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Sample records for cerium titanium manganese

  1. Steric and electronic effects of 1,3-disubstituted cyclopentadienyl ligands on metallocene derivatives of Cerium, Titanium, Manganese, and Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Sofield, C.D.

    2000-05-19

    Sterically demanding 1,3-disubstituted cyclopentadienyl ligands were used to modify the physical properties of the corresponding metallocenes. Sterically demanding ligands provided kinetic stabilization for trivalent cerium compounds. Tris(di-t-butylcyclopentadienyl)cerium was prepared and anion competition between halides and cyclopentadienyl groups which had complicated synthesis of the tris(cyclopentadienyl)compound was qualitatively examined. Bis(di-t-butylcyclopentadienyl)cerium methyl was prepared and its rate of decomposition, by ligand redistribution, to tris(di-t-butylcyclopentadienyl)cerium was shown to be slower than the corresponding rate for less sterically demanding ligands. Asymmetrically substituted ligands provided a symmetry label for examination of chemical exchange processes. Tris[trimethylsilyl(t-butyl)cyclopentadienyl]cerium was prepared and the rate of interconversion between the C1 and C3 isomers was examined. The enthalpy difference between the two distereomers is 7.0 kJ/mol. The sterically demanding cyclopentadienyl ligands ansa-di-t-butylcyclopentadiene (Me2Si[(Me3C)2C5H3]2), ansa-bis(trimethylsilyl)cyclopentadiene (Me2Si[(Me3Si)2C5H3]2) and tetra-t-butylfulvalene and metallocene derivatives of the ligands were prepared and their structures were examined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The effect that substituents on the cyclopentadienyl ring have on the pi-electron system of the ligand was examined through interaction between ligand and metal orbitals. A series of 1,3-disubstituted manganocenes was prepared and their electronic states were determined by solid-state magnetic susceptibility, electron paramagnetic resonance, X-ray crystallography, and variable temperature UV-vis spectroscopy. Spin-equilibria in [(Me3C)2C5H3]2Mn and [(Me3C)(Me3Si)C5H3]2Mn were examined and indicate an enthalpy difference of 15 kJ/mol between the high-spin and low-spin forms. Cyclopentadienyl groups resistant to intramolecular oxidative addition

  2. Cyclic thermochemical process for producing hydrogen using cerium-titanium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, C.E.

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen employs the reaction between ceric oxide and titanium dioxide to form cerium titanate and oxygen. The titanate is treated with an alkali metal hydroxide to give hydrogen, ceric oxide, an alkali metal titanate and water. Alkali metal titanate and water are boiled to give titanium dioxide which, along with ceric oxide, is recycled.

  3. Cyclic thermochemical process for producing hydrogen using cerium-titanium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1980-01-01

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen employs the reaction between ceric oxide and titanium dioxide to form cerium titanate and oxygen. The titanate is treated with an alkali metal hydroxide to give hydrogen, ceric oxide, an alkali metal titanate and water. Alkali metal titanate and water are boiled to give titanium dioxide which, along with ceric oxide, is recycled.

  4. Mn-Ti-Zr (Manganese-Titanium-Zirconium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materials Science International Team MSIT

    This document is part of Subvolume C3 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 3: Selected Soldering and Brazing Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Manganese-Titanium-Zirconium.

  5. Cerium

    SciTech Connect

    1992-11-01

    Cerium in the year 1803, three scientists (M.H. Laproth, J.J. Berzelius, and W. Hisinger) independently discovered cerium (Ce), the first lanthanide element to be isolated. The element`s name is derived from the asteroid Ceres, which was discovered just two years before cerium. The name {open_quotes}cerium{close_quotes} is especially appropriate since cerium, in its +4 ionic state, exhibits a {open_quotes}ceres,{close_quotes} or reddish-orange, color. Cerium has a very high crystal abundance of 46 ppm, similar to that of the very common gas, nitrogen, and abundant metal, copper. Of all the rare earth (RE) ores mined today, the average concentration of cerium in the ore is 46.4 percent, in terms of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) content per total rare earth oxide (REO) by weight. Cerium is therefore the most abundant of all the rare earths, with concentrations as high as 50 percent CeO{sub 2}/REO in Chinese bastnasite and 52 percent in Russian loparites. Based on US Bureau of Mines statistics, CTC estimates that the world`s total mined production of cerium oxide in 1991 was about 24,000 metric tons-almost half of the total rare earth oxides produced.

  6. Phenotypic and genomic responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis germinants

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of exposure to two nanoparticles (NPs) -titanium dioxide (nano-titania) and cerium oxide (nano-ceria) at 500 mg NPs L-1 on gene expression and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana germinants were studied using microarrays and phenotype studies. After 12 days post treatment,...

  7. Phenotypic and genomic responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis germinants.

    PubMed

    Tumburu, Laxminath; Andersen, Christian P; Rygiewicz, Paul T; Reichman, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposure to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium oxide (nano-cerium) on gene expression and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana germinants were studied by using microarrays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and by evaluating germinant phenotypic plasticity. Exposure to 12 d of either nano-titania or nano-ceria altered the regulation of 204 and 142 genes, respectively. Genes induced by the nanoparticles mainly include ontology groups annotated as stimuli responsive, including both abiotic (oxidative stress, salt stress, water transport) and biotic (respiratory burst as a defense against pathogens) stimuli. Further analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicates that both nanoparticles affected a range of metabolic processes (deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] metabolism, hormone metabolism, tetrapyrrole synthesis, and photosynthesis). Individual exposures to the nanoparticles increased percentages of seeds with emergent radicles, early development of hypocotyls and cotyledons, and those with fully grown leaves. Although there were distinct differences between the nanoparticles in their affect on molecular mechanisms attributable to enhancing germinant growth, both particles altered similar suites of genes related to various pathways and processes related to enhanced growth. PMID:25242526

  8. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species exposed to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol develop...

  9. The effect of lanthanum(III) and cerium(III) ions between layers of manganese oxide on water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Isaloo, Mohsen Abbasi; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Shen, Jian-Ren; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman

    2015-12-01

    Manganese oxide structure with lanthanum(III) or cerium(III) ions between the layers was synthesized by a simple method. The ratio of Mn to Ce or La in samples was 0.00, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32, 0.5, 0.82, or 1.62. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The compounds show efficient catalytic activity of water oxidation in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate with a turnover frequency of 1.6 mmol O2/mol Mn.s. In contrast to the water-oxidizing complex in Photosystem II, calcium(II) has no specific role to enhance the water-oxidizing activity of the layered manganese oxides and other cations can be replaced without any significant decrease in water-oxidizing activities of these layered Mn oxides. Based on this and previously reported results from oxygen evolution in the presence of H 2 (18) O, we discuss the mechanism and the important factors influencing the water-oxidizing activities of the manganese oxides. PMID:25701552

  10. Synthesis of manganese oxide supported on mesoporous titanium oxide: Influence of the block copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Schmit, F.; Bois, L.; Chiriac, R.; Toche, F.; Chassagneux, F.; Besson, M.; Descorme, C.; Khrouz, L.

    2015-01-15

    Manganese oxides supported on mesoporous titanium oxides were synthesized via a sol–gel route using block copolymer self-assembly. The oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analyses, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, electron microscopy and electronic paramagnetic resonance. A mesoporous anatase containing amorphous manganese oxide particles could be obtained with a 0.2 Mn:Ti molar ratio. At higher manganese loading (0.5 Mn:Ti molar ratio), segregation of crystalline manganese oxide occurred. The influence of block copolymer and manganese salt on the oxide structure was discussed. The evolution of the textural and structural characteristics of the materials upon hydrothermal treatment was also investigated. - Graphical abstract: One-pot amorphous MnO{sub 2} supported on mesoporous anataseTiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Mesoporous manganese titanium oxides were synthesized using block copolymer. • Block copolymers form complexes with Mn{sup 2+} from MnCl{sub 2}. • With block copolymer, manganese oxide can be dispersed around the titania crystallites. • With Mn(acac){sub 2}, manganese is dispersed inside titania. • MnOOH crystallizes outside mesoporous titania during hydrothermal treatment.

  11. Synthesis of manganese oxide supported on mesoporous titanium oxide: Influence of the block copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, F.; Bois, L.; Chiriac, R.; Toche, F.; Chassagneux, F.; Besson, M.; Descorme, C.; Khrouz, L.

    2015-01-01

    Manganese oxides supported on mesoporous titanium oxides were synthesized via a sol-gel route using block copolymer self-assembly. The oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analyses, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, electron microscopy and electronic paramagnetic resonance. A mesoporous anatase containing amorphous manganese oxide particles could be obtained with a 0.2 Mn:Ti molar ratio. At higher manganese loading (0.5 Mn:Ti molar ratio), segregation of crystalline manganese oxide occurred. The influence of block copolymer and manganese salt on the oxide structure was discussed. The evolution of the textural and structural characteristics of the materials upon hydrothermal treatment was also investigated.

  12. Effective medium approximation of the optical properties of electrochromic cerium-titanium oxide compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rottkay, K. von; Richardson, T.; Rubin, M.; Slack, J.

    1997-07-01

    Cerium titanium oxide samples derived from a solution have been compared against sputtered films over a wide range of different compositions. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the structural properties of the compound material existing in a two-phase mixture M{sub A}O{sub 2}-M{sub B}O{sub 2}. The optical properties were evaluated over the whole solar spectrum by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry combined with spectrophotometry. The spectral complex refractive index was determined for CeO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, as well as for their compounds. To reduce the large number of permutations in composition of multi-component oxides it would be useful to be able to predict the properties of the mixtures from the pure oxide components. Therefore these results were compared to those obtained by effective medium theory utilizing the optical constants of CeO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to investigate the performance as passive counter-electrode in Li{sup +} based electrochromic devices the films were tested by cyclic voltammetry with in-situ transmission control. Chemical composition was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Surface morphology was analyzed by atomic force microscopy.

  13. Effective medium approximation of the optical properties of electrochromic cerium-titanium oxide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rottkay, Nik; Richardson, Terry J.; Rubin, Michael; Slack, J.; Masetti, Enrico; Dautzenberg, G.

    1997-10-01

    Cerium titanium oxide samples produced by sol-gel have been compared against sputtered and pulsed laser deposited films over a wide range of different compositions. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the structural properties of the compound material existing in a two-phase mixture MAO2-MBO2. The optical properties were evaluated over the whole solar spectrum by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry combined with spectrophotometry. The spectral complex refractive index was determined for CeO2 and TiO2, as well as for their compounds. To reduce the large number of permutations in composition of multi-component oxides it would be useful to be able to predict the properties of the mixtures from the pure oxide components. Therefore these results were compared to those obtained by effective medium theory utilizing the optical constants of CeO2 and TiO2. In order to investigate the performance as passive counter-electrode in Li+ based electrochromic devices the films were tested by cyclic voltammetry with in-situ transmission control. Chemical composition was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Surface morphology was analyzed by atomic force microscopy.

  14. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Zavalloni, Costanza; Carlino, Elvio; Musetti, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg·kg−1 cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO2 and nTiO2 treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO2 treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO2 stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO2. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO2 aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO2 was not present in the form of nanoclusters. PMID:26999181

  15. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Stengl, Vaclav; Bludska, Jana; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  16. Cerium, gallium and zinc containing mesoporous bioactive glass coating deposited on titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shruti, S.; Andreatta, F.; Furlani, E.; Marin, E.; Maschio, S.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2016-08-01

    Surface modification is one of the methods for improving the performance of medical implants in biological environment. In this study, cerium, gallium and zinc substituted 80%SiO2-15%CaO-5%P2O5 mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) in combination with polycaprolactone (PCL) were coated over Ti6Al4 V substrates by dip-coating method in order to obtain an inorganic-organic hybrid coating (MBG-PCL). Structural characterization was performed using XRD, nitrogen adsorption, SEM-EDXS, FTIR. The MBG-PCL coating uniformly covered the substrate with the thickness found to be more than 1 μm. Glass and polymer phases were detected in the coating along with the presence of biologically potent elements cerium, gallium and zinc. In addition, in vitro bioactivity was investigated by soaking the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 30 days at 37 °C. The apatite-like layer was monitored by FTIR, SEM-EDXS and ICP measurements and it formed in all the samples within 15 days except zinc samples. In this way, an attempt was made to develop a new biomaterial with improved in vitro bioactive response due to bioactive glass coating and good mechanical strength of Ti6Al4 V alloy along with inherent biological properties of cerium, gallium and zinc.

  17. Manganese

    MedlinePlus

    Manganese is a mineral that is found in several foods including nuts, legumes, seeds, tea, whole grains, and leafy green vegetables. It is ... manganese by mouth along with other vitamins and minerals can promote growth in children who have low ...

  18. Copper and cerium co-doped titanium dioxide on catalytic photo reduction of carbon dioxide with water: Experimental and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dongmei; Bi, Ye; Kan, Wei; Zhang, Ning; Hong, Sanguo

    2011-05-01

    The catalytic activities of copper and cerium co-doped titanium dioxide were studied experimentally and theoretically in the synthesis of methanol by the photo reduction of carbon dioxide with water firstly. Photo catalysts copper and cerium co-doped titanium dioxide were prepared via the equivalent-volume incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, Raman, BET, and electrochemistry analyses. The catalytic properties were determined in the synthesis of methanol from CO 2 in the aqueous solution. The experimental results suggested that Cu/Ce-TiO 2 catalysts obviously enhanced the efficiency of the photocatalytic reduction of CO 2. The methanol yield could reach up to 180.3 μmol/g-cat rapidly. The different effects of copper and cerium on the surface of titanium dioxide have been calculated at the Becke's three-parameter hybrid exchange functional together with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (B3LYP) level. Our results revealed that Ce atoms affect the reaction more profoundly than Cu atoms do. Ce atoms activated H 2O and CO 2 molecules, while Cu atoms act as the channel of photoelectrons in real time and prevent the recombination of electrons and holes.

  19. Role of cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, platinum, selenium, and titanium in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kazantzis, G

    1981-01-01

    The possible carcinogenicity of cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, platinum, selenium, and titanium is reviewed, taking into account epidemiological data, the results of animal experimental studies, data on mutagenic effects and on other in vitro test systems. Of the great variety of occupations where exposure to one of these metals may occur, only haematite mining has been clearly shown to involve an increased human cancer risk. While the possibility that haematite might in some way act as a carcinogen has to be taken into consideration it is more likely that other carcinogens are responsible. Certain platinum coordination complexes are used in cancer chemotherapy, are mutagenic, and likely to be carcinogenic. Cobalt, its oxide and sulfide, certain lead salts, one organomanganese, and one organotitanium compound have been shown to have a limited carcinogenic effect in experimental animal studies, and except for titanium appear to be mutagenic. Certain mercury compounds are mutagenic but none have been shown to be carcinogenic. The presently available data are inadequate to assess the possible carcinogenicity of selenium compounds, but a few observations suggest that selenium may suppress the effect of other carcinogens administered to experimental animals and may even be associated with lower cancer mortality rates in man. Epidemiological observations are essential for the assessment of a human cancer risk, but the difficulty in collecting past exposure data in occupational groups and the complexity of multiple occupational exposures with changes over time, limits the usefulness of retrospective epidemiological studies. PMID:7023929

  20. Catalyst support of mixed cerium zirconium titanium oxide, including use and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Willigan, Rhonda R.; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry; Tulyani, Sonia; Radhakrishnan, Rakesh; Opalka, Susanne Marie; Emerson, Sean C.

    2011-01-18

    A durable catalyst support/catalyst is capable of extended water gas shift operation under conditions of high temperature, pressure, and sulfur levels. The support is a homogeneous, nanocrystalline, mixed metal oxide of at least three metals, the first being cerium, the second being Zr, and/or Hf, and the third importantly being Ti, the three metals comprising at least 80% of the metal constituents of the mixed metal oxide and the Ti being present in a range of 5% to 45% by metals-only atomic percent of the mixed metal oxide. The mixed metal oxide has an average crystallite size less than 6 nm and forms a skeletal structure with pores whose diameters are in the range of 4-9 nm and normally greater than the average crystallite size. The surface area of the skeletal structure per volume of the material of the structure is greater than about 240 m.sup.2/cm.sup.3. The method of making and use are also described.

  1. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species exposed to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Christian P; King, George; Plocher, Milt; Storm, Marjorie; Pokhrel, Lok R; Johnson, Mark G; Rygiewicz, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2 ) or nano-cerium oxide (nCeO2 ) (0 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL, 500 μg/mL, and 1000 μg/mL) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. The authors modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to 2 common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2 , and 5 species responded to nCeO2 . Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain the developmental effects of these 2 ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, with unknown effects at later stages of the life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2223-2229. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26773270

  2. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels.

    PubMed

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO₂) and titanium oxide (nTiO₂) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg(-1) on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO₂ and nTiO₂ had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO₂·kg(-1). On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO₂·kg(-1), and Ca by both nTiO₂ treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO₂ while nTiO₂ can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production. PMID:27294945

  3. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2) and titanium oxide (nTiO2) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production. PMID:27294945

  4. Variations in structure and electrochemistry of iron- and titanium-doped lithium nickel manganese oxyfluoride spinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höweling, Andres; Stenzel, David; Gesswein, Holger; Kaus, Maximilian; Indris, Sylvio; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Binder, Joachim R.

    2016-05-01

    Doping of cathode materials can considerably improve electrochemical performance and stability. Here, the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel is used as a candidate material. It is high-voltage cycling at a potential of approximately 4.7 V and the ability to host 2 eq. Li, thus leading to a theoretical capacity of 294 mAh g-1, that makes this material interesting. In order to improve stability and electronic conductivity, the spinel is doped with titanium and iron. Cycling in a voltage range of 2.0-5.0 V leads to a cooperative Jahn-Teller distortion accompanied by a phase transformation from cubic to tetragonal symmetry. This causes a severe capacity fade. To improve capacity retention, the as-prepared spinel is post-doped with fluorine. Influence of different fluorine amounts in LiNi0.5Mn1.4Fe0.1Ti0.027O4-xFx (x = 0-0.3) on the capacity and stability is analyzed. The initial capacities decrease with increasing fluorine content but the low voltage capacity is stabilized. Best electrochemical results are obtained with a fluorine content of x = 0.15. Furthermore, an additional redox couple is found. The intensity of this depends on the fluorine content. It is assumed that manganese, either in the tetrahedral sites or in octahedral sites, bound to fluorine lead to a higher voltage.

  5. Surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of a manganese-containing titanium oxide surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youn-Jeong; Jang, Je-Hee

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of a titanium (Ti) oxide layer incorporating the manganese ions (Mn) obtained by hydrothermal treatment with the expectation of utilizing potent integrin-ligand binding enhancement effect of Mn for future applications as an endosseous implant surface. The surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, thin-film X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, optical profilometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The in vitro biocompatibility of the Mn-containing Ti oxide surface was evaluated in comparison with untreated bare Ti using a mouse calvaria-derived osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1). The hydrothermal treatment produced a nanostructured Mn-incorporated Ti oxide layer approximately 0.6 μm thick. ICP-AES analysis demonstrated that the Mn ions were released from the hydrothermally treated surface into the solution. Mn incorporation notably decreased cellular attachment, spreading, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteoblast phenotype gene expression compared with the bare Ti surface (p < 0.05). The results indicate that the Mn-incorporation into the surface Ti oxide layer has no evident beneficial effects on osteoblastic cell function, but instead, actually impaired cell behavior.

  6. Manganese

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Manganese ; CASRN 7439 - 96 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  7. Manganese

    MedlinePlus

    ... no RDAs for a nutrient, the Adequate Intake (AI) is used as a guide. The AI is the estimated amount of the nutrient that ... assumed to be adequate. The daily Adequate Intake (AI) levels for manganese are: infants birth to 6 ...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of nano-manganese dioxide and titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddi, Sasya

    Nano sized manganese dioxide was synthesized using hydrothermal and co-precipitation methods by the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate in respective methods. The co-precipitation method of synthesis was expanded to synthesize nano sized Titanium Dioxide. Characterization of the synthesized material was carried out by Elemental Analysis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis showed that the MnO2 prepared by hydrothermal method is made of spherical nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 15 nm--30 nm and the MnO2 prepared by co-precipitation method showed nanospheres of 20 nm--100 nm with several nano disks incorporated in these sphere of about 5 nm--50 nm in diameter. X-ray revealed that the MnO2 prepared by hydrothermal shows two different transitions from amorphous MnO2 to crystalline Mn2O3 and Mn2O3- Mn2O 3 Bixbyte with substantial amount of unreacted PVP in it, which is lost when heated to higher temperatures which are supported by data from DTA and TGA. In co-precipitation only one transition is observed that is from amorphous MnO2 to crystalline Mn2O3 Bixbyte and traces of unreacted PVP. Titanium Dioxide synthesized using PVP led to uniform spherical nano particles of 20 nm--100 nm with some unreacted PVP. X-Ray analysis shows one transition from amorphous TiO2 to crystalline TiO 2 Anatase. The TiO2 prepared without PVP is poorly crystalline to X-rays and identified as Brookite when heated to higher temperature. The SEM micrographs of TiO2 without PVP did not show any uniformity in particle size and shape distribution and lost homogeneity. The results from our study suggest that the clean, uniform and homogeneous nanoparticles can be prepared using a simple, room temperature, non-expensive co-precipitation method using PVP.

  9. Characterisation, corrosion resistance and in vitro bioactivity of manganese-doped hydroxyapatite films electrodeposited on titanium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Ding, Qiongqiong; Han, Shuguang; Yan, Yajing; Pang, Xiaofeng

    2013-08-01

    This work elucidated the corrosion resistance and in vitro bioactivity of electroplated manganese-doped hydroxyapatite (MnHAp) film on NaOH-treated titanium (Ti). The NaOH treatment process was performed on Ti surface to enhance the adhesion of the MnHAp coating on Ti. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the MnHAp coating had needle-like apatite crystals, and the approximately 10 μm thick layer was denser than HAp. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that the MnHAp crystals were Ca-deficient and the Mn/P molar ratio was 0.048. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of single-phase MnHAp, which was aligned vertically to the substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the presence of phosphate bands ranging from 500 to 650 and 900 to 1,100 cm(-1), and a hydroxyl band at 3,571 cm(-1), which was characteristic of HAp. Bond strength test revealed that adhesion for the MnHAp coating was more enhanced than that of the HAp coating. Potentiodynamic polarisation test showed that the MnHAp-coated surface exhibited superior corrosion resistance over the HAp single-coated surface. Bioactivity test conducted by immersing the coatings in simulated body fluid showed that MnHAp coating can rapidly induce bone-like apatite nucleation and growth. Osteoblast cellular tests revealed that the MnHAp coating was better at improving the in vitro biocompatibility of Ti than the HAp coating. PMID:23686354

  10. Nano-cerium-element-doped titanium dioxide induces apoptosis of Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells in the presence of visible light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Long; Mao, Jian; Zhang, Gao-Hua; Tu, Ming-Jing

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the apoptotic effect of photoexcited titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in the presence of visible light on human hepatoma cell line (Bel 7402) and to study the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Cerium-element-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by impregnation method. Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium in a humidified incubator with 50 mL/L CO2 at 37°C. A 15 W fluorescent lamp with continuous wavelength light was used as light source in the photocatalytic test. Fluorescence morphology and agarose gel eletrophoresis pattern were performed to analyze apoptotic cells. RESULTS: The Ce (IV)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles displayed their superiority. The adsorption edge shifted to the 400-450 nm region. With visible light illuminated for 10 min, 10 μg/cm3 Ce (IV)-doped TiO2 induced micronuclei and significant apoptosis in 4 and 24 h, respectively. Hochest 33 258 staining of the fixed cells revealed typical apoptotic structures (apoptotic bodies), agarose gel electrophoresis showed typical DNA ladder pattern in treated cells but not in untreated ones. CONCLUSION: Ce (IV) doped TiO2 nanoparticles can induce apoptosis of Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells in the presence of visible light. PMID:17663520

  11. CYTOTOXICITY AND PHOTOTOXICITY OF TITANIUM AND CERIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES IN HUMAN KERATINOCYTE HaCaT CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The skin is a potential exposure site to metal oxide nanoparticles because of their use in commercial products such as sunscreens and potential release into the environment. This study assessed cytotoxicity and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide (size range 22 to 214 nm) and ceri...

  12. Titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    The article contains a summary of factors pertinent to titanium use. Geology and exploitation, production processes, global production, titanium dioxide and alloy applications, and the titanium market are reviewed. Potential applications outlined are for oil and gas equipment and for the automotive industry. Titanium alloys were selected for drilling risers for North Sea oil and gas drilling platforms due to a high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. These properties also make titanium alloys attractive for auto parts, although the cost is currently prohibitive.

  13. Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cerium oxide and cerium compounds ; CASRN 1306 - 38 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  14. Titanium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth’s crust and can be found in nearly all rocks and sediments. It is a lithophile element with a strong affinity for oxygen and is not found as a pure metal in nature. Titanium was first isolated as a pure metal in 1910, but it was not until 1948 that metal was produced commercially using the Kroll process (named after its developer, William Kroll) to reduce titanium tetrachloride with magnesium to produce titanium metal.

  15. Cerium metallofullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgi, Petra; Kuran, Pavel; Dunsch, Lothar

    1999-09-01

    With respect to its redox state cerium is of high interest in metallofullerene research as its preferable redox states are 3+ and 4+. As representative structures of the cerium fullerene family both Ce2@C72 and Ce@C82 were prepared by the Krätschmer arc burning method. The metallofullerene Ce2@C72 was isolated for the first time using a two stage HPLC separation technique. The UV-Vis-NIR, IR and ESR spectra were compared with those of other C72 cage metallofullerenes. The existence and stability of the Ce2@C72 structure supports the assumption that the C72 carbon cage can be stabilised by metal ions. The endohedral fullerene Ce@C82 was also isolated by two stage HPLC and characterized by UV-Vis-NIR, IR and ESR spectroscopy for comparison with other endohedral C82 fullerenes. The redox properties of this metallofullerene structure were studied by cyclic voltammetry.

  16. Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H/sub 2/O and/or CO/sub 2/ by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1980-04-24

    A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO/sub 2/), titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) and sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

  17. Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO.sub.2), titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) and sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi.sub.2 O.sub.6) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi.sub.2 O.sub.6) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

  18. Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H2O and/or CO2 by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1982-02-02

    A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and sodium titanate (Na2TiO3) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi2O6) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi2O6) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

  19. Virus Removal by Biogenic Cerium

    SciTech Connect

    De Gusseme, B.; Du Laing, G; Hennebel, T; Renard, P; Chidambaram, D; Fitts, J; Bruneel, E; Van Driessche, I; Verbeken, K; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth element cerium has been known to exert antifungal and antibacterial properties in the oxidation states +III and +IV. This study reports on an innovative strategy for virus removal in drinking water by the combination of Ce(III) on a bacterial carrier matrix. The biogenic cerium (bio-Ce) was produced by addition of aqueous Ce(III) to actively growing cultures of either freshwater manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) Leptothrix discophora or Pseudomonas putida MnB29. X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicated that Ce remained in its trivalent state on the bacterial surface. The spectra were consistent with Ce(III) ions associated with the phosphoryl groups of the bacterial cell wall. In disinfection assays using a bacteriophage as model, it was demonstrated that bio-Ce exhibited antiviral properties. A 4.4 log decrease of the phage was observed after 2 h of contact with 50 mg L{sup -1} bio-Ce. Given the fact that virus removal with 50 mg L{sup -1} Ce(III) as CeNO{sub 3} was lower, the presence of the bacterial carrier matrix in bio-Ce significantly enhanced virus removal.

  20. Virus removal by biogenic cerium.

    PubMed

    De Gusseme, Bart; Du Laing, Gijs; Hennebel, Tom; Renard, Piet; Chidambaram, Dev; Fitts, Jeffrey P; Bruneel, Els; Van Driessche, Isabel; Verbeken, Kim; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2010-08-15

    The rare earth element cerium has been known to exert antifungal and antibacterial properties in the oxidation states +III and +IV. This study reports on an innovative strategy for virus removal in drinking water by the combination of Ce(III) on a bacterial carrier matrix. The biogenic cerium (bio-Ce) was produced by addition of aqueous Ce(III) to actively growing cultures of either freshwater manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) Leptothrix discophora or Pseudomonas putida MnB29. X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicated that Ce remained in its trivalent state on the bacterial surface. The spectra were consistent with Ce(III) ions associated with the phosphoryl groups of the bacterial cell wall. In disinfection assays using a bacteriophage as model, it was demonstrated that bio-Ce exhibited antiviral properties. A 4.4 log decrease of the phage was observed after 2 h of contact with 50 mg L(-1) bio-Ce. Given the fact that virus removal with 50 mg L(-1) Ce(III) as CeNO(3) was lower, the presence of the bacterial carrier matrix in bio-Ce significantly enhanced virus removal. PMID:20704235

  1. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  2. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  3. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products is steadily increasing. However, the health effects of exposure to these nanoparticles are not thoroughly understood. This study investigated the genotoxicity of six titanium dioxide and two cerium oxide nanoparticles of va...

  4. Multi-functional porous mix-valent manganese oxide nano-materials and ruthenium/titanium dioxide for magnetic, electronic, and catalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiongfei

    This thesis contains two parts: (1) development of porous mixed-valent manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS) nano-materials with controlled tunnel structures and muilt-functionalities and (2) application of H 2 adsorption for metal particle size evaluation on TiO2 supported Ru Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Manganese oxide OMS with different nano-scale tunnel sizes may result in various microporosities for different selective catalysis and separation applications. A hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize manganese oxide nano-materials with controlled nano-scale tunnel sizes by hydrothermal treatments of layered structure manganese oxides under different pH conditions. Manganese oxides with increasing tunnel sizes of 2.3 A x 2.3 A (1x1 tunnel structure), 4.6 A x 6.9 A (2x3 tunnel structure), and 4.6 A x 9.2 A (2x4 tunnel structure) were synthesized with increasing pH value from 1.0, 7.0, to 13.0, respectively. Phase transformation mechanism of layered precursors to tunnel structures was obtained by characterization of the materials during synthesis using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The obtained phase transformation mechanism was used for synthesis of better materials such as new lxl/1x2 tunnel structures and controlled BET surface areas. Most manganese oxide OMS materials show paramagnetism at temperatures from 100 to 350 K. A new method was established to measure the average oxidation state (AOS) of mix-valent manganese in OMS materials by describing their paramagnetic behavior using the Curie-Weiss law. Measurement results show a maximum 7% deviation error compared to the reference titration method for 10 different samples. Magnetism of OMS was further explored by doping Fe into KOMS-2 (a 2x2 tunnel structure manganese oxide) to create high temperature ferromagnetism. The possession of both semiconducting and high temperature ferromagnetism in the Fe-doped KOMS-2 created a highly promising new group of functional materials for

  5. Thermoelectric properties of cerium monopnictides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Alexander, M. N.; Wood, C.; Lockwood, R. A.; Vandersande, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Several cerium pnictides have been synthesized from the pure elements and hot pressed into test samples. Measurements of Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities were performed on these samples from room temperature to 1000 C. Cerium arsenide and cerium antimonide are n-type; cerium nitride changes from p-type to n-type conduction at 800 C. The materials are semimetals with resistivities below 1 mohm/cm. Cerium arsenide is the most favorable of the pnictides studied for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion, with an average power factor of 15 microW/cm K sq from 500 to 1000 C.

  6. Direct growth of cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates for superhydrophobicity and corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young Jun; Jang, Hanmin; Lee, Kwan-Soo; Kim, Dong Rip

    2015-06-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with anti-corrosion properties have attracted great interest in many industrial fields, particularly to enhance the thermal performance of offshore applications such as heat exchangers, pipelines, power plants, and platform structures. Nanostructures with hydrophobic materials have been widely utilized to realize superhydrophobicity of surfaces, and cerium oxide has been highlighted due to its good corrosion resistive and intrinsically hydrophobic properties. However, few studies of direct growth of cerium oxide nanostructures on diverse substrates have been reported. Herein we report a facile hydrothermal method to directly grow cerium oxide nanorods on diverse substrates, such as aluminum alloy, stainless steel, titanium, and silicon. Diverse substrates with cerium oxide nanorods exhibited superhydrophobicity with no hydrophobic modifiers on their surfaces, and showed good corrosion resistive properties in corrosive medium. We believe our method could pave the way for realization of scalable and sustainable corrosion resistive superhydrophobic surfaces in many industrial fields.

  7. The attack of titanium-6 wt% aluminium-4 wt% vanadium alloy by a molten uranium-5.7 wt% manganese alloy at 1015 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, F. J.; Jarman, R. A.

    1991-06-01

    The liquid metal corrosion (LMC) resistance of the alloy Ti-6 wt% Al-4 wt% V (IMI 318) in contact with molten U-5.7 wt% Mn has been assessed. The uranium alloy was melted at 1015 °C under vacuum in hemispherical IMI 318 alloy crucibles. The attack rate of the molten alloy on the IMI 318, for times up to 3 h, was estimated from metallography and by chemical analysis of the resolidified uranium melt. The mechanism of the LMC process was examined with optical and electron microscopy allied with EDAX and microhardness tests. Melt saturation occurred after one hour and titanium-rich (approximately 80 wt% Ti) dendrites began to nucleate and grow in the uranium melt. This result was predicted by the relevant equilibrium phase diagrams. During the LMC reaction, an interface (diffusion) layer grew in IMI 318 alloy where it contacted the uranium alloy melt. The levels of Ti and U changed with test time and distance across this interface, with the Ti level falling at the melt/IMI 318 surface and the U increasing at the same point. The mean LMC rate was initially rapid, 1.45 mm/h after 15 min but fell to 0.3 mm/h at 3 h. The conclusions were that the LMC reaction was diffusion-controlled, with the slow self-diffusion of β-titanium most likely to be the rate determining step. The reaction probably follows parabolic rate-kinetics as do other diffusion-controlled processes. The attack front was generally uniform with no clear evidence of preferential attack.

  8. The sensitized luminescence of manganese-activated calcite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulman, J.H.; Evans, L.W.; Ginther, R.J.; Murata, K.J.

    1947-01-01

    Synthetic manganese-activated calcites are shown to be practically inert to ultraviolet excitation in the range 2000-3500A, while they are luminescent under cathode-ray excitation. The incorporation of small amounts of an auxiliary impurity along with the manganese produces the strong response to ultraviolet radiation hitherto ascribed to CaCO3:Mn itself. Three such impurities have been studied: lead, thallium, and cerium. The first two induce excitation in the neighborhood of the mercury resonance line, while the cerium introduces a response principally to longer wave ultraviolet. The strong response to 2537A excitation shown by some natural calcites is likewise found to be due to the presence of lead along with the manganese, rather than to the manganese alone. The data do not warrant ascribing the longer wave-length ultraviolet-excited luminescence of all natural calcites to the action of an auxiliary impurity. The essential identity of the cathode-ray excited luminescence spectra of CaCO 3:Mn, CaCO3: (Pb+Mn), CaCO3:(Tl+Mn), and CaCO3:(Ce+Mn) with the 2537A-excited spectra of the latter three is evidence that the luminescent center in all cases is the manganese ion or the MnO6 group. It is shown that a "cascade" mechanism for the action of the auxiliary impurities, lead, thallium, and cerium, is incorrect; and that the phenomenon must be considered as a case of sensitized luminescence. Owing to the nature of cathode-ray excitation, the manganese activator can be excited by this agent even in the absence of a second impurity. For optical excitation, however, an absorption band for the ultraviolet must be established by building into the CaCO3:Mn a second impurity or "sensitizer.".

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 29, 2009, the IRIS Summary and Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds was finalized and loaded onto the IRIS database. The Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds was reviewed internally by EPA, by other federal agencies and Whit...

  10. Preparation of cerium halide solvate complexes

    DOEpatents

    Vasudevan, Kalyan V; Smith, Nickolaus A; Gordon, John C; McKigney, Edward A; Muenchaussen, Ross E

    2013-08-06

    Crystals of a solvated cerium(III) halide solvate complex resulted from a process of forming a paste of a cerium(III) halide in an ionic liquid, adding a solvent to the paste, removing any undissolved solid, and then cooling the liquid phase. Diffusing a solvent vapor into the liquid phase also resulted in crystals of a solvated cerium(III) halide complex.

  11. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of cerium mononitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristova, N. M.; Belov, G. V.

    2014-09-01

    Data on the thermodynamic properties of cerium mononitride CeN in the solid state are analyzed. Relations approximating the temperature dependence of the thermodynamic functions of CeN(cr.) in the temperature range of 298.15-2900 K are obtained. Using the relations of thermodynamics known for this temperature range, the thermodynamic functions of cerium mononitride (entropy, Gibbs energy, and enthalpy variation) are calculated. The resulting data is entered into the database of the IVTANTHERMO software package and is used to analyze the thermal stability of CeN(cr.), and to estimate its boiling point at atmospheric pressure.

  13. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of cerium oxide and cerium compounds that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  15. Grain Growth in Cerium Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, Jason; Katz, Martha; Mielke, Charles; Montalvo, Joel

    We report on grain growth in forged and rolled cerium plate for temperatures from 350 to 700 degrees C and times from 30 to 120 minutes. The cerium was made by arc-melting into a 25 mm deep by 80 mm diameter copper mold. The resulting disk was forged at room temperature to a 25% reduction of thickness four times with a 350 degree C strain relief heat treatment for 60 minutes between forging steps. The resulting 8 mm thick plate was clock rolled at room temperature to a 25% reduction of thickness three times with a 350 C strain relief heat treatment between steps resulting in a plate approximately 3 mm thick. 5 x 10 mm coupons were cut from the plate for the grain growth study.

  16. Cerium oxide for sunscreen cosmetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, Shinryo; Sato, Tsugio

    2003-02-01

    Ultrafine particles of Mn+ -doped ceria ( Mn+ =Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+, Y 3+, La 3+, Nd 3+, Sm 3+, Eu 3+, Tb 3+) for UV filter were prepared via soft solution chemical routes at 40°C. X-ray diffraction revealed that the prepared doped particles had the cubic fluorite structures although peak positions changed depending on the kind and amount of doped metal ion. Doping with 20 mol% Ca 2+ and 20 mol% Zn 2+ resulted in extremely decreasing the particle size (2-4 nm) and the catalytic activity of ceria for oxidation of castor oil. Ca 2+-doped cerium dioxide showed excellent UV absorbing effect and transparency in the visible ray region compared with undoped cerium dioxide.

  17. ADSORPTION OF CERIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, F.P.

    1963-08-13

    Cerium can be removed from aqueous nitric acid (2 to 13 M) solutions by passing the latter over a PbO/sub 2/-containing anion exchange resin. The cerium is taken up by the resin, while any lanthanides, yttrium, and strontium present remain in the solution. (AEC)

  18. Fabrication and characterization of cerium-doped barium titanate inverse opal by sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Yi; Zhu Yihua Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong; Zhou Jinghong

    2007-01-15

    Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a polystyrene (PS) opal. This procedure involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template followed by hydrolytic polycondensation of the precursors to amorphous barium titanate and removal of the PS opal by calcination. The morphologies of opal and inverse opal were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pores were characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation showed the doping structure of cerium, barium and titanium. And powder X-ray diffraction allows one to observe the influence of doping degree on the grain size. The lattice parameters, crystal size and lattice strain were calculated by the Rietveld refinement method. The synthesis of cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opals provides an opportunity to electrically and optically engineer the photonic band structure and the possibility of developing tunable three-dimensional photonic crystal devices. - Graphical abstract: Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate acid contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a PS opal, which involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template and removal of the PS opal by calcination.

  19. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  20. Weakly ionized cerium plasma radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf; Koorikawa, Yoshitake; Murakami, Kazunori; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Obata, Fumiko; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Sigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2004-02-01

    In the plasma flash x-ray generator, high-voltage main condenser of about 200 nF is charged up to 55 kV by a power supply, and electric charges in the condenser are discharged to an x-ray tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is of a demountable triode that is connected to a turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to a rod cerium target of 3.0 mm in diameter by electric field in the x-ray tube, the weakly ionized linear plasma, which consists of cerium ions and electrons, forms by target evaporating. At a charging voltage of 55 kV, the maximum tube voltage was almost equal to the charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 20 kA. When the charging voltage was increased, weakly ionized cerium plasma formed, and the K-series characteristic x-ray intensities increased. The x-ray pulse widths were about 500 ns, and the time-integrated x-ray intensity had a value of about 40 μC/kg at 1.0 m from x-ray source with a charging voltage of 55 kV. In the angiography, we employed a film-less computed radiography (CR) system and iodine-based microspheres. Because K-series characteristic x-rays are absorbed easily by the microspheres, high-contrast angiography has been performed.

  1. Titanium 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2014-01-01

    Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust and can be found in nearly all rocks and sediments. It is a lithophile element with a strong affinity for oxygen and is not found as a pure metal in nature. Titanium was first isolated as a pure metal in 1910, but it was not until 1948 that the metal was produced commercially using the Kroll process (named after its developer, William Kroll) to reduce titanium tetrachloride with magnesium to produce titanium metal.

  2. Manganese laser using manganese chloride as lasant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A manganese vapor laser utilizing manganese chloride as a lasant has been observed and investigated. Lasing is attained by means of two consecutive electrical discharges. The maximum laser output is obtained at a vapor pressure of about 3 torr, a temperature of 680 C, and a time delay between electrical discharges of 150 microsec. The maximum energy density is 1.3 microjoule per cu cm.

  3. Manganese uptake of imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-09-30

    Batch tests of manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C . Data on manganese uptake for two consecutive cycles are included.

  4. Pharmacological potential of cerium oxidenanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celardo, Ivana; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology promises a revolution in pharmacology to improve or create ex novo therapies. Cerium oxidenanoparticles (nanoceria), well-known as catalysts, possess an astonishing pharmacological potential due to their antioxidant properties, deriving from a fraction of Ce3+ ions present in CeO2. These defects, compensated by oxygen vacancies, are enriched at the surface and therefore in nanosized particles. Reactions involving redox cycles between the Ce3+ and Ce4+oxidation states allow nanoceria to react catalytically with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, mimicking the behavior of two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, potentially abating all noxious intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) via a self-regenerating mechanism. Hence nanoceria, apparently well tolerated by the organism, might fight chronic inflammation and the pathologies associated with oxidative stress, which include cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review the biological effects of nanoceria as they emerge from in vitro and in vivo studies, considering biocompatibility and the peculiar antioxidant mechanisms.

  5. Cerium oxide nanoparticles in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Chen, Kan; Ma, Jin-lu; Gao, Fei

    2014-01-01

    With the development of many nanomedicines designed for tumor therapy, the diverse abilities of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) have encouraged researchers to pursue CONPs as a therapeutic agent to treat cancer. Research data have shown CONPs to be toxic to cancer cells, to inhibit invasion, and to sensitize cancer cells to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. CONPs also display minimal toxicity to normal tissues and provide protection from various forms of reactive oxygen species generation. Differential cytotoxicity is important for anticancer drugs to distinguish effectively between tumor cells and normal cells. The antioxidant capabilities of CONPs, which enable cancer therapy protection, have also resulted in the exploration of these particles as a potential anticancer treatment. Taken together, CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy and this review highlights the current research into CONPs as a novel therapeutic for the treatment of cancer. PMID:24920925

  6. Process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Koc, R.; Glatzmaier, G.C.

    1995-05-23

    A process is disclosed for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride. The process comprises placing particles of titanium, a titanium salt or titanium dioxide within a vessel and providing a carbon-containing atmosphere within the vessel. The vessel is heated to a pyrolysis temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the carbon to thereby coat the particles with a carbon coating. Thereafter, the carbon-coated particles are heated in an inert atmosphere to produce titanium carbide, or in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride, with the heating being of a temperature and time sufficient to produce a substantially complete solid solution.

  7. Process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Koc, Rasit; Glatzmaier, Gregory C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride. The process comprises placing particles of titanium, a titanium salt or titanium dioxide within a vessel and providing a carbon-containing atmosphere within the vessel. The vessel is heated to a pyrolysis temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the carbon to thereby coat the particles with a carbon coating. Thereafter, the carbon-coated particles are heated in an inert atmosphere to produce titanium carbide, or in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride, with the heating being of a temperature and time sufficient to produce a substantially complete solid solution.

  8. The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Zalloum, Othman; Roschuk, Tyler; Heng Chenglin; Wojcik, Jacek; Mascher, Peter

    2009-01-05

    Cerium-doped silicon oxides with cerium concentrations of up to 0.9 at. % were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Bright cerium related photoluminescence, easily seen even under room lighting conditions, was observed from the films and found to be sensitive to film composition and annealing temperature. The film containing 0.9 at. % Ce subjected to anneal in N{sub 2} at 1200 deg. C for 3 h showed the most intense cerium-related emission, easily visible under bright room lighting conditions. This is attributed to the formation of cerium silicate [Ce{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} or Ce{sub 4.667} (SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}O], the presence of which was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  9. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MANGANESE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effects of manganese were studied in a town on the coast of Dalmatia in which a ferromanganese plant has been operating since before World War II. The study focused on the question of whether the exposure to manganese can cause a higher incidence of respiratory dis...

  10. Cerium anomaly at microscale in fossils.

    PubMed

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Bertrand, Loïc

    2015-09-01

    Patterns in rare earth element (REE) concentrations are essential instruments to assess geochemical processes in Earth and environmental sciences. Excursions in the "cerium anomaly" are widely used to inform on past redox conditions in sediments. This proxy resources to the specificity of cerium to adopt both the +III and +IV oxidation states, while most rare earths are purely trivalent and share very similar reactivity and transport properties. In practical terms, the level of cerium anomaly is established through elemental point quantification and profiling. All these models rely on a supposed homogeneity of the cerium oxidation state within the samples. However, this has never been demonstrated, whereas the cerium concentration can significantly vary within a sample, as shown for fossils, which would vastly complicate interpretation of REE patterns. Here, we report direct micrometric mapping of Ce speciation through synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and production of local rare earth patterns in paleontological fossil tissues through X-ray fluorescence mapping. The sensitivity of the approach is demonstrated on well-preserved fishes and crustaceans from the Late Cretaceous (ca. 95 million years (Myr) old). The presence of Ce under the +IV form within the fossil tissues is attributed to slightly oxidative local conditions of burial and agrees well with the limited negative cerium anomaly observed in REE patterns. The [Ce(IV)]/[Ce(tot)] ratio appears remarkably stable at the microscale within each fossil and is similar between fossils from the locality. Speciation maps were obtained from an original combination of synchrotron microbeam X-ray fluorescence, absorption spectroscopy, and diffraction, together with light and electron microscopy. This work also highlights the need for more systematic studies of cerium geochemistry at the microscale in paleontological contexts, in particular across fossil histologies. PMID:26239283

  11. α-Radioactivity of cerium-142

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Stern, T.W.; Alekna, V.P.

    1959-01-01

    JOHNSON AND NIER1 have measured the atomic masses of some of the rare-earth isotopes and have shown that the mass difference cerium-142—(barium-138 + helium-4) is equivalent to 1.68 ± 0.10 MeV. Similar results for the naturally occurring samarium and neodymium isotopes show that the α-active isotope of each element is the one having the largest possible decay energy. Rasmussen and others2 suggest that the two or three neutrons just beyond the closed shell of 82 neutrons have decreased binding energies and hence the α-energy has a maximum about 84 neutrons. Johnson and Nier suggest that the α-decay of cerium-142 may take place with enough energy to be experimentally observable. Porschen and Riezler3 examined a sample of un-enriched cerium ammonium citrate using nuclear track plates sensitive to α-particles. No α-activity was observed after a 30-day exposure of 1.2 mgm. of the cerium salt. In 1957 Riezler and Kauw4 reported an alpha activity for an enriched sample of cerium-142. From their results they calculated a half-life of 5.1 × 1015 years with an uncertainty factor of 2.

  12. Calcium manganese(IV) oxides: biomimetic and efficient catalysts for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Pashaei, Babak; Nayeri, Sara

    2012-04-28

    CaMnO(3) and Ca(2)Mn(3)O(8) were synthesized and characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR and BET. Both oxides showed oxygen evolution activity in the presence of oxone, cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate and H(2)O(2). Oxygen evolution from water during irradiation with visible light (λ > 400 nm) was also observed upon adding these manganese oxides to an aqueous solution containing tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II), as photosensitizer, and chloro pentaammine cobalt(III) chloride, as electron acceptor, in an acetate buffer. The amounts of dissolved manganese and calcium from CaMnO(3) and Ca(2)Mn(3)O(8) in the oxygen evolving reactions were reported and compared with other (calcium) manganese oxides. Proposed mechanisms of oxygen evolution and proposed roles for the calcium ions are also considered. PMID:22382465

  13. Nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials for solid fuel cell systems

    DOEpatents

    Brinkman, Kyle S

    2015-05-05

    Disclosed are solid fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells and PEM fuel cells that include nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials as a component of the fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can include nanocrystalline cerium oxide as a cathode component and microcrystalline cerium oxide as an electrolyte component, which can prevent mechanical failure and interdiffusion common in other fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can also include nanocrystalline cerium oxide in the anode. A PEM fuel cell can include cerium oxide as a catalyst support in the cathode and optionally also in the anode.

  14. Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Sparrow, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

  15. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell accelerated stress testing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Andrew M.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.; Spernjak, Dusan; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Cerium is a radical scavenger which improves polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell durability. During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs) under different humidity conditions. Cerium migration was characterized in the MEAs after ASTs using X-ray fluorescence. During fully humidified operation, water flux from cell inlet to outlet generated in-plane cerium gradients. Conversely, cerium profiles were flat during low humidity operation, where in-plane water flux was negligible, however, migration from the PEM into the CLs was enhanced. Humidity cycling resulted in both in-plane cerium gradients due to water flux during the hydration component of the cycle, and significant migration into the CLs. Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports.

  16. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell accelerated stress testing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baker, Andrew M.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.; Spernjak, Dusan; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Cerium is a radical scavenger which improves polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell durability. During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs) under different humidity conditions. Cerium migration was characterized in the MEAs after ASTs using X-ray fluorescence. During fully humidified operation, water flux from cell inlet to outlet generated in-plane cerium gradients. Conversely, cerium profiles were flat during low humidity operation, where in-plane water flux was negligible, however, migration from the PEM into the CLs was enhanced. Humiditymore » cycling resulted in both in-plane cerium gradients due to water flux during the hydration component of the cycle, and significant migration into the CLs. Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports.« less

  17. [Function and disease in manganese].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mieko

    2016-07-01

    Manganese is a metal that has been known named a Greek word "Magnesia" meaning magnesia nigra from Roman Empire. Manganese provide the wide range of metablic function and the multiple abnomalities from its deficiency or toxicity. In 1931, the essentiality of manganese was demonstrated with the authoritative poor growth and declined reproduction in its deficiency. Manganese deficiency has been recognized in a number of species and its signs are impaired growth, impaired reproduction, ataxia, skeletal abnormalities and disorders in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Manganese toxicity is also acknowledged as health hazard for animals and humans. Here manganese nutrition, metabolism and metabolic function are summarized. PMID:27455810

  18. Texture Control in Cerium Oxide Films (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Leenheer, A. J.; Perkins, J. D.; Teplin, C. W.; Ginley, D. S.

    2006-05-01

    The conclusions are: (1) Texture control is possible in cerium oxide by epitaxial growth or adjusting the substrate angle; (2) Biaxial (111) texture emerges with inclined angle depositions on glass; and (3) Biaxial (200) texture emerges by epitaxial growth on YSZ.

  19. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  20. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth. PMID:25531028

  1. Manganese biomining: A review.

    PubMed

    Das, A P; Sukla, L B; Pradhan, N; Nayak, S

    2011-08-01

    Biomining comprises of processing and extraction of metal from their ores and concentrates using microbial techniques. Currently this is used by the mining industry to extract copper, uranium and gold from low grade ores but not for low grade manganese ore in industrial scale. The study of microbial genomes, metabolites and regulatory pathways provide novel insights to the metabolism of bioleaching microorganisms and their synergistic action during bioleaching operations. This will promote understanding of the universal regulatory responses that the biomining microbial community uses to adapt to their changing environment leading to high metal recovery. Possibility exists of findings ways to imitate the entire process during industrial manganese biomining endeavor. This paper reviews the current status of manganese biomining research operations around the world, identifies factors that drive the selection of biomining as a processing technology, describes challenges in exploiting these innovations, and concludes with a discussion of Mn biomining's future. PMID:21632238

  2. Study of cerium phase transitions in shock wave experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhernokletov, M. V. Kovalev, A. E.; Komissarov, V. V.; Novikov, M. G.; Zocher, M. A. Cherne, F. J.

    2011-02-15

    Cerium has a complex phase diagram that is explained by the presence of structural phase transitions. Experiments to measure the sound velocities in cerium by two methods were carried out to determine the onset of cerium melting on the Hugoniot. In the pressure range 4-37 GPa, the sound velocity in cerium samples was measured by the counter release method using manganin-based piezoresistive gauges. In the pressure range 35-140 GPa, the sound velocity in cerium was measured by the overtaking release method using carbogal and tetrachloromethane indicator liquids. The samples were loaded with plane shock wave generators using powerful explosive charges. The onset of cerium melting on the Hugoniot at a pressure of about 13 GPa has been ascertained from the measured elastic longitudinal and bulk sound velocities.

  3. Gamma-alpha Isostructural Transition in Cerium

    SciTech Connect

    Lanata, Nicola; Yao, Yong-Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Schmalian, Jorg; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2013-11-05

    We present zero-temperature first-principles calculations of elemental cerium and we compute its pressure-volume phase diagram within a theoretical framework able to describe simultaneously both the α and the γ phases. A surprising result revealed by our study is the presence of a clear signature of the transition at zero temperature and that this signature can be observed if and only if the spin-orbit coupling is taken into account. Our calculations indicate that the transition line in the pressure-temperature phase diagram of this material has a low-T critical point at negative pressures, placed very close to zero temperature. This suggests that cerium is very close to being “quantum critical,” in agreement with recent experiments.

  4. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  5. Manganese, Metallogenium, and Martian Microfossils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, L. Y.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese could easily be considered an abundant element in the Martian regolith, assuming that the composition of martian meteorites reflects the composition of the planet. Mineralogical analyses of 5 SNC meteorites have revealed an average manganese oxide concentration of 0.48%, relative to the 0.1% concentration of manganese found in the Earth's crust. On the Earth, the accumulation of manganese oxides in oceans, soils, rocks, sedimentary ores, fresh water systems, and hydrothermal vents can be largely attributed to microbial activity. Manganese is also a required trace nutrient for most life forms and participates in many critical enzymatic reactions such as photosynthesis. The wide-spread process of bacterial manganese cycling on Earth suggests that manganese is an important element to both geology and biology. Furthermore, there is evidence that bacteria can be fossilized within manganese ores, implying that manganese beds may be good repositories for preserved biomarkers. A particular genus of bacteria, known historically as Metallogenium, can form star-shaped manganese oxide minerals (called metallogenium) through the action of manganese oxide precipitation along its surface. Fossilized structures that resemble metallogenium have been found in Precambrian sedimentary formations and in Cretaceous-Paleogene cherts. The Cretaceous-Paleogene formations are highly enriched in manganese and have concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Co) similar to modern-day manganese oxide deposits in marine environments. The appearance of metallogenium-like fossils associated with manganese deposits suggests that bacteria may be preserved within the minerals that they form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral Cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; den Hartog, E. A.; Wood, M. P.; Nitz, D. E.; Chisholm, J.; Sobeck, J.

    2009-10-01

    The spectra of neutral cerium (Ce I) and singly ionized cerium (Ce II) are more complex than spectra of other rare earth species. The resulting high density of lines in the visible makes Ce ideal for use in metal halide (MH) High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps. Inclusion of cerium-iodide in a lamp dose can improve both the Color Rendering Index and luminous efficacy of a MH-HID lamp. Basic spectroscopic data including absolute atomic transition probabilities for Ce I and Ce II are needed for diagnosing and modeling these MH-HID lamps. Recent work on Ce II [1] is now being augmented with similar work on Ce I. Radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements [2] on neutral Ce are being combined with emission branching fractions from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 14 high resolution spectra are being analyzed to determine branching fractions for 2000 to 3000 lines from 153 upper levels in neutral Ce. Representative data samples and progress to date will be presented. [4pt] [1] J. E. Lawler, C. Sneden, J. J. Cowan, I. I. Ivans, and E. A. Den Hartog, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 182, 51-79 (2009). [0pt] [2] E. A. Den Hartog, K. P. Buettner, and J. E. Lawler, J. Phys. B: Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics 42, 085006 (7pp) (2009).

  7. RECOVERY OF Pu FROM CERIUM TRIFLUORIDE BY FLUORINATION

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1959-02-10

    An improved process is prcsented for selectively recovering plutonium from a solution containing fission products comprising precipitating cerium trifluoride in the solution for effccting carrier precipitation of plutonium. The resulting carrier precipitate is dried and subjected to fluorination at about 600 C. The plutonium forms a volatile fiuoridc and is so separated from the nonvolatile cerium fluoride.

  8. Local Structure of Cerium in Aluminophosphate and Silicophosphate Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    J Rygel; Y Chen; C Pantano; T Shibata; J Du; L Kokou; R Woodman; J Belcher

    2011-12-31

    The local structure of cerium in two systematic compositional series of glasses, nominally CeP{sub 3}O{sub 9}-AlP{sub 3}O{sub 9} and CeP{sub 3}O{sub 9}-SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, was interrogated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. XPS revealed that, for glasses melted in air, {>=}95% of cerium ions are Ce{sup 3+}. This was independently confirmed using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Ce K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to determine the local structure of Ce{sup 3+}. Near the metaphosphate composition, cerium was found to have an average cerium coordination number of {approx}7.0 and an average cerium-oxygen bond length of 2.41 {angstrom}. The average cerium coordination number and average cerium-oxygen bond distance were found to increase with decreasing cerium concentration in both compositional series. Rare-earth clustering is suggested based on numerical calculations for glasses containing {>=}14 and {>=}15 mol% Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the aluminophosphate and silicophosphate series, respectively.

  9. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  12. Local Structure of Cerium in Aluminophosphate and Silicophosphate Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Rygel, Jennifer L.; Chen, Yongsheng; Pantano, Carlo G.; Shibata, Tomohiro; Du, Jincheng; Kokou, Leopold; Woodman, Robert; Belcher, James

    2011-09-20

    The local structure of cerium in two systematic compositional series of glasses, nominally CeP{sub 3}O{sub 9}-AlP{sub 3}O{sub 9} and CeP{sub 3}O{sub 9}-SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, was interrogated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. XPS revealed that, for glasses melted in air, {>=}95% of cerium ions are Ce{sup 3+}. This was independently confirmed using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Ce K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to determine the local structure of Ce{sup 3+}. Near the metaphosphate composition, cerium was found to have an average cerium coordination number of {approx}7.0 and an average cerium-oxygen bond length of 2.41 {angstrom}. The average cerium coordination number and average cerium-oxygen bond distance were found to increase with decreasing cerium concentration in both compositional series. Rare-earth clustering is suggested based on numerical calculations for glasses containing {>=}14 and {>=}15 mol% Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the aluminophosphate and silicophosphate series, respectively.

  13. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  15. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-09-14

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane cerium gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.

  16. Ultrathin, epitaxial cerium dioxide on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Flege, Jan Ingo Kaemena, Björn; Höcker, Jan; Schmidt, Thomas; Falta, Jens; Bertram, Florian; Wollschläger, Joachim

    2014-03-31

    It is shown that ultrathin, highly ordered, continuous films of cerium dioxide may be prepared on silicon following substrate prepassivation using an atomic layer of chlorine. The as-deposited, few-nanometer-thin Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} film may very effectively be converted at room temperature to almost fully oxidized CeO{sub 2} by simple exposure to air, as demonstrated by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. This post-oxidation process essentially results in a negligible loss in film crystallinity and interface abruptness.

  17. Cerium and yttrium oxide nanoparticles are neuroprotective

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, David . E-mail: schubert@salk.edu; Dargusch, Richard; Raitano, Joan; Chan, S.-W.

    2006-03-31

    The responses of cells exposed to nanoparticles have been studied with regard to toxicity, but very little attention has been paid to the possibility that some types of particles can protect cells from various forms of lethal stress. It is shown here that nanoparticles composed of cerium oxide or yttrium oxide protect nerve cells from oxidative stress and that the neuroprotection is independent of particle size. The ceria and yttria nanoparticles act as direct antioxidants to limit the amount of reactive oxygen species required to kill the cells. It follows that this group of nanoparticles could be used to modulate oxidative stress in biological systems.

  18. Opportunities in the electrowinning of molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vuuren, D. S.; Engelbrecht, A. D.; Hadley, T. D.

    2005-10-01

    The value chain of titanium products shows that the difference between the cost of titanium ingot and titanium dioxide is about 9/kg titanium. In contrast, the price of aluminum, which is produced in a similar way, is only about 1.7/kg. Electrowinning of molten titanium from titanium dioxide is therefore believed to have significant potential to reduce the cost of titanium products. The process is hampered by the high operating temperatures and sophisticated materials of construction required; the high affinity of titanium for carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen; and physical and chemical properties of the different titanium oxide species when reducing titanium from Ti4+ to metallic titanium.

  19. The surface chemistry of cerium oxide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mullins, David R.

    2015-01-29

    Our review covers the structure of, and chemical reactions on, well-defined cerium oxide surfaces. Ceria, or mixed oxides containing ceria, are critical components in automotive three-way catalysts due to their well-known oxygen storage capacity. Ceria is also emerging as an important material in a number of other catalytic processes, particularly those involving organic oxygenates and the water–gas shift reaction. Ceria's acid–base properties, and thus its catalytic behavior, are closely related to its surface structure where different oxygen anion and cerium cation environments are present on the low-index structural faces. The actual structure of these various faces has been the focusmore » of a number of theoretical and experimental investigations. Ceria is also easily reducible from CeO2 to CeO2-X. The presence of oxygen vacancies on the surface often dramatically alters the adsorption and subsequent reactions of various adsorbates, either on a clean surface or on metal particles supported on the surface. We conducted surface science studies on the surfaces of thin-films rather than on the surfaces of bulk single crystal oxides. The growth, characterization and properties of these thin-films are also examined.« less

  20. Photodissociation of Cerium Oxide Nanocluster Cations.

    PubMed

    Akin, S T; Ard, S G; Dye, B E; Schaefer, H F; Duncan, M A

    2016-04-21

    Cerium oxide cluster cations, CexOy(+), are produced via laser vaporization in a pulsed nozzle source and detected with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The mass spectrum displays a strongly preferred oxide stoichiometry for each cluster with a specific number of metal atoms x, with x ≤ y. Specifically, the most prominent clusters correspond to the formula CeO(CeO2)n(+). The cluster cations are mass selected and photodissociated with a Nd:YAG laser at either 532 or 355 nm. The prominent clusters dissociate to produce smaller species also having a similar CeO(CeO2)n(+) formula, always with apparent leaving groups of (CeO2). The production of CeO(CeO2)n(+) from the dissociation of many cluster sizes establishes the relative stability of these clusters. Furthermore, the consistent loss of neutral CeO2 shows that the smallest neutral clusters adopt the same oxidation state (IV) as the most common form of bulk cerium oxide. Clusters with higher oxygen content than the CeO(CeO2)n(+) masses are present with much lower abundance. These species dissociate by the loss of O2, leaving surviving clusters with the CeO(CeO2)n(+) formula. Density functional theory calculations on these clusters suggest structures composed of stable CeO(CeO2)n(+) cores with excess oxygen bound to the surface as a superoxide unit (O2(-)). PMID:27035210

  1. Microstructure of surface cerium hydride growth sites

    SciTech Connect

    Brierley, Martin; Knowles, John; Montgomery, Neil; Preuss, Michael

    2014-05-15

    Samples of cerium were exposed to hydrogen under controlled conditions causing cerium hydride sites to nucleate and grow on the surface. The hydriding rate was measured in situ, and the hydrides were characterised using secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. The results show that the hydriding rate proceeded more quickly than earlier studies. Characterisation confirmed that the hydrogen is confined to the sites. The morphology of the hydrides was confirmed to be oblate, and stressed material was observed surrounding the hydride, in a number of cases lathlike features were observed surrounding the hydride sites laterally with cracking in the surface oxide above them. It is proposed that during growth the increased lattice parameter of the CeH{sub 2} induces a lateral compressive stress around the hydride, which relieves by the ca. 16% volume collapse of the γ-Ce to α-Ce pressure induced phase transition. Cracking of the surface oxide above the laths reduces the diffusion barrier to hydrogen reaching the metal/oxide interface surrounding the hydride site and contributes to the anisotropic growth of the hydrides.

  2. The surface chemistry of cerium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, David R.

    2015-01-29

    Our review covers the structure of, and chemical reactions on, well-defined cerium oxide surfaces. Ceria, or mixed oxides containing ceria, are critical components in automotive three-way catalysts due to their well-known oxygen storage capacity. Ceria is also emerging as an important material in a number of other catalytic processes, particularly those involving organic oxygenates and the water–gas shift reaction. Ceria's acid–base properties, and thus its catalytic behavior, are closely related to its surface structure where different oxygen anion and cerium cation environments are present on the low-index structural faces. The actual structure of these various faces has been the focus of a number of theoretical and experimental investigations. Ceria is also easily reducible from CeO2 to CeO2-X. The presence of oxygen vacancies on the surface often dramatically alters the adsorption and subsequent reactions of various adsorbates, either on a clean surface or on metal particles supported on the surface. We conducted surface science studies on the surfaces of thin-films rather than on the surfaces of bulk single crystal oxides. The growth, characterization and properties of these thin-films are also examined.

  3. A radiotracer study of cerium and manganese uptake onto suspended particles in Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Moffett, J.W. )

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of Ce(III) and Mn(II) were studied in Chesapeake Bay in March and July 1990 to establish the role of water column redox processes in contributing to Ce anomalies observed in this estuary (SHOLKOVITZ and ELDERFIELD, 1988; SHOLKOVITZ et al., 1992). Oxidation was measured by adding Mn(II) and Ce(III) to freshly collected water samples as radiotracers and measuring their uptake onto the ambient suspended particle assemblage. Mn(II) oxidation was measured by following the uptake of [sup 54]Mn(II) onto suspended particles and utilizing protocols established by other workers to distinguish oxidation from Mn(II) adsorption. The same protocols were applicable to Ce(III), using [sup 139]Ce(III), and were supported by the use of [sup 152]Eu(III) as a nonredox reactive control. Specific rates of Ce(III) and MN(II) oxidation measured at a station in the North Bay (depth = 4 m) in July were 2016% per day and 4032% per day, respectively. In March, at the same station, the specific rate of Mn(II) of oxidation was only 1-% per day, and Ce(III) oxidation was undetectable. Both Ce(III) and Mn(II) oxidation processes were inhibited by azide, indicating that they were microbially mediated. The seasonal differences probably reflect strong seasonal variation in the abundance of Mn oxidizing bacteria. No Ce(III) oxidation occured in samples collected below the oxic/anoxic interface in July. The specific rates of oxidation for both elements were over 1000 times higher than those measured in the Sargasso Sea. However, the specific rates for Ce(III) and Mn(II) were very similar to each other. This fact, coupled with similar spatial and temporal trends for specific oxidation rates, suggests a common mechanism of oxidation of both elements which may be significant in a wide range of marine environments.

  4. Cerium stable isotope ratios in ferromanganese deposits and their potential as a paleo-redox proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ryoichi; Takahashi, Yoshio; Tanimizu, Masaharu

    2016-05-01

    The cerium (Ce) anomaly observed in rare earth element (REE) patterns has been used to estimate the redox state of paleo-marine environments. Cerium is unique because it forms tetravalent cations under oxic conditions, in contrast to the other REEs that occur in a trivalent state. This characteristic leads to anomalously high or low Ce concentrations relative to neighboring REEs. However, the use of Ce anomaly as a paleo-redox proxy is not well calibrated. This study shows that coupling of the Ce anomaly and Ce stable isotope ratio (δ142Ce) is more quantitative redox proxy to distinguish suboxic and oxic redox conditions. Our results revealed a progressive enrichment in heavy Ce isotopes in consecutive formations of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) precipitate from hot spring water without any associated change in REE patterns. The δ142Ce values of Mn precipitates were approximately 0.35‰ heavier than those of the Fe precipitates, which was consistent with experiment-based predictions. The δ142Ce values of marine ferromanganese deposits with three different formation processes were hydrogenetic (+0.25‰) > diagenetic (+0.10‰) ⩾ hydrothermal (+0.05‰), which also reflects redox conditions of their formation environment. These observations suggest that the Ce stable isotope ratios yield more quantitative information regarding redox state than REE patterns alone. We thus suggest that this novel proxy can be successfully utilized to reconstruct marine redox states, particularly from slightly oxic to highly oxic conditions such as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE).

  5. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-10-02

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane ceriummore » gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.« less

  6. Optical glass surfaces polishing by cerium oxide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzid, D.; Belkhie, N.; Aliouane, T.

    2012-02-01

    The use of powders in metallic oxides as means of grinding and polishing of the optical glass components have seen recently a large application in optical industry. In fact, cerium oxide abrasive is more used in the optical glass polishing. It is used as grains abrasive in suspension or fixed abrasive (pellets); these pellets are manufactured from a mixture made of cerium oxide abrasive and a organic binder. The cerium oxide used in the experiments is made by (Logitech USA) of 99 % purity, the average grain size of the particle is 300 nm, the density being 6,74 g /cm3 and the specific surface is 3,3042 m2/g. In this study, we are interested in the surfaces quality of the optical glass borosilicate crown (BK7) polished by particles in cerium oxide bounded by epoxy. The surfaces of the optical glass treated are characterized by the roughness, the flatness by using the microscope Zygo and the SEM.

  7. Heteroaggregation of cerium oxide nanoparticles and nanoparticles of pyrolyzed biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heteroaggregation with indigenous particles is an important process controlling the mobility of engineered nanomaterials in the environment. We studied heteroaggregation of cerium oxide nanoparticles (n-CeO2), which are widely used commercially, with nanoparticles of pyrogenic carbonaceous material ...

  8. Titanium hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1995-07-04

    Titanium is prenitrided by being heated in a nitrogen environment under conditions which give rise to the formation of a titanium-nitride surface layer on the titanium. Titanium thus prenitrided may be used in electrical components which are hermetically sealed using silicate glasses and standard glass sealing techniques. According to the method of the invention, alkali volatilization and formation of deleterious interfacial silicide are inhibited.

  9. Titanium hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1995-01-01

    Titanium is prenitrided by being heated in a nitrogen environment under conditions which give rise to the formation of a titanium-nitride surface layer on the titanium. Titanium thus prenitrided may be used in electrical components which are hermetically sealed using silicate glasses and standard glass sealing techniques. According to the method of the invention, alkali volatilization and formation of deleterious interfacial silicide are inhibited.

  10. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1988-01-21

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  11. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1992-01-01

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  12. Mineral of the month: manganese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corathers, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Manganese is one of the most important ferrous metals and one of the few for which the United States is totally dependent on imports. It is a black, brittle element predominantly used in metallurgical applications as an alloying addition, particularly in steel and cast iron production, which together provide the largest market for manganese (about 83 percent). It is also used as an alloy with nonferrous metals such as aluminum and copper. Nonmetallurgical applications of manganese include battery cathodes, soft ferrite magnets used in electronics, micronutrients found in fertilizers and animal feed, water treatment chemicals, and a colorant for bricks and ceramics.

  13. Method of applying a cerium diffusion coating to a metallic alloy

    DOEpatents

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Alman, David E.

    2009-06-30

    A method of applying a cerium diffusion coating to a preferred nickel base alloy substrate has been discovered. A cerium oxide paste containing a halide activator is applied to the polished substrate and then dried. The workpiece is heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to diffuse cerium into the substrate. After cooling, any remaining cerium oxide is removed. The resulting cerium diffusion coating on the nickel base substrate demonstrates improved resistance to oxidation. Cerium coated alloys are particularly useful as components in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).

  14. Control of cerium oxidation state through metal complex secondary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Jessica R.; Dorfner, Walter L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2015-08-11

    A series of alkali metal cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes, Mx(py)y[Ce(PhNNPh)4], M = Li, Na, and K, x = 4 (Li and Na) or 5 (K), and y = 4 (Li), 8 (Na), or 7 (K), were synthesized to probe how a secondary coordination sphere would modulate electronic structures at a cerium cation. The resulting electronic structures of the heterobimetallic cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes were found to be strongly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal cations. When M = Li+ or Na+, the cerium(III) starting material was oxidized with concomitant reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to aniline. Reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine was not observed when M = K+, and the complex remained in the cerium(III) oxidation state. Oxidation of the cerium(III) diphenylhydrazido complex to the Ce(IV) diphenylhydrazido one was achieved through a simple cation exchange reaction of the alkali metals. As a result, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and DFT studies were used to probe the oxidation state and the electronic changes that occurred at the metal centre.

  15. Control of cerium oxidation state through metal complex secondary structures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Levin, Jessica R.; Dorfner, Walter L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2015-08-11

    A series of alkali metal cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes, Mx(py)y[Ce(PhNNPh)4], M = Li, Na, and K, x = 4 (Li and Na) or 5 (K), and y = 4 (Li), 8 (Na), or 7 (K), were synthesized to probe how a secondary coordination sphere would modulate electronic structures at a cerium cation. The resulting electronic structures of the heterobimetallic cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes were found to be strongly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal cations. When M = Li+ or Na+, the cerium(III) starting material was oxidized with concomitant reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to aniline. Reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine was not observedmore » when M = K+, and the complex remained in the cerium(III) oxidation state. Oxidation of the cerium(III) diphenylhydrazido complex to the Ce(IV) diphenylhydrazido one was achieved through a simple cation exchange reaction of the alkali metals. As a result, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and DFT studies were used to probe the oxidation state and the electronic changes that occurred at the metal centre.« less

  16. The potential toxic effects of cerium on organism: cerium prolonged the developmental time and induced the expression of Hsp70 and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Di; Wang, Dan; Qi, Chunyan; Li, Zongyun

    2012-10-01

    Due to the widespread application of cerium, a rare earth element, the risk of exposure to cerium has increased. Therefore, understanding the physiological effects of cerium is of great importance. Our previous work showed that cerium caused significant lifespan shortening accompanied by oxidative damage in Drosophila melanogaster, however, little is known about the detailed mechanism of cerium-induced cytotoxicity. Thus, we examined the developmental time during metamorphosis, and assessed the toxic effects of cerium by evaluating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), DNA damage markers and apoptosis in D. melanogaster. We found that cerium extended the developmental time of D. melanogaster and up-regulated the expression of Hsp70 when the concentration of cerium was increased (especially concentrations over 26.3 μg/g). Up-regulation of the cell cycle checkpoint p53 and cell signaling protein p38 were also observed when the concentration of cerium was over 104 μg/g. In addition, the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, markers of apoptosis, were significantly higher when the larvae were exposed to ceric sulfate. These results suggest that high concentrations of cerium may result in DNA damage and ultimately apoptosis in D. melanogaster, and strongly indicate that cerium should be applied with caution and the potential toxic effects in humans should also be taken into consideration. PMID:22707041

  17. Extraction chromatography of quadrivalent titanium and zirconium from succinate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shete, S.D.; Shinde, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid ion exchangers such as tri-n-octyl amine (TOA), tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and Aliquat 336 have been used in this laboratory for analytical separation of vanadium(V) and niobium(V), indium(III), thalium(III), thorium(IV), cerium(IV) from succinate solutions. Extension of this study has revealed that benzene solutions of TOA, TIOA and Aliquat 336 could be used for anion exchange extraction of quadrivalent titanium and zirconium from succinate solution. The metal ions from the organic phase are stripped and determined spectrophotometrically. Solvent extraction methods for titanium(IV) and zirconium(IV) have been reviewed by De et al. and Korkisch in their monographs. Diethylamine, tri-ethylamine and tributylamine have been used for extraction of titanium from thiocyanate and citrate solution. Similarly high molecular weight amines such as TOA and TIOA have been used for the extraction of zirconium from mineral acids, but systematic solvent extraction separation of titanium(IV) and zirconium(IV) is lacking. In this communication we propose a new method for selective extraction and separation of titaium(IV) and zirconium(IV) from metal ions such as Mn, Cr, Mo, V, U, La, Ta, Th and Hf. The proposed method is comparatively free from drawbacks such as pre-equilibration of phases, multiple scrubbing, multiple extraction and coextraction of a large number of cations and anions.

  18. Manganese oxidation model for rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Glen W.; Kim, Byung R.; Roberts, Philip J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of manganese in natural waters (>0.05 mg/L) degrades water-supply quality. A model was devised to predict the variation of manganese concentrations in river water released from an impoundment with the distance downstream. The model is one-dimensional and was calibrated using dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, pH, manganese, and hydraulic data collected in the Duck River, Tennessee. The results indicated that the model can predict manganese levels under various conditions. The model was then applied to the Chattahoochee River, Georgia. Discrepancies between observed and predicted may be due to inadequate pH data, precipitation of sediment particles, unsteady flow conditions in the Chattahoochee River, inaccurate rate expressions for the low pH conditions, or their combinations.

  19. UV laser induced photochromic centers in cerium doped calcium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Pogatshnik, G.J.; Hamilton, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The optical excitation of the lowest 4f to 5d transition in Ce/sup 3 +/:CaF/sub 2/ by the 308 mm output of a Xe-Cl excimer laser results in strong coloration. The centers created were found to be divalent cerium ions at cubic sites. The system exhibits photochromic properties; the crystal can be returned to the original transparent state by illuminating it with light which is absorbed by the divalent cerium ions. The creation process for these photochromic centers involves a resonant two-photon transition from the 4f ground state of the cerium ion to the conduction band of the CaF/sub 2/ host. The lowest 5d level of the cerium ion serves as the real intermediate state for this transition. The photoionized electron can be trapped by another trivalent cerium ion at a site of cubic symmetry. These impurity sites with O/sub h/ symmetry result when the charge compensator associated with the rare earth ion is somewhat removed from the cerium ion site. The charge compensator is needed to maintain charge neutrality in the crystal when a trivalent rare earth is substituted for a Ca ion in the host lattice. The absence of a local charge compensator at a Ce/sup 3 +/ site with O/sub h/ symmetry, provides a net positive Coulombic potential, which aids in the trapping of electrons from the conduction band. The capture of an electron by a cerium ion at cubic site, changes the valence state of the ion to Ce/sup 2 +/ which accounts for the coloration of the crystal after illumination with uv laser light. A model for the production of the photochromic centers is presented.

  20. On the system cerium-platinum-silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Gribanov, Alexander Grytsiv, Andriy; Royanian, Esmaeil; Rogl, Peter; Bauer, Ernst; Giester, Gerald; Seropegin, Yurii

    2008-11-15

    Phase relations in the ternary system Ce-Pt-Si have been established for the isothermal section at 800 deg. C based on X-ray powder diffraction, metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) techniques on about 120 alloys, which were prepared by various methods employing arc-melting under argon or powder reaction sintering. Nineteen ternary compounds were observed. Atom order in the crystal structures of {tau}{sub 18}-Ce{sub 5}(Pt,Si){sub 4} (Pnma; a=0.77223(3) nm, b=1.53279(8) nm c=0.80054(5) nm), {tau}{sub 3}-Ce{sub 2}Pt{sub 7}Si{sub 4} (Pnma; a=1.96335(8) nm, b=0.40361(4) nm, c=1.12240(6) nm) and {tau}{sub 10}-CePtSi{sub 2} (Cmcm; a=0.42943(2) nm, b=1.67357(5) nm, c=0.42372(2) nm) was determined by direct methods from X-ray single-crystal CCD data and found to be isotypic with the Sm{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}-type, the Ce{sub 2}Pt{sub 7}Ge{sub 4}-type and the CeNiSi{sub 2}-type, respectively. Rietveld refinements established the atom arrangement in the structures of Pt{sub 3}Si (Pt{sub 3}Ge-type, C2/m, a=0.7724(2) nm, b=0.7767(2) nm, c=0.5390(2) nm, {beta}=133.86(2){sup o}), {tau}{sub 16}-Ce{sub 3}Pt{sub 5}Si (Ce{sub 3}Pd{sub 5}Si-type, Imma, a=0.74025(8) nm, b=1.2951(2) nm, c=0.7508(1) nm) and {tau}{sub 17}-Ce{sub 3}PtSi{sub 3} (Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}-type, Immm, a=0.41065(5) nm, b=0.43221(5) nm, c=1.8375(3) nm). Phase equilibria in Ce-Pt-Si are characterised by the absence of cerium solubility in platinum silicides. Cerium silicides and cerium platinides, however, dissolve significant amounts of the third component, whereby random substitution of the almost equally sized atom species platinum and silicon is reflected in extended homogeneous regions at constant Ce content such as for {tau}{sub 13}-Ce(Pt{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}){sub 2}, {tau}{sub 6}-Ce{sub 2}Pt{sub 3+x}Si{sub 5-x} or {tau}{sub 7}-CePt{sub 2-x}Si{sub 2+x}. - Graphical abstract: Phase relations in the ternary system Ce-Pt-Si have been established for the isothermal

  1. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-05-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  2. Extraction of manganese from electrolytic manganese residue by bioleaching.

    PubMed

    Xin, Baoping; Chen, Bing; Duan, Ning; Zhou, Changbo

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of manganese from electrolytic manganese residues using bioleaching was investigated in this paper. The maximum extraction efficiency of Mn was 93% by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria at 4.0 g/l sulfur after bioleaching of 9days, while the maximum extraction efficiency of Mn was 81% by pyrite-leaching bacteria at 4.0 g/l pyrite. The series bioleaching first by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and followed by pyrite-leaching bacteria evidently promoted the extraction of manganese, witnessing the maximum extraction efficiency of 98.1%. In the case of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, the strong dissolution of bio-generated sulfuric acid resulted in extraction of soluble Mn2+, while both the Fe2+ catalyzed reduction of Mn4+ and weak acidic dissolution of Mn2+ accounted for the extraction of manganese with pyrite-leaching bacteria. The chemical simulation of bioleaching process further confirmed that the acid dissolution of Mn2+ and Fe2+ catalyzed reduction of Mn4+ were the bioleaching mechanisms involved for Mn extraction from electrolytic manganese residues. PMID:21050747

  3. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-06-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  4. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR CERIUM OXIDE (STABLE) AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cerium is a member of the lanthanoid series of rare earth metals. It is also the most abundant and most reactive of the rare earth metals. Cerium oxidizes at room temperature and forms a variety of salt compounds including oxides, hydroxides, sulfates and chlorides. Cerium is ...

  5. Potential for recovery of cerium contained in automotive catalytic converters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic converters (CATCONs) are required by Federal law to be installed in nearly all gasoline- and diesel-fueled onroad vehicles used in the United States. About 85 percent of the light-duty vehicles and trucks manufactured worldwide are equipped with CATCONs. Portions of the CATCONs (called monoliths) are recycled for their platinum-group metal (PGM) content and for the value of the stainless steel they contain. The cerium contained in the monoliths, however, is disposed of along with the slag produced from the recycling process. Although there is some smelter capacity in the United States to treat the monoliths in order to recover the PGMs, a great percentage of monoliths is exported to Europe and South Africa for recycling, and a lesser amount is exported to Japan. There is presently no commercial-scale capacity in place domestically to recover cerium from the monoliths. Recycling of cerium or cerium compounds from the monoliths could help ensure against possible global supply shortages by increasing the amount that is available in the supply chain as well as the number and geographic distribution of the suppliers. It could also reduce the amount of material that goes into landfills. Also, the additional supply could lower the price of the commodity. This report analyzes how much cerium oxide is contained in CATCONs and how much could be recovered from used CATCONs.

  6. Potentiometric analysis using solutions of cerium sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Pugin., G.V.; Pisarevskii, A.M.; Polozova, I.P.; Shults, M.M.

    1986-06-01

    In a previous work the authors outlined the bases of a new method of instrumental determination of the chemical oxygen consumption (COC): The analysis is performed within the framework of the umpire analysis of COC, but the consumption of the oxidizing agent is continuously recorded according to the change in the emf of the galvanic cell (glass pH-metric electrode; cerium (IV,III) sulfates, potassium bichromate, 7.5 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/; and glass redoximetric electrode EO-021. The authors contend that potentiometric recording permits not only a simplication of the determination of COC but also the removal of the rigid limitations on the time of boiling of the sample. Additional information may be obtained on the corresponding and difficultly oxidized substances in the sample to be analyzed. It is noted after a discussion of main peculiarities of the cell that the selection of the conditions of analysis is dictated largely by the requirements set in the determinations of COC which permits a number of shortcomings of the potentiometric method to be determined.

  7. Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Cerium Monopnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Vyoma; Singh, Devraj; Jain, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon-phonon interaction, thermoelastic relaxation and dislocation damping mechanisms has been investigated in cerium monopnictides CeX (X: N, P, As, Sb and Bi) for longitudinal and shear waves along {< }100{rangle }, {< }110{rangle } and {< }111{rangle } directions. The second- and third-order elastic constants of CeX have also been computed in the temperature range 0 K to 500 K using Coulomb and Born-Mayer potential upto second nearest neighbours. The computed values of these elastic constants have been applied to find out Young's moduli, bulk moduli, Breazeale's non-linearity parameters, Zener anisotropy, ultrasonic velocity, ultrasonic Grüneisen parameter, thermal relaxation time, acoustic coupling constants and ultrasonic attenuation. The fracture/toughness ratio is less than 1.75, which shows that the chosen materials are brittle in nature as found for other monopnictides. The drag coefficient acting on the motion of screw and edge dislocations due to shear and compressional phonon viscosities of the lattice have also been evaluated for both the longitudinal and shear waves. The thermoelastic loss and dislocation damping loss are negligible in comparison to loss due to Akhieser damping (phonon-phonon interaction). The obtained results for CeX are in qualitative agreement with other semi-metallic monopnictides.

  8. Characterization of cerium fluoride nanocomposite scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Esch, Ernst I; Brown, Leif O; Couture, Aaron J; Mckigney, Edward A; Muenchausen, Ross E; Del Sesto, Rico E; Gilbertson, Robert D; Mccleskey, T Mark; Reifarth, Rene

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the neutron capture cross-sections of a number of short-lived isotopes would advance both pure and applied scientific research. These cross-sections are needed for calculation of criticality and waste production estimates for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, for analysis of data from nuclear weapons tests, and to improve understanding of nucleosynthesis. However, measurement of these cross-sections would require a detector with a faster signal decay time than those used in existing neutron capture experiments. Crystals of faster detector materials are not available in sufficient sizes and quantities to supply these large-scale experiments. Instead, we propose to use nanocomposite detectors, consisting of nanoscale particles of a scintillating material dispersed in a matrix material. We have successfully fabricated cerium fluoride (CeF{sub 3}) nanoparticles and dispersed them in a liquid matrix. We have characterized this scintillator and have measured its response to neutron capture. Results of the optical, structural, and radiation characterization will be presented.

  9. Environmental geochemistry of cerium: applications and toxicology of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Jessica T; Arai, Yuji

    2015-02-01

    Cerium is the most abundant of rare-earth metals found in the Earth's crust. Several Ce-carbonate, -phosphate, -silicate, and -(hydr)oxide minerals have been historically mined and processed for pharmaceutical uses and industrial applications. Of all Ce minerals, cerium dioxide has received much attention in the global nanotechnology market due to their useful applications for catalysts, fuel cells, and fuel additives. A recent mass flow modeling study predicted that a major source of CeO2 nanoparticles from industrial processing plants (e.g., electronics and optics manufactures) is likely to reach the terrestrial environment such as landfills and soils. The environmental fate of CeO2 nanoparticles is highly dependent on its physcochemical properties in low temperature geochemical environment. Though there are needs in improving the analytical method in detecting/quantifying CeO2 nanoparticles in different environmental media, it is clear that aquatic and terrestrial organisms have been exposed to CeO2 NPs, potentially yielding in negative impact on human and ecosystem health. Interestingly, there has been contradicting reports about the toxicological effects of CeO2 nanoparticles, acting as either an antioxidant or reactive oxygen species production-inducing agent). This poses a challenge in future regulations for the CeO2 nanoparticle application and the risk assessment in the environment. PMID:25625406

  10. Environmental Geochemistry of Cerium: Applications and Toxicology of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dahle, Jessica T.; Arai, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Cerium is the most abundant of rare-earth metals found in the Earth’s crust. Several Ce-carbonate, -phosphate, -silicate, and -(hydr)oxide minerals have been historically mined and processed for pharmaceutical uses and industrial applications. Of all Ce minerals, cerium dioxide has received much attention in the global nanotechnology market due to their useful applications for catalysts, fuel cells, and fuel additives. A recent mass flow modeling study predicted that a major source of CeO2 nanoparticles from industrial processing plants (e.g., electronics and optics manufactures) is likely to reach the terrestrial environment such as landfills and soils. The environmental fate of CeO2 nanoparticles is highly dependent on its physcochemical properties in low temperature geochemical environment. Though there are needs in improving the analytical method in detecting/quantifying CeO2 nanoparticles in different environmental media, it is clear that aquatic and terrestrial organisms have been exposed to CeO2 NPs, potentially yielding in negative impact on human and ecosystem health. Interestingly, there has been contradicting reports about the toxicological effects of CeO2 nanoparticles, acting as either an antioxidant or reactive oxygen species production-inducing agent). This poses a challenge in future regulations for the CeO2 nanoparticle application and the risk assessment in the environment. PMID:25625406

  11. Laser Gas Nitriding of Titanium and Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, J. J.; Hou, S. Q.

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in many fields due to some of their characteristics such as light density, high strength, and excellent corrosion resistance. However, poor mechanical performances limit their practical applications. Laser gas nitriding is a promising method used to improve the surface properties of components. Recent developments on laser gas nitriding of titanium and titanium alloys are reviewed. The processing parameters have important effects on the resulting characteristics of titanium and titanium alloys. The resulting microstructure and properties of laser gas nitrided specimens are presented. The problems to be solved and the prospects in the field of laser gas nitriding of titanium and titanium alloys are discussed.

  12. Dichloromethane photodegradation using titanium catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguay, J.F.; Suib, S.L.; Coughlin, R.W. )

    1989-06-01

    The use of titanium dioxide and titanium aluminosilicates in the photocatalytic destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons is investigated. Titanium-exchanged clays, titanium-pillared clays, and titanium dioxide in the amorphous, anatase, and rutile forms are used to photocatalytically degrade dichloromethane to hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Bentonite clays pillared by titanium dioxide are observed to be more catalytically active than titanium-exchanged clays. Clays pillared by titanium aluminum polymeric cations display about the same catalytic activity as that of titanium-exchanged clays. The rutile form of titanium dioxide is the most active catalyst studied for the dichloromethane degradation reaction. The anatase form of titanium dioxide supported on carbon felt was also used as a catalyst. This material is about five times more active than titanium dioxide-pillared clays. Degradation of dichloromethane using any of these catalysts can be enhanced by oxygen enrichment of the reaction solution or by preirradiating the catalyst with light.

  13. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Manganese Oxide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Min; Oh, Kyung Hee; Ham, Kyung-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Carbon spheres have been prepared from glucose under hydrothermal conditions to facilitate the synthesis of hollow manganese oxides. The phases of manganese oxide are controlled by changing annealing temperature of the manganese monoxide on a carbon sphere template. The particles on the carbon surface get an agglomeration and make dense oxide shell during the calcination step, which result in typical hollow structures. The electrochemical properties of hollow manganese oxides have been investigated to elucidate their relative catalytic activities. PMID:27433689

  3. Dehydrogenation of isopropanol on a cerium-nickel catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, E. A.; Naumkin, A. V.; Maslakov, K. I.; Yagodovskii, V. D.

    2012-12-01

    The effect of a cerium additive on the catalytic activity of a 2 wt % Ni/SiO2 catalyst is studied. It found that under both flow and static conditions the activity of (2 wt % Ni + 0.2 wt % Ce)/SiO2 catalyst is higher than that of the original sample; the increase in activity results from a sharp increase in the number of active sites. A change in the composition of the surface layer of the catalysts is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the fraction of nickel decreases and the fraction of carbon increases in cerium-containing catalyst. An explanation of the change in the elemental composition of the catalytic active sites of a nickel catalyst in the presence of cerium is proposed on the basis of XPS data and previous quantum chemical calculations.

  4. Elaboration and characterization of thin solid films containing cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, S.; Guerfi, S.; Siab, R.

    2009-11-01

    Cerium oxide films are widely studied as a promising alternative to Cr(VI) based pre-treatments for the corrosion protection of different metals and alloys. Cathodic electrodeposition of Cerium containing thin films was realised on TA6V substrates from a Ce(NO3)3, 6H2O and mixed water-ethyl alcohol solutions at 0.01 M. Experimental conditions to obtain homogeneous and crack free thin films were determined. The deposited cerium quantity appears proportional to the quantity of electricity used, as indicated by the Faraday law. Subsequent thermal treatment lead to a CeO2 coating, expected to provide an increase of TA6V oxidation resistance at high temperatures. The deposits were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical and scanning electron microscopies.

  5. Manganese depresses rat heart muscle respiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has previously been reported that moderately high dietary manganese (Mn) in combination with marginal magnesium (Mg) resulted in ultrastructural damage to heart mitochondria. Manganese may replace Mg in biological functions, including the role of enzyme cofactor. Manganese may accumulate and subs...

  6. Determination of different valence forms of cerium in glasses using potentiometric titration

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnokova, S.M.; Danilova, I.Yu.; Andreev, P.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a potentiometric method for the quantitative determination of two cerium oxide forms--cerium dioxide and dicerium trioxide--in glasses where the oxides form a major constituent. The method uses hydroquinone as a reducing agent. Cerium valences are also determined. The sensitivity of the method is tested by analyzing known synthetic mixtures simulating the composition of the glasses. The method has been used to determine the total concentration of cerium and to monitor the redox regime in glass melting furnaces during the melting of cerium-containing glasses.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium doped cerium oxide for the fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumari, Monika; Kumar, Mintu; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Cerium oxide has attained much attentions in global nanotechnology market due to valuable application for catalytic, fuel additive, and widely as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cell. Doped cerium oxide has large oxygen vacancies that allow for greater reactivity and faster ion transport. These properties make cerium oxide suitable material for SOFCs application. Cerium oxide electrolyte requires lower operation temperature which shows improvement in processing and the fabrication technique. In our work, we synthesized magnesium doped cerium oxide by the co-precipitation method. With the magnesium doping catalytic reactivity of CeO2 was increased. Synthesized nanoparticle were characterized by the XRD and UV absorption techniques.

  8. Optical and electrical studies of cerium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherly, T. R.; Raveendran, R.

    2014-10-01

    The fast development in nanotechnology makes enthusiastic interest in developing nanomaterials having tailor made properties. Cerium mixed oxide materials have received great attention due to their UV absorption property, high reactivity, stability at high temperature, good electrical property etc and these materials find wide applications in solid oxide fuel cells, solar control films, cosmetics, display units, gas sensors etc. In this study cerium mixed oxide compounds were prepared by co-precipitation method. All the samples were doped with Zn (II) and Fe (II). Preliminary characterizations such as XRD, SEM / EDS, TEM were done. UV - Vis, Diffuse reflectance, PL, FT-IR, Raman and ac conductivity studies of the samples were performed.

  9. In situ growth of epitaxial cerium tungstate (100) thin films.

    PubMed

    Skála, Tomáš; Tsud, Nataliya; Orti, Miguel Ángel Niño; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Locatelli, Andrea; Prince, Kevin Charles; Matolín, Vladimír

    2011-04-21

    The deposition of ceria on a preoxidized W(110) crystal at 870 K has been studied in situ by photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. Formation of an epitaxial layer of crystalline cerium tungstate Ce(6)WO(12)(100), with the metals in the Ce(3+) and W(6+) chemical states, has been observed. The interface between the tungsten substrate and the tungstate film consists of WO suboxide. At thicknesses above 0.89 nm, cerium dioxide grows on the surface of Ce(6)WO(12), favoured by the limited diffusion of tungsten from the substrate. PMID:21399780

  10. The effective thermal conductivity of an adsorbent - Praseodymium cerium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secary, J. J.; Tong, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to determine the effective thermal conductivity of praseodymium cerium oxide are reported. Praseodymium cerium oxide is an adsorbent used in the development of adsorption compressors for spaceborne refrigeration systems. A guarded-hot-plate apparatus was built for this study. Measurements were carried out for mean temperatures ranging from 300 to 600 C under a vacuum of 10 exp -5 torr. For the temperature range studied, the effective thermal conductivity increased from 0.14 to 0.76 W/m per C with increasing temperature, while displaying a cubic temperature dependency.

  11. Optical and electrical studies of cerium mixed oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Sherly, T. R.; Raveendran, R.

    2014-10-15

    The fast development in nanotechnology makes enthusiastic interest in developing nanomaterials having tailor made properties. Cerium mixed oxide materials have received great attention due to their UV absorption property, high reactivity, stability at high temperature, good electrical property etc and these materials find wide applications in solid oxide fuel cells, solar control films, cosmetics, display units, gas sensors etc. In this study cerium mixed oxide compounds were prepared by co-precipitation method. All the samples were doped with Zn (II) and Fe (II). Preliminary characterizations such as XRD, SEM / EDS, TEM were done. UV - Vis, Diffuse reflectance, PL, FT-IR, Raman and ac conductivity studies of the samples were performed.

  12. SEPARATING PROTOACTINIUM WITH MANGANESE DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-04-22

    The preparation of U/sup 235/ and an improved method for isolating Pa/ sup 233/ from foreign products present in neutronirradiated thorium is described. The method comprises forming a solution of neutron-irradiated thorium together with a manganous salt, then adding potassium permanganate to precipitate the manganese as manganese dioxide whereby protoactinium is carried down with the nnanganese dioxide dissolving the precipitate, adding a soluble zirconium salt, and adding phosphate ion to precipitate zirconium phosphate whereby protoactinium is then carried down with the zirconium phosphate to effect a further concentration.

  13. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-07-15

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O), silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), or titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900 C, and generally about 700--800 C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 1 fig.

  14. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  15. Cerium Oxyhydroxide Clusters: Formation, Structure and Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Aubriet, F.; Gaumet, Jean-Jacques; De Jong, Wibe A.; Groenewold, G. S.; Gianotto, Anita K.; McIIwain, Michael E.; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Leavitt, Christopher M.

    2009-05-11

    Cerium oxyhydroxide cluster anions were produced by irradiating ceric oxide particles using 355 nm laser pulses that were synchronized with pulses of nitrogen gas admitted to the irradiation chamber. The gas pulse stabilized the nascent clusters that are largely anhydrous [CexOy] ions and neutrals. These initially-formed species react with water, principally forming closed-shell (c-s) oxohydroxy species that are described by the general formula [CexOy(OH)z]-. In general, the extent of hydroxylation varies from a value of 3 OH per Ce atom when x = 1 to a value slightly greater than 1 for x > 8. The Ce3 and Ce6 species deviate significantly from this trend: the x = 3 cluster accommodates more hydroxyl moieties compared to neighboring congeners at x = 2 and x = 4. Conversely, the x = 6 cluster is significantly less hydroxylated. Density functional theory (DFT) modeling of the cluster structures show that the hydrated clusters are hydrolyzed, and contain one-to-multiple hydroxide moieties, but not datively bound water. DFT also predicts an energetic preference for formation of highly symmetric structures as the size of the clusters increases. The calculated structures indicate that the ability of the Ce3 oxyhydroxide to accommodate more extensive hydroxylation is due to a more open, hexagonal structure in which the Ce atoms can participate in multiple hydrolysis reactions. Conversely the Ce6 oxyhydroxide has an octahedral structure that is not conducive to hydrolysis. In addition to the c-s clusters, open-shell (o-s) oxyhydroxides and superoxides are also formed, and they become more prominent as the size of the clusters increases, suggesting that the larger ceria clusters have an increased ability to stabilize a non-bonding electron. The overall intensity of the clusters tends to monotonically decrease as the cluster size increases, however this trend is interrupted at Ce13, which is significantly more stable compared to neighboring congeners, suggesting formation of

  16. Cerium Oxyhydroxide Clusters: Formation, Structure and Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Frederic Aubriet; Jean-Jacques Gaumet; Wibe A de Jong; Groenewold, Gary S; Gianotto, Anita K; McIlwain, Michael E; Michael J. Van Stipdonk; Christopher M. Leavitt

    2009-06-01

    Cerium oxyhydroxide cluster anions were produced by irradiating ceric oxide particles using 355 nm laser pulses that were synchronized with pulses of nitrogen gas admitted to the irradiation chamber. The gas pulse stabilized the nascent clusters that are largely anhydrous [CexOy] ions and neutrals. These initially-formed species react with water, principally forming closed-shell (c-s) oxohydroxy species that are described by the general formula [CexOy(OH)z]-. In general, the extent of hydroxylation varies from a value of 3 OH per Ce atom when x = 1 to a value slightly greater than 1 for x > 8. The Ce3 and Ce6 species deviate significantly from this trend: the x = 3 cluster accommodates more hydroxyl moieties compared to neighboring congeners at x = 2 and x = 4. Conversely, the x = 6 cluster is significantly less hydroxylated. Density functional theory (DFT) modeling of the cluster structures show that the hydrated clusters are hydrolyzed, and contain one-to-multiple hydroxide moieties, but not datively bound water. DFT also predicts an energetic preference for formation of highly symmetric structures as the size of the clusters increases. The calculated structures indicate that the ability of the Ce3 oxyhydroxide to accommodate more extensive hydroxylation is due to a more open, hexagonal structure in which the Ce atoms can participate in multiple hydrolysis reactions. Conversely the Ce6 oxyhydroxide has an octahedral structure that is not conducive to hydrolysis. In addition to the c-s clusters, open-shell (o-s) oxyhydroxides and superoxides are also formed, and they become more prominent as the size of the clusters increases, suggesting that the larger ceria clusters have an increased ability to stabilize a non-bonding electron. The overall intensity of the clusters tends to monotonically decrease as the cluster size increases, however this trend is interrupted at Ce13, which is significantly more stable compared to neighboring congeners, suggesting formation of

  17. Properties of Cerium Containing Lead Free Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huxiao

    With increasing concerns of the intrinsic toxicity of lead (Pb) in electronics, a series of tin (Sn) based alloys involving silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) have been proposed as replacements for Pb-Sn solder and widely accepted by industry. However, they have a higher melting point and often exhibit poorer damage tolerance than Pb-Sn alloys. Recently, a new class of alloys with trace amount of rare-earth (RE) elements has been discovered and investigated. In previous work from Prof. Chawla's group, it has been shown that cerium (Ce)-based Pb-free solder are less prone to oxidation and Sn whiskering, and exhibit desirable attributes of microstructural refinement and enhanced ductility relative to lanthanum (La)-based Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu (SAC) alloy. Although the formation of RESn3 was believed to be directly responsible for the enhanced ductility in RE-containing SAC solder by allowing microscopic voids to nucleate throughout the solder volume, this cavitation-based mechanism needs to be validated experimentally and numerically. Additionally, since the previous study has exhibited the realistic feasibility of Ce-based SAC lead-free solder alloy as a replacement to conventional SAC alloys, in this study, the proposed objective focuses on the in in-depth understanding of mechanism of enhanced ductility in Ce-based SAC alloy and possible issues associated with integration of this new class of solder into electronic industry, including: (a) study of long-term thermal and mechanical stability on industrial metallization, (b) examine the role of solder volume and wetting behavior of the new solder, relative to Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu alloys, (c) conduct experiments of new solder alloys in the form of mechanical shock and electromigration. The research of this new class alloys will be conducted in industrially relevant conditions, and the results would serve as the first step toward integration of these new, next generation solders into the industry.

  18. Sprayable titanium composition

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, Chester E.; Kern, Werner; Vibronek, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    The addition of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to an organometallic titanium compound dissolved in a diluent and optionally containing a lower aliphatic alcohol spreading modifier, produces a solution that can be sprayed onto a substrate and cured to form an antireflection titanium oxide coating having a refractive index of from about 2.0 to 2.2.

  19. Influence of essential elements on manganese intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Khandelwal, S.; Ashquin, M.; Tandon, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    With a view to explore the influence of essential metals in manganese intoxication, the effect of calcium, iron or zinc supplementation on the uptake of manganese and on the activity of manganese sensitive enzymes, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in brain and liver of rat was investigated. The choice of the two mitochondrial enzymes was based on the fact that the mitochondria are the chief site of manganese accumulation and their activity in brain, liver and blood of rats is significantly influenced by manganese.

  20. Hydrothermal preparation of fractal dendrites: Cerium carbonate hydroxide and cerium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Mingzai; Zhang Qihua; Liu Yanmei; Fang Qingqing; Liu Xiansong

    2009-06-03

    The surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route was used to prepare fractal dendrite cerium carbonate hydroxide (CeOHCO{sub 3}) microstructures. After annealing at 600 deg. C for 4 h, the products were transformed to CeO{sub 2}. The crystal structures of the two compounds were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphologies and microstructures were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) showed that a strong ultraviolet emission at 336 nm was observed for CeOHCO{sub 3}, and that centered at 415 nm for CeO{sub 2} microstructures. Both of these emission peaks are different from those reported for CeOHCO{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} with other shapes. In addition, the possible growth mechanism of dendrite CeOHCO{sub 3} microstructures and the role of surfactant polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were also investigated in this paper.

  1. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiko, R. S.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides) was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  2. Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Borglum, Brian P.; Bessette, Norman F.

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

  3. Cerium; Crystal Structure and Position in The Periodic Table

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Börje; Luo, Wei; Li, Sa; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the cerium metal have intrigued physicists and chemists for many decades. In particular a lot of attention has been directed towards its high pressure behavior, where an isostructural volume collapse (γ phase → α phase) has been observed. Two main models of the electronic aspect of this transformation have been proposed; one where the 4f electron undergoes a change from being localized into an itinerant metallic state, and one where the focus is on the interaction between the 4f electron and the conduction electrons, often referred to as the Kondo volume collapse model. However, over the years it has been repeatedly questioned whether the cerium collapse really is isostructural. Most recently, detailed experiments have been able to remove this worrisome uncertainty. Therefore the isostructural aspect of the α-γ transition has now to be seriously addressed in the theoretical modeling, something which has been very much neglected. A study of this fundamental characteristic of the cerium volume collapse is made in present paper and we show that the localized ⇌ delocalized 4f electron picture provides an adequate description of this unique behavior. This agreement makes it possible to suggest that an appropriate crossroad position for cerium in The Periodic Table. PMID:25227991

  4. (Hydro)peroxide ligands on colloidal cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Damatov, Delina; Mayer, James M

    2016-08-11

    Anhydrous H2O2 reacts with organic colloidal solutions of ceria nanoparticles to form a stable surface peroxo/hydroperoxo species with the release of oleate capping ligands into solution. A new optical spectroscopic signature was identified for cerium-peroxo/hydroperoxo species in solution and correlated with solid-state IR spectroscopy and chemical reactivity. PMID:27468991

  5. Ce-Cu-Si (Cerium-Copper-Silicon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materials Science International Team MSIT

    This document is part of Subvolume C2 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 2: Selected Copper Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Cerium-Copper-Silicon.

  6. Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and DNA Damage Responses Elicited by Silver, Titanium Dioxide, and Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous literature on the biological effects of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on oxidative stress and inflammation endpoints without further investigating potential pathways. Here we examine time-sensitive biological response pathways affected by engineered nanoma...

  7. The genotoxicity of titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use ofengineered nanoparticles in both current and future consumer products is steadily increasing. However, the health effects of exposure to these nanoparticles are not thoroughly understood. Recently, particular emphasis has been placed on particle characterization and the...

  8. Toxicity assessment of Titanium Dioxide and Cerium Oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The production and applications of nanoparticles (NP) in diverse fields has steadily increased in recent decades; however, knowledge about risks of NP to human health and ecosystems is still scarce. In this study, we assessed potential toxicity of two commercially used engineere...

  9. Cerium as a surrogate in the plutonium immobilization waste form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, James Christopher

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, approximately 50 tonnes (MT) of weapons useable plutonium (Pu) has been identified as excess. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has decided that at least a portion of this material will be immobilized in a titanate-based ceramic for final disposal in a geologic repository. The baseline formulation was designed to produce a ceramic consisting primarily of a highly substituted pyrochlore with minor amounts of brannerite and hafnia-substituted rutile. Since development studies with actual actinide materials is difficult, surrogates have been used to facilitate testing. Cerium has routinely been used as an actinide surrogate in actinide chemistry and processing studies. Although cerium appeared as an adequate physical surrogate for powder handling and general processing studies, cerium was found to act significantly different from a chemical perspective in the Pu ceramic form. The reduction of cerium at elevated temperatures caused different reaction paths toward densification of the respective forms resulting in different phase assemblages and microstructural features. Single-phase fabrication studies and cerium oxidation state analyses were performed to further quantify these behavioral differences. These studies indicated that the major phases in the final phase assemblages contained point defects likely leading to their stability. Additionally, thermochemical arguments predicted that the predominant pyrochlore phase in the ceramic was metastable. The apparent metastabilty associated with primary phase in the Pu ceramic form indicated that additional studies must be performed to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of these compounds. Moreover, the metastability of this predominant phase must be considered in assessment of long-term behavior (e.g. radiation stability) of this ceramic.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Narayanan, V.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.

    2014-01-28

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  11. [Preparation and Characterization of Manganese and Fluorine Co-Modified Hydroxyapatite Composite Coating].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-jiao; Hao, Min; Qiao, Hai-xia; Zhang, Xiao-yun; Huang, Yong; Nian, Xiao-feng; Pang, Xiao-feng

    2016-03-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys have been widely used as orthopedic, dental implants and cardiovascular stents owing to their superior physical properties. However, titanium surface is inherently bio-inert, thus could not form efficient osseointegration with surrounding bone tissue. Therefore, to improve the surface property of titanium implant is significantly important in clinical application. Manganese and fluorine co-doped hydroxyapatite (FMnHAP) coatings were prepared on titanium substrate by electrochemical deposition technique. The as-prepared coatings were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests. The results indicated that the FMnHAP coatings take the morphology of nanoscale-villous-like, the composite coating becomes more compact. The FTIR test indicated that the symmetry of bending vibration modes of hydroxyl changed, simulated body fluid immersion test proved that the FMnHAP coatings had induce carbonate-apatite formation, indicating that the composite coating possess excellent biocompatibility. In the electrochemical corrosion testing, the FMnHAP coatings showed stronger corrosion resistance than pure Ti. PMID:27400506

  12. Sorption of trivalent cerium by a mixture of microbial cells and manganese oxides: Effect of microbial cells on the oxidation of trivalent cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Jiang, Mingyu; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian; Tanaka, Kazuya; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Xia, Xiaobin; Yang, Ke; He, Jianhua

    2015-08-01

    Sorption of Ce by mixtures of synthetic Mn oxides and microbial cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens was investigated to elucidate the role of microorganisms on Ce(III) oxidative migration in the environment. The mixtures, upon which Ce was sorbed following exposure to solutions containing 1.0 × 10-4 or 1.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 Ce(III), were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) at synchrotron facilities. A Ce LIII-edge micro XANES spectra analysis was also performed to determine the oxidation states of Ce adsorbed to the Mn oxides and microbial cells in the mixtures. The distribution ratios (Kd) of Ce between the individual solids and solution increased with increasing pH of the solution, and was nearly the same in mixtures containing varying amounts of microbial cells. SEM-EDS and micro-XRF analyses showed that Ce was sorbed by both MnO2 and microbial cells (1.7 × 10-1 or 3.3 × 10-1 g L-1). In addition, nano-particles containing Ce and P developed on the surface of the microbial cells. XANES analysis showed that lower fractions of Ce(III) were oxidized to Ce(IV) in the mixtures containing greater amounts of microbial cells. Micro-XANES analysis revealed that Ce was present as Ce(III) on the microbial cells and as Ce(IV) on Mn oxides. These results strongly suggest that the association of Ce(III) with the microbial cell surface and the formation of Ce phosphate nano-particles are responsible for suppressing the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) in the mixtures.

  13. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  14. [Determination of silver and cerium in the liver and the kidney from a severely burned infant treated with silver sulfadiazine and cerium nitrate].

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, K

    1983-02-01

    Silver and cerium in the liver and the kidney from severely burned infant were analyzed by neutron activation method. The patient was treated topically with cerium nitrate/silver sulfadiazine cream and cerium nitrate solution for 3 months. Then, the treatment with these drugs was stopped because of abdominal distention. The patient died 1 month after the cessation of the treatment with these drugs. The tissue specimens, blank liver sample and reference standards were irradiated with TRIGA MARK II Reactor of Rikkyo University. About 1 month after the irradiation, the activities were measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel pulse height analyzer. A large amount of silver was detected both in the liver and in the kidney and a trace of cerium only in the liver. A considerable amount of silver was detected in the liver and its quantity was about 1600 times more than that of normal livers reported by Hamilton, Minski and Cleary (1972-73). Neither silver nor cerium were detected in the blank liver. These results suggest that prolonged topical chemotherapy of cerium nitrate/silver sulfadiazine cream and cerium nitrate solution for the extensive burn injuries causes considerable absorption of silver and cerium into the liver and the kidney. PMID:6867381

  15. Material problems arising from impurity gettering of lithium by zirconium or titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich Borgstedt, Hans

    Hot trapping for purification of lithium is necessary to improve the compatibility of vanadium alloys with the blanket fluid. In hot traps operated at 973 K using titanium or zirconium as getter materials mass transfer between the structural materials, 18Cr-9Ni stainless steels, and the getter materials occurs. Mainly nickel and manganese migrate from the stainless steel housing to the getter foils. The leaching of nickel and manganese causes accelerated corrosion of the structural material. The deposition of nickel on the getter surfaces leads to the formation of crystalline surface layers or diffusion of this element into the foils forming alloys with titanium or zirconium. This second phenomenon may influence the efficiency of the gettering reactions.

  16. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  17. Fundamental aspects of regenerative cerium oxide nanoparticles and their applications in nanobiotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Swanand D.

    Cerium oxide has been used extensively for various applications over the past two decades. The use of cerium oxide nanoparticles is beneficial in present applications and can open avenues for future applications. The present study utilizes the microemulsion technique to synthesize uniformly distributed cerium oxide nanoparticles. The same technique was also used to synthesize cerium oxide nanoparticles doped with trivalent elements (La and Nd). The fundamental study of cerium oxide nanoparticles identified variations in properties as a function of particle size and also due to doping with trivalent elements (La and Nd). It was found that the lattice parameter of cerium oxide nanoparticles increases with decrease in particle size. Also Raman allowed mode shift to lower energies and the peak at 464 cm-1 becomes broader and asymmetric. The size dependent changes in cerium oxide were correlated to increase in oxygen vacancy concentration in the cerium oxide lattice. The doping of cerium oxide nanoparticles with trivalent elements introduces more oxygen vacancies and expands the cerium oxide lattice further (in addition to the lattice expansion due to the size effect). The lattice expansion is greater for La-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles compared to Nd-doping due to the larger ionic radius of La compared to Nd, the lattice expansion is directly proportional to the dopant concentration. The synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles were used to develop an electrochemical biosensor of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The sensor was useful to detect H2O2 concentrations as low as 1muM in water. Also the preliminary testing of the sensor on tomato stem and leaf extracts indicated that the sensor can be used in practical applications such as plant physiological studies etc. The nanomolar concentrations of cerium oxide nanoparticles were also found to be useful in decreasing ROS (reactive oxygen species) mediated cellular damages in various in vitro cell cultures. Cerium oxide

  18. Environmental Controls of Biological Manganese Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, A. P.; Ahn, C. C.; Nealson, K. H.

    2001-12-01

    Biological catalysis of manganese oxidation represents an important contribution to global manganese cycling; biological oxidation rates are several orders of magnitude higher than those of abiotic processes. Despite recent genetics advances, ongoing behavioral studies, and a large pool of knowledge regarding manganese chemistry, the links between biology and environmental chemistry remain unresolved. We have performed experiments on batch cultures of Leptothrix discophora SS-1 to explore the physiology of biological manganese oxidation. We have further conducted spectroscopic and microscopic studies of the mechanism as manganese proceeds from the soluble Mn2+ species to the insoluble Mn(III) and Mn(IV) phases. These investigations suggest roles for aqueous chemistry, mineralogy, and microbial physiology in controlling manganese fluxes in metal-rich environments.

  19. Titanium Allergy: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Goutam, Manish; Giriyapura, Chandu; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    Titanium has gained immense popularity and has successfully established itself as the material of choice for dental implants. In both medical and dental fields, titanium and its alloys have demonstrated success as biomedical devices. Owing to its high resistance to corrosion in a physiological environment and the excellent biocompatibility that gives it a passive, stable oxide film, titanium is considered the material of choice for intraosseous use. There are certain studies which show titanium as an allergen but the resources to diagnose titanium sensivity are very limited. Attention is needed towards the development of new and precise method for early diagnosis of titanium allergy and also to find out the alternative biomaterial which can be used in place of titanium. A review of available articles from the Medline and PubMed database was done to find literature available regarding titanium allergy, its diagnosis and new alternative material for titanium. PMID:25484409

  20. Coupled isotopic systematics of surface cerium and neodymium in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazoe, H.; Obata, H.; Gamo, T.

    2011-04-01

    Trace metals are known to be essential elements in marine ecosystems. Radiogenic isotopes of neodymium (Nd) have been used as tracers in many recent oceanic trace metal studies, although, among rare earth elements, cerium (Ce) isotopes might be an interesting complementary tracer for particle reactive and lithogenic metals such as manganese. This study determined the 138Ce/142Ce ratios in surface waters of the Pacific Ocean and its surrounding marginal seas: the Sulu Sea, the South China Sea, the East China Sea, and the South Australian Basin. The 138Ce/142Ce and 143Nd/144Nd data are discussed in terms of the sources of rare earth elements and elemental fractionation between Ce and Nd in the marine environment. In the Western North Pacific Central Water, East China Sea, and South China Sea, isotopic compositions of Ce (ɛCe = +0.7 to 1.4) are most affected by radiogenic Ce of continental origin. In contrast, less radiogenic isotopic compositions of Ce (ɛCe = -0.4 to +0.3) in the Pacific Equatorial Water were observed locally near volcanic islands such as New Guinea Island, suggesting the influence of mantle-derived Ce. Compared with Nd, the isotopic composition of Ce showed a heterogeneous distribution in a given surface water mass, reflecting the importance of local sources. Variations of isotopic compositions and concentrations of Ce in the western Equatorial Pacific and the East China Sea suggest that lithogenic Ce is supplied and scavenged by particle-dissolved interaction near the margins. Radiogenic Ce in the Western North Pacific Central Water, which is more continental-like than Nd isotopes, suggests direct input by atmospheric dust into the North Pacific Ocean. The isotopic distribution of Ce is sensitive to aeolian supply to the surface waters of the open ocean. This unique feature indicates that the 138Ce/142Ce ratio can be a useful chemical tracer for lithogenic trace elements such as iron and manganese, which have short oceanic residence time.

  1. Titanium by design: TRIP titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Jamie

    Motivated by the prospect of lower cost Ti production processes, new directions in Ti alloy design were explored for naval and automotive applications. Building on the experience of the Steel Research Group at Northwestern University, an analogous design process was taken with titanium. As a new project, essential kinetic databases and models were developed for the design process and used to create a prototype design. Diffusion kinetic models were developed to predict the change in phase compositions and microstructure during heat treatment. Combining a mobility database created in this research with a licensed thermodynamic database, ThermoCalc and DICTRA software was used to model kinetic compositional changes in titanium alloys. Experimental diffusion couples were created and compared to DICTRA simulations to refine mobility parameters in the titanium mobility database. The software and database were able to predict homogenization times and the beta→alpha plate thickening kinetics during cooling in the near-alpha Ti5111 alloy. The results of these models were compared to LEAP microanalysis and found to be in reasonable agreement. Powder metallurgy was explored using SPS at GM R&D to reduce the cost of titanium alloys. Fully dense Ti5111 alloys were produced and achieved similar microstructures to wrought Ti5111. High levels of oxygen in these alloys increased the strength while reducing the ductility. Preliminary Ti5111+Y alloys were created, where yttrium additions successfully gettered excess oxygen to create oxides. However, undesirable large oxides formed, indicating more research is needed into the homogeneous distribution of the yttrium powder to create finer oxides. Principles established in steels were used to optimize the beta phase transformation stability for martensite transformation toughening in titanium alloys. The Olson-Cohen kinetic model is calibrated to shear strains in titanium. A frictional work database is established for common alloying

  2. Critical indices for reversible gamma-alpha phase transformation in metallic cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatova, E. D.; Tkachenko, T. B.

    1980-08-01

    Critical indices for cerium have been determined within the framework of the pseudobinary solution theory along the phase equilibrium curve, the critical isotherm, and the critical isobar. The results obtained verify the validity of relationships proposed by Rushbrook (1963), Griffiths (1965), and Coopersmith (1968). It is concluded that reversible gamma-alpha transformation in metallic cerium is a critical-type transformation, and cerium has a critical point on the phase diagram similar to the critical point of the liquid-vapor system.

  3. [Clinical cases of occupational chronic manganese intoxication].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, T N; Lakhman, O L; Katamanova, E V; Kartapol'tseva, N V; Meshcheriagin, V A; Rusanova, D V; Andreeva, O K

    2009-01-01

    Classic symptoms of manganese intoxication are very rarely seen nowadays. Clinic in Angarsk Research Institute for Occupational medicine and Human ecology registered two cases of stage I and II chronic manganese intoxication over 10 years among electric welders. The cases were diagnosed with consideration of long length of exposure to manganese with the ambient air level exceeding the MAC 1.5 times, the disease manifestation at middle age, high manganese level in serum and urine, characteristic neurologic symptoms in association with organic psychopathologic defects and polyneuropathy of limbs. PMID:19278189

  4. Negative impact of manganese on honeybee foraging

    PubMed Central

    Søvik, Eirik; Perry, Clint J.; LaMora, Angie; Barron, Andrew B.; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic accumulation of metals such as manganese is a well-established health risk factor for vertebrates. By contrast, the long-term impact of these contaminants on invertebrates is mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate that manganese ingestion alters brain biogenic amine levels in honeybees and fruit flies. Furthermore, we show that manganese exposure negatively affects foraging behaviour in the honeybee, an economically important pollinator. Our findings indicate that in addition to its direct impact on human health, the common industrial contaminant manganese might also have indirect environmental and economical impacts via the modulation of neuronal and behavioural functions in economically important insects. PMID:25808001

  5. The photocatalytic and cytotoxic effects of titanium dioxide particles used in sunscreen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampaul, Ashti

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used in sunscreens to reflect UV radiation from the skin. However, titanium dioxide as anatase and rutile crystal forms is a well-known photocatalyst. The nanoparticles are surface coated with inert inorganic oxides such as silica and alumina or organics such as organosilanes or silicone polymers and more recently, have been doped with manganese oxide. These modifications to the titanium dioxide particles are purported to prevent the production of harmful reactive oxygen species. A range of sunscreens was tested with crystal form and modification type identified via XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, XPS and SSNMR. The particle modification and crystal form determined whether the particles were inert or rapidly degraded methylene blue dye, and killed or protected cultured human epithelium cells. Novel solid state Electron Paramagnetic Resonance analysis showed that the greatest amount of superoxide anions was formed during UVA irradiation of the mixed anatase and rutile crystal forms coated with an organosilane. These particles also degraded methylene blue at a similar rate to Degussa P25, a standard uncoated titanium dioxide powder and produced an increase in UVA induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes. Double Stranded Breaks were observed extensively in cells exposed to UVA irradiated mixed anatase and rutile titanium dioxide with organosilane. A new apoptotic-like cell death mechanism may have been recognised during the UVA irradiation of animal and human cells in the presence of titanium dioxide. This research concludes that mixed anatase and rutile crystal forms of titanium dioxide coated with organosilane or dimethicone may not be safe to use in sunscreen lotions. A less harmful alternative for sunscreen formulations is the manganese doped rutile particles or the alumina coated rutile powders, both of which exhibited a protective effect on cultured epithelial cells.

  6. Study of cerium diffusion in undoped lithium-6 enriched glass with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Moore, Michael E.; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lukosi, Eric D.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Undoped lithium-6 enriched glasses coated with pure cerium (99.9%) with a gold protection layer on top were heated at three different temperatures (500, 550, and 600 °C) for varied durations (1, 2, and 4 h). Diffusion profiles of cerium in such glasses were obtained with the conventional Rutherford backscattering technique. Through fitting the diffusion profiles with the thin-film solution of Fick's second law, diffusion coefficients of cerium with different annealing temperatures and durations were solved. Then, the activation energy of cerium for the diffusion process in the studied glasses was found to be 114 kJ/mol with the Arrhenius equation.

  7. Manganese dioxide as a new cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Hu, Boxun; Suib, Steven; Lei, Yu; Li, Baikun

    This study focused on manganese oxides with a cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) structure to replace platinum as a cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Undoped (ud-OSM-2) and three catalysts doped with cobalt (Co-OMS-2), copper (Cu-OMS-2), and cerium (Ce-OMS-2) to enhance their catalytic performances were investigated. The novel OMS-2 cathodes were examined in granular activated carbon MFC (GACMFC) with sodium acetate as the anode reagent and oxygen in air as the cathode reagent. The results showed that after 400 h of operation, the Co-OMS-2 and Cu-OMS-2 exhibited good catalytic performance in an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The voltage of the Co-OMS-2 GACMFC was 217 mV, and the power density was 180 mW m -2. The voltage of the Cu-OMS-2 GACMFC was 214 mV and the power density was 165 mW m -2. The internal resistance (R in) of the OMS-2 GACMFCs (18 ± 1 Ω) was similar to that of the platinum GACMFCs (17 Ω). Furthermore, the degradation rates of organic substrates in the OMS-2 GACMFCs were twice those in the platinum GACMFCs, which enhance their wastewater treatment efficiencies. This study indicated that using OMS-2 manganese oxides to replace platinum as a cathodic catalyst enhances power generation, increases contaminant removal, and substantially reduces the cost of MFCs.

  8. Isomorphic phase transformation in shocked cerium using molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, Virginie; Germann, Timothy C; Chen, Shao - Ping

    2010-08-12

    Cerium (Ce) undergoes a significant ({approx}16%) volume collapse associated with an isomorphic fcc-fcc phase transformation when subject to compressive loading. We present here a new Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential for Cerium that models two minima for the two fcc phases. We show results from its use in Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of Ce samples subjected to shocks with pressures ranging from 0.5 to 25 GPa. A split wave structure is observed, with an elastic precursor followed by a plastic wave. The plastic wave causes the expected fcc-fcc phase transformation. Comparisons to experiments and MD simulations on Cesium (Cs) indicate that three waves could be observed. The construction of the EAM potential may be the source of the difference.

  9. Antioxidant activity of levan coated cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Jung; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2016-10-01

    Levan coated cerium oxide nanoparticles (LCNPs) with the enhanced antioxidant activity were successfully synthesized and characterized. Levan and their derivatives are attractive for biomedical applications attributable to their antioxidant, anti-inflammation and anti-tumor properties. LCNPs were synthesized using the one-pot and green synthesis system with levan. For production of nanoparticles, levan plays a role as a stabilizing and reducing agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis showed that LCNPs successfully synthesized. The morphology and size of nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). LCNPs have good water solubility and stability. The conjugation of levan with cerium oxide nanoparticles improved antioxidant activity. Moreover the level of ROS was reduced after treatment of LCNPs to H2O2 stimulated NIH3T3 cells. These results demonstrate that the LCNPs are useful for applying of treatment of ROS induced diseases. PMID:27312651

  10. Shock wave experiments to examine the multiphase properties of cerium

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    There is a scientific need to obtain new data to constrain and refine next generation multi-phase equation-of-state (EOS) for metals. Experiments are needed to locate phase boundaries, determine transition kinetic times, and to obtain EOS and Hugoniot data for relevant phases. The objectives of the current work was to examine the multiphase properties for cerium including the dynamic melt boundary and the low-pressure solid-solid phase transition through the critical point. These objectives were addressed by performing plate impact experiment that used multiple experimental configuration including front-surface impact experiments to directly measure transition kinetics, multislug experiments that used the overtake method to measure sound speeds at pressure, and preheat experiments to map out phase boundaries. Preliminary data and analysis obtained for cerium will be presented.

  11. Fabrication of mesoporous cerium dioxide films by cathodic electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Ahn, Jae-Hoon; Park, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Gil-Pyo; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2007-11-01

    Mesoporous cerium dioxide (Ceria, CeO2) thin films have been successfully electrodeposited onto ITO-coated glass substrates from an aqueous solution of cerium nitrate using CTAB (Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide) as a templating agent. The synthesized films underwent detailed characterizations. The crystallinity of synthesized CeO2 film was confirmed by XRD analysis and HR-TEM analysis, and surface morphology was investigated by SEM analysis. The presence of mesoporosity in fabricated films was confirmed by TEM and small angle X-ray analysis. As-synthesized film was observed from XRD analysis and HR-TEM image to have well-crystallized structure of cubic phase CeO2. Transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray analysis revealed the presence of uniform mesoporosity with a well-ordered lamellar phase in the CeO2 films electrodeposited with CTAB templating. PMID:18047150

  12. Engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles: Effects on bacterial growth and viability

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Dale A; Suresh, Anil K; Holton, Gregory A; McKeown, Catherine K; Wang, Wei; Gu, Baohua; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P; Joy, David Charles; Allison, Martin R; Brown, Steven D; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2010-01-01

    Interest in engineered nanostructures has risen in recent years due to their use in energy conservation strategies and biomedicine. To ensure prudent development and use of nanomaterials, the fate and effects of such engineered structures on the environment should be understood. Interactions of nanomaterials with environmental microorganisms are inevitable, but the general consequences of such interactions remain unclear. Further, standardized methods for assessing such interactions are lacking. Therefore, we have initiated a multianalytical approach to understand the interactions of synthesized nanoparticles with bacterial systems. These efforts are focused initially on cerium oxide nanoparticles and model bacteria in order to evaluate characterization procedures and the possible fate of such materials in the environment. In this study the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the growth and viability of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis, a metal-reducing bacteria, and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were examined relative to particle size, growth media, pH, and dosage. A hydrothermal based synthesis procedure was used to prepare cerium oxide nanoparticles of defined sizes in order to eliminate complications originating from the use of organic solvents and surfactants. Bactericidal effects were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration, colony forming units, disc diffusion tests and Live/Dead assays. In growth inhibition experiments involving E. coli and B. subtilis, a clear strain and size-dependent inhibition was observed. S. oneidensis appeared to be unaffected by the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy along with microarray-based transcriptional profiling have been used to understand the response mechanism of the bacteria. The use of multiple analytical approaches adds confidence to toxicity assessments while the use of different bacterial systems highlights the potential wide-ranging effects of

  13. Optical Response of Shocked Cerium-Doped Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate

    SciTech Connect

    G. D. Stevens

    2003-03-01

    Shock experiments were performed in order to characterize the triboluminescent signature of cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO:Ce). This material shows prompt, nano-second timescale light emission when driven by explosive detonation. When properly applied to a surface, it may be used as a shock arrival sensor, and also for imaging the propagation of a shock front. Triboluminescent rise times, spectral content, and spatial resolution measurements are presented.

  14. Monomers, Dimers, and Helices: Complexities of Cerium and Plutonium Phenanthrolinecarboxylates.

    PubMed

    Cary, Samantha K; Ferrier, Maryline G; Baumbach, Ryan E; Silver, Mark A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan; Kozimor, Stosh A; La Pierre, Henry S; Stein, Benjamin W; Arico, Alexandra A; Gray, Danielle L; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2016-05-01

    The reaction of Ce(III) or Pu(III) with 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid (PDAH2) results in the formation of new f-element coordination complexes. In the case of cerium, Ce(PDA)(H2O)2Cl·H2O (1) or [Ce(PDAH)(PDA)]2[Ce(PDAH)(PDA)] (2) was isolated depending on the Ce/ligand ratio in the reaction. The structure of 2 is composed of two distinct substructures that are constructed from the same monomer. This monomer is composed of a Ce(III) cation bound by one PDA(2-) dianionic ligand and one PDAH(-) monoanionic ligand, both of which are tetradentate. Bridging by the carboxylate moieties leads to either [Ce(PDAH)(PDA)]2 dimers or [Ce(PDAH)(PDA)]1∞ helical chains. For plutonium, Pu(PDA)2 (3) was the only product isolated regardless of the Pu/ligand ratio employed in the reaction. During the reaction of plutonium with PDAH2, Pu(III) is oxidized to Pu(IV), generating 3. This assignment is consistent with structural metrics and the optical absorption spectrum. Ambiguity in the assignment of the oxidation state of cerium in 1 and 2 from UV-vis-near-IR spectra invoked the use of Ce L3,2-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements. These experiments support the assignment of Ce(III) in both compounds. The bond distances and coordination numbers are also consistent with these assignments. 3 contains 8-coordinate Pu(IV), whereas the cerium centers in 1 and 2 are 9- and/or 10-coordinate, which correlates with the increased size of Ce(III) versus Pu(IV). Taken together, these data provide an example of a system where the differences in the redox behavior between these f elements creates more complex chemistry with cerium than with plutonium. PMID:27070401

  15. Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Ahmad, Absar

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN{sub 3}O{sub 9}·6H{sub 2}O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy

  16. Jet formation in cerium metal to examine material strength

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, B. J. Cherne, F. J.; Prime, M. B.; Yeager, J. D.; Ramos, K. J.; Hooks, D. E.; Cooley, J. C.; Dimonte, G.; Fezzaa, K.; Iverson, A. J.; Carlson, C. A.

    2015-11-21

    Examining the evolution of material properties at extreme conditions advances our understanding of numerous high-pressure phenomena from natural events like meteorite impacts to general solid mechanics and fluid flow behavior. Recent advances in synchrotron diagnostics coupled with dynamic compression platforms have introduced new possibilities for examining in-situ, spatially resolved material response with nanosecond time resolution. In this work, we examined jet formation from a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cerium initially shocked into a transient, high-pressure phase, and then released to a low-pressure, higher-temperature state. Cerium's rich phase diagram allows us to study the yield stress following a shock induced solid-solid phase transition. X-ray imaging was used to obtain images of jet formation and evolution with 2–3 μm spatial resolution. From these images, an analytic method was used to estimate the post-shock yield stress, and these results were compared to continuum calculations that incorporated an experimentally validated equation-of-state (EOS) for cerium coupled with a deviatoric strength model. Reasonable agreement was observed between the calculations and the data illustrating the sensitivity of jet formation on the yield stress values. The data and analysis shown here provide insight into material strength during dynamic loading which is expected to aid in the development of strength aware multi-phase EOS required to predict the response of matter at extreme conditions.

  17. Enhancing cerium and plutonium solubility by reduction in borosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachia, J.-N.; Deschanels, X.; Den Auwer, C.; Pinet, O.; Phalippou, J.; Hennig, C.; Scheinost, A.

    2006-06-01

    High-level radioactive wastes produced by spent fuel reprocessing containing fission and activation products as well as actinides are incorporated in a borosilicate glass. To ensure optimum radionuclide containment, the resulting glass must be as homogeneous as possible. Microscopic heterogeneity can arise from various processes including the excess loading of an element above its solubility limit. The current actinide loading limit is 0.4 wt%. Work is in progress to assess the actinide solubility in these glasses, especially for plutonium. Initially the actinides were simulated by lanthanides and hafnium. The results show that trivalent elements (La, Gd) exhibit greater solubility than tetravalent elements (Pu, Hf). Cerium is an interesting element because its oxidation state varies from IV to III depending on the process conditions, such as the temperature and redox potential of the melt. In order to quantify the solubility increase, cerium-doped glass samples were melted under reducing conditions by adding a reducing agent. The solubility observed at 1473 K increased significantly from 0.95 to 13.00 wt%. Several reducing compounds have been tested. This paper deals with this study and the application to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The reduction state was characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) for plutonium and by chemical analysis for cerium. The material homogeneity was verified by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary findings concerning the reduction of Pu-doped glasses fabricated in hot cells are also discussed.

  18. Jet formation in cerium metal to examine material strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Cherne, F. J.; Prime, M. B.; Fezzaa, K.; Iverson, A. J.; Carlson, C. A.; Yeager, J. D.; Ramos, K. J.; Hooks, D. E.; Cooley, J. C.; Dimonte, G.

    2015-11-01

    Examining the evolution of material properties at extreme conditions advances our understanding of numerous high-pressure phenomena from natural events like meteorite impacts to general solid mechanics and fluid flow behavior. Recent advances in synchrotron diagnostics coupled with dynamic compression platforms have introduced new possibilities for examining in-situ, spatially resolved material response with nanosecond time resolution. In this work, we examined jet formation from a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cerium initially shocked into a transient, high-pressure phase, and then released to a low-pressure, higher-temperature state. Cerium's rich phase diagram allows us to study the yield stress following a shock induced solid-solid phase transition. X-ray imaging was used to obtain images of jet formation and evolution with 2-3 μm spatial resolution. From these images, an analytic method was used to estimate the post-shock yield stress, and these results were compared to continuum calculations that incorporated an experimentally validated equation-of-state (EOS) for cerium coupled with a deviatoric strength model. Reasonable agreement was observed between the calculations and the data illustrating the sensitivity of jet formation on the yield stress values. The data and analysis shown here provide insight into material strength during dynamic loading which is expected to aid in the development of strength aware multi-phase EOS required to predict the response of matter at extreme conditions.

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Polymer Coated Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vishal; Shah, Shreya; Shah, Hirsh; Rispoli, Fred J.; McDonnell, Kevin T.; Workeneh, Selam; Karakoti, Ajay; Kumar, Amit; Seal, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles have found numerous applications in the biomedical industry due to their strong antioxidant properties. In the current study, we report the influence of nine different physical and chemical parameters: pH, aeration and, concentrations of MgSO4, CaCl2, KCl, natural organic matter, fructose, nanoparticles and Escherichia coli, on the antibacterial activity of dextran coated cerium oxide nanoparticles. A least-squares quadratic regression model was developed to understand the collective influence of the tested parameters on the anti-bacterial activity and subsequently a computer-based, interactive visualization tool was developed. The visualization allows us to elucidate the effect of each of the parameters in combination with other parameters, on the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles. The results indicate that the toxicity of CeO2 NPs depend on the physical and chemical environment; and in a majority of the possible combinations of the nine parameters, non-lethal to the bacteria. In fact, the cerium oxide nanoparticles can decrease the anti-bacterial activity exerted by magnesium and potassium salts. PMID:23110109

  20. High-temperature oxidation of titanium silicide coatings on titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Abba, A.; Caillet, M.; Galerie, A.

    1982-02-01

    Coatings of Ti/sub 5/Si/sub 3/ on titanium have been prepared by means of decomposition of silane SiH/sub 4/ on heated titanium ribbons. Oxidation of the coated titanium specimens was much slower than that of the noncoated ones. Gravimetric and morphological experiments allowed to propose a mechanism describing the oxidation process.

  1. Titanium Cold Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajaja, Jihane; Goldbaum, Dina; Chromik, Richard; Yue, Stephen; Rezaeian, Ahmad; Wong, Wilson; Irissou, Eric; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    Titanium Cold Spray Coatings Cold Spray is an emerging technology used for the deposition of coatings for many industries including aerospace. This technique allows the deposition of metallic materials at low temper-atures below their melting point. The aim of this research was to develop a test technique that can measure the degree to which a cold spray coating achieves mechanical properties similar to a traditional bulk material. Vickers hardness testing and nanoindentation were used as micro-and nano-scale measurement techniques to characterize the mechanical properties of titanium coatings, deposited at different deposition conditions, and bulk Ti. The mechanical properties of bulk titanium and titanium coatings were measured over a range of length scales, with the indentation size effect examined with Meyer's law. Hardness measurements are shown to be affected by material porosity, microstructure and coating particle bonding mechanism. Hard-ness measurements showed that Ti coatings deposited at higher gas pressures and temperatures demonstrate an indentation load response similar to bulk Ti. Key words: titanium, cold spray, Vickers hardness, nanoindentation, indentation size effect, microstructure, mechanical properties

  2. Regulation of cellular manganese and manganese transport rates in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Sunda, W.G.; Huntsman, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The cellular accumulation and uptake kinetics of manganese by Chlamydomonas sp. were studied in model chelate buffer systems. Cellular manganese concentrations and uptake rates were related to the computed free manganese ion concentration and were independent of the total or chelated manganese concentration. Cellular manganese was constant at about 1 mmol liter/sup -1/ of cellular volume at free manganese ion concentrations of 10/sup -7/ /sup 6/-10/sup -6/ /sup 3/ mol liter/sup -1/ and decreased below this range. Manganese uptake rates followed saturation kinetics and V/sub max/, but not K/sub s/, varied with the free manganese ion concentration in the growth medium. V/sub max/ appeared to be under negative feedback control and increased with decreasing manganese ion concentration. Variations of up to 30-fold in this parameter seemed to be instrumental in limiting the variation in cellular manganese to a sixfold range despite a 1000-fold variation in free manganese ion concentration in the growth medium.

  3. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis by cerium oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jane Y.; Mercer, Robert R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Scabilloni, James; Ma, Joseph K.; Castranova, Vincent

    2012-08-01

    Cerium compounds have been used as a diesel engine catalyst to lower the mass of diesel exhaust particles, but are emitted as cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles in the diesel exhaust. In a previous study, we have demonstrated a wide range of CeO{sub 2}-induced lung responses including sustained pulmonary inflammation and cellular signaling that could lead to pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the fibrogenic responses induced by CeO{sub 2} in a rat model at various time points up to 84 days post-exposure. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CeO{sub 2} by a single intratracheal instillation. Alveolar macrophages (AM) were isolated by bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL). AM-mediated cellular responses, osteopontin (OPN) and transform growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the fibrotic process were investigated. The results showed that CeO{sub 2} exposure significantly increased fibrotic cytokine TGF-β1 and OPN production by AM above controls. The collagen degradation enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 and the tissue inhibitor of MMP were markedly increased in the BAL fluid at 1 day- and subsequently declined at 28 days after exposure, but remained much higher than the controls. CeO{sub 2} induced elevated phospholipids in BAL fluid and increased hydroxyproline content in lung tissue in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical analysis showed MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-10 expressions in fibrotic regions. Morphological analysis noted increased collagen fibers in the lungs exposed to a single dose of 3.5 mg/kg CeO{sub 2} and euthanized at 28 days post-exposure. Collectively, our studies show that CeO{sub 2} induced fibrotic lung injury in rats, suggesting it may cause potential health effects. -- Highlights: ► Cerium oxide exposure significantly affected the following parameters in the lung. ► Induced fibrotic cytokine OPN and TGF-β1 production and phospholipidosis. ► Caused imbalance of the MMP-9/ TIMP-1 ratio that favors fibrosis

  4. Manganese nodules: thorium-230: protactinium-231 ratios.

    PubMed

    Sackett, W M

    1966-11-01

    The Th(230): Pa(231) activity ratio in 7 of 11 manganese nodules is less than 10.8, the theoretical production ratio of activities in the ocean. This finding indicates difierential accumulation of these nuclides in authigenic deposits of manganese-iron oxide. PMID:17778807

  5. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate....

  9. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  12. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect

    Gambogi, Joseph; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  13. Mineral of the month: titanium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    From paint to airplanes, titanium is important in a number of applications. Commercial production comes from titanium-bearing ilmenite, rutile and leucoxene (altered ilmenite). These minerals are used to produce titanium dioxide pigment, as well as an assortment of metal and chemical products.

  14. Weld-bonded titanium structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Creedon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Structurally stronger titanium articles are produced by a weld-bonding technique comprising fastening at least two plates of titanium together using spotwelding and curing an adhesive interspersed between the spot-weld nuggets. This weld-bonding may be employed to form lap joints or to stiffen titanium metal plates.

  15. Manganese peroxidase gene transcription in Phanerochaete chrysosporium: Activation by manganese

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.A.; Alic, M. Gold, M.H. )

    1991-07-01

    The expression of manganese peroxidase in nitrogen-limited cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is dependent on Mn, and initial work suggested that Mn regulates transcription of the mnp gene. In this study, using Northern (RNA) blot analysis of kinetic, dose-response, and inhibitor experiments, the authors demonstrate unequivocally that Mn regulates mnp gene transcription. The amount of mnp mRNA in cells of 4-day-old nitrogen-limited cultures is a direct function of the concentration of Mn in the culture medium up to a maximum of 180 {mu}M. Addition of Mn to nitrogen-limited Mn-deficient secondary metabolic (4-, 5-, and 6-day-old) cultures results in the appearance of mnp mRNA within 40 min. The appearance of this message is completely inhibited by the RNA synthesis inhibitor dactinomycin but not by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Furthermore, the amount of mnp mRNA produced is a direct function of the concentration of added Mn. In contrast, addition of Mn to low-nitrogen Mn-deficient 2- or 3-day-old cultures does not result in the appearance of mnp mRNA. Manganese peroxidase protein is detected by specific immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of poly(A) RNA isolated from Mn-supplemented (but nor from Mn-deficient) cells. All of these results demonstrate that Mn, the substrate for the enzyme, regulates mnp gene transcription via a growth-stage-specific and concentration-dependent mechanism.

  16. Tensile and creep properties of titanium-vanadium, titanium-molybdenum, and titanium-niobium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Tensile and creep properties of experimental beta-titanium alloys were determined. Titanium-vanadium alloys had substantially greater tensile and creep strength than the titanium-niobium and titanium-molybdenum alloys tested. Specific tensile strengths of several titanium-vanadium-aluminum-silicon alloys were equivalent or superior to those of commercial titanium alloys to temperatures of 650 C. The Ti-50V-3Al-1Si alloy had the best balance of tensile strength, creep strength, and metallurgical stability. Its 500 C creep strength was far superior to that of a widely used commercial titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, and almost equivalent to that of newly developed commercial titanium alloys.

  17. Groundwater, iron and manganese an unwelcome trio

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, N. )

    1988-02-01

    Iron and manganese are natural constituents of the earth's crust and both elements create serious aesthetic problems in drinking water supplies. The occurrence of iron and manganese in groundwater, and problems arising from their presence, are reviewed. Four commonly used methods for iron and manganese removal are direct oxidation, addition of oxidation agents, ion exchange, and stabilization. These methods are discussed, as well as factors affecting iron and manganese removal, such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, and other ions present. The above factors affect the removal methods differently and for these reasons, laboratory testing and studies should be made to evaluate the treatability of a water supply for iron and manganese removal.

  18. Titanium alkoxide compound

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-08-14

    A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

  19. Cerium doped red mud catalytic ozonation for bezafibrate degradation in wastewater: Efficiency, intermediates, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingbing; Qi, Fei; Sun, Dezhi; Chen, Zhonglin; Robert, Didier

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the performance of bezafibrate (BZF) degradation and detoxification in the aqueous phase using cerium-modified red mud (RM) catalysts prepared using different cerium sources and synthesis methods were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the surface cerium modification was responsible for the development of the catalytic activity of RM and this was influenced by the cerium source and the synthesis method. Catalyst prepared from cerium (IV) by precipitation was found to show the best catalytic activity in BZF degradation and detoxification. Reactive oxygen species including peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, and super oxide ions were identified in all reactions and we proposed the corresponding catalytic reaction mechanism for each catalyst that prepared from different cerium source and method. This was supported by the intermediates profiles that were generated upon BZF degradation. The surface and the structural properties of cerium-modified RM were characterized in detail by several analytical methods. Two interesting findings were made: (1) the surface texture (specific surface area and mesoporous volume) influenced the catalytic reaction pathway; and (2) Ce(III) species and oxygen vacancies were generated on the surface of the catalyst after cerium modification. This plays an important role in the development of the catalytic activity. PMID:26706928

  20. Manganese oxidation by Leptothrix discophora.

    PubMed

    Boogerd, F C; de Vrind, J P

    1987-02-01

    Cells of Leptothrix discophora SS1 released Mn2+-oxidizing factors into the medium during growth in batch culture. Manganese was optimally oxidized when the medium was buffered with HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid) at pH 7.5. Manganese-oxidizing activity in the culture medium in which this strain had been grown previously was sensitive to heat, phosphate, Tris, NaN3, HgCl2 NaCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and pronase; 0.5 mol of O2 was consumed per mol of MnO2 formed. During Mn2+ oxidation, protons were liberated. With sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, two protein-containing bands were detected in the spent culture medium. One band had an apparent molecular weight of 110,000 and was predominant in Mn2+-oxidizing activity. The second product (Mr 85,000) was only detected in some cases and probably represents a proteolytic breakdown moiety of the 110,000-Mr protein. The Mn2+-oxidizing factors were associated with the MnO2 aggregates that had been formed in spent culture medium. After solubilization of this MnO2 with ascorbate, Mn2+-oxidizing activity could be recovered. PMID:3804969

  1. Iron and manganese removal by using manganese ore constructed wetlands in the reclamation of steel wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-Cheng; Chen, Gu; Huang, Xiang-Feng; Li, Guang-Ming; Liu, Jia; Yang, Na; Gao, Sai-Nan

    2009-09-30

    To reclaim treated steel wastewater as cooling water, manganese ore constructed wetland was proposed in this study for the removal of iron and manganese. In lab-scale wetlands, the performance of manganese ore wetland was found to be more stable and excellent than that of conventional gravel constructed wetland. The iron and manganese concentration in the former was below 0.05 mg/L at hydraulic retention time of 2-5 days when their influent concentrations were in the range of 0.16-2.24 mg/L and 0.11-2.23 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, its removals for COD, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were 55%, 90%, 67% and 93%, respectively, superior to the corresponding removals in the gravel wetland (31%, 86%, 58% and 78%, respectively). The good performance of manganese ore was ascribed to the enhanced biological manganese removal with the aid of manganese oxide surface and the smaller size of the medium. The presence of biological manganese oxidation was proven by the facts of good manganese removal in wetlands at chemical unfavorable conditions (such as ORP and pH) and the isolation of manganese oxidizing strains from the wetlands. Similar iron and manganese removal was later observed in a pilot-scale gravel-manganese-ore constructed wetland, even though the manganese ore portion in total volume was reduced from 100% (in the lab-scale) to only 4% (in the pilot-scale) for the sake of cost-saving. The quality of the polished wastewater not only satisfied the requirement for cooling water but also suitable as make-up water for other purposes. PMID:19443107

  2. Tuning Reactivity and Electronic Properties through Ligand Reorganization within a Cerium Heterobimetallic Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Jerome R.; Gordon, Zachary; Booth, Corwin H.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2014-06-24

    Cerium compounds have played vital roles in organic, inorganic, and materials chemistry due to their reversible redox chemistry between trivalent and tetravalent oxidation states. However, attempts to rationally access molecular cerium complexes in both oxidation states have been frustrated by unpredictable reactivity in cerium(III) oxidation chemistry. Such oxidation reactions are limited by steric saturation at the metal ion, which can result in high energy activation barriers for electron transfer. An alternative approach has been realized using a rare earth/alkali metal/1,1'-BINOLate (REMB) heterobimetallic framework, which uses redox-inactive metals within the secondary coordination sphere to control ligand reorganization. The rational syntheses of functionalized cerium(IV) products and a mechanistic examination of the role of ligand reorganization in cerium(III) oxidation are presented.

  3. Hydrocarbon-based polymer electrolyte cerium composite membranes for improved proton exchange membrane fuel cell durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyejin; Han, Myungseong; Choi, Young-Woo; Bae, Byungchan

    2015-11-01

    Hydrocarbon-based cerium composite membranes were prepared for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications to increase oxidative stability. Different amounts of cerium ions were impregnated in sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) membranes and their physicochemical properties were investigated according to the cerium content. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma analyses confirmed the presence of cerium ions in the composite membranes and 1H NMR indicated the successful coordination of sulfonic acid groups with the metal ions. Increasing amounts of cerium ions resulted in decreases in the proton conductivity and water uptake, but enhanced oxidative stability. The oxidative stability of the composite membranes was proven via a hydrogen peroxide exposure experiment which mimicked fuel cell operating conditions. In addition, more than 2200 h was achieved with the composite membrane under in situ accelerated open circuit voltage (OCV) durability testing (DOE protocol), whereas the corresponding pristine SPES membrane attained only 670 h.

  4. Sorting Titanium Welding Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, W. D., Jr.; Brown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of titanium welding wires identified by their resistance to current flow. Welding-wire tester quickly identifies unknown titaniumalloy wire by touching wire with test probe, and comparing meter response with standard response. Before touching wire, tip of test probe dipped into an electrolyte.

  5. Sintering titanium powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

    2005-09-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350°C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

  6. Effects of uncoated and citric acid coated cerium oxide nanoparticles, bulk cerium oxide, cerium acetate, and citric acid on tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Ana Cecilia; Rico, Cyren M; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Medina-Velo, Illya A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the physiological and biochemical responses of plants exposed to surface modified nanomaterials. In this study, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants were cultivated for 210days in potting soil amended with uncoated and citric acid coated cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2, CA+nCeO2) bulk cerium oxide (bCeO2), and cerium acetate (CeAc). Millipore water (MPW), and citric acid (CA) were used as controls. Physiological and biochemical parameters were measured. At 500mg/kg, both the uncoated and CA+nCeO2 increased shoot length by ~9 and ~13%, respectively, while bCeO2 and CeAc decreased shoot length by ~48 and ~26%, respectively, compared with MPW (p≤0.05). Total chlorophyll, chlo-a, and chlo-b were significantly increased by CA+nCeO2 at 250mg/kg, but reduced by bCeO2 at 62.5mg/kg, compared with MPW. At 250 and 500mg/kg, nCeO2 increased Ce in roots by 10 and 7 times, compared to CA+nCeO2, but none of the treatments affected the Ce concentration in above ground tissues. Neither nCeO2 nor CA+nCeO2 affected the homeostasis of nutrient elements in roots, stems, and leaves or catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in leaves. CeAc at 62.5 and 125mg/kg increased B (81%) and Fe (174%) in roots, while at 250 and 500mg/kg, increased Ca in stems (84% and 86%, respectively). On the other hand, bCeO2 at 62.5 increased Zn (152%) but reduced P (80%) in stems. Only nCeO2 at 62.5mg/kg produced higher total number of tomatoes, compared with control and the rest of the treatments. The surface coating reduced Ce uptake by roots but did not affect its translocation to the aboveground organs. In addition, there was no clear effect of surface coating on fruit production. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing the effects of coated and uncoated nCeO2 on tomato plants. PMID:26672385

  7. Luminescence of cerium-doped strontium barium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun-Kyun; Son, Chang-Won; Chung, Sun-Ju; Tak, Sung-Jun; Lim, Ki-Soo

    2000-10-01

    The broad photoluminescent emission from Ce:Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 has been observed at 550 nm with excitation in the blue. Photoluminescent excitation spectrum has revealed a trivalent cerium absorption band that is assumed to be a 4f-5d transition. Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectra and its lifetimes in 15 - 365 K showed the existence of two different trap centers in the material. We have also investigated the photoluminescence during two-wave mixing experiment to study trap centers.

  8. Identification of the Charge Carriers in Cerium Phosphate Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Hannah L.; Jonghe, Lutgard C. De

    2010-06-02

    The total conductivity of Sr-doped cerium orthophosphate changes by nearly two orders of magnitude depending on the oxygen and hydrogen content of the atmosphere. The defect model for the system suggests that this is because the identity of the dominant charge carrier can change from electron holes to protons when the sample is in equilibrium with air vs. humidified hydrogen. In this work are presented some preliminary measurements that can help to clarify this exchange between carriers. The conduction behavior of a 2percent Sr-doped CePO4 sample under symmetric atmospheric conditions is investigated using several techniques, including AC impedance, H/D isotope effects, and chronoamperometry.

  9. Study of Phase Transitions in Cerium by Pressure Gauge PVDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhernokletov, Mikhail; Simakov, Vladimir; Borissenok, Valery; Bragunets, Viacheslav; Volgin, Vasily; Cherne, Frank; Zocher, Marvin

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines phase transitions in cerium during shock compression using PVDF gauges. A two-wave structure was observed with loading pressures of 4GPa - 12GPa. The wave structure consists of leading isentropic compression wave followed by a shock wave. This wave structure was formed as a result of the isomorphic (γ-α) phase transition. The wave profiles exhibited no peculiarities resulting from the polymorphic transition (α-ɛ) as predicted by Elkin et. al [Proceedings of the International Conference VII Khariton Readings, Sarov 2005, p. 116].

  10. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, Marca M.; Peng, Marcus Y.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1996-01-01

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

  11. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1996-09-24

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M{sub x}Z{sub y}Mn{sub (1{minus}y)}O{sub 2}, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell. 11 figs.

  12. Manganese concentrate usage in steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhrina, O. I.; Rozhihina, I. D.

    2015-09-01

    The results of the research process of producing metalized products by solid-phase reduction of iron using solid carbonaceous reducing agents. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out on the model of the unit the Fe-C-O and system with iron ore and coal. As a result of modeling the thermodynamic boundary reducing, oxidizing, and transition areas and the value of the ratio of carbon and oxygen in the system. Simulation of real systems carried out with the gas phase obtained in the pyrolys of coal. The simulation results allow to determine the optimal cost of coal required for complete reduction of iron ore from a given composition. The kinetics of the processes of solid-phase reduction of iron using coal of various technological brands. The paper describes experiments on effects of metal deoxidizer composition, component proportion, pelletizing mixture, particle size distribution of basic materials and flux on manganese recovering from oxides under direct melting.

  13. Soil organic matter influences cerium translocation and physiological processes in kidney bean plants exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Sun, Youping; Barrios, Ana C; Niu, Genhua; Margez, Juan P Flores-; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter plays a major role in determining the fate of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the soil matrix and effects on the residing plants. In this study, kidney bean plants were grown in soils varying in organic matter content and amended with 0-500mg/kg cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) under greenhouse condition. After 52days of exposure, cerium accumulation in tissues, plant growth and physiological parameters including photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were recorded. Additionally, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in the tissues. The translocation factor of cerium in the nano-CeO2 exposed plants grown in organic matter enriched soil (OMES) was twice as the plants grown in low organic matter soil (LOMS). Although the leaf cover area increased by 65-111% with increasing nano-CeO2 concentration in LOMS, the effect on the physiological processes were inconsequential. In OMES leaves, exposure to 62.5-250mg/kg nano-CeO2 led to an enhancement in the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, but to a simultaneous decrease in carotenoid contents by 25-28%. Chlorophyll a in the OMES leaves also decreased by 27 and 18% on exposure to 125 and 250mg/kg nano-CeO2. In addition, catalase activity increased in LOMS stems, and ascorbate peroxidase increased in OMES leaves of nano-CeO2 exposed plants, with respect to control. Thus, this study provides clear evidence that the properties of the complex soil matrix play decisive roles in determining the fate, bioavailability, and biological transport of ENMs in the environment. PMID:27343939

  14. MANGANESE DIOXIDE METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Katzin, L.I.

    1958-08-12

    A method of obtaining U/sup 233/ is described. An aqueous solution of neutriln irradiated thoriunn is treated by forming tberein a precipitate of manganese dioxide which carries and thus separates the Pa/sup 233/ from the solution. The carrier precipitate so formed is then dissolved in an acidic solution containing a reducing agent sufficiently electronegative to reduce the tetravalent manganese to the divalent state. Further purification of the Pa/sup 233/ may be obtained by forming another manganese dioxide carrier precipitate and subsequently dissolving it. Ater a sufficient number of such cycles have brought the Pa/sup 233/ to the desired purity, the solution is aged, allowing the formation ot U/sup 233/ by radioaetive decay. A manganese dioxide precipitate is then formed in the U/sup 233/ containing solution. This precipitate carries down any remaining Pa/sup 233/ thus leaving the separated U/sup 233/solution, from whieh it may be easily recovered.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture of... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  16. A manganese oxidation model for rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, G.W. ); Kim, Byung R. ); Roberts, P.J.W. )

    1989-04-01

    The presence of manganese in natural waters (>0.05 mg/L) degrades water-supply quality. A model was devised to predict the variation of manganese concentrations in river water released from an impoundment with the distance downstream. The model is one-dimensional and was calibrated using dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, pH, manganese, and hydraulic data collected in the Duck River, Tennessee. The results indicated that the model can predict manganese levels under various conditions. The model was then applied to the Chattahoochee River, Georgia. Discrepancies between observed and predicted may be due to inadequate pH data, precipitation of sediment particles, unsteady flow conditions in the Chattahoochee River, inaccurate rate expressions for the los pH conditions, or their combinations.

  17. Influence of manganese on sintering processes in the Ti-Fe system. 1. Volume changes in sintering of Ti-Fe-Mn compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kivalo, L.I.; Skorokhod, V.V.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was made of the influence of manganese on the sintering processes in the titanium-iron system in the area of temperatures of existence of the first ternary eutectic point. Powders of titanium obtained by hydride-calcium reduction, ferromanganese, and types PZh4M2 and V3 iron were used. A figure presents data on the character of the volume changes in sintering of compacts of mixtures of titanium and iron powders with and without manganese. The x-ray analysis was made on a DRON-0.5 instrument. The profiles of intensities of the x-ray lines of Ti(Fe, Mn) phase present in specimens of mixture II are shown. With an increase in sintering temperature the line, which is diffuse at 1050 degrees C, gradually narrows, and at 1250 degrees C a doublet appears. At the time, the lattice parameter changes from 0.2976 for unalloyed TiFe to 0.2991 nm for Ti(Fe, Mn) obtained at 1250 degrees C. To obtain Ti(Fe, Mn) compounds of the required composition, it is necessary to take into account the amount of evaporated manganese.

  18. Influence of cerium additions on high-temperature-impact ductility and fracture behavior of iridium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbi, A.N.; Zee, R.H.; George, E.P.; Ohriner, E.K.

    1997-10-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), used for supplying electric power to interplanetary space missions, utilize the energy liberated due to decay of the radioisotope fuel. The material used for cladding the fuel pellets is an iridium-based alloy developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which contains nominally 0.3 wt pct W, 60 wppm Th, and 50 wppm Al, generally known as DOP-26. High-temperature tensile impact testing was carried out on Ir + 0.3 wt pct W alloys doped with cerium and thorium individually, and with cerium and thorium together. Impact ductility was evaluated as a function of grain size and test temperature. Cerium by itself was not as effective as thorium in improving the grain boundary cohesion, even though it segregated more strongly than thorium to the grain boundaries. This lower grain boundary cohesion was responsible for lower impact ductility and higher brittle-to-ductile transition temperature of cerium-doped alloys compared to those of the thorium- or thorium plus cerium-doped alloys. Reduction in thorium content by a factor of 5 (from 50 to 10 appm) in the bulk did not result in any significant reduction in high-temperature impact ductility or an increase in the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature as long as sufficient cerium was added to provide grain refinement. Grain boundary strengths of thorium- and thorium plus cerium-doped alloys were almost identical.

  19. Adenocarcinoma cells isolated from patients in the presence of cerium and transferrin in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zende-Del, A; Gholami, MR; Abdollahpour, F; Ahmadvand, H

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Cerium as a trace element in the periodic table is a member of the lanthanide group. Cerium ionic radius and its binding properties are similar to ferric ions, which may be bound to transferrin. So it can be considered as a competitive element to iron and can interfere with iron absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Cerium in presence of transferrin on gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Methods: The adenocarcinoma cells were obtained from patients after a pathological confirmation, then they were cultured in DMEM environment and cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of cerium were measured (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µM) in the presence and absence of transferrin, on periods 24 and 48 hours by MTT and LDH cytotoxic assay. Results: The results of MTT and LDH measurements showed that Cerium itself has a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells isolated from the patient as well as it increases significantly in the presence of transferrin carrying a mortality rate of cancer cells (P <.05). Conclusion: Cerium is competitive element in the mechanism of iron absorption and can interfere and inhibit the growth of adenocarcinoma cancer cells; also, the use of Cerium and transferrin simultaneously may cause a greater inhibitory effect. PMID:26664465

  20. Novel borothermal route for the synthesis of lanthanum cerium hexaborides and their field emission properties

    SciTech Connect

    Menaka; Patra, Rajkumar; Ghosh, Santanu; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2012-10-15

    The present study describes the development of a simple approach to stabilize polycrystalline lanthanum cerium hexaborides without using any flux and at ambient pressure. The nanostructured lanthanum-cerium borides were synthesized using hydroxide precursors. These precursors (La{sub 1-x}Ce{sub x}(OH){sub 3}, x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5) were synthesized via hydrothermal route in the presence of Tergitol (surfactant, nonylphenol ethoxylate) as a capping agent. The precursors on heating with boron at 1300 Degree-Sign C lead to the formation of nanostructures (cubes, rods and pyramids) of lanthanum cerium hexaboride. We have investigated the field emission behaviour of the hexaboride films fabricated by spin coating. It was observed that the pyramidal shaped nanostructures of La{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}B{sub 6} shows excellent field emission characteristics with high field enhancement factor of 4502. - Graphical abstract: Nanostructured lanthanum cerium hexaboride with efficient field emission have fabricated by low temperature hydroxide precursor mediated route. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New methodology to prepare lanthanum cerium hexaboride at 1300 Degree-Sign C via borothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured lanthanum cerium hexaboride film by spin coating process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanopyramids based lanthanum cerium hexaboride shows excellent field emission.

  1. An environmentally compliant cerium-based conversion coating for aluminum protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xuan

    Chromate conversion coatings have been extensively used in the aircraft industry for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloys. Unfortunately, hexavalent chromium, which is a primary component in the chromating process, is a confirmed carcinogen. Because of rising remediation and disposal costs caused by increasingly strict regulations, the replacement of the traditional chromate conversion process is becoming a top priority in the metal finishing industry. This research focused on the electrodeposition of cerium-based coatings on 7075-T6 aluminum alloy in an electrolyte containing a cerium salt, an oxidizing agent and an organic solvent. The cerium-rich deposits were characterized by phase composition, oxidation state, coating thickness, surface morphology, deposition mechanism and polarization behavior. Chemical and electrochemical tests were utilized to compare the corrosion resistance between cerium-based coatings and chromate conversion coatings. To characterize and simulate the deposition process, a variety of approaches were utilized to study the oxidation states of cerium in various soluble and precipitated forms as a function of hydrogen peroxide and electrolyte pH. The pH ranges where the oxidation and reduction reactions dominate were determined. Further studies were performed to optimize the corrosion performance of cerium-based coatings and to understand the effects of electrolyte constituents and deposition parameters. The optimum levels for these variables were identified. A patent disclosure on the cerium-based coating process was made to the University of Missouri-Rolla and has now been officially filed with the U.S. Patent Office.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of cerium titanate nanorods and its application in visible light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Liu, H.D.; Lin, N.; Yu, H.Y.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Cerium titanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process. • The size of the cerium titanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Cerium titanate nanorods exhibit good photocatalytic activities for methyl blue. - Abstract: Cerium titanate nanorods have been prepared via a hydrothermal process using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surfactant. The cerium titanate nanorods have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) diffuse reflectance spectrum. XRD shows that the nanorods are composed of CeTi{sub 21}O{sub 38} phase. Electron microscopy observations indicate that the nanorods have good single crystalline nature. The diameter and length of the nanorods are about 50–200 nm and 1–2 μm, respectively. Cerium titanate nanorods have a band gap of 2.65 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the nanorods have been investigated by degrading methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. MB solution with the concentration of 10 mg L{sup −1} can be degraded totally with the irradiation time increasing to 240 min. Cerium titanate nanorods exhibit great potential in photocatalytic degradation of MB under visible light irradiation.

  3. Corrosion of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, coated nickel-titanium, and titanium orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Johnson, J W

    1999-02-01

    Orthodontic wires containing nickel have been implicated in allergic reactions. The potential for orthodontic wires to cause allergic reactions is related to the pattern and mode of corrosion with subsequent release of metal ions, such as nickel, into the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in the corrosive potential of stainless steel, nickel titanium, nitride-coated nickel titanium, epoxy-coated nickel titanium, and titanium orthodontic wires. At least two specimens of each wire were subjected to potentiostatic anodic dissolution in 0.9% NaCl solution with neutral pH at room temperature. Using a Wenking MP 95 potentiostat and an electrochemical corrosion cell, the breakdown potential of each wire was determined. Photographs were taken of the wire speci mens using a scanning electron microscope, and surface changes were qualitatively evaluated. The breakdown potentials of stainless steel, two nickel titanium wires, nitride-coated nickel titanium, epoxy-coated nickel titanium, and titanium were 400 mV, 300 mV, 750 mV, 300 mV, 1800 mV, and >2000 mV, respectively. SEM photographs revealed that some nickel titanium and stainless steel wires were susceptible to pitting and localized corrosion. The results indicate that corrosion occurred readily in stainless steel. Variability in breakdown potential of nickel titanium alloy wires differed across vendors' wires. The nitride coating did not affect the corrosion of the alloy, but epoxy coating decreased corrosion. Titanium wires and epoxy-coated nickel titanium wires exhibited the least corrosive potential. For patients allergic to nickel, the use of titanium or epoxy-coated wires during orthodontic treatment is recommended. PMID:10022183

  4. Cerium Tetrafluoride: Sublimation, Thermolysis, and Atomic Fluorine Migration.

    PubMed

    Chilingarov, N S; Knot'ko, A V; Shlyapnikov, I M; Mazej, Z; Kristl, M; Sidorov, L N

    2015-08-01

    Saturated vapor pressure p° and enthalpy of sublimation (ΔsH°) of cerium tetrafluoride CeF4 were determined by means of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry in the range of 750-920 K. It was discovered that sublimation of cerium tetrafluoride from a platinum effusion cell competes with thermal decomposition to CeF3 in the solid phase, but no accompanying release of fluorine to the gas phase occurs. Thus, fluorine atoms migrate within the surface layer of CeF4(s) to the regions of their irreversible drain. We used scanning electron microscopy to study the distribution of the residual CeF3(s) across the inner surface of the effusion cell after complete evaporation of CeF4(s). It was observed that CeF3 accumulates near the edge of the effusion orifice and near the junction of the lid and the body of the cell, that is, in those regions where the fluorine atoms can migrate to a free platinum surface and thus be depleted from the system. Distribution of CeF3(s) solid particles indicates the ways of fluorine atoms migration providing CeF3(s) formation inside the CeF4(s) surface layer. PMID:26165149

  5. Incorporation of Cerium and Neodymium in Uranyl Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C W.; Wronkiewicz, David J.; Finch, R J.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2006-07-15

    The potential for incorporating rare earth elements (REE) into/onto crystalline compounds has been evaluated by precipitating uranyl phases from aqueous solutions containing either cerium or neodymium. These REEs serve both as monitors for evaluating the potential repository behavior of REE radionuclides, and as surrogate elements for actinides (e.g., Ce4 and Nd3 for Pu4 and Am3, respectively). The present experiments examined the behavior of REE in the presence of ianthinite Formula Not Shown, becquerelite (Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6(H2O)8), and other uranyl hydroxide compounds commonly noted as alteration products during the corrosion of UO2, spent nuclear fuel, and naturally occurring uraninite. The results of these experiments demonstrate that significant quantities of both cerium (Kd=1020) and neodymium (Kd=840) are incorporated within the uranium alteration phases and suggest that ionic substitution and/or adsorption to the uranyl phases can play a key role in the limiting the mobility of REE (and by analogy, actinide elements) in a nuclear waste repository.

  6. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    SciTech Connect

    Ševčíková, Klára; Nehasil, Václav; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Haviar, Stanislav; Matolín, Vladimír; and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh{sup 3+} and Rh{sup n+}. We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties.

  7. Hydride precipitation in titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Numakura, H.; Kowia, M.

    1984-10-01

    The crystal structure and morphology of hydride (deuteride) precipitates are investigated on ..cap alpha..-titanium specimens containing 1-3 at.% H or D by transmission electron microscopy. The hydride is found to have a face-centered tetragonal structure (c/a = 1.09) with an ordered arrangement of hydrogen, being isomorphous to ..gamma..-zirconium hydride. Two types of precipitation mode are observed with the habit planes (0110) and near (0225).

  8. Titanium Honeycomb Panel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-mechanical tests were performed on a titanium honeycomb sandwich panel to experimentally validate the hypersonic wing panel concept and compare test data with analysis. Details of the test article, test fixture development, instrumentation, and test results are presented. After extensive testing to 900 deg. F, non-destructive evaluation of the panel has not detected any significant structural degradation caused by the applied thermal-mechanical loads.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic study of graphene oxide and cerium co-doped in TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Quan; Zeng, Liping; He, Deliang

    2016-02-01

    The nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO2) combined with graphene oxide (GO) and cerium (Ce) was successfully synthesized via sol-gel method followed by calcining at 300 °C for 2 h. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under the irradiation of xenon lamp. This study demonstrated that GO and Ce co-doped in TiO2 could broaden absorption edge to the visible light and increase surface area of samples. SEM observation showed that addition of Ce could solve the problem of the agglomeration of GO under the same experimental conditions. Moreover, the MB photocatalytic degradation rate of the composite with GO doped for 0.2 % and Ce doped for 0.6 % (mass ratio) was up to 97.7 %, which was largely attributed to the synergistic effects in the GO, Ce and TiO2 system.

  10. Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift. PMID:21494156