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Sample records for cervical screening programmes

  1. Does the HPV vaccination programme have implications for cervical screening programmes in the UK?

    PubMed

    Beer, Helen; Hibbitts, Sam; Brophy, Sinead; Rahman, M A; Waller, Jo; Paranjothy, Shantini

    2014-04-01

    In the UK, a national HPV immunisation programme was implemented in 2008 for girls aged 12-13 years. In addition a catch-up programme was implemented for older girls up to 18 years of age from 2009 to 2011, with an uptake rate of 49.4%. Information about future uptake of cervical screening according to vaccination statistics is important in order to understand the impact of the vaccination programme and implications for a national cervical screening programme. We analysed data on a cohort of women who had been offered the HPV vaccine in the catch-up programme and were invited for cervical screening between 2010 and 2012 in Wales (n=30,882), in a record-linked database study, to describe the cervical screening uptake and clinical outcome according to HPV vaccination status. In our cohort, 48.5% (n=14,966) women had had HPV vaccination and 45.9% (n=14,164) women attended for cervical screening. Women who were unvaccinated were less likely to attend cervical screening (adjusted OR 0.58; 95% CI (0.55, 0.61)). Of those who attended for screening, 13.9% of vaccinated women had abnormal cytology reported compared to 16.7% of women who were unvaccinated. Women who lived in areas with high levels of social deprivation were less likely to be vaccinated (Quintile 5 OR 0.48 95% CI (0.45, 0.52)) or attend cervical screening (Quintile 5 OR 0.70; 95% CI (0.65, 0.75)) compared to those who lived in the least deprived areas. These data highlight the need for new strategies to address inequalities in cervical screening uptake and can inform further mathematical modelling work to clarify the impact of the HPV vaccination programme on future cervical cancer incidence. PMID:24530938

  2. A centralised cytology screening programme for cervical cancer in Florence.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, D; Carli, S; Cecchini, S; Venturini, A; Piazzesi, G; Buiatti, E

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a centralised population based cervical cytology screening programme. DESIGN--The study was a case-control investigation. SETTING--Cases and controls were confined to the province of Florence. PARTICIPANTS--191 out of 208 cases of cervical cancer in women less than 75 years old at diagnosis in the period 1982-85 were interviewed. For each case three living controls were selected, strictly matched by year of birth and district of residence; in all 573 controls were eventually identified. Of these, 15 had had a hysterectomy (2.6%) and were excluded, and a further 18 (3.2%) did not take part for other reasons, leaving a total of 540 controls. MEASUREMENT AND RESULTS--Screening history was taken from a computerised archive for both cases and controls. A mail questionnaire was used to collect information on several potential confounding variables. For women screened only once in comparison with those never screened, the reduction in risk was about 70% (odds ratio 0.29. 95% confidence limits 0.15-0.55), while the reduction was even greater for those screened twice or more. No trend of increasing risk with increasing interval since last test was shown: considering separately women who had only had one test and those who had had two or more tests, the risk estimates were stable across different time intervals since the last test. CONCLUSIONS--There is a strong protective effect against developing invasive cervical cancer through participation in the screening programme. PMID:2348148

  3. Reaching targets in the national cervical screening programme: are current practices unethical?

    PubMed Central

    Foster, P; Anderson, C M

    1998-01-01

    The principle of informed consent is now well established within the National Health Service (NHS) in relation to any type of medical treatment. However, this ethical principle appears to be far less well established in relation to medical screening programmes such as Britain's national cervical screening programme. This article will critically examine the case for health care providers vigorously pursuing women to accept an invitation to be screened. It will discuss the type of information which women would need in order to make an informed decision about whether or not to be screened. The lack of such information in current patient leaflets on the "smear test" will then be documented. Finally, the article will explore possible ways of maximising women's autonomy in relation to the cervical screening programme without sacrificing any of its main benefits. PMID:9650108

  4. Effective screening programmes for cervical cancer in low- and middle-income developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, R.; Budukh, A. M.; Rajkumar, R.

    2001-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem among adult women in developing countries in South and Central America, sub-Saharan Africa, and south and south-east Asia. Frequently repeated cytology screening programmes--either organized or opportunistic--have led to a large decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in developed countries. In contrast, cervical cancer remains largely uncontrolled in high-risk developing countries because of ineffective or no screening. This article briefly reviews the experience from existing screening and research initiatives in developing countries. Substantial costs are involved in providing the infrastructure, manpower, consumables, follow-up and surveillance for both organized and opportunistic screening programmes for cervical cancer. Owing to their limited health care resources, developing countries cannot afford the models of frequently repeated screening of women over a wide age range that are used in developed countries. Many low-income developing countries, including most in sub-Saharan Africa, have neither the resources nor the capacity for their health services to organize and sustain any kind of screening programme. Middle-income developing countries, which currently provide inefficient screening, should reorganize their programmes in the light of experiences from other countries and lessons from their past failures. Middle-income countries intending to organize a new screening programme should start first in a limited geographical area, before considering any expansion. It is also more realistic and effective to target the screening on high-risk women once or twice in their lifetime using a highly sensitive test, with an emphasis on high coverage (>80%) of the targeted population. Efforts to organize an effective screening programme in these developing countries will have to find adequate financial resources, develop the infrastructure, train the needed manpower, and elaborate surveillance mechanisms

  5. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors, screening, and reasons for non-participation in cervical cancer screening programme in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The attendance rate in Estonian cervical cancer screening programme is too low therefore the programme is hardly effective. A cross-sectional population based survey was performed to identify awareness of cervical cancer risk factors, reasons why women do not want to participate in cervical screening programme and wishes for better organisation of the programme. Method An anonymous questionnaire with a covering letter and a prepaid envelope was sent together with the screening invitation to 2942 randomly selected women. Results are based on the analysis of 1054 (36%) returned questionnaires. Results Main reasons for non-participation in the national screening programme were a recent visit to a gynaecologist (42.3%), fear to give a Pap-smear (14.3%), long appointment queues (12.9%) and unsuitable reception hours (11.8%). Fear to give a Pap-smear was higher among women aged 30 and 35 than 50 and 55 (RR 1.46; 95% CI: 0.82-2.59) and women with one or no deliveries (RR 1.56, 95% CI: 0.94-2.58). In general, awareness of cervical cancer risk factors is poor and it does not depend on socio-demographic factors. Awareness of screening was higher among Estonians than Russians (RR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.46-1.86). Most women prefer to receive information about screening from personally mailed invitation letters (74.8%). Conclusions Women need more information about cervical cancer risk factors and the screening programme. They prefer personally addressed information sharing. Minority groups should be addressed in their own language. A better collaboration with service providers and discouraging smears outside the programme are also required. PMID:21951661

  6. Cervical Cancer Histology, Staging and Survival before and after Implementation of Organised Cervical Screening Programme in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowski, Andrzej; Cybulski, Marek; Buda, Irmina; Janosz, Iwona; Olszak-Wąsik, Katarzyna; Bodzek, Piotr; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Teter, Zbigniew; Olejek, Anita; Baranowski, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    A population-based organised cervical cancer screening programme (OCCSP) was introduced in Poland in 2006. In this study we have aimed to analyse whether selected parameters related to invasive cervical cancer (ICC) of patients diagnosed in two distant gynaecological oncology centres changed after the first screening round of the programme run between 2006–2008. We have run a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 189 women diagnosed with ICC between 2002–2005 (directly before introduction of the programme) and 165 patients diagnosed between 2009–2012 (just after the first screening round of the programme) and compared their age at diagnosis, histology, stage of tumours and overall survival (OS). Mean age of patients diagnosed in years 2002–2005 and 2009–2012 was 52.1 and 52.6 years respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas constituted 90.5% and 86.1% of tumours diagnosed in years 2002–2005 and 2009–2012 respectively and the rest of tumours had glandular and other histologies. 74.5% and 61.0% of women diagnosed in years 2002–2005 and 2009–2012 respectively had early ICC (FIGO—International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stages I-IIA) and the rest had advanced disease (FIGO IIB-IV). We have noticed no significant differences in mean age of patients, histology of tumours and OS of patients with ICC diagnosed before and after the first screening round of OCSSP in Poland. Advanced stages of ICC were more commonly diagnosed after the introduction of OCSSP. Changes only in some clinical parameters of patients with ICC were noticed before and after the first screening round of OCSSP in Poland but OS of patients remained the same. PMID:27196050

  7. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina; Pedersen, Helle; Lönnberg, Stefan; Nygård, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25–69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr) HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC)2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1%) hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway. PMID:27073929

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  9. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain types ...

  10. Cervical screening in Luxembourg: 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    Scheiden, R; Wagener, C; Knolle, U; Wehenkel, A; Dippel, W; Capesius, C

    2003-10-01

    For quality assurance purposes, the results of the 1990's obtained by the National Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP) launched in 1962 were reviewed. The positive cytodiagnosis, the histologically verified in situ and invasive cervical cancers and the mortality rates were reported. PMID:14510886

  11. Are Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Programmes Equitable? The Case of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobigo, V.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Balogh, R.; Leung, F.; Lin, E.; Lunsky, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective cancer screening must be available for all eligible individuals without discrimination. Lower rates of cervical and breast cancer screening have been reported in certain groups compared with women from the general population, such as women with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Research on the factors…

  12. Cervical cancer screening in Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Scheiden, R; Knolle, U; Wagener, C; Wehenkel, A M; Capesius, C

    2000-11-01

    In 1962, a programme for early detection of cervical cancer was established at the national level. The programme is based on the collaboration of different groups of doctors and not on a system of sending out invitations to every woman. This programme was re-adapted twice according to the needs for assuring quality in a system of mainly liberal medicine. At present the programme is 'institutionalised' and is carried out according to the criteria defined in 1990. This includes a centralisation of the smear readings and handing out the material needed to take the smears. The contribution of the doctors is regulated by a system of bonuses given by the government and a reimbursement by the Health Fund. The annual cervical smear is free of charge for every woman. The participation of the women targeted by the programme (>15 years old) has increased by approximately 50% every decade from the early 1970s increasing from 10950 in 1972 to 70441 in 1999. Between 1980 and 1999, the number of women at risk taking part in the programme increased from 10.80 to 38.92%. The number of all the doctors taking smear samples increased from 68 to 105 and the number of gynaecologists increased from 19 (ratio Gyn/GP (gynaecologists/General Practitioners) of 28%) to 52 (ratio Gyn/GP of 50%). The mortality rate has decreased continuously from 6. 1/100000 in 1990 to 0.9/100000 in 1997. In conclusion, to be successful, a cervical cancer screening programme should be flexible enough to allow short-term adaptations to unexpected local situations and needs a highly motivated team of the different participants involved in the regional and national health policy. PMID:11072212

  13. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. PMID:26162490

  14. Cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the role of family physicians in screening for cancer of the cervix, to review the evidence for screening, in particular, frequency and technique for screening, and to review the reasons cervical cancer has not been prevented and the role of family physicians in addressing these failures. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The value of screening has been established with level II evidence. Many of the unresolved issues are not supported either way by good evidence; level II and III evidence predominates. MAIN FINDINGS: In Canada, 1350 women were predicted to be diagnosed with cancer of the cervix in 1996. Most of these women had not been screened. Minority, rural, low-income, and older women face important barriers to screening. Family physicians have a role in reaching out to these women to provide effective health care, including cancer screening. When cancer screening is performed, it should conform to recommended techniques with appropriate follow up of abnormal test results. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians have an important role in preventing cancer of the cervix. Efforts should be concentrated on encouraging a greater proportion of eligible women to be screened. Criteria are suggested for effective screening. PMID:9721422

  15. 'Organised' cervical screening 45 years on: How consistent are organised screening practices?

    PubMed

    Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2014-11-01

    Organised screening programmes have been remarkably successful in reducing incidence and mortality from cervical cancer, while opportunistic screening varies in its effectiveness. Experts recommend that cervical screening or HPV testing be carried out only in the context of an organised programme. We sought to answer the following study questions: What does it mean for a cervical screening programme to be organised? Is there a place for opportunistic screening (in an organised programme)? We reviewed 154 peer-reviewed papers on organised and opportunistic approaches to cervical screening published between 1970 and 2014 to understand how the term 'organised' is used, formally and in practice. We found that despite broad recognition of a prescriptive definition of organisation, in practice the meaning of organisation is much less clear. Our review revealed descriptions of organised programmes that differ significantly from prescribed norms and from each other, and a variety of ways that opportunistic and organised programmes intersect. We describe the breadth of the variation in cervical cancer screening programmes and examine the relationships and overlaps between organised and opportunistic screening. Implications emerging from the review include the need to better understand the breadth of organisation in practice, the drivers and impacts of opportunistic screening and the impact of opportunistic screening on population programme outcomes. Appreciation of the complexity of cervical screening programmes will benefit both screeners and women as programmes are changed to reflect a partially vaccinated population, new evidence and new technologies. PMID:25282406

  16. The organization of cervical screening in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Havelock, Christine; Edwards, Robert; Cuzick, Jack; Chamberlain, Jocelyn

    1988-01-01

    Well organized cervical screening in general practice can have considerable clinical and financial rewards. Yet in a randomized survey of general practitioners in the United Kingdom only 43% operated a system for cervical screening which allows previously untested women to be identified and invited for testing. A younger age of general practitioner, a more rural practice, a larger practice size, employment of a practice nurse, a belief in the effectiveness of cervical screening and a positive view of the time spent on screening were all strong predictors of an organized approach to cervical screening within a practice. Being female or having a female partner was not statistically associated with systematic screening. The results demonstrate a need for education within general practice which emphasizes the relevance and significance of cervical screening and the essential contribution that can be made by each individual general practitioner to the success of the whole cervical screening programme. PMID:3210183

  17. Assessing the evidence for organised cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Madlensky, L; Goel, V; Polzer, J; Ashbury, F D

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the evidence in the literature for organised cancer screening programmes. A Medline search for publications related to organised cancer screening programmes and their components was done. While there is a broad descriptive literature on various cancer screening programmes, there are few published studies that evaluate the impact of organised cancer screening. Most of the evidence to date is from Scandinavian cervical and breast cancer screening programmes. There is a moderate amount of literature that evaluates specific components of cancer screening programmes (such as quality control and recruitment). There is a substantial body of literature on organised cancer screening programmes. However, the studies tend to describe organised screening programmes rather than evaluate their effectiveness relative to opportunistic screening. Furthermore, most studies focus on individual components of organised screening programmes, rather than on the programmes as a whole. More research is needed that directly compares organised with opportunistic cancer screening. PMID:12888358

  18. Use of thermo-coagulation as an alternative treatment modality in a 'screen-and-treat' programme of cervical screening in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Christine; Kafwafwa, Savel; Brown, Hilary; Walker, Graeme; Madetsa, Belito; Deeny, Miriam; Kabota, Beatrice; Morton, David; Ter Haar, Reynier; Grant, Liz; Cubie, Heather A

    2016-08-15

    The incidence of cervical cancer in Malawi is the highest in the world and projected to increase in the absence of interventions. Although government policy supports screening using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), screening provision is limited due to lack of infrastructure, trained personnel, and the cost and availability of gas for cryotherapy. Recently, thermo-coagulation has been acknowledged as a safe and acceptable procedure suitable for low-resource settings. We introduced thermo-coagulation for treatment of VIA-positive lesions as an alternative to cryotherapy within a cervical screening service based on VIA, coupled with appropriate, sustainable pathways of care for women with high-grade lesions and cancers. Detailed planning was undertaken for VIA clinics, and approvals were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Regional and Village Chiefs. Educational resources were developed. Thermo-coagulators were introduced into hospital and health centre settings, with theoretical and practical training in safe use and maintenance of equipment. A total of 7,088 previously unscreened women attended VIA clinics between October 2013 and March 2015. Screening clinics were held daily in the hospital and weekly in the health centres. Overall, VIA positivity was 6.1%. Almost 90% received same day treatment in the hospital setting, and 3- to 6-month cure rates of more than 90% are observed. Thermo-coagulation proved feasible and acceptable in this setting. Effective implementation requires comprehensive training and provider support, ongoing competency assessment, quality assurance and improvement audit. Thermo-coagulation offers an effective alternative to cryotherapy and encouraged VIA screening of many more women. PMID:27006131

  19. Rationale and development of an on-line quality assurance programme for colposcopy in a population-based cervical screening setting in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colposcopy, the key step in the management of women with abnormal Pap smear results, is a visual technique prone to observer variation, which implies the need for prolonged apprenticeship, continuous training, and quality assurance (QA) measures. Colposcopy QA programmes vary in level of responsibility of organizing subjects, geographic coverage, scope, model, and type of actions. The programmes addressing the clinical standards of colposcopy (quality of examination and appropriateness of clinical decisions) are more limited in space and less sustainable over time than those focused on the provision of the service (resources, accessibility, etc.). This article reports on the protocol of a QA programme targeting the clinical quality of colposcopy in a population-based cervical screening service in an administrative region of northern Italy. Methods/design After a situation analysis of local colposcopy audit practices and previous QA initiatives, a permanent web-based QA programme was developed. The design places more emphasis on providing education and feedback to participants than on testing them. The technical core is a log-in web application accessible on the website of the regional Administration. The primary objectives are to provide (1) a practical opportunity for retraining of screening colposcopists, and (2) a platform for them to interact with colposcopists from other settings and regions through exchange and discussion of digital colposcopic images. The retraining function is based on repeated QA sessions in which the registered colposcopists log-in, classify a posted set of colpophotographs, and receive on line a set of personal feedback data. Each session ends with a plenary seminar featuring the presentation of overall results and an interactive review of the test set of colpophotographs. This is meant to be a forum for an open exchange of views that may lead to more knowledge and more diagnostic homogeneity. The protocol includes the

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical cancer in women aged 30–65 years. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Human Papillomavirus ( ...

  1. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these tests as well as the possible harms, both of which are explained below. This fact ... after receiving abnormal test results. Benefits and Possible Harms The main benefit of screening is that it ...

  2. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    PubMed

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging. PMID:27273940

  3. Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more reliable and sensitive but less specific than Papanicolaou (Pap) testing/cervical cytology for the detection of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV-negative women are at lower risk of cervical cancer than Pap-negative women. In high-resource settings, HPV testing can be used to make cervical cancer prevention programs more efficient by focusing clinical attention on women who have HPV. In lower-resource settings, where Pap testing has not been sustained or widespread, new, lower-cost HPV tests may make cervical cancer screening feasible. PMID:23732037

  4. The Korean guideline for cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung Jin; Lee, Yoon Jae; Suh, Mina; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lim, Myong Cheol; Choi, Jaekyung; Ki, Moran; Kim, Yong Man; Kim, Jae Weon; Kim, Jea Hoon; Park, Eal Whan; Lee, Hoo Yeon; Lim, Sung Chul; Cho, Chi Heum; Hong, Sung Ran; Dang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Yeol; Lee, Won Chul; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2015-07-01

    The incidence rate of cervical cancer in Korea is still higher than in other developed countries, notwithstanding the national mass-screening program. Furthermore, a new method has been introduced in cervical cancer screening. Therefore, the committee for cervical cancer screening in Korea updated the recommendation statement established in 2002. The new version of the guideline was developed by the committee using evidence-based methods. The committee reviewed the evidence for the benefits and harms of the Papanicolaou test, liquid-based cytology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and reached conclusions after deliberation. The committee recommends screening for cervical cancer with cytology (Papanicolaou test or liquid-based cytology) every three years in women older than 20 years of age (recommendation A). The cervical cytology combined with HPV test is optionally recommended after taking into consideration individual risk or preference (recommendation C). The current evidence for primary HPV screening is insufficient to assess the benefits and harms of cervical cancer screening (recommendation I). Cervical cancer screening can be terminated at the age of 74 years if more than three consecutive negative cytology reports have been confirmed within 10 years (recommendation D). PMID:26197860

  5. [Screening for cervical and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Wilm, J; Schüler-Toprak, S; Ortmann, O

    2016-09-01

    Screening programs for cervical cancer and breast cancer lead to a clear reduction of mortality. Starting in 2018 screening for cervical cancer will be structured as an organized program as already exists for breast cancer. In future screening for cervical cancer will be primarily performed by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing at intervals of 5 years while cytological examination (Pap smear) will also be available as an additional or alternative procedure. For breast cancer screening in Germany an annual clinical examination with palpation and mammography screening at 2‑year intervals is provided for women aged between 50 and 69 years. In Germany only approximately 50 % of invited women have used the opportunity to participate in screening in recent years. Weighing the benefits against the harms of cancer screening programs is always important in the process of evaluation of different strategies. PMID:27577734

  6. Cervical screening in England: the past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Albrow, Rebecca; Kitchener, Henry; Gupta, Nalini; Desai, Mina

    2012-04-25

    Cervical screening in England commenced in a disorganized fashion in 1964. The flaws of this approach became apparent in the mid-1980s and led to the inception of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP). The main features of this program are its population-based registry, accessibility to all women within the screening age range, its systematic process of call and recall, national coordination, and quality assurance. Its success is in part based on its ability to evolve as evidence necessitates, and throughout the period of 2000-2010, it embarked upon a series of developments involving liquid-based cytology, which also provided the means to conduct reflex high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing and the potential to automate the screening process. As a result of evidence acquired since 2000, the NHSCSP is currently based on a system of primary cytology with HPV triage for low-grade abnormalities combined with cytology plus a HR-HPV "test of cure" for women who have received treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Future challenges for the program will involve finding solutions to increasing screening uptake among women <30 years of age-a problem that may be exacerbated when vaccinated women reach the screening age, while making plans to accommodate HPV primary screening. PMID:22367883

  7. The next steps in cervical screening.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Qiao, You-lin; Keita, Namory

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is fourth most common cancer among women with four-fifths of the global burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Persistent infection with one of the high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), particularly HPV 16/18, is the central cause of cervical neoplasia. Progress in developing feasible, alternative screening methods in LMICs and HPV vaccines have further improved cervical cancer prevention prospects. While existing screening programs in high-income countries should be re-organized, in view of the downstream effects of national HPV vaccination programs, LMICs should introduce national programs to vaccinate single year cohorts of girls aged 9-13 years with two or three doses and screen 30-35-year-old women with HPV testing to pragmatically decrease their high disease burden. PMID:25776294

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  9. Breast and cervical cancer screening in Great Britain: Dynamic interrelated processes.

    PubMed

    Labeit, Alexander; Peinemann, Frank

    2015-12-01

    No previous analysis has investigated the determinants of screening uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening for possible spillover effects from one type of screening examination to the other type of screening examination with a dynamic bivariate panel probit model. For our analysis, we used a dynamic random effects bivariate panel probit model with initial conditions (Wooldridge-type estimator) and dependent variables were the participation of breast and cervical cancer screening in the recent year. The balanced panel sample consisted of 844 women from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) from the time period 1992 to 2008. Our analysis showed the high relevance of past screening behaviour and the importance of state dependency for the same and the other type of cancer screening examinations even after controlling for covariates and unobserved heterogeneity. The uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening was higher when the same screening examination was done one or three years earlier. This result is in accordance with the medical screening programmes in Great Britain. With regard to breast and cervical cancer screening positive spillover effects existed between screening examinations in the third order lags. Women with a previous visit to a general practitioner and individuals in the recommended age groups had a higher uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening. Other socioeconomic and health related variables had non-uniform results in both screening examinations. Promoting the uptake of one female prevention activity could also enhance the uptake of the other prevention activity. PMID:26487452

  10. The diffusion of screening programmes in Italy, years 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Zappa, Marco; Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Giordano, Livia; Sassatelli, Romano; Federici, Antonio; Zorzi, Manuel; Federici, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we present the results of cancer screening programmes in Italy for the years 2011-2012. This report is produced by the National centre for screening monitoring (ONS), together with the Italian professional multidisciplinary screening groups: GISMa (Italian group for mammographic screening), GISCor (Italian group for colorectal screening), and GISCi (Italian group for cervical screening). Since 2004, ONS has been monitoring and supporting Italian screening programmes, in accordance with a decree issued by the Ministry of Health. Multidisciplinary groups work with ONS and provide the know-how required to promote the quality of public health programmes. The following is a brief outline of the Italian screening programme setting: screening programmes (cervical, mammographic, colorectal) have been a Basic Healthcare Parameter (livello essenziale di assistenza, LEA) since 2001; guidelines are provided by the Ministry of Health's Department of Prevention in agreement with regional governments; regional governments are responsible for the organization, management, and quality assurance of screening programmes; since 2004, ONS has been responsible for monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide; the results of the screening programmes of each region are evaluated annually by the Ministry of Health in terms of coverage and impact. PMID:26405771

  11. Nanomechanical clues from morphologically normal cervical squamous cells could improve cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Li; Feng, Jiantao; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Jing; Hua, Wenda; Li, Jing; Ao, Zhuo; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Liao, Fulong; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Hongyan; Han, Jinsong; Xiong, Guangwu; Zhang, Lufang; Han, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis.Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03662c

  12. Qualitative study of barriers to cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women

    PubMed Central

    Isa Modibbo, Fatima; Dareng, Eileen; Bamisaye, Patience; Jedy-Agba, Elima; Adewole, Ayodele; Oyeneyin, Lawal; Olaniyan, Olayinka; Adebamowo, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the barriers to cervical cancer screening, focusing on religious and cultural factors, in order to inform group-specific interventions that may improve uptake of cervical cancer screening programmes. Design We conducted four focus group discussions among Muslim and Christian women in Nigeria. Setting Discussions were conducted in two hospitals, one in the South West and the other in the North Central region of Nigeria. Participants 27 Christian and 22 Muslim women over the age of 18, with no diagnosis of cancer. Results Most participants in the focus group discussions had heard about cervical cancer except Muslim women in the South Western region who had never heard about cervical cancer. Participants believed that wizardry, multiple sexual partners and inserting herbs into the vagina cause cervical cancer. Only one participant knew about the human papillomavirus. Among the Christian women, the majority of respondents had heard about cervical cancer screening and believed that it could be used to prevent cervical cancer. Participants mentioned religious and cultural obligations of modesty, gender of healthcare providers, fear of disclosure of results, fear of nosocomial infections, lack of awareness, discrimination at hospitals, and need for spousal approval as barriers to uptake of screening. These barriers varied by religion across the geographical regions. Conclusions Barriers to cervical cancer screening vary by religious affiliations. Interventions to increase cervical cancer awareness and screening uptake in multicultural and multireligious communities need to take into consideration the varying cultural and religious beliefs in order to design and implement effective cervical cancer screening intervention programmes. PMID:26754174

  13. Health-care providers' perceptions, attitudes towards and recommendation practice of cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hweissa, N Ab; Lim, J N W; Su, T T

    2016-09-01

    In Libya, cervical cancer is ranked third as the most frequent cancer among women with early diagnosis being shown to reduce morbidity and mortality. Health-care providers can influence women's screening behaviours, and their lack of recommendations for screening can be one of the barriers that affect women's participation in screening programmes. This study aims to assess the health-care provider's perception around cervical cancer screening. In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 health-care providers, from both public and private sectors in Az-Zawiya city, Libya, between February and July of 2014. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, then analysed using thematic analysis. Our findings suggest that health-care providers did not provide sufficient information regarding cervical cancer screening for women who attend health-care facilities. The results highlight the role played by health-care professionals in motivating women to attend cervical cancer screening programs, and the need for health education of health-care providers to offer a precious advice regarding the screening. On the other hand, health-care providers highlighted that implementation of reminding system of cervical cancer screening will support them to improve screening attendance. In addition, health-care providers stressed the necessity for educational and awareness campaigns of cervical cancer screening among Libyan women. PMID:27350095

  14. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data. PMID:24955419

  15. Intelligent screening systems for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Jusman, Yessi; Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data. PMID:24955419

  16. Cervical cancer screening in immigrant women in Italy: a survey on participation, cytology and histology results.

    PubMed

    Campari, Cinzia; Fedato, Chiara; Iossa, Anna; Petrelli, Alessio; Zorzi, Manuel; Anghinoni, Emanuela; Bietta, Carla; Brachini, Angela; Brezzi, Silvia; Cogo, Carla; Giordano, Livia; Giorgi, Daniela; Palazzi, Mauro; Petrella, Marco; Schivardi, Maria R; Visioli, Carmen B; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer screening programmes in Italy actively invite all 25-64-year-old resident women for the Pap test every 3 years irrespective of their citizenship. Immigrant women come from countries where screening is absent or poorly implemented and the prevalence of human papillomavirus is often high. These women therefore have significant risk factors for cervical cancer. The Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening promoted a survey of all the screening programmes on the participation and the positivity and detection rates in Italian and foreign women in 2009-2011. Aggregated data for participation, cytology results, compliance with colposcopy and histology results were collected, distinguishing between women born in Italy and abroad. All comparisons were age adjusted. Forty-eight programmes out of 120 participated in the immigrant survey, with 3 147 428 invited and 1 427 412 screened Italian women and 516 291 invited and 205 948 screened foreign women. Foreign women had a slightly lower participation rate compared with Italians (39.9 vs. 45.4%), whereas compliance with colposcopy was similar (90%). Foreigners showed a higher risk of pathological findings than Italians: cytology positivity [relative risk (RR)=1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.27] and detection rate for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) (RR=1.39, 95% CI 1.31-1.47), CIN3 (RR=2.07, 95% CI 1.96-2.18) and cancer (RR=2.68, 95% CI 2.24-3.22). The ratio between cancer and CIN was higher in immigrants (0.06 vs. 0.04, P<0.01). Foreign women had a higher risk of cervical precancer and cancer. Because of their high risk and because opportunistic screening does not cover this often disadvantaged group, achieving high participation in screening programmes for foreigners is critical to further reducing the cervical cancer burden in Italy. PMID:26207563

  17. Optoelectronic image processing for cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1994-05-01

    Automation of the Pap-smear cervical screening method is highly desirable as it relieves tedium for the human operators, reduces cost and should increase accuracy and provide repeatability. We present here the design for a high-throughput optoelectronic system which forms the first stage of a two stage system to automate pap-smear screening. We use a mathematical morphological technique called the hit-or-miss transform to identify the suspicious areas on a pap-smear slide. This algorithm is implemented using a VanderLugt architecture and a time-sequential ANDing smart pixel array.

  18. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, LE; Durand, AM; Ekeroma, A; Souares, Y; Hoy, D; Baravilala, W; Garland, SM; Kjaer, SK; Roth, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination programmes in the region. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among ministry of health officials from 21 Pacific Island countries and territories (n=21). Results Cervical cancer prevention was rated as highly important, but implementation of prevention programs were insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. Conclusion Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific. PMID:25921158

  19. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    PubMed

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible

  20. Cervical cancer screening among HIV-positive women

    PubMed Central

    Leece, Pamela; Kendall, Claire; Touchie, Claire; Pottie, Kevin; Angel, Jonathan B.; Jaffey, James

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of cervical screening among HIV-positive women who received care at a tertiary care clinic, and to determine whether screening rates were influenced by having a primary care provider. DESIGN Retrospective chart review. SETTING Tertiary care outpatient clinic in Ottawa, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women who were HIV-positive receiving care at the Ottawa Hospital General Campus Immunodeficiency Clinic between July 1, 2002, and June 30, 2005. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Whether patients had primary care providers and whether they received cervical screening. We recorded information on patient demographics, HIV status, primary care providers, and cervical screening, including date, results, and type of health care provider ordering the screening. RESULTS Fifty-eight percent (126 of 218) of the women had at least 1 cervical screening test during the 3-year period. Thirty-three percent (42 of 126) of the women who underwent cervical screening had at least 1 abnormal test result. The proportion of women who did not have any cervical tests performed was higher among women who did not have primary care providers (8 of 12 [67%] vs 84 of 206 [41%]; relative risk 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.52, P < .05), although this group was small. CONCLUSION Despite the high proportion of abnormal cervical screening test results among HIV-positive women, screening rates remained low. Our results support our hypothesis that those women who do not have primary care providers are less likely to undergo cervical screening. PMID:21375064

  1. Accuracy of Colposcopically Directed Biopsy: Results from an Online Quality Assurance Programme for Colposcopy in a Population-Based Cervical Screening Setting in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Sideri, Mario; Garutti, Paola; Costa, Silvano; Cristiani, Paolo; Schincaglia, Patrizia; Sassoli de Bianchi, Priscilla; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the accuracy of colposcopically directed biopsy in an internet-based colposcopy quality assurance programme in northern Italy. Methods. A web application was made accessible on the website of the regional Administration. Fifty-nine colposcopists out of the registered 65 logged in, viewed a posted set of 50 digital colpophotographs, classified them for colposcopic impression and need for biopsy, and indicated the most appropriate site for biopsy with a left-button mouse click on the image. Results. Total biopsy failure rate, comprising both nonbiopsy and incorrect selection of biopsy site, was 0.20 in CIN1, 0.11 in CIN2, 0.09 in CIN3, and 0.02 in carcinoma. Errors in the selection of biopsy site were stable between 0.08 and 0.09 in the three grades of CIN while decreasing to 0.01 in carcinoma. In multivariate analysis, the risk of incorrect selection of biopsy site was 1.97 for CIN2, 2.52 for CIN3, and 0.29 for carcinoma versus CIN1. Conclusions. Although total biopsy failure rate decreased regularly with increasing severity of histological diagnosis, the rate of incorrect selection of biopsy site was stable up to CIN3. In multivariate analysis, CIN2 and CIN3 had an independently increased risk of incorrect selection of biopsy site. PMID:26180805

  2. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

  3. Implementation of cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid in rural Mozambique: successes and challenges using HIV care and treatment programme investments in Zambézia Province

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Troy D; Silva-Matos, Carla; Cordoso, Aventina; Baptista, Alberto J; Sidat, Mohsin; Vermund, Sten H

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to maximize the benefits of HIV care and treatment investments in sub-Saharan Africa, programs can broaden to target other diseases amenable to screening and efficient management. We nested cervical cancer screening into family planning clinics at select sites also receiving PEPFAR support for antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout. This was done using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) by maternal child health nurses. We report on achievements and obstacles in the first year of the program in rural Mozambique. Methods VIA was taught to clinic nurses and hospital physicians, with a regular clinical feedback loop for quality evaluation and retraining. Cryotherapy using carbon dioxide as the refrigerant was provided at clinics; loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and surgery were provided at the provincial hospital for serious cases. No pathology services were available. Results Nurses screened 4651 women using VIA in Zambézia Province in year one of the program, more than double the Ministry of Health service target. VIA was judged positive for squamous intraepithelial lesions in 8% (n=380) of the women (9% if age ≥30 years (n=3154) and 7% if age <30 years (n=1497); p=0.02). Of the 380 VIA-positive women, 4% (n=16) had lesions (0.3% of 4651 total screened) requiring referral to Quelimane Provincial Hospital. Fourteen (88%) of these 16 women were seen at the hospital, but records were inadequate to judge outcomes. Of women screened, 2714 (58%) either had knowledge of their HIV status prior to VIA or were subsequently sent for HIV testing, of which 583 (21%) were HIV positive. Conclusions Screening and clinical services were successfully provided on a large scale for the first time ever in these rural clinics. However, health manpower shortages, equipment problems, poor paper record systems and a limited ability to follow-up patients inhibited the quality of the cervical cancer screening services. Using prior HIV investments

  4. 50 years of screening in the Nordic countries: quantifying the effects on cervical cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarella, S; Franceschi, S; Engholm, G; Lönnberg, S; Khan, S; Bray, F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nordic countries' data offer a unique possibility to evaluate the long-term benefit of cervical cancer screening in a context of increasing risk of human papillomavirus infection. Methods: Ad hoc-refined age-period-cohort models were applied to the last 50-year incidence data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden to project expected cervical cancer cases in a no-screening scenario. Results: In the absence of screening, projected incidence rates for 2006–2010 in Nordic countries would have been between 3 and 5 times higher than observed rates. Over 60 000 cases or between 41 and 49% of the expected cases of cervical cancer may have been prevented by the introduction of screening in the late 1960 s and early 1970 s. Conclusions: Our study suggests that screening programmes might have prevented a HPV-driven epidemic of cervical cancer in Nordic countries. According to extrapolations from cohort effects, cervical cancer incidence rates in the Nordic countries would have been otherwise comparable to the highest incidence rates currently detected in low-income countries. PMID:24992581

  5. Practice Bulletin No. 157: Cervical Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer in the United States has decreased more than 50% in the past 30 years because of widespread screening. In 1975, the rate was 14.8 per 100,000 women. By 2011, it decreased to 6.7 per 100,000 women. Mortality from the disease has undergone a similar decrease from 5.55 per 100,000 women in 1975 to 2.3 per 100,000 women in 2011 (). The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimated that there would be 12,900 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States in 2015, with 4,100 deaths from the disease (). Cervical cancer is much more common worldwide, particularly in countries without screening programs, with an estimated 527,624 new cases of the disease and 265,672 resultant deaths each year (). When cervical cancer screening programs have been introduced into communities, marked reductions in cervical cancer incidence have followed ().New technologies for cervical cancer screening continue to evolve, as do recommendations for managing the results. In addition, there are different risk-benefit considerations for women at different ages, as reflected in age-specific screening recommendations. In 2011, the ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) updated their joint guidelines for cervical cancer screening (), as did the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) (). Subsequently, in 2015, ASCCP and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) issued interim guidance for the use of a human papillomavirus (HPV) test for primary screening for cervical cancer that was approved in 2014 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (). The purpose of this document is to provide a review of the best available evidence regarding the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. PMID:26695583

  6. Practice Bulletin No. 157 Summary: Cervical Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer in the United States has decreased more than 50% in the past 30 years because of widespread screening. In 1975, the rate was 14.8 per 100,000 women. By 2011, it decreased to 6.7 per 100,000 women. Mortality from the disease has undergone a similar decrease from 5.55 per 100,000 women in 1975 to 2.3 per 100,000 women in 2011 (1). The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimated that there would be 12,900 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States in 2015, with 4,100 deaths from the disease (2). Cervical cancer is much more common worldwide, particularly in countries without screening programs, with an estimated 527,624 new cases of the disease and 265,672 resultant deaths each year (3). When cervical cancer screening programs have been introduced into communities, marked reductions in cervical cancer incidence have followed (4, 5).New technologies for cervical cancer screening continue to evolve, as do recommendations for managing the results. In addition, there are different risk-benefit considerations for women at different ages, as reflected in age-specific screening recommendations. In 2011, the ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) updated their joint guidelines for cervical cancer screening (6), as did the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) (7). Subsequently, in 2015, ASCCP and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) issued interim guidance for the use of a human papillomavirus (HPV) test for primary screening for cervical cancer that was approved in 2014 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (8). The purpose of this document is to provide a review of the best available evidence regarding the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. PMID:26695578

  7. Investigating Hong Kong's Filipino domestic workers' healthcare behavior, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards cervical cancer and cervical screening.

    PubMed

    Holroyd, Eleanor A; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Twinn, Sheila F

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate Hong Kong Filipino domestic workers health behaviors, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about cervical screening and cancer. A concurrent cross sectional survey design used a snowball method of recruitment was used because of the acknowledged problematic access to a random sample of immigrant women. A total of 98 female domestic helpers were actively recruited through designated recreation centers. The women were between 24-45 years old (mean = 37.9, SD = 7.7). The majority of these women were employed as full-time domestic helpers (91%), were earning less than dollar 4000 Hong Kong dollars/month (92%), were married (82%), with children (91%), were non-smokers (88%), and had at least a secondary level of education (100%), with 66% of these women having completed post-secondary education. While the majority of women had previously heard about cervical smears (78%) more than half (53%) reported never having a cervical smear taken. Women who had a prior cervical smear had significantly more knowledge about cervical smears and cervical cancer (mean = 51.34, SD = 2.5) than those who never had a cervical smear (mean = 49.72, SD = 3.2). Recommendations are made for culturally tailored mass screening programmers out of office hours and health information to be provided in both written and oral Tagalong. Doctors and nurse ideally of Filipino origin should be used to deliver health messages that prioritize the importance of self protection for the family and future fertility issues, culturally prized within Filipino society. PMID:14535607

  8. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening…

  9. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  10. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  11. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Ricciardi, Alessandro; Cohet, Catherine; Palazzo, Fabio; Furnari, Giacomo; Valle, Sabrina; Largeron, Nathalie; Federici, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia) was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively). Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening. PMID:19243586

  12. Improving cervical cancer screening rates in an urban HIV clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Sara L.; Suharwardy, Sanaa H.; Bodavula, Phani; Schechtman, Kenneth; Overton, E. Turner; Onen, Nur F.; Lane, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-infected women are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer, however screening rates remain low. The objectives of this study were to analyze a quality improvement intervention to increase cervical cancer screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic and to identify factors associated with inadequate screening. Barriers to screening were identified by a multi-disciplinary quality improvement committee at the Washington University Infectious Diseases clinic. Several strategies were developed to address these barriers. The years pre- and post-implementation were analyzed to examine the clinical impact of the intervention. A total of 422 women were seen in both the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods. In the pre-implementation period, 222 women (53%) underwent cervical cancer screening in the form of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing. In the post-implementation period, 318 women (75.3%) underwent cervical cancer screening (p<0.01). Factors associated with lack of screening included fewer visits attended (pre: 4.2 ± 1.5; post: 3.4 ± 1.4; p<0.01). A multidisciplinary quality improvement intervention was successful in overcoming barriers and increasing cervical cancer screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic. PMID:24625234

  13. DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, B.

    1988-11-18

    New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

  14. New Screening Proposals: the Federal Joint Commission Defines the Parameters for Cervical Cancer Screening from 2018

    PubMed Central

    Hillemanns, P.; Mallmann, P.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    The Gynecology Oncology Working Group (AGO e. V.) unequivocally welcomes the decision taken by the German Federal Joint Commission (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) on March 19, 2015 regarding screening for cervical cancer. AGO is convinced that, in view of recent medical advances, this evidence-based decision will improve screening for cervical cancer. PMID:26941445

  15. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis. PMID:1290073

  16. [HPV-Hr detection by home self sampling in women not compliant with pap test for cervical cancer screening. Results of a pilot programme in Bouches-du-Rhône].

    PubMed

    Piana, Lucien; Leandri, François-Xavier; Le Retraite, Laurence; Heid, Patrice; Tamalet, Catherine; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène

    2011-07-01

    The non-participation to cervical screening is the major determinant in the risk of mortality due to cervical cancer. In France, around 40% of women do not participate to regular screening. The cultural or economic barriers for performing screening by Pap test are numerous; one of the most frequent is the refusal of gynaecological examination. A persistent HPV(HR) infection is a necessary factor for developing cervical cancer. The HPV(HR) testing has a high sensibility to detect high grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN 2-3) and a satisfactory specificity after 30-35 years old. The principal objective of this study was to compare the participation rates in women 35-69 years old who did not perform a Pap test after a first individual invitation, either when an HPV(HR) auto-test was offered to be performed at home or a second invitation to Pap test was sent. We also evaluated the quality of the two tests, the positive results obtained by age groups and the following histological type of lesions diagnosed in the women with positive results. The study included 9,334 women, 35-69 years old, who did not realized a Pap-test during the 2 previous years and who did not respond at a first individual invitation. These non-responders were randomized into two groups: one group (n=4,934) received a second individual invitation and the other (n=4,400) an offer of receiving and performing an HPV auto-test at home. In women 35-69 years the participation to the second invitation to Pap test was significantly lower (7.2%) than the participation to auto-test (26.4%) with P<0.001. The quality of the two tests was satisfactory; the auto-test was not altered by the postage to laboratory (non interpretable rate=1.4% [CI at 95%=0.65%; 2.15%]. From the 311 Pap tests done, 5.5% (17) were classified "abnormal" (nine ASCUS, one high grade and seven low grades). The follow up of 13 women out of 17 confirmed the diagnosis for 1 case of CIN2 and 2 cases of CIN3, 4 women are lost of

  17. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008-2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden. PMID:25987901

  18. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008–2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden. PMID:25987901

  19. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods. PMID:25167359

  20. How protective is cervical cancer screening against cervical cancer mortality in developing countries? The Colombian case

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the top causes of cancer morbidity and mortality in Colombia despite the existence of a national preventive program. Screening coverage with cervical cytology does not explain the lack of success of the program in reducing incidence and mortality rates by cervical cancer. To address this problem an ecological analysis, at department level, was carried out in Colombia to assess the relationship between cervical screening characteristics and cervical cancer mortality rates. Methods Mortality rates by cervical cancer were estimated at the department level for the period 2000-2005. Levels of mortality rates were compared to cervical screening coverage and other characteristics of the program. A Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of different dimensions of program performance on mortality by cervical cancer. Results Screening coverage ranged from 28.7% to 65.6% by department but increases on this variable were not related to decreases in mortality rates. A significant reduction in mortality was found in departments where a higher proportion of women looked for medical advice when abnormal findings were reported in Pap smears. Geographic areas where a higher proportion of women lack health insurance had higher rates of mortality by cervical cancer. Conclusions These results suggest that coverage is not adequate to prevent mortality due to cervical cancer if women with abnormal results are not provided with adequate follow up and treatment. The role of different dimensions of health care such as insurance coverage, quality of care, and barriers for accessing health care needs to be evaluated and addressed in future studies. PMID:20846446

  1. Cervical cancer screening in developing countries at a crossroad: Emerging technologies and policy choices

    PubMed Central

    Catarino, Rosa; Petignat, Patrick; Dongui, Gabriel; Vassilakos, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) represents the fourth most common malignancy affecting women all over the world and is the second most common in developing areas. In these areas, the burden from disease remains important because of the difficulty in implementing cytology-based screening programmes. The main obstacles inherent to these countries are poverty and a lack of healthcare infrastructures and trained practitioners. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have attempted to find new strategies that are adapted to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to promote early diagnosis of cervical pathology. Current evidence suggests that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more effective than cytology for CC screening. Therefore, highly sensitive tests have now been developed for primary screening. Rapid molecular methods for detecting HPV DNA have only recently been commercially available. This constitutes a milestone in CC screening in low-resource settings because it may help overcome the great majority of obstacles inherent to previous screening programmes. Despite several advantages, HPV-based screening has a low positive predictive value for CC, so that HPV-positive women need to be triaged with further testing to determine optimal management. Visual inspection tests, cytology and novel biomarkers are some options. In this review, we provide an overview of current and emerging screening approaches for CC. In particular, we discuss the challenge of implementing an efficient cervical screening adapted to LMIC and the opportunity to introduce primary HPV-based screening with the availability of point-of-care (POC) HPV testing. The most adapted screening strategy to LMIC is still a work in progress, but we have reasons to believe that POC HPV testing makes part of the future strategies in association with a triage test that still needs to be defined. PMID:26677441

  2. Cervical cancer screening in developing countries at a crossroad: Emerging technologies and policy choices.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Rosa; Petignat, Patrick; Dongui, Gabriel; Vassilakos, Pierre

    2015-12-10

    Cervical cancer (CC) represents the fourth most common malignancy affecting women all over the world and is the second most common in developing areas. In these areas, the burden from disease remains important because of the difficulty in implementing cytology-based screening programmes. The main obstacles inherent to these countries are poverty and a lack of healthcare infrastructures and trained practitioners. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have attempted to find new strategies that are adapted to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to promote early diagnosis of cervical pathology. Current evidence suggests that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more effective than cytology for CC screening. Therefore, highly sensitive tests have now been developed for primary screening. Rapid molecular methods for detecting HPV DNA have only recently been commercially available. This constitutes a milestone in CC screening in low-resource settings because it may help overcome the great majority of obstacles inherent to previous screening programmes. Despite several advantages, HPV-based screening has a low positive predictive value for CC, so that HPV-positive women need to be triaged with further testing to determine optimal management. Visual inspection tests, cytology and novel biomarkers are some options. In this review, we provide an overview of current and emerging screening approaches for CC. In particular, we discuss the challenge of implementing an efficient cervical screening adapted to LMIC and the opportunity to introduce primary HPV-based screening with the availability of point-of-care (POC) HPV testing. The most adapted screening strategy to LMIC is still a work in progress, but we have reasons to believe that POC HPV testing makes part of the future strategies in association with a triage test that still needs to be defined. PMID:26677441

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Adult Women in China, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baohua; He, Minfu; Chao, Ann; Engelgau, Michael M.; Saraiya, Mona; Wang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among women in China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine screening for cervical cancer, and the WHO Global Monitoring Framework suggests that every nation monitors cervical cancer screening. However, little information is available on cervical cancer screening behavior among women in China. Methods. We used data from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System that included 51,989 women aged 18 years and older. We report the proportion of women who reported ever having had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test, stratified by sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. Overall, 21% of 51,989 women reported having ever had a Pap test. The highest proportion was reported among women aged 30–39 years (30.1%, 95% confidence interval, 26.8%–33.4%). In all geographic regions, women in rural areas were consistently less likely than women in urban areas to report having had a Pap test. Among women who reported ever having a Pap test, 82% reported having the most recent test in the past 3 years. Factors associated with reporting ever having a test were being aged 30–49 years, higher education, being married, and having urban health insurance. Conclusion. Our results indicate that screening programs need to be strengthened along with a more intense focus on specific demographic groups. National cervical cancer screening guidelines and comprehensive implementation strategies are needed to make screening services available and accessible to all women. Implications for Practice: This study is the largest nationwide and population-based assessment of self-reported history of Pap test for cervical cancer screening in China. This article describes cervical cancer screening behavior among women and examines key demographic and geographic factors. Only one

  4. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  5. [How to assess and reduce social inequalities in cancer screening programmes].

    PubMed

    Binefa, Gemma; García, Montse; Peiró, Rosana; Molina-Barceló, Ana; Ibáñez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This field note presents the conclusions and recommendations made at the meeting 'How to reduce social inequalities in cancer screening programmes?' held at the XXVI School of Public Health of Mahon (Menorca, Spain). Participants developed recommendations based on experiences of population-based screening programmes (breast and colorectal) and opportunistic screening (cervical). The conclusions and recommendations focused on four main areas (information systems, evaluation and quality, research, and interventions): the inclusion of social variables at an individual level in health information systems; the establishment of minimum standards for gathering information regarding inequalities in access to preventive services; the performance of actions in vulnerable populations; and the promotion of the exchange of experiences and best practices through the Cancer Screening Programmes Network and working groups of the scientific societies. PMID:26920750

  6. Effect of Fee on Cervical Cancer Screening Attendance—ScreenFee, a Swedish Population-Based Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Alfonzo, Emilia; Andersson Ellström, Agneta; Nemes, Szilard; Strander, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Background Attendance in the cervical cancer screening programme is one of the most important factors to lower the risk of contracting the disease. Attendance rates are often low in areas with low socioeconomic status. Charging a fee for screening might possibly decrease attendance in this population. Screening programme coverage is low in low socio-economic status areas in Gothenburg, Sweden, but has increased slightly after multiple interventions in recent years. For many years, women in the region have paid a fee for screening. We studied the effect of abolishing this fee in a trial emanating from the regular cervical cancer screening programme. Method Individually randomised controlled trial. All 3 124 women in three low-resource areas in Gothenburg, due for screening during the study period, were randomised to receive an offer of a free test or the standard invitation stating the regular fee of 100 SEK (≈11 €). The study was conducted during the first six months of 2013. Attendance was defined as a registered Pap smear within 90 days from the date the invitation was sent out. Results Attendance did not differ significantly between women who were charged and those offered free screening (RR 0.93; CI 0.85–1.02). No differences were found within the districts or as an effect of age, attendance after the most recent previous invitation or previous experience of smear taking. Conclusion Abolishment of a modest screening fee in socially disadvantaged urban districts with low coverage, after previous multiple systematic interventions, does not increase attendance in the short term. Other interventions might be more important for increasing attendance in low socio-economic status areas. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02378324 PMID:26986848

  7. Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China.

    PubMed

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results. PMID:26625735

  8. Fatalistic Beliefs and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Mexican Women.

    PubMed

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Ehrenzweig, Yamilet; Catillo-López, Rosa Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Fatalistic beliefs about cervical cancer were studied in 464 Mexican women, and how such beliefs relate to participation in cervical cancer screening was evaluated. Rural women were less likely than urban women to have had a Pap test and more likely to believe that the illness is due to bad luck or fate. These were also the beliefs most associated with nonscreening among rural women, whereas for urban women the belief most associated with nonscreening was "there is not much I can do to prevent cervical cancer." PMID:25256106

  9. [Cigarette smoking among women attending cervical cancer screening program].

    PubMed

    Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Sadłecki, Paweł; Marszałek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is recognized as tobacco-related malignancy. HPV vaccination and introducing screening protocols were found as the best way to decrease cervical cancer related mortality. Besides the cytological screening programs of the uterine cervix smear, nowadays co-factors of carcinogenesis are taken into consideration, also. The aim of our study was to analyse data included in questionnaire of 310 women who underwent cytological examination wi thin cervical cancer screening program in our Department in 2011. There were no differences found between studied groups on rate of oral contraceptive or hormonal therapy use, as well as age and tobacco smoking. However, taking into account education and smoking, there was a significant correlation observed. Patients with higher education level smoked less often. The special attention should be paid to promote smoking cessation in the group of women who finished education on elementary level. PMID:23421059

  10. Understanding the role of embarrassment in gynaecological screening: a qualitative study from the ASPIRE cervical cancer screening project in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Flora F; Mitchell, Sheona M; Sekikubo, Musa; Biryabarema, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Steinberg, Malcolm; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To define embarrassment and develop an understanding of the role of embarrassment in relation to cervical cancer screening and self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in Uganda. Design Cross-sectional, qualitative study using semistructured one-to-one interviews and focus groups. Participants 6 key-informant health workers and 16 local women, purposively sampled. Key informant inclusion criteria: Ugandan members of the project team. Focus group inclusion criteria: woman age 30–69 years, Luganda or Swahili speaking, living or working in the target Ugandan community. Exclusion criteria: unwillingness to sign informed consent. Setting Primary and tertiary low-resource setting in Kampala, Uganda. Results In Luganda, embarrassment relating to cervical cancer is described in two forms. ‘Community embarrassment’ describes discomfort based on how a person may be perceived by others. ‘Personal embarrassment’ relates to shyness or discomfort with her own genitalia. Community embarrassment was described in themes relating to place of study recruitment, amount of privacy in dwellings, personal relationship with health workers, handling of the vaginal swab and misunderstanding of HPV self-collection as HIV testing. Themes of personal embarrassment related to lack of knowledge, age and novelty of the self-collection swab. Overall, embarrassment was a barrier to screening at the outset and diminished over time through education and knowledge. Fatalism regarding cervical cancer diagnosis, worry about results and stigma associated with a cervical cancer diagnosis were other psychosocial barriers described. Overcoming psychosocial barriers to screening can include peer-to-peer education, drama and media campaigns. Conclusions Embarrassment and other psychosocial barriers may play a large role at the onset of a screening programme, but over time as education and knowledge increase, and the social norms around screening evolve, its role diminishes

  11. Cervical cancer screening: on the way to a shift from cytology to full molecular screening.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, M G; Snijders, P J F; Arbyn, M; Rijkaart, D C; Berkhof, J; Meijer, C J L M

    2014-05-01

    Cytology-based nation-wide cervical screening has led to a substantial reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer in western countries. However, the sensitivity of cytology for the detection of high-grade precursor lesions or cervical cancer is limited; therefore, repeated testing is necessary to achieve program effectiveness. Additionally, adenocarcinomas and its precursors are often missed by cytology. Consequently, there is a need for a better screening test. The insight that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the causal agent of cervical cancer and its precursors has led to the development of molecular tests for the detection of hrHPV. Strong evidence now supports the use of hrHPV testing in the prevention of cervical cancer. In this review, we will discuss the arguments in favor of, and concerns on aspects of implementation of hrHPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening, such as the age to start hrHPV-based screening, ways to increase screening attendance, requirements for candidate hrHPV tests to be used, and triage algorithms for screen-positive women. PMID:24445150

  12. Screening for Chlamydial Cervicitis in a Sexually Active University Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malotte, C. Kevin; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays to detect chlamydial cervicitis were performed on samples from 1,320 sexually active university women. Seventy-five had positive tests. Demographic, history, symptom, and physical examination variables were insufficient to predict infection accurately. Concludes that screening during routine visits with this…

  13. Cervical Cancer Screening - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Cervical Cancer Screening - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) French (français) Korean (한국어) Spanish (español) Arabic ( ...

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Chinese Immigrants in Seattle, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Do, H. Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Jackson, J. Carey; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Chinese American women have high rates of invasive cervical cancer, compared to the general population. However, little is known about the Pap testing behavior of ethnic Chinese immigrants. Methods We conducted a community-based survey of Chinese immigrants living in Seattle, Washington, during 1999. Two indicators of cervical cancer screening participation were examined: at least one previous Pap smear and Pap testing in the last 2 years. Results The overall estimated response rate was 64%, and the cooperation rate was 72%. Our study sample for this analysis included 647 women. Nearly one quarter (24%) of the respondents had never had a Pap test, and only 60% had been screened recently. Factors independently associated with cervical cancer screening use included marital status, housing type, and age at immigration. Conclusion Our findings confirm low levels of cervical cancer screening among Chinese immigrants to North America. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Pap testing intervention programs for less acculturated Chinese women should be developed, implemented, and evaluated. PMID:16228798

  15. Cervical cancer worry and screening among appalachian women.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Schoenberg, Nancy; Wilson, Tomorrow D; Atkins, Elvonna; Dickinson, Stephanie; Paskett, Electra

    2015-04-01

    Although many have sought to understand cervical cancer screening (CCS) behavior, little research has examined worry about cervical cancer and its relationship to CCS, particularly in the underserved, predominantly rural Appalachian region. Our mixed method investigation aimed to obtain a more complete and theoretically-informed understanding of the role of cancer worry in CCS among Appalachian women, using the Self-Regulation Model (SRM). Our quantitative analysis indicated that the perception of being at higher risk of cervical cancer and having greater distress about cancer were both associated with greater worry about cancer. In our qualitative analysis, we found that, consistent with the SRM, negative affect had a largely concrete-experiential component, with many women having first-hand experience of the physical consequences of cervical cancer. Based on the results of this manuscript, we describe a number of approaches to lessen the fear associated with CCS. Intervention in this elevated risk community is merited and may focus on decreasing feelings of worry about cervical cancer and increasing communication of objective risk and need for screening. From a policy perspective, increasing the quantity and quality of care may also improve CCS rates and decrease the burden of cancer in Appalachia. PMID:25416153

  16. Cervical Cancer Worry and Screening Among Appalachian Women

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy; Wilson, Tomorrow D.; Atkins, Elvonna; Dickinson, Stephanie; Paskett, Electra

    2015-01-01

    Although many have sought to understand cervical cancer screening (CCS) behavior, little research has examined worry about cervical cancer and its relationship to CCS, particularly in the underserved, predominantly rural Appalachian region. Our mixed method investigation aimed to obtain a more complete and theoretically-informed understanding of the role of cancer worry in CCS among Appalachian women, using the Self-Regulation Model (SRM). Our quantitative analysis indicated that the perception of being at higher risk of cervical cancer and having greater distress about cancer were both associated with greater worry about cancer. In our qualitative analysis, we found that, consistent with the SRM, negative affect had a largely concrete-experiential component, with many women having first-hand experience of the physical consequences of cervical cancer. Based on the results of this manuscript, we describe a number of approaches to lessen the fear associated with CCS. Intervention in this elevated risk community is merited and may focus on decreasing feelings of worry about cervical cancer and increasing communication of objective risk and need for screening. From a policy perspective, increasing the quantity and quality of care may also improve CCS rates and decrease the burden of cancer in Appalachia. PMID:25416153

  17. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  18. Cervical Screening and Cervical Cancer Death Among Older Women: A Population-Based, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Alison S.; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D.; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55–79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980–2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5–7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55–79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening—a more sensitive test—to reduce cervical cancer death among older women. PMID:24685531

  19. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women’s health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women’s rights to life and health. PMID:26557876

  20. Automated Recommendation for Cervical Cancer Screening and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance. PMID:25368505

  1. Automated recommendation for cervical cancer screening and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance. PMID:25368505

  2. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Cibelli; da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Sibajev, Alexander; Souza, Camila Iasmim de Andrade; Araújo, Daniela Souza; Teles, Daniele Aparecida de Freitas; de Carvalho, Stéphanie Gomes Lins; Cavalcante, Kyldery Wendell Moura; Rabelo, Wendell Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2). Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5). A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease). Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer. PMID:25741655

  3. Infrastructure requirements for human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Anorlu, Rose; Sangwa-Lugoma, Ghislain; Denny, Lynette A

    2013-12-29

    The availability of both human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and alternative screening tests has greatly improved the prospects of cervical cancer prevention in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The inclusion of HPV vaccine in the portfolio of new vaccines offered by the Gobal Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) to GAVI-eligible countries has vastly improved the chances of introducing HPV vaccination. Further investments to improve vaccine storage, distribution and delivery infrastructure and human resources of the Extended Programme of Immunization will substantially contribute to the faster introduction of HPV vaccination in SSA countries through both school- and campaign-based approaches. Alternative methods to cytology for the prevention of cervical cancer through the early detection and treatment of cervical cancer precursors have been extensively evaluated in the past 15 years, in Africa as well as in other low-resource settings. Visual inspection with 3-5% dilute acetic acid (VIA) and HPV testing are the two alternative screening methods that have been most studied, in both cross-sectional and randomised clinical trials. VIA is particularly suitable to low-resource settings; however, its efficacy in reducing cervical cancer is likely to be significantly lower than HPV testing. The introduction of VIA screening programmes will help develop the infrastructure that will, in turn, facilitate the introduction of affordable HPV testing in future. Links with the existing HIV/AIDS control programmes is another strategy to improve the infrastructure and screening services in SSA. Infrastructural requirements for an integrated approach aiming to vaccinate single-year cohorts of girls in the 9-13 years age-range and to screen women over 30 years of age using VIA or affordable rapid HPV tests are outlined in this manuscript. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Sub

  4. Screening for Chlamydia is acceptable and feasible during Cervical Screening in General Practice.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S J; Dunphy, E; Navin, E; Marron, L; Fitzsimmons, C; Loy, A; O'Shea, B

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) & Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are rising in Ireland. Both are often undiagnosed and may cause infertility amongst other complications. CT/NG screening is not routinely offered during cervical cancer screening. This study aimed to ascertain the feasibility and acceptability of screening for CT/NG at time of smear and to measure the diagnostic yield. Screening was offered to women aged 25-40 years attending four participating general practices as part of Cervical Check. A retrospective review of the three months preceding the study period, indicated that out of 138 smears, CT/NG testing was performed in 10 (7%) of cases. 236 (93%) patients consented to screening for CT/NG. The detection rate for Chlamydia was 6 (2.4%), with no positive results for NG. Feedback from patients was positive. Interestingly, 42 (18%) of participants who completed the questionnaire believed STI screening was already part of the routine smear. PMID:26904785

  5. New Strategies for HPV-based Cervical Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lorincz, Attila; Castanon, Alejandra; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Sasieni, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Summary Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been shown to be far more sensitive and robust in detecting CIN2+ (and CIN3+) for cervical screening than approaches based on either cytology or visual inspection, but there are a number of issues that need to be overcome if it is to substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer at a population level. The two main issues are coverage (increasing the numbers of women who participate in screening) and management of women who test high-risk HPV (hrHPV) positive. This article will review the potential for vaginal self-collection to improve coverage and the options for triage of hrHPV-positive women in high-resource and low-resource settings. PMID:24007250

  6. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening Among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Sanchez, Ingrid A; Cano, Miguel A; Byrd, Theresa L; Vernon, Sally W; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E

    2015-10-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline survey about Pap test attitudes subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention to be screened for cervical cancer. At 6 months postbaseline, cervical cancer screening behavior was assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to test the theory. Model fit statistics indicated good model fit: χ(2)(48) = 54.32, p = .246; comparative fit index = .992; root mean square error of approximation = .015; weighted root mean square residual = .687. Subjective norms (p = .005) and perceived behavioral control (p < .0001) were positively associated with intention to be screened for cervical cancer, and the intention to be screened predicted actual cervical cancer screening (p < .0001). The proportion of variance (R2) in intention accounted for by the predictors was .276 and the R2 in cervical cancer screening accounted for was .130. This study provides support for the use of the theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among Latinas. This knowledge can be used to inform the development of a theory of planned behavior-based intervention to increase cervical cancer screening among Latinas and reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer in this group of women. PMID:25712240

  7. Morphological feature detection for cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Duke, Heather J.; Stewart, Rosemary J.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1995-03-01

    An optoelectronic system has been designed to pre-screen pap-smear slides and detect the suspicious cells using the hit/miss transform. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 pap-smear images detected 95% of the suspicious region as suspect while tagging just 5% of the normal regions as suspect. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform using a 4f Vander-Lugt correlator architecture is proposed and demonstrated with experimental results.

  8. Cervical cancer screening in Malaysia: Are targeted interventions necessary?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Tan, Andrew K G

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the determinants of Papanicolaou Smear Test (PST) screening for cervical cancer among women in Malaysia. Attention is focused on the reasons different population subgroups give for non-screening. We find that Indian women are the least likely to have had a PST and also the least likely to know the reasons why one is screened. Malay women are less likely than Chinese women to have received a PST and are more likely to report embarrassment as the reason for not being tested. Urban women are less likely than rural women to have been tested and more likely to state lack of time as the reason. These results suggest targeted interventions may be necessary to increase screening rates in Malaysia. PMID:20685019

  9. Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Among Mexican Migrant Women, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Natalie; Zhang, Xiao; Rangel, Gudelia; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Information on cervical and breast cancer screening among Latinas in the United States is limited. Even less information is available on screening practices of migrant women who engage in circular migration. We examined rates of cervical and breast cancer screening and the extent to which sociodemographics and other characteristics explain screening practices of Mexican migrant women who return to Mexico from the United States. Methods We used data from a cross-sectional probability survey of Mexico-born migrant women who returned, through Tijuana, to Mexico from the United States in 2013. The sample consisted of women who returned involuntarily (via deportation) or voluntarily; 177 reported authorized documentation status, and 36 reported unauthorized documentation status in the previous 12 months. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regressions were estimated. Results Of 36 undocumented migrant women, 8 (22.2%) had a Papanicolaou test and 11 (30.6%) had a mammogram in the previous year; of 177 documented migrants, 83 (46.9%) had a Papanicolaou test and 68 (38.4%) had a mammogram. Undocumented migrants were less likely than documented migrants to receive a Papanicolaou test (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12–0.67); the likelihood was similar after adjustment for sociodemographic, migration, and acculturation factors (adjusted OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12–0.90). Having health insurance (adjusted OR = 4.17; 95% CI, 1.80–9.65) and a regular source of health care (adjusted OR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.05–7.65) were significant predictors of receiving a mammogram but not a Papanicolaou test. Conclusion Public health programs are needed to improve access to cervical and breast cancer screenings for Latina migrant women in general and undocumented circular migrants in particular. PMID:27513995

  10. Population genetic screening programmes: principles, techniques, practices, and policies.

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; ten Kate, Leo; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Aymé, Ségolène

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the professional and scientific views on the principles, techniques, practices, and policies that impact on the population genetic screening programmes in Europe. This paper focuses on the issues surrounding potential screening programmes, which require further discussion before their introduction. It aims to increase, among the health-care professions and health policy-makers, awareness of the potential screening programmes as an issue of increasing concern to public health. The methods comprised primarily the review of the existing professional guidelines, regulatory frameworks and other documents related to population genetic screening programmes in Europe. Then, the questions that need debate, in regard to different types of genetic screening before and after birth, were examined. Screening for conditions such as cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, familial hypercholesterolemia, fragile X syndrome, hemochromatosis, and cancer susceptibility was discussed. Special issues related to genetic screening were also examined, such as informed consent, family aspects, commercialization, the players on the scene and monitoring genetic screening programmes. Afterwards, these questions were debated by 51 experts from 15 European countries during an international workshop organized by the European Society of Human Genetics Public and Professional Policy Committee in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 19-20, November, 1999. Arguments for and against starting screening programmes have been put forward. It has been questioned whether genetic screening differs from other types of screening and testing in terms of ethical issues. The general impression on the future of genetic screening is that one wants to 'proceed with caution', with more active impetus from the side of patients' organizations and more reluctance from the policy-makers. The latter try to obviate the potential problems about the abortion and eugenics issues that might be perceived as a

  11. Screening for cervical cancer in French Guiana: screening rates from 2006 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Douine, M; Roué, T; Lelarge, C; Adenis, A; Thomas, N; Nacher, M

    2015-12-01

    In French Guiana, the age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer is four times higher than in France and the mortality rate 5.5 times higher. A survival study revealed that stage at diagnosis was the main factor influencing the prognosis, showing that early detection is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival. The present study aimed at evaluating the cervical cancer screening rate between 2006 and 2011 by age and for a 3-year period in French Guiana. All pap smears realised in French Guiana were analysed in two laboratories allowing exhaustive review of screening data. The screening rate was estimated at about 54% from 2006 to 2011, with a statistical difference between coastal and rural area (56.3% versus 18.7%). Although the methodological difference did not allow comparisons with metropolitan France, these results could be used to evaluate the impact of organised cervical cancer screening by the French Guiana Association for Organized Screening of Cancers which has been implemented in French Guiana since 2012. PMID:26608273

  12. Raman spectroscopy for screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyng, Fiona M; Traynor, Damien; Ramos, Inês R M; Bonnier, Franck; Byrne, Hugh J

    2015-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and mainly affects younger women. The mortality associated with cervical cancer can be reduced if the disease is detected at the pre-cancer stage. Current best-practice methods include cytopathology, HPV testing, and histopathology, but these methods are limited in terms of subjectivity, cost, and time. There is an unmet clinical need for new methods to aid clinicians in the early detection of cervical pre-cancer. These methods should be objective and rapid and require minimal sample preparation. Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique by which incident radiation is used to induce vibrations in the molecules of a sample and the scattered radiation may be used to characterise the sample in a rapid and non-destructive manner. Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to subtle biochemical changes occurring at the molecular level, enabling spectral variations corresponding to disease onset to be detected. Over the past 15 years, there have been numerous reports revealing the potential of Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate statistical analysis for the detection of a variety of cancers. This paper discusses the recent advances and challenges for cervical-cancer screening and diagnosis and offers some perspectives for the future. PMID:26277185

  13. Committee Opinion No. 624: Cervical cancer screening in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Cytology-based cervical cancer screening programs require a number of elements to be successful. Certain low-resource settings, like the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands, lack these elements. Implementing alternative cervical cancer screening strategies in low-resource settings can provide consistent, accessible screening opportunities. PMID:25611643

  14. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  15. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females. PMID:25957285

  16. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. Material/Methods Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20–68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. Results Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21–40 age group vs. the 41–66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). Conclusions Older age (41–66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women. PMID:27249229

  17. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20-68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. RESULTS Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21-40 age group vs. the 41-66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). CONCLUSIONS Older age (41-66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women. PMID:27249229

  18. Eliminating Health Disparities: Innovative Methods to Improve Cervical Cancer Screening in a Medically Underserved Population

    PubMed Central

    Bharel, Monica; Santiago, Emely R.; Forgione, Sanju Nembang; Weinreb, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Homeless women have disproportionately lower rates of cervical cancer screening and higher rates of cervical cancer. In 2008, only 19% of the homeless women seen by Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP) were screened for cervical cancer. To improve screening, BHCHP implemented a 6-part intervention that incorporates point-of-care service, multidisciplinary screening, improved health maintenance forms, population management, process improvement, and increased provider and patient education. This resulted in a significant increase in cervical cancer screening, from 19% in 2008 to 50% in 2013. When compared with national and local cervical cancer screening trends, BHCHP surpassed improvement rates seen in other vulnerable populations. Simple and innovative interventions proved to be the most effective and practical methods of improving screening. PMID:25905832

  19. Eliminating health disparities: innovative methods to improve cervical cancer screening in a medically underserved population.

    PubMed

    Bharel, Monica; Santiago, Emely R; Forgione, Sanju Nembang; León, Casey K; Weinreb, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Homeless women have disproportionately lower rates of cervical cancer screening and higher rates of cervical cancer. In 2008, only 19% of the homeless women seen by Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP) were screened for cervical cancer. To improve screening, BHCHP implemented a 6-part intervention that incorporates point-of-care service, multidisciplinary screening, improved health maintenance forms, population management, process improvement, and increased provider and patient education. This resulted in a significant increase in cervical cancer screening, from 19% in 2008 to 50% in 2013. When compared with national and local cervical cancer screening trends, BHCHP surpassed improvement rates seen in other vulnerable populations. Simple and innovative interventions proved to be the most effective and practical methods of improving screening. PMID:25905832

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  1. Colorectal cancer screening: a global overview of existing programmes.

    PubMed

    Schreuders, Eline H; Ruco, Arlinda; Rabeneck, Linda; Schoen, Robert E; Sung, Joseph J Y; Young, Graeme P; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third among the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, with wide geographical variation in incidence and mortality across the world. Despite proof that screening can decrease CRC incidence and mortality, CRC screening is only offered to a small proportion of the target population worldwide. Throughout the world there are widespread differences in CRC screening implementation status and strategy. Differences can be attributed to geographical variation in CRC incidence, economic resources, healthcare structure and infrastructure to support screening such as the ability to identify the target population at risk and cancer registry availability. This review highlights issues to consider when implementing a CRC screening programme and gives a worldwide overview of CRC burden and the current status of screening programmes, with focus on international differences. PMID:26041752

  2. Screening for Cervical, Prostate, and Breast Cancer: Interpreting the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Williams, Jane; Parker, Lisa; Pickles, Kristen; Jacklyn, Gemma; Rychetnik, Lucie; Barratt, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Cancer screening is an important component of prevention and early detection in public health and clinical medicine. The evidence for cancer screening, however, is often contentious. A description and explanation of disagreements over the evidence for cervical, breast, and prostate screening may assist physicians, policymakers, and citizens faced with screening decisions and suggest directions for future screening research. There are particular issues to be aware of in the evidence base for each form of screening, which are summarized in this paper. Five tensions explain existing conflicts over the evidence: (1) data from differing contexts may not be comparable; (2) screening technologies affect evidence quality, and thus evidence must evolve with changing technologies; (3) the quality of evidence of benefit varies, and the implications are contested; (4) evidence about harm is relatively new, there are gaps in that evidence, and there is disagreement over what it means; and (5) evidence about outcomes is often poorly communicated. The following principles will assist people to evaluate and use the evidence: (1) attend closely to transferability; (2) consider the influence of technologies on the evidence base; (3) query the design of meta-analyses; (4) ensure harms are defined and measured; and (5) improve risk communication practices. More fundamentally, there is a need to question the purpose of cancer screening and the values that inform that purpose, recognizing that different stakeholders may value different things. If implemented, these strategies will improve the production and interpretation of the methodologically challenging and always-growing evidence for and against cancer screening. PMID:26091929

  3. Differences in coverage patterns in cervical cytology screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Amy; Gale, Alastair G.; Wooding, David S.; Purdy, Kevin J.

    2003-05-01

    The visual screening of cervical smears is a complex process requiring appropriate slide coverage to detect any unusual appearances without making any omission errors. In examining a smear the observer has both to move the microscope stage appropriately to bring different slide areas into view, plus visually search the information presented within the binocular visual field. This study examined the patterns of slide coverage by different individuals when they inspected liquid based cervical smears. A binocular microscope was first adapted in order to record both the physical movement of the stage by the observer and also to access the microscope"s visual field. An image of the area of the smear under the microscope was displayed on a PC monitor and observers" eye movements were recorded as they searched this. By manually adjusting the microscope controls they also moved the stage and all stage movements and focussing were also recorded. The behaviour was examined of both novices and an expert screener as they searched a number of test cervical smears. It was found that novices adopted a regular examination pattern, which maximized slide coverage, albeit slowly. In contrast, the experienced screener covered the slides faster and more effectively ensuring more overlap between microscope fields.

  4. Cervical cancer screening of HPV vaccinated populations: Cytology, molecular testing, both or none.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Mariam; Richardson, Lyndsay; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer control includes primary prevention through vaccination to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and secondary prevention through screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. This review summarizes the evidence for the population impact of vaccines against oncogenic HPV types in reducing the prevalence of cervical precancerous lesions. We examine the gradual shift in screening technology from cervical cytology alone to cytology and HPV cotesting, and finally to the recognition that HPV testing can serve alone as the new screening paradigm, particularly in the initial post-vaccination era. We should expect an impact on screening performance and practices, as cohorts of HPV-vaccinated girls and adolescents reach cervical cancer screening age. In preparation for changes in the screening paradigm for the vaccination era, we propose that policymaking on cervical cancer screening should mirror current practices with other cancers as benchmarks. Cervical precancerous lesions will become a very rare condition following the widespread implementation of HPV vaccines with broader coverage in the number of preventable oncogenic types. Irrespective of screening technology, the false positive results will far outnumber the true positive ones, a tipping point that will herald a new period when the harms from cervical cancer screening will outweigh its benefits. We present a conceptual framework to guide decision making when we reach this point within 25-30 years. PMID:26631958

  5. Factors Associated with the Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Portland, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Ncube, Butho; Bey, Amita; Knight, Jeremy; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and is the leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Despite the strong evidence that cervical cancer screening results in decreased mortality from this disease, the uptake for cervical screening among Jamaican women remains low. Aims: This study was carried out to identify factors associated with Jamaican women's decisions to screen for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 403 women aged 19 years and older from Portland, Jamaica. An interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed the women's cervical cancer screening history, as well as their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the disease and screening. Results: Of the 403 women interviewed, 66% had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and only 16% had a Pap test within the past year. Significant predicators of uptake of screening were being married, age, parity, discussing cancer with health provider, perception of consequences of not having a Pap smear, and knowing a person with cervical cancer. Women who did not know where to go for a Pap smear were 85% less likely to have been screened (prevalence odds ratio (POR): 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 0.52). Conclusions: This study showed suboptimal uptake of cervical cancer screening among Jamaican women. Multipronged approaches are needed to address barriers to screening, as well as identify and support conditions that encourage women's use of reproductive health services, thereby reducing incidence and mortality rates from cervical cancer. PMID:25839002

  6. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks. PMID:24863746

  7. Primary cervical cancer screening with an HPV mRNA test: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the performance of a 5-type human papillomavirus (HPV) messenger RNA (mRNA) test in primary screening within the framework of the Norwegian population-based screening programme. Design Nationwide register-based cohort study. Setting In 2003–2004, general practitioners and gynaecologists recruited 18 852 women for participation in a primary screening study with a 5-type HPV mRNA test. Participants After excluding women with a history of abnormal smears and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2+) before or until 3 months after screening, 11 220 women aged 25–69 years were eligible for study participation. The Norwegian Cancer Registry completed follow-up of CIN2+ through 31 December 2009. Interventions Follow-up according to the algorithm for cytology outcomes in the population-based Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme. Main outcome measures We estimated cumulative incidence of CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) 72 months after the 5-type HPV mRNA test. Results 3.6% of the women were HPV mRNA-positive at baseline. The overall cumulative rate of CIN3+ was 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) through 72 months of follow-up, 2.3% for women aged 25–33 years (n=3277) and 0.9% for women aged 34–69 years (n=7943). Cumulative CIN3+ rates by baseline status for HPV mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women aged 25–33 years were 22.2% (95% CI 14.5% to 29.8%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.4%), respectively, and 16.6% (95% CI 10.7% to 22.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.7%), respectively, in women aged 34–69 years. Conclusions The present cumulative incidence of CIN3+ is similar to rates reported in screening studies via HPV DNA tests. Owing to differences in biological rationale and test characteristics, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity that must be balanced when decisions on HPV tests in primary screening are taken. HPV mRNA testing may be used as primary screening for women aged 25–33 years and

  8. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  9. Cervical and Breast Cancer-Screening Knowledge of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen; Rose, Roderick A.; Dababnah, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Women with developmental disabilities are significantly less likely than women without disabilities to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. The reasons for this gap are not understood. The present study examined the extent of women's knowledge about cervical and breast cancer screening, with the intention…

  10. Chemoprevention studies within lung cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, G; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, A; Infante, M; Bonanni, B

    2015-01-01

    While aggressive tobacco control and help to stop smoking are essential weapons in the fight against lung cancer, screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk populations and chemoprevention may also contribute to reducing lung cancer deaths. Persons undergoing LDCT screening are an ideal population to be tested for agents potentially able to prevent the development of lung cancer by the regression of precancerous lesions, which are routinely monitored as part of the screening process. Peripheral subsolid nodules appear as particularly suitable targets, since many are adenocarcinoma precursors. A study on inhaled budesonide (a potential chemopreventive drug) for 1 year found that the mean size of non-solid lung nodules was significantly reduced over 5 years of follow-up, compared to inhaled placebo, in a population of high-risk individuals with indeterminate lung nodules not requiring immediate specific investigation for lung cancer and detected as part of a lung cancer screening program with LDCT. A new randomised placebo-controlled phase-II trial to test the ability of aspirin to induce the regression of non-solid and partially solid nodules detected by LDCT screening has been started. The effect of aspirin on a miRNA signature able to predict the presence of both cancer and precancerous lesions in high-risk asymptomatic individuals is also being monitored in the trial. This signature was previously shown to predict the presence of both lung cancer and non-solid lung nodules in asymptomatic individuals. PMID:26635901

  11. Variation in cervical and breast cancer screening coverage in England: a cross-sectional analysis to characterise districts with atypical behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Massat, Nathalie J; Douglas, Elaine; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Reducing cancer screening inequalities in England is a major focus of the 2011 Department of Health cancer outcome strategy. Screening coverage requires regular monitoring in order to implement targeted interventions where coverage is low. This study aimed to characterise districts with atypical coverage levels for cervical or breast screening. Design Observational study of district-level coverage in the English Cervical and Breast screening programmes in 2012. Setting England, UK. Participants All English women invited to participate in the cervical (age group 25–49 and 50–64) and breast (age group 50–64) screening programmes. Outcomes Risk adjustment models for coverage were developed based on district-level characteristics. Funnel plots of adjusted coverage were constructed, and atypical districts examined by correlation analysis. Results Variability in coverage was primarily explained by population factors, whereas general practice characteristics had little independent effect. Deprivation and ethnicity other than white, Asian, black or mixed were independently associated with poorer coverage in both screening programmes, with ethnicity having the strongest effect; by comparison, the influence of Asian, black or mixed ethnic minority was limited. Deprivation, ethnicity and urbanisation largely accounted for the lower cervical screening coverage in London. However, for breast screening, being located in London remained a strong negative predictor. A subset of districts was identified as having atypical coverage across programmes. Correlates of deprivation in districts with relatively low adjusted coverage were substantially different from overall correlates of deprivation. Discussion These results inform the continuing drive to reduce avoidable cancer deaths in England, and encourage implementation of targeted interventions in communities residing in districts identified as having atypically low coverage. Sequential implementation to monitor the

  12. Do invitations for cervical screening provide sufficient information to enable informed choice? A cross-sectional study of invitations for publicly funded cervical screening

    PubMed Central

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Brodersen, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether invitations for publicly funded cervical screening provide sufficient information to enable an informed choice about participation. Design Cross-sectional study using a checklist of 23 information items on benefits and harms from cervical screening and the risks related to cervical cancer. Material Invitations to publicly funded cervical screening in 10 Scandinavian and English-speaking countries. Setting Ten Scandinavian and English speaking countries. Participants Sixteen screening units representing 10 Scandinavian and English speaking countries. Main outcome measures Number of information items presented in invitations for cervical screening. Results We contacted 21 coordinating units from 11 countries and 20 (95%) responded. Of these, four units did not issue invitations, but the remaining 16 coordinating units in 10 different countries supplied a sample. The invitations for cervical screening were generally information poor and contained a median of only four out of 23 information items possible (17%), ranging from 0 to 12 (0–52%). The most important harms of cancer screening, overdiagnosis and overtreatment, were typically downplayed or unmentioned. The same applied to other important harms, such as false-positive results and the psychological consequences from an abnormal test result. The majority of invitations took a paternalistic approach. While only two invitations (17%) included a pre-assigned appointment date, eight (70%) of the invitations contained strong appeals for participation. Conclusions Invitations to cervical cancer screening were information poor and biased in favour of participation. This means that informed choice is not possible, which is in conflict with modern requirements for personal involvement in medical decisions. PMID:27118696

  13. Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Victoria K; Makin, Mary Sue; Siegler, Aaron J; Ault, Kevin; Rochat, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Background: In Malawi, cervical cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women, with an 80% mortality rate. The Mulanje Mission Hospital has offered free cervical cancer screening for eight years; however, patients primarily seek medical help for gynecologic complaints after the disease is inoperable. Methods: We investigated how women in rural Malawi make health-seeking decisions regarding cervical cancer screening using qualitative research methods. The study was conducted between May and August of 2009 in Mulanje, Malawi. Results: This study found that the primary cue to action for cervical cancer screening was symptoms of cervical cancer. Major barriers to seeking preventative screening included low knowledge levels, low perceived susceptibility and low perceived benefits from the service. Study participants did not view cervical cancer screening as critical health care. Interviews suggested that use of the service could increase if women are recruited while visiting the hospital for a different service. Conclusion: This study recommends that health care providers and health educators target aspects of perceived susceptibility among their patients, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment. We believe that continued support and advertisement of cervical cancer screening programs along with innovative recruitment strategies will increase usage density and decrease unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer in Malawi. PMID:21448296

  14. A survey of the knowledge and attitude of Jordanian obstetricians and gynaecologists to cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Lataifeh, I; Amarin, Z; Khader, Y

    2009-11-01

    The objective of the survey was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian gynaecologists toward screening for cervical cancer. A pre-tested postal questionnaire was mailed to all 462 licensed gynaecologists in Jordan. Three questions were designed to assess knowledge and two questions to assess attitudes to screening for cervical cancer. A total of 392 obstetricians and gynaecologists completed the survey with a response rate of 84.4%. Although the majority of Jordanian obstetricians and gynaecologists were able to correctly identify all the important aetiological factors associated with cervical cancer and recognised the importance of cervical cancer screening, many of them were not confident that the Pap smear was the most cost-effective screening test, or that human papillomavirus testing improved the sensitivity of detection of pre-invasive and invasive cervical disease. PMID:19821673

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in breast and cervical screening coverage in England: are we closing the gap?

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Elaine; Waller, Jo; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Health policy in the UK is committed to tackling inequalities in cancer screening participation. We examined whether socioeconomic inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screening participation in England have reduced over five years. Methods Cross-sectional analyses compared cervical and breast screening coverage between 2007/8 and 2012/13 in Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in England in relation to area-level income deprivation. Results At the start and the end of this five year period, there were socioeconomic inequalities in screening coverage for breast and cervical screening. Inequalities were highest for breast screening. Over time, the coverage gap between the highest and lowest quintiles of income deprivation significantly reduced for breast screening (from 12.3 to 8.3 percentage points), but not for cervical screening (5.3 to 4.9 percentage points). Conclusions Efforts to reduce screening inequalities appear to have resulted in a significant improvement in equitable delivery of breast screening, although not of cervical screening. More work is needed to understand the differences, and see whether broader lessons can be learned from the reduction of inequalities in breast screening participation. PMID:26377810

  16. Effectiveness of three interventions in improving adherence to cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; Sánchez Ortiz, María P; Rabanales Sotos, Joseba; Simarro Herráez, María J; López-Torres López, Jaime; Campos Rosa, Monchi

    2016-09-01

    In countries where cervical cancer screening programmes are conducted on an opportunistic basis, an active search for women at risk should be made to increase coverage. The objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of three primary care interventions consisting of providing written, telephone and face-to-face information to increase screening participation among women over the age of 25 years. A randomized experimental study with only one post-test control group was conducted on women aged 25-70 years. A total of 1676 women were randomly distributed into four groups and the following interventions were implemented: written briefing; telephone briefing; an invitation to attend a group meeting and no briefing (control group). The women were evaluated 2 years after the intervention. The outcome variable was participation or nonparticipation in cervical cancer screening. It proved possible to interview a total of 1122 women. Among the groups, homogeneity was tested in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and health-related variables. Women who had undergone cytological testing in the 2 years preceding evaluation had a lower mean age (P<0.001) than women who had not done so (45.5±11.0 vs. 48.8±13.0 years). The proportion of women who had participated in screening was as follows: 35.3% in the written information group [95% confidence interval (CI) 29.8-40.9]; 38.4% in the telephone information group (95% CI 32.5-44.2); 29.3% in the face-to-face information group (95% CI 22.8-35.7) and 26.1% in the control group (95% CI 21.2-30.9), with this difference proving statistically significant (P=0.005). Logistic regression showed that only the interventions based on written or telephone briefing were effective vis-à-vis the control group. In conclusion, both written and telephone information can serve to improve women's participation in opportunistic cervical cancer screening. Current preventive strategies could be optimized by means of simple interventions

  17. Economic analysis of outreach assessment clinics in breast screening programmes.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, M M; Cairns, J A; Gilbert, F J; Hendry, P J

    1999-01-01

    A model is developed for the economic evaluation of outreach assessment clinics following screening and used to identify the cost-minimizing strategy for assessing women from three island communities in the Scottish Breast Screening Programme (SBSP). There are four options of interest depending on: whether the women are assessed on the mainland or at outreach assessment clinics; and whether all women have two view screening rather than only those being screened for the first time. The benefits of outreach assessment are assumed to be solely in terms of convenience to women and reductions in the time and travel costs of women recalled for assessment. The costs are modelled in order to compare outreach and no outreach options. The results show that for the numbers of women currently screened outreach assessment is the cost-minimizing strategy. The model provides useful guidance with respect to screening policy and is readily applied to the case of outreach assessment in mainland communities outwith major population centres and to breast and other screening programmes in other countries. PMID:10351680

  18. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion. PMID:27054385

  19. Cervical cancer screening: A never-ending developing program.

    PubMed

    Comparetto, Ciro; Borruto, Franco

    2015-07-16

    With the term "oncological screening", we define the overall performances made to detect early onset of tumors. These tests are conducted on a population that does not have any signs or symptoms related to a neoplasm. The whole population above a certain age, only one sex, only subjects with a high risk of developing cancer due to genetic, professional, discretionary reasons may be involved. Screening campaigns should be associated, when risk factors that can be avoided are known, with campaigns for the prevention of cancer by means of suitable behavior. The goal of cancer screening cannot however be limited to the diagnosis of a greater number of neoplasms. Screening will be useful only if it leads to a reduction in overall mortality or at least in mortality related to the tumor. Screening should then allow the diagnosis of the disease at a stage when there is a possibility of healing, possibility that is instead difficult when the disease is diagnosed at the appearance of signs or symptoms. This is the reason why not all campaigns of cancer screening have the same effectiveness. In Italy, every year there are about 150000 deaths due to cancer. Some of these tumors can be cured with a very high percentage of success if diagnosed in time. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed with non-invasive tests. The screening test used all over the world is Papanicolaou (Pap) test. This test may be carried out over the entire healthy population potentially exposed to the risk of contracting cancer. Public health has begun the screening campaigns in the hope of saving many of the approximately 270000 new cases of cancer reported each year. Screening is done following protocols that guarantee quality at the national level: these protocols are subject to change over time to reflect new realities or to correct any errors in the system. A simplified sketch of a possible route of cancer screening is as follows: (1) after selecting the target population, for example all women between 25

  20. Feasibility of Utilizing Ethnic Beauty Salons for Cervical Cancer Screening Education.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio; Lee, Eunice

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using ethnic beauty salons to reach out to Vietnamese and Korean American women for cervical cancer screening education. Participants (N = 62) were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two feasibility questionnaires were separately administered to cosmetologists and their customers. Findings support the view that ethnic beauty salons can be used as a gateway to reach out to these populations, and cosmetologists have the potential to operate as community lay health workers to deliver cervical cancer screening education aimed at reducing disparities in cervical cancer and screening to their ethnic customers. PMID:24698810

  1. Selective screening for cervical cancer. Experience of the Finnish mass screening system.

    PubMed Central

    Hakama, M; Pukkala, E

    1977-01-01

    Names of women eligible to be screened for cervical cancer are taken from the national population registry and the women are invited by a personal letter. The data, from these mass screenings are analysed and stored at the screening registry. To reduced the costs of the system and to increase the yield of preinvasive lesions the idea of selective screening was considered. Tt was decided that if people were selected according to their risk factors, as recorded in the national population registry, the screening would be ineffective as many cases of invasive cancer were found in the low risk groups. High risk factors were determined from anamnestic data on systems and from previous cytological diagnoses. The proportion of women with symptoms of bleeding or the class II-V smears without positive histological results constituted fewer than 10% of the participants, but 20% and 40% respectively of invasive carcinomas were found in these groups during the subsequent follow-up period. Thus it is suggested that selective screening apart from that based on age has a limited application and should be restricted mainly to the interval between the organised screenings, which in Finland is five years. PMID:597677

  2. Program Spending to Increase Adherence: South African Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Denny, Lynette A.; De Souza, Michelle; Kuhn, Louise; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Adherence is crucial for public health program effectiveness, though the benefits of increasing adherence must ultimately be weighed against the associated costs. We sought to determine the relationship between investment in community health worker (CHW) home visits and increased attendance at cervical cancer screening appointments in Cape Town, South Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an observational study of 5,258 CHW home visits made in 2003–4 as part of a community-based screening program. We estimated the functional relationship between spending on these visits and increased appointment attendance (adherence). Increased adherence was noted after each subsequent CHW visit. The costs of making the CHW visits was based on resource use including both personnel time and vehicle-related expenses valued in 2004 Rand. The CHW program cost R194,018, with 1,576 additional appointments attended. Adherence increased from 74% to 90%; 55% to 87%; 48% to 77%; and 56% to 80% for 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month appointments. Average per-woman costs increased by R14–R47. The majority of this increase occurred with the first 2 CHW visits (90%, 83%, 74%, and 77%; additional cost: R12–R26). Conclusions/Significance We found that study data can be used for program planning, identifying spending levels that achieve adherence targets given budgetary constraints. The results, derived from a single disease program, are retrospective, and should be prospectively replicated. PMID:19492097

  3. Effectiveness Modelling and Economic Evaluation of Primary HPV Screening for Cervical Cancer Prevention in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Jie-Bin; Simms, Kate; Smith, Megan; Lewis, Hazel; Neal, Harold; Canfell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background New Zealand (NZ) is considering transitioning from 3-yearly cervical cytology screening in women 20–69 years (current practice) to primary HPV screening. We evaluated HPV-based screening in both HPV-unvaccinated women and cohorts offered HPV vaccination in New Zealand (vaccination coverage ~50%). Methods A complex model of HPV transmission, vaccination, cervical screening, and invasive cervical cancer was extensively validated against national population-based datasets. Sixteen potential strategies for HPV screening were considered. Results Most primary HPV strategies were more effective than current practice, for both unvaccinated women and cohorts offered vaccination. The optimal strategy for both groups was 5-yearly HPV screening in women aged 25–69 years with partial genotyping for HPV 16/18 and referral to colposcopy, and cytological triage of other oncogenic types. This is predicted to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality by a further 12–16% and to save 4–13% annually in program costs (excluding overheads). The findings are sensitive to assumptions about future adherence to initiating screening at 25 years. Conclusion Primary HPV screening with partial genotyping would be more effective and less costly than the current cytology-based screening program, in both unvaccinated women and cohorts offered vaccination. These findings have been considered in a review of cervical screening in NZ. PMID:27187495

  4. Using Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Strategy: Development of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Hispanic Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican origin.…

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening: Defining the Need for Research

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E.; Brucker, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Ortmann, O.; Albring, C.; Wallwiener, D.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of a National Cancer Plan published in 2012, Germany has followed the recommendations of the WHO and the EU. The first area of action listed in Germanyʼs National Cancer Plan is improving the early detection of cancer. Both citizens and medical specialists are encouraged to take responsibility themselves and contribute to the efforts being made to meet the challenge of cancer. Screening for cervical cancer has long been an integral part of the German Directive for the Early Detection of Cancer and now – following the recommendations given in the European Guideline – an organised screening approach shall be developed to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks through a partial reorganisation of existing structures. Before this can be rolled out nationwide, it will be necessary to check the feasibility and suitability of new contents and organisational structures. The Federal Joint Committee which is largely responsible for the process according to the draft law on the implementation of the National Cancer Plan has emphasised the importance of evidence-based medicine and of collaboration between the autonomous governing bodies within the healthcare system to obtain viable results. For medical specialists, the follow-on question is which areas will need more research in future. New process steps need to be developed and verified to see whether they offer evidence which will support defined approaches or whether such evidence needs to be newly compiled, e.g. by testing invitation procedures for screening in trial schemes. The experience gained during the implementation of the existing directive on early detection of cancer should be integrated into the new process. Research initiated by specialists could encourage the development of a new version of the Directive for the Early Detection of Cancer suitable for the Germanyʼs healthcare system. PMID:26633900

  6. Increasing cervical cancer screening for a multiethnic population of women in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Fornos, Laura B; Urbansky, Kathleen A; Villarreal, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. Precancers can be identified and treated through cervical screenings. The HPV vaccine prevents precancers from becoming cancers. The aim of the A Su Salud Cervical Cancer Prevention Program was to apply well-understood health promotion techniques and increase the rate of cervical cancer screening among a high-risk, multiethnic, low-income population in South Texas. Qualitative research was used to identify uptake barriers and tailor media messaging. Using existing resources, we applied evidence-based strategies in novel ways that changed personal behaviors, leading to cancer screening, risk reduction, and early detection. We created a database to track a cohort of 32,807 women and measured cervical cancer screenings over 3 years. Our analysis revealed an increase in cervical cancer screenings after use of highly targeted automated telephone reminders and media dissemination on multiple platforms. Those women at low risk for cervical cancer obtained the highest proportion of Pap tests. This innovative, theory-based program increased overall Pap tests up to 9% among women enrolled in a safety net hospital financial assistance plan. This study fills a gap in research on Pap test compliance in uninsured, mostly Hispanic women by building on cultural strengths and tailored messaging. PMID:24170274

  7. Interval cancers in a national colorectal cancer screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Stanners, Greig; Lang, Jaroslaw; Brewster, David H; Carey, Francis A; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about interval cancers (ICs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify IC characteristics and compare these with screen-detected cancers (SCs) and cancers in non-participants (NPCs) over the same time period. Design This was an observational study done in the first round of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. All individuals (772,790), aged 50–74 years, invited to participate between 1 January 2007 and 31 May 2009 were studied by linking their screening records with confirmed CRC records in the Scottish Cancer Registry (SCR). Characteristics of SC, IC and NPC were determined. Results There were 555 SCs, 502 ICs and 922 NPCs. SCs were at an earlier stage than ICs and NPCs (33.9% Dukes’ A as against 18.7% in IC and 11.3% in NPC), screening preferentially detected cancers in males (64.7% as against 52.8% in IC and 59.7% in NPC): this was independent of a different cancer site distribution in males and females. SC in the colon were less advanced than IC, but not in the rectum. Conclusion ICs account for 47.5% of the CRCs in the screened population, indicating approximately 50% screening test sensitivity: guaiac faecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) sensitivity is less for women than for men and gFOBT screening may not be effective for rectal cancer.

  8. Patient perception of cervical screening among women living with human immuno-deficiency virus infection attending an antiretroviral therapy clinic in urban South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wake, R M; Rebe, K; Burch, V C

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to ascertain the perception of cervical screening practices among HIV-positive women attending an ART clinic in urban South Africa. It is a prospective cross-sectional study of 100 randomly selected patients using semi-structured interviews. Answers to fixed-response questions were recorded for statistical analysis and themes were identified from responses to open-ended questions. The study found that 59% of women surveyed reported ever having had a Papanicolau (Pap) smear and that 41% of these women had never been notified of the result. Many women surveyed lacked understanding of cervical screening; 78% had never heard of cervical cancer and around 40% had no correct knowledge about Pap smears. The findings suggest that cervical screening practices among HIV-positive women living in urban South Africa do not comply with the recommendations that are based on evidence of increased risk for this population. Systematic cervical screening programmes should be offered to HIV-positive women attending ART clinics in South Africa. PMID:19280495

  9. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs. PMID:26031906

  10. Barriers to cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Laura A V; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women are less likely to attend cervical screening. Aim To explore self-perceived barriers to cervical screening attendance among ethnic minority women compared to white British women. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Community groups in ethnically diverse London boroughs. Methods Interviews were carried out with 43 women from a range of ethnic minority backgrounds (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, Black British, Black other, White other) and 11 White British women. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework analysis. Results Fifteen women had delayed screening/had never been screened. Ethnic minority women felt that there was a lack of awareness about cervical cancer in their community, and several did not recognise the terms ‘cervical screening’ or ‘smear test’. Barriers to cervical screening raised by all women were emotional (fear, embarrassment, shame), practical (lack of time) and cognitive (low perceived risk, absence of symptoms). Emotional barriers seemed to be more prominent among Asian women. Low perceived risk of cervical cancer was influenced by beliefs about having sex outside of marriage and some women felt a diagnosis of cervical cancer might be considered shameful. Negative experiences were well remembered by all women and could be a barrier to repeat attendance. Conclusions Emotional barriers (fear, embarrassment and anticipated shame) and low perceived risk might contribute to explaining lower cervical screening coverage for some ethnic groups. Interventions to improve knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer are needed in ethnic minority communities, and investment in training for health professionals may improve experiences and encourage repeat attendance for all women. PMID:25583124

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening Program by Visual Inspection: Acceptability and Feasibility in Health Insurance Companies

    PubMed Central

    Horo, Apollinaire G.; Didi-Kouko Coulibaly, Judith; Koffi, Abdoul; Tchounga, Boris; Seni, Konan; Aka, Kacou Edèle; Kone, Mamourou

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess willingness to participate and diagnostic accuracy of visual inspection for early detection of cervical neoplasia among women in a health insurance company. Patients and Method. Cervical cancer screening was systematically proposed to 800 women after consecutive information and awareness sessions. The screening method was visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) or Lugol's iodine (VILI). Results. Among the 800 identified women, 640 (82%) have accepted the screening, their mean age was 39 years, and 12.0% of them were involved in a polygamist couple. 28.2% of women had prior cervical screening. VIA has been detected positive in 5.9% of women versus 8.6% for VILI. The sensitivity was 72.9% and specificity was 95.2% for VIA versus 71.2% and 97.3% for VILI respectively. The histological examination highlighted a nonspecific chronic cervicitis in 4.6%, CIN1 lesions in 5.91%, and CIN2/3 in 1.2% of the cases. Conclusion. Cervical cancer screening by visual inspection showed appropriate diagnostic accuracy when used to detect early cervical lesions. It is a simple and easy to perform method that could be introduced progressively in the health insurance policy while waiting for a national screening program. PMID:26167178

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective. PMID:27617239

  13. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective. PMID:27617239

  14. Cervical cancer screening: are the 1989 recommendations still valid? National Workshop on Screening for Cancer of the Cervix.

    PubMed Central

    Parboosingh, E J; Anderson, G; Clarke, E A; Inhaber, S; Kaegi, E; Mills, C; Mao, Y; Root, L; Stuart, G; Stachenko, S

    1996-01-01

    Although screening for cervical cancer has been shown to be effective in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, and despite many attempts to encourage the development of provincial programs, as of 1995 no province had a comprehensive screening program for cervical cancer. Participants at the Interchange '95 workshop, held in Ottawa in November 1995, reviewed the recommendations of the 1989 National Workshop on Screening for Cancer of the Cervix and identified factors that have impeded their implementation. Participants discussed the need for comprehensive information systems, quality control and strategies to increase recruitment of unscreened and underscreened women. They concluded that the formation of a Cervical Cancer Prevention Network involving key stakeholders will facilitate the development and implementation of provincial programs to ensure optimal screening. They agreed that, in the interim, recommendations for practising physicians should remain as they were following the 1989 workshop. PMID:8653644

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices for Cervical Cancer Screening Among the Bhutanese Refugee Community in Omaha, Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Rebecca J.; Margalit, Ruth; Ross, Christine; Nepal, Tikka

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women with the vast majority of patients in developing countries. Bhutanese refugees in the United States are from South Central Asia, the 4th leading region of the world for cervical cancer incidence. Over the past few years, Bhutanese refugees have increased significantly in Nebraska. This study evaluates current knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices among the Bhutanese refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska. The study aimed to investigate cervical cancer and screening knowledge and perceptions about the susceptibility and severity of cervical cancer and perceived benefits and barriers to screening. Self-administered questionnaires and focus groups based on the Health Belief Model were conducted among 42 healthy women from the Bhutanese refugee community in Omaha. The study revealed a significant lack of knowledge in this community regarding cervical cancer and screening practices, with only 22.2 % reporting ever hearing of a Pap test and 13.9 % reporting ever having one. Only 33.3 % of women were in agreement with their own perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. Women who reported ever hearing about the Pap test tended to believe more strongly about curability of the disease if discovered early than women who never heard about the test (71.4 vs. 45.0 %, for the two groups. respectively). Refugee populations in the United States are in need for tailored cancer education programs especially when being resettled from countries with high risk for cancer. PMID:25060231

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices for cervical cancer screening among the Bhutanese refugee community in Omaha, Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Rebecca J; Margalit, Ruth; Ross, Christine; Nepal, Tikka; Soliman, Amr S

    2014-10-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women with the vast majority of patients in developing countries. Bhutanese refugees in the United States are from South Central Asia, the 4th leading region of the world for cervical cancer incidence. Over the past few years, Bhutanese refugees have increased significantly in Nebraska. This study evaluates current knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices among the Bhutanese refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska. The study aimed to investigate cervical cancer and screening knowledge and perceptions about the susceptibility and severity of cervical cancer and perceived benefits and barriers to screening. Self-administered questionnaires and focus groups based on the Health Belief Model were conducted among 42 healthy women from the Bhutanese refugee community in Omaha. The study revealed a significant lack of knowledge in this community regarding cervical cancer and screening practices, with only 22.2 % reporting ever hearing of a Pap test and 13.9 % reporting ever having one. Only 33.3 % of women were in agreement with their own perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. Women who reported ever hearing about the Pap test tended to believe more strongly about curability of the disease if discovered early than women who never heard about the test (71.4 vs. 45.0 %, for the two groups. respectively). Refugee populations in the United States are in need for tailored cancer education programs especially when being resettled from countries with high risk for cancer. PMID:25060231

  17. Screening for cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The systematic review on which this paper is based provided evidence for the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care to update their guideline regarding screening for cervical cancer. In this article we highlight three questions covered in the full review that pertain to the effectiveness of screening for reducing cervical cancer mortality and incidence as well as optimal timing and frequency of screening. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central from 1995 to 2012 for relevant randomized controlled trials and observational studies with comparison groups. Eligible studies included women aged 15 to 70 years who were screened using conventional cytology, liquid-based cytology or human papillomavirus DNA tests. Relevance screening, data extraction, risk of bias analyses and quality assessments were performed in duplicate. We conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model on the one body of evidence that could be pooled. Results From the 15,145 screened citations, 27 papers (24 studies) were included; five older studies located in a United States Preventive Services Task Force review were also included. A randomized controlled trial in India showed even a single lifetime screening test significantly decreased the risk of mortality from and incidence of advanced cervical cancer compared to no screening (mortality: risk ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.47, 0.90; incidence: relative risk 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.75). Cytology screening was shown to be beneficial in a cohort study that found testing significantly reduced the risk of being diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer compared to no screening (risk ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.23, 0.63). Pooled evidence from a dozen case–control studies also indicated a significant protective effect of cytology screening (odds ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval 0.30, 0.41). This review found no conclusive evidence for establishing optimal ages to start and stop

  18. Portuguese women's knowledge and health beliefs about cervical cancer and its screening.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Carlos António

    2013-01-01

    Currently little is known about Portuguese women's knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening, so this information is crucial to the success of cervical cancer screening programs. The intention of this study was to describe the knowledge and beliefs of women in Portugal. In-depth, face-to-face, individual interviews were conducted. Twenty-five females were recruited, the age range was 30 to 60. The results showed a lack of knowledge on cervical cancer and the Pap smear test. From a public policy point of view, it may be important to further explore the extent to which perceived barriers to screening will affect screening uptake when a national screening program is implemented. PMID:23461350

  19. Mass media campaign improves cervical screening across all socio-economic groups.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jenny O; Mullins, Robyn M; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-10-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data were obtained from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry for each Pap test registered during 2005 and categorized into SES quintiles using the Index of Socio-Economic Advantage/Disadvantage. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the impact of the campaign on the weekly number of Pap tests and whether the media campaign had a differential effect by SES, after adjusting for the number of workdays per week, age group and time since previous test. Cervical screening increased 27% during the campaign period and was equally effective in encouraging screening across all SES groups, including low-SES women. Mass media campaigns can prompt increased rates of cervical screening among all women, not just those from more advantaged areas. Combining media with additional strategies targeted at low-SES women may help lessen the underlying differences in screening rates across SES. PMID:19342422

  20. Perceptions of cervical cancer risk and screening among transmasculine individuals: patient and provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Agénor, Madina; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Bernstein, Ida M; McDowell, Michal; Alizaga, Natalie M; Reisner, Sari L; Pardee, Dana J; Potter, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    Transmasculine people (individuals assigned a female sex at birth who identify as male or masculine) are at risk of cervical cancer. Despite low rates of Pap test use in this population, research examining the determinants of cervical cancer screening among transmasculine individuals is scarce. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 49 participants (32 transmasculine patients and 17 healthcare providers) in order to examine transmasculine individuals' and healthcare providers' perceptions of cervical cancer risk and screening among individuals on the transmasculine continuum. Overall, patients believed that transmasculine individuals should receive regular Pap tests, especially in the event of gynaecological concerns. While healthcare providers' views varied, many perceived transmasculine individuals to be at low risk of cervical cancer. Contrary to existing screening guidelines, several providers believed that transmasculine individuals who did not engage in penile-vaginal intercourse with cisgender men, expressed discomfort about Pap testing or intended to obtain a hysterectomy might not need to be screened regularly or at all. Our findings underscore the importance of educating patients and providers about cervical cancer risk among transmasculine individuals and establishing evidence-based guidelines for cervical cancer screening in this underserved population. PMID:27142466

  1. Cervical cancer screening: Current knowledge & practice among women in a rural population of Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Aswathy, S.; Quereshi, Mariya Amin; Kurian, Beteena; Leelamoni, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cervical cancer has a major impact on woman's lives worldwide and one in every five women suffering from cervical cancer belongs to India. Hence the objectives of this study were to find the knowledge of women regarding cervical cancer, to determine screening practices and determinants, and to identify factors for non screening. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vypin Block of Ernakulam District, Kerala, India where four of the seven Panchayats were randomly chosen. Households were selected by systematic random sampling taking every second house in the tenth ward of the Panchayat till at least 200 women were interviewed. Thus, 809 women were interviewed from four Panchayats. Results: Mean age of the study population was 34.5 + 9.23 yr. Three fourths of the population (74.2%) knew that cervical cancer could be detected early by a screening test. Majority of respondents (89.2%) did not know any risk factor for cervical cancer. Of the 809 women studied, only 6.9 per cent had undergone screening. One third of the population were desirous of undergoing screening test but had not done it due to various factors. These factors related to knowledge (51.4%) such as no symptoms, not being aware of Pap test, not necessary, etc. This was followed by resource factors (15.1%) like no time, no money, etc. and psychosocial factors (10.2%) included lack of interest, fear of procedure, etc. Independent predictors for doing Pap test included age >35, having knowledge of screening for cervical cancer and Pap test (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Specific knowledge on cervical cancer screening is a critical element in determining whether a woman will undergo Pap test in addition to making cancer screening facilities available in the primary health centre. PMID:22960886

  2. Cervical cancer screening among ethnically diverse black women: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Diane R; Wilson, Rula M; Boothe, Makini A S; Harris, Caroline E S

    2011-08-01

    This is a descriptive study of cervical cancer screening knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices among ethnically diverse black women. We conducted 6 focus groups with Haitian, African, English-speaking Caribbean, and African American women recruited from a federally qualified health center. Overall, there was limited knowledge and confusion across ethnic groups about cervical cancer and its risk factors, the Pap test, and the human papilloma virus (HPV) and its association with cervical cancer. At the same time, there were distinct differences between ethnic groups in knowledge, practices, and cultural beliefs about cervical cancer. African women knew the least among all the groups, while African American participants had the greatest knowledge of HPV. However, their knowledge was still limited. Patient-doctor relationship was the single most important facilitator for cervical cancer screening. Barriers to cervical cancer screening included cost, busy work schedule, fear of the unknown, lack of insurance or being unemployed, and fear of disclosing immigration status. Interventions with ethnically diverse black women would benefit from recognizing cultural barriers and misconceptions that vary by ethnic group. Culturally based strategies suggested by the focus groups include the use of existing social networks, the use of indigenous community-based health workers, and the inclusion of women of all ages in cervical cancer education because of the roles they have in extended families. PMID:22046849

  3. Overview of cervical cancer screening practices in the extended Middle East and North Africa countries.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Khazraji, Youssef Chami; Cherif, Moktar Hamdi; Mahnane, Abbes; Hsairi, Mohamed; El Shalakamy, Amr; Osgul, Nejat; Tuncer, Murat; Jumaan, Aisha O; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    National Organized Cervical Cancer Screening (NOCCS) programs are lacking in most of the "Extended Middle East and North Africa" (EMENA) countries. Consequently, most cervical cancers are diagnosed late and are associated with high mortality. In fact, in most of these countries, national mortality data are unknown due to the absence of population-based mortality registries. Most countries of the EMENA practice more or less limited opportunistic, cytology-based, screening tests, which often lack quality assurance and follow-up care. A few countries, within the initiation of a National Cancer Control Plan, have just started to implement organized screening programs using, for cervical cancer detection, visual inspection with acetic acid (Morocco) or cytology (Turkey). Moreover, most countries of the EMENA lack national guideline, as well as resources for the management of abnormal cytologic screening (or any other screening test). The main obstacle for the implementation of NOCCS is a lack of political understanding to support such public health programs and provide the necessary resources. Other obstacles that hinder the participation of women in cervical screening include a lack of knowledge of the disease, socio-religious and cultural barriers, and geographic and economic difficulties in accessing medical services. These countries are already convinced that prevention of cervical cancers in women who have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is possible through various screening and treatment algorithms, but most countries still need to invest in well organized programs that can reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in women. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and

  4. Comparison of screen-detected and interval colorectal cancers in the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Gill, M D; Bramble, M G; Rees, C J; Lee, T J W; Bradburn, D M; Mills, S J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) offers biennial faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) followed by colonoscopy after positive results. Colorectal cancers (CRCs) registered with the Northern Colorectal Cancer Audit Group database were cross-referenced with the BCSP database to analyse their screening history. Methods: The CRCs in the screening population between April 2007 and March 2010 were identified and classified into four groups: control (diagnosed before first screening invite), screen-detected, interval (diagnosed between screening rounds after a negative FOBt), and non-uptake (declined screening). Patient demographics, tumour characteristics and survival were compared between groups. Results: In all, 511 out of 1336 (38.2%) CRCs were controls; 825 (61.8%) were in individuals invited for screening of which 322 (39.0%) were screen detected, 311 (37.7%) were in the non-uptake group, and 192 (23.3%) were interval cancers. Compared with the control and interval cancer group, the screen-detected group had a higher proportion of men (P=0.002, P=0.003 respectively), left colon tumours (P=0.007, P=0.003), and superior survival (both P<0.001). There was no difference in demographics, tumour location/stage, or survival between control and interval groups. Conclusion: The FOBt is better at detecting cancers in the left colon and in men. The significant numbers of interval cancers weren't found to have an improved outcome compared with the non-screened population. PMID:22782347

  5. HPV testing for cervical cancer screening appears more cost-effective than Papanicolau cytology in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David M.; Lőrincz, Attila; Shah, Keerti V.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández, Mauricio; Granados-García, Víctor; Pérez, Ruth; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the incremental costs and effects of different HPV testing strategies, when compared to Papanicolau cytology (Pap), for cervical cancer screening in Mexico. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) examined the specific costs and health outcomes associated with (1) no screening; (2) only the Pap test; (3) only self-administered HPV; (4) only clinician administered HPV; and (5) clinician administered HPV plus the Pap test. The costs of self- and clinician-HPV testing, as well as with the Pap test, were identified and quantified. Costs were reported in 2008 US dollars. The health outcome associated with these screening strategies was defined as the number of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer cases detected. This CEA was performed using the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Morelos, Mexico. Results Screening women between the ages of 30–80 for cervical cancer using clinical-HPV testing or the combination of clinical-HPV testing, and the Pap is always more cost-effective than using the Pap test alone. Conclusions This CEA indicates that HPV testing could be a cost-effective screening alternative for a large health delivery organization such as IMSS. These results may help policy-makers implement HPV testing as part of the IMSS cervical cancer screening program. PMID:21170578

  6. Understanding cervical cancer screening intentions among Latinas using an expanded theory of planned behavior model.

    PubMed

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Fernandez, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    We examined the utility of an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB) model in predicting cervical cancer screening intentions among Latinas. The model included acculturation and past cervical cancer screening behavior along with attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 206 Latinas who responded to a self-administered survey. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the expanded TPB model. Acculturation (p = .025) and past screening behavior (p = .001) along with attitude (p = .019), subjective norms (p = .028), and perceived behavioral control (p = .014) predicted the intention to be screened for cervical cancer. Our findings suggest that the TPB is a useful model for understanding cervical cancer screening intentions among Latinas when both past behavior and culture are included. This research highlights the importance of culture on behavior and indicates a need to develop culturally sensitive, theory-based interventions to encourage screening and reduce cervical cancer-related health disparities in Latinas. PMID:23930898

  7. Understanding Cervical Cancer Screening Intentions Among Latinas Using An Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior Model

    PubMed Central

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the utility of an expanded Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model in predicting cervical cancer screening intentions among Latinas. The model included acculturation and past cervical cancer screening behavior along with attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 206 Latinas who responded to a self-administered survey. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the expanded TPB model. Acculturation (p= .025) and past screening behavior (p= .001) along with attitude (p= .019), subjective norms (p= .028), and perceived behavioral control (p= .014) predicted the intention to be screened for cervical cancer. Our findings suggest that the TPB is a useful model for understanding cervical cancer screening intentions among Latinas when both past behavior and culture are included. This highlights the importance of culture on behavior and indicates a need to develop culturally sensitive, theory-based interventions to encourage screening and reduce cervical cancer-related health disparities in Latinas. PMID:23930898

  8. A review of cervical cancer screening intervention research: implications for public health programs and future research.

    PubMed

    Marcus, A C; Crane, L A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the published literature with respect to cervical cancer screening intervention research. Mass media campaigns appear to work best in promoting cervical cancer screening when multiple media are used, when they promote specific screening programs that eliminate or reduce access barriers, or when they are used in combination with other strategies. Many positive examples of using outreach staff to promote cervical cancer screening, as well as using mobile examination rooms in the community, were found. Substantial evidence that letters mailed to patient populations are efficacious was found, especially in promoting interval screening; however, bulk mailings to nonpatient populations have generally not been successful. Both physician and patient prompts have shown promise as well as opportunistic screenings in both the outpatient and the inpatient settings. In addition, several strategies for reducing loss to follow-up among women with abnormal test results were identified, including telephone follow-up, educational mailouts, audiovisual programs, clinic-based educational presentations and workshops, transportation incentives, and economic vouchers. Of special note is the success of other countries in establishing centralized recall systems to promote interval screening for cervical cancer. Ultimately, such systems could replace the need for opportunistic screening in underserved populations and perhaps many community outreach efforts. It is argued that health departments represent a logical starting point for developing a network of recall systems in the United States for underserved women. PMID:9465350

  9. The Association of Social Support and Education with Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Documet, Patricia; Bear, Todd M.; Flatt, Jason D.; Macia, Laura; Trauth, Jeanette; Ricci, Edmund M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening by socioeconomic status persist in the United States. It has been suggested that social support may facilitate screening, especially among women of low socioeconomic status. However, at present, it is unclear whether social support enables mammogram and Pap test compliance. Purpose:…

  10. Poor Cervical Cancer Screening Attendance and False Negatives. A Call for Organized Screening

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Marta; Astudillo, Aurora; Clavero, Omar; Velasco, Julio; Ibáñez, Raquel; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe prior negative screening history and symptoms around the time of diagnosis of incident cervical cancer (CC) cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 within the Asturias public health system. Methods Records from 374 women diagnosed with CC between 2000 and 2010 from all public hospitals in Asturias were retrieved. Clinical information, FIGO stage and all previous cytological data were extracted from clinical and histopathological records. Proportional differences were assessed using chi-square tests. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Inter-observer agreement in cytology was checked by comparing concordance values using k-statistics. Results No prior screening history was recorded in 60.7% of CC cases and its absence increased with age and advanced stage. Advanced stage (e.g., ≥ II) at diagnosis was associated with age (>50 years) and adenocarcinoma (ADC) compared to younger women and those with a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). False negative smears were identified in 27.1% of women with CC (ADC 52.6% vs. SCC 16.2%, p<0.05). Conclusions Absence of prior screening history was common among CC cases. Organized actions to reduce “under screening” and the use of highly sensitive HPV-based tests could be useful strategies in reducing the burden of CC in Asturias. PMID:27547971

  11. Review of the screening history of Alberta women with invasive cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, G C; McGregor, S E; Duggan, M A; Nation, J G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a failure analysis of cervical cancer screening among women with invasive cervical cancer in Alberta. DESIGN: Descriptive study. Review of demographic, staging and treatment information from cancer registry records; generation of documented screening history from Alberta Health billing records and self-reported history from subjects who agreed to be interviewed; and comparison of findings in initial cytology reports with those from subsequent review by at least 2 pathologists of all cytology slides for each patient for the 5 years before diagnosis. Cases were assigned to 1 of 6 categories of identified screening failure. SETTING: Alberta. SUBJECTS: All women with diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer reported to a population-based provincial cancer registry from January 1990 to December 1991. OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic, staging and treatment information; documented and self-reported screening histories; correlation of test results in initial cytology report with those generated from slide review; category of identified screening failure. RESULTS: Of the 246 women identified with invasive cancer of the cervix, 37 (15.0%) had stage IA disease; 195 (79.3%) had squamous-cell carcinoma, and 35 (14.2%) had adenocarcinoma. According to the categories of screening failure, 74 women (30.1%) had never been screened, 38 (15.4% had not been screened within 3 years before diagnosis, 42 (17.1%) had had a false-negative cytology result, and 20 (8.1%) had been managed outside of conventional protocols. Of the 23 women (9.3%) who had been screened appropriately and had true-negative results, 19 had smears that were considered technically limited. It was not possible to classify 49 (19.9%) of the cases. Agreement between the documented and the self-reported screening histories was exact for only 39 (36.1%) of the 108 women interviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread use of opportunistic cervical screening, many women in Alberta are still not being screened

  12. WOMEN’S INTENTIONS TO RECEIVE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING WITH PRIMARY HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TESTING

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Gina S.; Smith, Laurie W.; van Niekerk, Dirk J.; Khurshed, Fareeza; Krajden, Mel; Saraiya, Mona; Goel, Vivek; Rimer B, Barbara K.; Greene, Sandra B.; Hobbs, Suzanne; Coldman, Andrew J.; Franco, Eduardo L.

    2015-01-01

    We explored the potential impact of HPV testing on women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer in a cohort of Canadian women. Participants aged 25-65 from an ongoing trial were sent a questionnaire to assess women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing instead of Pap smears and to be screened every 4 years or after 25 years of age. We created scales for attitudes about HPV testing, perceived behavioural control and direct and indirect subjective norms. Demographic data and scales that were significantly different (p<0.1) between women who intended to be screened with HPV and those who did not intend were included in a stepwise logistic regression model. Of the 2016 invitations emailed, 1538 were received, and 981 completed surveys for a response rate of 63% (981/1538). Eighty-four percent of women (826/981) responded that they intended to attend for HPV-based cervical cancer screening, which decreased to 54.2% when the screening interval was extended, and decreased further to 51.4% when screening start was delayed to age 25. Predictors of intentions to undergo screening were attitudes (OR 1.22; 95%CI 1.15, 1.30), indirect subjective norms (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.01, 1.03) and perceived behavioural control (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.10; 1.22). Intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing decreased substantially when the screening interval was extended and screening started at age 25. Use of primary HPV testing may optimize the screening paradigm, but programs should ensure robust planning and education to mitigate any negative impact on screening attendance rates. PMID:23754203

  13. Patient and provider characteristics associated with colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening among Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Chan, Albert; Chan, John K.; McClellan, Sean R.; Chung, Sukyung; Olson, Cliff; Nimbal, Vani; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Routinely recommended screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers can significantly reduce mortality from these types of cancer, yet screening is underutilized among Asians. Surveys rely on self-report and often are underpowered for analysis by Asian ethnicities. Electronic health records include validated (as opposed to recall-based) rates of cancer screening. In this paper we seek to better understand cancer screening patterns in a population of insured Asian Americans. METHODS We calculated rates of compliance with cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening among Asians from an EHR population, and compared them to non-Hispanic whites. We performed multivariable modeling to evaluate potential predictors (at the provider- and patient- level) of screening completion among Asian patients. RESULTS Aggregation of Asian subgroups masked heterogeneity in screening rates. Asian Indians and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders had the lowest rates of screening in our sample, well below that of non-Hispanic whites. In multivariable analyses, screening completion was negatively associated with patient-physician language discordance for mammography (OR:0.81 95% CI:0.71–0.92) and colorectal cancer screening (OR:0.79 CI:0.72–0.87) and positively associated with patient-provider gender concordance for mammography (OR:1.16 CI:1.00–1.34) and cervical cancer screening (OR:1.66 CI:1.51–1.82). Additionally, patient enrollment in online health services increased mammography (OR:1.32 CI:1.20–1.46) and cervical cancer screening (OR:1.31 CI:1.24–1.37). CONCLUSIONS Language- and gender- concordant primary care providers, and culturally tailored online health resources may help improve preventive cancer screening in Asian patient populations. IMPACT This study demonstrates how use of EHR data can inform investigations of primary prevention practices within the healthcare delivery setting. PMID:25368396

  14. Media interventions to increase cervical screening uptake in South Africa: an evaluation study of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Risi, L; Bindman, J P; Campbell, O M R; Imrie, J; Everett, K; Bradley, J; Denny, L

    2004-08-01

    Successful cervical cancer prevention depends on reaching, screening and treating women with pre-invasive disease. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of two media interventions-a photo-comic and a radio-drama-in increasing cervical screening uptake. A randomized controlled trial compared a photo-comic on cervical cancer screening with a placebo comic. One month after the comics were distributed a radio-drama paralleling the photo-comic was broadcast on the community radio station and a retrospective evaluation was carried out. The trial was set in Khayelitsha, a peri-urban squatter community near Cape Town, South Africa. A random sample consisted of 658 women between the ages of 35 and 65 years, from a stratified sample of census areas. The main outcome measure was self-reported cervical screening uptake 6 months after distribution of the comics. Seven percent (18 of 269) of women who received the intervention photo-comic reported cervical screening during the 6 months follow-up, compared with 6% (25 of 389) of controls (P = 0.89). Women who recalled hearing the radio-drama were more likely to report attending screening (nine of 53, 17%) than those who did not (19 of 429, 4%; P < 0.001). We conclude that the photo-comic was ineffective in increasing cervical screening uptake in this population. The radio-drama may have had more impact, but only a minority of women recalled being exposed to it. Future research must concentrate not only on achieving high level of exposure to health messages, but also on investigating the links between exposure and action. PMID:15155598

  15. Costs of cervical cancer screening and treatment using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in Ghana: the importance of scale

    PubMed Central

    Quentin, Wilm; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Legood, Rosa; Opoku, Baafuor K; Mayaud, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incremental costs of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy at cervical cancer screening facilities in Ghana; to explore determinants of costs through modelling; and to estimate national scale-up and annual programme costs. Methods Resource-use data were collected at four out of six active VIA screening centres, and unit costs were ascertained to estimate the costs per woman of VIA and cryotherapy. Modelling and sensitivity analysis were used to explore the influence of observed differences between screening facilities on estimated costs and to calculate national costs. Results Incremental economic costs per woman screened with VIA ranged from 4.93 US$ to 14.75 US$, and costs of cryotherapy were between 47.26 US$ and 84.48 US$ at surveyed facilities. Under base case assumptions, our model estimated the costs of VIA to be 6.12 US$ per woman and those of cryotherapy to be 27.96 US$. Sensitivity analysis showed that the number of women screened per provider and treated per facility was the most important determinants of costs. National annual programme costs were estimated to be between 0.6 and 4.0 million US$ depending on assumed coverage and adopted screening strategy. Conclusion When choosing between different cervical cancer prevention strategies, the feasibility of increasing uptake to achieve economies of scale should be a major concern. PMID:21214692

  16. Breast and Cervical Screening by Race/Ethnicity: Comparative Analyses Before and During the Great Recession

    PubMed Central

    King, Christopher J.; Chen, Jie; Garza, Mary A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditionally, economic recessions have resulted in decreased utilization of preventive health services. Purpose To explore racial and ethnic differences in breast and cervical cancer screening rates before and during the Great Recession. Methods The Medical Expenditure Panel was the source for identifying 10,894 women, ages 50–74 for breast screening and 19,957 women, ages 21–65 for cervical screening. Survey years included 2004-2005 and 2009-2010. Dependent variables were as follows: 1) receipt of mammogram within the past 2 years; and 2) receipt of a Pap smear within the past 3 years. The interaction of the recession and the likelihood of screening between whites and minorities was analyzed. Multivariate regressions were applied to estimate the likelihood of screening for the two time periods while controlling for a recession variable. Results Nationally, breast and cervical cancer screening rates dropped during the recession period; white women contributed most to the decline. However, there were significant improvements in timely screening for both cancers among Hispanics during the recession period. After controlling for the recession, African American women were more likely to have timely screenings compared to white women. Screening rates during the recession were lowest in the South, Midwest and West. Conclusion There was a national reduction in the percentages of women who obtained timely breast and cervical screenings during the Great Recession. Outreach efforts are needed to ensure that women who were not screened during the recession are screened. Widespread education about the Affordable Care Act may be helpful. PMID:24650838

  17. Evaluating a Quality Improvement Program for Cervical Cancer Screening at an Urban Safety Net Clinic.

    PubMed

    Hills, Robin L; Kulbok, Pamela A; Clark, Myra

    2015-09-01

    This article evaluates a quality improvement program for improving guideline-consistent cervical cancer screening practices in an urban safety net clinic. Quality improvement initiatives that combine policy with practice are particularly timely in light of the alignment of cervical cancer screening guidelines released in 2012 by the most influential national organizations. A descriptive comparison design was employed using the Healthy People 2020 target of 93% screened according to guidelines. Provider-, patient-, and workflow-based strategies included (1) addition of a clinical decision support system, (2) provider educational outreach, (3) patient reminder letters, and (4) development of a clinic procedure manual. Through the application of an established quality measurement tool, three quality indicators were measured: screened according to evidence-based guidelines, not screened, and screened more frequently than recommended. Data from the sample (N = 1,032) were collected at baseline and 12 months postimplementation. Each quality indicator category was significant at follow-up. Patients screened according to guidelines nearly doubled while the number of underscreened patients was reduced by nearly half. Similarly, there was a threefold decrease in patients screened more frequently than recommended. Clinical administrators, quality improvement specialists, and health care providers in primary care settings can use the strategies implemented in this study as a starting point for continuous quality improvement initiatives for cervical cancer screening. PMID:26032371

  18. Structural and Sociocultural Factors Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among HIV-Infected African American Women in Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women. PMID:25514125

  19. Assessing methylation status of PAX1 in cervical scrapings, as a novel diagnostic and predictive biomarker, was closely related to screen cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Yang, Baohua; Wang, Lifeng; Lin, Xiao; Tu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated that levels of hypermethylation of paired boxed gene 1 in cervical tissues are associated with the grades of severities of cervical neoplasia in women, which suggests that testing for DNA methylation has a potential role in neoplasma screening. In this study, by testing methylation levels of PAX1 genes in cervical scrapings and cervical tissues of different lesion levels, aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of DNA methylation testing as a biomarker for early detecting cancerous changes in cervical tissues and to compare the efficacy between PAX1 methylation test and HPV test in detecting of cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 121 cervical scrapings were analyzed, including normal (n = 28), cervical intraepithelial neoplasm 1 (CIN1; n = 32), CIN2/3 (n = 34), and invasive cancer (n = 27), which were all diagnosed by pathologic examination. Results: The values of PAX1 methylation reference in invasive cancer (mean [SE], 26.3 [3.5]) was significantly higher than CIN2/3 (13. 2 [2.2]) and the CIN1 (4.5 [0.45]; P < 0.001). The PAX1 promoter was hypermethylated in 100% of invasive cancer tissue compared with 0% of normal tissue, 9% of CIN1, 44% of CIN2/3 (P < 0.01). Methylation levels of cervical scrapings and cervical tissues represent strong consistency within each group. In contrast, the HPV test result was positive in 17% of normal tissue, 81% of CIN1, 91% of CIN2/CIN3, and 92% of invasive cancer. Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, hypermethylation of PAX1 was a significant candidate in segregating cervical cancer from normal/cervical neoplasia cases (P < 0.001). At an optimal cutoff value, sensitivity and specificity between 80% and 93% were obtained. In conclusion, the current results indicated that the methylation density of PAX1 by pyrosequencing in cervical scrapings held a great promise for cervical cancer screening. PMID:25973053

  20. The Effect of a Universal Cervical Length Screening Program on Antepartum Management and Birth Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shainker, Scott A; Modest, Anna M; Hacker, Michele R; Ralston, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a universal cervical length screening program on the incidence of antepartum interventions. Study Design This retrospective cohort study included women delivering ≥ 20 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancies before and after implementing universal cervical length screening. Antepartum interventions included admission for threatened preterm birth, ≥ 2 cervical length measurements, cervical cerclage, neonatology consultation, betamethasone, antibiotic administration for preterm premature rupture of membranes, and tocolysis. Results There were 1,131 women-506 before the screening program (unexposed) and 625 afterward (exposed). The screening program resulted in significantly more women screened (3.0 vs. 69.9%, p < 0.0001). The exposed group was more likely to undergo ≥ 1 intervention (20.0 vs. 9.5%, p < 0.0001); specifically, admission for threatened preterm birth (3.8 vs. 1.8%, p = 0.04) and ≥ 2 cervical measurements (11.2 vs. 2.0%, p < 0.001). Other interventions were similar between groups (all p ≥ 0.06). Median gestation length was significantly longer in the exposed (39.6 weeks [interquartile, IQR: 38.6-40.4] vs. 39.0 weeks [IQR: 38.0-40.0, p < 0.001]); however, preterm delivery incidence was unaffected (9.4 vs. 10.9%, p = 0.43). Remaining neonatal outcomes were similar (all p ≥ 0.14). Conclusion Implementing universal cervical length screening significantly increased the proportion of women undergoing ≥ 1 antepartum intervention. With the exception of a modestly prolonged gestation, other outcomes were unaffected. PMID:27280063

  1. The Effect of a Universal Cervical Length Screening Program on Antepartum Management and Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shainker, Scott A.; Modest, Anna M.; Hacker, Michele R.; Ralston, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a universal cervical length screening program on the incidence of antepartum interventions. Study Design This retrospective cohort study included women delivering ≥ 20 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancies before and after implementing universal cervical length screening. Antepartum interventions included admission for threatened preterm birth, ≥ 2 cervical length measurements, cervical cerclage, neonatology consultation, betamethasone, antibiotic administration for preterm premature rupture of membranes, and tocolysis. Results There were 1,131 women—506 before the screening program (unexposed) and 625 afterward (exposed). The screening program resulted in significantly more women screened (3.0 vs. 69.9%, p < 0.0001). The exposed group was more likely to undergo ≥ 1 intervention (20.0 vs. 9.5%, p < 0.0001); specifically, admission for threatened preterm birth (3.8 vs. 1.8%, p = 0.04) and ≥ 2 cervical measurements (11.2 vs. 2.0%, p < 0.001). Other interventions were similar between groups (all p ≥ 0.06). Median gestation length was significantly longer in the exposed (39.6 weeks [interquartile, IQR: 38.6–40.4] vs. 39.0 weeks [IQR: 38.0–40.0, p < 0.001]); however, preterm delivery incidence was unaffected (9.4 vs. 10.9%, p = 0.43). Remaining neonatal outcomes were similar (all p ≥ 0.14). Conclusion Implementing universal cervical length screening significantly increased the proportion of women undergoing ≥ 1 antepartum intervention. With the exception of a modestly prolonged gestation, other outcomes were unaffected. PMID:27280063

  2. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saslow, Debbie; Solomon, Diane; Lawson, Herschel W.; Killackey, Maureen; Kulasingam, Shalini; Cain, Joanna; Garcia, Francisco A. R.; Moriarty, Ann; Waxman, Alan; Wilbur, David; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Downs, Levi; Spitzer, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Saraiya, Mona; Franco, Eduardo L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.; Myers, Evan R.

    2013-01-01

    An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium co-sponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations address age-appropriate screening strategies, including the use of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, follow-up (e.g., management of screen positives and screening interval for screen negatives) of women after screening, age at which to exit screening, future considerations regarding HPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, and screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV16 and HPV18 infections. PMID:22418039

  3. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saslow, Debbie; Solomon, Diane; Lawson, Herschel W.; Killackey, Maureen; Kulasingam, Shalini; Cain, Joanna; Garcia, Francisco A. R.; Moriarty, Ann; Waxman, Alan; Wilbur, David; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Downs, Levi; Spitzer, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Franco, Eduardo L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.; Myers, Evan R.

    2013-01-01

    An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium cosponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations address age-appropriate screening strategies, including the use of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, follow-up (e.g., management of screen positives and screening interval for screen negatives) of women after screening, age at which to exit screening, future considerations regarding HPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, and screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV16 and HPV18 infections. PMID:22422631

  4. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination. PMID:19901435

  5. Cervical Cancer in Botswana: Current State and Future Steps for Screening and Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Surbhi; Raesima, Mmakgomo; Bvochora-Nsingo, Memory; Chiyapo, Sebathu P.; Balang, Dawn; Tapela, Neo; Balogun, Onyinye; Kayembe, Mukendi K. A.; Russell, Anthony H.; Monare, Barati; Tanyala, Senate; Bhat, Jailakshmi; Thipe, Kealeboga; Nchunga, Metlha; Mayisela, Susan; Kizito, Balladiah; Ho-Foster, Ari; Gaolebale, Babe Eunice; Gaolebale, Ponatshego A.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Zetola, Nicola; Hahn, Stephen M.; Robertson, Erle S.; Lin, Lilie L.; Morroni, Chelsea; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen

    2015-01-01

    Botswana has a high burden of cervical cancer due to a limited screening program and high HIV prevalence. About 60% of the cervical cancer patients are HIV positive; most present with advanced cervical disease. Through initiatives by the Botswana Ministry of Health and various strategic partnerships, strides have been made in treatment of pre-invasive and invasive cancer. The See and Treat program for cervical cancer is expanding throughout the country. Starting in 2015, school-going girls will be vaccinated against HPV. In regards to treatment of invasive cancer, a multidisciplinary clinic has been initiated at the main oncology hospital to streamline care. However, challenges remain such as delays in treatment, lack of trained human personnel, limited follow-up care, and little patient education. Despite improvements in the care of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer patients, for declines in cervical cancer-related morbidity and mortality to be achieved, Botswana needs to continue to invest in decreasing the burden of disease and improving patient outcomes of patients with cervical cancer. PMID:26579491

  6. Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

  7. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF USING HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS 16/18 GENOTYPE TRIAGE IN CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Arthi; Efrusy, Molly; Mazonson, Peter; Goodman, Karyn; Santas, Christopher; Huh, Warner

    2015-01-01

    Objective Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 genotypes, which are known to cause more than 65-70% of invasive cervical cancer cases, may allow clinicians to identify women at highest risk for underlying high-grade dysplasia missed by Pap cytology. Our objective was to determine the cost-effectiveness of adding HPV-16 and 18 genotype triage to current cervical cancer screening strategies in the United States. Methods We developed a lifetime Markov model to assess the cost-effectiveness of adding HPV genotyping to current cervical cancer screening algorithms. All costs were estimated from a payer perspective in 2007 U.S. dollars. Outcome measures included lifetime risk of cervical cancer, quality-adjusted life-years saved (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results In our model, the use of HPV genotype triage prevented 51-73 deaths per 100,000 women screened compared to screening using liquid-based cytology (LBC) followed by HPV triage and 4-26 deaths compared to co-screening with LBC and HPV. Use of HPV genotyping to triage all high-risk HPV-positive women every three years had an ICER of $34,074 per QALY compared to HPV and LBC co-screening. HPV genotyping with co-screening was the most effective strategy and had an ICER of $33,807 per QALY compared to HPV genotyping for all high-risk HPV-positive women. Conclusion The addition of HPV-16 and -18 genotype triage to current adjunctive HPV screening with LBC is a cost-effective screening strategy in the United States. PMID:20713299

  8. User acceptability of an alpha-fetoprotein screening programme.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, F S

    1995-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine user acceptability among women who were classified as false positives or test negatives in an alpha-fetoprotein screening programme. The study was performed as a questionnaire study over a one-year period from October 1, 1988 to September 30, 1989 at Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, and the county hospitals of Sønderjylland, Denmark. The participating subjects were 4104 pregnant women who had had an alpha-fetoprotein test and had completed 30 weeks of gestation, when the questionnaire was delivered. Main outcome measures were degree and duration of anxiety, influence on daily life and whether the woman wanted the alpha-fetoprotein test again in a new pregnancy. Three thousand, three hundred and thirty-one questionnaires were analyzed. The participation rate was 81.2%. For 219 women (6.6%), the first alpha-fetoprotein test was abnormal (high or low) and the tests were later found to be false positives. There was a strong association between anxiety experienced in conjunction with the alpha-fetoprotein screening programme and the alpha-fetoprotein test result. Two percent of the women with a normal test result reported severe anxiety, compared to 36% of the women who had an abnormal test result followed by amniocentesis (p < 0.001). Two percent of the women with a normal alpha-fetoprotein result reported that they were anxious one month or more after testing, in contrast to 39% of those who had had an amniocentesis (p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7537190

  9. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening among Middle-aged and Older Rural Appalachian Women

    PubMed Central

    Studts, Christina R.; Tarasenko, Yelena N.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Although cervical cancer rates in the United States have declined sharply in recent decades, certain groups of women remain at elevated risk, including middle-aged and older women in central Appalachia. Cross-sectional baseline data from a community-based randomized controlled trial were examined to identify barriers to cervical cancer screening. Questionnaires assessing barriers were administered to 345 Appalachian women aged 40-64, years when Pap testing declines and cervical cancer rates increase. Consistent with the PRECEDE/PROCEED framework, participants identified barriers included predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors. Descriptive and bivariate analyses are reported, identifying (a) the most frequently endorsed barriers to screening, and (b) significant associations of barriers with sociodemographic characteristics in the sample. Recommendations are provided to decrease these barriers and, ultimately, improve rates of Pap tests among this traditionally underserved and disproportionately affected group. PMID:23179390

  10. Strategies for Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening Amongst First Nations Communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maar, Marion; Wakewich, Pamela; Wood, Brianne; Severini, Alberto; Little, Julian; Burchell, Ann N; Ogilvie, Gina; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    The high burden of cervical cancer in Indigenous populations worldwide is due to underscreening and inadequate follow-up. Using qualitative, participatory action research, we interviewed health care staff to identify ways to increase screening recruitment in First Nations communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada. Our findings suggest the value of a multilevel social-ecological model to promote behavioral changes at the community, health care service and stakeholder, and decision-maker level. Participants emphasized the central role of First Nations women as nurturers of life and for the well-being of their family members. They stressed the importance of building awareness and motivation for cervical cancer screening through various activities including continuous education, hosting screening events specifically for women, improving the attitude and service of health care providers, and promoting screening tools and policies that complement and are respectful of First Nations women. PMID:25375661

  11. Ethical issues evolving from patients’ perspectives on compulsory screening for syphilis and voluntary screening for cervical cancer in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health aims to provide universal safety and progressive opportunities to populations to realise their highest level of health through prevention of disease, its progression or transmission. Screening asymptomatic individuals to detect early unapparent conditions is an important public health intervention strategy. It may be designed to be compulsory or voluntary depending on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. Integrated screening, including for both syphilis and cancer of the cervix, is a core component of the national reproductive health program in Kenya. Screening for syphilis is compulsory while it is voluntary for cervical cancer. Participants’ perspectives of either form of screening approach provide the necessary contextual information that clarifies mundane community concerns. Methods Focus group discussions with female clients screened for syphilis and cancer of the cervix were conducted to elicit their perspectives of compulsory and voluntary screening. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and thematic content analysis performed manually to explore emerging ethics issues. Results The results indicate that real ethical challenges exist in either of the approaches. Also, participants were more concerned about the benefits of the procedure and whether their dignity is respected than the compulsoriness of screening per se. The implication is for the policy makers to clarify in the guidelines how to manage ethical challenges, while at the operational level, providers need to be judicious to minimize potential harms participants and families when screening for disease in women. Conclusions The context for mounting screening as a public health intervention and attendant ethical issues may be more complex than hitherto perceived. Interpreting emerging ethics issues in screening requires more nuanced considerations of individuals’ contextual experiences since these may be contradictory to the policy position. In

  12. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. Setting/participants A linked data set of women aged 20–69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999–2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997–2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995–2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20–69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. Outcome measures The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. Results There were 28 872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76 831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1 372 823 women (PSR n=1 374 401; QCR n=1955), and 5 062 118 records. Conclusions Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study

  13. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26929386

  14. Cervical cytology service in Nigeria: providers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Adesina, O A; Babarinsa, I A; Fawole, O A; Oladokun, A; Adeniji, A R; Adewole, I F

    2003-07-01

    It has been noted that efforts to organise an effective screening programme in developing countries will have to find adequate financial resources, develop the infrastructure, train the necessary manpower and elaborate surveillance mechanisms. In our study, we set out to determine (a) just how frequent is cervical cancer, to warrant the investment of funds in screening programmes; (b) what proportion of surveyed health facilities offer a cervical cytology screening programme; and (c) what basic facilities are currently available where such programmes exist? A pretested, self-completed questionnaire was sent to heads of department of obstetrics and gynaecology in public tertiary and secondary care hospitals in Nigeria as well as major mission hospitals. The response rate was 63%, monthly consultations included a mean of 114 (+/-11.7) new gynaecological patients and an average of 5 (4.7+/-0.8) cervical cancer cases. One-half of the institutions had a hospital-based cervical screening programme with an average of 27 patients being screened monthly. Finance was the main difficulty encountered in maintaining a screening service. Only four had a certified gynaecological oncologist. In conclusion, there is dismal utilisation of available services and a dearth of trained specialists should any cervical cancer screening programme be considered. PMID:12881085

  15. Effect of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer screening in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong; Bell, Christopher; Sun, Maggie; Kliewer, Gordon; Xu, Linan; McInerney, Maria; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Yang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Background: A school-based program with quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was implemented in Alberta in 2008. We assessed the impact of this program on Pap test cytology results using databases of province-wide vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study involving a cohort of women in Alberta born between 1994 and 1997 who had at least 1 Pap test between 2012 and 2015. Women with negative cytology results were controls. Women with low-grade (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and high-grade (atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out a high-grade lesion; or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) cervical abnormalities were cases. Exposure status was assigned according to records of HPV vaccination. Odds ratios (ORs) for abnormal cytology results by vaccination status were adjusted for neighbourhood income, laboratory service, rural versus urban residency, and age. Results: The total study population was 10 204. Adjusting for age, vaccinated women had a higher screening rate than unvaccinated women (13.0% v. 11.4%, p < 0.001). Among women who received full vaccination (≥ 3 doses), the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.82). For high-grade lesions, the adjusted OR was 0.50 (95% CI 0.30–0.85). With 2-dose HPV vaccination, the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 1.08 (95% CI 0.84–1.38). Interpretation: Quadrivalent HPV vaccination significantly reduced high-grade cervical abnormalities but required 3 doses. Vaccination against HPV was associated with screening uptake. Population-based vaccination and screening programs should work together to optimize cervical cancer prevention. PMID:27378467

  16. Predictors of Never Being Screened for Cervical Cancer by Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Sandte L.; Thomas, Cheryll C.; King, Jessica B.; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between cervical cancer screening and racial/ethnic minority status, no usual source of care, and lower socioeconomic status. This study describes the demographics and health beliefs of women who report never being screened for cervical cancer by area of residence. Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to study women aged 21–65 years who reported never being screened for cervical cancer. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to calculate predicted marginals to examine associations between never being screened and demographic characteristics and health belief model (HBM) constructs by metropolitan statistical area (MSA). After adjusting for all demographics and HBM constructs, prevalence of never being screened was higher for the following women: non-Hispanic Asians/Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (16.5 %, 95 % CI = 13.7 %, 19.8 %) who live in MSAs; those with only a high school diploma who live in MSAs (5.5 %, 95 % CI = 4.7 %, 6.5 %); those living in non-MSAs who reported “fair or poor” general health (4.1 %, 95 % CI = 3.1 %, 5.4 %); and those living in either MSAs and non-MSAs unable to see a doctor within the past 12 months because of cost (MSA: 4.4 %, 95 % CI = 4.0 %, 4.8 %; non-MSA: 3.4 %, 95 % CI = 2.9 %, 3.9 %). The Affordable Care Act will expand access to insurance coverage for cervical cancer screening, without cost sharing for millions of women, essentially eliminating insurance costs as a barrier. Future interventions for women who have never been screened should focus on promoting the importance of screening and reaching non-Hispanic Asians/Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders who live in MSAs. PMID:24162857

  17. Cervical Screening for Women with Learning Disability: Current Practice and Attitudes within Primary Care in Edinburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Rachael; Douglas, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate current practice in, and to explore primary care professionals' views about, providing cervical screening to women with learning disability, in two areas of Edinburgh. A postal questionnaire was sent to all 24 GP practices in the project area: 20 responded. Seven respondents were invited to participate in follow up…

  18. Accuracy of Self-Reported Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening by Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Esther; Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of self-report of cervical and breast cancer screening by women with intellectual disability ("n" ?=? 155). Data from face-to-face interviews and medical records were analyzed. Total agreement, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Total…

  19. Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Cervical Cancer Screening among Women with Physical Disabilities Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chen, Si-Fan; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to explore knowledge and attitudeSs regarding cervical cancer screening and to examine its determinants based on the perspectives of Taiwanese women with physical disabilities living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was employed in the study, and we recruited 498 women aged more than 15 years who were officially registered…

  20. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening in high incidence populations: A synthesis of qualitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Susan D

    2016-01-01

    Despite the efficacy and availability of screening and treatment for cervical cancer, it remains the leading cause of death for women in many low resource countries. The inability or reluctance of women to use screening and treatment is the largest contributor to cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The aim of the author in this article is to determine knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that facilitate or hinder women's use of screening in high incidence countries through a synthesis of qualitative research. CINAHL, Medline, AnthroSource, Sociological Abstracts, Social Service Abstracts, GenderWatch, Ethnic News Watch, and ASSIA databases were queried for qualitative research published from 2008 to 2013. Ten studies meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Barriers to cervical cancer screening included fatalism, mistrust of non-traditional healthcare providers, masculine/feminine beliefs, limited knowledge, and misunderstandings of causes of cervical cancer. Facilitators included knowledge of sexual risk factors, recognition of signs and symptoms, and community/social support. Pragmatic solutions suggested by this synthesis, that may decrease barriers and enhance facilitators, involved cultural humility (a continual commitment to cultural competence), promotion of gender equality, collaboration among stakeholders, and the translation of evidence-based practices from low to high incidence populations. PMID:26496628

  1. Handheld multispectral dual-axis confocal microscope for cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapukdee, Pongsak; Rattanavarin, Santi; Jarujareet, Ungkarn; Khemthongcharoen, Numfon; Jolivot, Romuald; Jung, Il Woong; López, Daniel; Mandella, Michael J.; Piyawattanametha, Wibool

    2013-03-01

    Our work demonstrates a MEMS based handheld dual-axis confocal microscope for cervical cancer screening. Imaging demonstration is performed with plant and animal tissue biopsies. The data is collected and displayed in real time with 2-5 Hz frame rates.

  2. Development and Validation of the Assessment of Health Literacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Jiyun; Nguyen, Tam

    2016-01-01

    For many people limited health literacy is a major barrier to effective preventive health behavior such as cancer screening, yet a comprehensive health literacy measure that is specific to breast and cervical cancer screening is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a new instrument to measure health literacy in the context of breast and cervical cancer screening, the Assessment of Health Literacy in Cancer Screening (AHL-C). The AHL-C is based on Baker’s conceptualization of health literacy and modeled from the two most popular health literacy tests, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. The AHL-C consists of four subscales; print literacy, numeracy, comprehension, and familiarity. We used baseline data from 560 Korean American immigrant women who participated in a community-based randomized trial designed to test the effect of a health literacy-focused intervention to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Rigorous psychometric testing supports that the AHL-C is reliable, valid, and significantly correlated with theoretically selected variables. Future research is needed to test the utility of the AHL-C in predicting cancer screening outcomes. PMID:25315598

  3. Unifying Screening Processes Within the PROSPR Consortium: A Conceptual Model for Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jane J.; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Zauber, Ann G.; Geiger, Ann M.; Kamineni, Aruna; Weaver, Donald L.; Tiro, Jasmin A.

    2015-01-01

    General frameworks of the cancer screening process are available, but none directly compare the process in detail across different organ sites. This limits the ability of medical and public health professionals to develop and evaluate coordinated screening programs that apply resources and population management strategies available for one cancer site to other sites. We present a trans-organ conceptual model that incorporates a single screening episode for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers into a unified framework based on clinical guidelines and protocols; the model concepts could be expanded to other organ sites. The model covers four types of care in the screening process: risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Interfaces between different provider teams (eg, primary care and specialty care), including communication and transfer of responsibility, may occur when transitioning between types of care. Our model highlights across each organ site similarities and differences in steps, interfaces, and transitions in the screening process and documents the conclusion of a screening episode. This model was developed within the National Cancer Institute–funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR). PROSPR aims to optimize the screening process for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer and includes seven research centers and a statistical coordinating center. Given current health care reform initiatives in the United States, this conceptual model can facilitate the development of comprehensive quality metrics for cancer screening and promote trans-organ comparative cancer screening research. PROSPR findings will support the design of interventions that improve screening outcomes across multiple cancer sites. PMID:25957378

  4. Estimating the efficacy of screening by auditing smear histories of women with and without cervical cancer. The National Co-ordinating Network for Cervical Screening Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    Sasieni, P. D.; Cuzick, J.; Lynch-Farmery, E.

    1996-01-01

    The screening histories of all 348 women with invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in 1992 in 24 self-selected district health authorities and health boards in England, Wales and Scotland were compared with those of 677 age- and residency-matched controls. The controls were randomly selected from the family health services authority (FHSA) register. Screening histories, comprising the dates and results of all smears taken before the date of diagnosis of the patient's cancer, were determined from the FHSA computer and laboratory records. We estimate that the number of cases of cervical cancer in participating districts in 1992 would have been 57% (95% confidence interval 28-86%) greater if there had been no previous screening. In women under the age of 70 it would have been approximately 75% (31-115%) greater. Extrapolation of the results from this pilot suggests that screening prevented between 1100 and 3900 cases of invasive cervical cancer in the UK in 1992. Women with stage 1B cancer or worse were more likely to have no record of previous screening than controls: 47% of these women under the age of 70 had been adequately screened according to current (5 yearly screening) guidelines, compared with 75% of matched controls. Thirteen per cent of all patients under age 70 had screening histories indicative of inadequate follow-up of smears requiring colposcopy. The proportion of microinvasive cases with screening predating diagnosis was similar to the proportion of controls. There was a strong correlation between stage and age: 56% of cancers in women under 35 were microinvasive compared with just 9% in women 65 years or over. The 'relative protection' following a negative smear was greatest in the first 12 months and fell off towards the end of the fifth year. These data suggest that full adherence to current guidelines could perhaps have prevented another 1250 cases, but additional steps would have been required to prevent some of the 2300 remaining cases in women

  5. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening Among US Hispanics/Latinas: A Qualitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Lilli; Foley, Kristie L.; Tanner, Amanda E.; Sun, Christina J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hispanic/Latina women experience the highest cervical cancer incidence rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States (US), and tend to present with more severe cases and experience higher mortality compared to most other populations. The goal of this qualitative systematic review was to explore existing interventions to increase cervical cancer screening among US Hispanics/Latinas and to identify characteristics of effective interventions and research gaps. Materials and Methods Six online databases were searched from their inception through June 30, 2013, using designated search terms and keywords. Peer-reviewed articles that documented an intervention designed to improve screening for cervical cancer among Hispanics/Latinas ages 18 years and older living in the US were reviewed. Data were abstracted using a standardized form to document intervention characteristics and results. Results Forty-five articles, describing 32 unique interventions, met inclusion criteria. Identified interventions consisted primarily of educational programs and/or provision of screening. Interventions used lay health advisors (LHAs), clinic-based outreach/delivery strategies, partnerships with churches, and mass media campaigns. Twelve interventions resulted in significant increases in cervical cancer screening rates. Conclusions Interventions developed utilizing theory, applying community-based participatory research approaches, and using lay health advisors were identified as having the greatest potential for improving cervical cancer screening among Hispanics/Latinas. There continues to be a need for the development of interventions in geographic areas with new and emerging Hispanic/Latino populations and that are comprehensive, follow participants for longer periods of time, and broaden the roles and build the capacities of LHAs. PMID:25154515

  6. Interventions targeted at women to encourage the uptake of cervical screening

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Thomas; Bryant, Andrew; Griffin, Michelle F; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre PL; Forbes, Carol A; Jepson, Ruth G

    2014-01-01

    Background World-wide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Increasing the uptake of screening, alongside increasing informed choice is of great importance in controlling this disease through prevention and early detection. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at women, to increase the uptake, including informed uptake, of cervical cancer screening. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 1, 2009. MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases up to March 2009. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions to increase uptake/informed uptake of cervical cancer screening. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where possible the data were synthesised in a meta-analysis. Main results Thirty-eight trials met our inclusion criteria. These trials assessed the effectiveness of invitational and educational interventions, counselling, risk factor assessment and procedural interventions. Heterogeneity between trials limited statistical pooling of data. Overall, however, invitations appear to be effective methods of increasing uptake. In addition, there is limited evidence to support the use of educational materials. Secondary outcomes including cost data were incompletely documented so evidence was limited. Most trials were at moderate risk of bias. Informed uptake of cervical screening was not reported in any trials. Authors’ conclusions There is evidence to support the use of invitation letters to increase the uptake of cervical screening. There is limited evidence to support educational interventions but it is unclear what format is most effective. The majority of the studies are from

  7. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiya; Jia, Mengyu; Gao, Feng; Yang, Lihong; Qu, Pengpeng; Zou, Changping; Liu, Pengxi; Zhao, Huijuan

    2015-02-01

    The cervical cancer screening at a pre-cancer stage is beneficial to reduce the mortality of women. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening is introduced in this paper. In this system, three electrodes alternately discharge to the cervical tissue and three light emitting diodes in different wavelengths alternately irradiate the cervical tissue. Then the relative optical reflectance and electrical voltage attenuation curve are obtained by optical and electrical detection, respectively. The system is based on DSP to attain the portable and cheap instrument. By adopting the relative reflectance and the voltage attenuation constant, the classification algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) discriminates abnormal cervical tissue from normal. We use particle swarm optimization to optimize the two key parameters of SVM, i.e. nuclear factor and cost factor. The clinical data were collected on 313 patients to build a clinical database of tissue responses under optical and electrical stimulations with the histopathologic examination as the gold standard. The classification result shows that the opto-electronic joint detection has higher total coincidence rate than separate optical detection or separate electrical detection. The sensitivity, specificity, and total coincidence rate increase with the increasing of sample numbers in the training set. The average total coincidence rate of the system can reach 85.1% compared with the histopathologic examination.

  8. Information provided by Italian breast cancer screening programmes: a comparison between 2001 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Castagno, Roberta; Canuti, Debora; Petrella, Marco; Bucchi, Lauro; Fedato, Chiara; Garena, Francesca; Giordano, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Debate on efficacy, benefits, and risks of breast cancer screening continues to rage, and scientific controversy surrounding overdiagnosis, false positives/false negatives, raises questions about communication to women attending screening programmes. The study compares information provided by invitation letters and leaflets of Italian breast screening programmes in 2001 (N=47) and 2014 (N=80). At both times, nearly all programmes provided adequate practical information and details about screening objectives and test procedures. Information regarding epidemiology/figures was scarce or absent in 2001, while in 2014 a number of programmes began to inform women about screening risks (false negative and positive results and overdiagnosis, 65%, 16%, and 21% respectively) although actual figures were rarely supplied. Despite this small improvement, Italian programmes are still far from giving balanced information. Further efforts should be addressed to providing accurate and transparent information, enabling women to make an informed choice. PMID:26405776

  9. Screening for characteristic microRNAs between pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, XIAO-LU; WEN, SHANG-YUN; AI, ZHI-HONG; WANG, JUAN; XU, YAN-LI; TENG, YIN-CHENG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristic microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed during the pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer. A gene expression profile (GSE7803) containing 21 invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma samples, 10 normal squamous cervical epithelium samples and seven high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion samples, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using significance analysis of microarray software, and a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The miRNAs that interacted with the identified DEGs were selected, based on the TarBase v5.0 database. Regulatory networks were constructed from these selected miRNAs along with their corresponding target genes among the DEGs. The regulatory networks were visualized using Cytoscape. A total of 1,160 and 756 DEGs were identified in the pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer, respectively. The results of the GO enrichment demonstrated that the DEGs were predominantly involved in the immune response and the cell cycle, in the pre-invasive and invasive stages, respectively. Furthermore, a total of 18 and 26 characteristic miRNAs were screened in the pre-invasive and invasive stages, respectively. These miRNAs may be potential biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis and treatment of the different stages of cervical cancer. PMID:25695263

  10. Factors Associated with Uptake of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) for Cervical Cancer Screening in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Orang’o, Elkanah Omenge; Wachira, Juddy; Asirwa, Fredrick Chite; Busakhala, Naftali; Naanyu, Violet; Kisuya, Job; Otieno, Grieven; Keter, Alfred; Mwangi, Ann; Inui, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cervical cancer screening has been successful in reducing the rates of cervical cancer in developed countries, but this disease remains the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to understand factors associated with limited uptake of screening services in our cervical cancer-screening program in Western Kenya. Participants and Methods Using items from a previously validated cancer awareness questionnaire repurposed for use in cervical cancer and culturally adapted for use in Kenya, we interviewed 2,505 women aged 18–55 years receiving care in gynecology clinics or seeking other services in 4 health facilities in Western Kenya between April 2014 and September 2014. We used logistic regression modeling to assess factors associated with uptake (or non-uptake), associated odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Only two hundred and seventy-three women out of 2505 (11%) accepted VIA cervical cancer screening. Knowledge of just how women are screened for cervical cancer was significantly associated with reduced uptake of cervical cancer screening (OR: 0.53; CI 0.38–0.73) as was fear that screening would reveal a cancer (OR 0.70; CI 0.63–0.77), and reliance on prayer with the onset of illness (OR 0.43; CI 0.26–0.71). Participants who thought that one should get cervical cancer screening even if there were no symptoms were more than twice as likely to accept cervical cancer screening (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.24–3.93). Older patients, patients living with HIV and women who do not know if bleeding immediately after sex might be a sign of cervical cancer were also more likely to accept screening (OR 1.03, CI 1.02–1.04; OR 1.78, CI 1.01–3.14; OR 2.39, CI 1.31–4.39, respectively). Conclusions In our population, a high percent of women knew that it is appropriate for all women to get cervical cancer screening, but only a small proportion of women actually got screening. There may be an

  11. Reducing income-related inequities in colorectal cancer screening: lessons learned from a retrospective analysis of organised programme and non-programme screening delivery in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Kathleen M; Demers, Alain A; Nugent, Zoann; Biswanger, Natalie; Singh, Harminder

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined organised colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme and non-programme faecal occult blood test (FOBT) use from 2008 to 2012 for individuals living in Winnipeg, Manitoba, by area-level income. Setting Winnipeg, Manitoba, a region with universal healthcare and an organised CRC screening programme. Participants Individuals who had a non-programme FOBT were identified from the Provincial Medical Claims database. Individuals who had a programme FOBT were identified from the provincial screening registry. Census data were used to determine average household income based on area of residence. Statistical analysis Trends in age-standardised FOBT rates were examined using Joinpoint Regression. Logistic regression was performed to explore the association between programme and non-programme FOBT use and income quintile. Results FOBT use (non-programme and programme) increased from 32.2% in 2008 to 41.6% in 2012. Individuals living in the highest income areas (Q5) were more likely to have a non-programme FOBT compared with those living in other areas. Individuals living in areas with the lowest average income level (Q1) were less likely to have had programme FOBT than those living in areas with the highest average income level (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.82). There was no difference in programme FOBT use for individuals living in areas with the second lowest income level (Q2) compared with those living in areas with the highest. Individuals living in areas with a moderate-income level (Q3 and Q4) were more likely to have had a programme FOBT compared with those living in an area with the highest income level (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.15 for Q3 and OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.13 for Q4). Conclusions Inequities by income observed for non-programme FOBTs were largely eliminated when programme FOBTs were examined. Targeted interventions within organised screening programmes in very low-income areas are needed. PMID:26908517

  12. Understanding cervical screening non-attendance among ethnic minority women in England

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, L A V; Wardle, J; Waller, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds are less likely to attend cervical screening than White British women. This study explored sociodemographic and attitudinal correlates of cervical screening non-attendance among BAME women. Methods: Women (30–60 years) were recruited from Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African and White British backgrounds (n=720). Participants completed structured interviews. Results: BAME women were more likely to be non-attenders than white British women (44–71% vs 12%) and fell into two groups: the disengaged and the overdue. Migrating to the United Kingdom, speaking a language other than English and low education level were associated with being disengaged. Being overdue was associated with older age. Three attitudinal barriers were associated with being overdue for screening among BAME women: low perceived risk of cervical cancer due to sexual inactivity, belief that screening is unnecessary without symptoms and difficulty finding an appointment that fits in with other commitments. Conclusions: BAME non-attenders appear to fall into two groups, and interventions for these groups may need to be targeted and tailored accordingly. It is important to ensure that BAME women understand cancer screening is intended for asymptomatic women and those who have ceased sexual activity may still be at risk. PMID:26171938

  13. Barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for women with physical disability: A review.

    PubMed

    Ramjan, Lucie; Cotton, Antoinette; Algoso, Maricris; Peters, Kath

    2016-01-01

    This review critically examined the barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening services for women with physical disability and discussed ways forward to change practice. When compared to the rest of the community, women with disability were less likely to use preventive health screening services for multiple reasons. Moreover, women with disability live longer than in previous years, and as age is linked to an increased risk of developing cancer, it is imperative that the barriers to screening for these women become a focus of discussion. We designed an integrative literature review to investigate this. Multiple databases were systematically searched for literature published between 2001 and 2013. Search terms used were a combination (AND/OR) of key terms. After excluding duplicates and articles not meeting the eligibility criteria, twenty-five articles were systematically and critically reviewed. Sociodemographic factors were associated with less access to preventive health screening for women with disability. The literature reviewed indicated that this was complicated further by three prominent barriers: health insurance, health care workers, and physical barriers. Sociodemographic, health insurance, health workers, and physical barriers impair access for disabled women to breast and cervical cancer screening, which are vital measures in the timely detection of breast and cervical cancers and preventable morbidity and mortality. Measures are needed to address these limiting factors for women with disability so that they can be active participants in health care, rather than being marginalized because of their disability. PMID:26325597

  14. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening amongst women of reproductive age from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Conde-Ferraez, Laura; Suarez Allen, Rosa Etelvina; Carrillo Martinez, Jorge Ramiro; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Losa, Maria Del Refugio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the participation of women of reproductive age in a cancer screening program, and survey reasons for non-screening in a region from Mexico with high cervical cancer mortality. A total of 281 obstetric patients from a previous HPV study in a social security hospital during 2008-2009 were included. Reasons for not participating in the screening were directly asked. HPV positive patients were invited to participate in an informative workshop, and they filled in a knowledge questionnaire. The women ranged in age from 14-47 years; 123 (43.8%) had never participated in screening, of which 97 (78.9%) had their first sexual intercourse 2 to 10 years ago, resulting in 25% HPV positive. Screening history was strongly associated with 2 or more gestations (OR= 10.07, p=0.00) and older age (OR=6.69 p=0.00). When 197 women were contacted and interviewed, reasons referred for non-screening were ignorance, lack of interest or time, recent sexual onset, shame and fear. More than 50% of the workshop participants showed knowledge of HPV, while 38.9% and 25% knew about Pap smear and cervical cancer. A high percentage of women of reproductive age have never had a Pap smear. Promoting the screening program in medical facilities seems to be important in this population. New approaches to inform vulnerable individuals on the benefits of screening need to be implemented, especially for young women. PMID:23167409

  15. Explaining variation across grantees in breast and cervical cancer screening proportions in the NBCCEDP

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sujha; Tangka, Florence K. L.; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Trogdon, Justin; Crouse, Wesley; Royalty, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is substantial variation across the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) grantees in terms of the proportion of the eligible population served by the grantees each year (hereafter referred to as the screening proportion). In this paper, we assess program- and state-level factors to better understand the reason for this variation in breast and cervical cancer screening proportions across the NBCCEDP grantees. Methods We constructed a longitudinal data set, consisting of data from NBCCEDP grantees for each of the three study years (program-years 2006–2007, 2008–2009, and 2009–2010). We performed multivariate analysis to explain the variation in breast and cervical cancer screening proportions across the grantees. The program-level factors studied were the total federal funds received, average cost of screening women by grantee, and the overall organizational structure. The state-level variables included were urban versus rural mix, access to care, and the size of the eligible population. Results Of the 48 grantees included in the study, those that serve larger populations, as measured by the size of the population and the percentage of women eligible for services, had lower screening proportions. Higher average cost of service delivery was also associated with lower screening proportions. In addition, grantees whose populations were more concentrated in urban areas had lower screening proportions. Conclusions Overall, the average cost of screening, the overall size of the population eligible, and the concentration of population in urban areas all had a negative relationship to the proportion of eligible women screened by NBCCEDP grantees. PMID:25840557

  16. Performance of Papanicolaou Testing and Detection of Cervical Carcinoma In Situ in Participants of Organized Cervical Cancer Screening in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mi Ah; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Jung, Kyu Won; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study measured the performance of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test and detection of cervical carcinoma in situ (CIS) and cancer in participants of organized cervical cancer screening in South Korea, and examined differences in the proportion of CIS according to socio-demographic factors. Methods Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program and National Health Insurance Cancer Screening Program databases. We analyzed data from 4,072,997 screenings of women aged 30 years or older who underwent cervical cancer screening by Pap test between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006. We calculated the performances of the Pap test and compared that according to socio-demographic factors. Results The positivity rate for all screenings was 6.6%. The cancer detection rate (CDR) and interval cancer rate (ICR) were 0.32 per 1,000 screenings, and 0.13 per 1,000 negative screenings, respectively. About 63.4% of screen-detected CIS+ cases (CIS or invasive cervical cancer) were CIS. The CDR and ICR, and percentage of CIS among all CIS+ were significantly different by age group and health insurance status. The odds ratios of CDR and ICR were higher for Medical Aid Program (MAP) recipients compared with National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries. The likelihood of a detected CIS+ case to be CIS was significantly lower among MAP recipients than among NHI beneficiaries. Conclusions The difference in performance of cervical cancer screening among different socio-demographic groups may indicate an important influence of socio-demographic factors on preventive behavior. The findings of the study support the critical need for increasing efforts to raise awareness and provide more screening in at-risk populations, specifically low-income groups. PMID:22530028

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Homeless Women of New York City Shelters.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin; Alcabes, Analena; Feldman, Rebecca; Garland, Victoria; Naderi, Ramesh; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Sckell, Blanca

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Homeless persons have minimal opportunities to complete recommended cancer screening. The rates and predictors of cervical cancer screening are understudied among homeless women in the US. Methods We enrolled 297 homeless women 21-65 years old residing in 6 major New York City shelters from 2012 to 2014. We used a validated national survey to determine the proportion and predictors of cervical cancer screening using cytology (Pap test). Results Mean age was 44.72 (±11.96) years. Majority was Black, heterosexual, single, with high school or lower education; 50.9 % were smokers and 41.7 % were homeless more than a year. Despite a 76.5 % proportion of self-reported Pap test within the past 3 years, 65 % of women assumed their Pap test results were normal or did not get proper follow up after abnormal results. Forty-five-point-nine percent of women did not know about frequency of Pap test or causes of cervical cancer. Lower proportion of up-to-date Pap test was associated with lack of knowledge of recommended Pap test frequency (p < 0.01) and relationship between HPV and an abnormal Pap test (p < 0.01). Conclusions Self-reported Pap testing in homeless women was similar to a national sample. However, the majority of women surveyed were not aware of their results, received limited if any follow up and had significant education gaps about cervical cancer screening. We recommend improved counseling and patient education, patient navigators to close screening loops, and consideration of alternative test-and-treat modalities to improve effective screening. PMID:26649876

  18. Impact of invitation and reminder letters on cervical cancer screening participation rates in an organized screening program.

    PubMed

    Tavasoli, Simon M; Pefoyo, Anna J Kone; Hader, Joanne; Lee, Alex; Kupets, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Study's Objective was to explore the impact of invitation and reminder letters on cervical cancer screening participation among eligible Ontario women 30 to 69years of age. A cross-sectional study was used to describe factors and screening patterns for 1,150,783 eligible women. A cohort design was used to compare the impact of invitation and reminder letters on Pap uptake comparing women who received the intervention (n=99,278) with a historical non-intervention group (n=130,181). Factors that might influence screening participation were included as covariates in a multivariable logistic regression models. Overall, 26.7% of women who had a Pap test 3 to 5years prior and 9.8% of women with no Pap test in the previous 5years were screened within 9months after the intervention. On cohort analysis, 14.1% of women in the intervention group and 8.5% of women in the non-intervention group were screened within 9months. Being mailed an invitation letter was associated with greater likelihood of screening (OR=1.8, CI 1.7-1.8). Controlling for covariates, the letter intervention was associated with 9month screening for both women with a Pap test 3 to 5years prior (AOR=1.7, CI 1.6-1.8) and those with no Pap test in the previous 5years (AOR=1.8, CI 1.7-1.9). There was a significant effect of all covariates on the participation. The invitation and reminder letter strategy increased cervical cancer screening participation. Additional strategies that could encourage eligible women to participate and/or removing barriers to screening for eligible women may be necessary. PMID:27143497

  19. Is cervical screening preventing adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix?

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Rebecca; Sasieni, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    While the incidence of squamous carcinoma of the cervix has declined in countries with organised screening, adenocarcinoma has become more common. Cervical screening by cytology often fails to prevent adenocarcinoma. Using prospectively recorded cervical screening data in England and Wales, we conducted a population‐based case–control study to examine whether cervical screening leads to early diagnosis and down‐staging of adenocarcinoma. Conditional logistic regression modelling was carried out to provide odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) on 12,418 women with cervical cancer diagnosed between ages 30 and 69 and 24,453 age‐matched controls. Of women with adenocarcinoma of the cervix, 44.3% were up to date with screening and 14.6% were non‐attenders. The overall OR comparing women up to date with screening with non‐attenders was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39–0.55) for adenocarcinoma. The odds were significantly decreased (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15–0.33) in up to date women with Stage 2 or worse adenocarcinoma, but not for women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma 0.71 (95% CI: 0.46–1.09). The odds of Stage 1A adenocarcinoma was double among lapsed attenders (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.52–3.62) compared to non‐attenders. Relative to women with no negative cytology within 7 years of diagnosis, women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma were very unlikely to be detected within 3 years of a negative cytology test (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05–0.13); however, the odds doubled 3–5 years after a negative test (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.67–3.18). ORs associated with up to date screening were smaller for squamous and adenosquamous cervical carcinoma. Although cytology screening is inefficient at preventing adenocarcinomas, invasive adenocarcinomas are detected earlier than they would be in the absence of screening, substantially preventing Stage 2 and worse adenocarcinomas. PMID:27096255

  20. Is cervical screening preventing adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix?

    PubMed

    Castanon, Alejandra; Landy, Rebecca; Sasieni, Peter D

    2016-09-01

    While the incidence of squamous carcinoma of the cervix has declined in countries with organised screening, adenocarcinoma has become more common. Cervical screening by cytology often fails to prevent adenocarcinoma. Using prospectively recorded cervical screening data in England and Wales, we conducted a population-based case-control study to examine whether cervical screening leads to early diagnosis and down-staging of adenocarcinoma. Conditional logistic regression modelling was carried out to provide odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) on 12,418 women with cervical cancer diagnosed between ages 30 and 69 and 24,453 age-matched controls. Of women with adenocarcinoma of the cervix, 44.3% were up to date with screening and 14.6% were non-attenders. The overall OR comparing women up to date with screening with non-attenders was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39-0.55) for adenocarcinoma. The odds were significantly decreased (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15-0.33) in up to date women with Stage 2 or worse adenocarcinoma, but not for women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma 0.71 (95% CI: 0.46-1.09). The odds of Stage 1A adenocarcinoma was double among lapsed attenders (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.52-3.62) compared to non-attenders. Relative to women with no negative cytology within 7 years of diagnosis, women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma were very unlikely to be detected within 3 years of a negative cytology test (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05-0.13); however, the odds doubled 3-5 years after a negative test (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.67-3.18). ORs associated with up to date screening were smaller for squamous and adenosquamous cervical carcinoma. Although cytology screening is inefficient at preventing adenocarcinomas, invasive adenocarcinomas are detected earlier than they would be in the absence of screening, substantially preventing Stage 2 and worse adenocarcinomas. PMID:27096255

  1. Is screen-and-treat approach suited for screening and management of precancerous cervical lesions in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    PubMed

    Fokom-Domgue, Joël; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    The World Health Organization guidelines for screening and management of cervical precancerous lesions updated in 2013 made an emphasis on the use of the 'screen-and-treat' approach for cervical cancer prevention. In order to facilitate scaling-up in low income settings, most of these screen-and-treat strategies do not involve confirmatory biopsy. This yields a certain rate of overtreatment. In other words, a majority of people undergoing screen-and-treat intervention who are treated does not necessarily benefit from the treatment. Therefore, the issue of potential short term and long term complications of the recommended treatment procedures (cryotherapy and Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure) arises. This question has seldom been studied in resource poor countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is rampant in an epidemic fashion and where the procreative capacities are socially rewarding for women. We draw the attention of the scientific community and policy makers to the fact that the lack of evidence supporting the safety of these treatment procedures in African populations may have an impact on the acceptability of these strategies and therefore on the effectiveness of screening programs. PMID:24879892

  2. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-02-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews. PMID:22118240

  3. Automated cervical precancerous cells screening system based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusman, Yessi; Mat Isa, Nor Ashidi; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Hasikin, Khairunnisa; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique can detect the abnormality of a cervical cell that occurs before the morphological change could be observed under the light microscope as employed in conventional techniques. This paper presents developed features extraction for an automated screening system for cervical precancerous cell based on the FTIR spectroscopy as a second opinion to pathologists. The automated system generally consists of the developed features extraction and classification stages. Signal processing techniques are used in the features extraction stage. Then, discriminant analysis and principal component analysis are employed to select dominant features for the classification process. The datasets of the cervical precancerous cells obtained from the feature selection process are classified using a hybrid multilayered perceptron network. The proposed system achieved 92% accuracy.

  4. Cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccine acceptability among rural and urban women in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Melissa S; Skrastins, Emily; Fitzpatrick, Ryan; Jindal, Priya; Oneko, Olola; Yeates, Karen; Booth, Christopher M; Carpenter, Jennifer; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine cervical cancer screening coverage and the knowledge, attitudes and barriers toward screening tests among women in rural and urban areas of Tanzania, as well as explore how they view the acceptability of the HPV vaccine and potential barriers to vaccination. Setting A cross-sectional study using interview-administered questionnaires was conducted using multistage random sampling within urban and rural areas in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Participants Women aged 18–55 were asked to participate in the survey. The overall response rate was 97.5%, with a final sample of 303 rural and 272 urban dwelling women. Primary and secondary outcome measures Descriptive and simple test statistics were used to compare across rural and urban strata. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs. Results Most women (82%) reported they had heard of cervical cancer, while self-reported cervical cancer screening among women was very low (6%). In urban areas, factors associated with screening were: older age (OR=4.14, 95% CI 1.86 to 9.24 for ages 40–49, and OR=8.38, 95% CI 2.10 to 33.4 for >50 years), having health insurance (OR=4.15, 95% CI 1.52 to 11.4), and having knowledge about cervical cancer (OR=5.81, 95% CI 1.58 to 21.4). In contrast, among women residing in rural areas, only condom use (OR=6.44, 95% CI 1.12 to 37.1) was associated with screening. Women from both rural and urban areas had low vaccine-related knowledge; however, most indicated they would be highly accepting if it were readily available (93%). Conclusions The current proportion of women screened for cervical cancer is very low in Kilimanjaro Region, and our study has identified several modifiable factors that could be addressed to increase screening rates. Although best implemented concurrently, the availability of prophylactic vaccination for girls may provide an effective means of prevention if they are unable to access screening in the future. PMID

  5. Comparison of Pap Smear and Colposcopy in Screening for Cervical Cancer in Patients with Secondary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-zarchi, Mojgan; Zanbagh, Leila; Shafii, Alireza; Taghipour-Zahir, Shokouh; Teimoori, Soraya; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The sensitivity of conventional Pap smear in detecting cervical lesions before cervical cancer is 51%, which means the false negative value is 49%. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for screening for cervical cancer in patients with secondary immunodeficiency, i.e., the conventional Pap smear and colposcopy. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 101 immunodeficient patients who were referred to the Gynecologic Clinic at Shahid Sadughi Hospital in Yazd from March 2011 to August 2012. All patients underwent the Pap test, a colposcopy, and a cervical biopsy, with the latter being considered as the gold-standard test. Results The most frequency of immunodeficiency was noted among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (53.3%), and this was followed by patients who were undergoing chemotherapy (30.7%), patients with lupus erythematosus (12.9%), and patients with AIDS (3%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the Pap smear were 18.2, 98.5, 85.5, 71.3, and 72.2%, respectively. The respective values for colposcopy were 66.7, 98.94, 80, 97.9, and 97%, respectively. Conclusion In this study the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values of colposcopy were higher than those for the Pap smear in detecting high-grade, cervical, pre-malignant lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: CIN ≥ 2). Therefore, an annual colposcopy is advised for secondary immunodeficient patients instead of a Pap smear. PMID:26767111

  6. The Partnership for Cancer Prevention: Addressing Access to Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Medina, Deborah; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K.; Fore, Elizabeth; Mayo, Rachel; Petry, Denyse; Das, Irene Prabhu

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and morality among Hispanics, the fastest growing population group in South Carolina (SC). The Partnership for Cancer Prevention (PCP) was established to build partnerships and community capacity to address cervical cancer early detection and control among the growing Latina population in SC. In this paper we report on the initial PCP community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Methods PCP members engaged in a multi-method, participatory research project to assess cervical cancer related resources and needs among Latinas and healthcare providers. To explore attitudes and behaviors related to women's health in general and more specifically, female cancer, PCP members conducted 8 focus group sessions with 38 Spanish-speaking women. To assess the availability and perceived importance of culturally and linguistically appropriate services, PCP members conducted a survey of providers (n=46) and support personnel (n=30) at 14 clinical sites that provide cancer screening services. Results Health care access issues were Latinas' main concerns. For information and assistance in accessing and navigating the health care system, they relied on informal social networks and community outreach workers. Latina participants voiced misunderstandings about cancer risk and most appeared to lack a prevention orientation. Practitioners’ concerns included the assessment and documentation of patients' language preference and ability, provision of language assistance for limited-English-proficient (LEP) patients, and bilingual staff. Conclusions Building on the findings of this participatory research initiative, PCP members identified the following action strategies to promote cervical cancer screening among Latinas in SC: culturally appropriate cervical cancer awareness messages and outreach strategies geared towards increasing participation in cervical cancer screening and follow-up; maintenance of active community

  7. Risk assessment to guide cervical screening strategies in a large Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Hui; Hu, Shang-Ying; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Xun; Pan, Qin-Jing; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Gage, Julia C; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Castle, Philip E; Qiao, You-Lin; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Three different cervical screening methods [cytology, human papillomavirus(HPV) testing and visual inspection with acetic acid(VIA)] are being considered in China for the national cervical screening program. Comparing risks of CIN3 and cervical cancer (CIN3+) for different results can inform test choice and management guidelines. We evaluated the immediate risk of CIN3+ for different screening results generated from individual and combined tests. We compared tests using a novel statistic designed for this purpose called Mean Risk Stratification (MRS), in a pooled analysis of 17 cross sectional population-based studies of 30,371 Chinese women screened with all 3 methods and diagnosed by colposcopically-directed biopsies. The 3 tests combined powerfully distinguished CIN3+ risk; triple-negative screening conferred a risk of 0.01%, while HPV-positive HSIL+ that was VIA-positive yielded a risk of 57.8%. Among the three screening tests, HPV status most strongly stratified CIN3+ risk. Among HPV-positive women, cytology was the more useful second test. In HPV-negative women, the immediate risks of CIN3+ ranged from 0.01% (negative cytology), 0.00% (ASC-US), 1.1% (LSIL), to 6.6 (HSIL+). In HPV-positive women, the CIN3+ risks were 0.9% (negative cytology), 3.6% (ASC-US), 6.3% (LSIL) and 38.5% (HSIL+). VIA results did not meaningful stratify CIN3+ risk among HPV-negative women with negative or ASC-US cytology; however, positive VIA substantially elevated CIN3+ risk for all other, more positive combinations of HPV and cytology compared with a negative VIA. Because all 3 screening tests had independent value in defining risk of CIN3+, different combinations can be optimized as pragmatic strategies in different resource settings. PMID:26800481

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Different Cervical Screening Strategies in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Middle-Income Country with a Low Incidence Rate of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nahvijou, Azin; Daroudi, Rajabali; Tahmasebi, Mamak; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Akbari Sari, Ali; Barati Marenani, Ahmad; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Objective Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Cervical screening programs have reduced the incidence and mortality rates of ICC. We studied the cost-effectiveness of different cervical screening strategies in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a Muslim country with a low incidence rate of ICC. Methods We constructed an 11-state Markov model, in which the parameters included regression and progression probabilities, test characteristics, costs, and utilities; these were extracted from primary data and the literature. Our strategies included Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plus Pap smear triaging with different starting ages and screening intervals. Model outcomes included lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the stability of the results. Results We found that the prevented mortalities for the 11 strategies compared with no screening varied from 26% to 64%. The most cost-effective strategy was HPV screening, starting at age 35 years and repeated every 10 years. The ICER of this strategy was $8,875 per QALY compared with no screening. We found that screening at 5-year intervals was also cost-effective based on GDP per capita in Iran. Conclusion We recommend organized cervical screening with HPV DNA testing for women in Iran, beginning at age 35 and repeated every 10 or 5 years. The results of this study could be generalized to other countries with low incidence rates of cervical cancer. PMID:27276093

  9. Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics

    PubMed Central

    Poliquin, V; Decker, K; Altman, AD; Lotocki, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Methods Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. Results The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598) were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years) prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.03), no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05–1.54), and living in Canada < 1 year (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 2.73–11.12) were associated with being under-screened prior to accessing the Pap Test Week clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223) of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years) and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003), be younger (P < 0.001), originate outside Canada (P = 0.006), have lived in Canada for less than 1 year (P = 0.006), and have had an abnormal Pap test result in 2006 (P < 0.001). Previously under-screened women were less likely to become adequately-screened subsequent to 2006 if they had a Pap test performed at a Pap Test Week clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P < 0.001). Conclusion This study identified a subset of under-screened women accessing Pap Test Week clinics whose screening status might be most modifiable. PMID:23596357

  10. Rural physicians' perspectives on cervical and breast cancer screening: a gender-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, F; Stewart, D E; Cameron, J I; Hyman, I

    2001-03-01

    Several studies highlight the role of physicians in determining cervical and breast cancer screening rates, and some urban studies report higher screening rates by female physicians. Rural women in North America remain underscreened for breast and cervical cancers. This survey was conducted to determine if there were significant gender differences in practices and perceptions of barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening among rural family physicians in Ontario, Canada. One hundred ninety-one family physicians (response rate 53.1%) who practiced in rural areas, small towns, or small cities completed a mail questionnaire. The physicians' mean age was 44.4 years (SD 9.9), and mean number of years in practice was 16.6 years (SD 10.3). Over 90% of physicians reported that they were very likely to conduct a Pap test and clinical breast examination (CBE) during a periodic health examination, and they had high levels of confidence and comfort in performing these procedures. Male (68%) and female (32%) physicians were similar in their likelihood to conduct screening, levels of confidence and comfort, and knowledge of breast and cervical cancer screening guidelines. However, the self-reported screening rates for Pap tests and CBE performed during last year were higher for female than male physicians (p < 0.01). Male physicians reported they were asked more frequently by patients for a referral to another physician to perform Pap tests and CBE (p < 0.001). Also, male physicians perceived patients' embarrassment as a stronger barrier to performing Pap tests (p < 0.05) and CBE (p < 0.01) than female physicians. No gender differences were observed in screening rates or related barriers to mammography referrals. These findings suggest that physicians' gender plays a role in sex-sensitive examination, such as Pap tests and CBE. There is a need to facilitate physician-patient interactions for sex-sensitive cancer screening examinations by health education initiatives

  11. Review of recommendations on cervical cancer screening in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Patnick, J

    2003-08-01

    In 2000 the European Commission Advisory Committee on Cancer Prevention published a position paper on cancer screening with recommendations. This followed working party deliberations in 1998 and conference discussion in 1999. Scientific advances, particularly in knowledge about the relationship of HPV and cervical cancer and political developments with the enlargement of the European Union, mean that the position paper and recommendations may shortly need revising in the light of changed circumstances. PMID:14581854

  12. Cervical screening: the optimum visit plan for contacting users and non-users in Scotland.

    PubMed Central

    Crombie, I K; Orbell, S; Johnston, G; Robertson, A J; Kenicer, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the numbers of visits required to obtain interviews with users and non-users of cervical screening, and to determine the workload involved to enable an optimum visit plan to be developed. DESIGN--Case-control study of users and non-users of cervical screening using a flexible visit plan that involved up to eight attempts at contact. Visits were made in mornings, afternoons, and evenings, the visit pattern being determined by information gained from local sources. PATIENTS--Altogether 660 non-users of cervical screening (cases), aged 20-64 and registered with 23 randomly selected general practitioners (GPs), were identified from the Tayside computerised register of cervical smears. These women were selected from the computerised lists of 18 GPs in Dundee and five in Perth. A total of 417 women recorded as having a smear within the previous three years (controls), matched by age and GP, were also identified from the computerised register. RESULTS--Altogether 1834 attempts were made to contact the cases, of whom 339 were interviewed, giving a workload of 18 interviews per 100 attempts. For the controls 1359 attempts were made at contact to yield 339 interviews, a workload of 25 interviews per 100 attempts. Refusals (19%) and incorrect addresses (23%) were the two major reasons for failing to achieve interview. Only for four (0.6%) of the cases and one (0.2%) of the controls was no information gained. The proportion of attempts which led to interview remained constant with increasing numbers of call-backs (up to six for the cases and eight for the controls). CONCLUSIONS--A flexible approach to visit scheduling that takes account of local knowledge can lead to interviews with 66% of non-users of health screening, when incorrect addresses are removed. It is preferable to plan for many (up to six) visits to achieve interview. This will minimise non-response bias without increasing the workload per successful interview. PMID:7830014

  13. The Participation of HPV-Vaccinated Women in a National Cervical Screening Program: Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Herweijer, Eva; Feldman, Adina L.; Ploner, Alexander; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Netterlid, Eva; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär; Sundström, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised that HPV-vaccination might affect women’s cervical screening behavior. We therefore investigated the association between opportunistic HPV-vaccination and attendance after invitation to cervical screening. Methods A cohort of all women resident in Sweden, born 1977-1987 (N=629,703), and invited to cervical screening, was followed October 2006 - December 2012. Invitations to screening were identified via the National Quality Register for Cervical Cancer Prevention, as was the primary outcome of a registered smear. Vaccination status was obtained from two nationwide health data registers. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for age, education level and income (HRadj). Women were individually followed for up to 6 years, of which the first and second screening rounds were analyzed separately. Results Screening attendance after three years of follow-up was 86% in vaccinated women (N=4,897) and 75% in unvaccinated women (N=625,804). The crude HR of screening attendance in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women was 1.31 (95% CI 1.27-1.35) in the first screening round. Adjustment for education and income reduced but did not erase this difference (HRadj=1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.13). In the second screening round, attendance was likewise higher in HPV-vaccinated women (crude HR=1.26, 95% CI 1.21-1.32; HRadj=1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20). Conclusions HPV-vaccination is so far associated with equal or higher attendance to cervical screening in Sweden in a cohort of opportunistically vaccinated young women. Most but not all of the difference in attendance was explained by socioeconomic differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. HPV vaccine effectiveness studies should consider screening attendance of HPV-vaccinated women when assessing incidence of screen-detected cervical lesions. PMID:26218492

  14. Facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening, diagnosis, and enrollment in Medicaid: experiences of Georgia's Women's Health Medicaid Program enrollees.

    PubMed

    Blake, Sarah C; Andes, Karen; Hilb, Laura; Gaska, Karie; Chien, Linien; Flowers, Lisa; Adams, E Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    Although cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates have declined in the USA, African American women have a higher incidence rate of cervical cancer and a higher percentage of late-stage diagnosis than white women. Previous analyses by the authors showed that, even after adjusting for age, provider location, and availability, African American women were almost half as likely as white women to be diagnosed or enter Medicaid while at an early stage of their cervical cancer. To understand why these differences exist, we undertook a qualitative examination of the cervical cancer experiences of women enrolled in Georgia's Women's Health Medicaid Program (WHMP). Life history interviews were conducted with 24 WHMP enrollees to understand what factors shaped their cervical cancer experiences, from screening through enrollment in Medicaid. We also examined whether these factors differed by race in order to identify opportunities for increasing awareness of cervical cancer screening among underserved women. Results suggest that many women, especially African Americans, lacked understanding and recognition of early symptoms of cervical cancer, which prevented them from receiving a timely diagnosis. Additionally, participants responded positively to provider support and good communication but wished that their doctors explained their diagnosis more clearly. Finally, women were able to enroll in Medicaid without difficulty due largely to the assistance of clinical staff. These findings support the need to strengthen provider education and public health efforts to reach low-income and minority communities for screening and early detection of cervical cancer. PMID:24943328

  15. Association of primary care physician sex with cervical cancer and mammography screening

    PubMed Central

    Ince-Cushman, Daniel; Correa, José A.; Shuldiner, Jennifer; Segouin, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the sex of primary care physicians is associated with differing rates of cervical cancer and mammography screening in a contemporary multicultural context. Design Structured medical record review of a retrospectively defined cohort. Setting Academic urban primary care clinic in Montreal, Que. Participants Seven male physicians and 9 female physicians, and all female patients aged 14 to 69 years registered to one of the physicians (N = 1948). Main outcome measures Screening compliance rates as measured by the elapsed time between the last visit and cervical cancer screening for all women in the study. In addition, in women aged 50 to 69 years, elapsed time between the last visit and mammography screening. Results Crude rates of Papanicolaou tests for patients of female primary care physicians were higher than for patients of male primary care physicians in all patient age groups. The lowest rates of Pap testing were among the youngest and oldest patients. After adjustment for patient age, first language, and region of birth, as well as physician age, the odds ratio of having a Pap test was 2.24 (95% CI 1.18 to 4.28) for the patients of female physicians, relative to those of male physicians. The adjusted odds ratio for mammography screening was 1.25 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.61) for patients of female physicians. Conclusion Male primary care physician sex is associated with lower rates of cervical cancer screening in an urban multicultural context. The study did not detect a physician sex effect in the mammography cohort. PMID:23341674

  16. Trust and Distrust Among Appalachian Women Regarding Cervical Cancer Screening: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Oliveri, Jill M.; Post, Douglas M.; Song, Paula H.; Jacobs, Elizabeth; Waibel, Jason; Harrop, J. Phil; Steinman, Kenneth; Paskett, Electra D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore Appalachian women’s perceptions of trust and distrust of healthcare providers and the medical care system as they relate to views about cervical cancer and screening. Methods Thirty-six Ohio Appalachia female residents participated in community focus groups conducted by trained facilitators. Discussion topics included factors related to cervical cancer, and the issues of trust and distrust in medical care. The tape-recorded focus groups were transcribed and analyzed to identify salient themes. Results Five themes emerged related to trust in healthcare. Patient-centered communication and encouragement from a healthcare provider led women to trust their physicians and the medical care system. In contrast, lack of patient-centered communication by providers and perceptions of poor quality of care led to distrust. Physician gender concordance also contributed to trust as women reported trust of female physicians and distrust of male physicians; trust in male physicians was reported to be increased by presence of a female nurse. Conclusions Important factors associated with trust and distrust of providers and the medical care system may impact health-seeking behaviors among underserved women. Practice Implications Opportunities to improve patient-centered communication around the issues of prevention and cervical cancer screening (such as providing patient-focused information about access to appropriate screening tests) could be used to improve patient care and build patients’ trust. PMID:21458195

  17. Using Entertainment-Education to Promote Cervical Cancer Screening in Thai Women

    PubMed Central

    Love, Gail D.; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Asian women in California have high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, but low levels of Pap screening. No published reports have addressed screening among Thai women. Entertainment-education (EE) is a useful strategy for low-literacy, culturally diverse populations. This quasi-experimental study determined whether a soap-opera-themed, Thai-language EE video was superior to a print handout for increasing knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention toward Pap testing. No uniform differences were found between the intervention group (video) and the control group (brochure). Both educational modalities appeared to result in selected increases in knowledge and attitudes. PMID:22581487

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening in Partly HPV Vaccinated Cohorts – A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Steffie K.; Matthijsse, Suzette M.; Rozemeijer, Kirsten; Penning, Corine; de Kok, Inge M. C. M.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Background Vaccination against the oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 will reduce the prevalence of these types, thereby also reducing cervical cancer risk in unvaccinated women. This (measurable) herd effect will be limited at first, but is expected to increase over time. At a certain herd immunity level, tailoring screening to vaccination status may no longer be worth the additional effort. Moreover, uniform screening may be the only viable option. We therefore investigated at what level of herd immunity it is cost-effective to also reduce screening intensity in unvaccinated women. Methods We used the MISCAN-Cervix model to determine the optimal screening strategy for a pre-vaccination population and for vaccinated women (~80% decreased risk), assuming a willingness-to-pay of €50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained. We considered HPV testing, cytology testing and co-testing and varied the start age of screening, the screening interval and the number of lifetime screens. We then calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of screening unvaccinated women with the strategy optimized to the pre-vaccination population as compared to with the strategy optimized to vaccinated women, assuming different herd immunity levels. Results Primary HPV screening with cytology triage was the optimal strategy, with 8 lifetime screens for the pre-vaccination population and 3 for vaccinated women. The ICER of screening unvaccinated women 8 times instead of 3 was €28,085 in the absence of herd immunity. At around 50% herd immunity, the ICER reached €50,000. Conclusion From a herd immunity level of 50% onwards, screening intensity based on the pre-vaccination risk level becomes cost-ineffective for unvaccinated women. Reducing the screening intensity of uniform screening may then be considered. PMID:26824771

  19. Disseminating a cervical cancer screening program through primary physicians in Hong Kong: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Organized screening programs are more effective and equitable than opportunistic screening, yet governments face challenges to implement evidence-based programs. The objective of this study was to identify reasons for low levels of adoption among primary care physicians of a government sponsored Cervical Screening Program (CSP). Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of primary care private and public primary care physicians in Hong Kong. Rogers’ theory of diffusion of innovation was used to understand the factors that influenced the physicians’ practice decisions. Results Our study found that Hong Kong physicians made the decision to encourage cervical screening and to participate in the CSP based primarily upon their clinical and business practice needs rather than upon the scientific evidence. The low rates of adoption of the CSP can be attributed to the physicians’ perceptions that the program’s complexity and incompatibility exceeded its relative advantages. Furthermore, women’s knowledge, attitudes and practices, identified as barriers by physicians, were also barriers to physicians adopting the CSP. Conclusions In both private and public health care systems, screening programs that rely on physicians must align program incentives with the physicians’ motivators or pursue additional demand creation policies to achieve objectives. PMID:24568606

  20. Current Technologies and Recent Developments for Screening of HPV-Associated Cervical and Oropharyngeal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sunny S; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Klacsmann, Flora; Miller, Daniel L; Johnson, Jeff J; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Stack, M Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a growing number of malignancies, predominantly represented by cervical cancer and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the prevalence of the virus, persistence of infection, and long latency period, novel and low-cost methods are needed for effective population level screening and monitoring. We review established methods for screening of cervical and oral cancer as well as commercially-available techniques for detection of HPV DNA. We then describe the ongoing development of microfluidic nucleic acid-based biosensors to evaluate circulating host microRNAs that are produced in response to an oncogenic HPV infection. The goal is to develop an ideal screening platform that is low-cost, portable, and easy to use, with appropriate signal stability, sensitivity and specificity. Advances in technologies for sample lysis, pre-treatment and concentration, and multiplexed nucleic acid detection are provided. Continued development of these devices provides opportunities for cancer screening in low resource settings, for point-of-care diagnostics and self-screening, and for monitoring response to vaccination or surgical treatment. PMID:27618102

  1. Promoting breast and cervical cancer screening at the workplace: results from the Woman to Woman Study.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J D; Stoddard, A M; Mays, J; Sorensen, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article reports findings from a peer-delivered intervention designed to increase use of breast and cervical cancer screening. METHODS: Twenty-six worksites were randomly assigned to the intervention or comparison group. The 16-month intervention consisted of group discussions, outreach, and educational campaigns. Data were collected from a random sample of women employees stratified by age (baseline n = 2943; final n = 2747). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of the intervention on screening behaviors. RESULTS: Relative to comparison worksites, the intervention group experienced greater increases in the percentage of women who reported a recent mammogram (7.2% vs 5.6%), clinical breast examination (5.8% vs 2.1%), and Papanicolaou (Pap) test (4.7% vs 1.9%). After worksite cluster and age strata were controlled for, the observed increase in Pap tests was significantly greater in the intervention group (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.62); however, differences in mammography screening rates (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.90, 1.44) and clinical breast examination (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 0.96, 1.49) were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention activities produced a modest increase in cervical cancer screening, but they did not accelerate breast cancer screening rates above the observed secular trend. PMID:11291370

  2. Which high-risk HPV assays fulfil criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed

    Arbyn, M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M; Berkhof, J; Cuschieri, K; Kocjan, B J; Poljak, M

    2015-09-01

    Several countries are in the process of switching to high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Given the multitude of available tests, validated assays which assure high-quality screening need to be identified. A systematic review was conducted to answer the question which hrHPV tests fulfil the criteria defined by an international expert team in 2009, based on reproducibility and relative sensitivity and specificity compared to Hybrid Capture-2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-enzyme immunoassay. These latter two hrHPV DNA assays were validated in large randomized trials and cohorts with a follow-up duration of 8 years or more. Eligible studies citing the 2009 guideline were retrieved from Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and from a meta-analysis assessing the relative accuracy of new hrHPV assays versus the standard comparator tests to detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer in primary screening. The cobas 4800 HPV test and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test were consistently validated in two and three studies, respectively, whereas the PapilloCheck HPV-screening test, BD Onclarity HPV assay and the HPV-Risk assay were validated each in one study. Other tests which partially fulfil the 2009 guidelines are the following: Cervista HPV HR Test, GP5+/6+ PCR-LMNX, an in-house E6/E7 RT quantitative PCR and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight). The APTIMA HPV assay targeting E6/E7 mRNA of hrHPV was also fully validated. However, the cross-sectional equivalency criteria of the 2009 guidelines were set up for HPV DNA assays. Demonstration of a low risk of CIN3+ after a negative APTIMA test over a longer period is awaited to inform us about its utility in cervical cancer screening at 5-year or longer intervals. PMID:25936581

  3. The role of routine cervical length screening in selected high- and low-risk women for preterm birth prevention.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Jennifer; Feltovich, Helen; Berghella, Vincenzo; Manuck, Tracy

    2016-09-01

    Preterm birth remains a major cause of neonatal death and short and long-term disability in the US and across the world. The majority of preterm births are spontaneous and cervical length screening is one tool that can be utilized to identify women at increased risk who may be candidates for preventive interventions. The purpose of this document is to review the indications and rationale for CL screening to prevent preterm birth in various clinical scenarios. The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine recommends (1) routine transvaginal cervical length screening for women with singleton pregnancy and history of prior spontaneous preterm birth (grade 1A); (2) routine transvaginal cervical length screening not be performed for women with cervical cerclage, multiple gestation, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or placenta previa (grade 2B); (3) practitioners who decide to implement universal cervical length screening follow strict guidelines (grade 2B); (4) sonographers and/or practitioners receive specific training in the acquisition and interpretation of cervical imaging during pregnancy (grade 2B). PMID:27133011

  4. Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors among Women in Rural Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ndejjo, Rawlance; Mukama, Trasias; Musabyimana, Angele; Musoke, David

    2016-01-01

    Background In developing countries, inadequate access to effective screening for cervical cancer often contributes to the high morbidity and mortality caused by the disease. The largest burden of this falls mostly on underserved populations in rural areas, where health care access is characterized by transport challenges, ill equipped health facilities, and lack of information access. This study assessed uptake of cervical cancer screening and associated factors among women in rural Uganda. Methods This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in Bugiri and Mayuge districts in eastern Uganda and utilised quantitative data collection methods. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire on cervical cancer screening among females aged between 25 and 49 years who had spent six or more months in the area. Data were entered in Epidata 3.02 and analysed in STATA 12.0 statistical software. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Of the 900 women, only 43 (4.8%) had ever been screened for cervical cancer. Among respondents who were screened, 21 (48.8%) did so because they had been requested by a health worker, 17 (39.5%) had certain signs and symptoms they associated with cervical cancer while 16 (37.2%) did it voluntarily to know their status. Barriers to cervical cancer screening were negative individual perceptions 553 (64.5%) and health facility related challenges 142 (16.6%). Other respondents said they were not aware of the screening service 416 (48.5%). The independent predictors of cervical cancer screening were: being recommended by a health worker [AOR = 87.85, p<0.001], knowing where screening services were offered [AOR = 6.24, p = 0.004], and knowing someone who had ever been screened [AOR = 9.48, p = 0.001]. Conclusion The prevalence of cervical cancer screening is very low in rural Uganda. Interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening should be implemented so as to improve access to the

  5. Expanding Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in Tanzania: Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Structural Influences on Scale-Up

    PubMed Central

    Giattas, Mary Rose; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Martin, Michelle Y.; Usdan, Stuart Lawrence; Kohler, Connie; Lisovicz, Nedra

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has the highest burden of cervical cancer in East Africa. This study aims to identify perceived barriers and facilitators that influence scale-up of regional and population-level cervical cancer screening and treatment programs in Tanzania. Convenience sampling was used to select participants for this qualitative study among 35 key informants. Twenty-eight stakeholders from public-sector health facilities, academia, government, and nongovernmental organizations completed in-depth interviews, and a seven-member municipal health management team participated in a focus group discussion. The investigation identified themes related to the infrastructure of health services for cervical cancer prevention, service delivery, political will, and sociocultural influences on screening and treatment. Decentralizing service delivery, improving access to screening and treatment, increasing the number of trained health workers, and garnering political will were perceived as key facilitators for enhancing and initiating screening and treatment services. In conclusion, participants perceived that system-level structural factors should be addressed to expand regional and population-level service delivery of screening and treatment. Implications for Practice: Tanzanian women have a high burden of cervical cancer. Understanding the perceived structural factors that may influence screening coverage for cervical cancer and availability of treatment may be beneficial for program scale-up. This study showed that multiple factors contribute to the challenge of cervical cancer screening and treatment in Tanzania. In addition, it highlighted systematic developments aimed at expanding services. This study is important because the themes that emerged from the results may help inform programs that plan to improve screening and treatment in Tanzania and potentially in other areas with high burdens of cervical cancer. PMID:25926351

  6. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. Method This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. Findings The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%), mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39%) and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8%) and had secondary education (39%). The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result. Conclusion There is an

  7. Pilot study of cervical cytology screening in a sexually transmitted diseases clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Lyttle, H; Platts, W M; MacLean, A B

    1985-01-01

    A pilot study of cervical cytology was carried out on 500 new patients at the women's sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic at this hospital. The aim was to discover the incidence of abnormal smears in order to gauge the worth of cervical cytology as a routine clinic procedure. Information was also gathered on each patient's age, sexual history, method of contraception used, previous smears, and genital infection. Smears showing carcinoma in situ, dysplasia, or warty atypia were regarded as abnormal, and the relevant patients were referred for colposcopy. Seventy-three (14.6%) had abnormal smears. Eight women (1.6%), average age 29.7 years, had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (CIN III) confirmed by histology. One third of the patients with abnormal smears had genital warts, and the incidence of abnormal smears was greater in patients with genital warts than in those without warts. We concluded that STD clinics are useful places in which to carry out cervical cytology screening, and we noted a positive association between infection with genital warts and abnormal smears. PMID:2995239

  8. Knowledge, practice, and barriers toward cervical cancer screening in Elmina, Southern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ebu, Nancy Innocentia; Mupepi, Sylvia C; Siakwa, Mate Peter; Sampselle, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were: 1) to assess the level of knowledge of women about Pap smear tests, 2) to determine the practices of women regarding Pap smear tests, and 3) to determine the barriers to Pap smear tests in Elmina, Ghana. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 392 randomly selected sexually active females aged 10–74 years using structured interview questions. The Institutional Review Board of the University of Cape Coast gave ethical approval for the study and informed consent was obtained from participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (v19.0) using frequencies, chi-square test, and exploratory factor analysis. Results The results revealed that 68.4% had never heard about cervical cancer, 93.6% had no knowledge on the risk factors, nine (2.3%) reported multiple sexual partners and being sexually active as risk factors, and 92% did not know about the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. The majority (97.7%) had never heard of the Pap smear test. Only three (0.8%) women out of 392 had had a Pap smear test. Reasons for seeking a Pap smear test included referral, fear of cervical cancer, and radio campaigns. A significant association was found between institutional and personal barriers and having a Pap smear test. Conclusion Comprehensive education on cervical cancer screening and removal of access barriers are critical in reducing risk associated with the disease and promoting women’s health. PMID:25565902

  9. Evaluation of a multi-disease carrier screening programme in Ashkenazi Jewish high schools.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, L; Massie, J; Lewis, S; Petrou, V; Gason, A; Metcalfe, S; Aitken, M A; Bankier, A; Delatycki, M B

    2010-07-01

    A screening programme for Tay Sachs disease (TSD) carrier status was introduced in high schools in Victoria, Australia in 1997, and was expanded to screen for six other genetic conditions common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population in 2008. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current programme and compare it with an evaluation of the programme when screening was offered for TSD alone. All students from Jewish high schools in Melbourne who offered the programme in 2009 were invited to participate in the study. A purpose-designed questionnaire explored the following domains: knowledge (disease and genetics), reasons for screening, anxiety, and predicted negative feelings if found to be a carrier. Two hundred and seventy-three students were offered screening, and 272 (99.6%) completed the questionnaire. Only two students chose not to have screening. Two hundred and seventy-one students were in the penultimate year of high school (99.6%) and 222 were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent (82.5%). The main reasons for choosing screening were the desire to know carrier status and convenience. Knowledge level decreased and negative feelings increased in the current cohort compared to that when screening was offered for TSD alone. We conclude that the current programme is efficient, although increasing the number of conditions resulted in a decrease in knowledge and increase in predicted negative feelings if found to be a carrier of one of the conditions. This has implications for multi-disease screening programmes that will increase in frequency as more conditions can be screened for and costs diminish. PMID:20597919

  10. Risk factors and other epidemiologic considerations for cervical cancer screening: a narrative review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    PubMed

    Vesco, Kimberly K; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Eder, Michelle; Burda, Brittany U; Senger, Caitlyn A; Lutz, Kevin

    2011-11-15

    Despite the success of cervical cancer screening programs, questions remain about the appropriate time to begin and end screening. This review explores epidemiologic and contextual data on cervical cancer screening to inform decisions about when screening should begin and end. Cervical cancer is rare among women younger than 20 years. Screening for cervical cancer in this age group is complicated by lower rates of detection and higher rates of false-positive results than in older women. Methods used to diagnose and treat cervical intraepithelial neoplasia have important potential adverse effects. High-risk human papillomavirus infections and abnormalities on cytologic and histologic examination have relatively high rates of regression. Accordingly, cervical cancer screening in women younger than 20 years may be harmful. The incidence of, and mortality rates from, cervical cancer and the proportion of U.S. women aged 65 years or older who have had a Papanicolaou smear within 3 years have decreased since 2000. Available evidence supports discontinuation of cervical cancer screening among women aged 65 years or older who have had adequate screening and are not otherwise at high risk. Further reductions in the burden of cervical cancer in older women are probably best achieved by focusing on screening those who have not been adequately screened. PMID:22006929

  11. Predictors of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women.

    PubMed

    Do, Mai

    2015-06-01

    This study examines Pap testing behavior among 265 Vietnamese American women aged 18 or above. A community-based survey was conducted with Vietnamese women in five cities: Houston (TX), Springfield (MA), Camden (NJ), Charlotte (NC), and Falls Church (VA). Seventy-five percent of the study sample ever received a Pap test, 45% within the last 12 months. Women's perceived risks of cancer, belief that cancer can be detected early with screening, and disagreement that it is embarrassing to get tested and that only married women should get tested are related to Pap testing. Having health insurance is the most important predictor of Pap testing. Main reasons for not having tested in the last 12 months include: feeling well, having no insurance, and high costs. Interventions should improve financial access to Pap testing among Vietnamese American women. Results also suggest that future communication programs should emphasize preventive practices and change traditional attitudes and misconceptions related to Pap testing. PMID:24078321

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical

  13. [Cost effectiveness of human papilloma virus testing in cervical cancer screening: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Mejía, Aurelio; Salas, Walter

    2008-03-01

    Human papilloma virus DNA testing may improve the cost effectiveness of cervical cancer screening programs. However, the circumstances to get this improvement are not the same between countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of introducing human papilloma virus testing in the current screening practice both in developed and developing countries. We conducted a review of published articles since January 2000 until December 2006 related to the cost effectiveness of introducing human papilloma virus testing in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 17 original researches and six reviews were analyzed. Human papilloma virus testing is cost effective in developed countries only if it is a complementary test to Pap test and used to determine the management of women with atypical squamus cells of undetermined significance, the interval among tests is increased more than two years and it is performed in women over 30 years. On the other hand, developing countries should establish first organized screening programs and guarantee full coverage and access to diagnosis and treatment. PMID:18645671

  14. Screening for cervical cancer using automated analysis of PAP-smears.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Ewert; Malm, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most deadly and common forms of cancer among women if no action is taken to prevent it, yet it is preventable through a simple screening test, the so-called PAP-smear. This is the most effective cancer prevention measure developed so far. But the visual examination of the smears is time consuming and expensive and there have been numerous attempts at automating the analysis ever since the test was introduced more than 60 years ago. The first commercial systems for automated analysis of the cell samples appeared around the turn of the millennium but they have had limited impact on the screening costs. In this paper we examine the key issues that need to be addressed when an automated analysis system is developed and discuss how these challenges have been met over the years. The lessons learned may be useful in the efforts to create a cost-effective screening system that could make affordable screening for cervical cancer available for all women globally, thus preventing most of the quarter million annual unnecessary deaths still caused by this disease. PMID:24772188

  15. Screening for Cervical Cancer Using Automated Analysis of PAP-Smears

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most deadly and common forms of cancer among women if no action is taken to prevent it, yet it is preventable through a simple screening test, the so-called PAP-smear. This is the most effective cancer prevention measure developed so far. But the visual examination of the smears is time consuming and expensive and there have been numerous attempts at automating the analysis ever since the test was introduced more than 60 years ago. The first commercial systems for automated analysis of the cell samples appeared around the turn of the millennium but they have had limited impact on the screening costs. In this paper we examine the key issues that need to be addressed when an automated analysis system is developed and discuss how these challenges have been met over the years. The lessons learned may be useful in the efforts to create a cost-effective screening system that could make affordable screening for cervical cancer available for all women globally, thus preventing most of the quarter million annual unnecessary deaths still caused by this disease. PMID:24772188

  16. Clinical application of DNA ploidy to cervical cancer screening: A review

    PubMed Central

    Garner, David

    2014-01-01

    Screening for cervical cancer with DNA ploidy assessment by automated quantitative image cytometry has spread throughout China over the past decade and now an estimated 1 million tests per year are done there. Compared to conventional liquid based cytology, DNA ploidy has competitive accuracy with much higher throughput per technician. DNA ploidy has the enormous advantage that it is an objective technology that can be taught in typically 2 or 3 wk, unlike qualitative cytology, and so it can enable screening in places that lack sufficient qualified cytotechnologists and cytopathologists for conventional cytology. Most papers on experience with application of the technology to cervical cancer screening over the past decade were published in the Chinese language. This review aims to provide a consistent framework for analysis of screening data and to summarize some of the work published from 2005 to the end of 2013. Of particular interest are a few studies comparing DNA ploidy with testing for high risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) which suggest that DNA ploidy is at least equivalent, easier and less expensive than hrHPV testing. There may also be patient management benefits to combining hrHPV testing with DNA ploidy. Some knowledge gaps are identified and some suggestions are made for future research directions. PMID:25493231

  17. Compliance with Papanicolaou smear screening following tubal ligation in women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Winkler, H A; Anderson, P S; Fields, A L; Runowicz, C D; DeVictoria, C; Goldberg, G L

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate patient compliance with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening after tubal ligation compared with other methods of birth control in patients who develop cervical cancer, a retrospective review of 262 women with cervical cancer diagnosed at age < or = 70 years was undertaken at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine from January 1987 to December 1995. Demographic data, stage of the disease, histologic type, history of smoking, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), and birth control use were recorded. The Pap screening history was obtained from all the patients. Women who had a bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) were compared with those who did not have this form of birth control. The date and result of their last Pap test prior to their diagnosis of cervical cancer was noted. Two hundred fourteen women with cervical cancer were evaluable. The clinical stage, mean age, history of smoking, and history of STD were similar for both groups. Gravidity among the BTL group was higher than in the non-BTL group (p < 0.01). Forty-eight (22.4%) women had a previous BTL. Twenty-seven of these 48 patients (56.3%) did not have a Pap smear within 3 years prior to the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Of the 166 patients, 61 (36.7%) did not have a Pap test within 3 years (p < 0.05). Fourteen women (29.2%) in the tubal ligation group never returned for a Pap test following the BTL. An average of 6.2+/-5.9 years elapsed since the last Pap test in the BTL group, with 4.0+/-5.1 years in the nontubal ligation group (p < 0.05). There was a correlation between the number of years since BTL (14.2+/-7.7) to the number of years since the last Pap test (6.2+/-5.9) (p < 0.05). Women who have had a BTL should be considered high risk because of poor screening compliance. A Pap test every 3 years is not adequate in this high-risk population group. We advocate improved counseling regarding the importance of continued annual Pap screening for women who are considering tubal ligation. PMID

  18. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Seme, Katja; Maver, Polona J; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Cuschieri, Kate S; Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-12-31

    We present a review of current cervical cancer screening practices, the implementation status of vaccination against human papillomaviruses (HPV) and available data concerning the burden of HPV infection and HPV type-specific distribution in 16 Central and Eastern European countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia. Since published data were relatively scarce, two detailed surveys were conducted during August-October 2011 and in January 2013 to obtain relevant and updated information. The mean prevalence of HPV infection in 8610 women with normal cervical cytology from the region was 12.6%, with HPV16 being the most frequent HPV type. The overall HPV DNA prevalence in women with high-grade cervical lesions was 78.1%. HPV DNA was found in 86.6% of cervical cancers; the combined prevalence of HPV16/18 among HPV positive cases was 87.5%. The overall HPV DNA prevalence in genital warts and laryngeal papillomas was 94.8% and 95.2%, respectively, with HPV6 and HPV11 being the most frequent types. Opportunistic and organized cervical screening, mainly based on conventional cytology, is performed in nine and seven countries in the region, respectively, with the proposed age of the start of screening ranging from 20 to 30 years and the estimated coverage ranging from a few percent to over 70%. At least one of the current HPV prophylactic vaccines is registered in all Central and Eastern European countries except Montenegro. Only Bulgaria, Czech Republic, FYR Macedonia, Latvia, Romania and Slovenia have actually integrated HPV vaccination into their national immunization programme and currently provide routine vaccination free of charge to the primary target population. The key reasons for lack of implementation of HPV vaccination into the national immunization programme are high vaccine cost and

  19. Evaluation of the Impact of Human Papillomavirus DNA Self-sampling on the Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Eliza L. Y.; Chan, Paul K. S.; Chor, Josette S. Y.; Cheung, Annie W. L.; Huang, Fenwei; Wong, Samuel Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rate of uptake of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is generally low. Its causal relationship with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA allows HPV DNA self-sampling to be used as an alternative screening tool for cervical cancer. Objectives: This study explored the acceptability of HPV DNA self-sampling and its impact on the rate of compliance with cervical cancer screening. Methods: A crossover randomized clinical trial was conducted in community-based clinics. Participants were allocated to 1 of the following 2 arms: arm 1: self-sampling before a Pap smear; and arm 2: a Pap smear before self-sampling. After completing the 2 screening methods, participants in each arm took part in face-to-face interviews using standardized, structured questionnaire. Results: The participants accepted both self-sampling (7.7/10) and a Pap smear (7.8/10) for cervical cancer screening. However, participants without previous experience of Pap smears or who had more than 2 sexual partners preferred self-sampling (P < .05). The participants expressed overall positive feelings toward self-sampling, and there was good agreement in HPV detection between the 2 screening methods (κ = 0.65). We estimate that the introduction of HPV DNA self-sampling could increase the future rate of uptake of cervical cancer screening by 6.5% and would entail lower costs. Conclusion: Human papillomavirus DNA self-sampling could be an alternative screening method to increase the coverage of cervical cancer screening. Implications for Practice: Human papillomavirus DNA self-sampling could overcome the barriers raised by Pap smears and enhance the coverage of cervical cancer screening. Promotional publicity and education are essential. PMID:25730587

  20. Community Screening for Preschool Child Inhibition to Offer the "Cool Little Kids" Anxiety Prevention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatson, Ruth M.; Bayer, Jordana K.; Perry, Alexandra; Mathers, Megan; Hiscock, Harriet; Wake, Melissa; Beesley, Kate; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Temperamental inhibition has been identified as a key risk factor for childhood anxiety and internalizing problems. An efficacious early prevention programme for shy/inhibited children has been developed; however, accurate, efficient and acceptable screening is needed to support wider implementation. We explore community screening options in the…

  1. A programme of studies including assessment of diagnostic accuracy of school hearing screening tests and a cost-effectiveness model of school entry hearing screening programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Fortnum, Heather; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Hyde, Chris; Taylor, Rod S; Ozolins, Mara; Errington, Sam; Zhelev, Zhivko; Pritchard, Clive; Benton, Claire; Moody, Joanne; Cocking, Laura; Watson, Julian; Roberts, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Identification of permanent hearing impairment at the earliest possible age is crucial to maximise the development of speech and language. Universal newborn hearing screening identifies the majority of the 1 in 1000 children born with a hearing impairment, but later onset can occur at any time and there is no optimum time for further screening. A universal but non-standardised school entry screening (SES) programme is in place in many parts of the UK but its value is questioned. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of hearing screening tests and the cost-effectiveness of the SES programme in the UK. DESIGN Systematic review, case-control diagnostic accuracy study, comparison of routinely collected data for services with and without a SES programme, parental questionnaires, observation of practical implementation and cost-effectiveness modelling. SETTING Second- and third-tier audiology services; community. PARTICIPANTS Children aged 4-6 years and their parents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Diagnostic accuracy of two hearing screening devices, referral rate and source, yield, age at referral and cost per quality-adjusted life-year. RESULTS The review of diagnostic accuracy studies concluded that research to date demonstrates marked variability in the design, methodological quality and results. The pure-tone screen (PTS) (Amplivox, Eynsham, UK) and HearCheck (HC) screener (Siemens, Frimley, UK) devices had high sensitivity (PTS ≥ 89%, HC ≥ 83%) and specificity (PTS ≥ 78%, HC ≥ 83%) for identifying hearing impairment. The rate of referral for hearing problems was 36% lower with SES (Nottingham) relative to no SES (Cambridge) [rate ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 0.69; p < 0.001]. The yield of confirmed cases did not differ between areas with and without SES (rate ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.06; p = 0.12). The mean age of referral did not differ between areas with and without SES for all referrals but children

  2. Family Caregivers' Perspectives on Barriers and Facilitators of Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening for Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaine, Jamie G.; Dababnah, Sarah; Parish, Susan L.; Luken, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Women with intellectual disability do not receive cervical and breast cancer screening at the same number as women without disabilities. Numerous barriers to receipt of screening have been reported by individuals with intellectual disability, paid caregivers, nurses, and other medical professionals. This study utilized semi-structured qualitative…

  3. A Community Capacity-Enhancement Approach to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening among Older Women of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Karen; McGraw, Sarah A.

    2006-01-01

    In the Screening Older Minority Women project, the authors applied a community capacity-enhancement approach to promoting breast and cervical cancer screening among older women of color. Members of informal support networks were recruited for this health promotion intervention to empower Latina and African American women to engage in positive…

  4. Teaching Tools to Engage Anishinaabek First Nations Women in Cervical Cancer Screening: Report of an Educational Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehbe, Ingeborg; Wood, Brianne; Wakewich, Pamela; Maar, Marion; Escott, Nicholas; Jumah, Naana; Little, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore educational strategies for engaging First Nations women in Canada to attend cervical cancer screening. Design: Within a participatory action research framework, semi-structured interviews with health-care providers in First Nations communities revealed that education about the value of screening is perceived as being a key…

  5. First organized screening mammography programme in Saudi Arabia: preliminary analysis of pilot round.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, S S; Nadrah, H M; Al-Habdan, M A; El Gabbani, S A; El Farouk, G M K; Abdelgadir, M H; Al-Saigul, A M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse results of the pilot screening round for Al-Qassim Screening Mammography Programme and compare with international standards. Analysis was conducted in the central screening office in Prince Faisal Oncology Centre, which coordinates activities of various screening units. Data were collected during the period 1 January 2007 to 30 June 2008. Organizational and functional information was obtained from policy and procedure manuals of the programme. Out of 9812 eligible women, 1766 (18%) participated and data were available for 1628 (16.6%). The median age of participants was 47 (standard deviation 8.12) years. The low uptake rate (18%) and a high recall rate (31.6%) characterized the pilot screening round. Biopsy rate was 1.5% and cancer detection rate was 0.24%. Many performance indicators in this pilot screening round were not available. Many of the available indicators did not meet international standards. PMID:21222417

  6. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear and human papillomavirus and its relation to screening in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smears, and human papilloma virus in relation to their cervical cancer screening behavior. This hospital-based study was conducted with a sample of 200 women: 100 women screened in the last three years and 100 non-screened women who attended a hospital located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, between September 2008 and February 2009. Women at the hospital were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relation of women's knowledge about Pap smears to screening behavior, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the women who had been screened, 49% compared to 73% of those not screened had inadequate knowledge about Pap smears (P = 0.001), and 47% of screened and 30% of non-screened women reported that they had ever heard about human papilloma virus (P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, having adequate knowledge about Pap smears (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.4-4.8) having health insurance (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-6.4) and being married (odds ratio: 1.8 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-3.4) were the factors related to being screened in the previous three years. Knowledge was related to screening. Comprehensive educational approaches may enhance screening for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:21391162

  7. The Association of Area Socioeconomic Status and Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Shim, Matthew J.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Vernon, Sally W.; Amick, Benjamin C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although numerous studies have examined the association of area socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer screening after controlling for individual SES, findings have been inconsistent. A systematic review of existing studies is timely in order to identify conceptual and methodologic limitations and to provide a basis for future research directions and policy. Objective The objectives were to: 1) describe the study designs, constructs, methods, and measures; 2) describe the independent association of area SES and cancer screening; and 3) identify neglected areas of research. Methods We searched 6 electronic databases and manually searched cited and citing articles. Eligible studies were published before 2008 in peer-reviewed journals in English, represented primary data on individuals aged ≥18 years from developed countries, and measured the association of area and individual SES with breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening. Results Of 19 eligible studies, most measured breast cancer screening. Studies varied widely in research design, definitions and measures of SES, cancer screening behaviors, and covariates. Eight employed multilevel logistic regression, the remainder analyzed data with standard single level logistic regression. The majority measured 1 or 2 indicators of area and individual SES; common indicators at both levels were poverty, income, and education. There was no consistent pattern in the association between area SES and cancer screening. Discussion The gaps and conceptual and methodologic heterogeneity in the literature to date limit definitive conclusions about an underlying association between area SES and cancer screening. We identify five areas of research deserving greater attention in the literature. PMID:19815634

  8. Do Cervical Cancer Screening Rates Increase in Association with an Intervention Designed to Increase Mammography Usage?

    PubMed Central

    KATZ, MIRA L.; TATUM, CATHY M.; DEGRAFFINREID, CECILIA R.; DICKINSON, STEPHANIE; PASKETT, ELECTRA D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess cervical cancer screening behaviors among underserved women participating in an intervention designed to increase mammography use. Methods This was a randomized trial of 897 women from three racial groups (white, African American, Native American) living in a rural county in North Carolina. Baseline and follow-up surveys were completed by 815 women; 775 women provided data to be included in these analyses. The intervention group received an educational program focused on mammography delivered by a lay health advisor, and the control group received a physician letter/brochure focusing on Pap tests. Results Women in both the intervention (OR 1.70; 1.31, 2.21, p < 0.001) and control groups (OR 1.38; 1.04, 1.82, p = 0.025) significantly increased cervical cancer screening rates within risk appropriate guidelines. No differences by racial group were documented. Women categorized in the high-risk group for developing cervical cancer (>2 sexual partners, age <18 years at first sexual intercourse, smoker; treated for sexually transmitted disease [STD] or partner with treated STD) significantly (OR 1.88; 1.54, 2.28, p < 0.001) increased Pap test completion. However, a nonsignificant increase (OR 1.25; 0.87, 1.79, p = 0.221) in Pap test completion was demonstrated in women categorized as low risk for cervical cancer. Conclusions This study suggests that women in an intensive behavioral intervention designed to increase mammography use may also increase Pap test completion, similar to a minimal intervention focused only on increasing Pap test completion. These results have implications for the design and evaluation of behavioral intervention studies. PMID:17324094

  9. Barriers and facilitators of cervical cancer screening among women of Hmong origin.

    PubMed

    Fang, Dao Moua; Baker, Dian L

    2013-05-01

    This qualitative study explored the barriers and facilitators of cancer screening among women of Hmong origin. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we conducted focus groups (n=44) with Hmong women who represented four distinct demographic groups among the Hmong community. The participants described sociocultural barriers to screening, which included a lack of accurate knowledge about the causes of cervical cancer, language barriers, stigma, fear, lack of time, and embarrassment. Structural barriers included attitudes and practices of health care providers, lack of insurance, and negative perceptions of services at clinics for the uninsured. Health care providers may require additional training and increased time per visit to provide culturally sensitive care for refugee groups such as the Hmong. Health-related social marketing efforts aimed at improving health literacy may also help to reduce health inequities related to cancer screening among the Hmong. PMID:23728027

  10. Estimating the cost of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Goldie, Sue J

    2006-01-01

    Background Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can provide useful information to policymakers concerned with the broad allocation of resources as well as to local decision makers choosing between different options for reducing the burden from a single disease. For the latter, it is important to use country-specific data when possible and to represent cost differences between countries that might make one strategy more or less attractive than another strategy locally. As part of a CEA of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries, we supplemented limited primary cost data by developing other estimation techniques for direct medical and non-medical costs associated with alternative screening approaches using one of three initial screening tests: simple visual screening, HPV DNA testing, and cervical cytology. Here, we report estimation methods and results for three cost areas in which data were lacking. Methods To supplement direct medical costs, including staff, supplies, and equipment depreciation using country-specific data, we used alternative techniques to quantify cervical cytology and HPV DNA laboratory sample processing costs. We used a detailed quantity and price approach whose face validity was compared to an adaptation of a US laboratory estimation methodology. This methodology was also used to project annual sample processing capacities for each laboratory type. The cost of sample transport from the clinic to the laboratory was estimated using spatial models. A plausible range of the cost of patient time spent seeking and receiving screening was estimated using only formal sector employment and wages as well as using both formal and informal sector participation and country-specific minimum wages. Data sources included primary data from country-specific studies, international databases, international prices, and expert opinion. Costs were standardized to year 2000 international dollars using inflation adjustment and purchasing power parity