanies chronic ketosis. PMID:666275

  7. Non-invasive Optical Measurement of Cerebral Metabolism and Hemodynamics in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Roche-Labarbe, Nadege; Dehaes, Mathieu; Carp, Stefan; Fenoglio, Angela; Barbieri, Beniamino; Hagan, Katherine; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal brain injury remains a significant cause of infant mortality and morbidity, but there is not yet an effective bedside tool that can accurately screen for brain injury, monitor injury evolution, or assess response to therapy. The energy used by neurons is derived largely from tissue oxidative metabolism, and neural hyperactivity and cell death are reflected by corresponding changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2). Thus, measures of CMRO2 are reflective of neuronal viability and provide critical diagnostic information, making CMRO2 an ideal target for bedside measurement of brain health. Brain-imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) yield measures of cerebral glucose and oxygen metabolism, but these techniques require the administration of radionucleotides, so they are used in only the most acute cases. Continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) provides non-invasive and non-ionizing radiation measures of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) as a surrogate for cerebral oxygen consumption. However, SO2 is less than ideal as a surrogate for cerebral oxygen metabolism as it is influenced by both oxygen delivery and consumption. Furthermore, measurements of SO2 are not sensitive enough to detect brain injury hours after the insult 1,2, because oxygen consumption and delivery reach equilibrium after acute transients3. We investigated the possibility of using more sophisticated NIRS optical methods to quantify cerebral oxygen metabolism at the bedside in healthy and brain-injured newborns. More specifically, we combined the frequency-domain NIRS (FDNIRS) measure of SO2 with the diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measure of blood flow index (CBFi) to yield an index of CMRO2 (CMRO2i) 4,5. With the combined FDNIRS/DCS system we are able to quantify cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics. This represents an improvement over CWNIRS for detecting brain health, brain development

  8. Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Roche-Labarbe, Nadege; Dehaes, Mathieu; Carp, Stefan; Fenoglio, Angela; Barbieri, Beniamino; Hagan, Katherine; Grant, P Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal brain injury remains a significant cause of infant mortality and morbidity, but there is not yet an effective bedside tool that can accurately screen for brain injury, monitor injury evolution, or assess response to therapy. The energy used by neurons is derived largely from tissue oxidative metabolism, and neural hyperactivity and cell death are reflected by corresponding changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO₂). Thus, measures of CMRO₂ are reflective of neuronal viability and provide critical diagnostic information, making CMRO₂ an ideal target for bedside measurement of brain health. Brain-imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) yield measures of cerebral glucose and oxygen metabolism, but these techniques require the administration of radionucleotides, so they are used in only the most acute cases. Continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) provides non-invasive and non-ionizing radiation measures of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO₂) as a surrogate for cerebral oxygen consumption. However, SO₂ is less than ideal as a surrogate for cerebral oxygen metabolism as it is influenced by both oxygen delivery and consumption. Furthermore, measurements of SO₂ are not sensitive enough to detect brain injury hours after the insult, because oxygen consumption and delivery reach equilibrium after acute transients. We investigated the possibility of using more sophisticated NIRS optical methods to quantify cerebral oxygen metabolism at the bedside in healthy and brain-injured newborns. More specifically, we combined the frequency-domain NIRS (FDNIRS) measure of SO2 with the diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measure of blood flow index (CBFi) to yield an index of CMRO₂ (CMRO₂i). With the combined FDNIRS/DCS system we are able to quantify cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics. This represents an improvement over CWNIRS for detecting brain health, brain

  9. Cerebral oximetry and cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Skhirtladze-Dworschak, Keso; Dworschak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral oximetry is a Food and Drug Administration-approved technology that allows monitoring of brain oxygen saturation in accessible superficial brain cortex regions, which are amongst the most vulnerable in regard to ischemic or hypoxic injury. Since most oxygen in the area of interest is located in the venous compartment, the determined regional brain oxygen saturation approximately reflects the local balance between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption. Major systemic alterations in blood oxygen content and oxygen delivery will be accompanied by corresponding changes in regional brain saturation. This systematic review, which is based on a Medline search, focuses on the characteristic changes in regional cerebral oxygen saturation that occur, when global oxygen supply to the brain ceases. It further highlights the potential application of cerebral oximetry in the management of cardiac arrest victims, the predictability of clinical outcome after global cerebral ischemia, and it also indicates possible potentials for the management of cerebral reperfusion after having instituted return of spontaneous circulation. PMID:23782549

  10. Simultaneous measurement of glucose transport and utilization in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Shestov, Alexander A.; Emir, Uzay E.; Kumar, Anjali; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.

    2011-01-01

    Glucose is the primary fuel for brain function, and determining the kinetics of cerebral glucose transport and utilization is critical for quantifying cerebral energy metabolism. The kinetic parameters of cerebral glucose transport, KMt and Vmaxt, in humans have so far been obtained by measuring steady-state brain glucose levels by proton (1H) NMR as a function of plasma glucose levels and fitting steady-state models to these data. Extraction of the kinetic parameters for cerebral glucose transport necessitated assuming a constant cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) obtained from other tracer studies, such as 13C NMR. Here we present new methodology to simultaneously obtain kinetic parameters for glucose transport and utilization in the human brain by fitting both dynamic and steady-state 1H NMR data with a reversible, non-steady-state Michaelis-Menten model. Dynamic data were obtained by measuring brain and plasma glucose time courses during glucose infusions to raise and maintain plasma concentration at ∼17 mmol/l for ∼2 h in five healthy volunteers. Steady-state brain vs. plasma glucose concentrations were taken from literature and the steady-state portions of data from the five volunteers. In addition to providing simultaneous measurements of glucose transport and utilization and obviating assumptions for constant CMRglc, this methodology does not necessitate infusions of expensive or radioactive tracers. Using this new methodology, we found that the maximum transport capacity for glucose through the blood-brain barrier was nearly twofold higher than maximum cerebral glucose utilization. The glucose transport and utilization parameters were consistent with previously published values for human brain. PMID:21791622

  11. Breakfast, blood glucose, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Parker, P Y

    1998-04-01

    This article compares the findings of three studies that explored the role of increased blood glucose in improving memory function for subjects who ate breakfast. An initial improvement in memory function for these subjects was found to correlate with blood glucose concentrations. In subsequent studies, morning fasting was found to adversely affect the ability to recall a word list and a story read aloud, as well as recall items while counting backwards. Failure to eat breakfast did not affect performance on an intelligence test. It was concluded that breakfast consumption preferentially influences tasks requiring aspects of memory. In the case of both word list recall and memory while counting backwards, the decline in performance associated with not eating breakfast was reversed by the consumption of a glucose-supplemented drink. Although a morning fast also affected the ability to recall a story read aloud, the glucose drink did not reverse this decline. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms, including an increase in blood glucose. PMID:9537627

  12. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information About ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  13. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... I get more information? What is a cerebral aneurysm? A cerebral aneurysm (also known as an intracranial ...

  14. Effects of consuming fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages for 10 weeks on lipids, insulin sensitivity and adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal studies have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose promotes dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Experimental evidence that fructose consumption in humans promotes dyslipidemia and insulin resistance compared with glucose consumption has been equivocal. We tested the hypoth...

  15. Glucose control.

    PubMed

    Preiser, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related hyperglycemia is a common finding in acutely ill patients, and is related to the severity and outcome of the critical illness. The pathophysiology of stress hyperglycemia includes hormonal and neural signals, leading to increased production of glucose by the liver and peripheral insulin resistance mediated by the translocation of transmembrane glucose transporters. In one pioneering study, tight glycemic control by intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients was associated with improved survival. However, this major finding was not confirmed in several other prospective randomized controlled trials. The reasons underlying the discrepancy between the first and the subsequent studies could include nutritional strategy (amount of calories provided, use of parenteral nutrition), case-mix, potential differences in the optimal blood glucose level (BG) in different types of patients, hypoglycemia and its correction, and the magnitude of glucose variability. Therefore, an improved understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of glycemic regulation during acute illness is needed. Safe and effective glucose control will need improvement in the definition of optimal BG and in the measurement techniques, perhaps including continuous monitoring of insulin algorithms and closed-loop systems. PMID:23075589

  16. Glucose oxidase-magnetite nanoparticle bioconjugate for glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Liane M; Quach, Ashley D; Rosenzweig, Zeev

    2004-10-01

    Immobilization of bioactive molecules on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles is of great interest, because the magnetic properties of these bioconjugates promise to greatly improve the delivery and recovery of biomolecules in biomedical applications. Here we present the preparation and functionalization of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles 20 nm in diameter and the successful covalent conjugation of the enzyme glucose oxidase to the amino-modified nanoparticle surface. Functionalization of the magnetic nanoparticle surface with amino groups greatly increased the amount and activity of the immobilized enzyme compared with immobilization procedures involving physical adsorption. The enzymatic activity of the glucose oxidase-coated magnetic nanoparticles was investigated by monitoring oxygen consumption during the enzymatic oxidation of glucose using a ruthenium phenanthroline fluorescent complex for oxygen sensing. The glucose oxidase-coated magnetite nanoparticles could function as nanometric glucose sensors in glucose solutions of concentrations up to 20 mmol L(-1). Immobilization of glucose oxidase on the nanoparticles also increased the stability of the enzyme. When stored at 4 degrees C the nanoparticle suspensions maintained their bioactivity for up to 3 months. PMID:15448967

  17. Effects of cerebral ischemia on neuronal hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    He, Yangdong; Hua, Ya; Liu, Wenquan; Hu, Haitao; Keep, Richard F.; Xi, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Summary The present study examined whether or not neuronal hemoglobin (Hb) is present in rats. It then examined whether cerebral ischemia or ischemic preconditioning (IPC) affects neuronal Hb levels in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either 15 minutes of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion with 24 hours of reperfusion, an IPC stimulus, or 24 hours of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), or IPC followed three days later by 24 hours of pMCAO. In vitro, primary cultured neurons were exposed to 2 hours of oxygen-glucose deprivation with 22 hours of reoxygenation. Results showed that Hb is widely expressed in rat cerebral neurons but not astrocytes. Hb expression was significantly upregulated in the ipsilateral caudate and the cortical core of the middle cerebral artery territory after IPC. Hb levels also increased in more penumbral cortex and the contralateral hemisphere 24 hours after pMCAO, but expression in the ipsilateral caudate and cortical core area were decreased. Ischemic preconditioning modified pMCAO-induced brain Hb changes. Neuronal Hb levels in vitro were increased by 2 hours of oxygen-glucose deprivation and 22 hours of reoxygenation. These results indicate that Hb is synthesized in neurons and can be upregulated by ischemia. PMID:19066615

  18. Glucose Variability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The proposed contribution of glucose variability to the development of the complications of diabetes beyond that of glycemic exposure is supported by reports that oxidative stress, the putative mediator of such complications, is greater for intermittent as opposed to sustained hyperglycemia. Variability of glycemia in ambulatory conditions defined as the deviation from steady state is a phenomenon of normal physiology. Comprehensive recording of glycemia is required for the generation of any measurement of glucose variability. To avoid distortion of variability to that of glycemic exposure, its calculation should be devoid of a time component. PMID:23613565

  19. Cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Postels, Douglas G; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-01-01

    Malaria, the most significant parasitic disease of man, kills approximately one million people per year. Half of these deaths occur in those with cerebral malaria (CM). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines CM as an otherwise unexplained coma in a patient with malarial parasitemia. Worldwide, CM occurs primarily in African children and Asian adults, with the vast majority (greater than 90%) of cases occurring in children 5 years old or younger in sub-Saharan Africa. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and involves infected erythrocyte sequestration, cerebral inflammation, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. A recently characterized malarial retinopathy is visual evidence of Plasmodium falciparum's pathophysiological processes occurring in the affected patient. Treatment consists of supportive care and antimalarial administration. Thus far, adjuvant therapies have not been shown to improve mortality rates or neurological outcomes in children with CM. For those who survive CM, residual neurological abnormalities are common. Epilepsy, cognitive impairment, behavioral disorders, and gross neurological deficits which include motor, sensory, and language impairments are frequent sequelae. Primary prevention strategies, including bed nets, vaccine development, and chemoprophylaxis, are in varied states of development and implementation. Continuing efforts to find successful primary prevention options and strategies to decrease neurological sequelae are needed. PMID:23829902

  20. [Cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Malagón Valdez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The term cerebral palsy (CP), is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the non-evolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations. PMID:18422084

  1. Glucose transport in brain - effect of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Jurcovicova, J

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is transported across the cell membrane by specific saturable transport system, which includes two types of glucose transporters: 1) sodium dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs) which transport glucose against its concentration gradient and 2) sodium independent glucose transporters (GLUTs), which transport glucose by facilitative diffusion in its concentration gradient. In the brain, both types of transporters are present with different function, affinity, capacity, and tissue distribution. GLUT1 occurs in brain in two isoforms. The more glycosylated GLUT1 is produced in brain microvasculature and ensures glucose transport across the blood brain barrier (BBB). The less glycosylated form is localized in astrocytic end-feet and cell bodies and is not present in axons, neuronal synapses or microglia. Glucose transported to astrocytes by GLUT1 is metabolized to lactate serving to neurons as energy source. Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β upregulates GLUT1 in endothelial cells and astrocytes, whereas it induces neuronal death in neuronal cell culture. GLUT2 is present in hypothalamic neurons and serves as a glucose sensor in regulation of food intake. In neurons of the hippocampus, GLUT2 is supposed to regulate synaptic activity and neurotransmitter release. GLUT3 is the most abundant glucose transporter in the brain having five times higher transport capacity than GLUT1. It is present in neuropil, mostly in axons and dendrites. Its density and distribution correlate well with the local cerebral glucose demands. GLUT5 is predominantly fructose transporter. In brain, GLUT5 is the only hexose transporter in microglia, whose regulation is not yet clear. It is not present in neurons. GLUT4 and GLUT8 are insulin-regulated glucose transporters in neuronal cell bodies in the cortex and cerebellum, but mainly in the hippocampus and amygdala, where they maintain hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Insulin translocates GLUT4 from cytosol to plasma

  2. Cerebral metabolism following traumatic brain injury: new discoveries with implications for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, George A.; Martin, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Because it is the product of glycolysis and main substrate for mitochondrial respiration, lactate is the central metabolic intermediate in cerebral energy substrate delivery. Our recent studies on healthy controls and patients following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using [6,6-2H2]glucose and [3-13C]lactate, along with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial-venous (jugular bulb) difference measurements for oxygen, metabolite levels, isotopic enrichments and 13CO2 show a massive and previously unrecognized mobilization of lactate from corporeal (muscle, skin, and other) glycogen reserves in TBI patients who were studied 5.7 ± 2.2 days after injury at which time brain oxygen consumption and glucose uptake (CMRO2 and CMRgluc, respectively) were depressed. By tracking the incorporation of the 13C from lactate tracer we found that gluconeogenesis (GNG) from lactate accounted for 67.1 ± 6.9%, of whole-body glucose appearance rate (Ra) in TBI, which was compared to 15.2 ± 2.8% (mean ± SD, respectively) in healthy, well-nourished controls. Standard of care treatment of TBI patients in state-of-the-art facilities by talented and dedicated heath care professionals reveals presence of a catabolic Body Energy State (BES). Results are interpreted to mean that additional nutritive support is required to fuel the body and brain following TBI. Use of a diagnostic to monitor BES to provide health care professionals with actionable data in providing nutritive formulations to fuel the body and brain and achieve exquisite glycemic control are discussed. In particular, the advantages of using inorganic and organic lactate salts, esters and other compounds are examined. To date, several investigations on brain-injured patients with intact hepatic and renal functions show that compared to dextrose + insulin treatment, exogenous lactate infusion results in normal glycemia. PMID:25709562

  3. Brain metabolism is significantly impaired at blood glucose below 6 mM and brain glucose below 1 mM in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The optimal blood glucose target following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) must be defined. Cerebral microdialysis was used to investigate the influence of arterial blood and brain glucose on cerebral glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and calculated indices of downstream metabolism. Methods In twenty TBI patients, microdialysis catheters inserted in the edematous frontal lobe were dialyzed at 1 μl/min, collecting samples at 60 minute intervals. Occult metabolic alterations were determined by calculating the lactate- pyruvate (L/P), lactate- glucose (L/Glc), and lactate- glutamate (L/Glu) ratios. Results Brain glucose was influenced by arterial blood glucose. Elevated L/P and L/Glc were significantly reduced at brain glucose above 1 mM, reaching lowest values at blood and brain glucose levels between 6-9 mM (P < 0.001). Lowest cerebral glutamate was measured at brain glucose 3-5 mM with a significant increase at brain glucose below 3 mM and above 6 mM. While L/Glu was significantly increased at low brain glucose levels, it was significantly decreased at brain glucose above 5 mM (P < 0.001). Insulin administration increased brain glutamate at low brain glucose, but prevented increase in L/Glu. Conclusions Arterial blood glucose levels appear to be optimal at 6-9 mM. While low brain glucose levels below 1 mM are detrimental, elevated brain glucose are to be targeted despite increased brain glutamate at brain glucose >5 mM. Pathogenity of elevated glutamate appears to be relativized by L/Glu and suggests to exclude insulin- induced brain injury. PMID:20141631

  4. FRET-based glucose monitoring for bioprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolome, Amelita; Smalls-Mantey, Lauren; Lin, Debora; Rao, Govind; Tolosa, Leah

    2006-02-01

    The glucose-mediated conformational changes in the glucose binding protein (GBP) have been exploited in the development of fluorescence based glucose sensors. The fluorescence response is generated by a polarity sensitive dye attached to a specific site. Such fluorescent sensors respond to submicromolar glucose at diffusion-controlled rates mimicking the wild type. However, such sensors have been limited to in vitro glucose sensing because of the preliminary dye-labeling step. In the study described here, the dye-labeling step is omitted by genetically encoding the GBP with two green fluorescent mutants namely, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the N- and C-terminal ends, respectively. These two GFP mutants comprise a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor and acceptor pair. Thus, when glucose binds with GBP, the conformational changes affect the FRET efficiency yielding a dose-dependent response. A potential application for this FRET-based glucose biosensor is online glucose sensing in bioprocessing and cell culture. This was demonstrated by the measurement of glucose consumption in yeast fermentation. Further development of this system should yield in vivo measurement of glucose in bioprocesses.

  5. Glycogen: the forgotten cerebral energy store.

    PubMed

    Gruetter, Rolf

    2003-10-15

    The brain contains a significant amount of glycogen that is an order of magnitude smaller than that in muscle, but several-fold higher than the cerebral glucose content. Although the precise role of brain glycogen to date is unknown, it seems affected by focal activation, neurotransmitters, and overall electrical activity and hormones. Based on its relatively low concentration, the role of brain glycogen as a significant energy store has been discounted. This work reviews recent experimental evidence that brain glycogen is an important reserve of glucose equivalents: (1) glial glycogen can provide the majority of the glucose supply deficit during hypoglycemia for more than 100 min, consistent with the proposal that glial lactate is a fuel for neurons; (2) glycogen concentrations may be as high as 10 micromol/g, substantially higher than was thought previously; (3) glucose cycling in and out of glycogen amounts to approximately 1% of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in human and rat brain, amounting to an effective stability of glycogen in the resting awake brain during euglycemia and hyperglycemia, (4) brain glycogen metabolism/concentrations are insulin/glucose sensitive; and (5) after a single episode of hypoglycemia, brain glycogen levels rebound to levels that exceed the pre-hypoglycemic concentrations (supercompensation). This experimental evidence supports the proposal that brain glycogen may be involved in the development of diabetes complications, specifically impaired glucose sensing (hypoglycemia unawareness) observed clinically in some diabetes patients under insulin treatment. It is proposed further that brain glycogen becomes important in any metabolic state where supply transiently cannot meet demand, such conditions that could occur during prolonged focal activation, sleep deprivation, seizures, and mild hypoxia. PMID:14515346

  6. United Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of UCP blog for the latest updates. United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  7. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a neurological condition in which proteins called amyloid build up on the walls of the arteries ... The cause of cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unknown. Sometimes, it ... Persons with this condition have deposits of amyloid protein ...

  8. Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stretch Additional Content Medical News Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations By James E. Wilberger, MD, Derrick A. Dupre, ... a direct, strong blow to the head. Cerebral lacerations are tears in brain tissue, caused by a ...

  9. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  10. A review of perioperative glucose control in the neurosurgical population.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Joshua H; Smith, David S

    2009-11-01

    Significant fluctuations in serum glucose levels accompany the stress response of surgery or acute injury and may be associated with vascular or neurologic morbidity. Maintenance of euglycemia with intensive insulin therapy (IIT) continues to be investigated as a therapeutic intervention to decrease morbidity associated with derangements in glucose metabolism. Hypoglycemia is a common side effect of IIT with potential for significant morbidity, especially in the neurologically injured patient. Differences in cerebral versus systemic glucose metabolism, the time course of cerebral response to injury, and heterogeneity of pathophysiology in neurosurgical patient populations are important to consider in evaluating the risks and benefits of IIT. While extremes of glucose levels are to be avoided, there are little data to support specific use of IIT for maintenance of euglycemia in the perioperative management of neurosurgical patients. Existing data are summarized and reviewed in this context. PMID:20144389

  11. Effects of Chronic Consumption of Sugar-Enriched Diets on Brain Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Adult Yucatan Minipigs.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Melissa; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Meurice, Paul; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sugar intake might increase the risk to develop eating disorders via an altered reward circuitry, but it remains unknown whether different sugar sources induce different neural effects and whether these effects are dependent from body weight. Therefore, we compared the effects of three high-fat and isocaloric diets varying only in their carbohydrate sources on brain activity of reward-related regions, and assessed whether brain activity is dependent on insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four minipigs underwent 18FDG PET brain imaging following 7-month intake of high-fat diets of which 20% in dry matter weight (36.3% of metabolisable energy) was provided by starch, glucose or fructose (n = 8 per diet). Animals were then subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine peripheral insulin sensitivity. After a 7-month diet treatment, all groups had substantial increases in body weight (from 36.02±0.85 to 63.33±0.81 kg; P<0.0001), regardless of the diet. All groups presented similar insulin sensitivity index (ISI = 1.39±0.10 mL·min-1·μUI·kg). Compared to starch, chronic exposure to fructose and glucose induced bilateral brain activations, i.e. increased basal cerebral glucose metabolism, in several reward-related brain regions including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the caudate and putamen. The lack of differences in insulin sensitivity index and body weight suggests that the observed differences in basal brain glucose metabolism are not related to differences in peripheral insulin sensitivity and weight gain. The differences in basal brain metabolism in reward-related brain areas suggest the onset of cerebral functional alterations induced by chronic consumption of dietary sugars. Further studies should explore the underlying mechanisms, such as the availability of intestinal and brain sugar transporter, or the appearance of addictive-like behavioral correlates of these

  12. Cerebral metabolic adaptation and ketone metabolism after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Mayumi L

    2010-01-01

    The developing central nervous system has the capacity to metabolize ketone bodies. It was once accepted that on weaning, the ‘post-weaned/adult’ brain was limited solely to glucose metabolism. However, increasing evidence from conditions of inadequate glucose availability or increased energy demands has shown that the adult brain is not static in its fuel options. The objective of this review is to summarize the body of literature specifically regarding cerebral ketone metabolism at different ages, under conditions of starvation and after various pathologic conditions. The evidence presented supports the following findings: (1) there is an inverse relationship between age and the brain’s capacity for ketone metabolism that continues well after weaning; (2) neuroprotective potentials of ketone administration have been shown for neurodegenerative conditions, epilepsy, hypoxia/ischemia, and traumatic brain injury; and (3) there is an age-related therapeutic potential for ketone as an alternative substrate. The concept of cerebral metabolic adaptation under various physiologic and pathologic conditions is not new, but it has taken the contribution of numerous studies over many years to break the previously accepted dogma of cerebral metabolism. Our emerging understanding of cerebral metabolism is far more complex than could have been imagined. It is clear that in addition to glucose, other substrates must be considered along with fuel interactions, metabolic challenges, and cerebral maturation. PMID:17684514

  13. Glucose test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  14. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  15. Cerebral hypometabolism in progressive supranuclear palsy studied with positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, N.L.; Gilman, S.; Berent, S.; Morin, E.M.; Brown, M.B.; Koeppe, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is characterized by supranuclear palsy of gaze, axial dystonia, bradykinesia, rigidity, and a progressive dementia. Pathological changes in this disorder are generally restricted to subcortical structures, yet the type and range of cognitive deficits suggest the involvement of many cerebral regions. We examined the extent of functional impairment to cerebral cortical and subcortical structures as measured by the level of glucose metabolic activity at rest. Fourteen patients with PSP were compared to 21 normal volunteers of similar age using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography. Glucose metabolism was reduced in the caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, pons, and cerebral cortex, but not in the cerebellum in the patients with PSP as compared to the normal subjects. Analysis of individual brain regions revealed significant declines in cerebral glucose utilization in most regions throughout the cerebral cortex, particularly those in the superior half of the frontal lobe. Declines in the most affected regions of cerebral cortex were greater than those in any single subcortical structure. Although using conventional neuropathological techniques the cerebral cortex appears to be unaffected in PSP, significant and pervasive functional impairments in both cortical and subcortical structures are present. These observations help to account for the constellation of cognitive symptoms in individual patients with PSP and the difficulty encountered in identifying a characteristic psychometric profile for this group of patients.

  16. Lean consumption.

    PubMed

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind. PMID:15768676

  17. Glucose and oxygen metabolism after penetrating ballistic-like brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Gajavelli, Shyam; Kentaro, Shimoda; Diaz, Julio; Yokobori, Shoji; Spurlock, Markus; Diaz, Daniel; Jackson, Clayton; Wick, Alexandra; Zhao, Weizhao; Leung, Lai Y; Shear, Deborah; Tortella, Frank; Bullock, M Ross

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in all age groups. Among TBI, penetrating traumatic brain injuries (PTBI) have the worst prognosis and represent the leading cause of TBI-related morbidity and death. However, there are no specific drugs/interventions due to unclear pathophysiology. To gain insights we looked at cerebral metabolism in a PTBI rat model: penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). Early after injury, regional cerebral oxygen tension and consumption significantly decreased in the ipsilateral cortex in the PBBI group compared with the control group. At the same time point, glucose uptake was significantly reduced globally in the PBBI group compared with the control group. Examination of Fluorojade B-stained brain sections at 24 hours after PBBI revealed an incomplete overlap of metabolic impairment and neurodegeneration. As expected, the injury core had the most severe metabolic impairment and highest neurodegeneration. However, in the peri-lesional area, despite similar metabolic impairment, there was lesser neurodegeneration. Given our findings, the data suggest the presence of two distinct zones of primary injury, of which only one recovers. We anticipate the peri-lesional area encompassing the PBBI ischemic penumbra, could be salvaged by acute therapies. PMID:25669903

  18. [Etiology of cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Jaisle, F

    1996-01-01

    The "perinatal asphyxia" is regarded to be one of the causes of cerebral palsy, though in the very most of the children with cerebral palsy there is found no hypoxia during labour. It should be mentioned, that the definition of "perinatal" and "asphyxia" neither are unic nor concret. And also there is no correlation between nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and acidosis in fetal blood with the incidence of cerebral palsy. Numerous studies in pregnant animals failed in proving an acute intrapartal hypoxia to be the origin of the cerebral palsy. Myers (1975) describes four patterns of anatomic brain damage after different injuries. Only his so called oligo-acidotic hypoxia, which is protracted and lasts over a longer time is leading to brain injury, which can be regarded in analogy to the injury of children with cerebral palsy. Summarising the update publications about the causes of cerebral palsy and the studies in pregnant animals there is no evidence that hypoxia during labour may be the cause of cerebral palsy. There is a great probability of a pre(and post-)natal origin of brain injury (for instance a periventricular leucomalacia found after birth) which leads to cerebral palsy. Short after labour signs of a so called "asphyxia" may occur in addition to this preexisting injury and misrepresent the cause of cerebral palsy. Finally the prepartal injury may cause both: Cerebral palsy and hypoxia. PMID:9035826

  19. Consumption bomb.

    PubMed

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken. PMID:12295543

  20. Hemiparesis post cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Taiaa, Oumkaltoum; Amil, Touriya; Darbi, Abdelatif

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is one of the most serious complications in the Plasmodium falciparum infection. In endemic areas, the cerebral malaria interested mainly children. The occurrence in adults is very rare and most interested adult traveling in tropical zones. This case report describes a motor deficit post cerebral malaria in a young adult traveling in malaria endemic area. This complication has been reported especially in children and seems very rare in adults. PMID:25995798

  1. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  2. Astrocytic Insulin Signaling Couples Brain Glucose Uptake with Nutrient Availability.

    PubMed

    García-Cáceres, Cristina; Quarta, Carmelo; Varela, Luis; Gao, Yuanqing; Gruber, Tim; Legutko, Beata; Jastroch, Martin; Johansson, Pia; Ninkovic, Jovica; Yi, Chun-Xia; Le Thuc, Ophelia; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Cai, Weikang; Meyer, Carola W; Pfluger, Paul T; Fernandez, Ana M; Luquet, Serge; Woods, Stephen C; Torres-Alemán, Ignacio; Kahn, C Ronald; Götz, Magdalena; Horvath, Tamas L; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2016-08-11

    We report that astrocytic insulin signaling co-regulates hypothalamic glucose sensing and systemic glucose metabolism. Postnatal ablation of insulin receptors (IRs) in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells affects hypothalamic astrocyte morphology, mitochondrial function, and circuit connectivity. Accordingly, astrocytic IR ablation reduces glucose-induced activation of hypothalamic pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) neurons and impairs physiological responses to changes in glucose availability. Hypothalamus-specific knockout of astrocytic IRs, as well as postnatal ablation by targeting glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)-expressing cells, replicates such alterations. A normal response to altering directly CNS glucose levels in mice lacking astrocytic IRs indicates a role in glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This was confirmed in vivo in GFAP-IR KO mice by using positron emission tomography and glucose monitoring in cerebral spinal fluid. We conclude that insulin signaling in hypothalamic astrocytes co-controls CNS glucose sensing and systemic glucose metabolism via regulation of glucose uptake across the BBB. PMID:27518562

  3. Cerebral Asymmetries and Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirozzolo, Francis J.

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are historical developments regarding the concepts of cerebral localization, and analyzed are implications of current research on the role of the cerebral hemispheres in reading disorders. (CL)

  4. Hourly analysis of cerebrospinal fluid glucose shows large diurnal fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Marcel M; Leen, Wilhelmina G; Willemsen, Michèl A; Slats, Diane; Claassen, Jurgen A

    2016-05-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is important in the diagnostics of many neurological disorders. Since the influence of food intake on the cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration and the cerebrospinal fluid/plasma glucose ratio is largely unknown, we studied fluctuations in these parameters in healthy adult volunteers during a period of 36 h. Our observations show large physiological fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid glucose and the cerebrospinal fluid/plasma glucose ratio, and their relation to food intake. These findings provide novel insights into the physiology of cerebral processes dependent on glucose levels such as energy formation (e.g. glycolysis), enzymatic reactions (e.g. glycosylation), and non-enzymatic reactions (e.g. advanced endproduct glycation). PMID:26945018

  5. Cerebral Palsy (CP) Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pop Quiz: Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Sandy is the parent of a child with cerebral palsy and the Board President of Gio’s Garden , a ...

  6. Effect of curcumin on diabetic rat model of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Miao, Mingsan; Cheng, Bolin; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of curcumin on cerebral ischemia in diabetic rats the effects and features. intravenous injection alloxan diabetes model, to give alloxan first seven days the tail measured blood glucose value, the election successful model rats were fed with large, medium and small doses of curcumin suspension, Shenqijiangtang suspension and the same volume of saline, administered once daily. The first 10 days after administration 2h (fasting 12h) rat tail vein blood glucose values measured in the first 20 days after administration of 2h (fasting 12h), do cerebral ischemia surgery; rapid carotid artery blood after 30min rats were decapitated, blood serum, blood glucose and glycated serum protein levels; take part of the brain homogenates plus nine times the amount of normal saline, made 10 percent of brain homogenates. Another part of the brain tissue, in the light microscope observation of pathological tissue. Compared with model group, large, medium and small doses of curcumin can significantly lower blood sugar and glycated serum protein levels, significantly reduced brain homogenates lactic acid content and lactate dehydrogenase activity; large, medium-dose curcumin can significantly increase brain homogenates Na(+)-K(+)-ATP activity, dose curcumin can significantly improve brain homogenates Ca(+)-Mg(+)- ATP activity. Curcumin can reduce blood sugar in diabetic rat model of cerebral ischemia and improve brain energy metabolism, improve their brain tissue resistance to ischemia and hypoxia, cerebral ischemia in diabetic rats have a good drop the role of sugar and protect brain tissue. PMID:25631517

  7. Cerebral Syndromes of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shavelle, Henry S.

    1969-01-01

    Three labile diabetic patients had recurring episodes of altered sensorium. Each had severe cerebrovascular disease with superimposed metabolic derangements, including ketoacidosis, hyperglycemia without ketosis, mild uremia, and possibly cerebral edema. Two of the patients were examined postmortem. Severe leptomeningeal scarring, basal ganglial calcification and destruction of small intracerebral vessels without evidence of large vessel atherosclerosis were found unexpectedly in one patient, a rare occurrence in this country although recently reported from Europe. The other patient had large vessel atherosclerosis only. The clinical expression of the vascular disease was modified by concurrent abnormalities and reflected the sum total of the complexities which coexisted. The pathophysiology of the unconscious state necessarily depends on the inciting factors. Ketoacidotic coma is associated with depressed cerebral oxygen consumption. Spinal fluid pH is usually maintained during ketosis but is sometimes lowered inadvertently during bicarbonate therapy, with resultant coma. Other variables influencing the clinical expression, with or without ketosis, would include, among others, blood viscosity alterations, rapid decrements in blood sugar, and existing degrees of lactic acidosis. The increasing life-span of the juvenile diabetics, favorably influenced by improved management and recently by hemodialysis, may uncover vascular complications heretofore rarely seen and create additional diagnostic and therapeutic enigmas. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:5798497

  8. Cerebral Palsy Gait, Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    TUGUI, Raluca Dana; ANTONESCU, Dinu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cerebral palsy refers to a lesion on an immature brain, that determines permanent neurological disorders. Knowing the exact cause of the disease does not alter the treatment management. The etiology is 2-2.5/1000 births and the rate is constant in the last 40-50 years because advances in medical technologies have permitted the survival of smaller and premature new born children. Gait analysis has four directions: kinematics (represents body movements analysis without calculating the forces), kinetics (represents body moments and forces), energy consumption (measured by oximetry), and neuromuscular activity (measured by EMG). Gait analysis can observe specific deviations in a patient, allowing us to be more accurate in motor diagnoses and treatment solutions: surgery intervention, botulinum toxin injection, use of orthosis, physical kinetic therapy, oral medications, baclofen pump. PMID:24790675

  9. Identification of Glucose Transporters in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, João Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and –E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ΔhxtB, ΔhxtC or ΔhxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ΔhxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ΔhxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ΔhxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

  10. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, R.F.; Lear, J.L. )

    1989-12-01

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and ({sup 14}C)-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the {sup 14}C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the {sup 14}C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum.

  11. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, R F; Lear, J L

    1989-12-01

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [14C]-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the 14C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the 14C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum. PMID:2584274

  12. Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Compensation for Variations in Ambient Oxygen Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Bradley B.; McShane, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes, research toward painless glucose sensing continues. Oxygen sensitive phosphors with glucose oxidase (GOx) can be used to determine glucose levels indirectly by monitoring oxygen consumption. This is an attractive combination because of its speed and specificity. Packaging these molecules together in “smart materials” for implantation will enable non-invasive glucose monitoring. As glucose levels increase, oxygen levels decrease; consequently, the luminescence intensity and lifetime of the phosphor increase. Although the response of the sensor is dependent on glucose concentration, the ambient oxygen concentration also plays a key role. This could lead to inaccurate glucose readings and increase the risk of hyper- or hypoglycemia. To mitigate this risk, the dependence of hydrogel glucose sensor response on oxygen levels was investigated and compensation methods explored. Sensors were calibrated at different oxygen concentrations using a single generic logistic equation, such that trends in oxygen-dependence were determined as varying parameters in the equation. Each parameter was found to be a function of oxygen concentration, such that the correct glucose calibration equation can be calculated if the oxygen level is known. Accuracy of compensation will be determined by developing an overall calibration, using both glucose and oxygen sensors in parallel, correcting for oxygen fluctuations in real time by intentionally varying oxygen, and calculating the error in actual and predicted glucose levels. While this method was developed for compensation of enzymatic glucose sensors, in principle it can also be implemented with other kinds of sensors utilizing oxidases. PMID:26257458

  13. Relationship of spikes, synaptic activity, and local changes of cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, M

    2001-12-01

    The coupling of electrical activity in the brain to changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of interest because hemodynamic changes are used to track brain function. Recent studies, especially those investigating the cerebellar cortex, have shown that the spike rate in the principal target cell of a brain region (i.e. the efferent cell) does not affect vascular response amplitude. Subthreshold integrative synaptic processes trigger changes in the local microcirculation and local glucose consumption. The spatial specificity of the vascular response on the brain surface is limited because of the functional anatomy of the pial vessels. Within the cortex there is a characteristic laminar flow distribution, the largest changes of which are observed at the depth of maximal synaptic activity (i.e. layer IV) for an afferent input system. Under most conditions, increases in CBF are explained by activity in postsynaptic neurons, but presynaptic elements can contribute. Neurotransmitters do not mediate increases in CBF that are triggered by the concerted action of several second messenger molecules. It is important to distinguish between effective synaptic inhibition and deactivation that increase and decrease CBF and glucose consumption, respectively. In summary, hemodynamic changes evoked by neuronal activity depend on the afferent input function (i.e. all aspects of presynaptic and postsynaptic processing), but are totally independent of the efferent function (i.e., the spike rate of the same region). Thus, it is not possible to conclude whether the output level of activity of a region is increased based on brain maps that use blood-flow changes as markers. PMID:11740198

  14. Caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Barone, J J; Roberts, H R

    1996-01-01

    Scientific literature cites a wide range of values for caffeine content in food products. The authors suggest the following standard values for the United States: coffee (5 oz) 85 mg for ground roasted coffee, 60 mg for instant and 3 mg for decaffeinated; tea (5 oz): 30 mg for leaf/bag and 20 mg for instant; colas: 18 mg/6 oz serving; cocoa/hot chocolate: 4 mg/5 oz; chocolate milk: 4 mg/6 oz; chocolate candy: 1.5-6.0 mg/oz. Some products from the United Kingdom and Denmark have higher caffeine content. Caffeine consumption survey data are limited. Based on product usage and available consumption data, the authors suggest a mean daily caffeine intake for US consumers of 4 mg/kg. Among children younger than 18 years of age who are consumers of caffeine-containing foods, the mean daily caffeine intake is about 1 mg/kg. Both adults and children in Denmark and UK have higher levels of caffeine intake. PMID:8603790

  15. Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of cerebral revascularization.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, R; Tyler, J L; Mohr, G; Meyer, E; Diksic, M; Yamamoto, L; Taylor, L; Gauthier, S; Hakim, A

    1987-04-01

    Pre- and postoperative positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in six patients undergoing extracranial to intracranial bypass procedures for the treatment of symptomatic extracranial carotid occlusion. The six patients were all men, aged 52 to 68 years. Their symptoms included transient ischemic attacks (five cases), amaurosis fugax (two cases), and completed stroke with good recovery (one case). Positron emission tomography was performed within 4 weeks prior to surgery and between 3 to 6 months postoperatively, using oxygen-15-labeled CO, O2, and CO2 and fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen and glucose (CMRO2 and CMRGlu), and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured in both hemispheres. Preoperatively, compared to five elderly control subjects, patients had increased CBV, a decreased CBF/CBV ratio, and decreased CMRO2, indicating reduced cerebral perfusion pressure and depressed oxygen metabolism. The CBF was decreased in only one patient who had bilateral carotid occlusions; the OEF, CMRGlu, and CMRO2/CMRGlu and CMRGlu/CBF ratios were not significantly different from control measurements. All bypasses were patent and all patients were asymptomatic following surgery. Postoperative PET revealed decreased CBV and an increased CBF/CBV ratio, indicating improved hemodynamic function and oxygen hypometabolism. This was associated with increased CMRO2 in two patients in whom the postoperative OEF was also increased. The CMRGlu and CMRGlu/CBF ratio were increased in five patients. Changes in CBF and the CMRO2/CMRGlu ratio were variable. One patient with preoperative progressive mental deterioration, documented by serial neuropsychological testing and decreasing CBF and CMRO2, had improved postoperative CBF and CMRO2 concomitant with improved neuropsychological functioning. It is concluded that symptomatic carotid occlusion is associated with altered

  16. SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN CEREBRAL ENERGY METABOLISM: THE ROLE OF NUTRIENT TRANSPORTERS

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Ian A.; Carruthers, Anthony; Vannucci, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Glucose is the obligate energetic fuel for the mammalian brain and most studies of cerebral energy metabolism assume that the vast majority of cerebral glucose utilization fuels neuronal activity via oxidative metabolism, both in the basal and activated state. Glucose transporter proteins (GLUTs) deliver glucose from the circulation to the brain: GLUT1 in the microvascular endothelial cells of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and glia; GLUT3 in neurons. Lactate, the glycolytic product of glucose metabolism, is transported into and out of neural cells by the monocarboxylate transporters: MCT1 in the BBB and astrocytes and MCT2 in neurons. The proposal of the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis (Pellerin and Magistretti, 1994) suggested that astrocytes play the primary role in cerebral glucose utilization and generate lactate for neuronal energetics, especially during activation. Since the identification of the GLUTs and MCTs in brain, much has been learned about their transport properties, i.e. capacity and affinity for substrate, which must be considered in any model of cerebral glucose uptake and utilization. Using concentrations and kinetic parameters of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in BBB endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons, along with the corresponding kinetic properties of the monocarboxylate transporters, we have successfully modeled brain glucose and lactate levels as well as lactate transients in response to neuronal stimulation. Simulations based on these parameters suggest that glucose readily diffuses through the basal lamina and interstitium to neurons, which are primarily responsible for glucose uptake, metabolism, and the generation of the lactate transients observed upon neuronal activation. PMID:17579656

  17. Cerebral circulation, metabolism, and blood-brain barrier of rats in hypocapnic hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, T.; Krieglstein, J.

    1987-03-01

    The effects of hypoxic hypoxia on physiological variables, cerebral circulation, cerebral metabolism, and blood-brain barrier were investigated in conscious, spontaneously breathing rats by exposing them to an atmosphere containing 7% O/sub 2/. Hypoxia affected a marked hypotension, hypocapnia and alkalosis. Cortical tissue high-energy phosphates and glucose content were not affected by hypoxia, glucose 6-phosphate lactate, and pyruvate levels were significantly increased. Blood-brain barrier permeability, regional brain glucose content and lumped constant were not changed by hypoxia. Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) rose by 40-70% of control values in gray matter and by 80-90% in white matter. Under hypoxia, columns of increased and decreased LCGU and were detectable in cortical gray matter. Color-coded (/sup 14/C)2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiograms of rat brain are shown. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) increased by 50-90% in gray matter and by up to 180% in white matter. Coupling between LCGU and LCBF in hypoxia remained unchanged. The data suggests a stimulation of glycolysis, increased glucose transport into the cell, and increased hexokinase activity. The physiological response of gray and white matter to hypoxia obviously differs. Uncoupling of the relation between LCGU and LCBF does not occur.

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  19. Your Glucose Meter

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  20. Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... catalog. Additional Links ​ Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin Children and Diabetes Glucose Meters Juvenile Diabetes (Teens and Diabetes ) Know Your Blood Glucose Numbers Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 Contact Us Health Information Center ...

  1. Glucose transporter of the human brain and blood-brain barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Kalaria, R.N.; Gravina, S.A.; Schmidley, J.W.; Perry, G.; Harik, S.I.

    1988-12-01

    We identified and characterized the glucose transporter in the human cerebral cortex, cerebral microvessels, and choroid plexus by specific D-glucose-displaceable (3H)cytochalasin B binding. The binding was saturable, with a dissociation constant less than 1 microM. Maximal binding capacity was approximately 7 pmol/mg protein in the cerebral cortex, approximately 42 pmol/mg protein in brain microvessels, and approximately 27 pmol/mg protein in the choroid plexus. Several hexoses displaced specific (3H)cytochalasin B binding to microvessels in a rank-order that correlated well with their known ability to cross the blood-brain barrier; the only exception was 2-deoxy-D-glucose, which had much higher affinity for the glucose transporter than the natural substrate, D-glucose. Irreversible photoaffinity labeling of the glucose transporter of microvessels with (3H)cytochalasin B, followed by solubilization and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, labeled a protein band with an average molecular weight of approximately 55,000. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specific to the human erythrocyte glucose transporter immunocytochemically stained brain blood vessels and the few trapped erythrocytes in situ, with minimal staining of the neuropil. In the choroid plexus, blood vessels did not stain, but the epithelium reacted positively. We conclude that human brain microvessels are richly endowed with a glucose transport moiety similar in molecular weight and antigenic characteristics to that of human erythrocytes and brain microvessels of other mammalian species.

  2. Non-invasive measurement of glucose uptake of skeletal muscle tissue models using a glucose nanobiosensor.

    PubMed

    Obregón, Raquel; Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Chen, Luyang; Fujita, Takeshi; Shiku, Hitoshi; Chen, Mingwei; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2013-12-15

    Skeletal muscle tissues play a significant role to maintain the glucose level of whole body and any dysfunction of this tissue leads to the diabetes disease. A culture medium was created in which the muscle cells could survive for a long time and meanwhile it did not interfere with the glucose sensing. We fabricated a model of skeletal muscle tissues in vitro to monitor its glucose uptake. A nanoporous gold as a high sensitive nanobiosensor was then successfully developed and employed to detect the glucose uptake of the tissue models in this medium upon applying the electrical stimulation in a rapid, and non-invasive approach. The response of the glucose sensor was linear in a wide concentration range of 1-50 mM, with a detection limit of 3 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.0. The skeletal muscle tissue was electrically stimulated during 24 h and glucose uptake was monitored during this period. During the first 3 h of stimulation, electrically stimulated muscle tissue consumed almost twice the amount of glucose than counterpart non-stimulated sample. In total, the glucose consumption of muscle tissues was higher for the electrically stimulated tissues compared to those without applying the electrical field. PMID:23856563

  3. CSF glucose test

    MedlinePlus

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 of the blood sugar level). Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ...

  4. Maturational changes in cerebral function in infants determined by /sup 18/FDG positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chugani, H.T.; Phelps, M.E.

    1986-02-21

    2-Deoxy-2(/sup 18/F)fluro-D-glucose positron emission tomography performed in human infants during development revealed progressive changes in local cerebral glucose utilization. In infants 5 weeks of age and younger, glucose utilization was highest in the sensorimotor cortex, thalamus, midbrain-brainstem, and cerebellar vermis. By 3 months, glucose metabolic activity had increased in the parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices and the basal ganglia, with subsequent increases in frontal and various association regions occurring by 8 months. These functional changes measured with positron emission tomography are in agreement with behavioral, neurophysiological, and anatomical alterations known to occur during infant development. 32 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  5. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance. PMID:27216413

  6. The impact of age on cerebral perfusion, oxygenation and metabolism during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Braz, Igor D; Fisher, James P

    2016-08-15

    Age is one of the most important risk factors for dementia and stroke. Examination of the cerebral circulatory responses to acute exercise in the elderly may help to pinpoint the mechanisms by which exercise training can reduce the risk of brain diseases, inform the optimization of exercise training programmes and assist with the identification of age-related alterations in cerebral vascular function. During low-to-moderate intensity dynamic exercise, enhanced neuronal activity is accompanied by cerebral perfusion increases of ∼10-30%. Beyond ∼60-70% maximal oxygen uptake, cerebral metabolism remains elevated but perfusion in the anterior portion of the circulation returns towards baseline, substantively because of a hyperventilation-mediated reduction in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (P aC O2) and cerebral vasoconstriction. Cerebral perfusion is lower in older individuals, both at rest and during incremental dynamic exercise. Nevertheless, the increase in the estimated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen and the arterial-internal jugular venous differences for glucose and lactate are similar in young and older individuals exercising at the same relative exercise intensities. Correction for the age-related reduction in P aC O2 during exercise by the provision of supplementary CO2 is suggested to remove ∼50% of the difference in cerebral perfusion between young and older individuals. A multitude of candidates could account for the remaining difference, including cerebral atrophy, and enhanced vasoconstrictor and blunted vasodilatory pathways. In summary, age-related reductions in cerebral perfusion during exercise are partly associated with a lower P aC O2 in exercising older individuals; nevertheless the cerebral extraction of glucose, lactate and oxygen appear to be preserved. PMID:26435295

  7. Local cerebral glucose metabolism (LCMRGlc) in mood disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.E.; Baxter, L.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.

    1985-05-01

    PET studies (LCMRGlc units of ..mu.. moles/min/100g and errors in std. dev.) were performed in patients with unipolar depression (n=11), bipolar depression (n=8), hypomania (n=8) and bipolar mixed states (n=3) in drug free states as well as during spontaneous or drug induced changes in mood, and age/sex matched normals (n=9). The major findings were: bipolar depressed patients had lower (P<0.001) supratentorial CMRGlc (16.7 +- 3.7) than normals (23.6 +- 1.9), hypomanic bipolars (24.7 + 44.6) or unipolars (24.5 +- 3.0). Bipolar mixed (16.4 +- 4.8) were not different from bipolar depressed but were different from all other states (P<0.02). Bipolar depressed and mixed showed increased (30%) supratentorial CMRGlc (P<0.05) with elevated mood (euthymic or hypomanic). Three rapid cycling bipolar patients (2 studies depressed and 1 hypomanic) also showed consistent increases (35%) in supratentorial CMRGlc from depressed to elevated mood state. Unipolar depressed patients had a low LCMRGlc ratio of caudate to hemispheric (c/Hem) (1.18 +- 0.09) compared to bipolar depression (1.30 +- 0.13) or normals (1.32 +- 0.07). Four unipolar patients studied after drug induced recovery showed corresponding return of Cd/Hem ratio to normal. Results of these studies show; delineation of bipolar depressed from unpolar depressed and normals. Separation of mixed biopolar from unipolar and correspondence of the former with bipolar rather than unipolar depression (controversial characterization by other diagnostic criteria), separation of unipolar from normal and bipolar by reduced LCMRGlc of caudate, and direct correspondence of changes in mood state with changes in LCMRGlc independent of whether changes in mood were drug induced or spontaneous.

  8. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... al. Course of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation. Neurology. 2007;68:1411-1416. PMID: 17452586 www.ncbi. ...

  9. Rehabilitation in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most frequent physical disability of childhood onset. Over the past four decades, prevalence has remained remarkably constant at 2 to 3 per 1,000 live births in industrialized countries. In this article I concentrate on the rehabilitation and outcome of patients with cerebral palsy. The epidemiologic, pathogenetic, and diagnostic aspects are highlighted briefly as they pertain to the planning and implementation of the rehabilitation process. PMID:1866952

  10. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    PubMed

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. PMID:26994581

  11. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. PMID:24204146

  12. Effect of gender on glucose utilization rates in healthy humans: A positron emission tomography study

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, S.A.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Kumar, A.; Salerno, J.A.; Kozachuk, W.E.; Wagner, E.; Rapoport, S.I.; Horwitz, B. )

    1990-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used with 18fluorodeoxyglucose to see if gender differences in resting cerebral glucose utilization could be detected. Thirty-two healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men; age range: 21-38 yr) were examined using a high-resolution PET scanner to determine the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) in 65 gray matter regions of interest. Whole brain CMRglc did not differ significantly between the two genders, nor did any of the regional CMRglc values. Only 1 of 65 ratios of regional-to-whole brain CMRglc differed significantly between men and women, which is consistent with chance. These results indicate that there are no differences in resting regional cerebral glucose utilization between young men and women.

  13. [Glucose Metabolism: Stress Hyperglycemia and Glucose Control].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-05-01

    It is important for the anesthesiologists to understand pathophysiology of perioperative stress hyperglycemia, because it offers strategies for treatment of stress hyperglycemia. The effect of glucose tolerance is different in the choice of the anesthetic agent used in daily clinical setting. Specifically, the volatile anesthetics inhibit insulin secretion after glucose load and affects glucose tolerance. During minor surgery by the remifentanil anesthesia, the stress reaction is hard to be induced, suggesting that we should consider low-dose glucose load. Finally it is necessary to perform the glycemic control of the patients who fell into stress hyperglycemia depending on the individual patient. However, there are a lot of questions to be answered in the future. The prognosis of the perioperative patients is more likely to be greatly improved if we can control stress hyperglycemia. PMID:27319094

  14. Advanced cerebral monitoring in neurocritical care.

    PubMed

    Barazangi, Nobl; Hemphill, J Claude

    2008-01-01

    New cerebral monitoring techniques allow direct measurement of brain oxygenation and metabolism. Investigation using these new tools has provided additional insight into the understanding of the pathophysiology of acute brain injury and suggested new ways to guide management of secondary brain injury. Studies of focal brain tissue oxygen monitoring have suggested ischemic thresholds in focal regions of brain injury and demonstrated the interrelationship between brain tissue oxygen tension (P bt O 2 ) and other cerebral physiologic and metabolic parameters. Jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjVO 2 ) monitoring may evaluate global brain oxygen delivery and consumption, providing thresholds for detecting brain hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion. Furthermore, critically low values of P bt O 2 and SjVO 2 have also been predictive of mortality and worsened functional outcome, especially after head trauma. Cerebral microdialysis measures the concentrations of extracellular metabolites which may be relevant to cerebral metabolism or ischemia in focal areas of injury. Cerebral blood flow may be measured in the neurointensive care unit using continuous methods such as thermal diffusion and laser Doppler flowmetry. Initial studies have also attempted to correlate findings from advanced neuromonitoring with neuroimaging using dynamic perfusion computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and Xenon computed tomography. Additionally, new methods of data acquisition, storage, and analysis are being developed to address the increasing burden of patient data from neuromonitoring. Advanced informatics techniques such as hierarchical data clustering, generalized linear models, and heat map dendrograms are now being applied to multivariable patient data in order to better develop physiologic patient profiles to improve diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19127034

  15. Middle cerebral artery infarct following multiple bee stings.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Stalin; Muthu, Vivekanandan; Singh, Ajai P; Rajendran, Rajarajan; George, Robin

    2012-02-01

    Neurologic events following bee stings are very rare. We report a 59-year-old man who became drowsy with slurred speech following multiple bee stings. In the hospital, he was found to have left-sided hemplegia, seventh cranial nerve palsy, and left conjugate gaze palsy. Further investigation revealed dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and a middle cerebral artery territory infarct. His limb weakness and speech improved before his discharge from the hospital. PMID:20702115

  16. Effects of forskolin on cerebral blood flow: implications for a role of adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Wysham, D.G.; Brotherton, A.F.; Heistad, D.D.

    1986-11-01

    We have studied cerebral vascular effects of forskolin, a drug which stimulates adenylate cyclase and potentiates dilator effects of adenosine in other vascular beds. Our goals were to determine whether forskolin is a cerebral vasodilator and whether it potentiates cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine. We measured cerebral blood flow with microspheres in anesthetized rabbits. Forskolin (10 micrograms/kg per min) increased blood flow (ml/min per 100 gm) from 39 +/- 5 (mean +/- S.E.) to 56 +/- 9 (p less than 0.05) in cerebrum, and increased flow to myocardium and kidney despite a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Forskolin did not alter cerebral oxygen consumption, which indicates that the increase in cerebral blood flow is a direct vasodilator effect and is not secondary to increased metabolism. We also examined effects of forskolin on the response to infusion of adenosine. Cerebral blood flow was measured during infusion of 1-5 microM/min adenosine into one internal carotid artery, under control conditions and during infusion of forskolin at 3 micrograms/kg per min i.v. Adenosine alone increased ipsilateral cerebral blood flow from 32 +/- 3 to 45 +/- 5 (p less than 0.05). Responses to adenosine were not augmented during infusion of forskolin. We conclude that forskolin is a direct cerebral vasodilator and forskolin does not potentiate cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine.

  17. Roles of Glucose in Photoreceptor Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Chertov, Andrei O.; Holzhausen, Lars; Kuok, Iok Teng; Couron, Drew; Parker, Ed; Linton, Jonathan D.; Sadilek, Martin; Sweet, Ian R.; Hurley, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptor neurons have a high demand for metabolic energy, and their viability is very sensitive to genetic and environmental perturbations. We investigated the relationship between energy metabolism and cell death by evaluating the metabolic effects of glucose deprivation on mouse photoreceptors. Oxygen consumption, lactate production, ATP, NADH/NAD+, TCA cycle intermediates, morphological changes, autophagy, and viability were evaluated. We compared retinas incubated with glucose to retinas deprived of glucose or retinas treated with a mixture of mitochondrion-specific fuels. Rapid and slow phases of cell death were identified. The rapid phase is linked to reduced mitochondrial activity, and the slower phase reflects a need for substrates for cell maintenance and repair. PMID:21840997

  18. Metabolic Pattern of the Acute Phase of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Novel Porcine Model: Studies with Cerebral Microdialysis with High Temporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Christoffer; Karlsson, Torbjörn; Hillered, Lars; Engström, Elisabeth Ronne

    2014-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may produce cerebral ischemia and systemic responses including stress. To study immediate cerebral and systemic changes in response to aneurysm rupture, animal models are needed. Objective To study early cerebral energy changes in an animal model. Methods Experimental SAH was induced in 11 pigs by autologous blood injection to the anterior skull base, with simultaneous control of intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor concentrations of glucose, pyruvate and lactate. Results In nine of the pigs, a pattern of transient ischemia was produced, with a dramatic reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure soon after blood injection, associated with a quick glucose and pyruvate decrease. This was followed by a lactate increase and a delayed pyruvate increase, producing a marked but short elevation of the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Glucose, pyruvate, lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio thereafter returned toward baseline. The two remaining pigs had a more severe metabolic reaction with glucose and pyruvate rapidly decreasing to undetectable levels while lactate increased and remained elevated, suggesting persisting ischemia. Conclusion The animal model simulates the conditions of SAH not only by deposition of blood in the basal cisterns, but also creating the transient global ischemic impact of aneurysmal SAH. The metabolic cerebral changes suggest immediate transient substrate failure followed by hypermetabolism of glucose upon reperfusion. The model has features that resemble spontaneous bleeding, and is suitable for future research of the early cerebral and systemic responses to SAH that are difficult to study in humans. PMID:24940881

  19. Vasospasm in Cerebral Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhut, Michael

    2014-01-01

    All forms of cerebral inflammation as found in bacterial meningitis, cerebral malaria, brain injury, and subarachnoid haemorrhage have been associated with vasospasm of cerebral arteries and arterioles. Vasospasm has been associated with permanent neurological deficits and death in subarachnoid haemorrhage and bacterial meningitis. Increased levels of interleukin-1 may be involved in vasospasm through calcium dependent and independent activation of the myosin light chain kinase and release of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1. Another key factor in the pathogenesis of cerebral arterial vasospasm may be the reduced bioavailability of the vasodilator nitric oxide. Therapeutic trials in vasospasm related to inflammation in subarachnoid haemorrhage in humans showed a reduction of vasospasm through calcium antagonists, endothelin receptor antagonists, statins, and plasminogen activators. Combination of therapeutic modalities addressing calcium dependent and independent vasospasm, the underlying inflammation, and depletion of nitric oxide simultaneously merit further study in all conditions with cerebral inflammation in double blind randomised placebo controlled trials. Auxiliary treatment with these agents may be able to reduce ischemic brain injury associated with neurological deficits and increased mortality. PMID:25610703

  20. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Allroggen, H.; Abbott, R.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a challenging condition because of its variability of clinical symptoms and signs. It is very often unrecognised at initial presentation. All age groups can be affected. Large sinuses such as the superior sagittal sinus are most frequently involved. Extensive collateral circulation within the cerebral venous system allows for a significant degree of compensation in the early stages of thrombus formation. Systemic inflammatory diseases and inherited as well as acquired coagulation disorders are frequent causes, although in up to 30% of cases no underlying cause can be identified. The oral contraceptive pill appears to be an important additional risk factor. The spectrum of clinical presentations ranges from headache with papilloedema to focal deficit, seizures and coma. Magnetic resonance imaging with venography is the investigation of choice; computed tomography alone will miss a significant number of cases. It has now been conclusively shown that intravenous heparin is the first-line treatment for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis because of its efficacy, safety and feasability. Local thrombolysis may be indicated in cases of deterioration, despite adequate heparinisation. This should be followed by oral anticoagulation for 3-6 months. The prognosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is generally favourable. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose this uncommon condition so that appropriate treatment can be initiated.


Keywords: cerebral venous sinus thrombosis PMID:10622773

  1. The Effect of Acetazolamide on Cerebral Blood Flow and Oxygen Utilization in the Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Laux, B. E.; Raichle, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    The brain is critically dependent for its moment to moment function and survival on an adequate supply of oxygen. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase (EC 4.2.1.1) may play an important role in oxygen delivery to brain tissue by facilitating the hydration of metabolically produced carbon dioxide in erythrocytes in brain capillaries, thus permitting the Bohr effect to occur. We examined the effect of 30 mg/kg i.v. acetazolamide, a potent inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, upon cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in lightly anesthetized, passively ventilated rhesus monkeys. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption were measured with oxygen-15-labeled water and oxygen-15-labeled oxyhemoglobin, respectively, injected into the internal carotid artery and monitored externally. Acetazolamide produced an immediate and significant increase in cerebral blood flow (from a mean of 64.7 to 83.8 ml/100 g per min), an increase in arterial carbon dioxide tension (from a mean of 40.7 to 47.5 torr), and a decrease in cerebral oxygen consumption (from a mean of 4.16 to 2.82 ml/100 g per min). Because the change in cerebral oxygen consumption occurred within minutes of the administration of acetazolamide, we believe that this effect probably was not due to a direct action on brain cells but was achieved by an interference with oxygen unloading in brain capillaries. A resultant tissue hypoxia might well explain part of the observed increase in cerebral blood flow. PMID:99455

  2. Neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Namura, Shobu; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Liu, Jialing; Yenari, Midori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia, a focal or global insufficiency of blood flow to the brain, can arise through multiple mechanisms, including thrombosis and arterial hemorrhage. Ischemia is a major driver of stroke, one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the general etiology of cerebral ischemia and stroke has been known for some time, the conditions have only recently been considered treatable. This report describes current research in this field seeking to fully understand the pathomechanisms underlying stroke; to characterize the brain’s intrinsic injury, survival, and repair mechanisms; to identify putative drug targets as well as cell-based therapies; and to optimize the delivery of therapeutic agents to the damaged cerebral tissue. PMID:23488559

  3. Protein Kinase C Epsilon Promotes Cerebral Ischemic Tolerance Via Modulation of Mitochondrial Sirt5

    PubMed Central

    Morris-Blanco, Kahlilia C.; Dave, Kunjan R.; Saul, Isabel; Koronowski, Kevin B.; Stradecki, Holly M.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is a mitochondrial-localized NAD+-dependent lysine desuccinylase and a major regulator of the mitochondrial succinylome. We wanted to determine whether SIRT5 is activated by protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε)-mediated increases in mitochondrial Nampt and whether SIRT5 regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics and neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. In isolated mitochondria from rat cortical cultures, PKCε activation increased SIRT5 levels and desuccinylation activity in a Nampt-dependent manner. PKCε activation did not lead to significant modifications in SIRT3 activity, the major mitochondrial lysine deacetylase. Assessments of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the cortex of wild type (WT) and SIRT5−/− mice revealed that SIRT5 regulates oxygen consumption in the presence of complex I, complex II, and complex IV substrates. To explore the potential role of SIRT5 in PKCε-mediated protection, we compared WT and SIRT5−/− mice by employing both in vitro and in vivo ischemia paradigms. PKCε-mediated decreases in cell death following oxygen-glucose deprivation were abolished in cortical cultures harvested from SIRT5−/− mice. Furthermore, PKCε failed to prevent cortical degeneration following MCAO in SIRT5−/− mice. Collectively this demonstrates that SIRT5 is an important mitochondrial enzyme for protection against metabolic and ischemic stress following PKCε activation in the brain. PMID:27435822

  4. Causes and consequences of increased glucose metabolism of cancers.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Robert J; Robey, Ian; Gatenby, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In this review we examine the mechanisms (causes) underlying the increased glucose consumption observed in tumors within a teleological context (consequences). In other words, we will ask not only "How do cancers have high glycolysis?" but also, "Why?" We believe that the insights gained from answering the latter question support the conclusion that elevated glucose consumption is a necessary component of carcinogenesis. Specifically we propose that glycolysis is elevated because it produces acid, which provides an evolutionary advantage to cancer cells vis-à-vis normal parenchyma into which they invade. PMID:18523064

  5. Glucose: detection and analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also pla...

  6. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  7. Glucose monitoring during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In patients with diabetes who intend to fast during Ramadan, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important tool. During this month, a long established treatment regimen, including medications, physical activity and diet plan, is changed to achieve concordance with the rules of fasting. Without proper glucose monitoring, it is not possible to achieve good glycaemic control. PMID:26013788

  8. Jejunal epithelial glucose metabolism: effects of Na+ replacement.

    PubMed

    Mallet, R T; Jackson, M J; Kelleher, J K

    1986-11-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of replacement of extracellular Na+ with a nontransportable cation, N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG+) on jejunal epithelial glucose metabolism. Jejunal epithelium isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats was incubated in media containing 5 mM glucose, 0.5 mM glutamine, 0.5 mM beta-hydroxybutyrate, and 0.3 mM acetoacetate as the principal carbon sources. O2 consumption and total glucose utilization were reduced 30 and 50%, respectively, when Na+ was replaced with NMDG+. In both media, approximately 75% of utilized glucose carbon was converted to lactate. The rate of glucose metabolism via the hexose monophosphate shunt, as evaluated using specific 14CO2 yields from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose, was not appreciably altered by Na+ replacement. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux was evaluated using 14CO2 production from [14C]glucose and [14C]pyruvate radioisotopes. Approximately 50% of TCA cycle flux was shunted into products other than CO2 in both media. The majority of the acetyl-CoA oxidized in the TCA cycle was derived from cytosolic pyruvate. It is concluded that removal of Na+ from the bathing medium substantially reduced glucose utilization via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway and TCA cycle in the jejunal epithelium. PMID:3777159

  9. Regulation of Hepatic Glucose Uptake and Storage In Vivo12

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mary Courtney; Coate, Katie C.; Winnick, Jason J.; An, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    In the postprandial state, the liver takes up and stores glucose to minimize the fluctuation of glycemia. Elevated insulin concentrations, an increase in the load of glucose reaching the liver, and the oral/enteral/portal vein route of glucose delivery (compared with the peripheral intravenous route) are factors that increase the rate of net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU). The entry of glucose into the portal vein stimulates a portal glucose signal that not only enhances NHGU but concomitantly reduces muscle glucose uptake to ensure appropriate partitioning of a glucose load. This coordinated regulation of glucose uptake is likely neurally mediated, at least in part, because it is not observed after total hepatic denervation. Moreover, there is evidence that both the sympathetic and the nitrergic innervation of the liver exert a tonic repression of NHGU that is relieved under feeding conditions. Further, the energy sensor 5′AMP-activated protein kinase appears to be involved in regulation of NHGU and glycogen storage. Consumption of a high-fat and high-fructose diet impairs NHGU and glycogen storage in association with a reduction in glucokinase protein and activity. An understanding of the impact of nutrients themselves and the route of nutrient delivery on liver carbohydrate metabolism is fundamental to the development of therapies for impaired postprandial glucoregulation. PMID:22585902

  10. Effects of two doses of glucose and a caffeine–glucose combination on cognitive performance and mood during multi-tasking

    PubMed Central

    Scholey, Andrew; Savage, Karen; O'Neill, Barry V; Owen, Lauren; Stough, Con; Priestley, Caroline; Wetherell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed the effects of two doses of glucose and a caffeine–glucose combination on mood and performance of an ecologically valid, computerised multi-tasking platform. Materials and methods Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, parallel-groups design, 150 healthy adults (mean age 34.78 years) consumed drinks containing placebo, 25 g glucose, 60 g glucose or 60 g glucose with 40 mg caffeine. They completed a multi-tasking framework at baseline and then 30 min following drink consumption with mood assessments immediately before and after the multi-tasking framework. Blood glucose and salivary caffeine were co-monitored. Results The caffeine–glucose group had significantly better total multi-tasking scores than the placebo or 60 g glucose groups and were significantly faster at mental arithmetic tasks than either glucose drink group. There were no significant treatment effects on mood. Caffeine and glucose levels confirmed compliance with overnight abstinence/fasting, respectively, and followed the predicted post-drink patterns. Conclusion These data suggest that co-administration of glucose and caffeine allows greater allocation of attentional resources than placebo or glucose alone. At present, we cannot rule out the possibility that the effects are due to caffeine alone Future studies should aim at disentangling caffeine and glucose effects. PMID:25196040

  11. Influence of Temperature on Glucose Utilization by Pseudomonas fluorescens1

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Samuel A.; Witter, Lloyd D.

    1969-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the conversion of glucose into cell material and into energy for maintenance was determined for Pseudomonas fluorescens by a steady-state turbidity method and by a substrate utilization method. Conversion of glucose into cell material was measured as yield; conversion of glucose into energy for maintenance was measured as specific maintenance, the minimum dilution rate in continuous culture below which a steady state is not possible. The values obtained by the two methods were nearly identical; with both, the yield and specific maintenance decreased with decreasing temperature. The specific maintenance consumption rate (milligrams of glucose taken up per milligram of cell dry weight per hour at zero growth) was also calculated by the substrate utilization method and found to decrease with decreasing temperature. However, the amount of glucose consumed per generation for maintenance increased with decreasing temperature. This increased glucose consumption for maintenance may provide a partial explanation for the decrease in yield at low temperatures. Small amounts of glucose were also converted into pigment at all temperatures tested, with the greatest amount formed at 20 C. PMID:4896876

  12. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  13. Cerebral Palsy Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Sartwelle, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothers and babies alike. This article explains why electronic fetal monitoring remains endorsed as efficacious in the worlds’ labor rooms and courtrooms despite being such a feeble medical modality. It also reviews the reasons professional organizations have failed to condemn the use of electronic fetal monitoring in courtrooms. The failures of tort reform, special cerebral palsy courts, and damage limits to stem the escalating litigation are discussed. Finally, the authors propose using a currently available evidence rule—the Daubert doctrine that excludes “junk science” from the courtroom—as the beginning of the end to cerebral palsy litigation and electronic fetal monitoring’s 40-year masquerade as science. PMID:25183322

  14. Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Nybo, Lars; Dalsgaard, Mads K; Steensberg, Adam; Møller, Kirsten; Secher, Niels H

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether peripheral ammonia production during prolonged exercise enhances the uptake and subsequent accumulation of ammonia within the brain. Two studies determined the cerebral uptake of ammonia (arterial and jugular venous blood sampling combined with Kety–Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow; n = 5) and the ammonia concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 8) at rest and immediately following prolonged exercise either with or without glucose supplementation. There was a net balance of ammonia across the brain at rest and at 30 min of exercise, whereas 3 h of exercise elicited an uptake of 3.7 ± 1.3 μmol min−1 (mean ±s.e.m.) in the placebo trial and 2.5 ± 1.0 μmol min−1 in the glucose trial (P < 0.05 compared to rest, not different across trials). At rest, CSF ammonia was below the detection limit of 2 μm in all subjects, but it increased to 5.3 ± 1.1 μm following exercise with glucose, and further to 16.1 ± 3.3 μm after the placebo trial (P < 0.05). Correlations were established between both the cerebral uptake (r2 = 0.87; P < 0.05) and the CSF concentration (r2 = 0.72; P < 0.05) and the arterial ammonia level and, in addition, a weaker correlation (r2 = 0.37; P < 0.05) was established between perceived exertion and CSF ammonia at the end of exercise. The results let us suggest that during prolonged exercise the cerebral uptake and accumulation of ammonia may provoke fatigue, e.g. by affecting neurotransmitter metabolism. PMID:15611036

  15. Cerebral White Matter

    PubMed Central

    Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Smith, Eric E.; Eichler, Florian S.; Filley, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Lesions of the cerebral white matter (WM) result in focal neurobehavioral syndromes, neuropsychiatric phenomena, and dementia. The cerebral WM contains fiber pathways that convey axons linking cerebral cortical areas with each other and with subcortical structures, facilitating the distributed neural circuits that subserve sensorimotor function, intellect, and emotion. Recent neuroanatomical investigations reveal that these neural circuits are topographically linked by five groupings of fiber tracts emanating from every neocortical area: (1) cortico-cortical association fibers; (2) corticostriatal fibers; (3) commissural fibers; and cortico-subcortical pathways to (4) thalamus and (5) pontocerebellar system, brain stem, and/or spinal cord. Lesions of association fibers prevent communication between cortical areas engaged in different domains of behavior. Lesions of subcortical structures or projection/striatal fibers disrupt the contribution of subcortical nodes to behavior. Disconnection syndromes thus result from lesions of the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, and WM tracts that link the nodes that make up the distributed circuits. The nature and the severity of the clinical manifestations of WM lesions are determined, in large part, by the location of the pathology: discrete neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms result from focal WM lesions, whereas cognitive impairment across multiple domains—WM dementia—occurs in the setting of diffuse WM disease. We present a detailed review of the conditions affecting WM that produce these neurobehavioral syndromes, and consider the pathophysiology, clinical effects, and broad significance of the effects of aging and vascular compromise on cerebral WM, in an attempt to help further the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of these disorders. PMID:18990132

  16. Stability of cerebral metabolism and substrate availability in humans during hypoxia and hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Philip N; Shaw, Andrew D; Smith, Kurt J; Willie, Christopher K; Ikeda, Keita; Graham, Joseph; Macleod, David B

    2014-05-01

    Characterization of the influence of oxygen availability on brain metabolism is an essential step toward a better understanding of brain energy homoeostasis and has obvious clinical implications. However, how brain metabolism depends on oxygen availability has not been clearly examined in humans. We therefore assessed the influence of oxygen on CBF (cerebral blood flow) and CMRO2 (cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen) and carbohydrates. PaO2 (arterial partial pressure of oxygen) was decreased for 15 min to ~60, ~44 and ~35 mmHg [to target a SaO2 (arterial oxygen saturation) of 90, 80 and 70% respectively], and elevated to ~320 and ~430 mmHg. Isocapnia was maintained during each trial. At the end of each stage, arterial-jugular venous differences and volumetric CBF were measured to directly calculate cerebral metabolic rates. During progressive hypoxaemia, elevations in CBF were correlated with the reductions in both SaO2 (R2=0.54, P<0.05) and CaO2 (arterial oxygen content) (R2=0.57, P<0.05). Despite markedly reduced CaO2, cerebral oxygen delivery was maintained by increased CBF. Cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen, glucose and lactate remained unaltered during progressive hypoxia. Consequently, cerebral glucose delivery was in excess of that required, and net lactate efflux increased slightly in severe hypoxia, as reflected by a small increase in jugular venous lactate. Progressive hyperoxia did not alter CBF, CaO2, substrate delivery or cerebral metabolism. In conclusion, marked elevations in CBF with progressive hypoxaemia and related reductions in CaO2 resulted in a well-maintained cerebral oxygen delivery. As such, cerebral metabolism is still supported almost exclusively by carbohydrate oxidation during severe levels of hypoxaemia. PMID:24117382

  17. Positive Correlation between Severity of Blepharospasm and Thalamic Glucose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Murai, Hideki; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Kiyosawa, Motohiro; Wakakura, Masato; Mochizuki, Manabu; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman with drug-related blepharospasm was followed up for 22 months. She had undergone etizolam treatment for 19 years for indefinite complaints. We examined her cerebral glucose metabolism 5 times (between days 149 and 688 since presentation), using positron emission tomography, and identified regions of interest in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and primary somatosensory area on both sides. The severity of the blepharospasm was evaluated by PET scanning using the Wakakura classification. Sixteen women (mean age 42.4 ± 11.7 years) were examined as normal controls. The thalamic glucose metabolism in our patient was significantly increased on days 149, 212, and 688. The severity of the blepharospasm was positively correlated with the thalamic glucose metabolism, suggesting that the severity of blepharospasms reflects thalamic activity. PMID:22110436

  18. Positive Correlation between Severity of Blepharospasm and Thalamic Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Hideki; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Kiyosawa, Motohiro; Wakakura, Masato; Mochizuki, Manabu; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman with drug-related blepharospasm was followed up for 22 months. She had undergone etizolam treatment for 19 years for indefinite complaints. We examined her cerebral glucose metabolism 5 times (between days 149 and 688 since presentation), using positron emission tomography, and identified regions of interest in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and primary somatosensory area on both sides. The severity of the blepharospasm was evaluated by PET scanning using the Wakakura classification. Sixteen women (mean age 42.4 ± 11.7 years) were examined as normal controls. The thalamic glucose metabolism in our patient was significantly increased on days 149, 212, and 688. The severity of the blepharospasm was positively correlated with the thalamic glucose metabolism, suggesting that the severity of blepharospasms reflects thalamic activity. PMID:22110436

  19. The effect of intravenous insulin on accumulation of excitotoxic and other amino acids in the ischemic rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Guyot, L L; Diaz, F G; O'Regan, M H; Ren, J; Phillis, J W

    2000-07-01

    Insulin has been reported to be neuroprotective during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. However, it may also increase the sensitivity of cultured cortical neurons to glutamate toxicity. The experiments described here utilized a rat four-vessel occlusion model with cerebral cortical windows to determine the effects of intravenous insulin, alone (I) or combined with glucose (IG) to maintain physiologic blood glucose levels, on the extracellular accumulation of amino acids in superfusates of the cerebral cortex. Aspartate, phosphoethanolamine, taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid were increased in the I and IG groups and glutamate was increased in the IG group compared to controls during ischemia/reperfusion. Insulin treatment attenuated the rebound in cortical superfusate glucose levels in both groups of animals during reperfusion. The increases in amino acid release during reperfusion may be due to a lack of glycolytically derived energy available for amino acid uptake systems and ionic pumps. PMID:10869816

  20. Influence of ketamine on regional brain glucose use

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.W.; Mans, A.M.; Biebuyck, J.F.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of ketamine on cerebral function at the level of individual brain structures as reflected by glucose use. Rats received either 5 or 30 mg/kg ketamine intravenously as a loading dose, followed by an infusion to maintain a steady-state level of the drug. An additional group received 30 mg/kg as a single injection only, and was studied 20 min later, by which time they were recovering consciousness (withdrawal group). Regional brain energy metabolism was evaluated with (6-/sup 14/C)glucose and quantitative autoradiography during a 5-min experimental period. A subhypnotic, steady-state dose (5 mg/kg) of ketamine caused a stimulation of glucose use in most brain areas, with an average increase of 20%. At the larger steady-state dose (30 mg/kg, which is sufficient to cause anesthesia), there was no significant effect on most brain regions; some sensory nuclei were depressed (inferior colliculus, -29%; cerebellar dentate nucleus, -18%; vestibular nucleus, -16%), but glucose use in the ventral posterior hippocampus was increased by 33%. In contrast, during withdrawal from a 30-mg/kg bolus, there was a stimulation of glucose use throughout the brain (21-78%), at a time when plasma ketamine levels were similar to the levels in the 5 mg/kg group. At each steady-state dose, as well as during withdrawal, ketamine caused a notable stimulation of glucose use by the hippocampus.

  1. Noninvasive measurement of cerebral oxygen saturation and cerebral phronetal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengli; Zhang, Aiyu; Xu, Min; Jin, Taiyi

    1998-08-01

    Using the Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), the noninvasive measurement of cerebral oxygen concentration can be achieved in vivo based on the Lambert-Beer Law. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of studying higher brain functions through combining cerebral oxygen saturation and cerebral function measurement. Event-related experiments are introduced to measure the cerebral phronetal function. Time domain curves show sight differences among these experiment results. However, with the aid of DFT, experiment data of all five human volunteers show the frequency near 20 Hz or 40 Hz is evoked depending on the difficulty of the mental tasks. The results demonstrate the feasibility of cerebral functions study by means of cerebral oxygen saturation measurement analyzed in the frequency domain.

  2. Chlorogenic acid differentially affects postprandial glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in rats.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Regular coffee consumption significantly lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Coffee contains thousands of compounds; however, the specific component(s) responsible for this reduced risk is unknown. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) found in brewed coffee inhibit intestinal glucose uptake in vitro. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which CGA acts to mediate blood glucose response in vivo. Conscious, unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically catheterized and gavage-fed a standardized meal (59% carbohydrate, 25% fat, 12% protein), administered with or without CGA (120 mg·kg(-1)), in a randomized crossover design separated by a 3-day washout period. Acetaminophen was co-administered to assess the effects of CGA on gastric emptying. The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured. GLP-1 response in the presence of glucose and CGA was further examined, using the human colon cell line NCI-H716. Total area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose was significantly attenuated in rats fed CGA (p < 0.05). Despite this, no differences in plasma insulin or nonesterified fatty acids were observed, and gastric emptying was not altered. Plasma GIP response was blunted in rats fed CGA, with a lower peak concentration and AUC up to 180 min postprandially (p < 0.05). There were no changes in GLP-1 secretion in either the in vivo or in vitro study. In conclusion, CGA treatment resulted in beneficial effects on blood glucose response, with alterations seen in GIP concentrations. Given the widespread consumption and availability of coffee, CGA may be a viable prevention tool for T2D. PMID:21977912

  3. Vascular Glucose Sensor Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey I; Torjman, Marc C.; Strasma, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and cost in a variety of critical care and non–critical care patient populations in the hospital. The results from prospective randomized clinical trials designed to determine the risks and benefits of intensive insulin therapy and tight glycemic control have been confusing; and at times conflicting. The limitations of point-of-care blood glucose (BG) monitoring in the hospital highlight the great clinical need for an automated real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) that can accurately measure the concentration of glucose every few minutes. Automation and standardization of the glucose measurement process have the potential to significantly improve BG control, clinical outcome, safety and cost. PMID:26078254

  4. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  5. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Glucose Before meals: 80 to 130 mg/dl My Usual Results My Goals ______ to ______ ______ to ______ 2 ... the start of a meal: below 180 mg/dl below ______ below ______ What’s the best way to keep ...

  6. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucose NIH Medline Plus - Diabetes Spotlight FDA permits marketing of first system of mobile medical apps for ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  7. Pyruvate treatment attenuates cerebral metabolic depression and neuronal loss after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Moro, Nobuhiro; Ghavim, Sima S; Harris, Neil G; Hovda, David A; Sutton, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to produce an acute increase in cerebral glucose utilization, followed rapidly by a generalized cerebral metabolic depression. The current studies determined effects of single or multiple treatments with sodium pyruvate (SP; 1000mg/kg, i.p.) or ethyl pyruvate (EP; 40mg/kg, i.p.) on cerebral glucose metabolism and neuronal injury in rats with unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. In Experiment 1 a single treatment was given immediately after CCI. SP significantly improved glucose metabolism in 3 of 13 brain regions while EP improved metabolism in 7 regions compared to saline-treated controls at 24h post-injury. Both SP and EP produced equivalent and significant reductions in dead/dying neurons in cortex and hippocampus at 24h post-CCI. In Experiment 2 SP or EP were administered immediately (time 0) and at 1, 3 and 6h post-CCI. Multiple SP treatments also significantly attenuated TBI-induced reductions in cerebral glucose metabolism (in 4 brain regions) 24h post-CCI, as did multiple injections of EP (in 4 regions). The four pyruvate treatments produced significant neuroprotection in cortex and hippocampus 1day after CCI, similar to that found with a single SP or EP treatment. Thus, early administration of pyruvate compounds enhanced cerebral glucose metabolism and neuronal survival, with 40mg/kg of EP being as effective as 1000mg/kg of SP, and multiple treatments within 6h of injury did not improve upon outcomes seen following a single treatment. PMID:27059390

  8. Genetics of Cerebral Vasospasm

    PubMed Central

    Ladner, Travis R.; Zuckerman, Scott L.; Mocco, J

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) is a major source of morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). It is thought that an inflammatory cascade initiated by extravasated blood products precipitates CV, disrupting vascular smooth muscle cell function of major cerebral arteries, leading to vasoconstriction. Mechanisms of CV and modes of therapy are an active area of research. Understanding the genetic basis of CV holds promise for the recognition and treatment for this devastating neurovascular event. In our review, we summarize the most recent research involving key areas within the genetics and vasospasm discussion: (1) Prognostic role of genetics—risk stratification based on gene sequencing, biomarkers, and polymorphisms; (2) Signaling pathways—pinpointing key inflammatory molecules responsible for downstream cellular signaling and altering these mediators to provide therapeutic benefit; and (3) Gene therapy and gene delivery—using viral vectors or novel protein delivery methods to overexpress protective genes in the vasospasm cascade. PMID:23691311

  9. Retrograde Cerebral Perfusion Results in Better Perfusion to the Striatum Than the Cerebral Cortex During Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest: A Microdialysis Study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Meng-Ya; Chen, Guang-Xian; Tang, Zhi-Xian; Rong, Jian; Yao, Jian-ping; Wu, Zhong-Kai

    2016-03-01

    It remains controversial whether contemporary cerebral perfusion techniques, utilized during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), establish adequate perfusion to deep structures in the brain. This study aimed to investigate whether selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) or retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) can provide perfusion equally to various anatomical positions in the brain using metabolic evidence obtained from microdialysis. Eighteen piglets were randomly assigned to 40 min of circulatory arrest (CA) at 18°C without cerebral perfusion (DHCA group, n = 6) or with SACP (SACP group, n = 6) or RCP (RCP group, n = 6). Microdialysis parameters (glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glutamate) were measured every 30 min in cortex and striatum. After 3 h of reperfusion, brain tissue was harvested for Western blot measurement of α-spectrin. After 40 min of CA, the DHCA group showed marked elevations of lactate and glycerol and a reduction in glucose in the microdialysis perfusate (all P < 0.05). The changes in glucose, lactate, and glycerol in the perfusate and α-spectrin expression in brain tissue were similar between cortex and striatum in the SACP group (all P > 0.05). In the RCP group, the cortex exhibited lower glucose, higher lactate, and higher glycerol in the perfusate and higher α-spectrin expression in brain tissue compared with the striatum (all P < 0.05). Glutamate showed no difference between cortex and striatum in all groups (all P > 0.05). In summary, SACP provided uniform and continuous cerebral perfusion to most anatomical sites in the brain, whereas RCP resulted in less sufficient perfusion to the cortex but better perfusion to the striatum. PMID:26333187

  10. Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, J.R.; LeBlanc, H.J.

    1985-05-01

    Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures.

  11. Cerebral dysgenesis. An overview.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G B; Sheth, R D; Bodensteiner, J B

    1994-11-01

    A significant portion of patients with neurodevelopmental abnormalities (mental retardation, learning disabilities, and so forth) have no definable cause for these problems. Mounting evidence suggests a substantial number of these idiopathic conditions have subtle abnormalities of brain development (cerebral dysgenesis) as the inherent pathophysiologic event. In this article the authors summarize normal and abnormal brain development, the diagnostic approach to idiopathic neurodevelopmental anomalies, and the new molecular genetic insights into the underlying causes of brain malformations. PMID:7845342

  12. Dietary cholesterol protects against alcohol-induced cerebral artery constriction

    PubMed Central

    Bukiya, Anna; Dopico, Alex; Leffler, Charles; Fedinec, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Background Binge drinking represents the major form of excessive alcohol (EtOH) consumption in the US. Episodic (such as binge) drinking results in blood alcohol levels (BAL) of 18–80 mM, and leads to alcohol-induced cerebral artery constriction (AICAC). AICAC was shown to arise from EtOH-induced inhibition of large-conductance, calcium/voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels in the vascular smooth muscle. Factors that modulate BK channel-mediated AICAC remain largely unknown. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on high-cholesterol (2% of cholesterol) diet for 18–23 weeks. Their littermates were placed on control iso-caloric diet. AICAC was evaluated both in vivo and in vitro, by means of pial arteriole diameter monitoring through a closed cranial window and diameter measurements of isolated, pressurized cerebral arteries. Cholesterol level in the cerebral artery tissue was manipulated by methyl-β-cyclodextrin to reverse dietary-induced accumulation of cholesterol. BK channel surface presence on the plasma membrane of cerebral artery myocytes was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. BK channel function in pressurized cerebral artery was assessed using selective BK channel blocker paxilline. Results Within 5 minutes of 50 mM EtOH injection into carotid artery in vivo, arteriole diameter decreased by 20% in control group. Pial arteriole constriction was significantly reduced in rats on high-cholesterol diet, resulting in only 10% reduction of diameter. BAL in both groups, however, remained the same. Significant reduction of AICAC in group on high-cholesterol diet compared to control was also observed after middle cerebral artery dissection and in vitro pressurization at 60 mmHg, this reduction remaining after endothelium removal. Cholesterol level in de-endothelialized cerebral arteries was significantly increased in rats on high-cholesterol diet. Removal of excessive cholesterol content restored AICAC to the level, observed in cerebral arteries of

  13. Fractional uptake value as a good indicator for glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizawa, S.; Yonekura, Y.; Mukai, T. |

    1995-05-01

    In a previous paper, we demonstrated that hyperglycemia enhanced brain tumor detection in FDG-PET studies. However, the autoradiographic method underestimated cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in hyperglycemia, while dynamic PET scans are often not feasible due to patient`s condition. For such situations, we propose the use of the fractional uptake value (FUV) which is given by Ci(t)/{integral}Ca(t)dt where Ci(t) and Ca(t) are radio-activities in brain and plasma. In this study, we tested FUV as an indicator of the net clearance coefficient of FDG (K*) over a side range of plasma glucose levels. Seven patients with brain tumor underwent FDG-PET studies in normoglycemia (mean: 5.2 mM) and hyperglycemia (mean: 14.6 mM) on separate days. Dynamic PET scan was performed for 40 min with arterial sampling after an i.v. injection of 160-370 MBq of FDG. Data analysis was carried out on cortices contralateral of the tumor. The rate constants (K1*,k2*,k3*, and k4*) and cerebral blood volume of a 3 compartment model were estimated by non-linear least squared optimization. K* was defined as K*=K1*,k3*/(k2*+k3*). FUV was calculated using 4-min scan data from 36 to 40 min of the dynamic scan. The FUV demonstrated a good relationship with K value over a wide range of plasma glucose level (K*=2.0 10{sup -3} +1.02 FUV r=0.99), and proved to be a good indicator for cerebral glucose metabolism.

  14. What provides cerebral reserve?

    PubMed

    Staff, Roger T; Murray, Alison D; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2004-05-01

    The cerebral reserve hypothesis is a heuristic concept used to explain apparent protection from the onset of cerebral disease and/or cognitive decline in old age. A significant obstacle when investigating the reserve hypothesis is the absence of baseline data with which to compare current cognitive status. We tested the influence of three hypothesized proxies of reserve (education, head size and occupational attainment [OCC]) in 92 volunteers born in 1921, whose cognitive function was measured at age 11 and 79 years, and who underwent brain MRI. The association between each proxy and old age cognitive function was tested, adjusting for variance contributed by childhood mental ability and detrimental age-related pathological changes measured using MRI. The results showed that education and OCC, but not total intracranial volume (TICV), contribute to cerebral reserve and help retain cognitive function in old age. Education was found to contribute between 5 and 6% of the variance found in old age memory function but was found to have no significant association with reasoning abilities. OCC was found to contribute around 5% of the variance found in old age memory function and between 6 and 8% of the variance found in old age reasoning abilities. We conclude that the intellectual challenges experienced during life, such as education and occupation, accumulate reserve and allow cognitive function to be maintained in old age. PMID:15047587

  15. [Insomnia and cerebral hypoperfusion].

    PubMed

    Káposzta, Zoltán; Rácz, Klára

    2007-11-18

    Insomnia is defined as difficulty with the initiation, maintenance, duration, or quality of sleep that results in the impairment of daytime functioning, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep. In most countries approximately every third inhabitant has insomnia. Insomnia can be classified as primary and secondary. The pathogenesis of primary insomnia is unknown, but available evidence suggests a state of hyperarousal. Insomnia secondary to other causes is more common than primary insomnia. Cerebral hypoperfusion can be the cause of insomnia in some cases. In such patients the cerebral blood flow should be improved using parenteral vascular therapy. If insomnia persists despite treatment, then therapy for primary insomnia should be instituted using benzodiazepine-receptor agonists such as Zolpidem, Zopiclone, or Zaleplon. In those cases Midazolam cannot be used for the treatment of insomnia due to its marked negative effect on cerebral blood flow. In Hungary there is a need to organize multidisciplinary Insomnia Clinics because insomnia is more than a disease, it is a public health problem in this century. PMID:17988972

  16. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Anthony R.; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g., posture and degree of hyperthermia). The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2) causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g., hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges), an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy) during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e., 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature) levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided. PMID:24624095

  17. Altered Brain Response to Drinking Glucose and Fructose in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Sinha, Rajita; Arora, Jagriti; Giannini, Cosimo; Kubat, Jessica; Malik, Saima; Van Name, Michelle A; Santoro, Nicola; Savoye, Mary; Duran, Elvira J; Pierpont, Bridget; Cline, Gary; Constable, R Todd; Sherwin, Robert S; Caprio, Sonia

    2016-07-01

    Increased sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to higher rates of obesity. Using functional MRI, we assessed brain perfusion responses to drinking two commonly consumed monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, in obese and lean adolescents. Marked differences were observed. In response to drinking glucose, obese adolescents exhibited decreased brain perfusion in brain regions involved in executive function (prefrontal cortex [PFC]) and increased perfusion in homeostatic appetite regions of the brain (hypothalamus). Conversely, in response to drinking glucose, lean adolescents demonstrated increased PFC brain perfusion and no change in perfusion in the hypothalamus. In addition, obese adolescents demonstrated attenuated suppression of serum acyl-ghrelin and increased circulating insulin level after glucose ingestion; furthermore, the change in acyl-ghrelin and insulin levels after both glucose and fructose ingestion was associated with increased hypothalamic, thalamic, and hippocampal blood flow in obese relative to lean adolescents. Additionally, in all subjects there was greater perfusion in the ventral striatum with fructose relative to glucose ingestion. Finally, reduced connectivity between executive, homeostatic, and hedonic brain regions was observed in obese adolescents. These data demonstrate that obese adolescents have impaired prefrontal executive control responses to drinking glucose and fructose, while their homeostatic and hedonic responses appear to be heightened. Thus, obesity-related brain adaptations to glucose and fructose consumption in obese adolescents may contribute to excessive consumption of glucose and fructose, thereby promoting further weight gain. PMID:27207544

  18. What You Should Know about Cerebral Aneurysms

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Stroke What You Should Know About Cerebral Aneurysms Updated:Jun 13,2014 About Cerebral Aneurysms Diagnosis ... to view an animation What is a cerebral aneurysm? An aneurysm is a weak area in a ...

  19. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema.

    PubMed

    Stokum, Jesse A; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2016-03-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  20. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema

    PubMed Central

    Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  1. A role for glucose in hypothermic hamsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. E.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1976-01-01

    Hypothermic hamsters at a rectal temperature of 7 C showed a fivefold increase in survival times from 20 to 100.5 hr when infused with glucose which maintained a blood level at about 45 mg/100 ml. A potential role for osmotic effects of the infusion was tested and eliminated. There was no improvement in survival of 3-O-methylglucose or dextran 40-infused animals. The fact that death eventually occurs even in the glucose-infused animal after about 4 days and that oxygen consumption undergoes a slow decrement in that period suggests that hypothermic survival is not wholly substrate limited. Radioactive tracer showed that localization of the C-14 was greatest in brain tissue and diaphragm, intermediate in heart and kidney, and lowest in skeletal muscle and liver. The significance of the label at sites important to respiration and circulation was presented.

  2. Beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingyan; Tian, Xia; Gou, Lingshan; Ling, Xin; Wang, Ling; Feng, Yan; Yin, Xiaoxing; Liu, Yi

    2013-07-01

    Theanine and caffeine, 2 naturally occurring components in tea, have repeatedly been shown to deliver unique cognitive benefits when consumed in combination. In this study, we assessed the beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral damage in rats. Theanine and caffeine had no effect on physiological variables, including pH, partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), mean arterial blood pressure, plasma glucose, or regional cerebral blood flow. Treatment with theanine (1 mg/kg body mass, intraperitoneal injection) alone significantly reduced cerebral infarction induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, but caffeine (10 mg/kg, intravenous administration) alone only had a marginal effect. However, the combination of theanine plus caffeine resulted in a significant reduction of cerebral infarction and brain edema compared with theanine monotherapy. Meanwhile, increased malondialdehyde levels as well as decreased superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and glutathione levels observed in the cerebral cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were significantly ameliorated by the combination therapy. Furthermore, the elevated inflammatory response levels observed in the cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were markedly attenuated by the combined treatment. Thus, it is suggested that the neuroprotective potential of a combination therapy with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is partly ascribed to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:23826680

  3. Adrenergic and prostanoid mechanisms in control of cerebral blood flow in hypotensive newborn pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Armstead, W.M.; Leffler, C.W.; Busija, D.W.; Beasley, D.G.; Mirro, R. )

    1988-04-01

    The interaction between adrenergic and prostanoid mechanisms in the control of cerebral hemodynamics in the conscious, hypotensive newborn pig was investigated. Pretreatment with the selective {alpha}{sub 1}- and {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin and yohimbine, respectively, had no effect on cerebral blood flow, calculated cerebral vascular resistance, or cerebral metabolic rate either before or after hemmorrhagic hypotension. Indomethacin treatment (5 mg/kg ia) of piglets following hemorrhage caused a significant decrease in blood flow to all brain regions within 20 min. This decrease in cerebral blood flow resulted from increased cerebral vascular resistances of 54 and 177%, 20 and 40 min after treatment, respectively. Cerebral oxygen consumption was reduced from 2.42 {+-} 0.28 to 1.45 {+-} 0.28 ml{center dot}100 g{sup {minus}1} and to 1.0 {+-} 0.28 ml{center dot}100 g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}min{sup {minus}1} 20 and 40 min after indomethacin, respectively, in hemorrhaged piglets. Decreases in cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate and increases in vascular resistance on treatment with indomethacin were the same as in animals pretreated with vehicle, prazosin, or yohimbine. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the prostanoid system contributes to the maintenance of cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate during hypotension in the newborn, as reported previously. These data do not implicate removal of sympathetic modulation by prostanoids as a mechanism for indomethacin-induced cerebral vasoconstriction in hypotensive newborn piglets.

  4. Sensitivity of central chemoreceptors controlling blood glucose and body temperature during glucose deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, A; Müller, E E

    1975-01-01

    1. The rise in blood glucose and the fall in body temperature which follows the injection of a glucose analogue, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) into the lateral cerebral ventricle (I.C.V) of unanaesthetized rats were studied and found to be dose-dependent. These 2-DG induced responses are elicited by the impairment of glucose metabolism within central "glucoreceptors'. 2. 2DG induced hyperglycaemia and hypothermia were completely prevented and even the converse effects occurred when fivefold equimolar amounts of D-fructose were simultaneously injected I.C.V.; fructose, at equimolar doses, did not modify the effects of 2-DG. 3. D-xylose and D-ribose, even at high doses, did not influence 2-DG hyperglycaemia, but increased slightly the 2-DG induced hypothermia. This suggests that the pentose phosphate pathway is unable to support the metabolism within the glucoreceptors. 4. Pyruvate suppressed the 2-DG induced hyperglycaemia with a marked delay, while acetate (as ethyl ester) and a mixture of malate plus oxaloacetate did not prevent 2-DG induced effects. These results may be accounted for by the low dosage used. 5. Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate did not prevent 2-DG hypothermia and hyperglycaemia. 6. An effective prevention of the 2-DG induced hyperglycaemia and hypothermia was achieved with fumarate and glutamate, indicating that the stimulation of the Krebs cycle within "glucoreceptors' removes the glucoprivic effects. 7. The results indicate that prevention of 2-DG induced effects occurred only with alternate source of metabolic fuel which can support high respiratory rates in brain tissue. It is concluded that central chemoreceptors are not specifically responsive to glucose, or hexoses, but to the rate of oxidative metabolism. PMID:1151783

  5. Effect of fish oil intake on glucose levels in rat prefrontal cortex, as measured by microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain glucose sensing may contribute to energy homeostasis control. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in the hedonic component of feeding control. As high-fat diets may disrupt energy homeostasis, we evaluated in male Wistar rats whether intake of high-fat fish-oil diet modified cortical glucose extracellular levels and the feeding induced by intracerebroventricular glucose or PFC glucoprivation. Methods Glucose levels in PFC microdialysates were measured before and after a 30-min meal. Food intake was measured in animals receiving intracerebroventricular glucose followed, 30-min. later, by 2-deoxy-D-glucose injected into the PFC. Results The fish-oil group showed normal body weight and serum insulin while fat pads weight and glucose levels were increased. Baseline PFC glucose and 30-min. carbohydrates intake were similar between the groups. Feeding-induced PFC glucose levels increased earlier and more pronouncedly in fish-oil than in control rats. Intracerebroventricular glucose inhibited feeding consistently in the control but not in the fish-oil group. Local PFC glucoprivation with 2-DG attenuated glucose-induced hypophagia. Conclusions The present experiments have shown that, following food intake, more glucose reached the prefrontal cortex of the rats fed the high-fat fish-oil diet than of the rats fed the control diet. However, when administered directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle, glucose was able to consistently inhibit feeding only in the control rats. The findings indicate that, an impairment of glucose transport into the brain does not contribute to the disturbances induced by the high-fat fish-oil feeding. PMID:24369745

  6. Glucose metabolism transporters and epilepsy: only GLUT1 has an established role.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Michael S; Damiano, John A; Mullen, Saul A; Bellows, Susannah T; Oliver, Karen L; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Berkovic, Samuel F

    2014-02-01

    The availability of glucose, and its glycolytic product lactate, for cerebral energy metabolism is regulated by specific brain transporters. Inadequate energy delivery leads to neurologic impairment. Haploinsufficiency of the glucose transporter GLUT1 causes a characteristic early onset encephalopathy, and has recently emerged as an important cause of a variety of childhood or later-onset generalized epilepsies and paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia. We explored whether mutations in the genes encoding the other major glucose (GLUT3) or lactate (MCT1/2/3/4) transporters involved in cerebral energy metabolism also cause generalized epilepsies. A cohort of 119 cases with myoclonic astatic epilepsy or early onset absence epilepsy was screened for nucleotide variants in these five candidate genes. No epilepsy-causing mutations were identified, indicating that of the major energetic fuel transporters in the brain, only GLUT1 is clearly associated with generalized epilepsy. PMID:24483274

  7. Integrative physiologic and computational approaches to understand autonomic control of cerebral autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Can Ozan; Taylor, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The brain requires steady delivery of oxygen and glucose, without which neurodegeneration occurs within minutes. Thus, the ability of the cerebral vasculature to maintain relatively steady blood flow in the face of changing systemic pressure, i.e., cerebral autoregulation, is critical to neurophysiologic health. Although the study of autoregulation dates to the early 20th century, only the recent availability of cerebral blood flow measures with high temporal resolution has allowed rapid, beat-by-beat measurements to explore the characteristics and mechanisms of autoregulation. These explorations have been further enhanced by the ability to apply sophisticated computational approaches that exploit the large amounts of data that can be acquired. These advances have led to unique insights. For example, recent studies have revealed characteristic time scales wherein cerebral autoregulation is most active, and specific regions wherein autonomic mechanisms are prepotent. However, given that effective cerebral autoregulation against pressure fluctuations results in relatively unchanging flow despite changing pressure, estimating the pressure-flow relationship can be limited by the error inherent in computational models of autoregulatory function. This review will focus on the autonomic neural control of the cerebral vasculature in health and disease from an integrative physiologic and perspective. It will also provide a critical overview of the current analytic approaches to understand cerebral autoregulation. PMID:24097158

  8. Effects of lindane on the glucose metabolism in rat brain cortex cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pulido, J.A.; del Hoyo, N.; Perez-Albarsanz, M.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The influence of 0.5 mM {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH, lindane) on glucose transport has been investigated using the analog 3-O-methyl-D(U-{sup 14}C) glucose. The glucose uptake was lineal for at least 10 sec. Preincubation of dissociated brain cortex cells with lindane decreased the transport of glucose with respect to the controls. The treatment of brain cortex cells with other organochlorine compounds indicated that the {alpha}-, {delta}-HCH isomers and dieldrin reproduced the same inhibitory pattern, while {beta}-HCH and endrin were inactive. The total radioactivity incorporated into CO{sub 2} from (U-{sup 14}C) glucose in the cerebral cortex is also inhibited by lindane in a time dependent manner.

  9. Effect of anxiety on cortical cerebral blood flow and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Resnick, S.M.; Skolnick, B.E.; Alavi, A.; Reivich, M.

    1987-04-01

    The relation between anxiety and cortical activity was compared in two samples of normal volunteers. One group was studied with the noninvasive xenon-133 inhalation technique for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the other with positron emission tomography (PET) using /sup 18/Flurodeoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG) for measuring cerebral metabolic rates (CMR) for glucose. The inhalation technique produced less anxiety than the PET procedure, and for low anxiety subjects, there was a linear increase in CBF with anxiety. For higher anxiety subjects, however, there was a linear decrease in CBF with increased anxiety. The PET group manifested a linear decrease in CMR with increased anxiety. The results indicate that anxiety can have systematic effects on cortical activity, and this should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different procedures. They also suggest a physiologic explanation of a fundamental behavioral law that stipulates a curvilinear, inverted-U relationship between anxiety and performance.

  10. Glucose homoeostasis following injury.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, P. D.

    1979-01-01

    Metabolic changes following injury have been observed for many years, and John Hunter discussed such changes in 1794. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism have been observed for a similar length of time, and glycosuria and hyperglycaemia have been reported by a number of observers. This paper records and quantitates the extent of hyperglycaemia in patients undergoing surgery of different degrees of severity and relates them to changes in blood insulin, growth hormone, cortisol, and catecholamine concentrations. Further animal studies were performed which suggested that a fall in intracellular glucose utilisation may be a contributory factor. The use of isotope labelling of glucose in man has enabled further studies to be done to clarify changes in exchangeable glucose mass, replacement rate, and space both in the normal situation and in the presence of infusions of glucagon, noradrenaline, glucose, and amino-acids. The hyperglycaemia is clearly the result of a complex interaction of changes in the availability and activity of hormones which control glucose metabolism both within and outside the cell. PMID:496234

  11. The influence of fat co-administration on the glucose memory facilitation effect.

    PubMed

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Foster, Jonathan K; Durlach, Paula; Perez, Catalina

    2004-02-01

    Memory for a list of 20 words can be enhanced when learning is preceded by consumption of 25 g of glucose, compared with consumption of an equally sweet aspartame solution. The present study examined whether memory performance is also enhanced when glucose is administered in conjunction with another food constituent, in particular fat. Four groups of healthy young participants were tested under one of four conditions: (a) glucose + full-fat yoghurt; (b) glucose + fat-free yoghurt; (c) aspartame + full-fat yoghurt; (d) aspartame + fat-free yoghurt. The groups were compared on measures of blood glucose and cognitive performance. Participants receiving a glucose drink in conjunction with a fat-free yoghurt displayed higher blood glucose levels (BGL) and better performance on short- and long-delay recall of the word list compared with (a) individuals who consumed the glucose drink in conjunction with a full-fat yoghurt and (b) individuals who consumed the aspartame drink. The glycaemic data indicated that the presence of fat slows down glucose absorption. The findings suggest that only foods with a relatively fast glucose absorption rate are able to significantly enhance the encoding and long-term retention of novel memory materials in healthy young adults. PMID:15085555

  12. Oligodendrogenesis after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruilan; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of adult rodent brain generate oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that disperse throughout the corpus callosum and striatum where some of OPCs differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes. Studies in animal models of stroke demonstrate that cerebral ischemia induces oligodendrogenesis during brain repair processes. This article will review evidence of stroke-induced proliferation and differentiation of OPCs that are either resident in white matter or are derived from SVZ neural progenitor cells and of therapies that amplify endogenous oligodendrogenesis in ischemic brain. PMID:24194700

  13. Hemodynamics of Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, Daniel M.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan Raul

    2009-01-01

    The initiation and progression of cerebral aneurysms are degenerative processes of the arterial wall driven by a complex interaction of biological and hemodynamic factors. Endothelial cells on the artery wall respond physiologically to blood-flow patterns. In normal conditions, these responses are associated with nonpathological tissue remodeling and adaptation. The combination of abnormal blood patterns and genetics predisposition could lead to the pathological formation of aneurysms. Here, we review recent progress on the basic mechanisms of aneurysm formation and evolution, with a focus on the role of hemodynamic patterns. PMID:19784385

  14. How to monitor blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Trisha

    2016-01-27

    Rationale and key points Capillary blood glucose monitoring is an essential component of diabetes care. Blood glucose tests provide important information about how the body is controlling blood glucose metabolism, and the effect of glucose-lowering medicines, illness and stress. ▶ The nurse should consider the rationale for testing blood glucose each time they perform a test, and reflect on the result, taking into consideration the patient's blood glucose target range and recommended care guidelines. ▶ Blood glucose testing times and testing frequency should be planned to suit the glucose-lowering medicine regimen and the clinical situation. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. What you have gained from this article. 2. How this article will influence your practice when monitoring blood glucose. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26967884

  15. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:16391455

  16. Cerebral pathology post heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Peteghem, S Van; Pauw, M De

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral pathology is frequently encountered post heart transplantation with a cumulative incidence of about 80% after 15 years. A broad spectrum of disease entities is reported, from minor abnormalities to life-threatening diseases. Although cerebral infections and malignancies are rare in this patient population, they have a high mortality rate. Since 1991, 171 orthotopic heart transplantations were performed at the Ghent University Hospital with a 10-year survival rate of 75%. Severe cerebral complications occurred in 10 patients, with epilepsy in 2 patients, cerebrovascular accidents in 4 patients, cerebral infections in 3 patients and a cerebral malignancy in 1 patient, resulting in a fatal outcome in 7 patients. We present four of these cases. PMID:25292206

  17. Effect of high glucose concentrations on human erythrocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Viskupicova, Jana; Blaskovic, Dusan; Galiniak, Sabina; Soszyński, Mirosław; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Horakova, Lubica; Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high glucose concentrations in vitro is often employed as a model for understanding erythrocyte modifications in diabetes. However, effects of such experiments may be affected by glucose consumption during prolonged incubation and changes of cellular parameters conditioned by impaired energy balance. The aim of this study was to compare alterations in various red cell parameters in this type of experiment to differentiate between those affected by glycoxidation and those affected by energy imbalance. Erythrocytes were incubated with 5, 45 or 100 mM glucose for up to 72 h. High glucose concentrations intensified lipid peroxidation and loss of activities of erythrocyte enzymes (glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase). On the other hand, hemolysis, eryptosis, calcium accumulation, loss of glutathione and increase in the GSSG/GSH ratio were attenuated by high glucose apparently due to maintenance of energy supply to the cells. Loss of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity and decrease in superoxide production were not affected by glucose concentration, being seemingly determined by processes independent of both glycoxidation and energy depletion. These results point to the necessity of careful interpretation of data obtained in experiments, in which erythrocytes are subject to treatment with high glucose concentrations in vitro. PMID:26141922

  18. Complement component 3 inhibition by an antioxidant is neuroprotective after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiwon; Ahn, Hye-na; Chang, Minsun; Narasimhan, Purnima; Chan, Pak H.; Song, Yun Seon

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress after stroke is associated with the inflammatory system activation in the brain. The complement cascade, especially the degradation products of complement component 3, is a key inflammatory mediator of cerebral ischemia. We have shown that proinflammatory complement component 3 is increased by oxidative stress after ischemic stroke in mice using DNA array. In this study, we investigated whether up-regulation of complement component 3 is directly related to oxidative stress after transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice and oxygen-glucose deprivation in brain cells. Persistent up-regulation of complement component 3 expression was reduced in copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase transgenic mice, and manganese-superoxide dismutase knockout mice showed highly increased complement component 3 levels after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Antioxidant N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone treatment suppressed complement component 3 expression after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Accumulation of complement component 3 in neurons and microglia was decreased by N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone, which reduced infarct volume and impaired neurological deficiency after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in mice. Small interfering RNA specific for complement component 3 transfection showed a significant increase in brain cells viability after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Our study suggests that the neuroprotective effect of antioxidants through complement component 3 suppression is a new strategy for potential therapeutic approaches in stroke. PMID:23199288

  19. The use of /sup 11/C-glucose and positron emission tomography to measure brain glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Mintun, M.A.; Raichle, M.E.; Welch, M.J.; Kilbourn, M.R.

    1985-05-01

    To measure regional cerebral metabolism of glucose (CMRGlu) with positron emission tomography (PET), but avoid the potential problems inherent in the use of /sup 18/F-fluoro-deoxyglucose, (e.g. regional variation in regional rate constants and instability of the ''lumped constant''), the authors have developed a method using uniformly labeled /sup 11/C-glucose. The method employs a 4-compartment model that accounts for vascular tracer, transport of tracer in and out of the extravascular space, metabolism of tracer, and the production of labeled carbon dioxide, which is free to leave the tissue with blood flow. The differential equations for this model, when solved for CMRGlu, yield CMRGlu=k/sub 1/ . k/sub 3/ . CBF . C/sub B//(k/sub 1/ . k/sub 3/+CBF/CBV . (k/sub 2/+k/sub 3/)) where CBF and CBV are cerebral blood flow and volume, C/sub B/ is unlabeled blood glucose content, k/sub 1/ and k/sub 2/ are transport rate constants and k/sub 3/ is the metabolism rate constant. The authors have begun implementing this technique in baboons and human subjects by first measuring regional CBV and CBF with extant PET methods, then after injection of 20-40mCi of U-/sup 11/C-glucose, estimating the rate constants from 40 sequential PET scans taken over 20 minutes. Resulting white-to-gray matter range in CMRGlu for one typical human subject was 2.9 to 6.3 mg/(min . 100 mg). Oxygen metabolism (CMRO/sub 2/) was also measured at the same sitting with PET and the molar ratio of CMRO/sub 2//CMRGlu ranged from 5.8 to 6.4 as would be expected. These results demonstrate that it may be feasible to avoid the difficulties of an analogue tracer in the measurement of CMRGlu by using /sup 11/C-glucose.

  20. Cerebral cartography and connectomics

    PubMed Central

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. PMID:25823870

  1. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  2. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-10-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  3. [Noradrenaline and cerebral aging].

    PubMed

    Jouvet, M; Albarede, J L; Lubin, S; Meyrignac, C

    1991-01-01

    The central functions of norepinephrine (NE) are a recent discovery: regulation of alertness and of the wakefulness-sleep cycle, maintenance of attention, memory and learning, cerebral plasticity and neuro-protection. The anatomical, histological, biochemical and physiological properties of the central noradrenergic system: extreme capacity for ramification and arborization; slow conduction, non-myelinized axons with extrasynaptic varicosities producing and releasing NE; frequency of co-transmission phenomena, and; neuromodulation with fiber effect responsible for improvement in the signal over background noise ratio and selection of significant stimuli form a true interface between the outside world and the central nervous system, notably for the neocortex in the context of the cognitive treatment of information. This central noradrenergic system is involved in the neurophysiology and the clinical features of cerebral aging (ideation-motor and cognitive function slowing down, loss of behavioral adjustment), neuro-degenerative disorders (SDAT, Parkinson's disease), certain aspects of depression and less obvious conditions (head injuries, sequelae of cerebrovascular accidents, sub-cortical dementia). The recent development of medications improving alertness (adrafinil, modafinil) with a pure central action and specifically noradrenergic, may contribute to an improvement in these multifactorial disorders. PMID:1864252

  4. The collective therapeutic potential of cerebral ketone metabolism in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Mayumi L.; Matsumoto, Joyce H.

    2014-01-01

    The postinjury period of glucose metabolic depression is accompanied by adenosine triphosphate decreases, increased flux of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway, free radical production, activation of poly-ADP ribose polymerase via DNA damage, and inhibition of glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (a key glycolytic enzyme) via depletion of the cytosolic NAD pool. Under these post-brain injury conditions of impaired glycolytic metabolism, glucose becomes a less favorable energy substrate. Ketone bodies are the only known natural alternative substrate to glucose for cerebral energy metabolism. While it has been demonstrated that other fuels (pyruvate, lactate, and acetyl-L-carnitine) can be metabolized by the brain, ketones are the only endogenous fuel that can contribute significantly to cerebral metabolism. Preclinical studies employing both pre- and postinjury implementation of the ketogenic diet have demonstrated improved structural and functional outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) models, mild TBI/concussion models, and spinal cord injury. Further clinical studies are required to determine the optimal method to induce cerebral ketone metabolism in the postinjury brain, and to validate the neuroprotective benefits of ketogenic therapy in humans. PMID:24721741

  5. Diabetic patients have abnormal cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Croughwell, N.; Lyth, M.; Quill, T.J.; Newman, M.; Greeley, W.J.; Smith, L.R.; Reves, J.G. )

    1990-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that insulin-dependent diabetic patients with coronary artery bypass graft surgery experience altered coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption. In a study of 23 patients (11 diabetics and 12 age-matched controls), cerebral blood flow was measured using 133Xe clearance during nonpulsatile, alpha-stat blood gas managed cardiopulmonary bypass at the conditions of hypothermia and normothermia. In diabetic patients, the cerebral blood flow at 26.6 +/- 2.42 degrees C was 25.3 +/- 14.34 ml/100 g/min and at 36.9 +/- 0.58 degrees C it was 27.3 +/- 7.40 ml/100 g/min (p = NS). The control patients increased cerebral blood flow from 20.7 +/- 6.78 ml/100 g/min at 28.4 +/- 2.81 degrees C to 37.6 +/- 8.81 ml/100 g/min at 36.5 +/- 0.45 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.005). The oxygen consumption was calculated from jugular bulb effluent and increased from hypothermic values of 0.52 +/- 0.20 ml/100 g/min in diabetics to 1.26 +/- 0.28 ml/100 g/min (p = 0.001) at normothermia and rose from 0.60 +/- 0.27 to 1.49 +/- 0.35 ml/100 g/min (p = 0.0005) in the controls. Thus, despite temperature-mediated changes in oxygen consumption, diabetic patients did not increase cerebral blood flow as metabolism increased. Arteriovenous oxygen saturation gradients and oxygen extraction across the brain were calculated from arterial and jugular bulb blood samples. The increase in arteriovenous oxygen difference between temperature conditions in diabetic patients and controls was significantly different (p = 0.01). These data reveal that diabetic patients lose cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass and compensate for an imbalance in adequate oxygen delivery by increasing oxygen extraction.

  6. Cerebral blood flow velocity in two patients with neonatal cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Nishimaki, S; Seki, K; Yokota, S

    2001-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow velocity was measured in the middle cerebral artery of two patients who exhibited unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction during the neonatal period. Doppler studies demonstrated increases in cerebral blood flow velocity but decreases in the resistance index on the affected side of the middle cerebral artery in the neonate who developed hemiplegia with cystic encephalomalacia, although the neonate with normal neurologic outcome exhibited symmetric cerebral blood flow velocity and resistance index. The asymmetry in cerebral blood flow velocity measurements of both middle cerebral arteries may be useful to evaluate the severity of brain damage and predict the neurodevelopmental prognosis of unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction. PMID:11377112

  7. Blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sarah

    2014-06-10

    I found the CPD article on blood glucose monitoring and management in acute stroke care interesting and informative. As I am a mental health nursing student, my knowledge of chronic physical conditions is limited, so I learned a lot. PMID:24894257

  8. Glucose Tolerance and Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Lillian; Dowd, Judith

    Examined were medical records of 265 hyperkinetic children (7-9 years old). Clinical blood chemistries, hematology, and 5-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) results indicated that hematocrit levels were low in 27% of the Ss, eosinophil levels were abnormally high in 86% of the Ss, and GTT results were abnormal in a maority of Ss. (CL)

  9. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a color-sensitive pad. The color the dipstick changes to tells the provider the level of glucose in your urine. If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours . Your provider will tell you how to do ...

  10. Renal Glucose Handling

    PubMed Central

    Ferrannini, Ele; Veltkamp, Stephan A.; Smulders, Ronald A.; Kadokura, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ipragliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, stimulates glycosuria and lowers glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacodynamics of ipragliflozin in T2DM patients with impaired renal function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Glycosuria was measured before and after a single ipragliflozin dose in 8 nondiabetic subjects and 57 T2DM patients (age 62 ± 9 years, fasting glucose 133 ± 39 mg/dL, mean ± SD) with normal renal function (assessed as the estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) (eGFR1 ≥90 mL · min–1 · 1.73 m−2), mild (eGFR2 ≥60 to <90), moderate (eGFR3 ≥30 to <60), or severe reduction in eGFR (eGFR4 ≤15 to <30). RESULTS Ipragliflozin significantly increased urinary glucose excretion in each eGFR class (P < 0.0001). However, ipragliflozin-induced glycosuria declined (median [IQR]) across eGFR class (from 46 mg/min [33] in eGFR1 to 8 mg/min [7] in eGFR4, P < 0.001). Ipragliflozin-induced fractional glucose excretion (excretion/filtration) was 39% [27] in the T2DM patients (pooled data), similar to that of the nondiabetic subjects (37% [17], P = ns). In bivariate analysis of the pooled data, ipragliflozin-induced glycosuria was directly related to eGFR and fasting glucose (P < 0.0001 for both, r2 = 0.55), predicting a decrement in 24-h glycosuria of 15 g for each 20 mL/min decline in eGFR and an increase of 7 g for each 10 mg/dL increase in glucose above fasting normoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS In T2DM patients, ipragliflozin increases glycosuria in direct, linear proportion to GFR and degree of hyperglycemia, such that its amount can be reliably predicted in the individual patient. Although absolute glycosuria decreases with declining GFR, the efficiency of ipragliflozin action (fractional glucose excretion) is maintained in patients with severe renal impairment. PMID:23359360

  11. Breakfast consumption and cognitive function in adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast consumption on cognitive function, mood and blood glucose concentration in adolescent schoolchildren. With the institution's ethical advisory committee approval, 96 adolescents (12 to 15 years old) completed two randomly assigned trials (one following breakfast consumption and one following breakfast omission), scheduled 7 days apart. Cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm), a mood questionnaire and a finger prick blood sample (in a subgroup of 60 participants) were completed immediately following breakfast and 120 min after the baseline measures. Following breakfast consumption, accuracy on the more complex level of the visual search test was higher than following breakfast omission (p=0.021). Similarly, accuracy on the Stroop test was better maintained across the morning following breakfast consumption when compared to breakfast omission (p=0.022). Furthermore, responses on the Sternberg paradigm were quicker later in the morning following breakfast consumption, particularly on the more complex levels (p=0.012). Breakfast consumption also produced higher self-report energy and fullness, lower self-report tiredness and hunger and higher blood glucose concentrations (all p<0.0005). Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that breakfast consumption enhances cognitive function in an adolescent population when compared to breakfast omission. PMID:21439306

  12. Factors affecting daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Cheng-ye; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yun-feng; Zou, Chang-lin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is the leading cause of death and long-term disability. This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction so as to take interventional measures earlier to improve their daily activities. METHODS: A total of 149 patients with first-episode cerebral infarction were recruited into this prospective study. They were admitted to the Encephalopathy Center, Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College in Zhejiang Province from August 2008 to December 2008. The baseline characteristics of the patients and cerebral infarction risk factors on the first day of admission were recorded. White blood cell (WBC) count, plasma glucose (PG), and many others of laboratory targets were collected in the next morning. Barthel index (BI) was calculated at 2 weeks and 3 months respectively after onset of the disease at the outpatient clinic or by telephone call. Lung infection, urinary tract infection and atrial fibrillation if any were recorded on admission. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and the GCS scores were recorded within 24 hours on and after admission, at the second week, and at the third month after the onset of cerebral infarction respectively. RESULTS: The factors of BI at 2 weeks and 3 months after onset were the initial PG level, WBC count and initial NIHSS scores. Besides, urinary tract infection on admission was also the factor for BI at 3 months. CONCLUSION: Active measures should be taken to control these factors to improve the daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction. PMID:25214953

  13. Local cerebral metabolic effects of L-dopa therapy in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Porrino, L J; Burns, R S; Crane, A M; Palombo, E; Kopin, I J; Sokoloff, L

    1987-08-01

    The quantitative 2-deoxy[14C]glucose autoradiographic method was used to map the distribution of alterations in local cerebral glucose utilization that accompanies clinically effective chronic L-dopa therapy of rhesus monkeys made parkinsonian by the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). This pattern of changes was compared to the effects of a similar treatment regimen in normal monkeys. L-Dopa (100 mg with 10 mg carbidopa) was administered orally to normal and parkinsonian monkeys 3 times daily for 60-120 days prior to measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization. In parkinsonian monkeys treated with L-dopa, signs and symptoms of parkinsonism were controlled or suppressed, and widespread increases in glucose utilization were seen throughout the brain. Cerebral metabolic activity was increased both in areas rich in dopaminergic receptors, such as the caudate and putamen, and in nondopaminergic areas involved in motor functions. In many structures the rates of glucose utilization in L-dopa-treated parkinsonian monkeys were increased to levels that far exceeded rates measured in normal monkeys. In sharp contrast, similar treatment with L-dopa in normal monkeys had little if any effect on local cerebral glucose utilization. L-Dopa, then, appears to have an action in animals with selective lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta produced by MPTP that is distinctly different from its effects in the normal monkey. PMID:3497401

  14. Local cerebral metabolic effects of L-dopa therapy in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism in monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Porrino, L.J.; Burns, R.S.; Crane, A.M.; Palombo, E.; Kopin, I.J.; Sokoloff, L.

    1987-08-01

    The quantitative 2-deoxy(/sup 14/C) glucose autoradiographic method was used to map the distribution of alterations in local cerebral glucose utilization that accompanies clinically effective chronic L-dopa therapy of rhesus monkeys made parkinsonian by the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). This pattern of changes was compared to the effects of a similar treatment regimen in normal monkeys. L-Dopa was administered orally to normal and parkinsonian monkeys 3 times daily for 60-120 days prior to measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization. In parkinsonian monkeys treated with L-dopa, signs and symptoms of parkinsonism were controlled or suppressed, and widespread increases in glucose utilization were seen throughout the brain. Cerebral metabolic activity was increased both in areas rich in dopaminergic receptors, such as the caudate and putamen, and in nondopaminergic areas involved in motor functions. In many structures the rates of glucose utilization in L-dopa-treated parkinsonian monkeys were increased to levels that far exceeded rates measured in normal monkeys. In sharp contrast, similar treatment with L-dopa in normal monkeys had little if any effect on local cerebral glucose utilization. L-Dopa, then, appears to have an action in animals with selective lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta produced by MPTP that is distinctly different from its effects in the normal monkey.

  15. Evidence that glucose metabolism is decreased in the cerebrum of aged female senescence-accelerated mouse; possible involvement of a low hexokinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, T; Sato, E; Inoue, A; Ishibashi, S

    1996-08-16

    d-Glucose metabolism in cerebral cells prepared from aged senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), was investigated in consideration of a sex difference. The production of 14CO2 from 6-[14C]D-glucose was reduced in female senescence-accelerated-prone mouse (SAMP) 8, a prone substrain, in comparison with that in female senescence-accelerated-resistant mouse (SAMR) 2, a control substrain, whereas there was no difference in males. The 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into cerebral cells from female SAMP8 was also lower than that of control mice. But, the 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake in SAMP8 was higher than that of SAMR2, suggesting that the low hexokinase activity was involved in the decreased glucose metabolism in cerebrum of SAMP8 females irrespective of glucose transporter. This possibility was supported by the finding that the contents of glucose 6-phosphate produced from glucose added to cerebral cells from SAMP8 was lower than that in ICR mice. PMID:8873128

  16. The influence on cognition of the interaction between the macro-nutrient content of breakfast and glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nabb, Samantha; Benton, David

    2006-01-30

    Previously it has been found that both missing breakfast and having poorer glucose tolerance were associated with better memory. The present study therefore examined the impact of eight breakfasts, in a factorial design, that contained either high or low levels of carbohydrate, fat or protein. The meals were designed to vary the rate of release of glucose into the blood stream. Memory, reaction times and vigilance were assessed 30, 75 and 120 min following breakfast. Using fasting blood glucose levels as a measure of glucose tolerance, better memory was found to be associated with better glucose tolerance and the consumption of meals that more slowly release glucose into the blood. The effects of the meals on reaction times and vigilance were opposite to those with memory in that higher levels of blood glucose tended to be associated with better performance. It was concluded that individual differences in glucose tolerance interact with the glycaemic load of a meal to influence cognitive functioning. PMID:16225896

  17. Nonnutritive sweeteners, energy balance and glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Bourne, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent work on potential mechanisms underlying a paradoxical positive association between the consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) and weight gain. Recent findings Several potential mechanism, not mutually exclusive, are hypothesized. First, by dissociating sweetness from calories, NNS could interfere with physiological responses that control homeostasis. Second, by changing the intestinal environment, NNS could affect the microbiota and in turn trigger inflammatory processes that are associated with metabolic disorders. Third, by interacting with novel sweet-taste receptors discovered in the gut, NNS could affect glucose absorptive capacity and glucose homeostasis. This last is the mechanism that has received the most attention recently. Some animal studies, but not all, found that NNS activate gut sweet taste-pathways that control incretin release and up-regulate glucose transporters. Human studies found that, at least for healthy fasted subjects, the sole interaction of NNS with sweet-taste gut receptors is insufficient to elicit incretin responses. The reasons for discrepancy between different studies is unknown but could be related to the species of mammal tested and the dose of NNS used. Summary Whether NNS are metabolically inactive, as previously assumed, is unclear. Further research on the potential effects of NNS on human metabolism is warranted. PMID:21505330

  18. Glucose Metabolism in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Stephen A.; Stein, Stefanie; Hines, James

    1974-01-01

    The metabolism of glucose was examined in several clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Radiorespirometric studies revealed that growing cells metabolized glucose by a combination on the Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. A portion of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate formed via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway was recycled by conversion to glucose-6-phosphate. Subsequent catabolism of this glucose-6-phosphate by either the Entner-Doudoroff or pentose phosphate pathways yielded CO2 from the original C6 of glucose. Enzyme analyses confirmed the presence of all enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff, pentose phosphate, and Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathways. There was always a high specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) relative to that of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44). The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase utilized either nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as electron acceptor. Acetate was the only detectable nongaseous end product of glucose metabolism. Following the disappearance of glucose, acetate was metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle as evidenced by the preferential oxidation of [1-14C]acetate over that of [2-14C]acetate. When an aerobically grown log-phase culture was subjected to anaerobic conditions, lactate and acetate were formed from glucose. Radiorespirometric studies showed that under these conditions, glucose was dissimilated entirely by the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Further studies determined that this anaerobic dissimilation of glucose was not growth dependent. PMID:4156358

  19. Glutamine and glucose metabolism in enterocytes of the neonatal pig.

    PubMed

    Wu, G; Knabe, D A; Yan, W; Flynn, N E

    1995-02-01

    Glutamine and glucose metabolism was studied in 0- to 21-day-old pig enterocytes. Cells were incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4) in the presence of 2 mM [U-14C]glutamine with or without 5 mM glucose, or 5 mM [U-14C]glucose with or without 2 mM glutamine. Glutamine was metabolized to ammonia, glutamate, alanine, aspartate, CO2, citrulline, ornithine, and proline, whereas glucose was converted to lactate, pyruvate, and CO2 in pig enterocytes. CO2 production from glutamine accounted for 32-36% and 3-4% of utilized glutamine carbons in 0- to 7-day-old and 14- to 21-day-old pigs, respectively. The rates of O2 consumption and metabolism of glutamine and glucose decreased in enterocytes from 2- to 14-day-old pigs compared with 0-day-old pigs. By day 14 after birth, the oxidation of glutamine and glucose as well as citrulline production had decreased by 90-95%. Arginine synthesis from glutamine occurred in cells from 0- to 7-day-old pigs but not 14- to 21-day-old ones. Glucose (5 mM) had no effect on glutamine utilization and oxidation or the production of glutamate and arginine but stimulated the formation of alanine, citrulline, and proline at the expense of aspartate. In contrast, glutamine (2 mM) inhibited glycolysis and glucose oxidation in cells from 0- to 7-day-old pigs and had no effects in 14- to 21-day-old pigs. As a result, glutamine contributed approximately 2-fold greater amounts of ATP to 0- to 7-day-old pig enterocytes than glucose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7864226

  20. Optimal Consumption When Consumption Takes Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Norman C.

    2009-01-01

    A classic article by Gary Becker (1965) showed that when it takes time to consume, the first order conditions for optimal consumption require the marginal rate of substitution between any two goods to equal their relative full costs. These include the direct money price and the money value of the time needed to consume each good. This important…

  1. Cerebral venous angiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.; Gilmor, R.L.; Richmond, B.

    1984-04-01

    Several unusual cases of cerebral venous angiomas as well as some characteristic cases are reported. The characteristic angiographic feature is that of a collection of dilated medullary veins draining into a single large draining vein, which appears first in the early venous phase and persists into the late venous phase of the arteriogram. Computed tomography (CT) was abnormal in 12/13 cases. The draining vein was the most common abnormality identified on CT. Coronal and sagittal reconstruction may be helpful in demonstrating the draining vein. A case of large twin venous angiomas, a case of hemorrhage from a venous angioma, and a case of a venous angioma with an incidentally associated glioblastoma are presented.

  2. Cellular and molecular cues of glucose sensing in the rat olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Al Koborssy, Dolly; Palouzier-Paulignan, Brigitte; Salem, Rita; Thevenet, Marc; Romestaing, Caroline; Julliard, A. Karyn

    2014-01-01

    In the brain, glucose homeostasis of extracellular fluid is crucial to the point that systems specifically dedicated to glucose sensing are found in areas involved in energy regulation and feeding behavior. Olfaction is a major sensory modality regulating food consumption. Nutritional status in turn modulates olfactory detection. Recently it has been proposed that some olfactory bulb (OB) neurons respond to glucose similarly to hypothalamic neurons. However, the precise molecular cues governing glucose sensing in the OB are largely unknown. To decrypt these molecular mechanisms, we first used immunostaining to demonstrate a strong expression of two neuronal markers of glucose-sensitivity, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), and sodium glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1) in specific OB layers. We showed that expression and mapping of GLUT4 but not SGLT1 were feeding state-dependent. In order to investigate the impact of metabolic status on the delivery of blood-borne glucose to the OB, we measured extracellular fluid glucose concentration using glucose biosensors simultaneously in the OB and cortex of anesthetized rats. We showed that glucose concentration in the OB is higher than in the cortex, that metabolic steady-state glucose concentration is independent of feeding state in the two brain areas, and that acute changes in glycemic conditions affect bulbar glucose concentration alone. These data provide new evidence of a direct relationship between the OB and peripheral metabolism, and emphasize the importance of glucose for the OB network, providing strong arguments toward establishing the OB as a glucose-sensing organ. PMID:25400540

  3. Gait energy efficiency in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sarah; Tucker, Carole A; Lee, Samuel C K

    2006-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) expend up to three times the energy required for ambulation as compared to typically developed children of the same age. Measuring the metabolic energy required to execute a task is an intuitively appealing way to quantify task efficiency. Task energy demand is often quantified through pulmonary tests that measure oxygen consumption. Although providing an accepted measure of energy demand, these tests are technically demanding and staff intensive. For this reason, we sought a measure of gait efficiency based on spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters that would be reflective of the energy cost during ambulation in children with cerebral palsy. Gait data from 18 subjects with CP over 30 separate data collection sessions was used. Statistical analysis showed oxygen cost highly correlates to several kinematic variables, most notably, pelvic tilt, walking speed, landing angle and the biomechanical efficiency quotient (BEQ). The results of the work support the development of a computational model that would capture gait energy efficiency. PMID:17946881

  4. Glucose and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2008-04-01

    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  5. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  6. Cognitive Deficits and Cerebral Asymmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Dirk J.

    1982-01-01

    Research concerning cerebral asymmetry and its effect on scholastic achievement, reading disabilities, learning disabilities, and linguistic competence is reviewed in an exploration of brain hemisphere-specific etiologies of dyslexia. (CJ)

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Achari, A; Marshall, S E; Muirhead, H; Palmieri, R H; Noltmann, E A

    1981-06-26

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9) is a dimeric enzyme of molecular mass 132000 which catalyses the interconversion of D-glucose-6-phosphate and D-fructose-6-phosphate. The crystal structure of the enzyme from pig muscle has been determined at a nominal resolution of 2.6 A. The structure is of the alpha/beta type. Each subunit consists of two domains and the active site is in both the domain interface and the subunit interface (P.J. Shaw & H. Muirhead (1976), FEBS Lett. 65, 50-55). Each subunit contains 13 methionine residues so that cyanogen bromide cleavage will produce 14 fragments, most of which have been identified and at least partly purified. Sequence information is given for about one-third of the molecule from 5 cyanogen bromide fragments. One of the sequences includes a modified lysine residue. Modification of this residue leads to a parallel loss of enzymatic activity. A tentative fit of two of the peptides to the electron density map has been made. It seems possible that glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, triose phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase all contain a histidine and a glutamate residue at the active site. PMID:6115414

  8. BMI Modulates Calorie-Dependent Dopamine Changes in Accumbens from Glucose Intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Convit, Antonio; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher T.; Shumay, Elena; Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dopamine mediates the rewarding effects of food that can lead to overeating and obesity, which then trigger metabolic neuroadaptations that further perpetuate excessive food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that the dopamine response to calorie intake (independent of palatability) in striatal brain regions is attenuated with increases in weight. Method We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine changes triggered by calorie intake by contrasting the effects of an artificial sweetener (sucralose) devoid of calories to that of glucose to assess their association with body mass index (BMI) in nineteen healthy participants (BMI range 21–35). Results Neither the measured blood glucose concentrations prior to the sucralose and the glucose challenge days, nor the glucose concentrations following the glucose challenge vary as a function of BMI. In contrast the dopamine changes in ventral striatum (assessed as changes in non-displaceable binding potential of [11C]raclopride) triggered by calorie intake (contrast glucose – sucralose) were significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.68) indicating opposite responses in lean than in obese individuals. Specifically whereas in normal weight individuals (BMI <25) consumption of calories was associated with increases in dopamine in the ventral striatum in obese individuals it was associated with decreases in dopamine. Conclusion These findings show reduced dopamine release in ventral striatum with calorie consumption in obese subjects, which might contribute to their excessive food intake to compensate for the deficit between the expected and the actual response to food consumption. PMID:25000285

  9. Predominant enhancement of glucose uptake in astrocytes versus neurons during activation of the somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chuquet, Julien; Quilichini, Pascale; Nimchinsky, Esther A.; Buzsáki, György

    2010-01-01

    Glucose is the primary energetic substrate of the brain and measurements of its metabolism are the basis of major functional cerebral imaging methods. Contrary to the general view that neurons are fueled solely by glucose in proportion to their energetic needs, recent in vitro and ex vivo analyses suggest that glucose preferentially feeds astrocytes. However, the cellular fate of glucose in the intact brain has not yet been directly observed. We have used a real-time method for measuring glucose uptake in astrocytes and neurons in vivo in male rats by imaging the trafficking of the non-metabolizable glucose analog 6-NBDG using two-photon microscopy. During resting conditions we found that astrocytes and neurons both uptake 6-NBDG at the same rate in the barrel cortex of the rat. However, during intense neuronal activity triggered by whisker stimulation, astrocytes rapidly accelerated their uptake whereas neuronal uptake remained almost unchanged. Following the stimulation period, astrocytes returned to their pre-activation rates of uptake paralleling the neuronal rate of uptake. These observations suggest that glucose is primarily taken-up by astrocytes, supporting the view that functional imaging experiments based on glucose analogs extraction may predominantly reflect the metabolic activity of the astrocytic network. PMID:21068334

  10. Relationship of impaired brain glucose metabolism to learning deficit in the senescence-accelerated mouse.

    PubMed

    Ohta, H; Nishikawa, H; Hirai, K; Kato, K; Miyamoto, M

    1996-10-11

    The relationship between brain glucose metabolism and learning deficit was examined in the senescence-accelerated-prone mouse (SAMP) 8, which has been proven to be a useful murine model of age-related behavioral disorders. SAMP8, 7 months old, exhibited marked learning impairment in the passive avoidance task, as compared with the control strain, senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR) 1. SAMP8 also exhibited a reduction in brain glucose metabolism, as indicated by a reduction in [14C]2-deoxyglucose accumulation in the brain following the intravenous injection impaired glucose metabolism correlated significantly with the learning impairment in all brain regions in SAMR1 and SAMP8. In the SAMP8, a significant correlation was observed in the posterior half of the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that the SAMP8 strain is a useful model of not only age-related behavioral disorders, but also glucose hypometabolism observed in aging and dementias. PMID:8905734

  11. Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to have a lower metabolic rate in patients with dementia although this did not reach the level of significance when compared to the elderly control subjects. The changes in glucose metabolism were symmetrical in both the left and right hemispheres. There was a lack of correlation between the mean cortical metabolic rates for glucose and the global mental function in the patients with senile dementia. This is at variance with most of the regional cerebral blood flow data that has been collected. This may be partly related to the use of substrates other than glucose by the brain in elderly and demented subjects. (PSB)

  12. Posterior Cingulate Glucose Metabolism, Hippocampal Glucose Metabolism, and Hippocampal Volume in Cognitively Normal, Late-Middle-Aged Persons at 3 Levels of Genetic Risk for Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Protas, Hillary D.; Chen, Kewei; Langbaum, Jessica B. S.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Alexander, Gene E.; Lee, Wendy; Bandy, Daniel; de Leon, Mony J.; Mosconi, Lisa; Buckley, Shannon; Truran-Sacrey, Diana; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.; Caselli, Richard J.; Reiman, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize and compare measurements of the posterior cingulate glucose metabolism, the hippocampal glucose metabolism, and hippocampal volume so as to distinguish cognitively normal, late-middle-aged persons with 2, 1, or 0 copies of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele, reflecting 3 levels of risk for late-onset Alzheimer disease. Design Cross-sectional comparison of measurements of cerebral glucose metabolism using 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography and measurements of brain volume using magnetic resonance imaging in cognitively normal ε4 homozygotes, ε4 heterozygotes, and noncarriers. Setting Academic medical center. Participants A total of 31 ε4 homozygotes, 42 ε4 heterozygotes, and 76 noncarriers, 49 to 67 years old, matched for sex, age, and educational level. Main Outcome Measures The measurements of posterior cingulate and hippocampal glucose metabolism were characterized using automated region-of-interest algorithms and normalized for whole-brain measurements. The hippocampal volume measurements were characterized using a semiautomated algorithm and normalized for total intracranial volume. Results Although there were no significant differences among the 3 groups of participants in their clinical ratings, neuropsychological test scores, hippocampal volumes (P=.60), or hippocampal glucose metabolism measurements (P = .12), there were significant group differences in their posterior cingulate glucose metabolism measurements (P=.001). The APOE ε4 gene dose was significantly associated with posterior cingulate glucose metabolism (r=0.29, P=.0003), and this association was significantly greater than those with hippocampal volume or hippocampal glucose metabolism (P<.05, determined by use of pairwise Fisher z tests). Conclusions Although our findings may depend in part on the analysis algorithms used, they suggest that a reduction in posterior cingulate glucose metabolism precedes a reduction in hippocampal volume or

  13. Glycemic Effects of Rebaudioside A and Erythritol in People with Glucose Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Hee; Lee, Ji Hye; Kang, Myung Shin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Rebaudioside A and erythritol are nonnutritive sweeteners. There have been several studies of their glycemic effects, but the outcomes remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the glycemic effects of rebaudioside A and erythritol as a sweetener in people with glucose intolerance. Methods This trial evaluated the glycemic effect after 2 weeks of consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol as sweeteners in a pre-diabetic population. The patients were evaluated for fructosamine, fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide, insulin, and 2-hour plasma glucose before and after consumption of sweetener. The primary outcome was a change in fructosamine levels from the baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary outcomes were the changes in levels of fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose. Results From the baseline to the end of experiment, the changes in fructosamine levels after consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol, did not differ significantly (244.00±19.57 vs. 241.68±23.39 µmol/L, P=0.366). The change in levels from the baseline to end of the study for rebaudioside A and erythritol were fasting plasma glucose (102.56±10.72 vs. 101.32±9.20 mg/dL), 2-hour plasma glucose (154.92±54.53 vs. 141.92±42.22 mg/dL), insulin (7.56±4.29 vs. 7.20±5.12 IU/mL), and C-peptide (2.92±1.61 vs. 2.73±1.31 ng/mL), respectively, and also did not differ significantly (P>0.05 for all). Conclusion Our study suggests that consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol does not alter the glucose homeostasis in people with glucose intolerance. PMID:27352150

  14. SLEEP/WAKE DEPENDENT CHANGES IN CORTICAL GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Michael B; Bellesi, Michele; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Most of the energy in the brain comes from glucose and supports glutamatergic activity. The firing rate of cortical glutamatergic neurons, as well as cortical extracellular glutamate levels, increase with time spent awake and decline throughout non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, raising the question whether glucose levels reflect behavioral state and sleep/wake history. Here chronic (2–3 days) electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in the rat cerebral cortex were coupled with fixed-potential amperometry to monitor the extracellular concentration of glucose ([gluc]) on a second-by-second basis across the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and in response to 3 hours of sleep deprivation. [Gluc] progressively increased during NREM sleep and declined during REM sleep, while during wake an early decline in [gluc] was followed by an increase 8–15 minutes after awakening. There was a significant time of day effect during the dark phase, when rats are mostly awake, with [gluc] being significantly lower during the last 3–4 hours of the night relative to the first 3–4 hours. Moreover, the duration of the early phase of [gluc] decline during wake was longer after prolonged wake than after consolidated sleep. Thus, the sleep/wake history may affect the levels of glucose available to the brain upon awakening. PMID:23106535

  15. Cerebral blood flow links insulin resistance and baroreflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John P; Sheu, Lei K; Verstynen, Timothy D; Onyewuenyi, Ikechukwu C; Gianaros, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance confers risk for diabetes mellitus and associates with a reduced capacity of the arterial baroreflex to regulate blood pressure. Importantly, several brain regions that comprise the central autonomic network, which controls the baroreflex, are also sensitive to the neuromodulatory effects of insulin. However, it is unknown whether peripheral insulin resistance relates to activity within central autonomic network regions, which may in turn relate to reduced baroreflex regulation. Accordingly, we tested whether resting cerebral blood flow within central autonomic regions statistically mediated the relationship between insulin resistance and an indirect indicator of baroreflex regulation; namely, baroreflex sensitivity. Subjects were 92 community-dwelling adults free of confounding medical illnesses (48 men, 30-50 years old) who completed protocols to assess fasting insulin and glucose levels, resting baroreflex sensitivity, and resting cerebral blood flow. Baroreflex sensitivity was quantified by measuring the magnitude of spontaneous and sequential associations between beat-by-beat systolic blood pressure and heart rate changes. Individuals with greater insulin resistance, as measured by the homeostatic model assessment, exhibited reduced baroreflex sensitivity (b = -0.16, p < .05). Moreover, the relationship between insulin resistance and baroreflex sensitivity was statistically mediated by cerebral blood flow in central autonomic regions, including the insula and cingulate cortex (mediation coefficients < -0.06, p-values < .01). Activity within the central autonomic network may link insulin resistance to reduced baroreflex sensitivity. Our observations may help to characterize the neural pathways by which insulin resistance, and possibly diabetes mellitus, relates to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:24358272

  16. Lactate transport and receptor actions in cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mariga, Shelton T.; Kolko, Miriam; Gjedde, Albert; Bergersen, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM), caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, is a prevalent neurological disorder in the tropics. Most of the patients are children, typically with intractable seizures and high mortality. Current treatment is unsatisfactory. Understanding the pathogenesis of CM is required in order to identify therapeutic targets. Here, we argue that cerebral energy metabolic defects are probable etiological factors in CM pathogenesis, because malaria parasites consume large amounts of glucose metabolized mostly to lactate. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate facilitated transfer, which serves to equalize lactate concentrations across cell membranes in the direction of the concentration gradient. The equalizing action of MCTs is the basis for lactate’s role as a volume transmitter of metabolic signals in the brain. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81, recently discovered on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, causing inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. High levels of lactate delivered by the parasite at the vascular endothelium may damage the blood–brain barrier, disrupt lactate homeostasis in the brain, and imply MCTs and the lactate receptor as novel therapeutic targets in CM. PMID:24904266

  17. The effect of euglucaemic hyperinsulinaemia on forearm blood flow and glucose uptake in the human forearm.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, A; Lind, L; Andersson, P E; Millgård, J; Hänni, A; Berne, C; Lithell, H

    1998-12-01

    Insulin-mediated stimulation of blood flow to skeletal muscle has been proposed to be of major importance for insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative importance of blood flow and glucose extraction as determinants of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in the human forearm. Forearm blood flow (FBF), glucose extraction and oxygen consumption were evaluated for 100 min during the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (92 mU/l) in nine healthy subjects. FBF was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm glucose uptake increased sevenfold during the hyperinsulinaemia (P<0.001). Forearm glucose extraction showed a minor increase during the first 10 min of hyperinsulinaemia, but the most marked increase took place between 10 and 20 min (+170%). Thereafter, only a minor further increase was seen. During the first 10 min of hyperinsulinaemia FBF was unchanged. Thereafter, FBF increased steadily to a plateau reached after 60 min (+50%, P<0.001). A close relationship between whole body glucose uptake and FBF was seen at the end of the clamp (r = 0.75, P<0.02), but at this time the relationship between whole body glucose uptake and forearm glucose extraction was not significant. The modest increase in O2 consumption seen at the beginning of the clamp (+19%) was not related to FBF during the early phase of the clamp. In conclusion, the early course of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in the human forearm was mainly due to an increase in glucose extraction. However, with time the insulin-mediated increase in blood flow increased in importance and after 100 min of hyperinsulinaemia FBF was the major determinant of glucose uptake. PMID:9934819

  18. The effect of retrograde and anterograde glucose administration on memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Foster, Jonathan K; Durlach, Paula; Perez, Catalina

    2002-08-21

    Memory for a list of 20 words can be enhanced by preceding learning by consumption of 25 g of glucose, compared with consumption of an equally sweet aspartame solution (Psychopharmacology 137 (1998) 259; Psychopharmacology 157 (2001) 46). However, using this anterograde administration procedure, it is impossible to separate whether glucose affects encoding, consolidation, or retrieval. The present placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of anterograde and retrograde administration on memory performance in healthy young participants. In order to evaluate whether post-acquisition administration of glucose can improve memory performance and to compare possible differences in the size of the effect, participants were administered 25 g of glucose immediately before or immediately after presentation of a word list. Moreover, in order to investigate whether the effect of glucose administration on memory performance is time-dependent, a third group received 25 g of glucose 15 min before learning the word list. Word- list recall was tested 30 min and 24 h after word list presentation. Measures of spatial memory performance and working memory were also evaluated. The results of this study showed that both pre- and post-acquisition oral glucose administration (25 g) can improve memory performance. However, as the time interval between anterograde glucose administration and memory encoding increased, the glucose memory facilitation effect decreased. This study provides evidence that glucose enhances memory performance in healthy young people even when it is given after learning has taken place, and that this effect is observed at least up to 24 h after glucose administration. Moreover, it provides evidence that the effect of glucose on memory performance may be time-dependent, as the enhancement of retention was decreased when the administration-learning interval was increased. PMID:12191837

  19. Bat consumption in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption. PMID:26806167

  20. PUMA is invovled in ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis of mouse cerebral astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Tian, M; Jin, L; Jia, H; Jin, Y

    2015-01-22

    PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis), a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 protein family, is required for p53-dependent and p53-independent forms of apoptosis. PUMA has been invovled in the onset and progress of several diseases, including cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and ischemic brain disease. Although many studies have shown that ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) can induce the apoptosis of astrocytes, the role of PUMA in I/R-mediated apoptosis of cerebral astrocyte apoptosis remains unclear. To mimic in vivo I/R conditions, primary mouse cerebral astrocytes were incubated in a combinational cultural condition of oxygen, glucose, and serum deprivation (OSGD) for 1 h followed by reperfusion (OSGD/R). Cell death determination assays and cell viability assays indicated that OSGD and OSGD/R induce the apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. The expression of PUMA was significantly elevated in primary cerebral astrocytes during OSGD/R. Moreover, targeted down-regulation of PUMA by siRNA transfection significantly decreased the OSGD/R-induced apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. We also found that OSGD and OSGD/R triggered the release of cytochrome c in astrocytes, indicating the dependence on a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was extremely generated during OSGD and OSGD/R, and the elimination of ROS by treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) remarkably inhibited the expression of PUMA and the apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. The activation of Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 was extremely elevated in primary cerebral astrocytes during OSGD. In addition, we found that knockdown of PUMA led to the depressed expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 during OSGD/R. These results indicate that PUMA is invovled in the apoptosis of cerebral astrocytes upon I/R injury. PMID:25451294

  1. Tocilizumab inhibits neuronal cell apoptosis and activates STAT3 in cerebral infarction rat model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaojun; Zhou, Jun; Kang, Weijie; Dong, Zhaoni; Wang, Hezuo

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral infarction is a severe hypoxic ischemic necrosis with accelerated neuronal cell apoptosis in the brain. As a monoclonal antibody against interleukin 6, tocilizumab (TCZ) is widely used in immune diseases, whose function in cerebral infarction has not been studied. This study aims to reveal the role of TCZ in regulating neuronal cell apoptosis in cerebral infarction. The cerebral infarction rat model was constructed by middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with TCZ. Cell apoptosis in hippocampus and cortex of the brain was examined with TUNEL method. Rat neuronal cells cultured in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions and treated with TCZ were used to compare cell viability and apoptosis. Apoptosis-related factors including B-cell lymphoma extra large (Bcl-xL) and Caspase 3, as well as the phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in brain cortex were analyzed from the protein level. Results indicated that TCZ treatment could significantly prevent the promoted cell apoptosis caused by cerebral infarction or OGD (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In brain cortex of the rat model, TCZ up-regulated Bcl-xL and down-regulated Caspase 3, consistent with the inhibited cell apoptosis. It also promoted tyrosine 705 phosphorylation of STAT3, which might be the potential regulatory mechanism of TCZ in neuronal cells. This study provided evidence for the protective role of TCZ against neuronal cell apoptosis in cerebral infarction. Based on these fundamental data, TCZ is a promising option for treating cerebral infarction, but further investigations on related mechanisms are still necessary. PMID:26773188

  2. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N; Hartwich, Doreen; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Raven, Peter B; Fadel, Paul J; Secher, Niels H

    2010-10-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral metabolism (from arterial and internal jugular venous O(2), glucose and lactate differences), as well as the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V(mean); transcranial Doppler ultrasound) during a sustained static handgrip contraction at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (n = 9) and the MCA V(mean) during ergometer cycling (n = 8). Separate, randomized and counterbalanced trials were performed in control (no drug) conditions and following muscarinic cholinergic receptor blockade by glycopyrrolate. Glycopyrrolate increased resting heart rate from approximately 60 to approximately 110 beats min(-1) (P < 0.01) and cardiac output by approximately 40% (P < 0.05), but did not affect mean arterial pressure. The central cardiovascular responses to exercise with glycopyrrolate were similar to the control responses, except that cardiac output did not increase during static handgrip with glycopyrrolate. Glycopyrrolate did not significantly affect cerebral metabolism during static handgrip, but a parallel increase in MCA V(mean) (approximately 16%; P < 0.01) and CBF (approximately 12%; P < 0.01) during static handgrip, as well as the increase in MCA V(mean) during cycling (approximately 15%; P < 0.01), were abolished by glycopyrrolate (P < 0.05). Thus, during both cycling and static handgrip, a cholinergic receptor mechanism is important for the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion without affecting the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen. PMID:20660020

  3. Energy-consumption modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  4. Determining residential firewood consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsinko, Allan P. C.; Phillips, Douglas R.; Cordell, H. Ken

    1984-07-01

    Household firewood use has become increasingly popular in the United States over the past few years. Significant problems remain in estimating firewood consumption. Methods of determining the amount of wood consumed vary from state to state. Units used for measuring firewood vary, but the cord remains the researcher's favorite. Factors used for converting other units, such as pickup truck loads to cords also vary. People who do not use firewood are less likely to respond to mailed surveys, resulting in potential overestimates of statewide consumption. This paper identifies some problems associated with estimating household firewood consumption and recommends methods of dealing with them.

  5. Flow of glucose carbon into cholesterol and phospholipids in various regions of the adult rat brain: enhanced incorporation into hypothalamic phospholipids

    SciTech Connect

    Barkai, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The contribution of glucose carbon to the biosynthesis of cholesterol and phospholipids in distinct brain regions was studied quantitatively in the adult male rat. Rates of flow of glucose carbon into the lipids in vivo were calculated from two measurements: the curve representing the decrease in plasma /sup 14/C-glucose with time and the specific activity of the cerebral lipid 180 minutes after a rapid intravenous injection of a tracer dose of D-U /sup 14/C-glucose. The following brain regions were studied: cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, medulla, and corpus callosum and cerebellum. The values for carbon flow into phospholipids were significantly higher in the hypothalamus than in the whole brain, whereas small, but insignificant, regional differences were found for carbon flow into cholesterol. The conversion of U-/sup 14/C-glucose to individual phospholipids of both hypothalamus and cerebral cortex was further investigated in vitro in order to establish whether the higher rate of carbon flow into hypothalamic phospholipids resulted from enhanced synthesis of a particular phospholipid. In agreement with the results obtained in vivo, the rate of incorporation of /sup 14/C into total phospholipids was 60% higher in hypothalamic tissue. The results indicate that the higher rate of carbon flow into hypothalamic phospholipids might be attributed to enhanced incorporation of glucose carbon to phosphatidyl-choline and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine following a faster conversion of glucose to glycerol in this brain region.

  6. Simultaneous utilization of glucose and gluconate in Penicillium chrysogenum during overflow metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Katja; Peter, Vivien; Meinert, Sabine; Kornfeld, Georg; Hardiman, Timo; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Noack, Stephan

    2013-12-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is one of the most important production organism for β-lactam antibiotics, especially penicillin. A specific feature of P. chrysogenum is the formation of gluconate as the primary overflow metabolite under non-limiting growth on glucose. Gluconate can be formed extracellularly by the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) that shows high activities under glucose excess conditions. Currently, it is assumed that under these conditions glucose is the preferred carbon substrate for P. chrysogenum and gluconate consumption first starts after glucose becomes limiting. Here, we specifically address this hypothesis by combining batch cultivation experiments on defined glucose media, time-dependent GOD activity measurements, and (13)C-tracer studies. Our data prove that both substrates are metabolized simultaneously independent from the actual glucose concentration and therefore suggest that no distinct mechanism of carbon catabolite repression exists for gluconate in P. chrysogenum. Moreover, gluconate consumption does not interfere with penicillin V production by repression of the penicillin genes. Finally, by following a model-driven approach the specific uptake rates for glucose and gluconate were quantified and found to be significantly higher for gluconate. In summary, our results show that P. chrysogenum metabolizes gluconate directly and at high rates making it an interesting alternative carbon source for production purposes. PMID:23775209

  7. p-Synephrine Suppresses Glucose Production but Not Lipid Accumulation in H4IIE Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhigang; Lee, Youngil; Lee, Youngki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract p-Synephrine, the primary protoalkaloid in the extract of bitter orange and other citrus species, has gained interest due to its lipolytic activity in adipose tissues. We previously found that p-synephrine stimulates glucose consumption via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This study investigated the effect of p-synephrine on glucose production and lipid accumulation in H4IIE rat liver cells. Glucose production was increased in H4llE cells that were incubated in glucose-free medium but decreased dose dependently (1–100 μM) with p-synephrine treatment. Protein levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were also decreased by treatment (4 h) with p-synephrine. Antagonists against α- and β-adrenergic receptors (phentolamine and propranolol) and other inhibitors against signaling molecules did not interrupt p-synephrine-induced suppression in glucose production. However, H7 (an inhibitor of serine/threonine kinases PKA, PKC, and PKG) significantly blocked p-synephrine-induced suppression of glucose production and further increased basal glucose production. Unlike the suppressive effect on glucose production, p-synephrine failed to affect palmitic acid-induced cytoplasmic lipid accumulation. Protein levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and phosphorylation levels of AMPK and ACC were not changed by p-synephrine. Altogether, p-synephrine can suppress glucose production but does not affect lipid accumulation in H4IIE liver cells. PMID:25379695

  8. GSM mobile phone radiation suppresses brain glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Kännälä, Sami; Laine, Matti; Rinne, Juha O; Toivonen, Tommi; Johansson, Jarkko; Teräs, Mika; Lindholm, Harri; Alanko, Tommi; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on cerebral glucose metabolism using high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with the 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) tracer. A long half-life (109 minutes) of the 18F isotope allowed a long, natural exposure condition outside the PET scanner. Thirteen young right-handed male subjects were exposed to a pulse-modulated 902.4 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications signal for 33 minutes, while performing a simple visual vigilance task. Temperature was also measured in the head region (forehead, eyes, cheeks, ear canals) during exposure. 18F-deoxyglucose PET images acquired after the exposure showed that relative cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was significantly reduced in the temporoparietal junction and anterior temporal lobe of the right hemisphere ipsilateral to the exposure. Temperature rise was also observed on the exposed side of the head, but the magnitude was very small. The exposure did not affect task performance (reaction time, error rate). Our results show that short-term mobile phone exposure can locally suppress brain energy metabolism in humans. PMID:21915135

  9. GSM mobile phone radiation suppresses brain glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Kännälä, Sami; Laine, Matti; Rinne, Juha O; Toivonen, Tommi; Johansson, Jarkko; Teräs, Mika; Lindholm, Harri; Alanko, Tommi; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on cerebral glucose metabolism using high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with the (18)F-deoxyglucose (FDG) tracer. A long half-life (109 minutes) of the (18)F isotope allowed a long, natural exposure condition outside the PET scanner. Thirteen young right-handed male subjects were exposed to a pulse-modulated 902.4 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications signal for 33 minutes, while performing a simple visual vigilance task. Temperature was also measured in the head region (forehead, eyes, cheeks, ear canals) during exposure. (18)F-deoxyglucose PET images acquired after the exposure showed that relative cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was significantly reduced in the temporoparietal junction and anterior temporal lobe of the right hemisphere ipsilateral to the exposure. Temperature rise was also observed on the exposed side of the head, but the magnitude was very small. The exposure did not affect task performance (reaction time, error rate). Our results show that short-term mobile phone exposure can locally suppress brain energy metabolism in humans. PMID:21915135

  10. [Plasma osmolarity and cerebral volume].

    PubMed

    Boulard, G

    2001-02-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, the osmolarity of extracellular fluids (ECFs) and natremia are controlled by two regulatory mechanisms modulating the water balance and sodium outflow from information collected by the osmoreceptors and baroreceptors, respectively. As well, under normal physiological conditions, water and electrolytes of brain ECFs are secreted by the endothelial cells of brain capillaries. Furthermore, isotonicity is present on both sides of the blood-brain barrier. In the event of systemic osmolarity disorders, water transport subject to osmosis laws occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier. In the case of plasmatic hyperosmolarity cerebral dehydration is observed, while cerebral edema occurs in the contrary case. However, plasmatic osmolarity disorders have less effect on the cerebral volume when their introduction is slow. Experimentation in acute conditions shows that measured variations of the cerebral water content are lower than calculated variations, thus suggesting the existence of an adaptive mechanism, that is, the cerebral osmoregulation which limits the variation of the volume of brain cells by modulating their osmoactive molecule content. These osmoactive molecules are, on the one hand, the electrolytes, which are early and rapidly mobilized, and, on the other hand, the organic osmoles (amino acids, etc.), whose secretion is slower and delayed. This phenomenon should be taken into account in the treatment of osmolarity disorders. Thus, the related-risk of treatment for natremia disorders is therapeutic reversal of the osmotic gradient at the level of the blood-brain barrier. This reversal, which corresponds to a second osmotic stress, requires the implementation of a new procedure of cerebral osmoregulation in the opposite direction of the preceding one. As successive osmotic stresses decrease the effectiveness of brain osmoregulation, the risk for cerebral dehydration and pontine myelinolysis increases when the treatment

  11. Administration of MPTP acutely increases glucose utilization in the substantia nigra of primates.

    PubMed

    Palombo, E; Porrino, L J; Bankiewicz, K S; Crane, A M; Kopin, I J; Sokoloff, L

    1988-06-21

    The quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiographic method was used to map the regional distribution of the acute effects of administration of the neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), on local cerebral glucose utilization in rhesus monkeys. Metabolic activity was increased (+80%) in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which has been shown to be the main target site of MPTP toxicity. Metabolic activity was also increased in the nucleus paranigralis, nucleus parabrachialis pigmentosus, and ventral lamella of the inferior olive. In contrast, substantial decreases in glucose utilization were found diffusely distributed throughout many of the other structures examined, most prominently in portions of the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. PMID:3261197

  12. Rituals enhance consumption.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Wang, Yajin; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2013-09-01

    Four experiments tested the novel hypothesis that ritualistic behavior potentiates and enhances ensuing consumption--an effect found for chocolates, lemonade, and even carrots. Experiment 1 showed that participants who engaged in ritualized behavior, compared with those who did not, evaluated chocolate as more flavorful, valuable, and deserving of behavioral savoring. Experiment 2 demonstrated that random gestures do not boost consumption as much as ritualistic gestures do. It further showed that a delay between a ritual and the opportunity to consume heightens enjoyment, which attests to the idea that ritual behavior stimulates goal-directed action (to consume). Experiment 3 found that performing a ritual oneself enhances consumption more than watching someone else perform the same ritual, suggesting that personal involvement is crucial for the benefits of rituals to emerge. Finally, Experiment 4 provided direct evidence of the underlying process: Rituals enhance the enjoyment of consumption because of the greater involvement in the experience that they prompt. PMID:23863754

  13. Human Biomass Consumption

    NASA Video Gallery

    Humans are using an increasing amount of Earth’s annual production of plants. Research shows that, from 1995 to 2005, consumption rose from 20 to 25 percent of the planet's annual production. Wha...

  14. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  15. Thalamic, brainstem, and cerebellar glucose metabolism in the hemiplegic monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoyama, I.; Dauth, G.W.; Gilman, S.; Frey, K.A.; Penney, J.B. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    Unilateral ablation of cerebral cortical areas 4 and 6 of Brodmann in the macaque monkey results in a contralateral hemiplegia that resolves partially with time. During the phase of dense hemiplegia, local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (1CMRG1c) is decreased significantly in most of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation, and there are slight contralateral decreases. The lCMRGlc is reduced bilaterally in most of the brainstem nuclei and bilaterally in the deep cerebellar nuclei, but only in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. During the phase of partial motor recovery, lCMRGlc is incompletely restored in many of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation and completely restored in the contralateral nuclei. In the brainstem and deep cerebellar nuclei, poor to moderate recovery occurs bilaterally. Moderate recovery occurs in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. The findings demonstrate that a unilateral cerebral cortical lesion strongly affects lCMRGlc in the thalamus ipsilaterally and in the cerebellar cortex contralaterally, but in the brainstem bilaterally. Partial recovery of lCMRGlc accompanies the progressive motor recovery. The structures affected include those with direct, and also those with indirect, connections to the areas ablated.

  16. Severe chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induces microglial dysfunction leading to memory loss in APPswe/PS1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Bordeleau, Maude; ElAli, Ayman; Rivest, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasculature plays a key role in controlling brain homeostasis. Cerebral vasculature dysfunction, associated to irregularities in cerebral blood perfusion, has been proposed to directly contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. More precisely, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which impairs brain homeostasis, was demonstrated to take place even before cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms underlying the implication of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in AD pathogenesis remain elusive. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the role of severe chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (SCCH) in AD pathogenesis. For this purpose, SCCH was induced in young APPswe/PS1 in order to evaluate the progression of AD-like pathology in these mice. We observed that SCCH accelerated the cognitive decline of young APPswe/PS1 mice, which was associated with an increased amyloid plaque number in brain parenchyma. In addition, SCCH reduced the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), which has been shown to play an important role in the adaptive responses of neurons. Importantly, SCCH impaired the function of microglial cells, which are implicated in amyloid-β (Aβ) elimination. In vitro approaches underlined the ability of a low-glucose microenvironment to decrease the general activity and phagocytic capacity of microglia. By using a new model of SCCH, our study unravels new insights into the implication of severe chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in AD pathogenesis, mainly by altering microglial cell activity and consequently Aβ clearance. PMID:26918610

  17. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. PMID:26205245

  18. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. PMID:26205245

  19. Cerebral lactate dynamics across sleep/wake cycles.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Michael J; Wisor, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism varies dramatically as a function of sleep state. Brain concentration of lactate, the end product of glucose utilization via glycolysis, varies as a function of sleep state, and like slow wave activity (SWA) in the electroencephalogram (EEG), increases as a function of time spent awake or in rapid eye movement sleep and declines as a function of time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS). We sought to determine whether lactate concentration exhibits homeostatic dynamics akin to those of SWA in SWS. Lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex was measured by indwelling enzymatic biosensors. A set of equations based conceptually on Process S (previously used to quantify the homeostatic dynamics of SWA) was used to predict the sleep/wake state-dependent dynamics of lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex. Additionally, we applied an iterative parameter space-restricting algorithm (the Nelder-Mead method) to reduce computational time to find the optimal values of the free parameters. Compared to an exhaustive search, this algorithm reduced the computation time required by orders of magnitude. We show that state-dependent lactate concentration dynamics can be described by a homeostatic model, but that the optimal time constants for describing lactate dynamics are much smaller than those of SWA. This disconnect between lactate dynamics and SWA dynamics does not support the concept that lactate concentration is a biochemical mediator of sleep homeostasis. However, lactate synthesis in the cerebral cortex may nonetheless be informative with regard to sleep function, since the impact of glycolysis on sleep slow wave regulation is only just now being investigated. PMID:25642184

  20. Endogenous Protease Nexin-1 Protects against Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Mirante, Osvaldo; Price, Melanie; Puentes, Wilfredo; Castillo, Ximena; Benakis, Corinne; Thevenet, Jonathan; Monard, Denis; Hirt, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin plays a role in signalling ischemic neuronal death in the brain. Paradoxically, endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms can be triggered by preconditioning with thrombin (thrombin preconditioning, TPC), leading to tolerance to cerebral ischemia. Here we studied the role of thrombin’s endogenous potent inhibitor, protease nexin-1 (PN-1), in ischemia and in tolerance to cerebral ischemia induced by TPC. Cerebral ischemia was modelled in vitro in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rats or genetically engineered mice lacking PN-1 or with the reporter gene lacZ knocked into the PN-1 locus PN-1HAPN-1-lacZ/HAPN-1-lacZ (PN-1 KI) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed increased thrombin enzyme activity in culture homogenates 24 h after OGD. Lack of PN-1 increased neuronal death in the CA1, suggesting that endogenous PN-1 inhibits thrombin-induced neuronal damage after ischemia. OGD enhanced β-galactosidase activity, reflecting PN-1 expression, at one and 24 h, most strikingly in the stratum radiatum, a glial cell layer adjacent to the CA1 layer of ischemia sensitive neurons. TPC, 24 h before OGD, additionally increased PN-1 expression 1 h after OGD, compared to OGD alone. TPC failed to induce tolerance in cultures from PN-1−/− mice confirming PN-1 as an important TPC target. PN-1 upregulation after TPC was blocked by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, L-JNKI1, known to block TPC. This work suggests that PN-1 is an endogenous neuroprotectant in cerebral ischemia and a potential target for neuroprotection. PMID:23949634

  1. Endogenous protease nexin-1 protects against cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Mirante, Osvaldo; Price, Melanie; Puentes, Wilfredo; Castillo, Ximena; Benakis, Corinne; Thevenet, Jonathan; Monard, Denis; Hirt, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin plays a role in signalling ischemic neuronal death in the brain. Paradoxically, endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms can be triggered by preconditioning with thrombin (thrombin preconditioning, TPC), leading to tolerance to cerebral ischemia. Here we studied the role of thrombin's endogenous potent inhibitor, protease nexin-1 (PN-1), in ischemia and in tolerance to cerebral ischemia induced by TPC. Cerebral ischemia was modelled in vitro in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rats or genetically engineered mice lacking PN-1 or with the reporter gene lacZ knocked into the PN-1 locus PN-1HAPN-1-lacZ/HAPN-1-lacZ (PN-1 KI) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed increased thrombin enzyme activity in culture homogenates 24 h after OGD. Lack of PN-1 increased neuronal death in the CA1, suggesting that endogenous PN-1 inhibits thrombin-induced neuronal damage after ischemia. OGD enhanced β-galactosidase activity, reflecting PN-1 expression, at one and 24 h, most strikingly in the stratum radiatum, a glial cell layer adjacent to the CA1 layer of ischemia sensitive neurons. TPC, 24 h before OGD, additionally increased PN-1 expression 1 h after OGD, compared to OGD alone. TPC failed to induce tolerance in cultures from PN-1(-/-) mice confirming PN-1 as an important TPC target. PN-1 upregulation after TPC was blocked by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, L-JNKI1, known to block TPC. This work suggests that PN-1 is an endogenous neuroprotectant in cerebral ischemia and a potential target for neuroprotection. PMID:23949634

  2. Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

  3. Optical monitoring of glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, I. N.; Mbanu, A.

    1985-02-01

    A device for the monitoring of blood glucose levels is investigated. It measures the sugar concentration using the effect of the glucose on the optical refractive index. Light is transmitted along an optical fibre, and, as most of the internal rays are incident at the fibre surface at an angle less than the critical angle, the refractive index of the surrounding liquid can be calculated. The device can measure glucose concentrations with a sensitivity of better than 0.1%.

  4. Effects of Dental Methacrylates on Oxygen Consumption and Redox Status of Human Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nocca, Giuseppina; Callà, Cinzia; Martorana, Giuseppe Ettore; Cicillini, Loredana; Lupi, Alessandro; Cordaro, Massimo; Luisa Gozzo, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have already demonstrated that the incomplete polymerization of resin-based dental materials causes the release of monomers which might affect cell metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate on (1) cellular energy metabolism, evaluating oxygen consumption rate, glucose consumption, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lactate production, and (2) cellular redox status, through the evaluation of glutathione concentration and of the activities of enzymes regulating glutathione metabolism. Methods. Human pulp cells were used and oxygen consumption was measured by means of a Clark electrode. Moreover, reactive oxygen species production was quantified. Enzymatic activity and glucose and lactate concentrations were determined through a specific kit. Results. Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate induced a decrease in oxygen consumption rate, an enhancement of glucose consumption, and lactate production, whilst glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity were not significantly modified. Moreover, the monomers induced an increase of reactive oxygen species production with a consequent increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities. A depletion of both reduced and total glutathione was also observed. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that dental monomers might alter energy metabolism and glutathione redox balance in human pulp cells. PMID:24693541

  5. Hydrostatic determinants of cerebral perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, E.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    We examined the cerebral blood flow response to alterations in perfusion pressure mediated through decreases in mean arterial pressure, increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and increases in jugular venous (JV) pressure in 42 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Each of these three pressures was independently controlled. Cerebral perfusion pressure was defined as mean arterial pressure minus JV or CSF pressure, depending on which was greater. Mean hemispheric blood flow was measured with the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Despite 30-mm Hg reductions in mean arterial pressure or increases in CSF or JV pressure, CBF did not change as long as the perfusion pressure remained greater than approximately 60 mm Hg. However, whenever perfusion pressure was reduced to an average of 48 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow decreased 27% to 33%. These results demonstrate the capacity of the cerebral vascular bed to respond similarly to changes in the perfusion pressure gradient obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, increasing JV pressure or increasing CSF pressure, and thereby support the above definition of cerebral perfusion pressure.

  6. Thermoresponsive amperometric glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Barwe, Stefan; Nebel, Michaela; Alburquerque, Natalia Guerrero; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, André; Schmaderer, Sebastian; Szeponik, Jan; Plumeré, Nicolas; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of a thermoresponsive biosensor for the amperometric detection of glucose. Screen printed electrodes with heatable gold working electrodes were modified by a thermoresponsive statistical copolymer [polymer I: poly(ω-ethoxytriethylenglycol methacrylate-co-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl ammonio) propanesulfonate-co-ω-butoxydiethylenglycol methacrylate-co-2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)ethyl methacrylate)] with a lower critical solution temperature of around 28 °C in aqueous solution via electrochemically induced codeposition with a pH-responsive redox-polymer [polymer II: poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-[Os(bpy)2(4-(((2-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)amino)methyl)-N,N-dimethylpicolinamide)](2+)] and pyrroloquinoline quinone-soluble glucose dehydrogenase acting as biological recognition element. Polymer II bears covalently bound Os-complexes that act as redox mediators for shuttling electrons between the enzyme and the electrode surface. Polymer I acts as a temperature triggered immobilization matrix. Probing the catalytic current as a function of the working electrode temperature shows that the activity of the biosensor is dramatically reduced above the phase transition temperature of polymer I. Thus, the local modulation of the temperature at the interphase between the electrode and the bioactive layer allows switching the biosensor from an on- to an off-state without heating of the surrounding analyte solution. PMID:26702635

  7. [Fructose Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome: Association or Causality?].

    PubMed

    Gerber, Philipp A

    2016-06-22

    Fructose consumption has increased significantly during the past decades – in particular by using added sugar in food and beverages, either sugars containing free fructose, but also sugars containing fructose in bound form (e. g. sucrose). The metabolism of fructose exhibits distinct differences compared to the metabolism of glucose. Association studies performed in the past years suggest an association of fructose consumption and adverse effects on metabolism. Intervention studies, conducted in part with healthy individuals, could prove such effects and deliver explanations of the mechanisms leading to these adverse effects. A reduction of consumption of added fructose should be recommended, but there is no evidence to support a restriction of fruit consumption (as a natural source of fructose). PMID:27329707

  8. Cerebral palsy and aging

    PubMed Central

    Haak, Peterson; Lenski, Madeleine; Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Li, Min; Paneth, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), the most common major disabling motor disorder of childhood, is frequently thought of as a condition that affects only children. Deaths in children with CP, never common, have in recent years become very rare, unless the child is very severely and multiply disabled. Thus, virtually all children assigned the diagnosis of CP will survive into adulthood. Attention to the adult with CP has been sparse, and the evolution of the motor disorder as the individual moves through adolescence, young adulthood, middle age, and old age is not well understood. Nor do we know what happens to other functional domains, such as communication and eating behavior, in adults with CP. Although the brain injury that initially causes CP by definition does not progressively worsen through the lifetime, the effects of CP manifest differently throughout the life span. The aging process must inevitably interact with the motor disorder, but we lack systematic, large-scale follow-up studies of children with CP into adulthood and through adulthood with thorough assessments performed over time. In this paper we summarize what is known of the epidemiology of CP throughout the life span, beginning with mortality and life expectancy, then survey what is known of functioning, ability, and quality of life of adults with CP. We conclude by describing a framework for future research on CP and aging that is built around the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and suggest specific tools and approaches for conducting that research in a sound manner. PMID:19740206

  9. Molecular and industrial aspects of glucose isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Bhosale, S H; Rao, M B; Deshpande, V V

    1996-01-01

    Glucose isomerase (GI) (D-xylose ketol-isomerase; EC. 5.3.1.5) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-glucose and D-xylose to D-fructose and D-xylulose, respectively. The enzyme has the largest market in the food industry because of its application in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS, an equilibrium mixture of glucose and fructose, is 1.3 times sweeter than sucrose and serves as a sweetener for use by diabetics. Interconversion of xylose to xylulose by GI serves a nutritional requirement in saprophytic bacteria and has a potential application in the bioconversion of hemicellulose to ethanol. The enzyme is widely distributed in prokaryotes. Intensive research efforts are directed toward improving its suitability for industrial application. Development of microbial strains capable of utilizing xylan-containing raw materials for growth or screening for constitutive mutants of GI is expected to lead to discontinuation of the use of xylose as an inducer for the production of the enzyme. Elimination of Co2+ from the fermentation medium is desirable for avoiding health problems arising from human consumption of HFCS. Immobilization of GI provides an efficient means for its easy recovery and reuse and lowers the cost of its use. X-ray crystallographic and genetic engineering studies support a hydride shift mechanism for the action of GI. Cloning of GI in homologous as well as heterologous hosts has been carried out, with the prime aim of overproducing the enzyme and deciphering the genetic organization of individual genes (xylA, xylB, and xylR) in the xyl operon of different microorganisms. The organization of xylA and xylB seems to be highly conserved in all bacteria. The two genes are transcribed from the same strand in Escherichia coli and Bacillus and Lactobacillus species, whereas they are transcribed divergently on different strands in Streptomyces species. A comparison of the xylA sequences from several bacterial sources revealed the

  10. Intracerebroventricular Injection of Alarin Increased Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Wu, Yongkang; Sheng, Shudong; Guo, Lili; He, Biao; Fang, Penghua; Shi, Mingyi; Bo, Ping; Zhu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the central effect of alarin on glucose uptake, we administered alarin and/ or its inhibitor, ala6-25Cys into the cerebral ventricles of the type 2 diabetic rats. Then the relative parameters about glucose uptake in skeletal muscles were measured. We found that central treatment with alarin significantly increased the food intake, body weight and glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp tests of the animals. Besides, the treatment also enhanced 2-deoxy-[3H]-D-glucose uptake, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 contents, glucose transporter 4 protein and mRNA expression, as well as pAktThr308, pAktSer473 and total Akt levels in muscle cells, but reduced plasma glucose and insulin levels of the rats. All of the alarin-inducing events may be antagonised by central injection of ala6-25Cys. These results suggest that central administration of alarin stimulates glucose uptake mediated by activation of Akt signal pathway in type 2 diabetic animals. PMID:26439383

  11. Cerebritis: an unusual complication of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Mainak; Simes, David C; Prabha, Ramesh D

    2009-01-01

    Cerebritis is part of a continuum of brain infection and is difficult to diagnose. Cerebritis caused by Klebsiella in immunocompetent adults without predisposing factors such as neurosurgery or penetrating brain injury has not been reported before. We report a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection. We suggest considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if an extracranial source of infection is proven. PMID:19881180

  12. Cerebritis: An unusual complication of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Mainak; Simes1, David C.; Prabha1, Ramesh D.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebritis is part of a continuum of brain infection and is difficult to diagnose. Cerebritis caused by Klebsiella in immunocompetent adults without predisposing factors such as neurosurgery or penetrating brain injury has not been reported before. We report a case of Klebsiella cerebritis in an adult patient with a proven extracranial focus of infection. We suggest considering cerebritis as a differential diagnosis for altered level of consciousness in patients of severe sepsis, even if an extracranial source of infection is proven. PMID:19881180

  13. Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Regulates the Neuronal Uptake of Glucose in the Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fang; Wu, Jialing; Nicholson, Andrew D.; Echeverry, Ramiro; Haile, Woldeab B.; Catano, Marcela; An, Jie; Lee, Andrew K.; Duong, Duc; Dammer, Eric B.; Seyfried, Nicholas T.; Tong, Frank C.; Votaw, John R.; Medcalf, Robert; Yepes, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to hypoxic conditions plays a pivotal role in neuronal survival. Hypoxia induces the release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) from cerebral cortical neurons. We found that the release of neuronal tPA or treatment with recombinant tPA (rtPA) promotes cell survival in cerebral cortical neurons previously exposed to hypoxic conditions in vitro or experimental cerebral ischemia in vivo. Our studies using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry revealed that tPA activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway which adapts cellular processes to the availability of energy and metabolic resources. We found that mTOR activation leads to accumulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and induction and recruitment to the cell membrane of the HIF-1α-regulated neuronal transporter of glucose GLUT3. Accordingly, in vivo positron emission tomography studies with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose in mice overexpressing tPA in neurons show that neuronal tPA induces the uptake of glucose in the ischemic brain and that this effect is associated with decrease in the volume of the ischemic lesion and improved neurological outcome following the induction of ischemic stroke. Our data indicate that tPA activates a cell signaling pathway that allows neurons to sense and adapt to oxygen and glucose deprivation. PMID:22815500

  14. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these two monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial trig...

  15. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial trigly...

  16. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Gana, R; Skhissi, M; Maaqili, R; Bellakhdar, F

    2008-05-01

    We report an unusual patient with multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts. A 20-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache and progressive left-sided hempiparesis. A cerebral CT scan showed a large and heterogeneous parieto-occipital lesion. During surgery an infected hydatid cyst was discovered with multiple daughter vesicles. Post-operatively the patient was treated with albendazol, cefotaxime and metronidazole. The clinical course was good with total recovery of the hemiparesis. A follow-up CT scan showed persistence of some small deep-seated cysts. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cyst is uncommon and can be confused with other cystic brain lesions. The aim of surgery is to remove the cyst unruptured and this should be followed by antihelminthic and antibiotic treatment in order to avoid recurrences. PMID:18342511

  17. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum and cerebral anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Schrander-Stumpel, C T; de Die-Smulders, C E; Hennekam, R C; Fryns, J P; Bouckaert, P X; Brouwer, O F; da Costa, J J; Lommen, E J; Maaswinkel-Mooy, P D

    1992-01-01

    We report on three Dutch children with a clinical diagnosis of oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) and hydrocephalus. The clinical features are compared to 15 published cases of OAVS and hydrocephalus. Several other cerebral abnormalities were present in the whole group. About half of the cases had cleft lip/palate, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, or a cardiac defect. Mental retardation was found in five of the surviving 11 patients and early death occurred in one-third. We compared the cases with OAVS and hydrocephalus with published reports of OAVS and other cerebral anomalies and found no significant clinical differences. However, the clinical characteristics were clearly more severely expressed than generally found in patients with OAVS. Children with OAVS and more severe clinical features, especially anophthalmia/microphthalmia and cleft lip/palate, seem to be at an increased risk for cerebral malformations and for mental retardation. Images PMID:1583660

  18. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments

  19. Behaviour Problems Amongst Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswin, Maureen

    Based on 6 years of work with cerebral palsied children, the thesis considers types and causes of cerebral palsy, the life pattern of the child with cerebral palsy from early years to adolescence, and the effect of the handicapped child on his parents and family. Literature on behavior disorders is reviewed, and kinds of behavior problems are…

  20. Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mysak, Edward D.

    Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

  1. Cerebral vasculitis associated with cocaine abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, B.R.; Fainstat, M.

    1987-10-16

    A case of cerebral vasculitis in a previously healthy 22-year-old man with a history of cocaine abuse is described. Cerebral angiograms showed evidence of vasculitis. A search for possible causes other than cocaine produced no results. The authors include cocaine with methamphetamines, heroin, and ephedrine as illicit drugs that can cause cerebral vasculitis.

  2. Higher fasting plasma glucose is associated with striatal and hippocampal shape differences: the 2sweet project

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianqi; Shaw, Marnie; Humphries, Jacob; Sachdev, Perminder; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have demonstrated associations between higher normal fasting plasma glucose levels (NFG) (<6.1 mmol/L), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hippocampal atrophy and other cerebral abnormalities. Little is known about the association between plasma glucose and the striatum despite sensorimotor deficits being implicated in T2D. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma glucose levels and striatal and hippocampal morphology using vertex-based shape analysis. Design A population-based, cross-sectional study. Setting Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia. Participants 287 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age 63 years, 132 female, 273 Caucasian) with (n=261) or without T2D (n=26), selected from 2551 participants taking part in the Personality & Total Health (PATH) Through Life study by availability of glucose data, MRI scan, and absence of gross brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment. Outcome measures Fasting plasma glucose was measured at first assessment, and MRI images were collected 8 years later. Shape differences indicating outward and inward deformation at the hippocampus and the striatum were examined with FMRIB Software Library-Integrated Registration and Segmentation Toolbox (FSL-FIRST) after controlling for sociodemographic and health variables. Results Higher plasma glucose was associated with shape differences indicating inward deformation, particularly at the caudate and putamen, among participants with NFG after controlling for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, smoking and depressive symptoms. Those with T2D showed shape differences indicating inward deformation at the right hippocampus and bilateral striatum, but outward deformation at the left hippocampus, compared with participants with NFG. Conclusions These findings further emphasize the importance of early monitoring and management of plasma glucose levels, even within the normal range, as a risk factor for cerebral atrophy. PMID

  3. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Nidhi; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist’s skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient. How to cite this article: Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal K, Chopra R. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):109-118. PMID:25356010

  4. Propofol effect on cerebral oxygenation in children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Thilo; Schubert, Stephan; Ewert, Peter; Stiller, Brigitte; Nagdyman, Nicole; Berger, Felix

    2015-03-01

    Propofol is a short-acting, intravenously administered hypnotic agent which is used in procedural sedation in children. Propofol is known to decrease systemic vascular resistance, arterial blood pressure and can lead to desaturations and decreased systemic perfusion in children with cardiac shunting. This may result in a reduction in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can monitor cerebral tissue oxygenation in the frontal neocortex. The objective of our study was to measure the changes in cerebral oxygen and blood supply after Propofol infusion in children with congenital heart disease. Propofol infusion may reduce cerebral oxygenation in children with congenital heart disease. The study group consisted of 32 children (f:m = 18:14), with median age of 49 (5-112) months and median weight of 15 (5-34) kg. We performed NIRS derived continuous measurement of cerebral oxygenation and cardiac output using Electrical velocimetry for 5 min before and after sedation with Propofol (1-2 mg/kg i.v.) for cardiac catheterization. Simultaneously, non-invasive arterial blood pressure and transcutaneous oxygen saturation were measured. Propofol sedation led to a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure (79 ± 16 vs. 67 ± 12 mmHg) (p = 0.01) and cardiac index (3.2 ± 0.8 vs. 2.9 ± 0.6 ml/min/m(2)) (p = 0.03). In contrast, cerebral tissue oxygenation index, increased significantly from 57 ± 11 to 59 ± 10 % (p < 0.05). Sedation with Propofol increased cerebral tissue oxygenation despite a decrease in cardiac index and arterial blood pressure. This may be caused by a decreased oxygen consumption of the sedated brain with intact cerebral auto-regulation. PMID:25311762

  5. Clostridium butyricum attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic mice via modulation of gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Fangyan; Ling, Zongxin; Yu, Xichong; Chen, Wenqian; Li, Haixiao; Jin, Jiangtao; Pang, Mengqi; Zhang, Huiqing; Yu, Junjie; Liu, Jiaming

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, we investigated the effects of Clostridium butyricum on cerebral I/R injury in the diabetic mice subjected to 30min of bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO). The cognitive impairment, the blood glucose level, neuronal injury, apoptosis, and expressions of Akt, phospho-Akt (p-Akt), and caspase-3 level were assessed. Meanwhile, the changes of gut microbiota in composition and diversity in the colonic feces were evaluated. Our results showed that diabetic mice subjected to BCCAO exhibited worsened cognitive impairment, cell damage and apoptosis. These were all attenuated by C. butyricum. Moreover, C. butyricum reversed cerebral I/R induced decreases in p-Akt expression and increases in caspase-3 expression, leading to inhibiting neuronal apoptosis. C. butyricum partly restored cerebral I/R induced decreases of fecal microbiota diversity, changes of fecal microbiota composition. Together, these findings highlight the important role of bacteria in the bidirectional communication of the gut-brain axis and suggest that certain probiotics might prove to be useful therapeutic adjuncts in cerebral I/R injury with diabetes. PMID:27037183

  6. FRET-based biofriendly apo-GO(x)-modified gold nanoprobe for specific and sensitive glucose sensing and cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Gao, Feifei; Ye, Jian; Chen, Zhenzhen; Li, Qingling; Gao, Wen; Ji, Lifei; Zhang, Ruirui; Tang, Bo

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, we have developed a biofriendly and high sensitive apo-GOx (inactive form of glucose oxidase)-modified gold nanoprobe for quantitative analysis of glucose and imaging of glucose consumption in living cells. This detection system is based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer between apo-GOx modified AuNPs (Au nanoparticles) and dextran-FITC (dextran labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate). Once glucose is present, quenched fluorescence of FITC recovers due to the higher affinity of apo-GOx for glucose over dextran. The nanoprobe shows excellent selectivity toward glucose over other monosaccharides and most biological species present in living cells. A detection limit as low as 5 nM demonstrates the high sensitivity of the nanoprobe. Introduction of apo-GOx, instead of GOx, can avoid the consumption of O2 and production of H2O2 during the interaction with glucose, which may exert effects on normal physiological events in living cells and even lead to cellular damage. Due to the low toxicity of this detection system and reliable cellular uptake ability of AuNPs, imaging of intracellular glucose consumption was successfully realized in cancer cells. PMID:24032474

  7. Acute fasting decreases the expression of GLUT1 and glucose utilisation involved in mouse oocyte maturation and cumulus cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingying; Yan, Jun; Zhou, Jinlian; Teng, Zhen; Bian, Fenghua; Guo, Meng; Mao, Guankun; Li, Junxia; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Meijia; Xia, Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Acute fasting impairs meiotic resumption and glucose consumption in mouse cumulus cell and oocyte complexes (COCs). This study examines the effects of acute fasting on the regulation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression and glucose consumption in oocyte maturation. Our results indicate that the restriction of glucose utilisation by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) mimicked the inhibitory effects of acute fasting on oocyte meiotic resumption and cumulus cell expansion, effects that were rescued by high glucose concentrations in the culture medium. GLUT1 protein levels were higher in cumulus cells compared with oocytes, and GLUT1 expression in COCs increased with FSH treatment in vitro. However, under acute fasting conditions, GLUT1 expression in COCs decreased and the response to FSH disappeared. Exposure to high glucose conditions (27.5mM and 55mM), significantly increased both glucose consumption and GLUT1 levels in COCs. Inhibition of GLUT1 function using an anti-GLUT1 antibody significantly inhibited FSH-induced oocyte meiotic resumption. Taken together, these results suggest that acute fasting decreases GLUT1 expression and glucose utilisation, inhibiting the processes of oocyte maturation and cumulus cell expansion. PMID:22697123

  8. Inflammation, Cerebral Vasospasm, and Evolving Theories of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Kevin R.; Zuckerman, Scott L.; Mocco, J

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is a potentially lethal complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Recently, the symptomatic presentation of CVS has been termed delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), occurring as early as 3-4 days after the sentinel bleed. For the past 5-6 decades, scientific research has promulgated the theory that cerebral vasospasm plays a primary role in the pathology of DCI and subsequently delayed ischemic neurological decline (DIND). Approximately 70% of patients develop CVS after aSAH with 50% long-term morbidity rates. The exact etiology of CVS is unknown; however, a well-described theory involves an antecedent inflammatory cascade with alterations of intracellular calcium dynamics and nitric oxide fluxes, though the intricacies of this inflammatory theory are currently unknown. Consequently, there have been few advances in the clinical treatment of this patient cohort, and morbidity remains high. Identification of intermediaries in the inflammatory cascade can provide insight into newer clinical interventions in the prevention and management of cerebral vasospasm and will hopefully prevent neurological decline. In this review, we discuss current theories implicating the inflammatory cascade in the development of CVS and potential treatment targets. PMID:24058736

  9. Toward an Injectable Continuous Osmotic Glucose Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Johannessen, Erik; Krushinitskaya, Olga; Sokolov, Andrey; Philipp, Häfliger; Hoogerwerf, Arno; Hinderling, Christian; Kautio, Kari; Lenkkeri, Jaakko; Strömmer, Esko; Kondratyev, Vasily; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Jakobsen, Henrik; Zimmer, Even; Akselsen, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Background The growing pandemic of diabetes mellitus places a stringent social and economic burden on the society. A tight glycemic control circumvents the detrimental effects, but the prerogative is the development of new more effective tools capable of longterm tracking of blood glucose (BG) in vivo. Such discontinuous sensor technologies will benefit from an unprecedented marked potential as well as reducing the current life expectancy gap of eight years as part of a therapeutic regime. Method A sensor technology based on osmotic pressure incorporates a reversible competitive affinity assay performing glucose-specific recognition. An absolute change in particles generates a pressure that is proportional to the glucose concentration. An integrated pressure transducer and components developed from the silicon micro- and nanofabrication industry translate this pressure into BG data. Results An in vitro model based on a 3.6 × 8.7 mm large pill-shaped implant is equipped with a nanoporous membrane holding 4–6 nm large pores. The affinity assay offers a dynamic range of 36–720 mg/dl with a resolution of ±16 mg/dl. An integrated 1 × 1 mm2 large control chip samples the sensor signals for data processing and transmission back to the reader at a total power consumption of 76 µW. Conclusions Current studies have demonstrated the design, layout, and performance of a prototype osmotic sensor in vitro using an affinity assay solution for up to four weeks. The small physical size conforms to an injectable device, forming the basis of a conceptual monitor that offers a tight glycemic control of BG. PMID:20663452

  10. Combined administration of hyperbaric oxygen and hydroxocobalamin improves cerebral metabolism after acute cyanide poisoning in rats.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M B; Olsen, N V; Hyldegaard, O

    2013-11-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) or intravenous hydroxocobalamin (OHCob) both abolish cyanide (CN)-induced surges in interstitial brain lactate and glucose concentrations. HBOT has been shown to induce a delayed increase in whole blood CN concentrations, whereas OHCob may act as an intravascular CN scavenger. Additionally, HBOT may prevent respiratory distress and restore blood pressure during CN intoxication, an effect not seen with OHCob administration. In this report, we evaluated the combined effects of HBOT and OHCob on interstitial lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations as well as lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in rat brain by means of microdialysis during acute CN poisoning. Anesthetized rats were allocated to three groups: 1) vehicle (1.2 ml isotonic NaCl intra-arterially); 2) potassium CN (5.4 mg/kg intra-arterially); 3) potassium CN, OHCob (100 mg/kg intra-arterially) and subsequent HBOT (284 kPa in 90 min). OHCob and HBOT significantly attenuated the acute surges in interstitial cerebral lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations compared with the intoxicated rats given no treatment. Furthermore, the combined treatment resulted in consistent low lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations, as well as in low lactate-to-pyruvate ratios compared with CN intoxicated controls. In rats receiving OHCob and HBOT, respiration improved and cyanosis disappeared, with subsequent stabilization of mean arterial blood pressure. The present findings indicate that a combined administration of OHCob and HBOT has a beneficial and persistent effect on the cerebral metabolism during CN intoxication. PMID:23970528

  11. Patients with type 1 diabetes exhibit altered cerebral metabolism during hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Kim C.C.; Tack, Cees J.; Heerschap, Arend; van der Graaf, Marinette; de Galan, Bastiaan E.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) experience, on average, 2 to 3 hypoglycemic episodes per week. This study investigated the effect of hypoglycemia on cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with uncomplicated T1DM. For this purpose, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic and hypoglycemic glucose clamps were performed on separate days, using [1-13C]glucose infusion to increase plasma 13C enrichment. In vivo brain 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the time course of 13C label incorporation into different metabolites and to calculate the tricarboxylic acid cycle flux (VTCA) by a one-compartment metabolic model. We found that cerebral glucose metabolism, as reflected by the VTCA, was not significantly different comparing euglycemic and hypoglycemic conditions in patients with T1DM. However, the VTCA was inversely related to the HbA1C and was, under hypoglycemic conditions, approximately 45% higher than that in a previously investigated group of healthy subjects. These data suggest that the brains of patients with T1DM are better able to endure moderate hypoglycemia than those of subjects without diabetes. PMID:23298837

  12. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  13. Alginate cryogel based glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoni, Amin; Windy Dwiasi, Dian; Hermawan, Dadan

    2016-02-01

    Cryogel is macroporous structure provides a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. In this work, an alginate cryogel based biosensor was developed to detect glucose. The cryogel was prepared using alginate cross-linked by calcium chloride under sub-zero temperature. This porous structure was growth in a 100 μL micropipette tip with a glucose oxidase enzyme entrapped inside the cryogel. The glucose detection was based on the colour change of redox indicator, potassium permanganate, by the hydrogen peroxide resulted from the conversion of glucose. The result showed a porous structure of alginate cryogel with pores diameter of 20-50 μm. The developed glucose biosensor was showed a linear response in the glucose detection from 1.0 to 5.0 mM with a regression of y = 0.01x+0.02 and R2 of 0.994. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor was showed a high operational stability up to 10 times of uninterrupted glucose detections.

  14. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rizos, Christos V; Elisaf, Moses S

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro- and macrovascular disease. Moreover, increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance. As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical. However, the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism. Indeed, angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism. However, some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis. On the other hand, diuretics and β-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism. Of note, carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of the β-blockers class, being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis. The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may, to an extent, compromise their cardiovascular protective role. As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment, especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes. PMID:25068013

  15. Radiosurgery for cerebral cavernomas.

    PubMed

    Nagy, G; Kemeny, A A

    2015-09-01

    The role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of cerebral cavernomas (CCMs) remains controversial. However, during the last decade the increasing knowledge on natural history and numerous publications from SRS centers using modern treatment protocols has been changing the initial resistance of the neurosurgical community. Unfortunately, the quality of publications on CCM SRS remains heterogeneous. Controversies arise from the lack of control groups, the different definition of hemorrhage, heterogeneous patient populations, and poor definition of treatment protocols. The key for proper interpretation of results is the understanding of the natural history of CCMs, which is varied both according to anatomical location and the presence or absence of previous hemorrhage. Hemispheric lesions appear to be more benign with lower annual bleed rate and risk of persisting disability, whereas those found in the thalamus, basal ganglia and brainstem typically have higher rebleed risk resulting in higher cumulative morbidity following subsequent hemorrhages. However, we are still unable at presentation to predict the future behavior of an individual lesion. In the present paper we critically review and analyze the modern SRS literature on CCMs. The expanding number of available data with current treatment protocols strongly supports the initial intuition that SRS is an effective treatment alternative for deep-seated CCMs with multiple hemorrhages reducing pretreatment annual rebleed rates from 32% pre-treatment to 1.5% within 2 years after treatment (N.=197). Moreover, it appears to stabilize lesions with no more than one bleed, and it is also effective for CCMs causing therapy resistant epilepsy especially if applied within 3 years after presentation. In modern SRS series the rate of persisting adverse radiation effects is low, resulting only in mild morbidity even in deep-seated lesions (4.16%, N.=376), and morbidity caused by post-treatment hemorrhages is also

  16. Measurements of serum glucose using the luciferin/Luciferase system and a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Idahl, L.A.; Sandstroem, P.E.; Sehlin, J.

    1986-05-15

    A single-step assay for serum glucose measurements is described. The assay is based on the phosphorylation of D-glucose by glucokinase and the measurement of ATP consumption by firefly luciferase. The luminescence is recorded in an ordinary liquid scintillation spectrometer. The use of stable reagents and a stable final signal (light emission) makes it possible to analyze a large number of samples in each assay run. The assay is of particular value when repeated serum glucose determinations are performed on samples from small laboratory animals.

  17. A novel signal-off electrochemiluminescence biosensor for the determination of glucose based on double nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linlin; Ma, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, ZiPing; Su, Xingguang

    2015-01-15

    In this work, a novel facile signal-off electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor has been developed for the determination of glucose based on the integration of chitosan (CHIT), CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) and Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Chitosan displays high water permeability, hydrophilic property, strong hydrogel ability and good adhesion to load the double nanoparticles to the glassy carbon electrode surfaces. Au NPs are efficient glucose oxidase (GOx)-mimickess to catalytically oxidize glucose, similar to the natural process. Upon the addition of glucose, the Au NPs catalyzed glucose to produce gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based on the consumption of dissolved oxygen (O2), which resulted in a quenching effect on the ECL emission. Therefore, the determination of glucose could be achieved by monitoring the signal-off ECL biosensor. Under the optimum conditions, the ECL intensity of CdTe QDs and the concentration of glucose have a good linear relationship in the range of 0.01-10 mmol L(-1). The limit of detection for glucose was 5.28 μmol L(-1) (S/N=3). The biosensor showed good sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The proposed biosensor has been employed for the detection of glucose in human serum samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25145985

  18. Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Beatriz de Oliveira; Nahas, Ely

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus , Fusarium verticillioides , and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL) and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL) soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medium increased the growth rate of A. flavus and Penicillium sp. but not of F. verticillioides . The number of spores increased 1.2 for F. verticillioides and 8.2 times for A. flavus in the medium with glucose, but was reduced 3.5 times for Penicillium sp. The total carbohydrates contents reduced significantly according to first and second degree equations. The consumption of total carbohydrates by A. flavus and Penicillium sp. was higher than the control or soil inoculated with F. verticillioides . The addition of glucose to soils benefited the use of carbohydrates, probably due to the stimulation of fungal growth. Dehydrogenase activity increased between 1.5 to 1.8 times ( p <0.05) in soils with glucose and inoculated with the fungi (except F. verticillioides ), in relation to soil without glucose. Amylase activity increased 1.3 to 1.5 times due to the addition of glucose in the soil. Increased amylase activity was observed in the DRL soil with glucose and inoculated with A. flavus and Penicillium sp. when compared to control. PMID:24031836

  19. Oat β-glucan depresses SGLT1- and GLUT2-mediated glucose transport in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6).

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Nazanin N; Purslow, Peter P; Tosh, Susan M; Bakovic, Marica

    2016-06-01

    Oat β-glucan consumption is linked to reduced risk factors associated with diabetes and obesity by lowering glycemic response and serum level of low-density lipoproteins. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism of action of oat β-glucan at the interface between the gut wall and the lumen responsible for attenuating glucose levels. We proposed that viscous oat β-glucan acts as a physical barrier to glucose uptake in normally absorptive gut epithelial cells IEC-6 by affecting the expression of intestinal glucose transporters. Concentration and time-dependent changes in glucose uptake were established by using a nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose. The effectiveness of nutrient transport in IEC-6 cells was shown by significant differences in glucose uptake and corresponding transporter expression. The expressions of glucose transporters sodium-glucose-linked transport protein 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) increased with time (0-60 minutes) and glucose levels (5-25 mmol/L). The suppression of glucose uptake and SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression by increasing concentrations (4-8 mg/mL) of oat β-glucan demonstrated a direct effect of the physical properties of oat β-glucan on glucose transport. These results affirmed oat β-glucan as a dietary agent for minimizing postprandial glucose and showed that modulating the activity of the key intestinal glucose transporters with oat β-glucan could be an effective way of lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. PMID:27188900

  20. Rat splanchnic net oxygen consumption, energy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Casado, J; Fernández-López, J A; Esteve, M; Rafecas, I; Argilés, J M; Alemany, M

    1990-01-01

    1. The blood flow, PO2, pH and PCO2 have been estimated in portal and suprahepatic veins as well as in hepatic artery of fed and overnight starved rats given an oral glucose load. From these data the net intestinal, hepatic and splanchnic balances for oxygen and bicarbonate were calculated. The oxygen consumption of the intact animal has also been measured under comparable conditions. 2. The direct utilization of oxygen balances as energy equivalents when establishing the contribution of energy metabolism of liver and intestine to the overall energy expenses of the rat, has been found to be incorrect, since it incorporates the intrinsic error of interorgan proton transfer through bicarbonate. Liver and intestine produced high net bicarbonate balances in all situations tested, implying the elimination (by means of oxidative pathways, i.e. consuming additional oxygen) of high amounts of H+ generated with bicarbonate. The equivalence in energy output of the oxygen balances was then corrected for bicarbonate production to 11-54% lower values. 3. Intestine and liver consume a high proportion of available oxygen, about one-half in basal (fed or starved) conditions and about one-third after gavage, the intestine consumption being about 15% in all situations tested and the liver decreasing its oxygen consumption with gavage. PMID:2129230

  1. Amtrak fuel consumption study

    SciTech Connect

    Hitz, J.

    1981-02-01

    This report documents a study of fuel consumption on National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) trains and is part of an effort to determine effective ways of conserving fuel on the Amtrak system. The study was performed by the Transportation Systems Center (TSC). A series of 26 test runs were conducted on Amtrak trains operating between Boston, Massachusetts, and New Haven, Connecticut, to measure fuel consumption, trip time and other fuel-use-related parameters. The test data were analyzed and compared with results of the TSC Train Performance Simulator replicating the same operations.

  2. Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) mimics cocaine in its physiological and behavioral effects but induces distinct changes in NAc glucose

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Ken T.; Ren, Suelynn E.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2015-01-01

    Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is generally considered to be a more potent cocaine-like psychostimulant, as it shares a similar pharmacological profile with cocaine and induces similar physiological and locomotor responses. Recently, we showed that intravenous cocaine induces rapid rise in nucleus accumbens (NAc) glucose and established its relation to neural activation triggered by the peripheral drug actions. This study was conducted to find out whether MDPV, at a behaviorally equivalent dose, shares a similar pattern of NAc glucose dynamics. Using enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with amperometery in freely moving rats, we found that MDPV tonically decreases NAc glucose levels, a response that is opposite to what we previously observed with cocaine. By analyzing Skin-Muscle temperature differentials, a valid measure of skin vascular tone, we found that MDPV induces vasoconstriction; a similar effect at the level of cerebral vessels could be responsible for the MDPV-induced decrease in NAc glucose. While cocaine also induced comparable, if not slightly stronger peripheral vasoconstriction, this effect was overpowered by local neural activity-induced vasodilation, resulting in rapid surge in NAc glucose. These results imply that cocaine-users may be more susceptible to addiction than MDPV-users due to the presence of an interoceptive signal (i.e., sensory cue), which may result in earlier and more direct reward detection. Additionally, while health complications arising from acute cocaine use are typically cardiovascular related, MDPV may be more dangerous to the brain due to uncompensated cerebral vasoconstriction. PMID:26441499

  3. Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) mimics cocaine in its physiological and behavioral effects but induces distinct changes in NAc glucose.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ken T; Ren, Suelynn E; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2015-01-01

    Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is generally considered to be a more potent cocaine-like psychostimulant, as it shares a similar pharmacological profile with cocaine and induces similar physiological and locomotor responses. Recently, we showed that intravenous cocaine induces rapid rise in nucleus accumbens (NAc) glucose and established its relation to neural activation triggered by the peripheral drug actions. This study was conducted to find out whether MDPV, at a behaviorally equivalent dose, shares a similar pattern of NAc glucose dynamics. Using enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with amperometery in freely moving rats, we found that MDPV tonically decreases NAc glucose levels, a response that is opposite to what we previously observed with cocaine. By analyzing Skin-Muscle temperature differentials, a valid measure of skin vascular tone, we found that MDPV induces vasoconstriction; a similar effect at the level of cerebral vessels could be responsible for the MDPV-induced decrease in NAc glucose. While cocaine also induced comparable, if not slightly stronger peripheral vasoconstriction, this effect was overpowered by local neural activity-induced vasodilation, resulting in rapid surge in NAc glucose. These results imply that cocaine-users may be more susceptible to addiction than MDPV-users due to the presence of an interoceptive signal (i.e., sensory cue), which may result in earlier and more direct reward detection. Additionally, while health complications arising from acute cocaine use are typically cardiovascular related, MDPV may be more dangerous to the brain due to uncompensated cerebral vasoconstriction. PMID:26441499

  4. Endotoxin-induced enhancement of glucose influx into murine peritoneal macrophages via GLUT1.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzumi, M; Shinomiya, H; Shimizu, Y; Ohishi, K; Utsumi, S

    1996-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is among the most injurious metabolic disorders caused by endotoxemia. In experimental endotoxemia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in animals, a marked glucose consumption is observed in macrophage-rich organs. However, the direct effect of LPS on the uptake of glucose by macrophages has not been fully understood, and the present study was undertaken to shed light on this point. The consumption and uptake of glucose, as measured with 2-deoxy-D-[3H]glucose, by murine peritoneal exudate macrophages in culture were accelerated two- to threefold by stimulation with 3 ng of LPS per ml. The rate of glucose uptake reached a plateau after 20 min of stimulation and remained at the maximum as long as LPS was present. Northern (RNA) blot analysis with cDNA probes for five known isoforms of glucose transporter (GLUT) revealed that the expression of GLUT by macrophages was restricted to the GLUT1 isoform during LPS stimulation and the amount of GLUT1 mRNA was increased by the stimulation. These results suggest that macrophage responses to LPS are supported by a rapid and sustained glucose influx via GLUT1 and that this is a participating factor in the development of systemic hypoglycemia when endotoxemia is prolonged. PMID:8557327

  5. Cerebral ischemia during surgery: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi-Bin; Meng, Lingzhong; Gelb, Adrian W; Lee, Roger; Huang, Wen-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cerebral ischemia is the pathophysiological condition in which the oxygenated cerebral blood flow is less than what is needed to meet cerebral metabolic demand. It is one of the most debilitating complications in the perioperative period and has serious clinical sequelae. The monitoring and prevention of intraoperative cerebral ischemia are crucial because an anesthetized patient in the operating room cannot be neurologically assessed. In this paper, we provide an overview of the definition, etiology, risk factors, and prevention of cerebral ischemia during surgery.

  6. Caffeine induced changes in cerebral circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1985-09-01

    While the caffeine induced cerebral vasoconstriction is well documented, the effects of oral ingestion of the drug in a dose range comparable to the quantities in which it is usually consumed and the intensity and duration of the associated reduction in cerebral circulation are unknown. Cerebral blood flow was measured via the TTXenon inhalation technique before and thirty and ninety minutes after the oral administration of 250 mg of caffeine or a placebo, under double-blind conditions. Caffeine ingestion was found to be associated with significant reductions in cerebral perfusion thirty and ninety minutes later. The placebo group showed no differences between the three sets of cerebral blood flow values.

  7. Nanomolar Caffeic Acid Decreases Glucose Uptake and the Effects of High Glucose in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Natarelli, Lucia; Ranaldi, Giulia; Leoni, Guido; Roselli, Marianna; Guantario, Barbara; Comitato, Raffaella; Ambra, Roberto; Cimino, Francesco; Speciale, Antonio; Virgili, Fabio; Canali, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate and prolonged consumption of coffee is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we report the effects of physiological concentrations of caffeic acid, easily achievable by normal dietary habits, in endothelial cells cultured in 25 mM of glucose (high glucose, HG). In HG, the presence of 10 nM caffeic acid was associated with a decrease of glucose uptake but not to changes of GLUT-1 membrane localization or mRNA levels. Moreover, caffeic acid countered HG-induced loss of barrier integrity, reducing actin rearrangement and FITC-dextran passage. The decreased flux of glucose associated to caffeic acid affected HG induced apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of initiator (caspase 8 and 9) and effector caspases (caspase 7 and 3) and by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Bcl-2. We also observed that caffeic acid in HG condition was associated to a reduction of p65 subunit nuclear levels with respect to HG alone. NF-κB activation has been shown to lead to apoptosis in HG treated cells and the analysis of the expression of a panel of about 90 genes related to NF-κB signaling pathway revealed that caffeic acid significantly influenced gene expression changes induced by HG. In conclusion, our results suggest that caffeic acid, decreasing the metabolic stress induced by HG, allows the activation of survival mechanisms mediated by a different modulation of NF-κB-related signaling pathways and to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins. PMID:26544184

  8. Glucose-stat, a glucose-controlled continuous culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J J; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-01-01

    A predictive and feedback proportional control algorithm, developed for fed-batch fermentations and described in a companion paper (G. L. Kleman, J. J. Chalmers, G. W. Luli, and W. R. Strohl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:910-917, 1991), was used in this work to control a continuous culture on the basis of the soluble-glucose concentration (called the glucose-stat). This glucose-controlled continuous-culture system was found to reach and maintain steady state for 11 to 24 residence times when four different background glucose concentrations (0.27, 0.50, 0.7, and 1.5 g/liter) were used. The predictive-plus-feedback control system yielded very tight control of the continuous nutristat cultures; glucose concentrations were maintained at the set points with less than 0.003 standard error. Acetate production by Escherichia coli B in glucose-stats was found not to be correlated with the level of steady-state soluble-glucose concentration. PMID:2059050

  9. Glucose-stat, a glucose-controlled continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J J; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-04-01

    A predictive and feedback proportional control algorithm, developed for fed-batch fermentations and described in a companion paper (G. L. Kleman, J. J. Chalmers, G. W. Luli, and W. R. Strohl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:910-917, 1991), was used in this work to control a continuous culture on the basis of the soluble-glucose concentration (called the glucose-stat). This glucose-controlled continuous-culture system was found to reach and maintain steady state for 11 to 24 residence times when four different background glucose concentrations (0.27, 0.50, 0.7, and 1.5 g/liter) were used. The predictive-plus-feedback control system yielded very tight control of the continuous nutristat cultures; glucose concentrations were maintained at the set points with less than 0.003 standard error. Acetate production by Escherichia coli B in glucose-stats was found not to be correlated with the level of steady-state soluble-glucose concentration. PMID:2059050

  10. [Cerebral ischemia in young adults].

    PubMed

    Berlit, P; Endemann, B; Vetter, P

    1991-08-01

    An overview is given over etiology and prognosis of cerebral ischemias until the age of 40. In a time period of 19 years, 168 patients were diagnosed with cerebral ischemia until the age of 40 (91 females, 77 males). The most frequent etiology is premature atherosclerosis in patients with vascular risk factors (up to 50%). Cardiogenic embolism is responsible for 1 to 34% of the cases: cardiac valve diseases and endocarditis being the most frequent sources. In 2 to 19% a vasculitis is diagnosed. While infectious arteritis is especially frequent in countries of the third world, immunovasculitides are common in Europe and the USA. Noninflammatory vasculopathies include spontaneous or traumatic dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia and vascular malformations. A migrainous stroke is especially frequent in female smokers with intake of oral contraceptives. During pregnancy both sinus thrombosis and arterial ischemia occur. Hematologic causes for ischemia are polycythemia, thrombocytosis and genetic diseases (sickle cell anemia, AT3-deficiency). Cerebral ischemia may occur in connection with the ingestion of ergot-derivates. The prognosis of cerebral ischemia in young adults is better than in older stroke-patients. PMID:1937340

  11. Innervation of the cerebral vasculature.

    PubMed

    Duckles, S P

    1983-01-01

    With the development of specific antibodies to vasoactive peptides and application of immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay methods, knowledge of vascular innervation has grown rapidly. In the cerebral circulation, four possible neurotransmitters are present: norepinephrine, acetylcholine, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P. There is a dense adrenergic innervation of cerebral arteries, but contractile responses to nerve stimulation or circulating catecholamines are relatively small both in vitro and in vivo. Recent studies using radioligand binding techniques indicate a lack of specific 3H-prazosin binding in cerebral arteries, in contrast to other vascular beds. Thus a lack of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in cerebral arteries may account for weak responsiveness to sympathetic stimulation. Both VIP and acetylcholine may be vasodilator neurotransmitters, but blockade of cholinergic responses does not alter neurogenic vasodilation. The lack of specific VIP antagonists hampers efforts to explore this system more fully. Substance P-containing nerves are affected by capsaicin, supporting the hypothesis that these are primary sensory afferents, perhaps mediating pain. Future work in this area may focus on defining the pathways of these nerves and exploring the role of co-transmitters and possible interactions between nerves. With this basic information, experiments can be designed to elucidate more clearly the functional roles these nerves play. PMID:6210001

  12. Neuropathology of Acquired Cerebral Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1987-01-01

    To help educators understand the cognitive and behavioral sequelae of cerebral injury, the neuropathology of traumatic brain injury and the main neuropathological features resulting from trauma-related brain damage are reviewed. A glossary with definitions of 37 neurological terms is appended. (Author/DB)

  13. Investigating cerebral oedema using poroelasticity.

    PubMed

    Vardakis, John C; Chou, Dean; Tully, Brett J; Hung, Chang C; Lee, Tsong H; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral oedema can be classified as the tangible swelling produced by expansion of the interstitial fluid volume. Hydrocephalus can be succinctly described as the abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain which ultimately leads to oedema within specific sites of parenchymal tissue. Using hydrocephalus as a test bed, one is able to account for the necessary mechanisms involved in the interaction between oedema formation and cerebral fluid production, transport and drainage. The current state of knowledge about integrative cerebral dynamics and transport phenomena indicates that poroelastic theory may provide a suitable framework to better understand various diseases. In this work, Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET) is used to develop a novel spatio-temporal model of fluid regulation and tissue displacement within the various scales of the cerebral environment. The model is applied through two formats, a one-dimensional finite difference - Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework, as well as a two-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) formulation. These are used to investigate the role of endoscopic fourth ventriculostomy in alleviating oedema formation due to fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (1D coupled model) in addition to observing the capability of the FEM template in capturing important characteristics allied to oedema formation, like for instance in the periventricular region (2D model). PMID:26749338

  14. Glucose screening and tolerance tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy (OGTT); Glucose challenge test - pregnancy ... For the glucose screening test: You do not need to prepare or change your diet in any way. You will be asked to drink a ...

  15. Role of hypotension in decreasing cerebral blood flow in porcine endotoxemia

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.F.; Breslow, M.J.; Shapiro, R.M.; Traystman, R.J. )

    1987-10-01

    The role of reduced arterial blood pressure (MAP) in decreasing cerebral blood flow (CBF) during endotoxemia was studied in pentobarbital-anesthetized pigs. Microspheres were used to measure regional CBF changes during MAP manipulations in animals with and without endotoxin. Endotoxin decreased MAP to 50 mmHg and decreased blood flow to the cortex and cerebellum without affecting cerebral cortical oxygen consumption (CMRo{sub 2}). Elevating MAP from 50 to 70 mmHg during endotoxemia with norepinephrine did not change cortical blood flow or CMRo{sub 2} but increased cerebellar blood flow. Brain stem blood flow was not affected by endotoxin or norepinephrine. When MAP was decreased to 50 mmHg by hemorrhage without endotoxin, no change in blood flow to cortex, cerebellum, or brain stem was observed from base-line levels. These results suggest that decreased MAP below a lower limit for cerebral autoregulation does not account for the decreased CBF observed after endotoxin.

  16. Raw Milk Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of “good” bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any “protective” effect. PMID:27340300

  17. Effects of brain amyloid deposition and reduced glucose metabolism on the default mode of brain function in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Yokokura, Masamichi; Yagi, Shunsuke; Mori, Norio; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Yoshihara, Yujiro; Sugihara, Genichi; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ueki, Takatoshi; Minabe, Yoshio; Ouchi, Yasuomi

    2011-08-01

    Brain β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition during normal aging is highlighted as an initial pathogenetic event in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Many recent brain imaging studies have focused on areas deactivated during cognitive tasks [the default mode network (DMN), i.e., medial frontal gyrus/anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex], where the strength of functional coordination was more or less affected by cerebral Aβ deposits. In the present positron emission tomography study, to investigate whether regional glucose metabolic alterations and Aβ deposits seen in nondemented elderly human subjects (n = 22) are of pathophysiological importance in changes of brain hemodynamic coordination in DMN during normal aging, we measured cerebral glucose metabolism with [(18)F]FDG, Aβ deposits with [(11)C]PIB, and regional cerebral blood flow during control and working memory tasks by H(2)(15)O on the same day. Data were analyzed using both region of interest and statistical parametric mapping. Our results indicated that the amount of Aβ deposits was negatively correlated with hemodynamic similarity between medial frontal and medial posterior regions, and the lower similarity was associated with poorer working memory performance. In contrast, brain glucose metabolism was not related to this medial hemodynamic similarity. These findings suggest that traceable Aβ deposition, but not glucose hypometabolism, in the brain plays an important role in occurrence of neuronal discoordination in DMN along with poor working memory in healthy elderly people. PMID:21813680

  18. Involvement of pregnane X receptor in the impaired glucose utilization induced by atorvastatin in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhaoli; Shu, Nan; Xu, Ping; Wang, Fan; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Mian; Zhao, Kaijing; Tang, Xiange; Wang, Zhongjian; Zhu, Liang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-15

    Accumulating evidences demonstrated that statins impaired glucose utilization. This study was aimed to investigate whether PXR was involved in the atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization. Rifampicin/PCN served as PXR activator control. Glucose utilization, glucose uptake, protein levels of GLUT2, GCK, PDK2, PEPCK1 and G6Pase in HepG2 cells were measured. PXR inhibitors, PXR overexpression and PXR siRNA were applied to verify the role of PXR in atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization in cells. Hypercholesterolemia rats induced by high fat diet feeding, orally received atorvastatin (5 and 10 mg/kg), pravastatin (10 mg/kg) for 14 days, or intraperitoneally received PCN (35 mg/kg) for 4 days. Results showed that glucose utilization was markedly inhibited by atorvastatin, simvastatin, pitavastatin, lovastatin and rifampicin. Neither rosuvastatin nor pravastatin showed the similar effect. Atorvastatin and pravastatin were selected for the following study. Atorvastatin and rifampicin significantly inhibited glucose uptake and down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions. Similarly, overexpressed PXR significantly down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions and impaired glucose utilization. Ketoconazole and resveratrol attenuated the impaired glucose utilization by atorvastatin and rifampicin in both parental and overexpressed PXR cells. PXR knockdown significantly up-regulated GLUT2 and GCK proteins and abolished the decreased glucose consumption and uptake by atorvastatin and rifampicin. Animal experiments showed that atorvastatin and PCN significantly elicited postprandial hyperglycemia, leading to increase in glucose AUC. Expressions of GLUT2 and GCK in rat livers were markedly down-regulated by atorvastatin and PCN. In conclusion, atorvastatin impaired glucose utilization in hepatocytes via repressing GLUT2 and GCK expressions, which may be partly due to PXR activation. PMID:26616219

  19. Impaired cerebral blood flow and oxygenation during exercise in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Rasmussen, Peter; Vaag, Allan; Nielsen, Henning B; Secher, Niels H; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial vascular function and capacity to increase cardiac output during exercise are impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We tested the hypothesis that the increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during exercise is also blunted and, therefore, that cerebral oxygenation becomes affected and perceived exertion increased in T2DM patients. We quantified cerebrovascular besides systemic hemodynamic responses to incremental ergometer cycling exercise in eight male T2DM and seven control subjects. CBF was assessed from the Fick equation and by transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity. Cerebral oxygenation and metabolism were evaluated from the arterial-to-venous differences for oxygen, glucose, and lactate. Blood pressure was comparable during exercise between the two groups. However, the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide was lower at higher workloads in T2DM patients and their work capacity and increase in cardiac output were only ∽80% of that established in the control subjects. CBF and cerebral oxygenation were reduced during exercise in T2DM patients (P < 0.05), and they expressed a higher rating of perceived exertion (P < 0.05). In contrast, CBF increased ∽20% during exercise in the control group while the brain uptake of lactate and glucose was similar in the two groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that impaired CBF and oxygenation responses to exercise in T2DM patients may relate to limited ability to increase cardiac output and to reduced vasodilatory capacity and could contribute to their high perceived exertion. PMID:26109188

  20. Response of C2C12 Myoblasts to Hypoxia: The Relative Roles of Glucose and Oxygen in Adaptive Cellular Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Hu, Zhen-Fu; Chen, Bin; Ni, Guo-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Oxygen and glucose are two important nutrients for mammalian cell function. In this study, the effect of glucose and oxygen concentrations on C2C12 cellular metabolism was characterized with an emphasis on detecting whether cells show oxygen conformance (OC) in response to hypoxia. Methods. After C2C12 cells being cultured in the levels of glucose at 0.6 mM (LG), 5.6 mM (MG), or 23.3 mM(HG) under normoxic or hypoxic (1% oxygen) condition, cellular oxygen consumption, glucose consumption, lactate production, and metabolic status were determined. Short-term oxygen consumption was measured with a novel oxygen biosensor technique. Longer-term measurements were performed with standard glucose, lactate, and cell metabolism assays. Results. It was found that oxygen depletion in normoxia is dependent on the glucose concentration in the medium. Cellular glucose uptake and lactate production increased significantly in hypoxia than those in normoxia. In hypoxia the cellular response to the level of glucose was different to that in normoxia. The metabolic activities decreased while glucose concentration increased in normoxia, while in hypoxia, metabolic activity was reduced in LG and MG, but unchanged in HG condition. The OC phenomenon was not observed in the present study. Conclusions. Our findings suggested that a combination of low oxygen and low glucose damages the viability of C2C12 cells more seriously than low oxygen alone. In addition, when there is sufficient glucose, C2C12 cells will respond to hypoxia by upregulating anaerobic respiration, as shown by lactate production. PMID:24294605

  1. The glucose-6-phosphatase system.

    PubMed Central

    van Schaftingen, Emile; Gerin, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), an enzyme found mainly in the liver and the kidneys, plays the important role of providing glucose during starvation. Unlike most phosphatases acting on water-soluble compounds, it is a membrane-bound enzyme, being associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. In 1975, W. Arion and co-workers proposed a model according to which G6Pase was thought to be a rather unspecific phosphatase, with its catalytic site oriented towards the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum [Arion, Wallin, Lange and Ballas (1975) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 6, 75--83]. Substrate would be provided to this enzyme by a translocase that is specific for glucose 6-phosphate, thereby accounting for the specificity of the phosphatase for glucose 6-phosphate in intact microsomes. Distinct transporters would allow inorganic phosphate and glucose to leave the vesicles. At variance with this substrate-transport model, other models propose that conformational changes play an important role in the properties of G6Pase. The last 10 years have witnessed important progress in our knowledge of the glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis system. The genes encoding G6Pase and the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been cloned and shown to be mutated in glycogen storage disease type Ia and type Ib respectively. The gene encoding a G6Pase-related protein, expressed specifically in pancreatic islets, has also been cloned. Specific potent inhibitors of G6Pase and of the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been synthesized or isolated from micro-organisms. These as well as other findings support the model initially proposed by Arion. Much progress has also been made with regard to the regulation of the expression of G6Pase by insulin, glucocorticoids, cAMP and glucose. PMID:11879177

  2. Brain glucose metabolism during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: insights from functional and metabolic neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Rooijackers, Hanne M M; Wiegers, Evita C; Tack, Cees J; van der Graaf, Marinette; de Galan, Bastiaan E

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most frequent complication of insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Since the brain is reliant on circulating glucose as its main source of energy, hypoglycemia poses a threat for normal brain function. Paradoxically, although hypoglycemia commonly induces immediate decline in cognitive function, long-lasting changes in brain structure and cognitive function are uncommon in patients with type 1 diabetes. In fact, recurrent hypoglycemia initiates a process of habituation that suppresses hormonal responses to and impairs awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia, which has been attributed to adaptations in the brain. These observations sparked great scientific interest into the brain's handling of glucose during (recurrent) hypoglycemia. Various neuroimaging techniques have been employed to study brain (glucose) metabolism, including PET, fMRI, MRS and ASL. This review discusses what is currently known about cerebral metabolism during hypoglycemia, and how findings obtained by functional and metabolic neuroimaging techniques contributed to this knowledge. PMID:26521082

  3. Conversion of glucose to sorbose

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Mark E.; Gounder, Rajamani

    2016-02-09

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing sorbose from glucose, said method comprising: (a) contacting the glucose with a silica-containing structure comprising a zeolite having a topology of a 12 membered-ring or larger, an ordered mesoporous silica material, or an amorphous silica, said structure containing Lewis acidic Ti.sup.4+ or Zr.sup.4+ or both Ti.sup.4+ and Zr.sup.4+ framework centers, said contacting conducted under reaction conditions sufficient to isomerize the glucose to sorbose. The sorbose may be (b) separated or isolated; or (c) converted to ascorbic acid.

  4. Cereal Processing Influences Postprandial Glucose Metabolism as Well as the GI Effect

    PubMed Central

    Vinoy, Sophie; Normand, Sylvie; Meynier, Alexandra; Sothier, Monique; Louche-Pelissier, Corinne; Peyrat, Jocelyne; Maitrepierre, Christine; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Brand-Miller, Jeannie; Laville, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Technological processes may influence the release of glucose in starch. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic response and the kinetics of appearance of exogenous glucose from 2 cereal products consumed at breakfast. Methods: Twenty-five healthy men were submitted to a randomized, open, crossover study that was divided into 2 parts: 12 of the 25 subjects were included in the “isotope part,” and the 13 other subjects were included in the “glycemic part.” On test days, subjects received biscuits (low glycemic index [GI], high slowly available glucose [SAG]) or extruded cereals (medium GI, low SAG) as part of a breakfast similar in terms of caloric and macronutrient content. The postprandial phase lasted 270 minutes. Results: The rate of appearance (RaE) of exogenous glucose was significantly lower after consumption of biscuits in the first part of the morning (90–150 minutes) than after consumption of extruded cereals (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, at 210 minutes, it was significantly higher with biscuits (p ≤ 0.01). For the first 2 hours, plasma glucose and insulin were significantly lower after biscuits during the glycemic part. C-peptide plasma concentrations were significantly lower at 90, 120, and 150 minutes after ingestion of the biscuits (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The consumption of biscuits with a high content of slowly digestible starch reduces the appearance rate of glucose in the first part of the morning and prolongs this release in the late phase of the morning (210 minutes). Our results also emphasize that modulation of glucose availability at breakfast is an important factor for metabolic control throughout the morning in healthy subjects due to the lowering of blood glucose and insulin excursions. PMID:24015715

  5. Alcohol consumption and diabetes risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program1234

    PubMed Central

    Polsky, Sarit; Howard, Andrea A; Perreault, Leigh; Bray, George A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Brown-Friday, Janet; Whittington, Tracy; Foo, Sandra; Ma, Yong; Edelstein, Sharon L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population, but little is known about the effects in individuals at high risk of diabetes. Objectives: The objectives were to determine associations between alcohol consumption and diabetes risk factors and whether alcohol consumption was a predictor of incident diabetes in individuals enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Design: DPP participants (n = 3175) had impaired glucose tolerance (2-h glucose: 7.8–11.1 mmol/L), elevated fasting glucose (5.3–7.0 mmol/L), and a body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥24. Participants were randomly assigned to placebo, metformin, or lifestyle modification and were followed for a mean of 3.2 y. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline and year 1 by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Diabetes was diagnosed by annual oral-glucose-tolerance testing and semiannual fasting plasma glucose measurement. Results: Participants who reported higher alcohol consumption tended to be male, older, white, and less obese and to have a higher calorie intake and a higher HDL-cholesterol concentration. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with lower insulin secretion at any level of insulin sensitivity. We found lower incidence rates of diabetes with higher alcohol consumption in the metformin (P < 0.01 for trend) and lifestyle modification (P = 0.02 for trend) groups, which remained significant after adjustment for multiple baseline covariates. No similar association was observed in the placebo group. Conclusions: Despite overall low rates of alcohol consumption, there was a reduced risk of incident diabetes in those who reported modest daily alcohol intake and were assigned to metformin or lifestyle modification. Moderate daily alcohol intake is associated with lower insulin secretion—an effect that warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00038727. PMID

  6. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism.

    PubMed

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki; Garcia, Benjamin; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2015-11-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled to fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined to baseline with progressive dehydration (P < 0.05). However, cerebral metabolism remained stable through enhanced O2 and glucose extraction (P < 0.05). External carotid artery flow increased for 1 h but declined before exhaustion. Fluid ingestion maintained cerebral and extracranial perfusion throughout nonfatiguing exercise. During exhaustive exercise, however, euhydration delayed but did not prevent the decline in cerebral perfusion. In conclusion, during prolonged exercise in the heat, dehydration accelerates the decline in CBF without affecting CMRO2 and also restricts extracranial perfusion. Thus, fatigue is related to a reduction in CBF and extracranial perfusion rather than CMRO2 . PMID:26371170

  7. SPECT study of regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bonte, F.J.; Ross, E.D.; Chehabi, H.H.; Devous, M.D. Sr.

    1986-07-01

    A common cause of dementia in late midlife and old age is Alzheimer disease (AD), which affects more than one in 20 individuals over the age of 65. Past studies of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with AD here suggested blood flow abnormalities, but findings have differed. We have studied 37 patients diagnosed as having AD with inhalation and washout of /sup 133/Xe and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), obtaining evidence of abnormal rCBF patterns in 19. Flow reductions were most common in the temporoparietal regions and were occasionally found in the frontal areas. Investigators using positron-emission tomography (PET) have identified similar findings with respect to rCBF and regional oxygen, glucose, and protein metabolism. The SPECT determination of rCBF, which gives information similar to that provided by PET, may assume importance in the diagnosis of AD and in the differential diagnosis of the dementias.

  8. Immune system and glucose metabolism interaction in schizophrenia: a chicken-egg dilemma.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Johann; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Schiltz, Kolja; Müller, Ulf J; Westphal, Sabine; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Impaired glucose metabolism and the development of metabolic syndrome contribute to a reduction in the average life expectancy of individuals with schizophrenia. It is unclear whether this association simply reflects an unhealthy lifestyle or whether weight gain and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia are directly attributable to the side effects of atypical antipsychotic medications or disease-inherent derangements. In addition, numerous previous studies have highlighted alterations in the immune system of patients with schizophrenia. Increased concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) appear to be state markers, whereas IL-12, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) appear to be trait markers of schizophrenia. Moreover, the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) and microglial activation are involved in the early course of the disease. This review illustrates a "chicken-egg dilemma", as it is currently unclear whether impaired cerebral glucose utilization leads to secondary disturbances in peripheral glucose metabolism, an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, and accompanying pro-inflammatory changes in patients with schizophrenia or whether immune mechanisms may be involved in the initial pathogenesis of schizophrenia, which leads to disturbances in glucose metabolism such as metabolic syndrome. Alternatively, shared underlying factors may be responsible for the co-occurrence of immune system and glucose metabolism disturbances in schizophrenia. PMID:23085507

  9. Myeloid-Cell-Derived VEGF Maintains Brain Glucose Uptake and Limits Cognitive Impairment in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jais, Alexander; Solas, Maite; Backes, Heiko; Chaurasia, Bhagirath; Kleinridders, André; Theurich, Sebastian; Mauer, Jan; Steculorum, Sophie M; Hampel, Brigitte; Goldau, Julia; Alber, Jens; Förster, Carola Y; Eming, Sabine A; Schwaninger, Markus; Ferrara, Napoleone; Karsenty, Gerard; Brüning, Jens C

    2016-05-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces rapid reprogramming of systemic metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that HFD feeding of mice downregulates glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 expression in blood-brain barrier (BBB) vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and reduces brain glucose uptake. Upon prolonged HFD feeding, GLUT1 expression is restored, which is paralleled by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in macrophages at the BBB. In turn, inducible reduction of GLUT1 expression specifically in BECs reduces brain glucose uptake and increases VEGF serum concentrations in lean mice. Conversely, myeloid-cell-specific deletion of VEGF in VEGF(Δmyel) mice impairs BBB-GLUT1 expression, brain glucose uptake, and memory formation in obese, but not in lean mice. Moreover, obese VEGF(Δmyel) mice exhibit exaggerated progression of cognitive decline and neuroinflammation on an Alzheimer's disease background. These experiments reveal that transient, HFD-elicited reduction of brain glucose uptake initiates a compensatory increase of VEGF production and assign obesity-associated macrophage activation a homeostatic role to restore cerebral glucose metabolism, preserve cognitive function, and limit neurodegeneration in obesity. PMID:27133169

  10. Cerebral autoregulation with changes in arterial and cerebral venous pressure

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, R.W.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of cerebral venous pressure (Pcv) elevation on cerebral autoregulation has been incompletely studied. The authors compared the effect of decreased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) by elevated Pcv and decreased arterial pressure (Pa) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a canine modified bypass model. CPP of 80, 70, 60, 50, 40 and 30 mmHg were produced by decreasing Pa with intracranial pressure (ICP) and Pcv maintained at 0 mmHg (group 1, n = 5), or by elevating Pcv as Pa was maintained at 80 mmHg (group 2, n = 5. CBF was measured using radiolabeled microspheres, and CMRO/sub 2/ = CBF times arterial-sagittal sinus O/sub 2/ content difference. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) = CPP/CBF. In group 1 CBF (ml/100 gm/min) was unchanged from control (36 +/- 4) as CPP was decreased from 80 to 40 mmHg. As CPP was decreased to 30 mmHg, CBF decreased to 28 +/- 1. CVR (mmHg/ml/min/100 gm) was 2.3 +/- 0.3 and progressively decreased to 1.0 +/- 0.1 at CPP of 30 mmHg. In group 2 CBF was 34 +/- 3 and was unchanged as CPP decreased to 50 mmHg. At CPP of 40 and 30 mmHg CBF decreased to 25 +/- 3 and 22 +/- 2 respectively. Control CRV was 2.4 +/- 0.2 and progressively decreased to 1.4 +/- 0.1 as CPP decreased to 30 mmHg. CMRO/sub 2/ was unchanged from control in both groups. Thus, CBF is maintained to low CPP regardless of whether vascular transmural pressure was decreased (decrease Pa) or increased (increased Pcv) demonstrating that the myogenic mechanism of autoregulation may be unimportant in normoxic dogs.

  11. Fructose Alters Intermediary Metabolism of Glucose in Human Adipocytes and Diverts Glucose to Serine Oxidation in the One–Carbon Cycle Energy Producing Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Boros, László G.; Nolen, Greg T.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Wabitsch, Martin; Beger, Richard D.; Kaput, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of sugar and fructose as sweeteners has resulted in the utilization of fructose as an alternative metabolic fuel that may compete with glucose and alter its metabolism. To explore this, human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes in the presence of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mM of fructose added to a medium containing 5 mM of glucose representing the normal blood glucose concentration. Targeted tracer [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose fate association approach was employed to examine the influence of fructose on the intermediary metabolism of glucose. Increasing concentrations of fructose robustly increased the oxidation of [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose to 13CO2 (p < 0.000001). However, glucose-derived 13CO2 negatively correlated with 13C labeled glutamate, 13C palmitate, and M+1 labeled lactate. These are strong markers of limited tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acid synthesis, pentose cycle fluxes, substrate turnover and NAD+/NADP+ or ATP production from glucose via complete oxidation, indicating diminished mitochondrial energy metabolism. Contrarily, a positive correlation was observed between glucose-derived 13CO2 formed and 13C oleate and doses of fructose which indicate the elongation and desaturation of palmitate to oleate for storage. Collectively, these results suggest that fructose preferentially drives glucose through serine oxidation glycine cleavage (SOGC pathway) one-carbon cycle for NAD+/NADP+ production that is utilized in fructose-induced lipogenesis and storage in adipocytes. PMID:26087138

  12. What's new in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    JONES, M H

    1953-11-01

    Among new researches bearing on cerebral palsy are the growth of brain cells in tissue cultures for experimentation; the use of polysaccharides to prevent the formation of a glial barrier to nerve growth after injury; observation of changes in reactions of neurons at various stages of development; the finding of hypernatremia and hyperchloremia in lesions of the frontal lobe and the thalamus; stimulation of cerebral blood flow by injection of sodium bicarbonate and retardation with ammonium chloride; and studies of serial sections of brains of palsied children who died. Study of development in the early months of life has made possible the detection of significant abnormalities in behavior early in life. Loss of hearing may be tested in very young children by measuring minute variations in electrical resistance of the skin upon auditory stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Conditions which have been described as having been confused with cerebral palsy are dislocation of a cervical vertebra, hereditary spastic paraplegia, transverse myelopathy, injury to the spinal cord or cauda equina by anomalous growths of the spine, and also encephalitis and meningitis. Sedation has proved a valuable adjunct to electroencephalographic study of cerebral palsy. Better criteria for abnormality in the young child should be determined and the application of them more clearly standardized. Simple exercises are useful for early training of palsied children to stimulate development. "Crossed laterality"-the dominant eye being contralateral to the preferred hand-has been counteracted by special training with great success in eliminating emotional and behavior problems and accelerating development.Recent studies indicate that only 50 per cent of cerebral palsy patients have normal or better intelligence. Subluxation of the hip joint, a common deformity associated with cerebral palsy, can sometimes be corrected by operation if detected at an early stage. Radical ablation of

  13. CEREBRAL PALSY. PRENTICE-HALL FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANCE, BURTON, JR.; MCDONALD, EUGENE T.

    THIS INTRODUCTORY TEXT ON CEREBRAL PALSY IS DIVIDED INTO TWO SECTIONS. THE FIRST SECTION OF THE BOOK CONTAINS INFORMATION ABOUT UNDERSTANDING THE MEANING OF CEREBRAL PALSY, PROGRAMS FOR THOSE WITH CEREBRAL PALSY, THE NEUROLOGICAL BASES, ETIOLOGY, AND DIAGNOSIS, AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF CEREBRAL PALSY. PROBLEMS OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH CEREBRAL PALSY…

  14. Grain sorghum muffin reduces glucose and insulin responses in men.

    PubMed

    Poquette, Nicole M; Gu, Xuan; Lee, Sun-Ok

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes and obesity have sparked interest in identifying healthy, dietary carbohydrates as functional ingredients for controlling blood glucose and insulin levels. Grain sorghum has been known to be a slowly digestible cereal; however, research is limited on its health effects in humans. The objectives of this study were to measure the contents of functional starch fractions, SDS (slowly-digestible starch) and RS (resistant starch), and to investigate the effects of grain sorghum on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels in 10 healthy men. A whole-wheat flour muffin (control) was compared with the grain sorghum muffin with both muffins containing 50 g of total starch. Using a randomized-crossover design, male subjects consumed treatments within a one-week washout period, and glucose and insulin levels were observed at 15 minutes before and 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 180 minutes after consumption. The mean glucose responses reduced after consuming grain sorghum, particularly at 45-120 minute intervals, and mean insulin responses reduced at 15-90 minute intervals compared to control (P < 0.05). The mean incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was significantly lowered for plasma glucose responses about an average of 35% from 3863 ± 443 to 2871 ± 163 mg (∼3 h) dL(-1) (P < 0.05). Insulin responses also reduced significantly from 3029 ± 965 μU (∼3 h) L(-1) for wheat to 1357 ± 204 with sorghum (P < 0.05). Results suggest that grain sorghum is a good functional ingredient to assist in managing glucose and insulin levels in healthy individuals. PMID:24608948

  15. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: Influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates postprandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal weight women. The effects of fructose, compared with glucose, ingestion on metabolic profiles in...

  16. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea). Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty), generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma) and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency). GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia) which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib). Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21) and SLC37A4 (11q23) respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most commonly confirmed

  17. Clinical Symptoms and Risk Factors in Cerebral Microangiopathy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Okroglic, Sandra; Widmann, Catherine N.; Urbach, Horst; Scheltens, Philip; Heneka, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM) remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated retrospectively in a cohort of CM patients. Methods Patients treated at the Department of Neurology, University of Bonn for CM (n = 223; 98m, 125f; aged 77.32±9.09) from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical symptoms, blood chemistry, potential risk factors, demographic data and ratings of vascular pathology in the brain based on the Wahlund scale were analyzed using Pearson's chi square test and one-way ANOVA. Results Progressive cognitive decline (38.1%), gait apraxia (27.8%), stroke-related symptoms and seizures (24.2%), TIA-symptoms (22%) and vertigo (17%) were frequent symptoms within the study population. Frontal lobe WMLs/lacunar infarcts led to more frequent presentation of progressive cognitive decline, seizures, gait apraxia, stroke-related symptoms, TIA, vertigo and incontinence. Parietooccipital WMLs/lacunar infarcts were related to higher frequencies of TIA, seizures and incontinence. Basal ganglia WMLs/lacunar infarcts were seen in patients with more complaints of gait apraxia, vertigo and incontinence. Age (p = .012), arterial hypertension (p<.000), obesity (p<.000) and cerebral macroangiopathy (p = .018) were positively related to cerebral lesion load. For increased glucose level, homocysteine, CRP and D-Dimers there was no association. Conclusion This underlines the association of CM with neurological symptoms upon admission in a topographical manner. Seizures and vertigo are symptoms of CM which may have been missed in previous studies. In addition to confirming known risk factors such as aging and arterial hypertension, obesity appears to increase the risk as well. Since the incidence of CM is increasing, future studies should

  18. PET measurements of cerebral metabolism corrected for CSF contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Chawluk, J.; Alavi, A.; Dann, R.; Kushner, M.J.; Hurtig, H.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Reivich, M.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-three subjects have been studied with PET and anatomic imaging (proton-NMR and/or CT) in order to determine the effect of cerebral atrophy on calculations of metabolic rates. Subgroups of neurologic disease investigated include stroke, brain tumor, epilepsy, psychosis, and dementia. Anatomic images were digitized through a Vidicon camera and analyzed volumetrically. Relative areas for ventricles, sulci, and brain tissue were calculated. Preliminary analysis suggests that ventricular volumes as determined by NMR and CT are similar, while sulcal volumes are larger on NMR scans. Metabolic rates (18F-FDG) were calculated before and after correction for CSF spaces, with initial focus upon dementia and normal aging. Correction for atrophy led to a greater increase (%) in global metabolic rates in demented individuals (18.2 +- 5.3) compared to elderly controls (8.3 +- 3.0,p < .05). A trend towards significantly lower glucose metabolism in demented subjects before CSF correction was not seen following correction for atrophy. These data suggest that volumetric analysis of NMR images may more accurately reflect the degree of cerebral atrophy, since NMR does not suffer from beam hardening artifact due to bone-parenchyma juxtapositions. Furthermore, appropriate correction for CSF spaces should be employed if current resolution PET scanners are to accurately measure residual brain tissue metabolism in various pathological states.

  19. Ethanol impairs glucose uptake by human astrocytes and neurons: protective effects of acetyl-L-carnitine

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, P M Abdul; Alikunju, Saleena; Szlachetka, Adam M; Mercer, Aaron J; Haorah, James

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption causes neurocognitive deficits, neuronal injury, and neurodegeneration. At the cellular level, alcohol abuse causes oxidative damage to mitochondria and cellular proteins and interlink with the progression of neuroinflammation and neurological disorders. We previously reported that alcohol inhibits glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), leading to BBB dysfunction and neurodegeneration. In this study, we hypothesized that ethanol (EtOH)-mediated disruption in glucose uptake would deprive energy for human astrocytes and neurons inducing neurotoxicity and neuronal degeneration. EtOH may also have a direct effect on glucose uptake in neurons and astrocytes, which has not been previously described. Our results indicate that ethanol exposure decreases the uptake of D-(2-3H)-glucose by human astrocytes and neurons. Inhibition of glucose uptake correlates with a reduction in glucose transporter protein expression (GLUT1 in astrocytes and GLUT3 in neurons). Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), a neuroprotective agent, suppresses the effects of alcohol on glucose uptake and GLUT levels, thus reducing neurotoxicity and neuronal degeneration. These findings suggest that deprivation of glucose in brain cells contributes to neurotoxicity in alcohol abusers, and highlights ALC as a potential therapeutic agent to prevent the deleterious health conditions caused by alcohol abuse. PMID:21258656

  20. Regional brain glucose use in unstressed rats after two days of starvation

    SciTech Connect

    Mans, A.M.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-12-01

    Regional brain glucose use was measured in conscious, unrestrained, fed rats and after 2 days of starvation, using quantitative autoradiography and (6-/sup 14/C)glucose. Plasma glucose, lactate, and ketone body concentrations and brain glucose and lactate content were measured in separate groups of rats. Glucose concentrations were lower in starved rats in both plasma and brain; plasma ketone body concentrations were elevated. Glucose use was found to be lower throughout the brain by about 12%. While some areas seemed to be affected more than others, statistical analysis showed that none were exceptionally different. The results could not be explained by increased loss of /sup 14/C as lactate or pyruvate during the experimental period, because the arteriovenous differences of these species were insignificant. The calculated contribution by ketone bodies to the total energy consumption was between 3 and 9% for the brain as a whole in the starved rats and could, therefore, partially account for the depression seen in glucose use. It was concluded that glucose oxidation is slightly depressed throughout the brain after 2 days of starvation.

  1. Metabolomic analysis of cerebral spinal fluid from patients with severe brain injury.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Thomas C; Hirt, Daniel; Mendez, Gustavo; McArthur, David L; Sturtevant, Rachael; Wolahan, Stephanie; Fazlollahi, Farbod; Ordon, Matthew; Bilgin-Freiert, Arzu; Ellingson, Ben; Vespa, Paul; Hovda, David A; Martin, Neil A

    2013-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectroscopic analysis of cerebral spinal fluid provides a quick, non-invasive modality for evaluating the metabolic activity of brain-injured patients. In a prospective study, we compared the CSF of 44 TBI patients and 13 non-injured control subjects. CSF was screened for ten parameters: β-glucose (Glu), lactate (Lac), propylene glycol (PG), glutamine (Gln), alanine (Ala), α-glucose (A-Glu), pyruvate (PYR), creatine (Cr), creatinine (Crt), and acetate (Ace). Using mixed effects measures, we discovered statistically significant differences between control and trauma concentrations (mM). TBI patients had significantly higher concentrations of PG, while statistical trends existed for lactate, glutamine, and creatine. TBI patients had a significantly decreased concentration of total creatinine. There were no significant differences between TBI patients and non-injured controls regarding β- or α-glucose, alanine, pyruvate or acetate. Correlational analysis between metabolites revealed that the strongest significant correlations in non-injured subjects were between β- and α-glucose (r = 0.74), creatinine and pyruvate (r = 0.74), alanine and creatine (r = 0.62), and glutamine and α-glucose (r = 0.60). For TBI patients, the strongest significant correlations were between lactate and α-glucose (r = 0.54), lactate and alanine (r = 0.53), and α-glucose and alanine (r = 0.48). The GLM and multimodel inference indicated that the combined metabolites of PG, glutamine, α-glucose, and creatinine were the strongest predictors for CMRO2, ICP, and GOSe. By analyzing the CSF of patients with TBI, our goal was to create a metabolomic fingerprint for brain injury. PMID:23564115

  2. Slit Modulates Cerebrovascular Inflammation and Mediates Neuroprotection Against Global Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Tamer; McLaughlin, BethAnn; Wu, Jane Y.; Park, T.S.; Gidday, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Cerebrovascular inflammation contributes to secondary brain injury following ischemia. Recent in vitro studies of cell migration and molecular guidance mechanisms have indicated that the Slit family of secreted proteins can exert repellant effects on leukocyte recruitment in response to chemoattractants. Utilizing intravital microscopy, we addressed the role of Slit in modulating leukocyte dynamics in the mouse cortical venular microcirculation in vivo following TNFα application or global cerebral ischemia. We also studied whether Slit affected neuronal survival in the mouse global ischemia model as well as in mixed neuronal-glial cultures subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. We found that systemically administered Slit significantly attenuated cerebral microvessel leukocyte-endothelial adherence occurring 4 h after TNFα and 24 h after global cerebral ischemia. Administration of RoboN, the soluble receptor for Slit, exacerbated the acute chemotactic response to TNFα. These findings are indicative of a tonic repellant effect of endogenous Slit in brain under acute proinflammatory conditions. Three days of continuous systemic administration of Slit following global ischemia significantly attenuated the delayed neuronal death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Moreover, Slit abrogated neuronal death in mixed neuronal-glial cultures exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation. The ability of Slit to reduce the recruitment of immune cells to ischemic brain and to provide cytoprotective effects suggests that this protein may serve as a novel anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective target for stroke therapy. PMID:17714707

  3. Glucose regulation of glucagon secretion.

    PubMed

    Gylfe, Erik; Gilon, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon secreted by pancreatic α-cells is the major hyperglycemic hormone correcting acute hypoglycaemia (glucose counterregulation). In diabetes the glucagon response to hypoglycaemia becomes compromised and chronic hyperglucagonemia appears. There is increasing awareness that glucagon excess may underlie important manifestations of diabetes. However opinions differ widely how glucose controls glucagon secretion. The autonomous nervous system plays an important role in the glucagon response to hypoglycaemia. But it is clear that glucose controls glucagon secretion also by mechanisms involving direct effects on α-cells or indirect effects via paracrine factors released from non-α-cells within the pancreatic islets. The present review discusses these mechanisms and argues that different regulatory processes are involved in a glucose concentration-dependent manner. Direct glucose effects on the α-cell and autocrine mechanisms are probably most significant for the glucagon response to hypoglycaemia. During hyperglycaemia, when secretion from β- and δ-cells is stimulated, paracrine inhibitory factors generate pulsatile glucagon release in opposite phase to pulsatile release of insulin and somatostatin. High concentrations of glucose have also stimulatory effects on glucagon secretion that tend to balance and even exceed the inhibitory influence. The latter actions might underlie the paradoxical hyperglucagonemia that aggravates hyperglycaemia in persons with diabetes. PMID:24367972

  4. [Cerebral syndromes in premature children].

    PubMed

    Edel'shteĭn, E A; Bandarenko, E S

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral disturbances observed in premature infants are analyzed. These disturbances are a consequence of developmental slowdown and are associated with the pathological immaturity of the brain structures. On condition an active pathogenetic therapy is given these disturbances may gradually regress. On the basis of long-term observations of 600 prematurely born infants the authors describe the following clinical syndromes: muscular hypotonicity lasting up to 4-5 months and followed with a rise of the tone; the syndrome of "paretic hands" observed during the first two months of life; a hypertensive-hydrocephalic syndrome combined with a rise of the neuro-reflectory excitability; the syndrome of psychomotor development retardation followed at an age of over 1.5 to 2 years by complete recovery or minimal cerebral insufficiency with belated development of motor speech and neurosis-like reactions. PMID:6880498

  5. Imaging of cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Bonneville, F

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a potentially life-threatening emergency. The wide ranging of clinical symptoms makes the use of imaging in "slices" even more important for diagnosis. Both CT and MRI are used to diagnose the occlusion of a venous sinus, but MRI is superior to CT for detecting a clot in the cortical or deep veins. CT can show the hyperintense clot spontaneously and CT angiography the intraluminal defect. MRI also detects this thrombus, whose signal varies over time: in the acute phase, it is hypointense in T2*, whilst T1 and T2 can appear falsely reassuring; in the subacute phase, it is hyperintense on all sequences (T1, T2, FLAIR, T2*, diffusion). MRI easily shows the ischemic damage, even hemorrhagic, in the cerebral parenchyma in cases of CVT. Finally, imaging may reveal pathology at the origin of the CVT, such as a fracture of the skull, infection, tumor, dural fistula, or intracranial hypotension. PMID:25465119

  6. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  7. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2014-10-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage. PMID:25231862

  8. [Cerebral artery thrombosis in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Charco Roca, L M; Ortiz Sanchez, V E; Hernandez Gutierrez-Manchon, O; Quesada Villar, J; Bonmatí García, L; Rubio Postigo, G

    2015-11-01

    A 28 year old woman, ASA I, who, in the final stages of her pregnancy presented with signs of neural deficit that consisted of distortion of the oral commissure, dysphagia, dysarthria, and weakness on the left side of the body. She was diagnosed with thrombosis in a segment of the right middle cerebral artery which led to an ischemic area in the right frontal lobe. Termination of pregnancy and conservative treatment was decided, with good resolution of the symptoms. PMID:25698610

  9. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA infarction, no aetiological cause was identified. Unlike the transient nature of symptoms in some cases following unilateral infarction, his deficits persisted on 2-month follow-up. PMID:22798298

  10. [Pathogenesis of infantile cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Semenova, K A

    1980-01-01

    Some causes of the pathological activity of postural reflexes and other motor disturbances underlying the clinical picture of infantile cerebral paralysis are considered. It is shown that disturbed metabolism of corticosteroids observed in that disease, as well as impaired functional activity of T lymphocytes promote the development of both inflammatory and neuroimmune processes in the brain, mainly in large hemispheres--and this may be one of the causes of the pathological postural activity. PMID:6969015

  11. Incidental Cerebral Microbleeds and Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Nicholas M.; Kim, Albert E.; Gurol, M. Edip; Lopez, Oscar L.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Price, Julie C.; Mathis, Chester A.; James, Jeffrey A.; Snitz, Beth E.; Cohen, Ann D.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Minhas, Davneet; Weissfeld, Lisa A.; Tamburo, Erica L.; Klunk, William E.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are collections of blood breakdown products that are a common incidental finding in magnetic resonance imaging of elderly individuals. Cerebral microbleeds are associated with cognitive deficits, but the mechanism is unclear. Studies show that individuals with CMBs related to symptomatic cerebral amyloid angiopathy have abnormal vascular reactivity and cerebral blood flow (CBF), but, to our knowledge, abnormalities in cerebral blood flow have not been reported for healthy individuals with incidental CMBs. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of incidental CMBs with resting-state CBF, cerebral metabolism, cerebrovascular disease, β-amyloid (Aβ), and cognition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of 55 cognitively normal individuals with a mean (SD) age of 86.8 (2.7) years was conducted from May 1, 2010, to May 1, 2013, in an academic medical center in Pittsburgh; data analysis was performed between June 10, 2013, and April 9, 2015. INTERVENTIONS 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging was performed with susceptibility-weighted imaging or gradient-recalled echo to assess CMBs, arterial spin labeling for CBF, and T1- and T2-weighted imaging for atrophy, white matter hyperintensities, and infarcts. Positron emission tomography was conducted with fluorodeoxyglucose to measure cerebral metabolism and Pittsburgh compound B for fibrillar Aβ. Neuropsychological evaluation, including the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, was performed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Magnetic resonance images were rated for the presence and location of CMBs. Lobar CMBs were subclassified as cortical or subcortical. Measurements of CBF, metabolism, and Aβ were compared with the presence and number of CMBs with voxelwise and region-of-interest analyses. RESULTS The presence of cortical CMBs was associated with significantly reduced CBF in multiple regions on voxelwise and region-of-interest analyses (percentage difference in global CBF,

  12. Dissociable Behavioral, Physiological and Neural Effects of Acute Glucose and Fructose Ingestion: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, André; Zimak, Nina; Peterli, Ralph; Beglinger, Christoph; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that glucose and fructose ingestion differentially modulate release of satiation hormones. Recent studies have begun to elucidate brain-gut interactions with neuroimaging approaches such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the neural mechanism underlying different behavioral and physiological effects of glucose and fructose are unclear. In this paper, we have used resting state functional MRI to explore whether acute glucose and fructose ingestion also induced dissociable effects in the neural system. Using a cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we compared resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network in 12 healthy lean males. Each subject was administered fructose, glucose and placebo on three separate occasions. Subsequent correlation analysis was used to examine relations between rsFC findings and plasma concentrations of satiation hormones and subjective feelings of appetite. Glucose ingestion induced significantly greater elevations in plasma glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP, while feelings of fullness increased and prospective food consumption decreased relative to fructose. Furthermore, glucose increased rsFC of the left caudatus and putamen, precuneus and lingual gyrus more than fructose, whereas within the basal ganglia/limbic network, fructose increased rsFC of the left amygdala, left hippocampus, right parahippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex and precentral gyrus more than glucose. Moreover, compared to fructose, the increased rsFC after glucose positively correlated with the glucose-induced increase in insulin. Our findings suggest that glucose and fructose induce dissociable effects on rsFC within the basal ganglia/limbic network, which are probably mediated by different insulin levels. A larger study would be recommended in order to confirm these findings. PMID:26107810

  13. Effects of ingesting [13C]glucose early or late into cold exposure on substrate utilization

    PubMed Central

    Blondin, Denis P.; Péronnet, François

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors limiting the oxidation of exogenous glucose during cold exposure may be the delay in establishing a shivering steady state (∼60 min), reducing glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Therefore, using indirect calorimetry and isotopic methodologies in non-cold-acclimatized men, the main purpose of this study was to determine whether ingesting glucose at a moment coinciding with the maximal shivering intensity could increase the utilization rate of the ingested glucose. 13C-enriched glucose was ingested (800 mg/min) from the onset (G0) or after 60 min (G60) of cold exposure when the thermogenic rate was stabilized to low-intensity shivering (∼2.5 times resting metabolic rate). For the same quantity of glucose ingested, the oxidation rate of exogenous glucose was 35% higher in G60 (159 ± 17 vs. 118 ± 17 mg/min in G0) between minutes 60 and 90. By the end of cold exposure, exogenous glucose oxidation was significantly greater in G0, reaching 231 ± 14 mg/min, ∼15% higher than the only rates previously reported. This considerably reduced the utilization of endogenous reserves over time and compared with the G60 condition. This study also demonstrates a fall in muscle glycogen utilization, when glucose was ingested from the onset of cold exposure (from ∼150 to ∼75 mg/min). Together, these findings indicate the importance of ingesting glucose immediately on exposure to a cold condition, relying on shivering thermogenesis and sustaining that consumption for as long as possible. This substrate not only provides an auxiliary fuel source for shivering thermogenesis, but, more importantly, preserves the limited endogenous glucose reserves. PMID:20651221

  14. Effects of ethanol ingestion on maternal and fetal glucose homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Singh, S.K.

    1984-08-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism has been studied in the offspring of rats fed liqiud diet containing ethanol during gestation (EF group). Weight-matched control dams were given liquid diet either by the pair-fed technique (PF group) or ad libitum (AF group). EF and PF dams showed reduced food consumption and attenuated gain in body weight during the gestation period compared with the AF group. Blood glucose, liver glycogen, and plasma insulin levels were significantly reduced in EF and PF dams. Ethanol ingestion resulted in a significant decrease in litter survival and fetal body weight. At term, EF pups on average showed a 30% decrease in blood glucose levels and 40% decrease in plasma insulin levels compared with AF pups. One hour after birth, EF pups exhibited a marked increase in blood sugar level compared with either control group. Fetal hyperinsulinemia disappeared shortly after delivery in control pups, as expected; however, in EF pups, the fall in plasma insulin level was gradual. Fetal and neonatal plasma glucagon levels were not altered by ethanol exposure in utero. Blood glucose levels remained significantly low at 2 days of age in EF pups, but reached near control values at 4 days of age. Plasma insulin and glucagon were nearly equal in EF and control pups at 2 and 4 days of age. These results show aberrations in blood glucose, plasma insulin, and liver glycogen levels in offspring exposed to ethanol in utero.

  15. Mitochondrial dysfunction precedes depression of AMPK/AKT signaling in insulin resistance induced by high glucose in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yunhua; Liu, Jing; Shi, Le; Tang, Ying; Gao, Dan; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated brain insulin signaling impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes. Hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia arising from diabetes have been linked to neuronal insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia induces peripheral sensory neuronal impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, how brain glucose at diabetic conditions elicits cortical neuronal insulin signaling impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction remains unknown. In the present study, we cultured primary cortical neurons with high glucose levels and investigated the neuronal mitochondrial function and insulin response. We found that mitochondrial function was declined in presence of 10 mmol/L glucose, prior to the depression of AKT signaling in primary cortical neurons. We further demonstrated that the cerebral cortex of db/db mice exhibited both insulin resistance and loss of mitochondrial complex components. Moreover, we found that adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inactivation is involved in high glucose-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance in primary cortical neurons and neuroblastoma cells, as well as in cerebral cortex of db/db mice, and all these impairments can be rescued by mitochondrial activator, resveratrol. Taken together, our results extend the finding that high glucose (≥10 mmol/L) comparable to diabetic brain extracellular glucose level leads to neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and resultant insulin resistance, and targeting mitochondria-AMPK signaling might be a promising strategy to protect against diabetes-related neuronal impairment in central nerves system. We found that high glucose (≥10 mmol/L), comparable to diabetic brain extracellular glucose level, leads to neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and resultant insulin resistance in an AMPK-dependent manner, and targeting mitochondria-AMPK signaling might be a promising strategy to protect against diabetes-related neuronal impairment in central

  16. Photoacoustic imaging of cerebral hypoperfusion during acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, B. Z.; Yang, J. G.; Wu, D.; Zeng, D. W.; Yi, Y.; Yang, N.; Jiang, H. B.

    2015-01-01

    Using acupuncture to treat cerebral hypoperfusion is a hot topic. However, there is a lack of effective tools to clarify the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on cerebral hypoperfusion. Here, we show in a mouse model of cerebral hypoperfusion that photoacoustic tomography (PAT) can noninvasively image cerebral vasculature and track total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes in cerebral hypoperfusion with acupuncture stimulation on the YangLingQuan (GB34) point. We measured the changes of HbT concentration and found that the HbT concentration in hypoperfusion regions was clearly lower than that in the control regions when the acupuncture was absent; however, it was significantly increased when the acupuncture was implemented on the GB34 point. We also observed the increase of vessel size and the generation of new vessels in cerebral hypoperfusion during acupuncture. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) was employed to validate some of the PAT findings. PMID:26417495

  17. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then ...

  18. Cerebral ischaemia: A neuroradiological study

    SciTech Connect

    Bories, J.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief clinical and pathophysiological approach, the papers presented in this book are devoted to CT and angiography. Concerning CT, a particular study has been made of cerebral arterial territories on cuts parallel to the orbito-meatal line: these are very important in making the differential diagnosis from some tumors. Also concerning CT, a paper has been devoted to cerebral ''lacunae.'' The term ''lacuna'' as far as CT imaging is concerned, should be reserved only for those hypodense areas corresponding to small cavities containing fluid, which are sequelae of infarcts in the territory of penetrating arteries. Before this sequellar state come all the evolutive states of a small deep infarct. The angiographic study specifies the indications of angiography in the study of cerebral ischemia, and the techniques to be used. It shows the main etiologic aspects. Because of the important place of vascular surgery today, it seemed necessary to show also the main post operative angiographic aspects. After CT and angiography, some pages are reserved to more modern techniques. Finally, some pages are devoted to certain particular associations and etiologies: childhood, cardiopathies, migraine, oral contraception and end with venous infarction.

  19. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p<0.005) in tetraparetic (17.7 months), hemiparetic (10.1 months), and diparetic patients (7.9 months). In the hemiparetic group, the mean bone age in the affected side was 96.88 months and the uncompromised side was 101.13 months (p<0.005). Regarding functional status, the ambulatory group showed a delay of 18.73 months in bone age (p<0.005). Comparing bone age between genders, it was observed a greater delay in males (13.59 months) than in females (9.63 months), but not statistically significant (p = 0.54). Conclusion There is a delay in bone age compared to chronological age influenced by the topography of spasticity, functional level and gender in patients with cerebral palsy. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453693

  20. Control of the cerebral circulation and metabolism by the rostral ventrolateral medulla: Possible role in the cerebrovascular response to hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Neurons within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) corresponding to the location of adrenaline neurons of the C1 group (C1 area) maintain resting levels of arterial pressure (AP) and mediate the reflex cardiovascular responses to baro- and chemoreceptor activation and cerebral ischemia. The author therefore sought to determine whether neurons in the C1 area: (a) modulate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and/or cerebral glucose utilization (rCGU), (b) participate in the maintenance of resting levels of CBF and CGU, and (c) mediate the CBF response to hypoxia. Rats were anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated. The RVL was stimulated electrically or chemically, with kainic acid; lesions were placed electrolytically. rCBF was measured using 14-C-iodoantipyrine and rCGU with {sup 14}C-2-deoxyglucose in 11 dissected brain regions.